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Sample records for analysis body composition

  1. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  2. Comparison of two software versions for assessment of body-composition analysis by DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Wang, J; Weyer, C

    2001-01-01

    To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA.......To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA....

  3. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  4. [Analysis of the body composition of Spanish women with fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Heredia, José M; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    To describe the anthropometric profile and body composition of women from Southern Spain diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) and to compare the observed values with values from other studies conducted on FM patients and with national reference values. The body composition of 104 women diagnosed with FM was assessed using an eight-electrode impedance meter. The reliability of the body composition measurement was tested in a randomly selected sub-sample (n=28). The reliability study showed a test-retest systematic error close to zero in most of the parameters studied. The women with FM who were studied had a mean weight of 71.3±13.4 kg, height of 158±6 cm, body mass index of 28.6±5.1 kg/m(2), body fat mass of 38.6±7.6%, total body water of 31.6±3.8 l and muscle mass of 23.4±3.0 kg. In general, there were no substantial differences in weight and body mass index between women with FM and those analyzed in other Spanish and European studies involving FM patients, nor when they were compared with regional or national reference values. However, the prevalence of obesity in the women with FM under study was 33.7%, a higher figure than that from the national reference data for obesity in similarly aged women (i.e. 26,4%). The results suggest that obesity is a common condition in women diagnosed with FM, its prevalence in this population being higher than the national reference values. This study provides detailed information about the body composition characteristics of women with FM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiographic analysis of body composition by computerized axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymsfield, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic methods of evaluating body composition have been applied for over five decades. A marked improvement in this approach occurred in the mid-nineteen-seventies with the introduction of computerized axial tomography. High image contrast, cross-sectional imaging and rapid computerized data processing make this technique a sophisticated clinically applicable tool. (author)

  6. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H 2 O and 82 Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support

  7. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, A; Heitmann, B L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, inexpensive and non-invasive technique to measure body composition and is therefore suitable in field studies and larger surveys. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an overview of BIA-derived body fat percentages (BF......%) from 55 published studies of healthy populations aged 6-80 years. In addition, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body composition is documented in the context of BIA as a good alternative to closely differentiate which composition of the body better relates to the risk...

  8. Body composition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Body Composition Analysis in U.S. Navy Divers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gummin, D. D

    2000-01-01

    Physical readiness and body makeup are considered fundamental attributes of U.S. Navy divers. Methods to objectively determine body makeup are fraught with shortcomings and can be technically challenging, particularly in field operations...

  10. Body Composition Analysis in U.S. Navy Divers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gummin, David

    2001-01-01

    Physical readiness and body makeup are considered fundamental attributes of U.S. Navy divers. Methods to objectively determine body makeup are fraught with shortcomings and can be technically challenging, particularly in field operations...

  11. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  12. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either......I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... a watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  13. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  14. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition in surgical and oncological patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, E. B.; Reijven, P. L. M.; Binnekade, J. M.; de van der Schueren, M. A. E.; Earthman, C. P.; Gouma, D. J.; de Haan, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for the evaluation of body composition. However, BIA estimations are subject to uncertainties.The aim of this systematic review was to explore the variability of empirical prediction equations used in BIA estimations and to evaluate

  15. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  16. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  17. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake—Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM, which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years; (2 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years and (3 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years. LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance, body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day. Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  18. Impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of the body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrino Edilson Serpeloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the studies of body composition, it has been observed that several factors can interfere with the estimates of relative body fat using the skinfold thicknesses method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of body composition by skinfold thicknesses measurements. Two hundred and fifty nine male subjects (23.3 ± 2.9 years took part of the study. Nine skinfold thicknesses were measured (abdominal, subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, biceps, midaxillary, chest, medial calf, and thigh using the Lange (USA and the Cescorf (Brazil calipers with accuracy of 1.0 and 0.1 mm, respectively. Significant differences were found in the comparison between the two calipers on all the investigated skinfold thicknesses (1.8 to 31.0% with highest values obtained by the Lange caliper (p < 0.01. When these values were applied to four different predictive equations, developed by different researchers, the body fat estimate was significantly modified (p < 0.01, resulting in differences of 5.2 to 6.9%. Results indicate that the use of different skinfold calipers may maximize the errors of estimation produced by different predictive equations used for the analysis of body composition.

  19. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  20. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    OpenAIRE

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, Mar?a ?.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 +/- 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrie...

  1. Fish or n3-PUFA intake and body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, N; Portmann, M; Heg, Z; Hofmann, K; Zwahlen, M; Egger, M

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a major public health issue and an important contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. Studies indicate that fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) supplements may help prevent cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the effect of fish oil on body composition is still uncertain, so we performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and the first meta-analysis on the association between fish or fish oil intake and body composition measures. We found evidence that participants taking fish or fish oil lost 0.59 kg more body weight than controls (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.96 to -0.21). Treatment groups lost 0.24 kg m(-2) (body mass index) more than controls (-0.40 to -0.08), and 0.49 % more body fat than controls (-0.97 to -0.01). Fish or fish oil reduced waist circumference by 0.81 cm (-1.34 to -0.28) compared with control. There was no difference for fat mass and lean body mass. Further research is needed to confirm or refute our findings and to reveal possible mechanisms by which n3-PUFAs might reduce weight. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 World Obesity.

  2. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  3. Assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance analysis and anthropometrics in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out...

  4. Evaluation of segmental body composition by gender in obese children using bioelectric impedance analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate segmental body composition of children diagnosed with obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis method in terms of different gender. Methods: 48 children, aged between 6-15 years, 21 of whom were boys while 27 were girls, diagnosed with obesity in Erciyes University Medical Faculty Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic were included in our study from April to June in 2011. Those over 95 percentile were defined as obese group. Tanita BC-418 device was used to analyze the body composition. Results: As a result of bioelectrical impedance analysis, lean body mass and body muscle mass were found to be statistically significantly higher in obese girls compared with obese boys. However, lean mass of the left arm, left leg muscle mass and basal metabolic rate were found to be statistically significantly lower in obese girls compared with obese boys. Conclusion: Consequently, it may be suggest that segmental analysis, where gender differences are taken into account, can provide proper exercise pattern and healthy way of weight loss in children for prevention of obesity and associated diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetics and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  6. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Rigid-body-spring model numerical analysis of joint performance of engineered cementitious composites and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmurovska, Y.; Štemberk, P.; Křístek, V.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of effectiveness of using engineered cementitious composites with polyvinyl alcohol fibers for concrete cover layer repair. A numerical model of a monolithic concaved L-shaped concrete structural detail which is strengthened with an engineered cementitious composite layer with polyvinyl alcohol fibers is created and loaded with bending moment. The numerical analysis employs nonlinear 3-D Rigid-Body-Spring Model. The proposed material model shows reliable results and can be used in further studies. The engineered cementitious composite shows extremely good performance in tension due to the strain-hardening effect. Since durability of the bond can be decreased significantly by its degradation due to the thermal loading, this effect should be also taken into account in the future work, as well as the experimental investigation, which should be performed for validation of the proposed numerical model.

  8. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James W

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that eating small, frequent meals enhances fat loss and helps to achieve better weight maintenance. Several observational studies lend support to this hypothesis, with an inverse relationship noted between the frequency of eating and adiposity. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss a meta-analysis with regression that evaluated experimental research on meal frequency with respect to changes in fat mass and lean mass. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated meal frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. Feeding frequency was positively associated with reductions in fat mass and body fat percentage as well as an increase in fat-free mass. However, sensitivity analysis of the data showed that the positive findings were the product of a single study, casting doubt as to whether more frequent meals confer beneficial effects on body composition. In conclusion, although the initial results of this meta-analysis suggest a potential benefit of increased feeding frequencies for enhancing body composition, these findings need to be interpreted with circumspection. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The effectiveness of web-based, multimedia tutorials for teaching methods of human body composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, Paul R; Chamberlain, Valerie M; Pintauro, Stephen J

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a series of Web-based, multimedia tutorials on methods of human body composition analysis. Tutorials were developed around four body composition topics: hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and total body electrical conductivity. Thirty-two students enrolled in the course were randomly assigned to learn the material through either the Web-based tutorials only ("Computer"), a traditional lecture format ("Lecture"), or lectures supplemented with Web-based tutorials ("Both"). All students were administered a validated pretest before randomization and an identical posttest at the completion of the course. The reliability of the test was 0.84. The mean score changes from pretest to posttest were not significantly different among the groups (65.4 plus minus 17.31, 78.82 plus minus 21.50, and 76 plus minus 21.22 for the Computer, Both, and Lecture groups, respectively). Additionally, a Likert-type assessment found equally positive attitudes toward all three formats. The results indicate that Web-based tutorials are as effective as the traditional lecture format for teaching these topics.

  10. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p<0.001. The bioimpedance variables also presented significant higher values in this group. Significant difference was found in the confidence interval of the vector analysis performed for both the patients and healthy individuals (p<0.0001. The tolerance intervals showed that 55.20% of the patients were dehydrated, 10.30% presented visible edema, and 34.50% were within normal levels of hydration. Bioimpedance and vector analysis revealed that 52% of the patients presented decreased cell mass while 14.00% presented increased cell mass. CONCLUSIONS: the differences in the body composition of patients and healthy individuals were revealed through bioimpedance and vector analysis but not through their measures of arm circumference and arm muscle area.

  11. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Arne; Baeksgaard, L; Hilsted, J

    1997-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis but is influenced by beam hardening and other error sources in the extremes of measurement. To compensate for beam hardening, the Norland XR-36 introduces a dynamically changing samarium filtration system......). Scans of six healthy volunteers covered with combinations of beef and lard (approximately 5-15 kg) showed a good agreement (r = 0.99) between reference and DEXA values of added soft tissue mass and fat percentage. We conclude that the DEXA method (and, in particular, the Norland XR-36 using dynamic...

  12. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess body composition in rural Gambian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Hawkesworth, S.; Wright, A.; Fulford, A.J.C.; Jarjou, L.M.A.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To validate the Tanita BC-418MA Segmental Body Composition Analyser and four-site skinfold measurements for the prediction of total body water (TBW), percentage fat-free mass (% FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in a population of rural Gambian children. Subjects/Methods: One hundred and

  13. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Rajashekaraiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various amounts of short fibers (glass and carbon and particulate fillers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, silicon carbide (SiC, and alumina (Al2O3 were systematically introduced into the thermoplastic copolyester elastomer (TCE matrix for reinforcement purpose. The mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and Tan δ by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and three-body abrasive wear performance on a dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester have been investigated. For abrasive wear study, the experiments were planned according to L27 orthogonal array by considering three factors and three levels. The complex moduli for TCE hybrid composites were pushed to a higher level relative to the TCE filled PTFE composite. At lower temperatures (in the glassy region, the storage modulus increases with increase in wt.% of reinforcement (fiber + fillers and the value is maximum for the composite with 40 wt.% reinforcement. The loss modulus and damping peaks were also found to be higher by the incorporation of SiC and Al2O3 microfillers. The routine abrasive wear test results indicated that TCE filled PTFE composite exhibited better abrasion resistance. Improvements in the abrasion resistance, however, have not been achieved by short-fiber and particlaute filler reinforcements. From the Taguchi’s experimental findings, optimal combination of control factors were obtained for minimum wear volume and also predictive correlations were proposed. Further, the worn surface morphology of the samples was discussed.

  14. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Churruca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  15. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  16. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  17. Pediatric body composition analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helba, Maura; Binkovitz, Larry A.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric applications of body composition analysis (BCA) have become of increased interest to pediatricians and other specialists. With the increasing prevalence of morbid obesity and with an increased awareness of anorexia nervosa, pediatric specialists are utilizing BCA data to help identify, treat, and prevent these conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine the fat mass (FM) and lean tissue mass (LTM), as well as bone mineral content (BMC). Among the readily available BCA techniques, DXA is the most widely used and it has the additional benefit of precisely quantifying regional FM and LTM. This review evaluates the strengths and limitations of DXA as a pediatric BCA method and considers the utilization of DXA to identify trends and variations in FM and LTM measurements in obese and anorexic children. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric body composition analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helba, Maura; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Pediatric applications of body composition analysis (BCA) have become of increased interest to pediatricians and other specialists. With the increasing prevalence of morbid obesity and with an increased awareness of anorexia nervosa, pediatric specialists are utilizing BCA data to help identify, treat, and prevent these conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine the fat mass (FM) and lean tissue mass (LTM), as well as bone mineral content (BMC). Among the readily available BCA techniques, DXA is the most widely used and it has the additional benefit of precisely quantifying regional FM and LTM. This review evaluates the strengths and limitations of DXA as a pediatric BCA method and considers the utilization of DXA to identify trends and variations in FM and LTM measurements in obese and anorexic children. (orig.)

  19. Body composition analysis techniques in adult and pediatric patients: how reliable are they? How useful are they clinically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Graham

    2007-06-01

    Complex abnormalities of body composition occur in peritoneal dialysis (PD). These abnormalities reflect changes in hydration, nutrition, and body fat, and they are of major clinical significance. Clinical assessment of these body compartments is insensitive and inaccurate. Frequently, simultaneous changes of hydration, wasting, and body fat content can occur, confounding clinical assessment of each component. Body composition can be described by models of varying complexity that use one or more measurement techniques. "Gold standard" methods provide accurate and precise data, but are not practical for routine clinical use. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry allows for measurement of regional as well as whole-body composition, which can provide further information of clinical relevance. Simpler techniques such as anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis are suited to routine use in clinic or at the bedside, but may be less accurate. Body composition methodology sometimes makes assumptions regarding relationships between components, particularly in regard to hydration, which may be invalid in pathologic states. Uncritical application of these methods to the PD patient may result in erroneous interpretation of results. Understanding the foundations and limitations of body composition techniques allows for optimal application in clinical practice.

  20. Composite marginal quantile regression analysis for longitudinal adolescent body mass index data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Hau; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2017-09-20

    Childhood and adolescenthood overweight or obesity, which may be quantified through the body mass index (BMI), is strongly associated with adult obesity and other health problems. Motivated by the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution (CABLE) study, we are interested in individual, family, and school factors associated with marginal quantiles of longitudinal adolescent BMI values. We propose a new method for composite marginal quantile regression analysis for longitudinal outcome data, which performs marginal quantile regressions at multiple quantile levels simultaneously. The proposed method extends the quantile regression coefficient modeling method introduced by Frumento and Bottai (Biometrics 2016; 72:74-84) to longitudinal data accounting suitably for the correlation structure in longitudinal observations. A goodness-of-fit test for the proposed modeling is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed method can be much more efficient than the analysis without taking correlation into account and the analysis performing separate quantile regressions at different quantile levels. The application to the longitudinal adolescent BMI data from the CABLE study demonstrates the practical utility of our proposal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  2. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  3. How Healthy Is Homeschool? An Analysis of Body Composition and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Laura S.; Mitchell, Katy; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Background: Public school children regularly participate in school-based physical activity, physical education, and fitness testing. However, almost 2 million American children are homeschooled. The purpose of this research was to assess the body composition of elementary school-aged homeschool children and their corresponding cardiovascular…

  4. Analysis of body composition and nutritional status in Brazilian phenylketonuria patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Nicolao Mazzola

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Brazilian PKU patients do not show differences in body composition and nutritional status in comparison with controls, regardless metabolic control. Although similar to controls, PKU patients may be in risk of disturbed nutritional and metabolic markers as seen for the general population.

  5. Maternal obesity and offspring body composition by indirect methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Castillo-Laura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reviewed the evidence that assessed the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and/or gestational weight gain and offspring body composition in childhood. A systematic review was conducted. Cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials measuring offspring body composition by indirect methods were included. Meta-analyses of the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on offspring fat-free mass, body fat percent, and fat mass were conducted through random-effects models. 20 studies were included, most of which reported a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring body fat. Standardized mean differences in body fat percent, fat mass and fat-free mass between infants of women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI and those of overweight/obese women were 0.31 percent points (95%CI: 0.19; 0.42, 0.38kg (95%CI: 0.26; 0.50, and 0.18kg (95%CI: -0.07; 0.42, respectively. Evidence so far suggests that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight is associated with higher offspring adiposity.

  6. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  7. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  8. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Blasio F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesca de Blasio,1 Francesco de Blasio,2,3 Giulia Miracco Berlingieri,2 Andrea Bianco,3,4 Marta La Greca,1 Frits M E Franssen,5 Luca Scalfi1 1Department of Public Health, Medical School, “Federico II” University of Naples, 2Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Section, Clinic Center, Private Hospital, Naples, 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 4Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 5Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, the NetherlandsBackground: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA is a technique that measures body impedance (Z at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz. Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality.Objectives: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients.Methods: MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients.Results: After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001 and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively. Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005, respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005, forced

  9. Body composition analysis within 1 month after gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Kawabe, Taiichi; Hirohito, Fujikawa; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Sato, Tsutomu; Oshima, Takashi; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2016-04-01

    A significant body weight loss (BWL) is observed during 1 month after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. However, it remains unclear which body component mainly accounts for the weight loss. Two-hundred forty-four patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer between May 2010 and October 2013 were examined. Body weight and composition were evaluated by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer within 1 week before surgery (first measurement), at 1 week after surgery (second measurement), and at 1 month after surgery (third measurement). The changes in the early period were defined as the differences until the second measurement, and those in the late period were defined as the differences from the second to the third measurement. Total BWL within 1 month was -3.4 kg, and the rate of body weight at 1 month to the preoperative body weight was 94.1 %. BWL was significantly greater in the early period than in the late period (-2.1 kg vs -1.2 kg, p body mass was significantly greater than loss of fat mass (-1.5 kg vs -0.6 kg, p body mass accounted for a significant part of the BWL during the first week.

  10. Analysis of body composition of the abdomen at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebral body by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Tetsujiro

    1988-01-01

    Body composition of the area at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebral section was studied on X-ray CT images in 62 normal volunteers (32 men and 30 women ), whose ages ranged from 20 and 79 years. The total cross-sectional area was smallest in persons in their twenties, irrespecstive of sex, and began to increase after the age of 30. The abdominal cavity and muscles had the highest cross-sectional ratio (34%) to the total body, followed by subcutaneous fat in men. In women, the subcutaneous fat and abdominal cavity had a ratio of 34% to the total body. According to age groups, men in their twenties and thirties had the highest ratio of the muscle to the total body, followed by that of abdominal cavity and subcutaneous fat. In the group older than 40, the ratio of organs to the total body was as follows: the abdominal cavity>muscle>subcutaneous fat. Since the age of 70, each ratio of the muscle or subcutaneous fat to the total body was the same. Women between their twenties and fifties had the highest ratio of subcutaneous fat to the total body. Since the age of 60, the ratio of the abdominal cavity became highest. The subcutaneous fat and abdominal cavity tended to increase with aging; and the muscles tended to decrease. The real area of the vertebra increased slightly, but the vertebral foramen tended to decrease with aging. In men, mean areas of the muscles were as follows: abdominis lateralis>erector spinae>psoas major>quadratus lumborum and transversospinalis>rectus abdominis muscle. The same tendency was observed for women, except for the quadratus lumborum and rectus abdominis muscle. According to Rohrer index, the real areas of all components except the vertebral foramen tended to increase in the order of types A, C, and D in men. In women, the real area of the subcutaneous fat increased as well in the order of types A, C, and D. (Namekawa, K)

  11. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, J C; González-Correa, C H; González-Correa, C A

    2013-01-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r 2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r 2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D 2 O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  12. Clinical body composition assessment using in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoe, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    A prompt gamma IVNAA facility has been developed in Auckland to study body composition in both the depleted surgical patient and the critically ill intensive car patient. The IVNAA method, used in conjunction with the tritium dilution technique, enables total body protein, water and fat to be determined with precision. This paper reviews clinical research on the protein and hydration status of surgical patients requiring nutritional support as are the changes in proteins and fat achieved with nutritional therapy in pre- and post-operative patients. Results are also presented of a clinical trial which examines the efficacy of fat and glucose as hypercalorific energy sources. The IVNAA/tritium dilution method has for the first time been applied to document body composition changes in intensive care patients and results on critically ill post-operative septic intensive care patients are discussed. Data are also presented for patients who have suffered major blunt trauma. Finally, the method is contrasted with skinfold anthropometry as a means of determining total body fat and also with conventional nitrogen balance as a means of monitoring crude protein changes in the clinical situation

  13. Analysis of Dietary Intake and Body Composition of Female Athletes over a Competitive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nepocatych

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine dietary intake, body composition and bone mineral density changes at the beginning and end of a competitive season in female athletes of sports that have been less represented in the literature. NCAA Division I basketball (n=10 and softball (n=10 players mean age (20±1 years completed 3-day food records at the beginning and end of season. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean energy intake was significantly lower at the beginning compared to the end of the season (1925±466 vs. 2326±782 kcals/day; p=0.02. Lean, fat, and total body mass, and total and regional BMD were unaltered from the beginning to the end of season (p>0.05. Macronutrient consumption by percentage did not change across the season (p>0.05 with aggregate data equalling 3.5±1.3, 1.2±0.6, and 1.2±0.5 g/kg/day for carbohydrate, fat, and protein respectively. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were below the recommended levels. Low intake of fibre (17±6.3 g/day and high sodium (3700±1120 mg/day also raise concerns. Despite no major alterations in body composition or BMD many female athletes’ diets in the sports investigated while living on campus failed to meet recommended intake levels suggesting maximal athletic performance and health parameters may be stunted due to poor nutrient choices.

  14. Making the invisible visible: bioelectrical impedance analysis demonstrates unfavourable body composition in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijn, N P C; van Tuyl, L H D; Bultink, I E M; Lems, W F; Earthman, C P; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M A E

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences between the assessment of body composition by body mass index (BMI) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The body composition of RA patients was assessed during their visit to the outpatient department of a Dutch academic hospital using BMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI). FFMI and FMI were determined by single-frequency BIA. Sixty-five consecutive RA patients (83% women, mean age 58 years, median disease duration 7 years) with moderately active disease [mean Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) = 3.40; mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI) score = 3.49] and moderate disability [mean Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score = 0.87] were included. Based on BMI, 2% of our study population were underweight, 45% had a healthy body composition, and 54% were overweight or obese. Based on BIA, 18% of the patients showed a low FFMI and 74% had a high or very high FMI. Low FFMI was found in 44% of the women with a normal BMI, and high FMI was found in 40% of the women and 75% of the men with a normal BMI. A high frequency of unfavourable body composition, predominantly reduced FFMI and elevated FMI, was found in a cohort of RA patients with moderately active disease, turning BMI into an unreliable method for assessment of body composition in RA. BIA, however, might be the preferred method to assess FFMI and FMI in RA patients in clinical practice, as it is easy to use and relatively inexpensive.

  15. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Subhedar; R. K. Sinha; Saumi Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was cond...

  16. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasiak Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zofia Ignasiak,1 Malgorzata Radwan-Oczko,2 Krystyna Rozek-Piechura,3 Marta Cholewa,4 Anna Skrzek,5 Tomasz Ignasiak,6 Teresa Slawinska1 1Department of Biostructure, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 2Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Physiotherapy and Occupation Therapy in Internal Diseases, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 4DENTARAMA Dentistry Center, Walbrzych, Poland; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Ocupation Therapy in Motor-System Dysfunction, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 6Karkonosze State Higher School in Jelenia Gora, Jelenia Gora, Poland Objective: The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods: The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD, and gingival bleeding. Results: In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric

  17. Comparative analysis of the protein compositions between wild type and body color mutant of helicoverpa armigera adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Chen Jin'e; Liu Yan; Wang Yongqiang; Liu Peigang; Meng Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the fineness and regulation mechanism of body color mutant of Helicoverpa armigera Hbner, the protein composition differences between adult of dominant mutant, recessive mutant and wild type were studied using the SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that the protein composition of the dominant mutant and wild type had little difference. However, there were obvious differences between the recessive mutant and wild-type. Three specific stripe were chosen for mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, and two types of proteins related to energy metabolism and cytoskeleton were identified. These findings suggested that the two types of proteins may be associated with occurrence and regulation of body color mutant traits of H. armigera. (authors)

  18. Body Composition and Kinematic Analysis of the Grab Start in Youth Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin Ahmet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to compare the kinematic variables in youth swimmers during the grab start between sexes and to investigate the relationship between body composition and kinematic variables of the participants. Six female (Mage = 13.71 ± 0.49 yrs and seven male (Mage = 14.00 ± 1.07 yrs swimmers participated in this study. All participants were required to perform grab start tests in random order (three trials by each participant, while the best attempt was analyzed. Nineteen kinematic parameters consisting of block time, flight time, flight distance, total time, total distance, horizontal and vertical displacement of the center of mass (CM at take-off, horizontal and vertical displacement of the CM at entry, height of take-off and entry, relative height of take-off, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM at take-off, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM at entry, angle of take-off, angle of entry and angle of knee at block were analyzed. Out of the 19 evaluated kinematic parameters, a statistical difference between the female and male group was found only in the total distance. Therefore, both female and male groups are considered as only one group and merged after analyzing the results. Statistical analysis showed positive and negative correlations between horizontal / vertical velocity of CM at take-off and several kinematic variables (e.g. angle of entry (rhorizontal = -.868, p=.000 / rvertical = .591, p=.02, total distance (rhorizontal = .594, p=.02 / rvertical = .54, p=.04, and height of take-off (rvertical = .888, p=.000, respectively. On the other hand, positive and negative correlations were found between somatotype components and several kinematic variables (e.g. horizontal displacement of CM at entry (rendomorphy = -.626, p=.013, angle of entry (rmesomorphy = -.686, p=.005 / rectomorphy = .52, p=.047, total distance (rendomorphy = -.626, p=.012, and height of take-off (rendomorphy = -.633, p=.011

  19. Effect of whey protein supplementation on body composition changes in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergia, Robert E; Hudson, Joshua L; Campbell, Wayne W

    2018-04-23

    A preponderance of evidence supports the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on body composition in men; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to make an equivalent claim in women. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of WP supplementation with or without energy restriction (ER) and resistance training (RT) on changes in body mass, lean mass, and fat mass in women. Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched using the keywords "whey protein," "body composition," and "lean mass." Two researchers independently screened 1845 abstracts and extracted 276 articles. Thirteen randomized controlled trials with 28 groups met the inclusion criteria. Globally, WP supplementation increased lean mass (WMD, 0.37 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.67) while not influencing changes in fat mass (-0.20 kg; 95%CI, -0.67 to 0.27) relative to non-WP control. The beneficial effect of WP on lean mass was lost when only studies with RT were included in the analysis (n = 7 comparisons; 0.23 kg; 95%CI, -0.17 to 0.63). The beneficial effect of WP on lean mass was more robust when only studies with an ER component were included (n = 6 comparisons; 0.90 kg; 95%CI, 0.31 to 1.49). There was no effect of WP on lean mass in studies without ER (n = 9 comparisons; 0.22 kg; 95%CI, -0.12 to 0.57). Whey protein supplementation improves body composition by modestly increasing lean mass without influencing changes in fat mass. Body composition improvements from WP are more robust when combined with ER .

  20. Prevalence of malnutrition and validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, Moon J; Bultink, Irene E M; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Voskuyl, Alexandre E

    2017-06-01

    The aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and to validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against whole-body DXA for the assessment of body composition in patients with SSc. Malnutrition was defined as BMI 10% in combination with a fat-free mass index (FFMI) 70 years). Body composition was assessed in 72 patients with whole-body DXA (Hologic, Discovery A) and BIA (Bodystat Quadscan 400). The manufacturer's equation and the Geneva equation were used to estimate FFM and fat mass. The agreement between BIA and whole-body DXA was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient. Malnutrition was found in 8.3% (n = 6) and low FFMI in 20.8% (n = 15) of patients. The mean difference in FFM between BIA and DXA applying the Geneva equation was 0.02 ( s . d . 2.4) kg, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98). Limits of agreement were ±4.6 kg. The manufacturer's equation was less adequate to predict FFM. This study shows a relatively low prevalence of malnutrition in comparison with other studies, but a high prevalence of low FFMI, underlining the necessity of measuring body composition in SSc patients with a standardized and validated method. A good validity of BIA in determining FFM was found at a group level, while at an individual level the FFM may vary by 4.6 kg. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Development of bioelectrical impedance analysis-based equations for estimation of body composition in postpartum rural Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saijuddin; Schulze, Kerry J; Kurpad, Anura; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee S-F; Rashid, Mahbubar; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2013-02-28

    Equations for predicting body composition from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) parameters are age-, sex- and population-specific. Currently there are no equations applicable to women of reproductive age in rural South Asia. Hence, we developed equations for estimating total body water (TBW), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass in rural Bangladeshi women using BIA, with ²H₂O dilution as the criterion method. Women of reproductive age, participating in a community-based placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation, were enrolled at 19·7 (SD 9·3) weeks postpartum in a study to measure body composition by ²H₂O dilution and impedance at 50 kHz using multi-frequency BIA (n 147), and resistance at 50 kHz using single-frequency BIA (n 82). TBW (kg) by ²H2O dilution was used to derive prediction equations for body composition from BIA measures. The prediction equation was applied to resistance measures obtained at 13 weeks postpartum in a larger population of postpartum women (n 1020). TBW, FFM and fat were 22·6 (SD 2·7), 30·9 (SD 3·7) and 10·2 (SD 3·8) kg by ²H₂O dilution. Height²/impedance or height²/resistance and weight provided the best estimate of TBW, with adjusted R² 0·78 and 0·76, and with paired absolute differences in TBW of 0·02 (SD 1·33) and 0·00 (SD 1·28) kg, respectively, between BIA and ²H₂O. In the larger sample, values for TBW, FFM and fat were 23·8, 32·5 and 10·3 kg, respectively. BIA can be an important tool for assessing body composition in women of reproductive age in rural South Asia where poor maternal nutrition is common.

  2. Analysis of energy utilization and body composition in kidney, bladder, and adrenal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen P; Cao, Dong X; Lin, Zong M; Wu, Guo H; Chen, Lian; Zhang, Jian P; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Zi A; Jiang, Yi; Han, Yu S; Xu, Le; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Wen F

    2012-09-01

    To investigate resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition and the relationship between substrate utilization and energy expenditure in urologic cancer patients. Measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) was detected by indirect calorimetry in 122 urologic cancer patients and 131 control subjects. Extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular fluid (ICF), and total water (TW) were measured by bioelectrical impedance appliance. Fat oxidation rate (F-O), carbohydrate oxidation rate, fat mass (FM), and fat free mass (FFM) were further determined. Compared with the controls, cancer patients showed significantly elevated mREE and mREE/FFM (P = 0.049; P cancer patients, 50% (n = 61) were hypermetabolic, 43.4% (n = 53) normometabolic, and 6.6% (n = 8) hypometabolic, whereas 35.1% (n = 46) of the controls were hypermetabolic, 56.5% (n = 74) normometabolic, and 8.4% (n = 11) hypometabolic. REE was correlated to substrate oxidation rate (R(2) = 0.710). Cancer patients exhibited no significant difference in FM, FM/body weight (BW) and FFM, compared with controls. Cancer patients presented no significant difference in TW compared with controls (P = 0.791), but they had increased ECF (P cancer patients. Cancer type and pathologic stage are influential factors of REE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Introduction to body composition assessment using the deuterium dilution technique with analysis of saliva samples by fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  4. Body composition: Where and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body Composition Analysis Allows the Prediction of Urinary Creatinine Excretion and of Renal Function in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Carlo

    2017-05-28

    The aim of this study was to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCr), creatinine clearance (CCr) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from body composition analysis. Body cell mass (BCM) is the compartment which contains muscle mass, which is where creatinine is generated. BCM was measured with body impedance analysis in 165 chronic kidney disease (CKD) adult patients (72 women) with serum creatinine (SCr) 0.6-14.4 mg/dL. The GFR was measured ( 99m Tc-DTPA) and was predicted using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. The other examined parameters were SCr, 24-h UCr and measured 24-h CCr (mCCr). A strict linear correlation was found between 24-h UCr and BCM ( r = 0.772). Multiple linear regression (MR) indicated that UCr was positively correlated with BCM, body weight and male gender, and negatively correlated with age and SCr. UCr predicted using the MR equation (MR-UCr) was quite similar to 24-h UCr. CCr predicted from MR-UCr and SCr (MR-BCM-CCr) was very similar to mCCr with a high correlation ( r = 0.950), concordance and a low prediction error (8.9 mL/min/1.73 m²). From the relationship between the GFR and the BCM/SCr ratio, we predicted the GFR (BCM GFR). The BCM GFR was very similar to the GFR with a high correlation ( r = 0.906), concordance and a low prediction error (12.4 mL/min/1.73 m²). In CKD patients, UCr, CCr and the GFR can be predicted from body composition analysis.

  6. BODY STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF CANOEISTS AND KAYAKERS: ANALYSIS OF JUNIOR AND TEENAGE POLISH NATIONAL CANOEING TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hagner-Derengowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The somatic build, biological age, general state of health, mental predisposition and physical fitness are the criteria for selection of individuals in competitive sport. The present study aims to analys the differences in body structure and composition of canoeists and kayakers and derive conclusions regarding the criteria for selection of individuals incompetitive sport. The research was conducted on a group of 32 men aged between 17 and 22: 16 kayakers and 16 Canadian canoeists of the junior and teenage Polish national canoeing team. Body composition was examined by means of bioelectrical segmental impedance. Body build type was determined using the anthropometric Heath-Carter method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Welch t-test. The examination of morphological features reveals significant differences in the studied parameters between the canoeists and kayakers. There are also significant differences between competitors of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the studied group. We found that competitive kayakers should be taller than canoeists. The lower part of the body in kayakers is more developed than in canoeists and canoeists are more dehydrated than kayakers.

  7. Body structure and composition of canoeists and kayakers: analysis of junior and teenage polish national canoeing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-Derengowska, M; Hagner, W; Zubrzycki, Iz; Krakowiak, H; Słomko, W; Dzierżanowski, M; Rakowski, A; Wiącek-Zubrzycka, M

    2014-12-01

    The somatic build, biological age, general state of health, mental predisposition and physical fitness are the criteria for selection of individuals in competitive sport. The present study aims to analys the differences in body structure and composition of canoeists and kayakers and derive conclusions regarding the criteria for selection of individuals incompetitive sport. The research was conducted on a group of 32 men aged between 17 and 22: 16 kayakers and 16 Canadian canoeists of the junior and teenage Polish national canoeing team. Body composition was examined by means of bioelectrical segmental impedance. Body build type was determined using the anthropometric Heath-Carter method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Welch t-test. The examination of morphological features reveals significant differences in the studied parameters between the canoeists and kayakers. There are also significant differences between competitors of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the studied group. We found that competitive kayakers should be taller than canoeists. The lower part of the body in kayakers is more developed than in canoeists and canoeists are more dehydrated than kayakers.

  8. Disease-related malnutrition: influence on body composition and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pirlich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a frequent clincal problem with severe medical and economic impact. This work summarizes studies on body composition analysis, risk factors, prevalence and prognostic impact of malnutrition. The diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with chronic liver disease is hampered by hyperhydration and requires body composition analysis. Using four different methods for body composition analysis (total body potassium counting, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analy...

  9. Body Composition in Relation to Clinical Outcomes in Renal Cell Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Alina; Kampman, Ellen; Knijnenburg, Nathalja C; Mulders, Peter F; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Baracos, Vickie E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2016-12-04

    Several studies suggest that body composition (ie, body proportions of muscle and fat defined by computed tomography) is associated with clinical outcomes of several cancer types, including renal cell cancer (RCC). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on body composition in relation to clinical outcomes in RCC. Literature was reviewed through October 2016 using PubMed and Embase. We included studies investigating computed tomography-measured cross-sectional areas of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), perinephric fat, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), skeletal muscle index (SMI), and skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) in relation to perioperative outcomes, treatment toxicity, and survival in RCC patients. We included 28 studies with a total of 6608 patients. Binary classification of body composition was used in most studies. In metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients treated with antiangiogenic drugs, dose-limiting toxicity was more frequent in patients with low versus high SMI (four studies, risk difference = 16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2-31%, p = 0.03, I 2 = 26%). Low versus high SMI (six studies, hazard ratio = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.08-2.03, p = 0.02, I 2 = 28%) and SMD (four studies, HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.20-2.03, p = 0.0008, I 2 = 0%) were associated with an increased risk of overall mortality in mRCC. Low versus high VAT and perinephric fat were not consistently associated with perioperative outcomes and survival. No associations for SAT were found. Low SMI is associated with increased dose-limiting toxicity, and low SMI and SMD are associated with increased overall mortality in mRCC. The association of VAT, perinephric fat, and SAT with clinical outcomes needs further investigation, also in localized RCC. We reviewed studies assessing the association of body composition with clinical outcomes in renal cell cancer. We demonstrated higher risk of dose-limiting toxicity and overall mortality for metastatic renal cell cancer patients with low

  10. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Karen; Stonehouse, Welma

    2015-02-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) may result in negative energy balance and weight loss through increased energy expenditure and lipid oxidation. However, results from human intervention studies investigating the weight reducing potential of MCTs, have been mixed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of MCTs, specifically C8:0 and C10:0, to long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on weight loss and body composition in adults. Changes in blood lipid levels were secondary outcomes. Randomized controlled trials >3 weeks' duration conducted in healthy adults were identified searching Web of Knowledge, Discover, PubMed, Scopus, New Zealand Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL until March 2014 with no language restriction. Identified trials were assessed for bias. Mean differences were pooled and analyzed using inverse variance models with fixed effects. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using I(2) statistic. An I(2)>50% or P<0.10 indicated heterogeneity. Thirteen trials (n=749) were identified. Compared with LCTs, MCTs decreased body weight (-0.51 kg [95% CI-0.80 to -0.23 kg]; P<0.001; I(2)=35%); waist circumference (-1.46 cm [95% CI -2.04 to -0.87 cm]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), hip circumference (-0.79 cm [95% CI -1.27 to -0.30 cm]; P=0.002; I(2)=0%), total body fat (standard mean difference -0.39 [95% CI -0.57 to -0.22]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), total subcutaneous fat (standard mean difference -0.46 [95% CI -0.64 to -0.27]; P<0.001; I(2)=20%), and visceral fat (standard mean difference -0.55 [95% CI -0.75 to -0.34]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%). No differences were seen in blood lipid levels. Many trials lacked sufficient information for a complete quality assessment, and commercial bias was detected. Although heterogeneity was absent, study designs varied with regard to duration, dose, and control of energy intake. Replacement of LCTs with MCTs in the diet could potentially induce modest reductions in body weight and composition

  11. Body composition to climate change studies - the many facets of neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.

    2008-01-01

    In-vivo body composition analysis of humans and animals and in-situ analysis of soil using fast neutron inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture induced prompt-gamma rays have been described. By measuring carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O), protein, fat and water are determined. C determination in soil has become important for understanding below ground carbon sequestration process in the light of climate change studies. Various neutron sources ranging from radio isotopic to compact 14 MeV neutron generators employing the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique or micro-second pulsing were implemented. Gamma spectroscopy using recently developed digital multi-channel analyzers has also been described

  12. Body composition to climate change studies - the many facets of neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra,S.

    2008-11-17

    In-vivo body composition analysis of humans and animals and in-situ analysis of soil using fast neutron inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture induced prompt-gamma rays have been described. By measuring carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O), protein, fat and water are determined. C determination in soil has become important for understanding below ground carbon sequestration process in the light of climate change studies. Various neutron sources ranging from radio isotopic to compact 14 MeV neutron generators employing the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique or micro-second pulsing were implemented. Gamma spectroscopy using recently developed digital multi-channel analyzers has also been described.

  13. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  14. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing. ... effect of commonly prescribed diaphragmatic breathing training on the body composition ... a non-exercising control (NE) group (n = 22) or diaphragmatic breathing (DB) group.

  15. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Subhedar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.

  16. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  17. New reference values for body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the general population: results from the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits M E; Rutten, Erica P A; Groenen, Miriam T J; Vanfleteren, Lowie E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Low fat-free mass (FFM) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in elderly and patient populations. Therefore, measurement of FFM is important in nutritional assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient method to assess FFM and FFM index (FFMI; FFM/height(2)). Although reference values have been established for individuals with normal body weight, no specific cutoff values are available for overweight and obese populations. Also, limited studies accounted for the age-related decline in FFM. To determine BMI- and age-specific reference values for abnormal low FFM(I) in white-ethnic men and women free of self-reported disease from the general population. The UK Biobank is a prospective epidemiological study of the general population from the United Kingdom. Individuals in the age category 45 to 69 years were analyzed. In addition to body weight, FFM and FFMI were measured using a Tanita BC-418MA. Also, self-reported chronic conditions and ethnic background were registered, and lung function was assessed using spirometry. After exclusion of all individuals with missing data, nonwhite ethnicity, self-reported disease, body mass index (BMI) less than 14 or 36 kg/m(2) or higher, and/or an obstructive lung function, reference values for FFM and FFMI were derived from 186,975 individuals (45.9% men; age: 56.9 ± 6.8 years; BMI: 26.5 ± 3.6 kg/m(2); FFMI 18.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)). FFM and FFMI were significantly associated with BMI and decreased with age. Percentiles 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95 were calculated for FFM, FFMI, and fat mass (index), after stratification for gender, age, and BMI. Using the UK Biobank dataset, new reference values for body composition assessed with BIA were determined in white-ethnic men and women aged 45 to 69 years. Because these reference values are BMI specific, they are of broad interest for overweight and obese populations. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  19. Body composition analysis and adipocytokine concentrations in haemodialysis patients: abdominal fat gain as an additional cardiovascular risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Elena; Díez, Juan J; Pérez Torres, Almudena; Bajo, María Auxiliadora; Del Peso, Gloria; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Grande, Cristina; Rodríguez, Olaia; Coronado, Mónica; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael

    Abdominal fat and its increment over time in particular has become a cardiovascular risk factor in uraemic patients. To analyse changes in abdominal fat in haemodialysis patients over one year and study their possible correlation with the variation in adipocytokine serum levels. As a secondary objective, we tried to validate the data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with data obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A prospective one-year study was performed in 18 patients on haemodialysis (HD). In each patient, body composition by BIA and DXA was estimated at baseline and after one year. Several adipocytokine and biochemical parameters were determined. A significant increase in phase angle [4.8° (4.1-5.6) vs. 5.2° (4.4-5.8), Pfat measured by DXA [1.00 (0.80-1.26) vs. 1.02 (0.91-1.30), Pfat mass measured by BIA, as well as the abdominal fat percentage estimated by DXA, was found (Pfat mass over time, especially in the abdomen, evidenced by an increased A/G ratio. These findings might explain the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  1. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  2. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  3. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of 32 hospital...

  4. Body composition of italian female hockey players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this work the anthropometric features and the body composition of Italian hockey players, members of the Female National team, were analysed. The purpose of the research was to verify if morphological features could influence the performance of different positional groups. Materials and Methods: Each player was measured for her total and sitting height, weight, 9 skinfolds thickness and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Different equations were used to calculate the Fat% from skinfolds thickness. Results: Average height is not a crucial advantage for this sport. On the contrary the proportion trunk-limb seems to play an important role for the performance of the midfield players. Percentage of body fat of the hockey players was lower than the Fat% of the non-athletes women of the same age. Significant differences were found between Fat% determined by skinfolds thickness and Fat% obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in anthropometric features and in body composition between positional groups, stressing the importance of a specific training program. Keywords: field hockey, bioelectrical impedance, skinfolds thickness, anthropometry.

  5. The Impact of Feet Callosities, Arm Posture, and Usage of Electrolyte Wipes on Body Composition by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Morbidly Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roekenes, Jessica; Strømmen, Magnus; Kulseng, Bård; Martins, Catia

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of feet callosities, arm posture, and use of electrolyte wipes on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in morbidly obese adults. 36 morbidly obese patients (13 males, aged 28-70 years, BMI 41.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2) with moderate/severe feet callosities participated in this study. Body composition (percent body fat (%BF)) was measured while fasting using multi-frequency BIA (InBody 720®), before and after removal of callosities, with and without InBody® electrolyte wipes and custom-built auxiliary pads (to assess arm posture impact). Results from BIA were compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP, BodPod®). Median %BF was significantly higher with auxiliary pads than without (50.1 (interquartile range 8.2) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); p interquartile range 9.1) vs. 50.0 (interquartile range 7.9); NS) or use of wipes (49.6 (interquartile range 8.5) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); NS). No differences in %BF were found between BIA and ADP (49.1 (IQR: 8.9) vs. 49.3 (IQR: 9.1); NS). Arm posture has a significant impact on %BF assessed by BIA, contrary to the presence of feet callosities and use of electrolyte wipes. Arm posture standardization during BIA for body composition assessment is, therefore, recommended. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  7. Body composition and dietary intake in neoplasic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Gartenhaus, W.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Yasummure, S.; Rai, K.; Cartes, E.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in body composition in 37 cancer patients were studied over a period of 6 months. Initially, the patients were divided into two groups: those who lost body weight (over 10%) and those who maintained or gained body weight before the study. Analysis of body composition indicated that patients who lost body weight has caloric and protein intakes markedly below ''normal'' levels at the beginning of the study. There also appears to be a direct relationship between the protein intake and the total body potassium/total body water ratio in the cancer patients. At the end of the 6-month study, the patients were again placed into two groups on the basis of weight loss or gain (and maintenance). Changes in body composition over the period were analyzed in terms of lean body mass, its protein constituent, water, and fat. Weight loss was found to reflect primarily the loss of fat, water, lean body mass (potassium), and only to a minor extent the protein component of lean body mass (nitrogen). Further, on the basis of the values of the ratios of total body nitrogen/total body potassium/total body water, it was possible to ascertain the relative normalcy of the body tissue gained or lost in the 6-month period. The results of the study suggest that the ratio total body nitrogen/total body potassium may serve as the best indicator of recent or ongoing catabolism or anabolism of the neoplastic process. By means of the application of the techniques used for the determination of body composition, it should be possible to assess regimes of hyperalimentation of cancer patients who lose body weight

  8. Confirmatory Composite Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuberth, Florian; Henseler, Jörg; Dijkstra, Theo K.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce confirmatory composite analysis (CCA) as a structural equation modeling technique that aims at testing composite models. CCA entails the same steps as confirmatory factor analysis: model specification, model identification, model estimation, and model testing. Composite models are

  9. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights

  10. Body composition of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Davies, Peter S W

    2010-07-01

    Nutritional status, as represented by body composition, is an important consideration in the treatment of pediatric cancer patients because it is linked to poor outcomes. Little is known about how a child's body composition responds to cancer and treatment. We aimed to compare the body composition of children undergoing treatment of cancer with that of healthy controls and to compare body composition between children with hematologic malignancies and children with solid tumors. This cross-sectional study measured height, weight, body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat mass in 48 children undergoing treatment of cancer and blood-related disorders and in age-matched healthy controls. Patients with cancer had a significantly lower body cell mass index z score (body cell mass/height raised to the power of 2.5 for females and 3 for males) than did controls (P = 0.0001), and 45% of the patients with cancer were considered malnourished according to body cell mass. Subjects with cancer had a significantly higher percentage of body fat (P = 0.0001) and fat mass (P = 0.0001) than did controls; however, there was no significant difference in fat-free mass (P = 0.09). On the basis of percentage fat, 77% of subjects with cancer were considered obese. No difference in body composition was observed between cancer types. This study showed that children undergoing treatment of all types of cancer have a significantly lower body cell mass and a significantly higher fat mass than do healthy controls. Nutritional support is suggested for all children undergoing treatment of cancer.

  11. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  12. Comparative analysis between two models of active aging and its influence on body composition, strength levels and quality of life: long-distance runners versus bodybuilders practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Izquierdo-Sánchez, Jose Manuel; Salas-Sánchez, Jesús; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the body composition, strength level, and the quality of life related to the health (QoL) in veteran sportsmen (>35 years old) in relation to sedentary ones (S), and to compare the result in the mentioned variables between two models of sports practice, long-distance runners (LDR) and bodybuilding practitioners (BBP). One hundred forty-eight male participants took part and were distributed into three groups: 47 LDR (age=42.01±6.96 years), 49 BBP (age=45.14±7.04 years), and 47 S (age=43.71±8.75 years). Body composition, upper- and lower-limb strength level, and QoL were assessed. The LDR and BBP obtained better performance in countermovement jump (CMJ) than the S ones (+0.06 m, paging on body composition, the muscle mass is reduced in all groups controlled (LDR, BBP, and S). Additionally, the %fat mass is increased only in S group (pactive aging showed healthier values in BMI and %fat mass as well as greater results in QoL than BBP and S groups. Nevertheless, the LDR group showed similar values to S ones in muscle mass. The regression analysis performed showed that the sedentary habit predicts the %fat mass and CMJ performance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  14. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  15. Total and Segmental Body Composition Examination in Collegiate Football Players Using Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Dual X-ray Absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christiana J; Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A

    2018-03-01

    Raymond, CJ, Dengel, DR, and Bosch, TA. Total and segmental body composition examination in collegiate football players using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual X-ray absorptiometry. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 772-782, 2018-The current study examined the influence of player position on the agreement between multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MfBIA) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) when assessing total and segmental percent body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football athletes. Forty-four male collegiate athletes (age = 19 ± 1 year; height = 1.9 ± 1.0 m; and body mass = 106.4 ± 18.8 kg) participated. Player positions included: offensive linemen (OL; n = 7), tight ends (TE; n = 4), wide receivers (WR; n = 9), defensive linemen (DL; n = 6), defensive backs (DB; n = 8), linebackers (LB; n = 6), and running backs (RB; n = 4). Total and segmental body composition measured using MfBIA were compared with values obtained using DXA. Compared with DXA, MfBIA underestimated BF% (3.0 ± 3.8%), total FM (2.5 ± 4.3 kg), arm FM (0.4 ± 0.8 kg), arm FFM (1.4 ± 0.9 kg), leg FM (2.8 ± 2.0 kg), and leg FFM (5.4 ± 2.4 kg) (all p FFM (-2.4 ± 4.5 kg) (p FFM), ±3.83 kg (leg FM), ±4.62 kg (leg FFM), and ±8.83 kg (total FFM). No significant differences were observed between devices for trunk FM (-0.3 ± 3.0 kg; p = 0.565) and trunk FFM (0.4 ± 2.4 kg; p = 0.278), with LOAs of ±5.92 and ±4.69 kg, respectively. Player position significantly affected all between-device mean body composition measurement differences (adjusted p ≤ 0.05), with OL demonstrating the greatest effect on each variable. Therefore, MfBIA does not seem accurate in examining between-player body composition in college football players.

  16. Heterogeneous body composition trajectories in infancy are associated with blood pressure in childhood: A latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibaek, Rasmus; Kæstel, Pernille; Girma, Tsinuel

    to identify infants with distinct fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) trajectories from 0-6 months of age and examined associations with BP at 4 years of age. Material and methods: Air displacement plethysmography was used to measure body composition monthly from birth to 6 months of age in 364 Ethiopian...... infants. BP was assessed at 4 years of age. Data driven latent class trajectory models were used to establish distinct FM and FFM trajectories, and multiple linear regression to examine their associations with BP at 4 years of age adjusted for sex, weight and length at birth, 3 and 6 months of age....... Results: We identified four distinct FM and two distinct FFM growth trajectories (figure 1). Overall mean (SD) systolic BP (SBP) was 87.4 (6.8) mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) was 52.9 (8.3) mmHg at 4 years of age. Compared to the "High intermediate FM" reference group, infants in the "Accelerated FM" group...

  17. Effect of the ethinylestradiol/norelgestromin contraceptive patch on body composition. Results of bioelectrical impedance analysis in a population of Italian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruni Vincenzina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As weight gain is one of the most frequently cited reasons for not using and for discontinuing hormonal contraceptives, in an open-label, single-arm, multicentre clinical study we evaluated the effect of the ethinylestradiol/norelgestromin contraceptive patch (EVRA, Janssen-Cilag International, Belgium on body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Methods Body weight and impedance vector components (resistance (R and reactance (Xc, at 50 kHz frequency, Akern-RJL Systems analyzer were recorded before entry, after 1, 3 and 6 months in 182 Italian healthy women aged 29 yr (18 to 45, and with BMI 21.8 kg/m2 (16 to 31. Total body water (TBW was estimated with a BIA regression equation. Vector BIA was performed with the RXc mean graph method and the Hotelling's T2 test for paired and unpaired data. Results After 6 months body weight increased by 0.64 kg (1.1% and TBW increased by 0.51 L (1.7%. The pattern of impedance vector displacement indicated a small increase in soft tissue hydration (interstitial gel fluid. Body composition changes did not significantly differ among groups of previous contraceptive methods. Arterial blood pressure did not significantly change over time. Conclusion After 6 months of treatment with the ethinylestradiol/norelgestromin contraceptive patch we found a minimal, clinically not relevant, increase in body weight less than 1 kg that could be attributed to an adaptive interstitial gel hydration. This fluctuation is physiological as confirmed by the lack of any effect on blood pressure. This could be useful in increasing women's choice, acceptability and compliance of the ethinylestradiol/norelgestromin contraceptive patch.

  18. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women. Body weight, fat mass (FM, percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI, FM index (FMI, FFM index (FFMI, and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI.Simple means (standard deviation of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9 kg/m(2, 24.9 (6.3%, 5.96 (2.09 kg/m(2, 17.4 (1.5 kg/m(2, and 7.29 (0.76 kg/m(2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3 kg/m(2, 31.7 (7.1%, 7.40 (2.61 kg/m(2, 15.3 (1.2 kg/m(2, and 5.86 (0.67 kg/m(2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends, but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends, but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends.The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition

  19. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  20. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  1. PHYSIQUE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF GIRLS PRACTISING CONTEMPORARY DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przednowek Karolina H.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physique and body composition are often explored in sport-related research. This is due to the fact that morphological features can be useful for determining a person’s predispositions for practising a given type of physical activity. Dance, as any other sports discipline, has an impact on the physique and motor skills of those who practise it. Most research concerning the physique and body composition of dancers conducted so far has focused on persons practising ballet or competitive ballroom dancing. Investigating these issues in contemporary dancers is a new field of study. The aim of the current study was to examine the physique and body composition of girls aged 14-17 years practising contemporary dance. Material and methods. The study involved 23 girls who trained contemporary dance twice a week for 2 hours. The participants of the study had been training since the age of six. Basic anthropometric measurements were performed. Body composition was analysed based on parameters measured using a Tanita body composition analyser. Conclusions. The analysis found that girls training contemporary dance were characterised by a leptosomatic physique. BMI values in both younger and older contemporary dancers indicated that their weight was normal. Compared to girls who did not practise any particular type of sport, contemporary dancers had a lower weight, a lower body water percentage, and a lower body fat percentage. The dancers were also characterised by a greater circumference of the waist, hips, arm, and chest compared to untrained peers.

  2. Analysis of body composition and selected lipid parameters in healthy children – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Więch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to perform an analytical evaluation of body composition and selected lipid parameters in a population of healthy children. Material and methods: The study included a group of 81 children (44 boys and 37 girls, mean age 11.56 ± 2.84 years participating in a research project in the Centre for Medical and Natural Sciences Research and Innovation in Rzeszow. Body composition measurement (TANITA BC-420 S MA and lipid profile assessment (Cholestech LDX were performed in all patients. Statistical analysis of the collected material was conducted with Statistica 10.0 (StatSoft. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis of variables. The level of statistical significance was adopted at p < 0.05. Results: A statistically significant difference in fat mass (p < 0.001, fat-free mass (p = 0.003, muscle mass (p = 0.003 and total body water (p < 0.001 was observed between children with normal body weight and overweight or obese children. A significant positive impact of FM (R = 0.09; p = 0.416 and a negative impact of total body water (R = −0.40; p < 0.001 on triglyceride parameters was demonstrated. Additionally, reduced fat mass correlated with a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (R = −0.29; p = 0.009. Conclusions: The study demonstrated differences in the selected components of body composition in a population of healthy children, which allowed to precisely monitor the nutritional status when correlated with the results of lipid profile.

  3. The interplay between nutrition and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or radiation treatment for cancer.3.4 The loss of body tissue may be .... adjacent to areas of damage or surgical injury should give valuable .... The composition of weight loss caused by chronic ... pancreatitis (E) (N = 6); burns IF) (N = 4).

  4. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  5. Effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Yusuf; Altiparmak, Ibrahim Halil; Erkus, Muslihittin Emre; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kaya, Zekeriya; Gunebakmaz, Ozgur; Demirbag, Recep

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate. This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overweight and obese males. Body composition, arterial stiffness and echocardiography were assessed before and after Ramadan. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis using segmental body composition analyser. Arterial stiffness and haemodynamic parameters were also measured. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 100 subjects enrolled, 70(70%) were included. The overall mean age was 37±7 years. No significant changes were observed in blood pressures, resting heart rate, aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index-75, aortic pulse pressure, brachial pulse pressure, basal metabolic rate, total body water, fat-free mass, and echocardiographic parameters (p>0.05 each). Although aortic pulse wave velocity (m/s) and augmentation index-75 (%) decreased after fasting period compared to that of before Ramadan, these reductions did not reach statistically significant levels (8.6±1.8 vs. 8.9±1.9, and 13.6±6.6 vs. 14.7±9.3, respectively; p>0.05 each). Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body water rate, percentage of body fat mass, body fat mass, and visceral fat mass percentage were significantly reduced (pRamadan. Ramadan fasting had beneficial effects on body composition, but did not have any significant effect on arterial stiffness and resting heart rate.

  6. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  7. Measuring body composition in dogs using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, L S; Vankan, D M; Rand, J S; Flickinger, E A; Ward, L C

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-five healthy, neutered, mixed breed dogs were used to determine the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) to predict accurately fat-free mass (FFM) in dogs using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured FFM as reference. A second aim was to compare MFBIA predictions with morphometric predictions. MFBIA-based predictors provided an accurate measure of FFM, within 1.5% when compared to DXA-derived FFM, in normal weight dogs. FFM estimates were most highly correlated with DXA-measured FFM when the prediction equation included resistance quotient, bodyweight, and body condition score. At the population level, the inclusion of impedance as a predictor variable did not add substantially to the predictive power achieved with morphometric variables alone; in individual dogs, impedance predictors were more valuable than morphometric predictors. These results indicate that, following further validation, MFBIA could provide a useful tool in clinical practice to objectively measure FFM in canine patients and help improve compliance with prevention and treatment programs for obesity in dogs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Multivariate analysis of lifestyle, constitutive and body composition factors influencing bone health in community-dwelling older adults from Madeira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Blimkie, Cameron Joseph; Maia, José António; Lopes, Carla; Gouveia, Bruna Raquel; Freitas, Duarte Luís

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the association between habitual physical activity (PA), other lifestyle/constitutive factors, body composition, and bone health/strength in a large sample of older adults from Madeira, Portugal. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. Femoral strength index (FSI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total lean tissue mass (TLTM) and total fat mass (TFM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA. PA was assessed during face-to-face interviews using the Baecke questionnaire and for a sub-sample by Tritrac accelerometer. Demographic and health history information were obtained by telephone interview through questionnaire. The relationship between habitual PA variables and bone health/strength indicators (whole body BMD, FNBMD, LSBMD, and FSI) investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was similar for females (0.098≤r≤0.189) and males (0.104≤r≤0.105). Results from standard multiple regression analysis indicated that the primary and most significant predictors for FNBMD in both sexes were age, TLTM, and TFM. For LSBMD, the most significant predictor was TFM in men and TFM, age, and TLTM in females. Our regression model explained 8.3-14.2% and 14.8-29.6% of the total variance in LSBMD and FNBMD for males and females, respectively. This study suggests that habitual PA is minimally but positively associated with BMD and FSI among older adult males and females and that body composition factors like TLTM and TFM are the strongest determinants of BMD and FSI in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body Composition Explains Greater Variance in Weight-for-Length Z-scores than Mid-Upper Arm Circumference during Infancy - A Secondary Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Admassu, Bitiya; Kæstel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Traditionally, weight-for-length/height z-score (WLZ) was used to assess wasting (a mortality risk factor) in children 0-59 months. A recent consultation reached a majority position that mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a better mortality predictor than WLZ in children 6-59 months. In addition, MUAC collected at the ages of 6-14 weeks has shown to identify infants more likely to die before reaching one year. To understand which body compartment is most affected by undernutrition, associations between anthropometric indicators and body composition data have been studied in children aged 6-59 months. To our knowledge, no such study has been done in children aged 0-6 months. We aimed to study these associations. Methods: Weight, length, MUAC, and lean and fat mass (LM and FM, respectively) obtained by air-displacement plethysmography of infants aged 0-6 months were obtained from an Ethiopian birth cohort study. The data, originally used to construct body composition reference data, measured infants at birth, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 months of age. A complete set of measurements available for 2506 out of a total of 2777 child measurements (563/598, 403/436, 414/444, 413/446, 368/415, and 345/441 in each age, respectively) was used for this analys, E-mail: is. Weight and length data were transformed to sex-and age-specific weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) values using the 2006 WHO growth standards. To remove the confounding positive association between LM or FM and length, we calculated sex- and age-specific standardised residuals values obtained from regressing LM or FM on length, separately by sex and age of measurement. The associations between MUAC, WLZ, length, and body composition residuals were assessed using correlation analysis. We used regression analysis to assess the independent contribution of body composition residuals to MUAC and WLZ. All analyses were done separately by age. Results: MUAC was strongly and positively correlated

  10. Body composition of term healthy Indian newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, V; Kurpad, A V; Kumar, B; Devi, S; Sreenivas, V; Paul, V K

    2016-04-01

    Previous anthropometry-based studies have suggested that in Indian newborns fat mass is conserved at the expense of lean tissue. This study was undertaken to assess the body composition of Indian newborns and to evaluate its relation with parents' anthropometry, birth weight and early postnatal weight gain. Body composition of healthy term singleton newborns was assessed by the deuterium dilution method in the second week of life. Anthropometry was carried out at birth and on the day of study. Data from 127 babies were analyzed. Birth weight was 2969±383 g. Body composition was assessed at a mean age of 12.7±3.1 days. Fat and fat-free mass were 354±246 and 2764±402 g, respectively, and fat mass percentage (FM%) was 11.3±7.3%. Birth weight and fat-free mass were higher among boys, but no gender difference was noted in FM%. Birth weight was positively correlated with fat as well as fat-free mass but not FM%. FM% showed positive correlation with gain in weight from birth to the day of assessment. This is the first study from India to report body composition in newborns using deuterium dilution. FM% was comparable to that reported for Western populations for babies of similar age. Our results suggest that the percentage of fat and fat-free mass is relatively constant over the range of birth weights included in this study, and greater weight gain during early postnatal period results in greater increase in FM%.

  11. Use of D-T-produced fast neutrons for in vivo body composition analysis: a reference method for nutritional assessment in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehayias, J.J. [USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington St., Boston, 02111-1524 MA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Body composition has become the main outcome of many nutritional intervention studies including osteoporosis, malnutrition, obesity, AIDS, and aging. Traditional indirect body composition methods developed with healthy young adults do not apply to the elderly or diseased. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used to assess in vivo elements characteristic of specific body compartments. Non-bone phosphorus for muscle is measured by the {sup 31}P(n,{alpha}){sup 28}Al reaction, and nitrogen for protein via the {sup 14}N(n,2n){sup 13}N fast neutron reaction. Inelastic neutron scattering is used to measure total body carbon and oxygen. Body fat is derived from carbon after correcting for contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. Carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) is used to measure the distribution of fat and lean tissue in the body and to monitor small changes of lean mass. A sealed, D-T neutron generator is used for the production of fast neutrons. Carbon and oxygen mass and their ratio are measured in vivo at a radiation exposure of less than 0.06 mSv. Gamma-ray spectra are collected using large BGO detectors and analyzed for the 4.43 MeV state of carbon and 6.13 MeV state of oxygen, simultaneously with the irradiation. P and N analysis by delayed fast neutron activation is performed by transferring the patient to a shielded room equipped with an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A combination of measurements makes possible the assessment of the ''quality'' of fat-free mass. The neutron generator system is used to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments, to study mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging, and to investigate methods for preserving function and quality of life in the elderly. It is also used as a reference method for the validation of portable instruments of nutritional assessment. (orig.)

  12. Body composition assessment in American Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Hunsberger, S; Reid, R; Stewart, D; Skipper, B

    1999-04-01

    Although the high prevalence of obesity in American Indian children was documented in several surveys that used body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) as the measure, there is limited information on more direct measurements of body adiposity in this population. The present study evaluated body composition in 81 boys (aged 11.2+/-0.6 y) and 75 girls (aged 11.0+/-0.4 y) attending public schools in 6 American Indian communities: White Mountain Apache, Pima, and Tohono O'Odham in Arizona; Oglala Lakota and Sicangu Lakota in South Dakota; and Navajo in New Mexico and Arizona. These communities were participating in the feasibility phase of Pathways, a multicenter intervention for the primary prevention of obesity. Body composition was estimated by using a combination of skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance measurements, with a prediction equation validated previously in this same population. The mean BMI was 20.4+/-4.2 for boys and 21.1+/-5.0 for girls. The sum of the triceps plus subscapular skinfold thicknesses averaged 28.6+/-7.0 mm in boys and 34.0+/-8.0 mm in girls. Mean percentage body fat was 35.6+/-6.9 in boys and 38.8+/-8.5 in girls. The results from this study confirmed the high prevalence of excess body fatness in school-age American Indian children and permitted the development of procedures, training, and quality control for measurement of the main outcome variable in the full-scale Pathways study.

  13. body composition, and subjective assessments of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Giessing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of resistance training (RT examine methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically valid RT programs more representative of such practices are seldom compared. This study compared two such approaches to RT. Thirty participants (males, n=13; females, n=17 were randomised to either a group performing low volume ‘High Intensity Training’ (HIT; n=16 or high volume ‘Body-building’ (3ST; n=14 RT methods 2x/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included muscular performance, body composition, and participant’s subjective assessments. Both HIT and 3ST groups improved muscular performance significantly (as indicated by 95% confidence intervals with large effect sizes (ES; 0.97 to 1.73 and 0.88 to 1.77 respectively. HIT had significantly greater muscular performance gains for 3 of 9 tested exercises compared with 3ST (p < 0.05 and larger effect sizes for 8 of 9 exercises. Body composition did not significantly change in either group. However, effect sizes for whole body muscle mass changes were slightly more favourable in the HIT group compared with the 3ST group (0.27 and -0.34 respectively in addition to whole body fat mass (0.03 and 0.43 respectively and whole body fat percentage (-0.10 and -0.44 respectively. Significant muscular performance gains can be produced using either HIT or 3ST. However, muscular performance gains may be greater when using HIT. Future research should look to identify which components of ecologically valid RT programs are primarily responsible for these differences in outcome.

  14. A bedside measure of body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI allows for longitudinal quantitative analysis of body fat composition in rats: an analysis of sibutramine-associated changes at the group level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Niessen, Heiko G; Kaulisch, Thomas; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan; Stiller, Detlef

    2013-09-01

    Body fat distribution changes are associated with multiple alterations in metabolism. Therefore, the assessment of body fat compartments by MRI in animal models is a promising approach to obesity research. Standard T1-weighted (T1w) whole body MRI was used here to quantify different effects in the subcutaneous and visceral fat compartments in rats under treatment with an anorexiant. Twenty rats on a high caloric diet were investigated by the identical MRI protocol at baseline and after seven weeks. Ten rats received a treatment with sibutramine, 10 rats served as vehicle control group. To longitudinally assess body fat components, MRI analysis was used with two approaches: 2D slicewise graphic analysis (SGA) was compared with an automated 3D analysis algorithm (3DA). At the group level, fat volume differences showed a longitudinal increase of subcutaneous and visceral fat volumes for the control group, whereas the sibutramine group showed stable subcutaneous fat volumes and decrease in visceral fat volumes. SGA and 3DA volume determination showed significant correlations for subcutaneous fat volume (C=0.85, psibutramine separate on the fat compartments in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African ... e between body composition and disordered eating in irregular vs normal menstruating athletes. ... measured by air displacement plethysmography.

  17. Effects of chronic acceleration on body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.

  18. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ellen Brierley

    Full Text Available The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range, with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  19. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  20. Calibration of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition assessment in Ethiopian infants using air-displacement plethysmography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Wibæk; Kæstel, Pernille; Skov, R.

    2015-01-01

    and noninvasive method for assessing BC. However, very little research has been conducted in low- and middle-income populations, where efforts to prevent or treat malnutrition in early life are a public health priority. We aimed to develop equations for predicting fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) based......, age and an impedance index (L(2)/Z50) were predictors. Prediction equations were developed using stepwise multiple linear regression and the accuracy was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation approach. RESULTS: A linear regression model based on body weight, age and sex predicted FFM, estimated...... model fit for predicting FFM compared with a model already comprising weight, sex and age. CONCLUSIONS: The derived equations predicted FFM with acceptable accuracy and may be used in future field surveys, epidemiological studies and clinical trials conducted in similar sub-Saharan African population...

  1. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welma Stonehouse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18–50-year-old. Methods: RCTs ≥ 4 weeks comparing the effect of dairy consumption (whole food or supplements with control diets lower in dairy during energy restriction on body weight, fat and lean mass were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Cochrane Central and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP until March 2016. Reports were identified and critically appraised in duplicate. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Chi2- and I2-statistics indicated heterogeneity. Dose effect was assessed using meta-regression analysis. GRADE guidelines were used to rate the quality (QR of the evidence considering risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias and effect estimates. Results: 27 RCTs were reviewed. Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20–84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (−1.16 kg [−1.66, −0.66 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 11%, QR = high, n = 644 and body fat mass (−1.49 kg [−2.06, −0.92 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 21%, n = 521, QR = high were found in studies largely including women (90% women. These effects were absent in studies that imposed resistance training (QR = low-moderate. Dairy intake resulted in smaller loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I2 = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate. No between study dose-response effects were seen. Conclusions: Increased dairy intake as part of energy restricted diets resulted in greater loss in bodyweight and fat mass while attenuating lean mass loss in 18–50-year-old adults. Further research in males is needed to investigate sex effects.

  2. Effects of bariatric surgery on the body composition of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Wally Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.

  3. Obesity paradox in cancer: new insights provided by body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Pastore, Carla A; Orlandi, Silvana P; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2014-05-01

    Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), appears to have a paradoxical protective effect in several chronic diseases. We investigated the obesity paradox in cancer patients by using body composition. The study was an observational study of 175 cancer patients assessed before chemotherapy. Obesity was defined as BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥30 or fat mass index (FMI; fat mass divided by the square of height) ≥5.2 (men) and ≥8.2 (women) measured by using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) was defined as fat-free mass index (fat-free mass divided by the square of height) cancer patients only when obesity is defined by BMI. Patients with sarcopenic obesity had the poorest prognosis. Cancer patients with high mortality risk can be identified by a body-composition assessment.

  4. Relationship between Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Early Adult Life: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Nested in Two Birth Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paula Duarte de; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília F; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    Overweight/obesity has been reported to worsen pulmonary function (PF). This study aimed to examine the association between PF and several body composition (BC) measures in two population-based cohorts. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals aged 18 and 30 years from two Pelotas Birth Cohorts in southern Brazil. PF was assessed by spirometry. Body measures that were collected included body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentages of total and segmented (trunk, arms and legs) fat mass (FM) and total fat-free mass (FFM). FM and FFM were measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BODPOD) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations were verified through linear regressions stratified by sex, and adjusted for weight, height, skin color, and socioeconomic, behavioral, and perinatal variables. A total of 7347 individuals were included in the analyses (3438 and 3909 at 30 and 18 years, respectively). Most BC measures showed a significant positive association between PF and FFM, and a negative association with FM. For each additional percentage point of FM, measured by BOD POD, the forced vital capacity regression coefficient adjusted by height, weight and skin color, at 18 years, was -33 mL (95% CI -38, -29) and -26 mL (95% CI -30, -22), and -30 mL (95% CI -35, -25) and -19 mL (95% CI -23, -14) at 30 years, in men and women, respectively. All the BOD POD regression coefficients for FFM were the same as for the FM coefficients, but in a positive trend (pFFM (skinfold thickness-FM estimation-BOD POD, total and segmental DXA measures-FM and FFM proportions) showed negative trends in the association of FM with PF for both ages and sexes. On the other hand, FFM showed a positive association with PF.

  5. Relationship between Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Early Adult Life: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Nested in Two Birth Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Duarte de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity has been reported to worsen pulmonary function (PF. This study aimed to examine the association between PF and several body composition (BC measures in two population-based cohorts.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals aged 18 and 30 years from two Pelotas Birth Cohorts in southern Brazil. PF was assessed by spirometry. Body measures that were collected included body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentages of total and segmented (trunk, arms and legs fat mass (FM and total fat-free mass (FFM. FM and FFM were measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BODPOD and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Associations were verified through linear regressions stratified by sex, and adjusted for weight, height, skin color, and socioeconomic, behavioral, and perinatal variables.A total of 7347 individuals were included in the analyses (3438 and 3909 at 30 and 18 years, respectively. Most BC measures showed a significant positive association between PF and FFM, and a negative association with FM. For each additional percentage point of FM, measured by BOD POD, the forced vital capacity regression coefficient adjusted by height, weight and skin color, at 18 years, was -33 mL (95% CI -38, -29 and -26 mL (95% CI -30, -22, and -30 mL (95% CI -35, -25 and -19 mL (95% CI -23, -14 at 30 years, in men and women, respectively. All the BOD POD regression coefficients for FFM were the same as for the FM coefficients, but in a positive trend (p<0.001 for all associations.All measures that distinguish FM from FFM (skinfold thickness-FM estimation-BOD POD, total and segmental DXA measures-FM and FFM proportions showed negative trends in the association of FM with PF for both ages and sexes. On the other hand, FFM showed a positive association with PF.

  6. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, G Ja; Konovalova, M V; Vashura, A Yu; Anisimova, A V; Godina, E Z; Khomyakova, I A; Nikolaev, D V; Starunova, O A; Rudnev, S G

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  7. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  8. Differences in body composition measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis with steel and gel electrodes – on an example of professional fencers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mizera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regular assessment of body composition in athletes is a key element of their nutritional status and general condition monitoring. Purpose: Analysis of differences in the impedance (I and body composition measurements performed by the use of analyzers with a constant current frequency of 50 kHz with steel and gel electrodes. Material and methods: Analysis were performed in experienced fencers by the use of analyzers: Tanita BC418MA (aT with steel electrodes (eT and Akern BIA101ASE (aA with gel electrodes (eA, eL, eT. During the first stage of the study in 48 athletes I, fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM were measured using aA with eB in a supine position and after 3 min using aT with eT in a standing position. Then 10 fencers were randomly selected. For them measurements were performed after 10, 13 and 16 min in a supine position using eA, eL, eB and then after 3 min in a standing one using eT. Intrinsic impedance of the 3 types of gel electrodes (eA, eL, eB were measured using aA. Results: The first stage. Differences in I, FM and FFM between eT and aA were observed (women: 101.4±52.2Ω, 1.2±2.1kg, -1.2±2.1kg, men: 98.8±27.5Ω, 1.1±1.5kg, -1.1±1.5kg, respectively. The second stage. In the subsequent measurements, differences in I were observed (women: eL-eA 3.8±1.8Ω, eB-eA 26.1±8.0Ω, eT-eA 154.4±40.6Ω;, men: of -0.7±9.4Ω, 11.1±9.2Ω, 107±36.3Ω, respectively. In both subgroups along with the increase in I, FM also increased, while  FFM decreased. Intrinsic impedance of the applied gel electrodes was measured and the differences between the results were reported (eL-eA 41.1±22.0Ω, eB-eL 138.4±20.7Ω, eB-eA 179.5Ω. As the intrinsic impedance of gel electrodes increased, an increase in the whole body I was observed. Conclusion: It seems that the observed differences in the whole body impedance were not only a simple effect of changes in a body position but they might have also been related to the intrinsic

  9. Can Ethnic Background Differences in Children's Body Composition Be Explained by Differences in Energy Balance-Related Behaviors? A Mediation Analysis within the Energy-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Jimenez-Pavon, D.; Manios, Y.; Singh, A.S.; Moreno, L.A.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:In affluent countries, children from non-native ethnicity have in general less favourable body composition indicators and energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) than children from native ethnicity. However, differences between countries have been reported.Methodology/Principal

  10. Assessment of the influence of body composition on bone mass in children and adolescents based on a functional analysis of the muscle-bone relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Joanna; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    The functional model of skeletal development considers the mechanical factor to be the most important skeletal modulant. The aim of the study was a functional analysis of the bone-muscle relationship in children with low and normal bone mass. The study involved 149 children with low and 99 children with normal bone mass (control group). All patients underwent a densitometry examination (DXA). Low bone mass was diagnosed if the Z-score was below values of Z-scores for all parameters in children with low bone mass as compared to the control group. Children with low bone mass had lower content of adipose and muscle tissue and a marked deficit of muscle tissue with regard to height (which according to mechanostat theory leads to lower muscle-generated strain on bones). This group of children had also lower TBBMC/LBM Z-scores, which indicates greater fracture susceptibility. 1. Functional analysis, which showed associations between bone and muscle tissues, can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring skeletal system disorders as well as making therapeutic decisions.2. The study emphasizes the role of proper nutrition and physical activities, which contribute to proper body composition, in the prevention of bone mineralization disorders in childhood and adolescence. 3. The study showed the inadequacy of the classic reference ranges used in interpreting DXA data in children and demonstrated the usefulness of continuous variables for that purpose.

  11. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total body water, visceral fat accumulation, body mass index, resting metabolic rate, fat‑free mass, bone mass, and muscle mass were significantly higher in obese when compared to those with nonobese (P < 0.001). Thirteen ... Keywords: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss ...

  12. Body Composition and Mortality Predictors in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Cristina; Valente, Ana; Oliveira, Telma; Garagarza, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate how different compartments of body composition can affect survival in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Multicenter longitudinal observational study of a cohort of patients in HD with 12 months of follow-up. Patients from 34 Nephrocare dialysis units in Portugal were included. A total of 697 patients on maintenance HD during 4 hours 3 days per week were enrolled. Dry weight, presence of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), lean tissue index (LTI), fat tissue index (FTI), body cell mass index (BCMI), albumin and hydration status were recorded at baseline. In all patients, the assessment of body composition was carried out using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM; Fresenius Medical Care a Deutschland GmbH, Germany). Survival during a 12-month period of follow-up. Patient's mean (±standard deviation) age was 65.4 ± 14.3 years, and median (interquartile range) HD vintage was 41 (19-81) months. Patients who died during the study period, had higher age (P < .001), lower dry weight (P = .001), BMI (P < .001), albumin (P < .001), LTI (P = .015), and also lower BCMI (P = .046). Patients with diabetes (P = .045), BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) (P < .001), albumin < 4.0 g/dL (P < .001), relative overhydration ≥ 15% (P = .001), low FTI (P = .019), and also those in the lowest tertile of BCMI (P = .022) displayed a significantly worse survival. In the Cox regression analysis, the overall mortality of patient was related to low FTI, relative overhydration, BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2), BCMI ≤ 5.2 kg/m(2), and albumin < 4.0 g/dL. Several body composition parameters demonstrated to have an important role in predicting 1-year mortality in HD patients. Albumin, FTI, and BMI were useful predictors of mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The novel application of artificial neural network on bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess the body composition in elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to improve accuracy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) prediction equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) of the elderly by using non-linear Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) model and to compare the predictive accuracy with the linear regression model by using energy dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. Methods A total of 88 Taiwanese elderly adults were recruited in this study as subjects. Linear regression equations and BP-ANN prediction equation were developed using impedances and other anthropometrics for predicting the reference FFM measured by DXA (FFMDXA) in 36 male and 26 female Taiwanese elderly adults. The FFM estimated by BIA prediction equations using traditional linear regression model (FFMLR) and BP-ANN model (FFMANN) were compared to the FFMDXA. The measuring results of an additional 26 elderly adults were used to validate than accuracy of the predictive models. Results The results showed the significant predictors were impedance, gender, age, height and weight in developed FFMLR linear model (LR) for predicting FFM (coefficient of determination, r2 = 0.940; standard error of estimate (SEE) = 2.729 kg; root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.571kg, P < 0.001). The above predictors were set as the variables of the input layer by using five neurons in the BP-ANN model (r2 = 0.987 with a SD = 1.192 kg and relatively lower RMSE = 1.183 kg), which had greater (improved) accuracy for estimating FFM when compared with linear model. The results showed a better agreement existed between FFMANN and FFMDXA than that between FFMLR and FFMDXA. Conclusion When compared the performance of developed prediction equations for estimating reference FFMDXA, the linear model has lower r2 with a larger SD in predictive results than that of BP-ANN model, which indicated ANN model is more suitable for estimating FFM. PMID:23388042

  14. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.

    Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and

  15. [Analysis of body composition and resting metabolic rate of 858 middle-aged and elderly people in urban area of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D N; Xian, T Z; Wang, L J; Cheng, B; Sun, M X; Guo, L X

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To understand the overweight rate and obesity rate in middle-aged and elderly people in urban area of Beijing, and analyze the changes of body composition and resting metabolic rate with age. Methods: From November 2014 to December 2015, body composition measurement and resting metabolic rate detection were conducted among 858 people aged 51 to 99 years, including 760 men, 98 women, who received physical examination at Beijing Hospital. Results: The overweight rate was 51.4 % , and the obesity rate was 16.9 % . The overweight rate was 26.5 % and the obesity rate was 14.3 % in women, significantly lower than those in men (54.6 % and 17.2 % ) ( P area and resting metabolic rate in different age groups were different ( P area increased obviously ( P area increased significantly in age group 70- years ( P area of Beijing, and the rates were higher in men than in women. With the increase of age, the skeletal muscle volume, muscle index and resting metabolic rate gradually decreased, while the percentage of body fat and visceral fat area increased; Overweight and obese people had earlier changes in body composition and resting metabolic rate.

  16. Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Youth Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Erdal Tekin; Roy Wada

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of fast-food restaurant advertising on television on the body composition of adolescents as measured by percentage body fat (PBF) and to assess the sensitivity of these effects to using conventional measures of youth obesity based on body-mass index (BMI). We merge measures of body composition from bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with individual level data from th...

  17. Menstrual Changes in Body Composition of Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachoń, Aleksandra Jadwiga

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the tendencies and scope of changes in body mass, body composition and body girths across the menstrual cycle were similar or different in women of different body build. Anthropometric examinations were carried out in a group of 40 naturally regularly menstruated females practicing team sports (aged 19-21, B-v 169.3+/-6.4 cm, body mass 59.6+/-7.0 kg), in the follicular, periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The phases were determined on the basis of data from two consecutive menstrual cycles taking into account the cycle’s length. To establish the type of body build, Body Mass Index, hydration status and skinfold thickness were measured. For a statistical analysis, a multiple comparisons with multiple confidence intervals were applied. The increase in body mass between the follicular and the luteal phases was observed in all groups of women, the biggest gain was recorded in slim women, who in the luteal phase weighted 0.8 kg more. The amount of fat mass increased significantly across the menstrual cycle only in more hydrated (by about 0.66 kg) and slim women (by about 0.54 kg). Significant changes between consecutive phases of the menstrual cycle in waist and hip girths, and suprailiac skinfold thickness in some groups of women also indicate influence of fatness and hydration status and slenderness. In view of the presented results, the body build seems important for an analysis of the pattern of each component’s changes across the menstrual cycle, especially for female athletes. Certain changes can be seen only in some groups of women, therefore somatic features can be considered as a predictor of the intensity of changes.

  18. Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african sharptooth catfish ( Clarias gariepinus , Burchell 1822) fingerlings fed locally formulated and commercial pelleted diets in tarpaulin tanks.

  19. Shakedown analysis of composites

    CERN Document Server

    Weichert, D; Schwabe, F

    1999-01-01

    One of the advantages of composite materials compared to conventional materials stems from the different mechanical characteristics of each component of a composite. This may be used to design materials for specific technological $9 purposes, where in some sense controversial material properties are required. As example one may quote metal- matrix-composites (MMCs) exhibiting at the same time high hardness and fracture toughness. To predict failure of this type $9 of materials, it is important to understand the complex processes on the microstructural level leading to failure, including in particular inelastic effects, and to link them to the macroscopic material properties. In this paper, $9 failure of metal-matrix-composites under variables loads due to accumulated plastic deformations is investigated. For this, shakedown-analysis is carried out on the micro-level. Then, by use of the technique of homogenisation, the $9 results are linked to the overall material properties on the macro- level. The methodolo...

  20. BODY COMPOSITION IN HEMODIALYSIS AND PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Ho Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance analysis is a reliable technique for determining post dialysis target weight. Using this technique, we can understand body fluid status easier and conveniently. Moreover this technique can be used for check nutrition status and nutritional status of dialysis patients. We compared the body fluid status and nutrition status between hemodialysis (HD patients and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients by BCM (Body composition monitor technique. We studied 48 (30 males and 18 females PD patients, 21 (10 males and 11 females HD patients. Body composition monitoring (BCM, Fesenitus Medical Care, Germany was used as a tool for the analysis of bioimpedance. Extracellular water, Total body water, Intracellular water, Overhydration, E/I, Lean tissue mass, Fat Tissue mass was measured and those results were compared between two groups. HD patients were more hydrated than PD patients (61.9% vs. 35.4% and nutritional status such as LTI was poorer than peritoneal dialysis patients (11.7±1.7 vs. 15.3±2.6. Although total body water is more abundant in peritoneal patients (29.4±5.5L vs. 35.9±6.2L, Extracellular water and intracellular water ratio was relatively higher in Hemodialysis patients (E/I 0.98±0.13 vs. 0.87±0.12. The nutrition status was better in PD patients by comparing the percent of lean tissue mass (LTM% between two groups (LTM% 52.1±10.6% vs. 66.8±11.3. In conclusions, Hemodialysis patients were more hydrated with poorer nutrition status than peritoneal dialysis patients, but, due to the significant difference of age between two groups, further study should be required.

  1. Genome-wide linkage analysis of QTL for growth and body composition employing the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Ana I

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional strategy to map QTL is to use linkage analysis employing a limited number of markers. These analyses report wide QTL confidence intervals, making very difficult to identify the gene and polymorphisms underlying the QTL effects. The arrival of genome-wide panels of SNPs makes available thousands of markers increasing the information content and therefore the likelihood of detecting and fine mapping QTL regions. The aims of the current study are to confirm previous QTL regions for growth and body composition traits in different generations of an Iberian x Landrace intercross (IBMAP and especially identify new ones with narrow confidence intervals by employing the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip in linkage analyses. Results Three generations (F3, Backcross 1 and Backcross 2 of the IBMAP and their related animals were genotyped with PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. A total of 8,417 SNPs equidistantly distributed across autosomes were selected after filtering by quality, position and frequency to perform the QTL scan. The joint and separate analyses of the different IBMAP generations allowed confirming QTL regions previously identified in chromosomes 4 and 6 as well as new ones mainly for backfat thickness in chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 14 and 17 and shoulder weight in chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 13; and many other to the chromosome-wide signification level. In addition, most of the detected QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals, making easier the selection of positional candidate genes. Conclusions The use of higher density of markers has allowed to confirm results obtained in previous QTL scans carried out with microsatellites. Moreover several new QTL regions have been now identified in regions probably not covered by markers in previous scans, most of these QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals. Finally, prominent putative biological and positional candidate genes underlying those QTL effects are listed based on recent porcine

  2. Estimating body weight and body composition of chickens by using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B L

    2001-07-01

    The major objective of this research was to develop equations to estimate BW and body composition using measurements taken with inexpensive instruments. We used five groups of chickens that were created with different genetic stocks and feeding programs. Four of the five groups were from broiler genetic stock, and one was from sex-linked heavy layers. The goal was to sample six males from each group when the group weight was 1.20, 1.75, and 2.30 kg. Each male was weighed and measured for back length, pelvis width, circumference, breast width, keel length, and abdominal skinfold thickness. A cloth tape measure, calipers, and skinfold calipers were used for measurement. Chickens were scanned for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) before being euthanized and frozen. Six females were selected at weights similar to those for males and were measured in the same way. Each whole chicken was ground, and a portion of ground material of each was used to measure water, fat, ash, and energy content. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate BW from body measurements. The best single measurement was pelvis width, with an R2 = 0.67. Inclusion of three body measurements in an equation resulted in R2 = 0.78 and the following equation: BW (g) = -930.0 + 68.5 (breast, cm) + 48.5 (circumference, cm) + 62.8 (pelvis, cm). The best single measurement to estimate body fat was abdominal skinfold thickness, expressed as a natural logarithm. Inclusion of weight and skinfold thickness resulted in R2 = 0.63 for body fat according to the following equation: fat (%) = 24.83 + 6.75 (skinfold, ln cm) - 3.87 (wt, kg). Inclusion of the result of TOBEC and the effect of sex improved the R2 to 0.78 for body fat. Regression analysis was used to develop additional equations, based on fat, to estimate water and energy contents of the body. The body water content (%) = 72.1 - 0.60 (body fat, %), and body energy (kcal/g) = 1.097 + 0.080 (body fat, %). The results of the present study

  3. Nutrient Requirements, Body Composition, and Health of Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    .... As pan of the Defense Women's Health Research Program, a new report from the Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women of the Institute of the Institute of Medicine examines issues of body composition, fitness, and appearance standards and their impact on the health, nutritional status, and performance of active-duty women.

  4. Cylindrical concave body of composite fibrous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a cylindrical concave body of compound fibrous material which is intended to be exposed to high rotation speeds around its own longitudinal axis. The concave body in question has at least one layer of fibrils that are interwoven and enclose an identical angle with the longitudinal axis of the concave body in both directions. The concave body in question also has at least a second layer of fibrils that run in the direction of the circumference and are fitted radially to the outside. The cylindrical concave body of the invention is particularly well suited for application as a rotor tube in a gas ultra-centrifuge

  5. In vivo body composition studies in malnourished patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J; Blagojevic, N

    1987-09-01

    The establishment of an in vivo TBN facility at Lucas Heights, together with measurement techniques for whole body and extracellular water, is leading to an expanded interest in the relationships between clinical status, body composition and dietary regimes. The ANSTO program provides the opportunity for the first quantitative assessments of these factors in Australia. Body composition studies provide a common link with other-wise unrelated physiological or psychological diseases, and a pool of normal data is being established. Substantial improvements in patient care and quality of life should result from this project, together with a deeper understanding of the importance of body composition in disease-induced malnutrition.

  6. In vivo body composition studies in malnourished patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Blagojevic, N.

    1987-01-01

    The establishment of an in vivo TBN facility at Lucas Heights, together with measurement techniques for whole body and extracellular water, is leading to an expanded interest in the relationships between clinical status, body composition and dietary regimes. The ANSTO program provides the opportunity for the first quantitative assessments of these factors in Australia. Body composition studies provide a common link with other-wise unrelated physiological or psychological diseases, and a pool of normal data is being established. Substantial improvements in patient care and quality of life should result from this project, together with a deeper understanding of the importance of body composition in disease-induced malnutrition

  7. Type 2 diabetes family histories, body composition and fasting glucose levels: a cross-section analysis in healthy sedentary male and female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Thomas, Ewan; Paoli, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Petrucci, Marco; Proia, Patrizia; Bellafiore, Marianna; Palma, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is a world wide spread disease with a multifactorial pathogenetic evolution. Various factors like obesity, physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to verify if in young healthy sedentary male and female there is positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes and an increase in body weight and fat mass, or alterations in basal glycemia values. Totally183 male and 237 female healthy sedentary subjects were analysed in 2012, in Italy. They were divided in three groups: FH(+) with first degree family history, FH(++) with second degree family history and FH(-) with no family history. Anthropometrics, body composition and blood parameters were assessed. Male had the highest BMI values (Plife-style changes, such as increased physical activity and controlled quantity and quality of food intake.

  8. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Alan A.; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P.; Arciero, Paul J.; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Willoughby, Darryn S.; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M.; Bannock, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limi...

  9. THE INVESTIGATION TO THE SEX OF BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ELITE MASTER ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Aksel ÇELİK; Mert TUNER

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on body composition by bioelektrik impedance analysis (BIA) methods, respiratory function parameters and physical performance levels. 20 men and 10 women, total 30 long-distance elite master athletes who had joined World, European and The Balkans Championships in Athletics and into at least one degree, were included in the study. The body composition such as skeletal muscle mass, body fat weight, Waist-hip ratio an...

  10. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Tatiane; Costa, Manoel; Oliveira, Saulo; Júnior, Marcos Barbosa; Ritti-Dias, Raphael; Santos, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9–17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1–5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear...

  11. Body composition in acromegaly - before and after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Bengtsson, B.A.; Isaksson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disease caused by a benign pituitary tumor producing excess amount of growth hormone. A changed body composition can be a functional parameter of the disorder. The aim of this study is to describe body composition in acromegaly before and after therapy. Total body potassium (TBK) was measured as total exchangeable potassium using 42 K by dilution technique or by counting gamma radiation from the naturally present 40 K in a high sensitivity 3π whole body counter. Total body water (TBW) was determined with an isotope dilution technique using tritiated water as a tracer. The specific activity was measured in urine or plasma. The predicted values for TBK, TBW, and body fat (BF) were calculated by equations using body weight (BW), body height, age and sex as independent variables. The normal values for BW were calculated by using body height and sex as independent variables

  12. Body composition and perception of teenagers from public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Araújo Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is accompanied by cognitive, emotional, social and biological changes; situations that increase the risk for development of psychosomatic disorders. This study measured and classified body composition and compared it to body self-perception in adolescents. Students from the seventh to ninth grade in public primary education in Distrito Federal, Brazil, answered socio-demographic and body self-perception questionnaires. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated for body composition classification. From the 977 adolescents, 79.1% presented eutrophic BMI. Of the 473 boys, 11.4% were overweight and 4.7% underweight, 23.8% perceived the body as smaller than it really is and 25.5% tried to gain body mass. Of the 504 girls, 11.9% were overweight and 13.4% underweight, 24.1% perceived the body as larger than it really is and 32.5% tried to lose body mass. Inadequate body composition, prevalent in 20.9% of adolescents, may harm growth, development and health. These problems may be aggravated by the high prevalence of distorted body self-perception and attitudes for bodily changes. It is recommended the implementation of educational interventions on body composition, perception and culture and health, with different approaches by gender.

  13. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  14. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (Pshort and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  15. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  16. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting

  17. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  18. Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Deuterium in Costa Rican Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana-Guzmán, E.; Salas-Chaves, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been adopted as international measure for measuring adiposity in children with the disadvantage that it varies with age, sex and sexual maturation with no differentiation between fat mass and mass free of grease. The analysis of body composition allow to know if the overweight is due to fatty tissue being the deuterium isotope dilution a validated reference method using Infrared Spectrometry Transformed of Fourier (FTIR). We studied a total 118 boys and girls from 6 to 9 years old getting the values of z score of BMI for age and percentage of fat mass by FTIR. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Costa Rica does not escape to the global problem of childhood obesity founding by BMI 18.6% of overweight and 10% of obesity and by body composition 9% of overweight and 57% of obesity. Isotopic deuterium dilution method demonstrated in this study to be more suitable for the analysis of obesity and overweight in children since BMI presented false positive and false negative results giving less accurate information of adiposity of the subject. (author)

  19. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, p<0.01), WC (r=0.858, p<0.01) and body fat percentage (r=0.757, <0.01). Body fat percentage also showed to have a high correlation with BMI (r=0.757, p<0.01) and WC (r=0.693, p<0.01). Furthermore, overweight and obesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of

  20. Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural deviations in boys from two ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... procedures of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).

  1. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  2. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  3. Body composition validation technique using anthropometrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal bodyweights of the participantsweremeasured inlying positionsusing anadaptation of theGuthri Smith apparatus frame towhich a firmstretcher and two spring balances were attached on a horizontal level position. The heights of the subjects were also taken on supine lying on a firm plinth. The body weight and ...

  4. the foundation of anthropometry and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    method, and, in the case of infants and children, growth monitoring is ... should be remembered that that BMI as such is not the determinant of health and disease. ... regressed on BMI, the standard deviation of residuals is considerable: about 3.2kg. ... to be considered here, including short-term (within-day) body weight.

  5. Body composition estimation from selected slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total...

  6. Strength training and body composition in middle-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrup, Rachelle; Tucker, Larry A; LE Cheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2018-01-01

    Strength training is a sound method to improve body composition. However, the effect of age, diet, menopause, and physical activity on the relationship between strength training and body composition in women remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the intricacies of the relationship between strength training and body composition in 257 middle-age women and to quantify the effect of these factors on the association. The study was cross-sectional. Five variables were used to index strength training participation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by 7-day weighed food records, and physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers. There were 109 strength trainers in the sample. For each day per week of strength training, body fat was 1.3 percentage points lower (F=14.8, Pdevote to strength training, the lower their body fat and the higher their fat-free mass tend to be. A significant portion of the differences in body composition seems to result from lifters participating in more physical activity than non-lifters. Menopause status also contributes significantly to the relationship.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n=377 adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37% in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54–1.90 (P<0.0001 overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39–1.94, Chinese, 1.39 (1.06–1.83, African, 1.67 (1.37–2.02, and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65. Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91–2.87 for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46–2.20 for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC remained associated with CVD events (HR=1.21, 95%CI 1.12–1.32 overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR

  8. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.12-1.39) and African Americans (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.32). Finally, when using a binary definition of MetS-PC (cut point 0.505) designed to match the NCEP definition in terms of prevalence in the Health ABC cohort (35

  9. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: a cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering ...

  10. PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION IN MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS (MHD PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that adult MHD pts had a higher % body fat. Measures of physical performance were markedly reduced in MHD pts as compared to Normals. Physical performance in MHD, measured especially by 6-MW, correlated negatively with some measures of body composition, particularly with LBMI.

  11. Changes in body composition as a result of chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Maaike M.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this

  12. Bodies in Composition: Teaching Writing through Kinesthetic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Janine

    2017-01-01

    This article calls on composition instructors to reflect consciously on how we can use our bodies kinesthetically to perform multimodal writing processes through gestural, visual, and spatial modes. Teaching writing through kinesthetic performance can show students that our bodies are being constructed via interaction with audiences, akin to the…

  13. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  14. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  15. changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and other anthropometric .... showing a good fit between the values obtained from the equation ..... ideally at 6-monthly intervals, in order to provide useful information to ... training on quality of life in HAART-treated HIV-positive Rwandan subjects with body fat ...

  16. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  17. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY COMPOSITION IN ADULT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára NAGY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.

  18. A comparison of three methods to assess body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Nilanjana; Awad, Sherif; Macdonald, Ian A; Lobo, Dileep N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of measurements of body composition made using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans at the L3 vertebral level, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). DXA, CT, and BIA were performed in 47 patients recruited from two clinical trials investigating metabolic changes associated with major abdominal surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophagogastric cancer. DXA was performed the week before surgery and before and after commencement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. BIA was performed at the same time points and used with standard equations to calculate fat-free mass (FFM). Analysis of CT scans performed within 3 mo of the study was used to estimate FFM and fat mass (FM). There was good correlation between FM on DXA and CT (r 2  = 0.6632; P FFM on DXA and CT (r 2  = 0.7634; P FFM on DXA and BIA (r 2  = 0.6275; P FFM on CT and BIA also was significant (r 2  = 0.2742; P FFM on DXA and CT, average bias was -0.1477, with LOA of -8.621 to 8.325. For FFM on DXA and BIA, average bias was -3.792, with LOA of -15.52 to 7.936. For FFM on CT and BIA, average bias was -2.661, with LOA of -22.71 to 17.39. Although a systematic error underestimating FFM was demonstrated with BIA, it may be a useful modality to quantify body composition in the clinical situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  20. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia de Faria Santarém, G; de Cleva, R; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Bernhard, Aline Biaseto; Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andrea; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients. The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m) showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002) than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m). The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m) also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014) than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m). There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM), FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL), trunk (FFM_TR) and lower limbs (FFM_LL). Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.

  1. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  2. Composite waste analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.; Bonner, C.A.; Malcom, J.E.; Camp, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) of radioactive waste forms an integral component of nuclear materials accountability programs and waste characterization acceptance criterion. However, waste measurements are often complicated by unknown isotopic compositions and the potential for concealment of special nuclear materials in a manner that is transparent to gamma-ray measurement instruments. To overcome these complications, a new NDA measurement system has been developed to assay special nuclear material in both transuranic and low level waste from the same measurement platform. The system incorporates a NaI detector and customized commercial software routines to measure small quantities of radioactive material in low level waste. Transuranic waste analysis is performed with a coaxial HPGE detector and uses upgraded PC-based segmented gamma scanner software to assay containers up to 55 gal. in volume. Gamma-Ray isotopics analysis of both waste forms is also performed with this detector. Finally, a small neutron counter using specialized software is attached to the measurement platform to satisfy safeguards concerns related to nuclear materials that are not sensed by the gamma-ray instruments. This report describes important features and capabilities of the system and presents a series of test measurements that are to be performed to define system parameters

  3. Method for Forming Fiber Reinforced Composite Bodies with Graded Composition and Stress Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.

  4. Body Composition in Relation to Clinical Outcomes in Renal Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Alina; Kampman, Ellen; Knijnenburg, Nathalja C.; Mulders, Peter F.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Several studies suggest that body composition (ie, body proportions of muscle and fat defined by computed tomography) is associated with clinical outcomes of several cancer types, including renal cell cancer (RCC). Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence

  5. Evaluation of resistance training to improve muscular strength and body composition in cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Camila S; Marinello, Poliana Camila; Galvão, Daniel A; Newton, Robert U; Borges, Fernando H; Frajacomo, Fernando; Deminice, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Muscle atrophy and strength decline are two of the most prominent characteristics in cancer patients undergoing cancer therapy, leading to decreased functional ability and reduced quality of life. Therefore, the aim is to systematically review research evidence of the effects of resistance exercise (RE) on lower-limb muscular strength, lean body mass (LBM), and body fat (BF) in cancer patients undertaking neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This research was conducted using the following online database: Clinical Trial Register, Cochrane Trial Register, PubMed, SPORT Discus, and SciELO, from September 2014 until May 2015. We used the following keywords in various combinations with a systematic search: "Cancer therapy," "Wasting muscle," "Muscle loss," "Muscle function," "Neoadjuvant therapy," "Adjuvant thera-py," "Resistance Training," "Weight training," and "Exercise." After selection of 272 full-text articles, 14 publications were included in this meta-analysis. Resistance exercise (RE) during neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy increased lower-limb muscular strength (mean: 26.22 kg, 95% CI [16.01, 36.43], heterogeneity: P = body mass (LBM) increased (mean 0.8 kg, 95% CI [0.7, 0.9], heterogeneity: P = 0.99, I 2  = 0%, P body fat (BF) (mean: -1.3 kg, 95% CI [-1.5, 1.1], heterogeneity: P = 0.93, I 2  = 0%, P cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy regardless of the kind of treatment. RE increases muscle strength, maintains LBM, and reduces BF in cancer patients undergoing adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies. Cancer patients and survivors should consider undertaking RE as an effective countermeasure for treatment-related adverse effects to the musculoskeletal system.

  6. Body composition in chemotherapy: the promising role of CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M

    2013-09-01

    Reducing cancer-treatment toxicity was a largely ignored research agenda, which is now emerging as an active area of investigation. Studies of human body composition using computerized tomography scans have provided proof-of-concept that variability in drug disposition and toxicity profiles may be partially explained by different features in body composition. Collectively, studies suggest that skeletal muscle depletion (regardless of body weight) is an independent predictor of severe toxicity, affecting cancer treatment and its outcomes. Although precise mechanisms are unknown, pharmacokinetic parameters such as variations in volume of distribution and increased drug exposure may explain such findings. Computerized tomography scans are readily available in clinical databases of diagnostic images and provide feasible, reliable, and highly differentiated measurements of body composition. These images should be used to optimize screening and management of patients in order to prevent severe toxicity, and to improve the efficacy and cost-efficiency of chemotherapy treatments.

  7. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  8. Effects of protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise on body composition and physical function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Cheng, Chin-Pao; Chen, Hui-Chuen; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Hung-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-10-01

    Background: Overweight and obese older people face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function, which may contribute to sarcopenic obesity. Resistance exercise training (RET) has a beneficial effect on muscle protein synthesis and can be augmented by protein supplementation (PS). However, whether body weight affects the augmentation of muscular and functional performance in response to PS in older people undergoing RET remains unclear. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the effects of PS on the body composition and physical function of older people undergoing RET. Design: We performed a comprehensive search of online databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the efficacy of PS for lean mass gain, strength gain, and physical mobility improvements in older people undergoing RET. Results: We included 17 RCTs; the overall mean ± SD age and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) in these RCTs were 73.4 ± 8.1 y and 29.7 ± 5.5, respectively. The participants had substantially greater lean mass and leg strength gains when PS and RET were used than with RET alone, with the standard mean differences (SMDs) being 0.58 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.84) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.98), respectively. The subgroup of studies with a mean BMI ≥30 exhibited substantially greater lean mass (SMD: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.87) and leg strength (SMD: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.34) gains in response to PS. The subgroup of studies with a mean BMI stronger effect in preventing aging-related muscle mass attenuation and leg strength loss in older people, which was found in studies with a mean BMI ≥30 and in studies with a mean BMI <30. Clinicians could use nutrition supplement and exercise strategies, especially PS plus RET, to effectively improve the physical activity and health status of all older patients. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  10. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  11. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  12. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128

    2001-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...

  13. Maternal body composition, smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Ase; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Vangen, Siri; Gunnes, Nina; Samuelsen, Sven O; Magnus, Per

    2010-08-01

    To study associations between maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI), smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis). The sample consisted of 33,467 primiparous women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008). Data on hyperemesis, BMI, education, maternal age, eating disorders, maternal and paternal smoking habits were obtained from questionnaires. All associations were studied by logistic regression. Altogether, 353 (1.1%) women had hyperemesis. Among non-smokers, both underweight and obese women were more likely to develop hyperemesis than normal-weighted women: odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-3.88 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00-2.20, respectively. No associations were found among smokers. Women who smoked daily (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60) or occasionally (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93) had lower risk of hyperemesis than non-smokers. No effect of partner's smoking habits was observed. Both underweight and obesity were associated with hyperemesis, but only among non-smokers. Maternal prepregnant smoking reduced the risk of hyperemesis, whereas partner's smoking habits had no effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Composition of Staff Review Advisory Bodies - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  15. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...

  16. BODY BUILD AND BODY COMPOSITION VS. PHYSICAL CAPACITY IN YOUNG JUDO CONTESTANTS COMPARED TO UNTRAINED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lech

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to (1 find differences in body build and aerobic and anaerobic capacity between young judoists and untrained peers; (2 compare correlations for indicators of body build with indicators of aerobic and anaerobic capacity among the group of trained and untrained subjects. The study group comprised 18 subjects selected during a competitive period, who had taken at least fifth place in national judo tournaments. Their training experience ranged from 6 to 11 years, 8 to 10 hours a week. The control group was composed of 18 untrained students from one of the schools included in the study. Their body height and mass (BM did not differ compared to judoists. A body composition chart was employed for analysis of body build and body composition. Physiological investigations encompassed measurements of anaerobic (Wingate test and aerobic (graded exercise test on cycle ergometer capacity. Judo contestants are typically characterized by higher BMI, fat-free mass and fat-free mass index compared to the untrained. Compared to the group of untrained peers, young athletes in this sport are distinguished by the time needed to generate peak power. This difference is not observed in the indices characterising aerobic capacity. The level of the indices of body build and composition in young judo contestants shows a moderate and strong correlation with indices of anaerobic and aerobic capacity. The amount of total work in the Wingate test was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.65, p<0.01, fat-free mass index (r=0.63, p<0.01, body mass (r=0.49, p<0.05, fat mass index (r=0.49, p<0.05 and percentage of fat (r=0.48, p<0.05. Maximal peak anaerobic power was positively correlated with fat-free mass index (r=0.48, p<0.05 and percentage of fat (r=0.50, p<0.05. A strong negative correlation between ·VO2max with body mass (r=-0.75, p<0.001, BMI (r=-0.72, p<0.001, moderate correlation with PF%(r=-0.64, p<0.01, fat-free mass index (r=-0.52, p<0

  17. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost...... and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind....

  18. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  19. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  20. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  1. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  2. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  3. 成人身体成分与血脂、血糖关系的探讨%Analysis of the relationship between body composition and fasting serum lipids, fasting blood glucose in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋桂; 姬芳勤

    2014-01-01

    triglyceride, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose simultaneously. Al measurement are operated by medical staff after unified training.Results The age has no difference between man and women (P > 0.05). In addition to body fat, the body moisture, protein, inorganic salt, body weight,skeletal muscle weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, waist to hip fat ratio al has significant difference between man and women(P < 0.001). Protein, body fat, body weight,skeletal muscle weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, waist to hip fat ratio were positively correlated with fasting blood glucose (P < 0.05). The body moisture, protein, inorganic salt, body fat,body weight,skeletal muscle weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, waist to hip fat ratio al were positively correlated with blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride) (P < 0.05). After Eliminating gender factors, body fat,body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, waist to hip fat ratio also had a significant relationship with fasting blood glucose and blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride) (P < 0.05). Conclusions Body composition had a close relationship with fasting serum lipids, fasting blood glucose in adult.It can prevent metabolic disease early by analysis of body composition.

  4. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  5. Dietary strategies and body composition in elite weightlifting: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez; Rafael M Tundidor-Duque; Pedro E Alcaraz; Jacobo Á Rubio-Arias

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is little literature that showed the nutritional bases to optimize weightlifting performance. The objective was to perform a systematic review of the body composition and nutritional composition of diets in elite weightlifting athletes. Material and Methods: Articles published in Pubmed, Web of Science and Sport Discuss were reviewed following PRISMA Statement. The process for selecting studies was performed duplicated by two researchers in two stages (screening and ap...

  6. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Correia de Faria Santar?m, G; de Cleva, R; Santo, Marco Aur?lio; Bernhard, Aline Biaseto; Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; Greve, Julia Maria D?Andrea; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. Objective To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. Setting University of S?o Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Methods Functional capacity was ...

  7. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents.METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected.RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%, followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47% and triacylglycerol (22%. Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance(HOMA-IR were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI, waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range.

  8. Body composition assessment in Taiwanese individuals with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2011-07-01

    To measure the changes in the total and regional body fat mass, and assess the clinical usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) in detecting overweight subjects with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Prospective, cross-sectional study. General community. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n=17; age range, 42-57y; mean, 47y; 12 men, 5 women) and able-bodied people (n=17) matched by sex, age, body weight, and body height participated in the study. Not applicable. Total and regional body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Clinical characteristics such as blood pressure, serum biochemical studies, and habitual behaviors (daily cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise regimen) of all participants were evaluated. Compared with able-bodied controls, subjects with poliomyelitis had a 50% greater total body fat mass, significant increases in the regional fat mass in every part of the body, and had the greatest increase of fat mass in the thorax. Nearly all the subjects (94%) with poliomyelitis were obese according to standards of body composition. However, one third of them had a BMI value of less than 25.0kg/m(2). People with poliomyelitis have a higher prevalence of obesity and a significant increase in total and regional fat mass. Current BMI underestimates the total body fat mass percentage compared with the control; therefore, a population-specific BMI should be used to address the prevalence of obesity in postpolio survivors. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part I. Relationships between the anatomical distribution of adipose tissue, body composition and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of equine body fat content is important for nutritional and clinical purposes. However, our understanding of total body fat and its regional distribution in the body is sparse. Currently, body fat evaluation relies on the subjective assessment of body condition score (BCS), which has never been validated against 'gold standard' chemical analysis or dissection measurements in ponies. To define the relationships between subjective (BCS), objective (morphometric) indices of body fat and 'gold standard' measurements of actual body composition. BCS and morphometry offer valid, noninvasive methods for determination of body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, BCS 1.25-7/9), Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes), were used. For all ponies, body mass (BM), BCS and various morphometric measurements were recorded. Following euthanasia, all ponies were systematically dissected. Discrete white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were independently described. Gross, body chemical composition was determined by proximate analyses. Total somatic soft tissues increased linearly (r(2) = 1.00), whereas body WAT content (1-26% live BM) increased exponentially (r(2) = 0.96), with BCS. WAT was equally distributed between internal and external sites in all animals irrespective of BCS. Nuchal fat was a poor predictor of total WAT (r(2) = 0.66). Periorbital WAT did not alter with BCS (r(2) = 0.01). Heart girth:withers height and ultrasonic retroperitoneal fat depth were closely associated with total, chemically-extracted lipid which comprised 1-29% live BM (r(2) = 0.91 and 0.88, respectively). The exponential relationship between BCS and total body WAT/lipid suggests that BCS is unlikely to be a sensitive index of body fat for animals in moderate-obese states. Morphometric measurements (body girths and retroperitonel fat depth) may be useful to augment subjective BCS systems. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer improves body composition and modulates metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Giulia; Almeida, Ana; Ravasco, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review article is to present the most recent intervention studies with EPA on nutritional outcomes in cancer patients, e.g. nutritional status, weight & lean body mass. For this purpose a PubMed(®) and MedLine(®) search of the published literature up to and including January 2014 that contained the keywords: cancer, sarcopenia, EPA, ω-3 fatty acids, weight, intervention trial, muscle mass was conducted. The collected data was summarized and written in text format and in tables that contained: study design, patient' population, sample size, statistical significance and results of the intervention. The paper will cover malignancy, body composition, intervention with EPA, physiological mechanisms of action of EPA, effect of EPA on weight and body composition, future research. In cancer patients deterioration of muscle mass can be present regardless of body weight or Body Mass Index (BMI). Thus, sarcopenia in cancer patients with excessive fat mass (FM), entitled sarcopenic obesity, has gained greater relevance in clinical practice; it can negatively influence patients' functional status, tolerance to treatments & disease prognosis. The search for an effective nutritional intervention that improves body composition (preservation of muscle mass and muscle quality) is of utmost importance for clinicians and patients. The improvement of muscle quality is an even more recent area of interest because it has probable implications in patients' prognosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been identified as a promising nutrient with the wide clinical benefits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain EPA potential benefits on body composition: inhibition of catabolic stimuli by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines production and enhancing insulin sensitivity that induces protein synthesis; also, EPA may attenuate deterioration of nutritional status resulting from antineoplastic therapies by improving calorie and protein intake as well. Indeed

  12. Body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can influence an athlete's speed, endurance and power, whereas body composition can affect an athlete's strength, agility and appear- ance.' 1. Determining ... activity, provide more consistent training sessions, improve recovery of muscle tissue ... per week (swimming, cycling and running) or triathletes who com- pleted an ...

  13. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    of bone mineral and body composition included total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMC and BMD, forearm BMC and BMD, fat mass (FM), fat free-mass (FFM), percentage fat mass (FM%) as well as a DXA estimate of the body weight. Body composition (FM, FFM and FM....../creatinine and Ca/creatinine (fU-OHpr/creat, fUCa/creat). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between OLS and placebo groups as to any of the body composition variables (FFM, FM, FM%) at baseline or after 1 y treatment. Weight loss was of 11.2+/-7.5 kg in the OLS group and 8.1+/-7.5 kg in the placebo...... group (NS). The changes in FM and FM% were significant in both groups determined by DXA as well as by TBK, but the group differences between these changes were not significant. The composition of the weight loss was approximately 80% fat in both groups. FFM only changed significantly by DXA in the OLS...

  14. Fitness and body composition profiling of elite junior South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.

  15. Changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...

  16. The association between leptin, body composition and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the association between leptin, body composition and physical fitness in black adolescents from two selected schools in Ikageng, in the North West Province of South Africa. Baseline measurements were obtained from 124 boys and 148 girls between the ages of 13 and 20 years, which participated in ...

  17. Effect of Spinning Cycling Training on Body Composition in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Fatih; Nar, Dilek; Erzeybek, Mustafa Said

    2018-01-01

    In this study the effects of a 6 week spinning cycling training on the body composition of women were investigated. Twelve sedentary women (32-47 years old) voluntarily participated in this study. The 6-week training program consisted of exercise sessions on 3 days per week. The intensity of the training program that was kept low in the beginning…

  18. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed three protein levels. E.H. Kemm,* F.K. Siebrits, M.N. Ras and H.A. Badenhorst. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. A group of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was ...

  19. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  20. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  1. Eating frequency and weight and body composition: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Kac, Gilberto; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2017-08-01

    The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes. PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. A systematic review of the literature. Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe. Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73 % of the studies. Fourteen studies reported an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition, and seven studies found a positive association. The majority of studies applied multiple analyses adjusted for potential confounders, such as sex, age, education, income, smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake. Six studies took into account under-reporting of eating frequency and/or energy intake in the analysis, and one investigated the mediation effect of energy intake. There is not sufficient evidence confirming the association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition when misreporting bias is taken into account. However, in men, a potential protective effect of high eating frequency was observed on BMI and visceral obesity.

  2. Long term survey of body composition in hemodialysis patients using the Body Composition Monitor® (BCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Trolonge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2 years all 265 incident patients in self-dialysis units were included in a prospective study. Every 6-months, clinical and biological nutritional evaluation was associated to a BCM measure. 205 pts have a complete set of data at start (age 60±16 years, BMI 25±5 kg/m2, albumin 37±4 g/L, prealbumin 0.32±0.1 g/L, CRP median 5 mg/L, 135 pts at 6 mo and 56 pts at 2 years. Measures were performed before HD session to ensure stability and reproducibility of body fluid compartments by the same examiner. Lean and fat masses (lean tissue index: LTI, fat tissue index: FTI were normalized by square body height and compared with a reference range derived from 2000 healthy controls, according to gender and age. 28% of pts had values of LTI below the 10th percentile. A linear correlation exists (p<0.001 between pre-dialysis creatinine level and LTI. Albumin or prealbumin were not predictive of sarcopenia. Prescribed post dialysis BW was underestimated in 25% of pts and 16% remain overhydrated. In stable patients repeated measures analysis reveal no significant variation of LTI even in case of reevaluation of BW and gain of BW is associated with fat mass increase. BCM is a simple tool in clinical practice to evaluate body composition and hydratation status and help to guide nutritional support.

  3. Body composition in men with anorexia nervosa: Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Milanese, Chiara; Bazzani, Paola Vittoria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    To compare body composition patterns before and after complete weight restoration in men with anorexia nervosa. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure body composition patterns in 10 men with anorexia nervosa before and after complete weight restoration, and in 10 healthy men matched to age and patients' post-treatment body mass index (BMI). Before weight restoration, men with anorexia nervosa displayed lower total body fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LBM) than those in the healthy comparison group, with a greater FM loss from the extremity than the trunk region. After short-term weight restoration, patients displayed complete normalization in total LBM and FM, but greater deposition of FM in the trunk region. Short-term weight restoration can normalize body composition patterns in men with anorexia nervosa, but results in a central adiposity phenotype. The clinical implication of this finding is unknown, but should be explored given the high levels of concern about central adiposity in anorexia nervosa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dietary strategies and body composition in elite weightlifting: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little literature that showed the nutritional bases to optimize weightlifting performance. The objective was to perform a systematic review of the body composition and nutritional composition of diets in elite weightlifting athletes. Material and Methods: Articles published in Pubmed, Web of Science and Sport Discuss were reviewed following PRISMA Statement. The process for selecting studies was performed duplicated by two researchers in two stages (screening and application of eligibility criteria. A qualitative synthesis of the main characteristics and findings was made. The quality of studies was assessed. Results: Of the 610 articles found, 8 met the inclusion criteria, which were the studies performed in elite or high-level menopausal women, and information on dietary habits and/or body composition. Body composition identified that the percentage of fat mass was around 15%. A caloric intake of 4080.65±1602.69kcal, a protein intake of 17.29±3.2% of total daily energy (TDE, 42.48±5.6% TDE of carbohydrates and a 36.1±9.75% TDE of fats. A suboptimal dietary profile is suggested, showing an excess in fat intake, which could explain the excess body fat observed in some. Athletes’ protein intake and carbohydrates were within the recommended ranges except for 2 studies. Conclusions: An incorrect diet on the part of the elite weightlifting athletes was observed, which could condition their body composition negatively. The need for advice and intervention by a dietitian-nutritionist professionals was observed.

  5. An analysis of the composition of gain and growth of primal cuts of Iberian pigs of 10 to 150 kg body weight as affected by the level of feeding and dietary protein concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nieto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was made of data from a total of 211 growing-finishing Iberian (IB pigs from four separate and independent sets of trials. Within each set of trials, a factorial arrangement of treatments was used, involving several concentrations of ideal protein in the diets and two or three levels of feed intake. Pigs were slaughtered at several stages of growth from 10 to 150 kg body weight (BW. The partition of dietary protein in the body of the pigs, the empty-body gain (EBG, the chemical composition of EBG, growth of primal cuts in the cold eviscerated carcass (without head, feet, and tail, and mass of dissected tissues in trimmed shoulder and ham were determined. Linear regression equations allowed estimating N requirements for maintenance as 175 mg/(kg BW0.75 · kg dry-matter intake · d-1 and an average value for the net efficiency of utilization of the dietary protein apparently absorbed of 0.386. In pigs offered adequate protein to energy diets, EBG was predicted as a function of average BW and feeding level (p<0.001. Multiple regression equations were constructed, which derived nutrient (g kg-1 or energy (MJ kg-1 composition of EBG as a function of empty-body weight (EBW, dietary protein to energy ratio, and level of feeding (p<0.001. These predictive equations, not applicable to pigs of lean and conventional genotypes, can contribute to the design of optimal feeding strategies to improve the efficiency of IB pig production systems and to achieve high quality standards in end products for the market.

  6. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K.; Visscher, P.M.; Erbas, B.

    2004-01-01

    ), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program...... effects under the assumptions of no nonadditive effect. The pattern of age trends was inconsistent. However, when significant there was a decrease in heritability with advancing age. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that adult body size, shape, and composition are highly heritable in both women and men...

  7. Vitamin D and body composition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitezova, Anna; Muka, Taulant; Zillikens, M Carola; Voortman, Trudy; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the association between vitamin D status and body composition in the elderly. This study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, including subjects aged 55 years and older. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured between 1997 and 1999. Total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat and lean mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during a follow-up visit after a median time of 5 years (2002-2004). We calculated body fat percentage, lean mass percentage, and android/gynoid fat ratio. We had 2158 participants included in our analysis. We used multivariable linear regression models. Serum 25(OH)D was analyzed continuously and after categorization according to cut-offs. Mean (±SD) serum 25(OH)D concentration of the study population was 52.6 ± 25.4 nmol/L. Compared to subjects with an adequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L), vitamin D deficient participants (25(OH)D D was associated with higher total body fat percentage specifically in participants without cardio-metabolic disease. Each 10 unit increase in serum 25(OH)D was associated with 0.03 unit decrease in android fat (β = -0.03, 95%CI: -0.06, -0.01); after adjustment for BMI the association was no longer significant. Serum 25(OH)D was also associated with the android/gynoid fat ratio but this was also mainly explained by BMI. Lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a higher fat mass percentage. The association between serum 25(OH)D and differential fat distribution in the elderly was mainly explained by BMI and deserves further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Body Composition Response to Lower Body Positive Pressure Training in Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Basant H. El-Refay; Nabeel T. Faiad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in Egypt has a great impact on the health care system, economic and social situation. Evidence suggests that even a moderate amount of weight loss can be useful. Aim of the study: To analyze the effects of lower body positive pressure supported treadmill training, conducted with hypocaloric diet, on body composition of obese children. Methods: Thirty children aged between 8 and 14 years, were randomly assigned into two groups: intervention group (15 ...

  9. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Henrique A; Baracos, Vickie E; Dhillon, Navjot; Hong, David S; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2012-01-01

    Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown. We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI); body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT) images. A body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria. Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%); 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%), including 79% of patients with a BMIbody composition: 215 (71-358) (BMIcancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index. Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  10. GPS Composite Clock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is...

  11. Seasonal variations in growth and body composition of 8-11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies on seasonality in growth reported the largest height gains during spring and largest body weight gains during autumn. We examined seasonality in height, body weight, BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) among contemporary Danish 8-11-year......-olds. METHODS: 760 children from the OPUS School Meal Study provided >2200 measurements on height, body weight and composition between September-June. Average velocities were calculated using change-score analyses based on three-month intervals. As a complementary analysis, point velocities derived from...... suggest seasonality in growth and body composition of Danish children. We recovered the well-known height velocity peak during spring time, but unlike earlier studies we found coincident peaks in body weight, BMI, and FFMI velocities.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.206....

  12. Effect of HIV infection on body composition and fat distribution in Rwandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Anastos, Kathryn; Zheng Lin; Cohen, Mardge; Binagwaho, Agnes; Kotler, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association of HIV infection with body weight and composition in Rwandan women. Body weight and composition, the latter determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and by anthropometry, were compared in 620 HIV-positive and 211 HIV-negative participants. Associations of HIV with body composition were assessed, and t tests compared the groups. HIV-positive women were younger (-7.0 years, P < .001) and shorter (-2.1 cm, P < .001). Mean body weight, body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were similar. Mean fat-free mass was 2.5% greater in HIV-negative participants, and 19% of HIV-positive group had BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) versus 26% of the HIV-negative group (P < .05). CD4 counts and body composition were not associated. Malnutrition was common in this cohort of Rwandan women. However, HIV infection was not associated with nutritional status. Factors other than malnutrition may influence quality-of-life outcomes in HIV-infected Rwandan women. Initiatives to improve nutritional status should be population-wide and not restricted to the HIV-infected population.

  13. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  14. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Aponte, Jose C.; Blackmond, Donna G.; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplied by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large -enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to 60) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  15. Tracking of Body Composition in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for

  16. The effects of high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewege, M; van den Berg, R; Ward, R E; Keech, A

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for improvements in body composition in overweight and obese adults. Trials comparing HIIT and MICT in overweight or obese participants aged 18-45 years were included. Direct measures (e.g. whole-body fat mass) and indirect measures (e.g. waist circumference) were examined. From 1,334 articles initially screened, 13 were included. Studies averaged 10 weeks × 3 sessions per week training. Both HIIT and MICT elicited significant (p body fat mass and waist circumference. There were no significant differences between HIIT and MICT for any body composition measure, but HIIT required ~40% less training time commitment. Running training displayed large effects on whole-body fat mass for both HIIT and MICT (standardized mean difference -0.82 and -0.85, respectively), but cycling training did not induce fat loss. Short-term moderate-intensity to high-intensity exercise training can induce modest body composition improvements in overweight and obese individuals without accompanying body-weight changes. HIIT and MICT show similar effectiveness across all body composition measures suggesting that HIIT may be a time-efficient component of weight management programs. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. The association of body composition parameters with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.

  18. Body composition in untreated adult patients with Laron syndrome (primary GH insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi; Ginsberg, Shira; Lilos, Pearl; Arbiv, Mira; Vaisman, Nahum

    2006-07-01

    To quantify body adiposity and its distribution in untreated adult patients with Laron syndrome (LS; primary GH insensitivity) caused by molecular defects of the GH receptor gene or postreceptor pathways and characterized by dwarfism, obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia. Eleven LS patients (seven females and four males) aged 28-53 years were studied. Seven healthy males and six healthy females served as controls. Body composition of the total body trunk, upper and lower extremities was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Statistical analysis using an analysis of variance (anova) and Mann-Whitney nonparametric methods was performed separately in males and females. Percentage body fat in the LS patients was much higher (P < 0.01) than that in the control population and the female LS patients were significantly more obese (59% total body fat) than the male patients (39% total body fat) (P < 0.002). It was also evident that in these types of patients with markedly increased body fat and decreased muscle and bone mass, body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect the body composition. Lifelong congenital IGF-I deficiency leads to extreme adiposity.

  19. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for standard biomass analysis. These procedures help scientists and analysts understand more about the chemical composition of raw biomass

  20. Validation of a portable bioelectrical impedance analyzer for the assessment of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelis, Antony D; Chamberland, Gabriel; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Duval, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in field research has been the difficulty to adequately measure body composition, such as % body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the convergent validity of the portable bioelectrical impedance body composition analyzer, the Inbody 230, with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (General Electric Lunar Prodigy). The study population consisted of 145 men and women (age, 44.6 ± 20 years; BMI, 24.5 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2)). We measured body composition (fat mass, % body fat, total FFM, trunk FFM, and appendicular FFM) using DXA and the Inbody 230. Results show strong significant correlations between both methods for fat mass, % body fat, total FFM, and trunk FFM (r = 0.94-0.99). Furthermore, we showed a modest significant correlation between both methods for appendicular FFM (r = 0.63). Finally, as shown by Bland-Altman analysis, no significant biases were observed between Inbody 230 and DXA for fat mass, % body fat, and total FFM. However, trunk and appendicular FFM were shown to have significant biases between the Inbody 230 and DXA. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the portable Inbody 230 may be an acceptable device to measure fat mass, % body fat, and total FFM (except for women) in healthy adults. In addition, there appears to be a systematic bias for the estimation of trunk and appendicular FFM with the Inbody 230 in men and women.

  1. Neonatal Body Composition According to the Revised Institute of Medicine Recommendations for Maternal Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston-Presley, Larraine; Catalano, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. Design: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. Results: A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n = 87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n = 140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n = 212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, P weight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Conclusion: Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy. PMID:22821895

  2. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  3. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... water content. There was no significant influence of sex on body composition of W. attu. .... determined in duplicate for each fish using 1 g sub samples in a ... fish was calculated using a formula K = 100 x W/L3 by the method.

  4. Analysis of Body Composition and the Relationship with Blood Pressure in Financial Concerns Employees%金融企业职工人体成分分析及与血压关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋桂; 姬芳勤; 程合理

    2014-01-01

    body fat, waist to hip fat ratio all are significant difference in gender(P<0.05). In ad-dition to the body moisture, protein, inorganic salt, body fat, skeletal muscle weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat and waist to hip fat ratio were closely related to the level of sys-tolic blood pressure and diastolic pressure(P<0.001). Conclu-sions: The financial concerns employees tend to excessive body fat, body composition are closely related to blood pressure level. Through the analysis of the body composition,we can discover the abnormal changes of body composition early, guide financial concerns employees change the adverse lifestyle and behavior, manage their health effectively, and prevent related diseases.

  5. Composition and function of P bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.

  6. Body composition changes in essential hypertension before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T. Jr.; Worum, I.; Csongor, J.; Ujhelyi, L.; Foeris, G.

    1986-01-01

    The body composition of 30 elderly (22 females: 78,2+7,6; 8 males: 80,4+5,4 yrs) and 38 middle-aged (27 females: 45,5+10.3; 11 males: 42,3+8,7 yrs) people suffering of essential hypertension determined by complex clinical and biological examinations (BP: 160-180/100-200 Hgmm), was determined before and after treatment. Most of them (78%) could be reassessed after 3 month of treatment (beta-blocking drugs or diuretics). The authors also investigated a few numbers (n=10) of patients presenting a hypertensive crisis treated with vasodilatant drugs and diuretics during 1 week of period. The hormonal status of all of them was assessed at the same time. The body composition was determined by multiple-isotope method

  7. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  8. General many-body formalism for composite quantum particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, M; Betbeder-Matibet, O

    2010-05-21

    This Letter provides a formalism capable of exactly treating Pauli blocking between n-fermion particles. This formalism is based on an operator algebra made of commutators and anticommutators which contrasts with the usual scalar formalism of Green functions developed half a century ago for elementary quantum particles. We also provide the diagrams which visualize the very specific many-body physics induced by fermion exchanges between composite quantum particles.

  9. Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.

  10. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  11. A Comparison of Methods for the Estimation of Body Composition in Highly Trained Wheelchair Games Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V.; Keil, M.; Brooke-Wavell, K.; de Groot, S.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement in body composition measurements of wheelchair athletes using skinfolds, bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) relative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A secondary objective was to develop new skinfold

  12. Properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team - the sabre event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagiełło, Władysław; Marina, Jagiełło; Maciej, Kalina Roman; Jan, Barczyński Bartłomiej; Artur, Litwiniuk; Jarosław, Klimczak

    2017-12-01

    Fencing is a combat sport whose form of direct confrontation involves hitting the opponent with a weapon. The purpose of the study was to determine the properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team. The study involved 11 female athletes of the Polish national fencing team. Their age was 16-22 years (19±2.32), body weight 52-78 kg (59.7±7.4), body height 158-183 cm (167.46±6.10) and the training experience 7.64±3.47 years. The reference group consisted of 153 students of Warsaw University of Technology (Poland). Twenty basic somatic characteristics were measured. The following indices were calculated: slenderness, Rohrer's, BMI, Manouvrier's, and pelvic-shoulder indices. Density of the body, total body fat, active tissue, the overall profile of body composition and internal proportions of the body were determined. Analysis of internal proportions of factors of the athletes' body composition revealed significant differences in particular groups of features. The total size of the athletes' bodies is due to less-than-average magnitude of the length and stoutness characteristics and a high magnitude of adiposity (M = 0.63) in the Polish female national team of fencers (sabre) calculated from the normalized values for the control group. The proportions of features within the analysed factors revealed a significant advantage of the length of the upper extremity over the lower one and a distinct advantage of forearm musculature. The specific profile of body composition of female athletes practising sabre fencing is most likely due to long-term effects of training as well as the system of selection of persons with specific somatic prerequisites developed in the course of many years of training practice.

  13. Body composition and cardiac dimensions in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; D'alessandro, C; Piazza, M; Tocchini, L; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A; Cupisti, F; Santoro, G

    2015-09-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts are often believed to be a population at risk of malnutrition because of their tendency to keep a low weight and a lean appearance for better athletic performance, and because they start intensive training at a very young age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in adolescent elite gymnasts the effects of physical activity on body composition and cardiac morphology and function. Sixteen national level rhythmic gymnasts and 16 control adolescent female underwent anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance and echocardiography to assess body composition and cardiac morphology and function. As compared to controls, gymnasts had lower body mass index (16.9±1.1 vs. 18.7±1.0, Panalysis showed a lower percentage of body fat in the gymnasts, together with a higher percentage of fat-free mass. Echocardiographic findings indicate that elite rhythmic gymnastics present left ventricular remodeling as training-induced cardiac adaptation. Intensive training, dietary attitude and evident leanness of rhythmic gymnasts are not associated with cardiac abnormalities, as it is the case of pathological leanness.

  14. Heterogeneous composite bodies with isolated lenticular shaped cermet regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Andrew J [Cirtland Hills, OH

    2009-12-22

    A heterogeneous body having ceramic rich cermet regions in a more ductile metal matrix. The heterogeneous bodies are formed by thermal spray operations on metal substrates. The thermal spray operations apply heat to a cermet powder and project it onto a solid substrate. The cermet powder is composed of complex composite particles in which a complex ceramic-metallic core particle is coated with a matrix precursor. The cermet regions are generally comprised of complex ceramic-metallic composites that correspond approximately to the core particles. The cermet regions are approximately lenticular shaped with an average width that is at least approximately twice the average thickness. The cermet regions are imbedded within the matrix phase and generally isolated from one another. They have obverse and reverse surfaces. The matrix phase is formed from the matrix precursor coating on the core particles. The amount of heat applied during the formation of the heterogeneous body is controlled so that the core particles soften but do not become so fluid that they disperse throughout the matrix phase. The force of the impact on the surface of the substrate tends to flatten them. The flattened cermet regions tend to be approximately aligned with one another in the body.

  15. Stress analysis in FRP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jauhari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A composite material, in mechanics sense, is a structure with the ingredients as element transferring forces to adjacent members. The issue of defects and their effect on the mechanical properties of composites is of great concern among high end users. Experimental investigation of failure modes of composite materials requires correlating the fundamentals of composite materials, their mechanical properties as well as their failure characteristics in the presence of defects. In this paper, three formats of defects of hole (single, double and quadruple as a discontinuity were incorporated along with tensile testing. Unique failure modes of these specimens provided overview regarding mechanical behaviour of composite materials containing defects. Certain correlations were observed between defects and resulting properties. Results are in agreement with general behaviour of FRP composite laminates and it can be concluded that for low deformation in composite laminates, number of layers must be increased, which at the same time results in increase of von-Mises stress. Fibres are the main constituents which are responsible for strength of a composite laminate and they along with fibre orientation, play an important role on its load bearing capacity. It can be inferred based on the analysis that cross-ply configuration [0°/90°] has good load bearing capacity as well as least deflection emphasizing more strength.

  16. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Redzal Abu; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age.

  17. Stress Analysis of Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    8217, Finite Elements in Nonlinear Mechanics, 1., 109-130, Tapir Publishers, Norway (1978). 9. A.J. Barnard and P.W. Sharman, ’Elastic-Plastic Analysis Using...Hybrid Stress Finite Elements,’ Finite Elements in Nonlinear Mechanics, 1, 131-148, Tapir Publishers Norway, (1978). ’.........Pian, ’Variational

  18. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  19. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  20. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  1. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  2. [Two compartment model of body composition and abdominal fat area in postmenopausal women - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Magdalena; Mioduszewska, Milena; Pańczyk, Mariusz; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta; Michota-Katulska, Ewa; Zegan, Magdalena; Szabla, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Both menopausal period and aging have influence on body composition, increase of total body fat and visceral fat in particular. We should be aware that changes in body composition, mainly fat translocation to abdominal region, can occur without significant changes in body weight. Therefore quantitative abdominal fat assessment should be our aim. Body composition analysis based on two compartment model and abdominal fat area assessment in cross section. Subjects in postmenopausal period (41 women) were recruited for this study and divided into 2 groups: group 1 - women aged 45-56 years and group 2 - women aged 57-79 years. Body composition analysis and abdominal fat area assessment were conducted by using bioelectrical impedance method with BioScan 920 (Maltron int.) accordingly with standardized procedure. Women in early postmenopausal stage (Group 1) had statistically significant lower total body fat percentage in comparison with women in late postmenopausal period (Group 2) (41.09 ± 7.72% vs. 50.7 ± 9.88%, p=0.0021). Also women in group 1 were characterized by significant lower visceral fat area (VAT) as well as subcutaneous fat area (SAT) in comparison with group 2 (respectively VAT 119.25 ± 30.09 cm2 vs. 199.36 ± 87.38 cm2, p=0.0011; SAT 175.19 ±57.67 cm2 vs. 223.4±74.29 cm2, p=0.0336). According to VAT criteria (>120 cm2), 44% of women in group 1 and 80% in group 2 had excess of visceral fat. Both total body fat and intra-abdominal fat increased with age, independently of weight changes.

  3. The independent association between diet quality and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2014-05-12

    Excess body weight is associated with an imbalance between energy expenditure and dietary intake but evidence on the association between diet quality and body composition remains equivocal. Rather than relying on differences in diet quality between overweight/obese and normal weight adults, this study examined the association between the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and body fatness on a continuous scale, independent of physical activity (PA). Further the association between components of the HEI-2010 and risk for overweight/obesity was explored. 407 adults (27.6 ± 3.7 years) provided at least two 24-hour diet recalls over a period of 14 days, which were used to calculate the HEI-2010. Percent body fat (BF) was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and PA was determined via a multi-sensor device, worn over a period of 10 days. PA was a stronger contributor to the variability in BF than the HEI-2010 and the association between HEI-2010 and BF was significant only in men. Particularly a high consumption of protein, sodium and empty calories increased the risk for overweight/obesity. Adherence to dietary guidelines positively affects body fatness in men, independent of PA. In contrast to current dietary recommendations, the risk for overweight/obesity was increased with a higher protein intake.

  4. Normalisation of body composition parameters for nutritional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Normalisation of body composition parameters to an index of body size facilitates comparison of a subject’s measurements with those of a population. There is an obvious focus on indexes of obesity, but first it is informative to consider Fat Free Mass (FFM) in the context of common anthropometric measures of body size namely, height and weight. The contention is that FFM is a more physiological measure of body size than body mass. Many studies have shown that FFM relates to height ^p. Although there is debate over the appropriate exponent especially in early life, it appears to lie between 2 and 3. If 2, then FFM Index (FFMI; kg/m2) and Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/m2) can be summed to give BMI. If 3 were used as exponent, then FFMI (kg/m3) plus FMI (kg/m3) gives the Ponderal Index (PI; weight/height3). In 2013, Burton argued that that a cubic exponent is appropriate for normalisation as it is a dimensionless quotient. In 2012, Wang and co-workers repeated earlier observations showing a strong linear relationship between FFM and height3. The importance of the latter study comes from the fact that a 4 compartment body composition model was used, which is recognised as the most accurate means of describing FFM. Once the basis of a FFMI has been defined it can be used to compare measurements with those of a population, either directly, as a ratio to a norm or as a Z-score. FFMI charts could be developed for use in child growth. Other related indexes can be determined for use in specific circumstances such as: body cell mass index (growth and wasting); skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) or appendicular SMMI (growth and sarcopenia); bone mineral mass index (osteoporosis); extracellular fluid index (hydration). Finally, it is logical that the same system is used to define an adiposity index, so Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/height3) can be used as it is consistent with FFMI (kg/height3) and PI. It should also be noted that the index FM/FFM, describes an individual

  5. The correlates of body composition with heart rate recovery after step test: an exploratory study of Malaysian adolescents.

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    Redzal Abu Hanifah

    Full Text Available In adults, heart rate recovery is a predictor of mortality, while in adolescents it is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition measures and heart rate recovery (HRR after step test in Malaysian secondary school students.In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR.For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024 in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008.There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of healthy living which should start from young.

  6. The Correlates of Body Composition with Heart Rate Recovery after Step Test: An Exploratory Study of Malaysian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hanifah, Redzal; Mohamed, Mohd. Nahar Azmi; Jaafar, Zulkarnain; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    Background In adults, heart rate recovery is a predictor of mortality, while in adolescents it is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition measures and heart rate recovery (HRR) after step test in Malaysian secondary school students. Methods In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min) and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min) were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR. Results For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024) in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008). Conclusion There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of healthy living

  7. Host genetic variation impacts microbiome composition across human body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Goodrich, Julia K; Huang, Katherine; Sun, Qi; Bukowski, Robert; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Keinan, Alon; Ley, Ruth E; Gevers, Dirk; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-09-15

    The composition of bacteria in and on the human body varies widely across human individuals, and has been associated with multiple health conditions. While microbial communities are influenced by environmental factors, some degree of genetic influence of the host on the microbiome is also expected. This study is part of an expanding effort to comprehensively profile the interactions between human genetic variation and the composition of this microbial ecosystem on a genome- and microbiome-wide scale. Here, we jointly analyze the composition of the human microbiome and host genetic variation. By mining the shotgun metagenomic data from the Human Microbiome Project for host DNA reads, we gathered information on host genetic variation for 93 individuals for whom bacterial abundance data are also available. Using this dataset, we identify significant associations between host genetic variation and microbiome composition in 10 of the 15 body sites tested. These associations are driven by host genetic variation in immunity-related pathways, and are especially enriched in host genes that have been previously associated with microbiome-related complex diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity-related disorders. Lastly, we show that host genomic regions associated with the microbiome have high levels of genetic differentiation among human populations, possibly indicating host genomic adaptation to environment-specific microbiomes. Our results highlight the role of host genetic variation in shaping the composition of the human microbiome, and provide a starting point toward understanding the complex interaction between human genetics and the microbiome in the context of human evolution and disease.

  8. The association between calcium consumption and students body composition

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    Przemysław Zając

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The consumption of calcium in the Polish population is insufficient, which may negatively influence the occurrence of osteoporosis, as well as cause overweight and obesity. Aim of the research : To analyse the relationship between calcium consumption and body composition of the participants of this study. Material and methods : The study was carried out on a sample group of 103 nursing students. The study group consisted of 91 (88.3% women and 12 (11.7% men, aged from 19 to 33 years. The participants of the study had their body composition analysed, the body mass index (BMI was calculated, and the authors carried out a survey involving the Dairy Products Frequency Questionnaire (ADOS-Ca as well as their own questionnaire to evaluate the socio-economic status of the subjects. Results : The students who had the lowest calcium consumption also had the lowest BMI (p = 0.0015 and the lowest amount of visceral fat (p = 0.0260. Individuals who consumed the lowest amount of calcium also had the lowest muscle mass (p = 0.007 and bone mass (p = 0.004. However, the authors did not notice a significant statistical difference between the level of calcium consumption and the percentage of adipose tissue (p = 0.5000 as well as body water percentage (p = 0.3200. Conclusions: The results of the research do not confirm the hypothesis that high calcium consumption is associated with a lower probability of the occurrence of excess body mass and adipose tissue.

  9. Does Inflammation Mediate the Obesity and BPH Relationship? An Epidemiologic Analysis of Body Composition and Inflammatory Markers in Blood, Urine, and Prostate Tissue, and the Relationship with Prostate Enlargement and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Koyama, Tatsuki; Fadare, Oluwole; Clark, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    BPH is a common disease associated with age and obesity. However, the biological pathways between obesity and BPH are unknown. Our objective was to investigate biomarkers of systemic and prostate tissue inflammation as potential mediators of the obesity and BPH association. Participants included 191 men without prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. Trained staff measured weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis. Systemic inflammation was estimated by serum IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α; and by urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGE-M), F2-isoprostane (F2iP), and F2-isoprostane metabolite (F2iP-M) levels. Prostate tissue was scored for grade, aggressiveness, extent, and location of inflammatory regions, and also stained for CD3 and CD20 positive lymphocytes. Analyses investigated the association between multiple body composition scales, systemic inflammation, and prostate tissue inflammation against BPH outcomes, including prostate size at ultrasound and LUTS severity by the AUA-symptom index (AUA-SI). Prostate size was significantly associated with all obesity measures. For example, prostate volume was 5.5 to 9.0 mls larger comparing men in the 25th vs. 75th percentile of % body fat, fat mass (kg) or lean mass (kg). However, prostate size was not associated with proinflammatory cytokines, PGE-M, F2iP, F2iP-M, prostate tissue inflammation scores or immune cell infiltration. In contrast, the severity of prostate tissue inflammation was significantly associated with LUTS, such that there was a 7 point difference in AUA-SI between men with mild vs. severe inflammation (p = 0.004). Additionally, men with a greater waist-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly more likely to have severe prostate tissue inflammation (p = 0.02), and a high WHR was significantly associated with moderate/severe LUTS (OR = 2.56, p = 0.03) among those participants with prostate tissue inflammation. The WHR, an estimate of centralized

  10. TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPERTHYROIDISM: EFFECT ON BODY COMPOSITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boj-Carceller, Diana; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Sánchez-Oriz, Enrique; García-Foncillas López, Rafael; Calmarza-Calmarza, Pilar; Blay-Cortes, Vicente; Abós-Olivares, Ma Dolores

    2015-11-01

    subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHT) is associated with harmful effects on cardiovascular system, bone metabolism and progression to clinical hyperthyroidism. Loss of weight is a common fact in patients with clinical hyperthyroidism and of particular relevance in elderly patients. to assess changes in body composition after radioiodine therapy for SHT due to toxic nodular goiter. prospective controlled cohort study. Patients with persistent SHT due to toxic nodular goiter were purposed to receive treatment with radioiodine (treatment group) or to delay treatment until the study was over (control group). All treated patients received 555 MBq of ¹³¹I. Body composition (lean mass, fat mass and bone mineral content) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at baseline and 12 months after. twenty-nine patients were studied (age 69.5 ± 11.5; 75.9% women; BMI 27.1 ± 5.7 kg/m²; serum thyrotropin (TSH) 0.20 ± 0.21 μUI/mL; serum free thyroxine (T4) 1.01 ± 0.19 ng/dL), 17 belonging to the treatment group and 12 to the control group. Study groups were comparable, although there was a trend for the treatment group to have more fat mass. No longitudinal changes in body composition were noted in either group, except for a trend to gain fat mass. However, when individuals with age > 65 years were selected, only patients who received radioiodine therapy showed a significant increase in body weight (from 64.1 ± 10.0 to 66.9 ± 9.2 kg), BMI (from 27.3 ± 4.8 to 28.7 ± 4.5 kg/m²), fat mass (from 26.1 ± 8.5 to 27.8 ± 7.9 kg), lean mass (from 36.3 ± 0.4 to 37.4 ± 0.4 kg) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) (from 6.0 ± 0.6 to 6.3 ± 0.6 kg/m²). treatment of SHT has impact on body composition in subjects older than 65 years. Weight gain reflects increases in fat and, more interestingly, in lean mass. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulating Readers' Bodies: A Discourse Analysis of Teachers' Body Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jessica Nina; Gabriel, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a discourse analysis study of reading instruction in eight primary/elementary school classrooms in the United States. Drawing upon discursive psychology, we specifically examined 96 hours of reading comprehension instruction, with a focus on how teachers talked about the body during the instruction and noted…

  12. Assessment of body composition by segmental bioelectrical impedance method in Japanese college athletes : focus on the different characteristic of sports

    OpenAIRE

    村松, 愛梨奈; 乙木, 幸道; 井川, 正治

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify a characteristic of body composition of limbs in Japanese athletes by the segmental bioelectric impedance analysis (S-BIA) method. The subjects were 131 college athletes (baseball, volleyball, handball, combined competition, wrestling, soft tennis, swimming; athletes group) and 107 healthy college students (control group). The items of measurement were body height, body weight, BMI, percent of body fat (%FAT), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We measured %F...

  13. New reusable elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M-V; Chaset, L; Bittner, P A; Barthod, C; Passard, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of telemedicine requires finding solutions of reusable electrodes for use in patients' homes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relevance of reusable elastomer electrodes for measuring body composition. We measured a population of healthy Caucasian (n = 17). A measurement was made with a reference device, the Xitron®, associated with AgCl Gel electrodes (Gel) and another measurement with a multifrequency impedancemeter Z-Metrix® associated with reusable elastomer electrodes (Elast). We obtained a low variability with an average error of repeatability of 0.39% for Re and 0.32% for Rinf. There is a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 200 ml between extracellular water Ve measured with Gel and Elast in supine and in standing position. For total body water Vt, we note a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 100 ml and 2.2 1 respectively in supine and standing position. The results give low dispersion, with R 2 superior to 0.90, with a 1.5% maximal error between Gel and Elast on Ve in standing position. It looks possible, taking a few precautions, using elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition.

  14. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  15. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

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    Pawel Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR, and body composition parameters (BIA as fat tissue (FAT%, fat-free mass (FFM%, predicted muscle mass (PMM%, and total body water (TBW% were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26% moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL and in 11 (18% severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p<0.05 in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD.

  16. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

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    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  17. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

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    Henrique A Parsons

    Full Text Available Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown.We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT images. A body mass index (BMI≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria.Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%; 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%, including 79% of patients with a BMI<25 kg/m² and 34% of those with BMI≥25 kg/m². Sarcopenic patients were older and less frequently African-American. Symptom burden did not differ among patients classified according to BMI and presence of sarcopenia. Median (95% confidence interval survival (days varied according to body composition: 215 (71-358 (BMI<25 kg/m²; sarcopenic, 271 (99-443 (BMI<25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic, 484 (286-681 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; sarcopenic; 501 d (309-693 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic. Higher muscle index and gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index.Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  18. In vivo body composition estimation in nongravid and reproducing first-litter sows with deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.G. Jr.; Mahan, D.C.; Byers, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with 64 first-litter sows to evaluate the efficacy of a D 2 O dilution procedure for measuring in vivo body composition during the reproduction cycle. Eight gilts were each infused at breeding, 57 and 105 d postcoitum and at 5 and 25 d postpartum, with equivalent numbers of nongravid controls infused at corresponding periods except at 5 d postpartum. Results from D 2 O dilution were compared with body water estimates obtained from chemical analysis. An early-equilibrating D 2 O pool (before 15 min) was similar quantitatively to empty body (ingesta free) water in nongravid and lactating animals, but not in pregnant sows. Because of inconsistent D 2 O equilibration patterns in gravid sows, the early pool was considered to have equilibrated with part but not all of the water in the conceptus products. Total body D 2 O space measurement obtained from data following equilibration of D 2 O in the entire body (1 to 2 h) overestimated total body water (including gastrointestinal water) by approximately 19%. Coefficients of determination for equations relating total body D 2 O space to empty body and maternal body water were .96 and .88, respectively, in gestating sows and .67 and .74, respectively, for lactating sows, while coefficients of variation were below 6% in all cases. Prediction equations were developed to estimate empty and maternal body components (protein, fat and ash) from body weight and D 2 O space. Accuracy of protein and ash weight prediction is lowest with this procedure because it involves the composite error of estimation of the other body components

  19. Body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, G E; Brooks, A G; Withers, R T; Dollman, J; Leaney, F; Chatterton, B E

    2001-04-01

    To determine anthropometric and body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition. There was an attempt to match subjects in the control and experimental groups for height and percentage body fat (%BF) for the initial test of this longitudinal study. Five competitive bodybuilders (-X +/- s.d.: 35.3 +/- 5.7 y; 167.3 +/- 3.7 cm; 66.38 +/- 6.30 kg; 18.3 +/- 3.5 %BF) and five athletic females (-X +/- s.d.: 30.9 +/- 13.0 y; 166.9 +/- 3.9 cm; 55.94 +/- 3.59 kg; 19.1 +/- 3.3 %BF) were recruited from advertisements in a bodybuilding newsletter and placed on sports centre noticeboards. The following measurements were conducted 12 weeks, 6 weeks and 3-5 d before the bodybuilders' competitions: anthropometric profile, body density by underwater weighing, total body water via deuterium dilution and bone mineral mass from a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. A combination of the last three measurements enabled the %BF to the determined by a four compartment model. A significant (P bodybuilders as they prepared for competition was primarily due to a reduction in fat mass (FM; -4.42 kg; 76.2%) as opposed to fat-free mass (FFM; -1.38 kg; 23.8%). The decreases in body mass and FM over the final 6 weeks were greater than those over the first 6 weeks. Their %BF decreased (P bodybuilders were accompanied by a significant decline (P bodybuilders presented with low %BFs at the start of the experiment, they still significantly decreased their body mass during the 12 week preparation for competition and most of this loss was due to a reduction in FM as opposed to FFM.

  20. Body image and body composition: comparisons of young male elite soccer players and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Celia; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition and body image (perception and satisfaction) in a group of young elite soccer players and to compare the data with those of a control group (age and BMI matched). Participants were 56 volunteer males whose mean age and BMI were 19.6 (SD 1.3) years and 23.3 (SD 1.1) kg/m2, respectively. Results showed that soccer players have a higher lean mass and lower fat mass than controls. Moreover, body perception (difference between current and actual image) was more accurate in controls than in soccer players, and the results suggest a tendency for soccer players to aspire to have more muscle mass and body fat. Soccer players perceived an ideal image with significantly higher body-fat percentage than their current and actual images. There were no body-dissatisfaction differences between groups, however. Although the results are necessarily limited by the small sample size, the findings should be of interest to coaches of young elite soccer teams.

  1. Impact of eating and drinking on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, O; Gerasimidis, K; Karanikolou, A; Reilly, J J; Edwards, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis would be a more practical tool to measure body composition in clinical settings, dietetic practice and epidemiological studies if patients/subjects did not have to fast before measurements. The present study assessed whether the ingestion of food or drink had any biologically significant effect on bioimpedance measurements and body composition by the foot-to-foot method. Fifty-five healthy adults [30 males and 25 females; mean (SD) age 27.7 (7.1) years; mean (SD)body mass index 24 (3.8) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to a 2-day food trial (high-fat meal or high-carbohydrate meal) or a 2-day drink trial (water or high electrolyte drink). Body composition measurements were carried out in the fasting state, immediately after meal consumption and every 30 min for 2 h by the foot-to-foot single frequency bioimpedance technique. Bioimpedance increased significantly after the ingestion of food and fluid, although the changes were small. The electrolyte drink, high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals significantly increased the percentage body fat and fat mass. In all cases, the median percentage changes from baseline were approximately 1% in body fat percentage units. Although there were statistically significant changes in body composition estimates after food or drink consumption, these were small and within the imprecision of the impedance technique, and so are unlikely to be of clinical significance. The present study suggests that impedance measures of body fatness in clinical settings do not require strict adherence to fasting, and this should increase the opportunities for clinical application. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

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    Marianna Vlychou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p<0.01 in both groups, whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p=0.02. Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  3. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  4. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

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    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  5. Comparison of body composition methods during weight loss in obese women using herbal formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Jun; Gallagher, Dympna; Song, Mi-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), a device that analyzes the current conduction differences between the fat and water components is widely used for reasons that include convenience of use, non-invasiveness, safety, and low cost. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) allows for the assessment of total body and regional lean and fat tissues and bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of this study was to compare body composition assessments by BIA and DXA before and after a 6-week herbal diet intervention program in 50 pre-menopausal women [mean +/- SD: age 30.58 +/- 6.15, body mass index (BMI) 31.72 +/- 3.78]. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was measured by BIA and anthropometry. Lean body mass (LBM), body fat (BF), BMC and percent body fat (%BF) were measured by BIA and DXA. Highly significant correlations were observed between BIA and DXA measurements for LBM, BF, BMC and %BF (r = 0.73, 0.93, 0.53, 0.79, respectively) before the intervention. Differences between BIA and DXA measurements were observed in LBM, BF, %BF and BMC before intervention (p produce statistically comparable results in pre-menopausal Korean women and therefore should not be used interchangeably when measuring body composition.

  6. Influence Of Number Of Pregnancies In Peak Expiratory Flow And Body Composition Of Pregnant Women

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    Andrea Carla Brandao da Costa Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to describe and compare the mean values of the body composition and the peak expiratory flow (PEF in primigravidae and multigravidae and, to determine its correlation with obstetric, anthropometric and body composition variables. Method: it was performed a cross-sectional study of 120 healthy pregnant women at low risk, including 77 primigravidae and 43 multigravidae. The PEF was measured by spirometry and the body composition by multisegmental electrical impedance. The unpaired t test was used to compare the groups and the Pearson correlation test was used to determine the association between PEF and independent variables. A multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the dependent variable, the PEF and the independent variables. Results: the body composition variables in multigravidae women showed higher values compared to the primigravidae, being statistically significant, except for fat mass. In primigravidae, the PEF was correlated significantly with maternal age and height. In multigravidae, the PEF was correlated with maternal age, height, pre-pregnancy and current weight, total body water, extracellular water, fat mass, lean mass and fat-free mass. A Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, in primigravidae, height and maternal age were associated with PEF, being responsible for explaining 14.5% of its variability. The current weight and the maternal age explained 42.3% of peak flow variability in multigravidae. Conclusion: The PEF seemed to be influenced by the number of pregnancies. Changes were observed in relation to the body composition, as it was evidenced in correlation with the PEF in multigravidae women. Keywords: Pregnancy. Spirometry. Weight gain.

  7. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition: The Healthy Start Study.

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    Crume, Tessa L; Brinton, John T; Shapiro, Allison; Kaar, Jill; Glueck, Deborah H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2016-11-01

    Consistent evidence of an influence of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy on infant body size and composition in human populations is lacking, despite robust evidence in animal models. We sought to evaluate the influence of maternal macronutrient intake and balance during pregnancy on neonatal body size and composition, including fat mass and fat-free mass. The analysis was conducted among 1040 mother-offspring pairs enrolled in the prospective prebirth observational cohort: the Healthy Start Study. Diet during pregnancy was collected using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 8). Direct measures of body composition were obtained using air displacement plethysmography. The National Cancer Institute measurement error model was used to estimate usual dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable partition (nonisocaloric) and nutrient density (isocaloric) linear regression models were used to test the associations between maternal dietary intake and neonatal body composition. The median macronutrient composition during pregnancy was 32.2% from fat, 15.0% from protein, and 47.8% from carbohydrates. In the partition multivariate regression model, individual macronutrient intake values were not associated with birthweight or fat-free mass, but were associated with fat mass. Respectively, 418 kJ increases in total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates were associated with 4.2-g (P = .03), 11.1-g (P = .003), 5.9-g (P = .04), and 2.9-g (P = .02) increases in neonatal fat mass, independent of prepregnancy body mass index. In the nutrient density multivariate regression model, macronutrient balance was not associated with fat mass, fat-free mass, or birthweight after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Neonatal adiposity, but not birthweight, is independently associated with increased maternal intake of total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates, but not protein, suggesting that most forms of increased

  8. Effects of canagliflozin on body weight and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes over 104 weeks.

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    Blonde, Lawrence; Stenlöf, Kaj; Fung, Albert; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period. In Study 2, patients aged 55-80 years (N = 714) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to stable background antihyperglycemic agents for a 26-week core treatment period, followed by a 78-week extension period. Percent change from baseline in body weight; proportion of patients with any weight loss, ≥5% weight loss, and ≥10% weight loss; change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; change in body weight across weight-loss quartiles; and changes in body composition were evaluated in both studies. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained weight loss versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. More patients experienced any weight loss and ≥5% weight loss with canagliflozin versus comparator. Across the 3 highest weight-loss quartiles, canagliflozin provided greater weight loss versus glimepiride or placebo. BMI and waist circumference reductions were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks; more patients had BMI or waist circumference reductions with canagliflozin versus comparator. Body composition analysis indicated that the majority of weight loss was due to loss of fat mass. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with increased incidence of adverse events related to the SGLT2 inhibition mechanism. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus

  9. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  10. Whole body BMC in pediatric Crohn disease: independent effects of altered growth, maturation, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Jon M; Shults, Justine; Semeao, Edisio; Foster, Bethany; Zemel, Babette S; Stallings, Virginia A; Leonard, Mary B

    2004-12-01

    Whole body BMC was assessed in 104 children and young adults with CD and 233 healthy controls. CD was associated with significant deficits in BMC and lean mass, relative to height. Adjustment for lean mass eliminated the bone deficit in CD. Steroid exposure was associated with short stature but not bone deficits relative to height. Children with Crohn disease (CD) have multiple risk factors for impaired bone accrual. The confounding effects of poor growth and delayed maturation limit the interpretation of prior studies of bone health in CD. The objective of this study was to assess BMC relative to growth, body composition, and maturation in CD compared with controls. Whole body BMC and lean mass were assessed by DXA in 104 CD subjects and 233 healthy controls, 4-26 years of age. Multivariable linear regression models were developed to sequentially adjust for differences in skeletal size, pubertal maturation, and muscle mass. BMC-for-height z scores were derived to determine CD-specific covariates associated with bone deficits. Subjects with CD had significantly lower height z score, body mass index z score, and lean mass relative to height compared with controls (all p BMC in CD relative to controls was significantly reduced in males (0.86; 95% CI, 0.83, 0.94) and females (0.91; 95% CI, 0.85, 0.98) with CD. Adjustment for pubertal maturation did not alter the estimate; however, addition of lean mass to the model eliminated the bone deficit. Steroid exposure was associated with short stature but not bone deficits. This study shows the importance of considering differences in body size and composition when interpreting DXA data in children with chronic inflammatory conditions and shows an association between deficits in muscle mass and bone in pediatric CD.

  11. Body composition and pulmonary function in Cystic Fibrosis

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    Saba eSheikh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower body mass index (BMI is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF. Hypothesis: Lean body mass (LBM is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is.Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z were generated for CF and controls. 1 Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and 2 age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: 208 PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (pConclusions: In PI-CF youth, deficits in LBM were apparent. At lower BMI percentiles, BMI may not accurately depict LBM in PI-CF. In under-nourished PI-CF youth this preservation of FM in preference to LBM is relevant since LBMI-Z, but not FMI-Z, is positively associated with FEV1%-predicted. LBMI is more strongly associated with lung function compared to BMI, especially in the undernourished child and adolescent with PI-CF.

  12. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

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    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  13. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

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    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  14. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6-9 years

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    Wendell Costa Bila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O dilution as a reference. METHODS: Percentage of total body water (%TBW, fat free mass (%FFM, and body fat (%BF were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6-9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST, body mass index (BMI, conicity index (CI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and waist-to-hip (WHR ratio were also used. RESULTS: Mean values for body composition were 38.4% ± 8.4% BF, 44.9% ± 6.1% TBW and 61.6% ± 8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM, TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p < 0.05. BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p < 0.05. The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (s= 0.679, CI (r = 0.634, and WHtR (r = 0.666. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders.

  15. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

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    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  16. A modeling approach for compounds affecting body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennemark, Peter; Jansson-Löfmark, Rasmus; Hyberg, Gina; Wigstrand, Maria; Kakol-Palm, Dorota; Håkansson, Pernilla; Hovdal, Daniel; Brodin, Peter; Fritsch-Fredin, Maria; Antonsson, Madeleine; Ploj, Karolina; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2013-12-01

    Body composition and body mass are pivotal clinical endpoints in studies of welfare diseases. We present a combined effort of established and new mathematical models based on rigorous monitoring of energy intake (EI) and body mass in mice. Specifically, we parameterize a mechanistic turnover model based on the law of energy conservation coupled to a drug mechanism model. Key model variables are fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), governed by EI and energy expenditure (EE). An empirical Forbes curve relating FFM to FM was derived experimentally for female C57BL/6 mice. The Forbes curve differs from a previously reported curve for male C57BL/6 mice, and we thoroughly analyse how the choice of Forbes curve impacts model predictions. The drug mechanism function acts on EI or EE, or both. Drug mechanism parameters (two to three parameters) and system parameters (up to six free parameters) could be estimated with good precision (coefficients of variation typically mass and FM changes at different drug provocations using a similar model for man. Surprisingly, model simulations indicate that an increase in EI (e.g. 10 %) was more efficient than an equal lowering of EI. Also, the relative change in body mass and FM is greater in man than in mouse at the same relative change in either EI or EE. We acknowledge that this assumes the same drug mechanism impact across the two species. A set of recommendations regarding the Forbes curve, vehicle control groups, dual action on EI and loss, and translational aspects are discussed. This quantitative approach significantly improves data interpretation, disease system understanding, safety assessment and translation across species.

  17. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  18. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Alan A; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P; Arciero, Paul J; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M; Bannock, Laurent; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit. The higher the baseline body fat level, the more aggressively the caloric deficit may be imposed. Slower rates of weight loss can better preserve lean mass (LM) in leaner subjects. 4) Diets focused primarily on accruing LM are driven by a sustained caloric surplus to facilitate anabolic processes and support increasing resistance-training demands. The composition and magnitude of the surplus, as well as training status of the subjects can influence the nature of the gains. 5) A wide range of dietary approaches (low-fat to low-carbohydrate/ketogenic, and all points between) can be similarly effective for improving body composition. 6) Increasing dietary protein to levels significantly beyond current recommendations for athletic populations may result in improved body composition. Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg FFM) may be required to maximize muscle retention in lean, resistance-trained subjects under hypocaloric conditions. Emerging research on very high protein intakes (>3 g/kg) has demonstrated that the known thermic, satiating, and LM-preserving effects of dietary protein might be amplified in resistance-training subjects. 7) The collective body of intermittent caloric restriction research demonstrates no significant advantage over daily caloric restriction for improving body composition. 8) The long-term success of a diet depends upon compliance and suppression or

  19. Insulin resistance, body composition, and fat distribution in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Ran; Chang, Eun Jae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body composition, especially distribution of body fat, and insulin resistance on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. One hundred obese children (66 boys, 34 girls) with (n=60) and without NAFLD (n=40) were assessed. Anthropometry, laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasonography, and dual energy x-ray absorption metry (DXA) were evaluated in all subjects. Subject age and measurements of liver enzymes, γ- glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT), uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance were significantly different between the non-NAFLD group and NAFLD group. Body fat and trunk fat percentage were significantly different between the two groups (pfat percentage was not (p=0.683). Insulin resistance correlated significantly with body fat and trunk fat percentages, age, liver enzymes, γGT, and uric acid in obese children. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that insulin resistance and trunk fat percentage significantly affected the development of NAFLD in obese children. Body fat, especially abdominal fat, influences the development of insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD in obese children. Therefore, body composition measurement using DXA, in conjunction with biochemical tests, may be beneficial in evaluating obese children with NAFLD.

  20. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by 2 H or 3 H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both 2 HHO and 3 HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with 3 H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals

  1. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The development and clinical application of a number of nuclear techniques for studying body composition is described. These techniques include delayed neutron activation for the analysis of calcium, phsophorus, sodium and chlorine and prompt-gamma activation for the measurement of nitrogen and cadmium. In addition, the measurement of in vivo iron by nuclear resonance scattering and lead by x-ray fluorescence is described. (author)

  2. COMPARISON OF BODY COMPOSITION ACCORDING TO AGE AND GENDER IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD.

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    Aleksandra Rymarz

    2012-06-01

    In hemodialysis patients no significant differences was observed in females and males in all BCMI, LTI, FTI and BMI. BCMI, LTI were significantly lower in older pts whereas BMI did not differ significantly (for all p < 0,05. In both groups BCMI and LTI decline in patients over 60 years whereas only in hemodialysis patients they do not differ in females and males. Analysis of body composition in patients with CKD is worth to be studied in large group of patients.

  3. Body composition variables and leptin levels in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and amenorrhea related to eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Vincenzina; Dei, Metella; Morelli, Chiara; Schettino, M Teresa; Balzi, Daniela; Nuvolone, Daniela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify diagnostic criteria that can distinguish between subjects with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea largely related to minimal energy deficiency and those in whom failure of adaptive response to stress prevails. We studied 59 young women with secondary amenorrhea related to modest eating disorders and 58 who complained of stressful events in their history. We assessed anthropometric measurements, body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and basal endocrine profile. Subjects with disordered eating had lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM) measured with both techniques, lumbar mineral density and direct and indirect measures of lean mass. Leptin and free tri-iodothyronine(FT(3)) concentrations also proved lower in the group of subjects with eating disorders, although there was no significant difference in cortisol between the two groups. Leptin levels were positively associated not only with fat mass, but also with body cell mass indexed to height and phase angle, parameters studied with BIA as expression of active lean compartment. A multivariate model confirmed the utility of integrating endocrine data with the study of body composition. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis proved to be, in clinical use, a valid diagnostic alternative to DEXA, especially considering body cell mass and phase angle. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Body composition in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effect of ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Kadriye; Cinar, Nese; Aksoy, Duygu Yazgan; Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2013-03-01

    Limited data are available regarding the potential effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on body fat distribution particularly in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone on body composition. Participants included 28 lean patients with PCOS and 28 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy women. The PCOS patients received ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg/drospirenone 3 mg for 6 months. Body composition parameters were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Serum androgens, lipids, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism measures were also determined. At baseline, the PCOS patients and controls had similar body composition, lipids, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism parameters. Total and trunk fat percentages were negatively correlated with sex hormone binding globulin and were positively correlated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and free androgen index in the PCOS group.. After 6 months of treatment in the PCOS patients, total fat percentage increased from 24.5%±7.1% to 26.0%±6.1% (p=.035) and trunk fat percentage increased from 20.2%±8.9% to 22.2%±7.1% (p=.014), although weight, BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) remained unchanged. Lean women with PCOS have similar body composition compared to healthy women. OC therapy for 6 months in PCOS patients results in an increased total and trunk fat percentage despite no change in clinical anthropometric measures including weight, BMI and WHR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body composition, muscle strength and hormonal status in patients with ataxia telangiectasia: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, H; van Dullemen, S; Kieslich, M; Schubert, R; Zielen, S; Voss, S

    2015-12-09

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a devastating human autosomal recessive disorder that causes progressive cerebellar ataxia, immunodeficiency, premature aging, chromosomal instability and increased cancer risk. Affected patients show growth failure, poor weight gain, low body mass index (BMI), myopenia and increased fatigue during adolescence. The prevalence of alterations in body composition, muscle strength and hormonal status has not been well described in classical A-T patients. Additionally, no current guidelines are available for the assessment and management of these changes. We analyzed body composition, manual muscle strength and hormonal status in 25 A-T patients and 26 age-matched, healthy controls. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed to evaluate the body composition, fat-free mass (FFM), body cell mass (BCM), extracellular matrix (ECM), phase angle (PhA), fat mass (FM) and ECM to BCM ratio. Manual muscle strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. The BMI, FFM and PhA were significantly lower in A-T patients than in controls (BMI 16.56 ± 3.52 kg/m(2) vs. 19.86 ± 3.54 kg/m(2); Z-Score: -1.24 ± 1.29 vs. 0.05 ± 0.92, p body composition, characterized by depleted BMI, PhA and BCM; by the need to sit in a wheelchair; by altered hormone levels; and by poor muscle strength, is a major factor underlying disease progression and increased fatigue in A-T patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02345200.

  6. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Spanish Edition); Introduccion a la determinacion de la composicion corporal mediante la tecnica de dilucion de deuterio con analisis de muestras de orina por espectrometria de masas de relacion isotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques.

  7. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sheean, Patricia M.; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971–2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography (CAT)...

  8. Estimate of body composition by Hume's equation: validation with DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Pamela Angela; Minonne, Rita; Castriotta, Valeria; Cipriani, Cristiana; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Scillitani, Alfredo; Romagnoli, Elisabetta

    2015-05-01

    We investigated how the Hume's equation, using the antipyrine space, could perform in estimating fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM). In 100 (40 male ad 60 female) subjects, we estimated FM and LBM by the equation and compared these values with those measured by a last generation DXA device. The correlation coefficients between measured and estimated FM were r = 0.940 (p LBM were r = 0.913 (p LBM, though the equation underestimated FM and overestimated LBM in respect to DXA. The mean difference for FM was 1.40 kg (limits of agreement of -6.54 and 8.37 kg). For LBM, the mean difference in respect to DXA was 1.36 kg (limits of agreement -8.26 and 6.52 kg). The root mean square error was 3.61 kg for FM and 3.56 kg for LBM. Our results show that in clinically stable subjects the Hume's equation could reliably assess body composition, and the estimated FM and LBM approached those measured by a modern DXA device.

  9. Adverse Effects of Sporadic Dialysis on Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workeneh, Biruh; Shypailo, Roman; DeCastro, Iris; Shah, Maulin; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Mitch, William E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the body composition of patients receiving emergent dialysis and compare their body cell mass (BCM) and fat-free mass (FFM) with those of normal subjects. The care of patients receiving sporadic, emergent dialysis treatment is a growing public health concern and the magnitude of muscle wasting that occurs in this population is not known. We used a cross-sectional design with matching to determine differences in total body potassium--an indicator of both BCM and FFM--between emergent dialysis patients and healthy normal subjects. We studied 22 subjects using a 40K counter that measures BCM and FFM and compared them to controls after matching with sex, height and weight. In the matched comparison, BCM and FFM were significantly lower in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unadjusted BCM was 4.7 kg lower and FFM was 8.8 kg lower for those with ESRD compared to those without ESRD (p FFM (7.7 kg) in the ESRD subjects (p = 0.004). After adjusting for age, height, weight and gender, BCM and FFM were lower by 4.2 and 7.8 kg, respectively (p FFM loss over time was significant, with the ESRD subjects demonstrating 2.2 kg per year decline (p = 0.01). We conclude that among other consequences, muscle wasting indicated by decline in BCM and FFM is a significant concern in the growing emergent dialysis population. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Body Composition Early Identifies Cancer Patients With Radiotherapy at Risk for Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Liu, Wen-Shan; Chen, Lih-Mih; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2018-03-01

    The side effects of radiotherapy (RT) and the occurrence of comorbidity often result in appetite loss in patients, which leads to serious nutritional problems, significantly affecting the patients' treatment results and disease prognosis. We aimed to investigate changes in the body composition of patients with cancer from the time they received RT to three months after completion of RT. A total of 101 cancer patients who received RT, which included head or neck cancer, chest or breast cancer, and abdominal or pelvic cancer patients, were recruited. A longitudinal study design was adopted, in which the body composition analyzer In Body3.0 was used to obtain patient data at six different time points. The data were analyzed through generalized estimating equation. All patients with cancer had the lowest body mass index at the end of RT. For head or neck cancer patients, their total body water and muscle mass decreased significantly in the fourth week of RT and at the end of RT. For chest or breast cancer patients, their body fat mass changed significantly in the second and fourth weeks of RT (β = -0.57, P = 0.0233; β = -3.23, P = 0.0254). For abdominal or pelvic cancer patients, their total body weight and muscle mass decreased significantly in the second week of RT and at the end of RT (β = -1.07, P = 0.0248; β = -5.13, P = 0.0017; β = -1.37, P = 0.0245; β = -6.50, P = 0.0016); their body fat mass increased significantly in the third month after RT (β = 4.61, P = 0.0072). Body composition analysis can be used to promptly and effectively monitor changes in the nutritional status of patients with cancer during the cancer treatment period; changes in the body composition at different repetitions differ between patients with dissimilar cancers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influent of Borax Decahydrate Composition as Additional Flux into Stoneware Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakil, Siti Natrah Abd; Hussin, Rosniza; Bakar Aramjat, Abu

    2017-08-01

    Stoneware is vitrified, has less porosity and requires high sintering temperature. The influent of borax decahydrate composition at sintering temperature 1050°C and 1150°C on the thermal analysis, fracture surface, linear shrinkage, water absorption and modular of rapture (MOR) were investigated. Rectangular sample were produced by uniaxially pressing at 40MPa. The thermal behavior was determined by thermogravimetric and different thermal analysis (TGA-DTA). The Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for fracture surface analysis. The water absorption (%) of the sample were determined using Archimedes’ method. The experimental result showed that content of borax decahydrate have influent the properties of stoneware bodies.

  12. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsarella GR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass

  13. Body composition following stem cell transplant: comparison of bioimpedance and air-displacement plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yun-Chi; Bauer, Judith D; Horsely, Pamela; Ward, Leigh C; Bashford, John; Isenring, Elisabeth A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between detected changes in body composition determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) among patients with cancer undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT); and to assess the agreement of absolute values of BIS with ADP and dual energy x-ray (DXA). Forty-four adult hematologic cancer patients undergoing PBSCT completed both BIS and ADP assessment at preadmission and at 3 mo after transplantation. A subsample (n = 11) was assessed by DXA at 3 mo after transplantation. Results were examined for the BIS instrument's default setting and three alternative predictive equations from the literature. Agreement was assessed by the Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis while correlation was examined using the Lin's concordance correlation. Changes in body composition parameters assessed by BIS were comparable with those determined by ADP regardless of the predictive equations used. Bias of change in fat-free mass was clinically acceptable (all body mass index performed the best. Absolute body composition parameters predicted by the alternative predictive equations agreed with DXA and ADP better than the BIS instrument's default setting. Changes predicted by BIS were similar to those determined by ADP on a group level; however, agreement of predicted changes at an individual level should be interpreted with caution due to wide limits of agreement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  15. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  16. Body composition and metabolic profile in adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Murari ROCHA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the body composition and metabolic profile in individuals in terms of different concentrations of serum vitamin D, ranging from deficiency to sufficiency. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 106 adults of both genders, who were divided into three groups according to vitamin D levels: deficiency: <20ng/mL; insufficiency: 20-29.9ng/mL; and sufficiency: 30-100ng/mL. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and body circumferences. Fat mass and lean mass were assessed using the Tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method. Clinical and biochemical evaluations were also carried out. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin index. Results: The analysis showed that the main alterations in individuals in the vitamin D deficiency group were higher triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein - cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, body fat percentage, lean mass percentage, waist circumference, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin than those of the vitamin D sufficient group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was found that vitamin D deficiency causes important body composition and metabolic changes, which may lead to diseases such as diabetes Mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

  17. [Effect of Acupuncture Therapy on Body Compositions in Patients with Obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Wu, Xue-Liang; Jiang, Chao; Shi, Rong-Xing

    2017-04-25

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture intervention in weight reduction by modulating body compositions in obesity patients. A total of 71 obesity patients during weight-loss procedure were allocated to acupuncture+nutrition-consultation group ( n =40) and simple nutrition-consultation group ( n =31). The patients of the acupuncture +nutrition-consultation group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), etc. for 30 min, once every other day, 3 times per week, 12 times altogether, and also given with weekly nutrition consultation (including subjective query, objective measurement, analysis, program for nutrition support) at the same time. The patients of the simple nutrition-consultation group were treated by only weekly nutrition consultation for 4 weeks. Before and after the treatment, the patients' body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, percentage of body fat, muscle mass, protein quality, water quality and bone mass were measured by using a composition analyzer. After 4 weeks' treatment, the body mass, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage in both acupuncture+nutrition-consultation and simple nutrition-consultation groups were significantly decreased ( P 0.05). The therapeutic effect of acupuncture+nutrition-consultation group was markedly superior to that of the simple nutrition-consultation group in increasing the improved degrees of body weight, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage ( P Acupuncture plus nutrition consultation is effective in reducing body mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat in obesity patients.

  18. The body composition, nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and future education needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Cartwright, Laura; Corish, Clare; Sugrue, Sheila; Wood-Martin, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the body composition, nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and educational needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland. Participants included 203 male rugby players age 15-18 yr competing at Senior School's Cup level in Leinster, Ireland. Estimation of body composition included measurement of height, weight, and percentage body fat (PBF; using bioelectrical impedance analysis, Tanita BC-418). Nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and education needs were assessed by questionnaire. The range of PBF was 5.1-25.3%. Sixty-eight percent of the players in this study had a healthy PBF (10-20%), 32 (22%) were classified as underweight (benefit from appropriate nutritional education.

  19. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jacqueline C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (body mass index (BMI and height as predictors of newborn body composition. Methods Weight, height, head and mid-arm circumferences, skinfold thicknesses and external pelvic diameters were measured at 30 ± 2 weeks gestation in 571 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Paternal height and weight were also measured. At birth, detailed neonatal anthropometry was performed. Unrotated and varimax rotated PCA was applied to the maternal and neonatal measurements. Results Rotated PCA reduced maternal measurements to 4 independent components (fat, pelvis, height and muscle and neonatal measurements to 3 components (trunk+head, fat, and leg length. An SD increase in maternal fat was associated with a 0.16 SD increase (β in neonatal fat (p Conclusion Principal components analysis is a useful method to describe neonatal body composition and its determinants. Newborn adiposity is related to maternal nutritional status and parity, while newborn length is genetically determined. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms linking maternal pelvic size to fetal growth and the determinants and implications of the components (trunk v leg length of fetal skeletal growth.

  20. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  1. Association of body composition with outcome of docetaxel chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weixin; Liu, Xiandong; Chaftari, Patrick; Cruz Carreras, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Carmen; Viets-Upchurch, Jayne; Merriman, Kelly; Tu, Shi-Ming; Dalal, Shalini; Yeung, Sai-Ching J

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel, a lipophilic drug, is indicated for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. Most men with such disease would have had androgen-deprivation therapy, which decreases muscle and increases body fat. Obesity and body composition changes may influence the outcomes of docetaxel therapy. We conducted a retrospective review of 333 patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with docetaxel at a comprehensive cancer center between October 7, 2004 and December 31, 2012. Body composition parameters were measured based on the areas of muscle and adipose tissues in the visceral and subcutaneous compartments on CT images at L3-4 levels. Dose calculations, toxicity and adverse reaction profiles, and overall survival were analyzed. Obese patients were younger at the diagnosis of prostate cancer and had a shorter duration from diagnosis to docetaxel therapy. Analysis of body composition found that a high visceral fat-to-subcutaneous fat area ratio (VSR) was associated with poor prognosis but a high visceral fat-to-muscle area ratio (VMR) and high body mass index were associated with increased duration from starting docetaxel to death, allowing such men to catch up with patients with normal body mass index in overall survival from cancer diagnosis to death. Cox proportional hazard regression showed that age ≥65 years, high VSR, abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase, and >10% reduction of initial dosage were significant predictors of shorter time between starting docetaxel and death, and that high VMR, obesity, and weekly regimens were significant predictors of longer survival after docetaxel. Obese and overweight patients may benefit more from weekly docetaxel regimens using the reference dosage of 35 mg/m2 without empirical dosage reduction.

  2. Bio-impedance body composition comparisons between athletes and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarion, A; Ribbe, E; Rebeyrol, J; Moreno, M-V; Rousseaux-Rousseaux-Blanchi, M-P; Dechavanne, C

    2013-01-01

    Body composition is a useful means for athletes' body composition assessment, relying on reference population data. This study aims at comparing body composition multifrequency impedance data of athletes and healthy adult populations. Differences were found in tissular, hydration and metabolic indices. They were significant, in the expected direction, but quite weak and additional data from reference technologies would set if specific equations are needed. The current ones are nevertheless suitable for reliable follow-up studies.

  3. Assessment of nutrition, supplementation and body composition parameters on the example of professional volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolska, Joanna; Witczak, Katarzyna; Mańczuk, Angelika; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball is a team game belonging to a group of sports disciplines that involve indirect fighting. Adequate energy coverage in athletes is a crucial issue. It depends primarily on the type, intensity and duration of physical activity related to the sports discipline practiced and to the training cycle duration. The average energy requirement in sportsmen is 50% higher than that of adults. The aim of the study was to characterize the mode of nutrition, including dietary supplements and to assess somatic indices in female volleyball players of the AZS Bialystok team. The study involved 17 women. Research tools included a questionnaire consisting of 24-hour recall, a questionnaire survey concerning supplement intake and body composition analysis performed using a bioimpedance analyzer InBody 220. Data analysis indicates that the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of the AZS Bialystok players meet the recommendations associated with the somatic features in volleyball. Daily diet of the volleyball players were of low-energy with regard to the recommendations for physically active people, with very low supply of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, excessive proportion of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol, and too low content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supply of vitamins and minerals was found to be alarmingly low, especially of iron and calcium; diet supplementation was insufficient. No significant abnormalities were noted in body composition of the study athletes. However, they are recommended to increase muscle mass and slightly reduce body fat. Results of diet evaluation show the need for education in the field of nutrition and the necessity of further research into dietary habits among sportsmen.

  4. Body Composition and Survival in Dialysis Patients: Results from an International Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usvyat, Len A.; Kotanko, Peter; Bayh, Inga; Canaud, Bernard; Etter, Michael; Gatti, Emanuele; Grassmann, Aileen; Wang, Yuedong; Marelli, Cristina; Scatizzi, Laura; Stopper, Andrea; van der Sande, Frank M.; Kooman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives High body mass index appears protective in hemodialysis patients, but uncertainty prevails regarding which components of body composition, fat or lean body mass, are primarily associated with survival. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data between April 2006 and December 2012 were extracted from the Fresenius Medical Care Europe subset of the international MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes initiative. Fresenius Medical Care Europe archives a unique repository of predialysis body composition measurements determined by multifrequency bioimpedance (BCM Body Composition Monitor). The BCM Body Composition Monitor reports lean tissue indices (LTIs) and fat tissue indices (FTIs), which are the respective tissue masses normalized to height squared, relative to an age- and sex-matched healthy population. The relationship between LTI and FTI and all-cause mortality was studied by Kaplan–Meier analysis, multivariate Cox regression, and smoothing spline ANOVA logistic regression. Results In 37,345 hemodialysis patients, median (25th–75th percentile) LTI and FTI were 12.2 (10.3–14.5) and 9.8 (6.6–12.4) kg/m2, respectively. Median (25th–75th percentile) follow-up time was 266 (132–379) days; 3458 (9.2%) patients died during follow-up. Mortality was lowest with both LTI and FTI in the 10th–90th percentile (reference group) and significantly higher at the lower LTI and FTI extreme (hazard ratio [HR], 3.37; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.94 to 3.87; P<0.001). Survival was best with LTI between 15 and 20 kg/m2 and FTI between 4 and 15 kg/m2 (probability of death during follow-up: <5%). When taking the relation between both compartments into account, the interaction was significant (P=0.01). Higher FTI appeared protective in patients with low LTI (HR, 3.37; 95% CI, 2.94 to 3.87; P<0.001 at low LTI–low FTI, decreasing to HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.47 to 2.17; P<0.001 at low LTI–high FTI). Conclusions This large international study

  5. Weight Gain in Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotheraphy: Exploring Hormonal Body Composition and Behavioral Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Nagi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to prospectively and systematically observe the relative contribution of each viable mechanism such as nutritional intake, activity levels, body composition, hormonal...

  6. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  7. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  9. How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Jacquet, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Dieting makes you fat - the title of a book published in 1983 - embodies the notion that dieting to control body weight predisposes the individual to acquire even more body fat. While this notion is controversial, its debate underscores the large gap that exists in our understanding of basic physiological laws that govern the regulation of human body composition. A striking example is the key role attributed to adipokines as feedback signals between adipose tissue depletion and compensatory increases in food intake. Yet, the relative importance of fat depletion per se as a determinant of post-dieting hyperphagia is unknown. On the other hand, the question of whether the depletion of lean tissues can provide feedback signals on the hunger-appetite drive is rarely invoked, despite evidence that food intake during growth is dominated by the impetus for lean tissue deposition, amidst proposals for the existence of protein-static mechanisms for the regulation of growth and maintenance of lean body mass. In fact, a feedback loop between fat depletion and food intake cannot explain why human subjects recovering from starvation continue to overeat well after body fat has been restored to pre-starvation values, thereby contributing to 'fat overshooting'. In addressing the plausibility and mechanistic basis by which dieting may predispose to increased fatness, this paper integrates the results derived from re-analysis of classic longitudinal studies of human starvation and refeeding. These suggest that feedback signals from both fat and lean tissues contribute to recovering body weight through effects on energy intake and thermogenesis, and that a faster rate of fat recovery relative to lean tissue recovery is a central outcome of body composition autoregulation that drives fat overshooting. A main implication of these findings is that the risk of becoming fatter in response to dieting is greater in lean than in obese individuals.

  10. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72...... metabolism and body composition. CFR, EDV and LVEF remained independent predictors of VO2peak in multivariable regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The study established CFR, EDV and LVEF as independent predictors of VO2peak in overweight CAD patients with no or only mild functional symptoms and a LVEF > 35...

  11. Malnutrition risk questionnaire combined with body composition measurement in malnutrition screening in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, Ágnes Anna; Molnár, Andrea; Piri, Zsolt; Pálfi, Erzsébet; Miheller, Pál

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of malnutrition screening is to predict the probability of a worse outcome due to nutritional factors. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) can be used for screening in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it does not provide details about body composition. Our aim was to assess the body composition and combine this with the MUST method to screen risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia. A total of 173 IBD outpatients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The MUST scale indicated 21.4% of IBD patients to be at risk of malnutrition. A risk of sarcopenia was detected in 27.7%. However, one third of these patients were not considered to be at risk by their MUST score. Furthermore, Crohn's disease (CD) patients had a strongly unfavorable fat-free mass index (FFMI) value compared to ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and these differences were significant among men (FFMI: 18.62 ± 2.16 vs 19.85 ± 2.22, p = 0.02, in CD and UC males, respectively). As sarcopenia is a relevant prognostic factor, the MUST method should be expanded to include body composition analysis to detect more IBD patients at risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia in order to start their nutritional therapy immediately.

  12. Relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Birth weight (BW), independent of socioeconomic status, has been identified as a predictor for childhood cognitive development. However, it is not known whether this relation is related to low BW per se or particularly related to a deficit in fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass ...... (FFM) at birth. This study therefore aimed at investigating the relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An Ethiopian birth cohort was followed up at 2 years. Body composition was measured within 48 h of birth using infant air......-displacement plethysmography. Child development was assessed at 2 years of age using Denver developmental screening test. Associations between body composition at birth and development at 2 years of age were tested using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: FFM but not FM at birth was positively associated with higher global......, FFM at birth but not FM predicted better global and language development at 2 years of age. Higher FFM at birth might have exerted a positive effect on the growth and differentiation of the brain and neuronal circuits for better development. This study therefore highlights the need to improve mother...

  13. Summary Analysis: Hanford Site Composite Analysis Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Lehman, L. L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    The Hanford Site’s currently maintained Composite Analysis, originally completed in 1998, requires an update. A previous update effort was undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2001-2005, but was ended before completion to allow the Tank Closure & Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (TC&WM EIS) (DOE/EIS-0391) to be prepared without potential for conflicting sitewide models. This EIS was issued in 2012, and the deferral was ended with guidance in memorandum “Modeling to Support Regulatory Decision Making at Hanford” (Williams, 2012) provided with the aim of ensuring subsequent modeling is consistent with the EIS.

  14. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p men: -3.7 ± 5.4 vs. 0.4 ± 5.4 kg, women: -3.6 ± 5.5 vs. 0.3 ± 5.2 kg, both p men: -3.6 ± 3.3 vs. -0.4 ± 2.7 kg, women: -1.8 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 2.5 kg, both p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of psoriasis treatment on body composition, components of metabolic syndrome and psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Tamer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immun mediated skin disorder with unknown etiology. The chronic inflammation in psoriasis have role in the development of metabolic and vascular disorders related with associating comorbidities. Recent studies have suggested a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, obesity and complexity of the association between psoriasis, body mass index (BMI and psoriasis tratment. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of psoriasis treatment with methotrexate, cyclosporine and biological agents on body composition, comorbidities and associated laboratory findings. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients treated with methotrexate, cyclosporin and biological agents were included in our study. Demographic characteristics, body composition analysis, psoriasis related comorbidities and laboratory examinations were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of systemic treatment. Results: Comorbidities and metabolic syndrome tended to be more frequent in the anti tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α treated group. Increase in body fat and weight detected in patiens receiving biologic drug therapy. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that severe psoriasis patients with longer disease duration were more likely to have metabolic syndrome because of severe and long term inflammation in pathogenesis of comorbidities.

  16. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  17. Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  18. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  19. Body composition and hydration factors in infants and young children using multicompartment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Valle, Rosa Consuelo; Valencia, Mauro E; Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Lopez-Jimenez, Cesar A; Monreal-Barraza, Brianda I; Robles-Valenzuela, Edna L; Hurtado-Valenzuela, Jaime Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background. Until recently deuterium (2H2O) analysis has been performed almost exclusively by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The IAEA has promoted the FTIR methodology to measure deuterium (2H2O) enrichment, but there is limited information in infants and small children, which have different hydration status than adults. Due to the limited information available, the optimum deuterium dose amount to be administered to children in these studies has also been controversial. The aim of this investigation were to measure body composition and determine the hydration factors in infants and young children using multi-compartment models generating algorithms for prediction of body composition. Subjects and Methods. Seventy-eight male and female infants and young children (ages 3-24 months), from the urban and agricultural zones of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico participated. We measured weight, length and circumferences to evaluate nutritional status using the WHO Growth Reference 2006. We also measured total body water (TBW) by deuterium oxide dilution, bone mineral content (BMC) through a DXA scan and body density was estimated through published algorithms. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was also measured to explore the prediction of body composition using this technique. Results. In general, children from the urban area had better nutritional indicators than children from the agricultural area. Eleven (16.1%) children had some type of malnutrition (any nutritional index below -2 Z cutoff point) and 2 were overweight. Optimal amount of deuterium for dosing in this age range was 0.53 to 0.83 mg/kg body weight, which has implications for future studies of body composition in infants and young children. DXA overestimated body fat percentage compared to other 2, 3 and 4 compartment models (p 0.05). Resistance or impedance indexes (Height2/R or Z) were not important predictors of FFM or TBW (increase in R2 = 0.004). Prediction of FFM was then performed by using

  20. Functional body composition and related aspects in research on obesity and cachexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, M J; Baracos, V; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-01-01

    are determinants of body composition and its change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks' concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition...

  1. Body composition and habitual and match-day dietary intake of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the MVC rugby players (N=35), 18 completed the sections on body composition and match-day dietary intake, while 11 completed the habitual dietary intake section. Body composition data were collected by an International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry-accredited biokineticist. Habitual dietary ...

  2. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low...

  3. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...

  4. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  5. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer--the relationship between body composition and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E

    2013-10-01

    Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  6. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  7. Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio predicts body weight and fat loss success on 24-week diets varying in macronutrient composition and dietary fiber: results from a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Blædel, Trine; Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Holm, Jacob B; Kiilerich, Pia; Roager, Henrik M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Larsen, Lesli H; Astrup, Arne

    2018-05-17

    Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and dietary intake (by 7-day dietary records) were determined. Individuals were dichotomized according to their pre-treatment P/B ratio derived from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of collected fecal samples to test the potential modification of dietary effects using linear mixed models. Independent of the randomized diets, individuals with high P/B lost 3.8 kg (95%CI, 1.8,5.8; P ratio lost 8.3 kg (95% CI, 5.8;10.9, P ratio [Mean difference: 5.1 kg (95% CI, 1.7;8.6, P = 0.003)]. Partial correlation coefficients between fiber intake and weight change was 0.90 (P ratio and 0.25 (P = 0.29) among individuals with low P/B ratio. Individuals with high P/B lost more body weight and body fat compared to individuals with low P/B, confirming that individuals with a high P/B are more susceptible to weight loss on a diet rich in fiber.

  8. Correlations among obesity-associated gene polymorphisms, body composition, and physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Saitoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Various studies have focused on the correlation between β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR, the β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR, and the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 polymorphisms and obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Aims: We examined the correlation between these polymorphisms and body composition variables and between body composition and lifestyle variables in Japanese T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: Of the 48, T2DM outpatients in Kanagawa prefecture recruited for participation, 32 (6 men and 26 women met the study criteria and were enrolled. Obesity-related gene polymorphisms were identified in 3 genes β3AR, UCP1, and β2AR using the SMart amplification process. Body composition variables were measured using a body composition analyzer. Data regarding food and nutrient consumption, family history, and lifestyle factors were collected via administration of questionnaires. Results: Because significant differences in body composition variables were found between men and women, statistical analysis was performed with data from the 25 female subjects only. On the basis of results of genetic testing, the subjects were divided into genotype groups for two-group and three-group comparison. The β3AR, UCP1, and β2AR polymorphisms and body composition significantly correlated with the percentage of subcutaneous fat in both arms as compared with the wild type or hetero groups with β3AR polymorphisms. However, physical activity correlated with several body composition variables. Conclusions: These results suggest that obesity in T2DM patients is not the result of presence of an obesity-related gene polymorphism but rather the absence of daily physical activity.

  9. Multidisciplinary Shape Optimization of a Composite Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Charles Maxwell

    A multidisciplinary shape optimization tool coupling aerodynamics, structure, and performance was developed for battery powered aircraft. Utilizing high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics analysis tools and a structural wing weight tool, coupled based on the multidisciplinary feasible optimization architecture; aircraft geometry is modified in the optimization of the aircraft's range or endurance. The developed tool is applied to three geometries: a hybrid blended wing body, delta wing UAS, the ONERA M6 wing, and a modified ONERA M6 wing. First, the optimization problem is presented with the objective function, constraints, and design vector. Next, the tool's architecture and the analysis tools that are utilized are described. Finally, various optimizations are described and their results analyzed for all test subjects. Results show that less computationally expensive inviscid optimizations yield positive performance improvements using planform, airfoil, and three-dimensional degrees of freedom. From the results obtained through a series of optimizations, it is concluded that the newly developed tool is both effective at improving performance and serves as a platform ready to receive additional performance modules, further improving its computational design support potential.

  10. Serum antioxidant capacity, biochemical profile and body composition of breast cancer survivors in a randomized Mediterranean dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Grosomanidis, D; Massara, P; Kostara, C; Papandreou, P; Ntountaniotis, D; Xepapadakis, G

    2017-06-20

    Increasing evidence suggests that Mediterranean Diet (MD) is correlated with reduced risk of breast cancer (BC) and cancer mortality, since it modifies patients' serum antioxidant capacity, body composition and biochemical parameters. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention based on MD has a beneficial effect on these factors. In this intervention study, seventy female BC survivors were randomly assigned to (1) the intervention group (personalized dietary intervention based on MD) and (2) the control group (received the updated American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention and ad libitum diet). Both groups were assessed twice [beginning, end of study (after 6 months)] regarding their anthropometric and biochemical parameters, serum vitamin C, vitamin A, a-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels, dietary intake and adherence to MD. An additional intermediate analysis was conducted on participants' body composition and biochemical profile. Concerning the intervention group, body weight, body fat mass, waist circumference, body mass index as well as HDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased (P body weight, body fat mass and serum total cholesterol rose (P body composition, adherence to MD and glycemic profile of postmenopausal BC survivors.

  11. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Association between body composition and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Buenfil-Rello, Fátima Annai; Pacheco-Pantoja, Elda Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Reports regarding the association between body composition and inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have consistently yielded contradictory results. To perform a systematic review on the association between overweight/obesity and inflammatory activity in RA. FAST approach: Article search (Medline, EBSCO, Cochrane Library), followed by abstract retrieval, full text review and blinded assessment of methodological quality for final inclusion. Because of marked heterogeneity in statistical approach and RA activity assessment method, a meta-analysis could not be done. Results are presented as qualitative synthesis. One hundred and nineteen reports were found, 16 of them qualified for full text review. Eleven studies (8,147 patients; n range: 37-5,161) approved the methodological quality filter and were finally included. Interobserver agreement for methodological quality score (ICC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98; P.001) was excellent. In all reports body composition was assessed by BMI; however a marked heterogeneity was found in the method used for RA activity assessment. A significant association between BMI and RA activity was found in 6 reports having larger mean sample size: 1,274 (range: 140-5,161). On the other hand, this association was not found in 5 studies having lower mean sample size: 100 (range: 7-150). The modulation of RA clinical status by body fat mass is suggested because a significant association was found between BMI and inflammatory activity in those reports with a trend toward higher statistical power. The relationship between body composition and clinical activity in RA requires be approached with further studies with higher methodological quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring Nutritional Status, Hydration and Body Composition Changes in Acute Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Kafri, Mohannad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia and cognitive problems, both common after stoke, may affect dietary intake increasing the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition has adverse effects on body composition especially in conditions that escalate the stress response in the body and may be associated with immobility such as stroke. Study objective: The objective of my study was to understand the prognosis of malnutrition on post cardiovascular disease (CV) outcomes, understand body composition ch...

  14. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  15. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja; Mitrić, Miodrag; Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D.; Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Park, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  16. Occupational exposure to phthalates in relation to gender, consumer practices and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovičová, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Šidlovská, Miroslava; Pilka, Tomáš; Wimmerová, Soňa; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found in plastic industry workers compared to community service workers and subjects of the control group significantly higher urinary concentration mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono (2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), sum di-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). We identified by multivariate analysis of covariance inverse relationship between MEHP and body parameters as waist-to-height ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference and waist circumference among females, whereas in males, no significant association was found. Results of our study show, despite of variability in terms of occupational exposure to phthalates, that plastic manufactory represents a higher occupational risk in comparison with waste management. The differences in anthropometric parameters between the two occupationally exposed groups and the general population are suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational exposure on body weight homeostasis.

  17. Effects of high-intensity strength interval training program on body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Juránková, Michaela; Bílý, Jiří; Hrazdíra, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine effects of 10-week high-intensity strength interval training (HIIT) program on body composition. Seven women (31.0 ± 6.0 years old, 65.7 ± 9.8 kg body weight, 23.6 ± 2.8 kg*m−2 BMI, 18.6 ± 5.8 kg body fat, 26.0 ± 3.4 kg muscle mass) completed intervention program. We performed an analyze of body composition before and after training program. We focused especially on body fat and muscle mass. Each session consisted of short term bouts (until 30 s duration) w...

  18. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  19. Hot Carcass Specific Gravity: Could Be Used Accurately for In-vivo Body Composition Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Shebaita, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve mature male goats (Bucks) of Egyptian Baladi breed aged 4 years old and body weight of 30.5 kg were used to verify the validation of predicting equations by which carcass specific gravity and body weight can be used to estimate body composition. Live body weight, TOH-space, Blood and plasma volume were determined. Two weeks later, all bucks were slaughtered and each of empty body weight, hot carcass weight, hot carcass specific gravity, offals, along with separating carcass components (muscle, fat, bone) and chemical components (water, protein, fat, ash) of the whole body, empty body and carcass were determined. Step-wise regression analyses of the relationships among hot carcass specific gravity, body and carcass weight (as independent variables) and body composition parameters were performed. The validation of the obtained predicting equations was examined by calculating the intercept and the slope of the regression of the predicted parameter on the observed parameter. The valid equation should have an insignificant intercept from zero and insignificant slope from one. The data revealed that hot carcass specific gravity has not any valid equation to predict body and carcass composition. Live body weight can be used to predict empty body weight and red blood cells volume. Empty body weight has a valid equation to estimate empty body water. However, hot carcass weight can be used to estimate carcass water, muscle and edible portion

  20. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Monyeki, K.D.; Toriola, A.L.; Pienaar, A.E.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary

  1. Early weaning impairs body composition in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta

  2. Endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine me...... and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (P...

  3. A critical evaluation of body composition modalities used to assess adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sebastiano, Katie M; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2012-10-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience some form of body composition change during the disease trajectory. For example, breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy gain fat and lose skeletal muscle, which are associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence and clinical comorbidities. In contrast, advanced cancer patients, such as lung and colorectal cancer patients, experience symptoms of cancer cachexia (accelerated loss of skeletal muscle with or without adipose tissue loss), which are associated with decreased treatment response and poorer survival rates in advanced cancers. The heterogeneity of body composition features and their diverse implications across different cancer populations supports the need for accurate quantification of muscle and adipose tissue. Use of appropriate body composition modalities will facilitate an understanding of the complex relationship between body composition characteristics and clinical outcomes. This will ultimately support the development and evaluation of future therapeutic interventions that aim to counter muscle loss and fat gain in cancer populations. Despite the various metabolic complications that may confound the accurate body composition measurement in cancer patients (i.e., dehydration may confound lean tissue measurement), there are no guidelines for selecting the most appropriate modalities to make these measurements. In this review we outline specific considerations for choosing the most optimal approaches of lean and adipose tissue measurements among different cancer populations. Anthropometric measures, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging will be discussed.

  4. Body composition changes after totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with delta-shaped anastomosis: a comparison with conventional Billroth I anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Bum; Kwon, Oh Kyoung; Yu, Wansik; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare body composition changes of patients undergoing totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG) with delta-shaped anastomosis (DSA) versus conventional laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (CLDG). Data from gastric cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for histologically proven gastric cancer in KNUMC from January 2013 to May 2014 were collected and reviewed. We examined 85 consecutive patients undergoing TLDG or CLDG: 41 patients underwent TLDG and 44 patients underwent CLDG. Body composition was assessed by segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. We compared the changes in nutritional parameters and body composition from preoperative status between the two groups at postoperative 6 and 12 months. All of the postoperative changes in the body composition and nutritional indices were similar between the two groups with the exception of visceral fat areas (VFAs) and albumin levels. VFAs increased at 6 months postoperatively in the TLDG group and a significant difference was shown at 12 months postoperatively between the TLDG and CLDG groups (86.7 ± 22.8 and 74.7 ± 21.9 cm(2), respectively, P body composition seemed comparable to those of CLDG. Six months postoperatively, VFAs and albumin levels were recovered in the TLDG group but not in the CLDG group. Thus, TLDG seems to be a novel surgical method.

  5. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.

  6. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs

  8. Pre- and Postoperative Body Composition and Metabolic Characteristics in Patients with Acromegaly: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zihao

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT), the visceral fat index (VFI), sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Total energy expenditure (TEE) and basal metabolism (BM) were measured with a cardiopulmonary and metabolic analyzer (CMA). Tricep skinfold thickness (TST), bicep circumference, waistline, hipline, and calf circumference were measured with a skinfold caliper and tape. These indices were measured before surgery and 3 months and 1 year after surgery. Results Overall, AT, VFI, and TST were lower, whereas sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, TBW, ICW, ECW, TEE, and BM were higher in acromegaly patients. Postoperatively, TST rose initially and then decreased, the waistline increased, and sclerotin, skeletal muscle, TEE, and BM decreased. Changes in these indices differed with gender and age in unique patterns. Conclusions Body composition and metabolism in acromegaly patients changed after surgery, and gender and age influenced these changes. PMID:29531529

  9. Body composition of Fanconi anemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Peixoto Policarpo da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease linked to bone marrow failure; a possible treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Changes in the nutritional status of Fanconi anemia patients are not very well known. This study aimed to characterize body composition of adult, children and adolescent patients with Fanconi anemia who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or not. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 63 patients (29 adults and 34 children and adolescents. Body composition was assessed based on diverse methods, including triceps skin fold, arm circumference, arm muscle area and bioelectrical impedance analysis, as there is no established consensus for this population. Body mass index was also considered as reference according to age. Results: Almost half (48.3% of the transplanted adult patients were underweight considering body mass index whereas eutrophic status was observed in 66.7% of the children and adolescents submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and in 80% of those who were not. At least 50% of all groups displayed muscle mass depletion. Half of the transplanted children and adolescents presented short/very short stature for age. Conclusion: All patients presented low muscle stores, underweight was common in adults, and short stature was common in children and adolescents. More studies are needed to detect whether muscle mass loss measured at the early stages of treatment results in higher risk of mortality, considering the importance of muscle mass as an essential body component to prevent mortality related to infectious and non-infectious diseases and the malnutrition inherent to Fanconi anemia.

  10. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation effect on mortality and some body compositions in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; Gaber, H.; Fahmy, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and or protein in animals body before irradiation or using radio-protector material such as soybean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span and body compartments. Therefore,286 mice (144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet (basal diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group was fed on high protein diet for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation. The data showed that: 1. The male and the female of the chow diet group which were exposed to 800 and 1200 rads died within the first two weeks and the mortality percent in all the nutritional groups increased with increasing the post irradiation days and with increasing the dose level. 2. Feed additives (skim milk or starch) along with soybean oil as the radioprotector prevented the injuries effect of radiation on the life span. This because at 7 weeks after irradiation, the mortality percent was 27-40% in the dietary groups and on mortality was observed in the male basal diet group (Soybean oil) which exposed to 800 rads. 3. There was a correlation between the decrease in body weight and the percent mortality, since increasing the percent weight loss was paralleled with increasing the mortality percent. 4. The reduction in body fat as percent body weight in the male and in the female mice which were exposed to 800 rads were pronounced in the chow diet group rather than in other groups. 5. The radioprotector substance (Soybean oil) reduced the effect of radiation on the fat-free body. 6. The reduction in the fat-free body was mainly due to the reduction in

  12. Gender and Age - Dependent effect of type 1 diabetes on obesity and altered body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Madej, Anna; Ziółkowska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Małgorzata; Jeziorny, Krzysztof; Mianowska, Beata; Pietrzak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, body composition and fatty tissue distribution in young adults with type 1 diabetes. 197 patients with type 1 diabetes aged 20-40 years participated in the study. The control group consisted of 138 healthy adults. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Analysis of body mass composition was performed using the bioimpedance. Study groups were stratified into cohorts aged obesity were diagnosed in 35.5% and 13.2% of diabetic patients and in 26.1% and 7.3% of the control group, respectively (p=0.016). In the whole study group, advanced age (OR=1.10; pobesity, but a trend toward excessive body mass was observed in diabetic females (OR=1.18; p=0.181). Diabetic females more often had abdominal obesity than control females (mean difference - 19.2%; p=0.020). Higher total body fat mass was found in the diabetic group (p=0.037). Diabetic females had a higher amount of absolute (pobesity in early adulthood more frequently than the general population and are characterized by higher body fat mass. Gender-related differences in body weight and composition in young type 1 diabetic adults were found.

  13. Body composition at birth and its relationship with neonatal anthropometric ratios: the newborn body composition study of the INTERGROWTH-21st project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José; Puglia, Fabien A; Fenton, Tanis R; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Giuliani, Francesca; Ohuma, Eric O; Victora, Cesar G; Sullivan, Peter; Barros, Fernando C; Lambert, Ann; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Ochieng, Roseline; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Altman, Douglas G; Noble, Alison J; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Pang, Ruyan; Uauy, Ricardo; Kennedy, Stephen H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    BackgroundWe aimed to describe newborn body composition and identify which anthropometric ratio (weight/length; BMI; or ponderal index, PI) best predicts fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM).MethodsAir-displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) was used to estimate FM, FFM, and body fat percentage (BF%). Associations between FFM, FM, and BF% and weight/length, BMI, and PI were evaluated in 1,019 newborns using multivariate regression analysis. Charts for FM, FFM, and BF% were generated using a prescriptive subsample (n=247). Standards for the best-predicting anthropometric ratio were calculated utilizing the same population used for the INTERGROWTH-21 st Newborn Size Standards (n=20,479).ResultsFFM and FM increased consistently during late pregnancy. Differential FM, BF%, and FFM patterns were observed for those born preterm (34 +0 -36 +6 weeks' gestation) and with impaired intrauterine growth. Weight/length by gestational age (GA) was a better predictor of FFM and FM (adjusted R 2 =0.92 and 0.71, respectively) than BMI or PI, independent of sex, GA, and timing of measurement. Results were almost identical when only preterm newborns were studied. We present sex-specific centiles for weight/length ratio for GA.ConclusionsWeight/length best predicts newborn FFM and FM. There are differential FM, FFM, and BF% patterns by sex, GA, and size at birth.

  14. Body Composition and Anti-Neoplastic Treatment in Adult and Older Subjects - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, S; Bréchemier, D; Lefort, A; Lozano, S; Abellan Van Kan, G; Filleron, T; Mourey, L; Bernard-Marty, C; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Soler, V; Vellas, B; Cesari, M; Rolland, Y; Balardy, L

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the risk of poor tolerance and overdose of antineoplastic agents protocols represents a major challenge in oncology, particularly in older patients. We hypothesize that age-related modifications of body composition (i.e. increased fat mass and decreased lean mass) may significantly affect tolerance to chemotherapy. We conducted a systematic review for the last 25 years (between 1990 and 2015), using US National library of Medicine Medline electronic bibliographic database and Embase database of cohorts or clinical trials exploring (i) the interactions of body composition (assessed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses, or Computerized Tomography) with pharmacokinetics parameters, (ii) the tolerance to chemotherapy, and (iii) the consequences of chemotherapies or targeted therapies on body composition. Our search identified 1504 articles. After a selection (using pre-established criteria) on titles and abstract, 24 original articles were selected with 3 domains of interest: impact of body composition on pharmacokinetics (7 articles), relationship between body composition and chemotoxicity (14 articles), and effect of anti-cancer chemotherapy on body composition (11 articles). The selected studies suggested that pharmacokinetic was influenced by lean mass, that lower lean mass could be correlated with toxicity, and that sarcopenic patients experienced more toxicities that non-sarcopenic patients. Regarding fat mass, results were less conclusive. No studies specifically explored the topic of body composition in older cancer patients. Plausible pathophysiological pathways linking body composition, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics are sustained by the actual review. However, despite the growing number of older cancer patients, our review highlighted the lack of specific studies in the field of anti-neoplastic agents toxicity regarding body composition conducted in elderly.

  15. Seasonal Changes in Soccer Players' Body Composition and Dietary Intake Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina

    2017-12-01

    Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p nutrition recommendations. The self-reported body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  16. Body Composition, Muscular Strength and Bone Status among Undernourished Children in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Despite significant advances in social and economic development, undernutrition remains a devastating public health problem that affects millions of children across the globe, particularly in developing nations. It is important to understand how changes in nutritional status affect physical health and function, so that undernutrition-related alterations can be identified and interpreted correctly. This paper aimed to determine the impact of undernutrition in children through the assessment of three nutrition-related indicators: body composition, muscular strength and bone status. This study is part of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). A total of 208 school children (102 boys, 106 girls) in the age range of 7 to 10 years were included in this analysis, of which 104 were underweight (WAZ<-2SD) and 104 were normal-weight group (-2SD≤WAZ≤+2SD), individually-matched for sex, age, and ethnicity. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height; and body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscular strength of both hands was assessed independently by hand-held dynamometer. Bone status was evaluated using a radial quantitative ultrasound system at one-third distal radius of the non-dominant hand. Anthropometric measurements and bone status were not significantly different between the sexes. Boys had significantly higher muscular strength and lean mass (p<0.05), but lower fat mass when compared to the girls (p<0.01). In both sexes, the undernourished group presented significantly lower anthropometric and body composition measurements and muscular strength than their normal-weight counterparts (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were observed for bone status between the two weight groups in boys (p = 0.09) and girls (p = 0.98). These findings imply that undernutrition can have profound negative impact on body composition as well

  17. Influence of body composition profile on outcomes following colorectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malietzis, G; Currie, A C; Athanasiou, T; Johns, N; Anyamene, N; Glynne-Jones, R; Kennedy, R H; Fearon, K C H; Jenkins, J T

    2016-04-01

    Muscle depletion is characterized by reduced muscle mass (myopenia), and increased infiltration by intermuscular and intramuscular fat (myosteatosis). This study examined the role of particular body composition profiles as prognostic markers for patients with colorectal cancer undergoing curative resection. Patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective surgical resection between 2006 and 2011 were included. Lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) surface area and mean muscle attenuation (MA) were calculated by analysis of CT images. Reduced LSMI (myopenia), increased VAT (visceral obesity) and low MA (myosteatosis) were identified using predefined sex-specific skeletal muscle index values. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to determine the role of different body composition profiles on outcomes. Some 805 patients were identified, with a median follow-up of 47 (i.q.r. 24·9-65·6) months. Multivariable analysis identified myopenia as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1·53, 95 per cent c.i. 1·06 to 2·39; P = 0·041) and overall survival (HR 1·70, 1·25 to 2·31; P cancer survival for patients with colorectal cancer. Muscle depletion may represent a modifiable risk factor in patients with colorectal cancer and needs to be targeted as a relevant endpoint of health recommendations. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. BODY COMPOSITION OF A MILITARY POPULATION FT. CARSON 1963. I. BODY DENSITY, FAT, AND POTASSIUM 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body volumes were measured on 97 soldiers between the ages of 17 - 52 years by water displacement volumetry and corrected for respiratory gas by a...Effective ranking of body fat burden of populations was demonstrated by body volumetry and age differences were noted from potassium 40 counting. A

  19. Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, L T; Nguyen, P L T; Le, T T T; Doan, T A T; Tran, N T; Le, T A; Nguyen, T V

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional study showed that, although vegans had lower dietary calcium and protein intakes than omnivores, veganism did not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and did not alter body composition. Whether a lifelong vegetarian diet has any negative effect on bone health is a contentious issue. We undertook this study to examine the association between lifelong vegetarian diet and bone mineral density and body composition in a group of postmenopausal women. One hundred and five Mahayana Buddhist nuns and 105 omnivorous women (average age = 62, range = 50-85) were randomly sampled from monasteries in Ho Chi Minh City and invited to participate in the study. By religious rule, the nuns do not eat meat or seafood (i.e., vegans). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and whole body (WB) was measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). Lean mass, fat mass, and percent fat mass were also obtained from the DXA whole body scan. Dietary calcium and protein intakes were estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. There was no significant difference between vegans and omnivores in LSBMD (0.74 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2); mean +/- SD; P = 0.18), FNBMD (0.62 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.11 g/cm(2); P = 0.35), WBBMD (0.88 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.12 g/cm(2); P = 0.31), lean mass (32 +/- 5 vs. 33 +/- 4 kg; P = 0.47), and fat mass (19 +/- 5 vs. 19 +/- 5 kg; P = 0.77) either before or after adjusting for age. The prevalence of osteoporosis (T scores < or = -2.5) at the femoral neck in vegans and omnivores was 17.1% and 14.3% (P = 0.57), respectively. The median intake of dietary calcium was lower in vegans compared to omnivores (330 +/- 205 vs. 682 +/- 417 mg/day, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between dietary calcium and BMD. Further analysis suggested that whole body BMD, but not lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD, was positively correlated with the ratio of animal protein to vegetable protein. These

  20. Insights into relationships between body mass, composition and bone: findings in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Gannon, Lisa; Brightmore, Amy; Beck, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that bone strength is not proportional to body weight in obese populations. Elite rugby players have a similar body mass index (BMI) to obese individuals but differ markedly with low body fat, high lean mass, and frequent skeletal exposure to loading through weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between body weight, composition, and bone strength in male rugby players characterized by high BMI and high lean mass. Fifty-two elite male rugby players and 32 nonathletic, age-matched controls differing in BMI (30.2 ± 3.2 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 kg/m²; p = 0.02) received 1 total body and one total hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Hip structural analysis of the proximal femur was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional bone geometry. Multiple linear regression was computed to identify independent variables associated with total hip and femoral neck BMD and hip structural analysis-derived bone geometry parameters. Analysis of covariance was used to explore differences between groups. Further comparisons between groups were performed after normalizing parameters to body weight and to lean mass. There was a trend for a positive fat-bone relationship in rugby players, and a negative relationship in controls, although neither reached statistical significance. Correlations with lean mass were stronger for bone geometry (r(2): 0.408-0.520) than for BMD (r(2): 0.267-0.293). Relative to body weight, BMD was 6.7% lower in rugby players than controls (p Rugby players were heavier than controls, with greater lean mass and BMD (p rugby players (p rugby players was reduced in proportion to body weight and lean mass. However, their superior bone geometry suggests that overall bone strength may be adequate for loading demands. Fat-bone interactions in athletes engaged in high-impact sports require further exploration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Validity of dual X-ray absorptiometry scanning for determination of body composition in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A

    1995-01-01

    Data on body composition in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are scarce. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning has proved useful for this purpose in other groups of patients. We tested the validity of the DXA scanner for the determination of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat...... mass in IDDM patients and control subjects, as compared to other reference methods, i.e. total body potassium by 40K whole body counting (TBK), total body water by tritiated water (TBW), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 24-h urinary creatinine excretion (Ucrea). A total of 13 healthy controls....... The agreement between FFM estimated by DXA and the other methods, expressed as mean difference +/- 2 SD was; for DXA vs. TBK, 0.09 +/- 6.26 and 0.50 +/- 5.26 kg for controls and IDDM patients respectively; DXA vs. TBW, -2.07 +/- 2.56 and -1.07 +/- 4.58 kg; DXA vs. Ucrea, -2.62 +/- 8.02 and 2.00 +/- 10.0 kg; DXA...

  2. Effect of size and composition of the body on absolute measurement of calcium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of size and composition of the body on the measurement of total calcium in absolute units by neutron activation analysis is described. The neutron beam, produced from a cyclotron, was of mean energy 7.5 MeV. Counting of the activities induced in a patient was carried out with a multidetector whole body counter. Calibration of the system was achieved by using two phantoms of different sizes containing known quantities of calcium. The dimensions of various phantom sections were varied to determine the effect on efficiency of activation, an approximately linear relationship with body thickness being found. The influence of body habitus on counting efficiency was assessed by counting different patients who had been given known quantities of 42 K. The effects of (a) the non-uniform distribution of calcium and (b) the variation in density of different tissues on both activation and counting efficiency are discussed. It is estimated that the 68% confidence limits on the measurement of 49 Ca count rate per unit neutron fluence is +- 3.0% and on the measurement of calcium in grams +- 8.2%. (author)

  3. Growth, feed intake and body composition of ostriches (Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the ostrich breeding flock of the Klein Karoo Agricultural. Development Centre and ... The diet was initially formulated according to poultry values. (Du Preez et al., 1984; Du ...... body weight on high or low nutrient density diets. Proc. 9th Symp.

  4. Body Composition in Military or Military Eligible Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van

    1998-01-01

    ...; specifically percent body fat (% fat). To date, data collection includes 128 white women and 111 black women who participated in a multi-compartment assessment of fat free mass (FFM) and % fat...

  5. Impact of body composition on outcome in patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluche, Elise; Leobon, Sophie; Desport, Jean Claude; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Usseglio, Julie; Tubiana-Mathieu, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the impact of body composition on outcomes of patients with early breast cancer. Skeletal muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and muscle fat infiltration or inter-muscular adipose tissue areas (IMAT), obtained by computed tomography (CT), were assessed. A total of 119 female patients who had breast cancer were included in this retrospective study. The total skeletal muscle and fat tissue areas were evaluated in two adjacent axial slices obtained at the third lumbar vertebra by CT used for disease staging. The women were assigned to either a sarcopenia or non-sarcopenia group based on their skeletal muscle index (cut-off 41.0 cm 2 /m 2 ). They also were classified into high and low VAT/SAT ratio groups and assigned to either the high or low IMAT index group. The association of the body composition parameters and prognosis was statistically analyzed. Among the 119 evaluable patients, 58 were sarcopenic (48.8%), 55 (46.2%) had a high VAT/SAT ratio, and 62 (52.1%) had a high IMAT index. Median follow-up was 52.4 months. Multivariate analysis revealed sarcopenia and IMAT index as independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) and overall survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02, respectively). BMI was not significantly associated with disease-free survival, but a trend was observed (p = 0.09). Sarcopenia and IMAT index are independent prognostic factors in early breast cancer; therefore, assessing body composition could be a simple and useful approach to integrate into patient management.

  6. Body composition differences between adults with multiple sclerosis and BMI-matched controls without MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Young, Hui-Ju; Motl, Robert W

    2018-04-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many health conditions related to overweight and obesity, but little is known about how body composition among those with MS compares to those without MS at the same weight. To compare differences in whole body and regional body composition between persons with and without MS matched for sex and body mass index (BMI). Persons with MS (n = 51) and non-MS controls (n = 51) matched for sex and BMI. Total mass, lean mass, fat mass, and percent body fat (%BF) of total body and arm, leg, and trunk segments were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Men with MS had significantly less whole body lean mass (mean difference: 9933.5 ± 3123.1 g, p MS counterparts. Further, men with MS had significantly lower lean mass in the arm (p = 0.02) and leg (p MS. Men with MS had significantly higher %BF in all three regions (p MS. There were no differences between women with and without MS. We observed significant differences in whole body and regional body composition between BMI-matched men with and without MS. Additional research is needed to further explore differences in body composition, adipose distribution, and the impact of these differences on the health and function of men with MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between motor proficiency and body composition in 6- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Veiga, Guida; Cansado, Hugo; Raimundo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between motor skill competence and body composition of 6- to 10-year-old children. Seventy girls and 86 boys participated. Body composition was measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness. Motor proficiency was evaluated through the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form, which included measures of gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Significant associations were found for both sexes between the percentage of body fat and (i) the performance in each gross motor task, (ii) the composite score for gross motor skills and (iii) the motor proficiency score. The percentage of body fat was not significantly associated with the majority of the fine motor skills items and with the respective composite score. Considering body weigh categories, children with normal weight had significantly higher scores than their peers with overweight or with obesity in gross motor skills and in overall motor proficiency. Children's motor proficiency is negatively associated with body fat, and normal weight children show better motor competence than those who are overweight or obese. The negative impact of excessive body weight is stronger for gross motor skills that involve dynamic body movements than for stationary object control skills; fine motor skills appear to be relatively independent of the constraints imposed by excessive body weight. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  9. The effect of oxandrolone on body proportions and body composition in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Ridder, M.A. de; Stijnen, T.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Untreated girls with Turner syndrome (TS) have short stature, relatively broad shoulders, a broad pelvis, short legs, a high fat mass and low muscle mass. Our objective was to assess the effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) on body proportions and composition in growth hormone

  10. Disproportionate body composition and neonatal outcome in offspring of mothers with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Martina; Fadl, Helena; Hanson, Ulf; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2013-11-01

    High birth weight is a risk factor for neonatal complications. It is not known if the risk differs with body proportionality. The primary aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in relation to body proportionality in large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants stratified by maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Population-based study of all LGA (birth weight [BW] >90th percentile) infants born to women with GDM (n = 1,547) in 1998-2007. The reference group comprised LGA infants (n = 83,493) born to mothers without diabetes. Data were obtained from the Swedish Birth Registry. Infants were categorized as proportionate (P-LGA) if ponderal index (PI) (BW in grams/length in cm(3)) was ≤90th percentile and as disproportionate (D-LGA) if PI >90th percentile. The primary outcome was a composite morbidity: Apgar score 0-3 at 5 min, birth trauma, respiratory disorders, hypoglycemia, or hyperbilirubinemia. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for adverse outcomes. The risk of composite neonatal morbidity was increased in GDM pregnancies versus control subjects but comparable between P- and D-LGA in both groups. D-LGA infants born to mothers without diabetes had significantly increased risk of birth trauma (OR 1.19 [95% CI 1.09-1.30]) and hypoglycemia (1.23 [1.11-1.37]). D-LGA infants in both groups had significantly increased odds of Cesarean section. The risk of composite neonatal morbidity is significantly increased in GDM offspring. In pregnancies both with and without GDM, the risk of composite neonatal morbidity is comparable between P- and D-LGA.

  11. Measuring body composition in overweight individuals by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownbill, Rhonda A; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2005-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used for body composition measurements in normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The limitations of bone densitometers have been frequently addressed. However, the possible errors in assessing body composition in overweight individuals due to incorrect positioning or limitations of DXA to accurately assess both bone mineral density and body composition in obese individuals have not received much attention and are the focus of this report. We discuss proper ways of measuring overweight individuals and point to some studies where that might not have been the case. It appears that currently, the most prudent approach to assess body composition of large individuals who cannot fit under the scanning area would be to estimate regional fat, namely the regions of thigh and/or abdomen. Additionally, using two-half body scans, although time consuming, may provide a relatively accurate measurement of total body fat, however, more studies using this technique are needed to validate it. Researchers using bone densitometers for body composition measurements need to have an understanding of its limitations in overweight individuals and address them appropriately when interpreting their results. Studies on accuracy and precision in measurements of both bone and soft tissue composition in overweight individuals using available densitometers are needed

  12. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  13. The application of digital imaging techniques in the in vivo estimation of the body composition of pigs: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, C.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vangen, O.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kanis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetry and comparative slaughter measurement are techniques widely used to measure chemical body composition of pigs, while dissection is the standard method to determine physical (tissue) composition of the body. The disadvantage of calorimetry is the small number of observations possible, while of comparative slaughter and dissection the fact that examinations can be made only once on the same pig. The non-invasive imaging techniques, such as real time ultrasound, computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could constitute a valuable tool for the estimation of body composition performed in series on living animals. The aim of this paper was to compare these methods. Ultrasound equipment entails a relatively low cost and great mobility, but provides less information and lower accuracy about whole body composition compared to CT and MRI. For this reason the ultrasound technique will in the future most probably remain for field application. Computer tomography and MRI with standardized and verified application methods could provide a tool to substitute whole body analysis and physical dissection. With respect to the disadvantages of CT and MRI techniques, the expense and the lack of portability should be cited, and for these reasons it is most likely that in future such techniques will be applied only in research and breeding programs

  14. Deuterium oxide dilution kinetics to predict body composition in dairy goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Body composition and D2O dilution kinetics were studied in 15 female goats ranging from 38.0 to 70.1 kg live weight. Infrared spectrophotometric analyses of blood samples drawn during the 4 d following D2O injections were used to estimate D2O space. All does were slaughtered without shrinking and analyzed for dry matter, fat, nitrogen, and ash content. Estimates of D2O space from the late slope of the dilution curve, together with live weight, were used to predict body composition. Conclusions were 1) deuterium oxide space with live body weight accounts for about 90% of the variation in dairy goat empty body fat, empty body nitrogen, and empty body dry matter; 2) less than half the variation in empty body ash is related to live weight and D2O space; and 3) D2O space estimates would be biased by accelerations in water turnover

  15. Can you estimate body composition in dogs from photographs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gant, Poppy; Holden, Shelley L; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander J

    2016-01-20

    A validated method for assessing the visual characteristics of body condition from photographs (vBCS), would be a useful initial screening tool for client-owned dogs. In this retrospective study, photographs taken before and after weight loss from 155 overweight and obese dogs attending a weight management referral clinic were used in designing and testing the feasibility of vBCS. Observers with a range of experience examined the photographs, and estimated body condition indirectly (vBCS) using three different methods. In the first method (vBCSmeasured), the ratio of abdominal width to thoracic width (A:T) was measured, and cut-points used to determine body condition; the second method (iBCSsubjective) involved semi-quantitative examination using visual descriptors of BCS; the third (vBCSadjusted) was a combined approach whereby A:T ratio was first determined, and the final score modified if necessary after assessing photographs. When an experienced observer performed vBCS, there were moderate-to-good associations between body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and the three vBCS methods (median Rs: 0.51-0.75; P  0.05 for all). Compared with ideal weight and obese dogs, errors in assessing body condition were more common for overweight dogs (e.g. BCS 6-7/9, P photographs, but performance varies amongst observers.

  16. Effect of short-term consumption bitter apricot seeds on the body composition in healthy population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of fat in different areas of the body is important since accumulation of fat within the abdominal cavity represents a much more severe cardiovascular risk than accumulation in subcutaneous adipose tissues. Apricot seeds contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds and that consumption can decrease blood pressure and total blood cholesterol levels, fight oxidative stress and maintain body weight. The aim of the study was to analyse body composition: body fat mass (BFM, fat free mass (FFM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM, body fat percentage (%BFM, visceral fat area (VFA, total body water (TBW - intracellular water (ICW and extracellular water (ECW and to evaluate the changes that occur after 6-weeks consumption of bitter apricot seeds. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adults volunteers (21 females and 13 males. Volunteers were recruited from the general population of Slovakia. Respondents were 23 - 65 years old, where the average age of women was 40.65 ±11.31 years and the average age of men was 36.91 ±9.98 years. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 of body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily during 6 weeks. Body composition was diagnosed by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA by InBody 720 (Biospace Co., Korea, which measures the total impedance at frequencies of 1, 5, 50, 100, 500, 1000 kHz. At baseline mean body weight was 85.78 ±14.66 and 62.84 ±12.19 kg in the male and female participants, respectively. After 6 weeks of consumation we observed non-significant decreasing of mean body weight. The mean BFM was 19.25 ±8.81 kg in the male group and 19.47 ±7.21 kg in the female group. After six weeks, BFM decreased non-significantly (on average 0.5 kg in both groups. The mean FFM at baseline was 43.37 ±5.98 and 66.54 ±7.98 kg in the female and male participants, respectively. The statistical analysis confirmed that the increase of FFM (43.37 ±5.98 kg to 43.56 ±5.80 kg in the

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Composite Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Singh

    1996-01-01

    accounted for. Material damping is also taken into account. The layerwise theory is compared with conventionally used equivalent modulus beam theory. Some interesting case studies are presented. The effect of various parameters on dynamic behavior and stability of a composite rotor is presented.

  18. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou: effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Nobile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective: Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion. Design: A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2, male (25% and female (75% subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day. Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results: Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions: Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  19. Mediating effects of body composition between physical activity and body esteem in Hong Kong adolescents: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cerin, Ester; McManus, Alison M; Lai, Ching-Man; Day, Jeffrey R; Ho, Sai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of body mass index (BMI) in the relationship between physical activity and body esteem in adolescents. Nine hundred and five Hong Kong Chinese students aged 12-18 years participated in a cross-sectional study in 2007. Students' BMI was computed as an indicator of their body composition. Their physical activity level and body esteem were examined using the Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth (PARCY) and Body Esteem Scale (BES), respectively. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediating effects of BMI and physical activity in predicting body esteem, with stratification by sex. The overall fit of the hypothesized models was satisfactory in boys (NFI = 0.94; NNFI = 0.88; CFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07) and girls (NFI = 0.89; NNFI = 0.77; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.11). When BMI was considered as a mediator, higher physical activity had a significant negative total effect on body esteem in boys, but not in girls. The indirect effect of higher physical activity on body esteem via BMI was positive in boys, but negative in girls. Regular physical activity may help overweight adolescents, especially boys, improve their body esteem. Kinesiologists and health professionals could explore the use of physical activity prescriptions for weight management, aiming at body esteem improvement in community health programs for adolescents. Among Western adolescents, negative body esteem is more pervasive in girls than in boys. There are consistent findings of the association between higher body mass index and lower body esteem in adolescents, but the association between physical activity and body esteem are equivocal. A negative association between body mass index and body esteem was found in both Hong Kong adolescent boys and girls. The indirect effect of physical activity on body esteem via body mass index was positive in Hong Kong adolescent boys, but negative in girls.

  20. Effects on body size and composition of chronic exposure to altered gravity. [centrifuging stress in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on body composition and growth of rats, mice, monkeys, and man are studied. The benefits of exercise and restraint during acceleration are investigated. Physiological regulation and energy balance are also discussed.

  1. Body composition and habitual and match-day dietary intake of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the body composition, habitual and game-specific nutritional practices of FNB Maties Varsity Cup (MVC) rugby ... After soccer, rugby is the most popular South .... supplements was quantified and added to the total habitual dietary.

  2. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  3. Estimation of Body Composition from Urinay Creatinine Excretion

    OpenAIRE

    小室, 史恵; 小宮, 秀一

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of total body water, using the deuterium oxide dilution method, and urinary creatinine excretion have been carried out in 26 males and females. Total body water and FFM may be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion by T.B.W.=0.0165 Cr. +17.773. FFM=0.0225 Cr. +17.446. In this subjects a high correlation (r=0.874) was found between T.B.W, FFM and urinary creatinine excretion. It appears that FFM can be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion.

  4. Sarcopenia and body composition in diabetic Charcot osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens

    2015-01-01

    : Cross-sectional case-control study of people with diabetes with acute or chronic Charcot osteoarthropathy, matched with otherwise healthy people with diabetes. A total of 49 subjects (distribution ~1:1) had a total body DXA-scanning, measuring appendicular lean mass, android/gynoid and truncal...... (24.5-31.9%), whereas there were no significant differences found between the groups (P=0.065). Neither truncal/total fat percent nor android/gynoid fat percent ratios showed differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first published dataset investigating body...

  5. Role of body composition and metabolic profile in Barrett's oesophagus and progression to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Simona; Cheung, Wui Hang; Fini, Lucia; Keane, Margaret G; Theis, Belinda; Haidry, Rehan; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Lovat, Laurence; Batterham, Rachel L; Banks, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk for Barrett's oesophagus (BE) on the basis of body composition, metabolic pathways, adipokines and metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as their role in cancer progression. In patients with and without BE at gastroscopy, data on MS, BMI, waist/hip ratio for abdominal obesity (AO) and body fat percentage by bioimpedance were obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid, serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured. The homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Histological findings for BE were correlated with the above parameters. Risk factors for BE identified using univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 250 patients and 224 controls (F/M: 189/285, mean age 58.08±15.51 years) were enroled. In the BE and control groups, 39.6 versus 31.3% were overweight, 32 versus 22.8% were obese, 75.6 versus 51.3% had AO, and 28.1 versus 18.9% were metabolically obese, respectively. AO [odds ratio (OR) 3.08], increased body fat percentage (OR 2.29), and higher BMI (overweight: OR 2.04; obese: OR 2.26) were significantly associated with BE. A positive trend was found in Normal Weight Obese Syndrome (OR 1.69). MS was associated with BE (overweight: OR 3.05; obese: OR 5.2; AO: OR 8.08). Insulin levels (P=0.05) and HOMA-IR (Pbody composition.

  6. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed [FUM Radiation Detection And Measurement Laboratory, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The {sup 252}Cf radioisotope and {sup 241}Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be sources.

  7. The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.MethodsNine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.ResultsOne hundred forty-six subjects (15.4% showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7% had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women.ConclusionIn our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.

  8. Nuclear-based techniques for the in vivo study of human body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report comprises working papers presented at an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen contributions from seven countries describe measurement systems, and their applications, for the in vivo study of human body composition, mainly with respect to the elements calcium, nitrogen, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus, cadmium and lead. The techniques used include neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, computerized axial tomography, nuclear resonance scattering and photon absorptiometry. Also included is a collection of ''system descriptions'' containing information on equipment developed for such measurements at seventeen centres in eight countries (institute address and name of persons to contact for more information, overall system performance, irradiation and country device, estimated cost)

  9. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations...... between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. RESULTS: At all ages, length showed consistently...

  10. Design by analysis of composite pressure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, S.; Mallard, H.

    2004-01-01

    Design by analysis has been particularly pointed out by the european pressure equipment directive. Advanced mechanical analysis like finite element method are used instead of classical design by formulas or graphs. Structural behaviour can be understood by the designer. Design by analysis of metallic pressure equipments is widely used. Material behaviour or limits analysis is based on sophisticated approach (elasto-plastic analysis,..). Design by analysis of composite pressure equipments is not systematically used for industrial products. The difficulty comes from the number of information to handle. The laws of mechanics are the same for composite materials than for steel. The authors want to show that in design by analysis, the composite material approach is only more complete than the metallic approach. Mechanics is more general but not more complicated. A multi-material approach is a natural evolution of design by analysis of composite equipments. The presentation is illustrated by several industrial cases - composite vessel: analogy with metallic calculations; - composite pipes and fittings; - welding and bounding of thermoplastic equipments. (authors)

  11. The importance of body composition as a primary outcome in trials on MAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    be used between birth and six months, providing the density of lean tissue has not been perturbed by malnutrition. Measurement of body water by isotope dilution is the only technique that can be used in all age groups, but likewise is only accurate if lean tissue hydration is within the normal range. Bio-electrical impedance analysis has conventionally been used to predict body water, but has low accuracy in individuals. However, Bio-electrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) is showing greater promise for differentiating variability in lean tissue from variability in hydration. MAM may affect not only fat and lean masses, but also the composition of lean tissue, and BIVA is emerging as a valuable approach for assessing these effects. A key step forward is to produce reference data for such techniques, enabling individual data or studies to be assessed relative to normal ranges. Reference data has now been published for air displacement plethysmography in Ethiopian infants, while BIVA data is also being acquired. Other studies have collected isotope measurements of body water in large samples. Emerging data on body composition are rapidly describing the characteristics of MAM, and will clarify its aetiology and response to treatment. (author)

  12. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Spanish Edition); Introduccion a la determinacion de la composicion corporal mediante la tecnica de dilucion de deuterio con analisis de muestras de saliva por espectrometria infrarroja por transformada de Fourier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  13. Ward's area location, physical activity, and body composition in 8- and 9-year-old boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Zymbal, Vera; Rodrigues, Luís A; Sardinha, Luís B

    2010-11-01

    Bone strength is the result of its material composition and structural design, particularly bone mass distribution. The purpose of this study was to analyze femoral neck bone mass distribution by Ward's area location and its relationship with physical activity (PA) and body composition in children 8 and 9 years of age. The proximal femur shape was defined by geometric morphometric analysis in 88 participants (48 boys and 40 girls). Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, 18 landmarks were digitized to define the proximal femur shape and to identify Ward's area position. Body weight, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral were assessed by DXA, PA by accelerometry, and bone age by the Tanner-Whitehouse III method. Warps analysis with Thin-Plate Spline software showed that the first axis explained 63% of proximal femur shape variation in boys and 58% in girls. Most of this variation was associated with differences in Ward's area location, from the central zone to the superior aspect of the femoral neck in both genders. Regression analysis demonstrated that body composition explained 4% to 7% of the proximal femur shape variation in girls. In boys, body composition variables explained a similar amount of variance, but moderate plus vigorous PA (MVPA) also accounted for 6% of proximal femur shape variation. In conclusion, proximal femur shape variation in children ages 8 and 9 was due mainly to differences in Ward's area position determined, in part, by body composition in both genders and by MVPA in boys. These variables were positively associated with a central Ward's area and thus with a more balanced femoral neck bone mass distribution. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Progress in photon absorptiometric determination of bone mineral and body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Witt, R.M.; Peppler, W.W.; Hanson, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry, with low energy radionuclides, has become widely accepted for measurement of bone mineral content in vivo. Dual-photon absorptiometry is a newer approach which overcomes previous limitations and allows measurement of total body and spinal bone mineral with high accuracy and precision (2 percent error). Dual-photon absorptiometry also permits measurement of the lean-fat composition of soft-tissue and the monitoring of shifts in body composition and/or fluid balance

  15. The effects of an individualized exercise intervention on body composition in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglini,Claudio; Bottaro,Martim; Dennehy,Carolyn; Rae,Logan; Shields,Edgar; Kirk,David; Hackney,Anthony

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Changes in metabolism have been reported in the majority of patients undergoing cancer treatment, and these are usually characterized by progressive change in body composition. The effects of aerobic exercise programs to combat the cancer and cancer treatment-related side effects, which include the negative changes in body composition, have been extensively reported in the literature. However, few resistance exercise intervention studies have hypothesized that breast ca...

  16. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  17. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean......±7-8.5kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean±3.7-4.6kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample of 31 obese...

  18. Fitness, motor competence, and body composition are weakly associated with adolescent back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark; Straker, Leon; O'Sullivan, Peter; Smith, Anne; Hands, Beth

    2009-06-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To assess the associations between adolescent back pain and fitness, motor competence, and body composition. Although deficits in physical fitness and motor control have been shown to relate to adult back pain, the evidence in adolescents is less clear. In this cross-sectional study, 1608 "Raine" cohort adolescents (mean age, 14 years) answered questions on lifetime, month, and chronic prevalence of back pain, and participated in a range of physical tests assessing aerobic capacity, muscle performance, flexibility, motor competence, and body composition.A history of any diagnosed back pain in the adolescent was obtained from the primary caregiver. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, increased likelihood of back pain in boys was associated with greater aerobic capacity, greater waist girth, and both reduced and greater flexibility. Back pain in girls was associated with greater abdominal endurance, reduced kinesthetic integration, and both reduced and greater back endurance. Lower likelihood of back pain was associated with greater bimanual dexterity in boys and greater lower extremity power in girls. Physical characteristics are commonly cited as important risk factors in back pain development. Although some factors were associated with adolescent back pain, and these differed between boys and girls, they made only a small contribution to logistic regression models for back pain. The results suggest future work should explore the interaction of multiple domains of risk factors (physical, lifestyle, and psychosocial) and subgroups of adolescent back pain, for whom different risk factors may be important.

  19. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.M.; Jopson, N.B.; Littlejohn, R.P.; Stuart, S.K.; Veenvliet, B.A.; Young, M.J.; Suttie, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  20. Reliability and validity for measurement of body composition: A field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this ...

  1. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... food availability and others (Oliveira et al., 2003). Body ... have reported high protein and low fat content in fish due to increasing depth. ... Collected fish were kept in plastic container and transported alive to the laboratory for ...

  2. Associations of body composition with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; Feskens, E.J.; Lean, M.E.J.; Seidell, J C

    The aims of this study were to establish the associations of stature, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and waist circumference with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in a random sample of 5887 men and 7018 women aged 20-59 years in a cross-sectional study set in The Netherlands.

  3. Effect of different dietary energy levels on the body composition of Muzaffarnagari lambs fattened to different body weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.H.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Pathak, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty eight male and 32 female Muzaffarnagari lambs were reared intensively on 4 rations containing 1.8, 2.0, 2.1 and 2.3 Mcal ME/kg of ration upto 25, 30 and 35 kg weights. Body composition of 27 lambs at 25 kg, 11 lambs at 30 kg and 14 lambs at 35 kg body weight was determined direct by slaughter and desiccation and indirect by TOH dilution techniques. The average corrected TOH space 72.30 +- 1.01 percent at 25 kg body weight and 69.61 +- 1.63 percent at 30 and 35 kg body weight (combined). Mean values by desiccation for corresponding body weights were 65.21 +- 1.04 and 65.00 +- 1.26 percent, respectively. There was no significant difference in the moisture content between the groups and sexes at different body weights. Protein content was significantly (P < 0.01) high in male lambs at all the weights. The difference in fat content due to treatments and sex was non-significant at 25 kg weight but significant (P < 0.01) at 30 and 35 kg body weights. The percentage of fat increased with the increase in the ME content of rations except in the female lambs of group 3 at 35 kg body weight which recorded least fat. (auth.)

  4. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pobesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  5. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  6. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  7. Anthropometrics and body composition by dual energy X-ray in children of obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Vinter, Christina A; Jørgensen, Jan S

    2014-01-01

    of the RCT mothers and in 97 reference group children with Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-score as a primary outcome. Body composition was estimated by Dual Energy X-ray (DEXA) in 123 successful scans out of 147 (84%). RESULTS: No differences between randomized groups were seen in mean (95% C.I.) BMI Z...

  8. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  9. Holistic processing of human body postures: Evidence from the composite effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam eWillems

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of socially relevant stimuli (e.g., faces and bodies has received considerable attention in the vision science community. It is now widely accepted that human faces are processed holistically and not only analytically. One observation that has been taken as evidence for holistic face processing is the face composite effect: Two identical top halves of a face tend to be perceived as being different when combined with different bottom halves. This supports the hypothesis that face processing proceeds holistically. Indeed, the interference effect disappears when the two face parts are misaligned (blocking holistic perception. In the present study, we investigated whether there is also a composite effect for the perception of body postures: Are two identical body halves perceived as being in different poses when the irrelevant body halves differ from each other? Both a horizontal (i.e., top-bottom body halves; Experiment 1 and a vertical composite effect (i.e., left-right body halves; Experiment 2 were examined by means of a delayed matching-to-sample task. Results of both experiments indicate the existence of a body posture composite effect. This provides evidence for the hypothesis that body postures, as faces, are processed holistically.

  10. Holistic processing of human body postures: evidence from the composite effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Sam; Vrancken, Leia; Germeys, Filip; Verfaillie, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The perception of socially relevant stimuli (e.g., faces and bodies) has received considerable attention in the vision science community. It is now widely accepted that human faces are processed holistically and not only analytically. One observation that has been taken as evidence for holistic face processing is the face composite effect: two identical top halves of a face tend to be perceived as being different when combined with different bottom halves. This supports the hypothesis that face processing proceeds holistically. Indeed, the interference effect disappears when the two face parts are misaligned (blocking holistic perception). In the present study, we investigated whether there is also a composite effect for the perception of body postures: are two identical body halves perceived as being in different poses when the irrelevant body halves differ from each other? Both a horizontal (i.e., top-bottom body halves; Experiment 1) and a vertical composite effect (i.e., left-right body halves; Experiment 2) were examined by means of a delayed matching-to-sample task. Results of both experiments indicate the existence of a body posture composite effect. This provides evidence for the hypothesis that body postures, as faces, are processed holistically.

  11. Impact of body composition changes on risk of all-cause mortality in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, Christophe E; Herrmann, François R; Spoerri, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) changes and mortality in persons ≥65 years. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years with at least two body composition measurements (BCM) between 1990 and 2011 were included. We......: FFMI loss is related to increased mortality in older persons....

  12. The Pituitary Gland and Age-Dependent Regulation of Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Andre P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Runge, Evelien; Trainer, Peter J.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria

    Context: The prevalence of obesity is increased in hypopituitarism. In the general population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increase with advancing age. It remains uncertain whether age-related changes in pituitary function contribute to the changes in body composition associated

  13. Use of tritiated water for estimating body composition in grazing ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.J.F.; Foot, J.Z.; McFarlane, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated water was used to estimate total body water, body composition and water turnover of non-pregnant, pregnant, non-lactating and lactating grazing sheep. Body composition was estimated from equilibrated and extrapolated values of tritiated water space. These methods both overestimated the total body water measured directly. Body fat could be predicted satisfactorily from tritiated water space within the physiological states of ewes, i.e. lactating, pregnant, etc., although for lactating ewes the error of prediction is greater. It appears inadvisable at this stage to use equations derived from all classes of ewes to estimate body fat in ewes of any one physiological state. Water turnover varied, with the physiological state being highest for lactating ewes. (author)

  14. Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Amanda J; Chung, Min-Yu; List, Edward O; Walker, Jennifer; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2009-03-01

    GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted.

  15. Possible Link Between Stress-related Factors and Altered Body Composition in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Barnali Ray; Chowdhury, Olivia; Saha, Sudip Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS) and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI), visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations indicate a strong link between the stress marker and alterations in the body composition parameters of PCOS patients participants. Higher prevalence of stress in PCOS patients participants has a critical role in their altered body composition.

  16. Endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders; Dejgaard, Thomas; Thomsen, Carsten; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Mikines, Kari J; van Hall, Gerrit; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Solomon, Thomas P J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-10-01

    Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer and ten healthy men with normal testosterone levels underwent 12 weeks of endurance training. Primary endpoints were insulin sensitivity (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with concomitant glucose-tracer infusion) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (PBody weight (Pbody fat mass (FM) (Pbody mass (P=0.99) was unchanged. Additionally, reductions were observed in abdominal (Pcancer patients exhibited improved insulin sensitivity and body composition to a similar degree as eugonadal men.

  17. A new system using NMR technology for measurement of body composition in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun; Nishikibe, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    . In conclusion, body composition data acquired by the new NMR system are equivalent in accuracy and precision to classical chemical methods. The NMR analysis is simple, fast, and does not require anesthesia for acquisition of data, which are remarkable advantages compared to the existing methods. This system is expected to contribute to drug discovery and appropriate evaluation in the fields of obesity and diabetes. (author)

  18. Percentile reference values for anthropometric body composition indices in European children from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Kovacs, E; Moreno, L A; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Kourides, Y; Siani, A; Lauria, F; Sioen, I; Claessens, M; Mårild, S; Lissner, L; Bammann, K; Intemann, T; Buck, C; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D

    2014-09-01

    To characterise the nutritional status in children with obesity or wasting conditions, European anthropometric reference values for body composition measures beyond the body mass index (BMI) are needed. Differentiated assessment of body composition in children has long been hampered by the lack of appropriate references. The aim of our study is to provide percentiles for body composition indices in normal weight European children, based on the IDEFICS cohort (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS). Overall 18,745 2.0-10.9-year-old children from eight countries participated in the study. Children classified as overweight/obese or underweight according to IOTF (N=5915) were excluded from the analysis. Anthropometric measurements (BMI (N=12 830); triceps, subscapular, fat mass and fat mass index (N=11,845-11,901); biceps, suprailiac skinfolds, sum of skinfolds calculated from skinfold thicknesses (N=8129-8205), neck circumference (N=12,241); waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (N=12,381)) were analysed stratified by sex and smoothed 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentile curves were calculated using GAMLSS. Percentile values of the most important anthropometric measures related to the degree of adiposity are depicted for European girls and boys. Age- and sex-specific differences were investigated for all measures. As an example, the 50th and 99th percentile values of waist circumference ranged from 50.7-59.2 cm and from 51.3-58.7 cm in 4.5- to <5.0-year-old girls and boys, respectively, to 60.6-74.5 cm in girls and to 59.9-76.7 cm in boys at the age of 10.5-10.9 years. The presented percentile curves may aid a differentiated assessment of total and abdominal adiposity in European children.

  19. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: Does resistance training help?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Morandé Lavín, Gonzalo; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n¼18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout...

  20. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect

  1. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, R.N.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Lichtman, S.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, 3 H 2 O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition

  2. Does body composition differ between fibromyalgia patients and controls? the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jimenez, Victor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Alvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculata C; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Tornero-Quinones, Inmaculada; Delgado-Fernandez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To characterise the anthropometric and body composition profile of a sample of fibromyalgia women and men from southern Spain and compare them with non-fibromyalgia controls. The cross-sectional study comprised 566 (51.9 ± 8.3 years) fibromyalgia women vs. 249 (49.3 ± 9.9 years) control women; and 24 (47.0 ± 8.4 years) fibromyalgia men vs. 56 (49.7 ± 11.5 years) control men. Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed by means of a bioelectric impedanciometer and the 6-minute walk test, respectively. All body composition para-meters (except muscle mass) differed between fibromyalgia and control women (all, pbody composition was no longer different between the women study groups. No differences in body composition were observed between fibromyalgia and control men (all, p>0.05). Weight status differed between women groups, with 11% lower normal-weight and 17% higher obesity prevalence for the fibromyalgia women group (pfibromyalgia women and 79% of the fibromyalgia men were overweight-obese. Sixty-one percent of the control women and 83% of the control men were overweight-obese. Obesity is a greater common condition among fibromyalgia women compared to their counterparts from southern Spain, which might be explained by lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in fibromyalgia. However, fibromyalgia and control men do not differ on either body composition or weight status, in spite of the lower cardiorespiratory fitness found in the fibromyalgia men group.

  3. Holistic integration of gaze cues in visual face and body perception: Evidence from the composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Leia; Germeys, Filip; Verfaillie, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of research on identity recognition and emotion identification with the composite design points to the holistic processing of these aspects in faces and bodies. In this paradigm, the interference from a nonattended face half on the perception of the attended half is taken as evidence for holistic processing (i.e., a composite effect). Far less research, however, has been dedicated to the concept of gaze. Nonetheless, gaze perception is a substantial component of face and body perception, and holds critical information for everyday communicative interactions. Furthermore, the ability of human observers to detect direct versus averted eye gaze is effortless, perhaps similar to identity perception and emotion recognition. However, the hypothesis of holistic perception of eye gaze has never been tested directly. Research on gaze perception with the composite design could facilitate further systematic comparison with other aspects of face and body perception that have been investigated using the composite design (i.e., identity and emotion). In the present research, a composite design was administered to assess holistic processing of gaze cues in faces (Experiment 1) and bodies (Experiment 2). Results confirmed that eye and head orientation (Experiment 1A) and head and body orientation (Experiment 2A) are integrated in a holistic manner. However, the composite effect was not completely disrupted by inversion (Experiments 1B and 2B), a finding that will be discussed together with implications for future research.

  4. A multivariate model for predicting segmental body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Simiao; Mioche, Laurence; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Morio, Béatrice

    2013-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to propose a multivariate model for predicting simultaneously body, trunk and appendicular fat and lean masses from easily measured variables and to compare its predictive capacity with that of the available univariate models that predict body fat percentage (BF%). The dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) dataset (52% men and 48% women) with White, Black and Hispanic ethnicities (1999-2004, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) was randomly divided into three sub-datasets: a training dataset (TRD), a test dataset (TED); a validation dataset (VAD), comprising 3835, 1917 and 1917 subjects. For each sex, several multivariate prediction models were fitted from the TRD using age, weight, height and possibly waist circumference. The most accurate model was selected from the TED and then applied to the VAD and a French DXA dataset (French DB) (526 men and 529 women) to assess the prediction accuracy in comparison with that of five published univariate models, for which adjusted formulas were re-estimated using the TRD. Waist circumference was found to improve the prediction accuracy, especially in men. For BF%, the standard error of prediction (SEP) values were 3.26 (3.75) % for men and 3.47 (3.95)% for women in the VAD (French DB), as good as those of the adjusted univariate models. Moreover, the SEP values for the prediction of body and appendicular lean masses ranged from 1.39 to 2.75 kg for both the sexes. The prediction accuracy was best for age < 65 years, BMI < 30 kg/m2 and the Hispanic ethnicity. The application of our multivariate model to large populations could be useful to address various public health issues.

  5. The relationships of irisin with bone mineral density and body composition in PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Lingling; Chen, Yuxin; Liu, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Our study aims to assay the irisin level and investigate the relationships of irisin level with body mass index (BMI), body composition and bone metabolism in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women. Fifty two PCOS and 39 control women were recruited. Serum sex hormone, fasting insulin and C-peptide were tested. Fasting serum irisin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body composition and bone mineral density were assayed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Polycystic ovary syndrome women showed different body compositions compared with controls. Serum irisin level of PCOS did not show significant difference compared with controls although it was decreased. The level of adiponectin in PCOS patients was significantly reduced. BMI had no correlation with irisin level. It indicated a positive correlation between serum irisin levels and bone mineral density in the control group and a negative correlation in the PCOS group after BMI and age adjusted. Furthermore, total lean mass has a significant effect on irisin concentration in the PCOS group. There are no correlations between adiponection and body compositions and bone mineral density in both groups. The abnormal body composition in PCOS may contribute to the circulation irisin. The crosstalk of irisin in different organs was found and may be related to disease development in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. State-of-the-art measurements in human body composition: A moving frontier of clinical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D.; Shaheen, I.; Zafar, K.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of human body composition allows for the estimation of body tissues, organs, and their distributions in living persons without inflicting harm. From a nutritional perspective, the interest in body composition has increased multi-fold with the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and its complications. The latter has driven in part the need for improved measurement methods with greater sensitivity and precision. There is no single gold standard for body-composition measurements in-vivo. All methods incorporate assumptions that do not apply in all individuals and the more accurate models are derived by using a combination of measurements, thereby reducing the importance of each assumption. This review will discuss why the measurement of body composition or human phenotyping is important; discuss new areas where the measurement of body composition (human phenotyping) is recognized as having important application; and will summarize recent advances made in new methodology. Reference will also be made to areas we cannot yet measure due to the lack of appropriate measurement methodologies, most especially measurements methods that provide information on kinetic states (not just static state) and metabolic function. PMID:21234275

  7. Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, and Mobility: Comparison Between Regularly Exercising and Inactive Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Anni; Pihlak, Anu; Ereline, Jaan; Gapeyeva, Helena; Kums, Tatjana; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak; Pääsuke, Mati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

  8. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...

  9. Body Composition Assessment in Axial CT Images Using FEM-Based Automatic Segmentation of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popuri, Karteek; Cobzas, Dana; Esfandiari, Nina; Baracos, Vickie; Jägersand, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The proportions of muscle and fat tissues in the human body, referred to as body composition is a vital measurement for cancer patients. Body composition has been recently linked to patient survival and the onset/recurrence of several types of cancers in numerous cancer research studies. This paper introduces a fully automatic framework for the segmentation of muscle and fat tissues from CT images to estimate body composition. We developed a novel finite element method (FEM) deformable model that incorporates a priori shape information via a statistical deformation model (SDM) within the template-based segmentation framework. The proposed method was validated on 1000 abdominal and 530 thoracic CT images and we obtained very good segmentation results with Jaccard scores in excess of 90% for both the muscle and fat regions.

  10. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvernheim, Arne Lund

    1998-01-01

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  11. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men.

  12. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  13. Effects of Meridian Acupressure Massage on Body Composition, Edema, Stress, and Fatigue in Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Geum-Sook; Choi, In-Ryoung; Kang, Hee-Young; Choi, Eun-Young

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of meridian acupressure massage on body composition, edema, stress, and fatigue in postpartum women. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group was utilized. The Postpartum Care Center of Women's Hospital in Gwangju City, Republic of Korea. The study group consisted of 39 postpartum women, 19 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group, recruited from the postpartum care center of Women's Hospital in Gwangju city, South Korea. The experimental group was provided with meridian acupressure massage for 90 min daily over 5 days as an experimental therapy. Body composition (body weight, BMI, total body water, ECW ratio, LBM, and body fat) Edema (subjective edema, average girth of the upper limbs, and average girth of the lower limbs), Stress (psychological stress and physical stress), and Fatigue. The experimental group demonstrated a significantly larger decrease compared with the control group in measures of body composition, edema, total subjective stress, psychological stress, and subjective fatigue. Meridian acupressure massage can hasten the return to original body composition after childbirth.

  14. Functional Body Composition and Related Aspects in Research on Obesity and Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.J.; Baracos, V.; Bosy-Westphal, A.; Dulloo, A.; Eckel, J.; Fearon, K.C.H.; Hall, K.D.; Pietrobelli, A.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Speakman, J.; Trayhurn, P.; Visser, M.; Heymsfield, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of “functional body composition” integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and function in the context of metabolic adaptations to weight change and disease. During weight gain and loss there are associated changes in individual body components while the relationships between organ and tissue mass are fixed. Thus, an understanding of weight regulation involves an examination of organ-tissue regulation rather than of individual organ mass. The between organ/tissue mass relationships are associated with and explained by cross-talk between organs and tissues mediated by cytokines, hormones, and metabolites that are coupled with changes in body weight, composition, and function as observed in obesity and cancer cachexia. In addition to established roles in intermediary metabolism, cell function and inflammation, organ-tissue cross-talk mediators are determinants of body composition and its’ change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks’ concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition and metabolism. PMID:24835453

  15. Association of body composition with sarcopenic obesity in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva AO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Oliveira Silva,1,2 Margô Gomes Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Marina Morato Stival,3 Ricardo Moreno Lima,3 Jéssica Cardoso de Souza,1 James Wilfred Navalta,4 Jonato Prestes11Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 4University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USAAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and its association with obesity and sarcopenia in elderly Brazilian women. Two hundred and seventy-two sedentary women with a mean age of 66.75 ± 5.38 years were recruited for participation in this study. Obesity was determined by both body mass index and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA evaluations. Sarcopenic obesity diagnosis was established from the ratio between fat-free mass and body surface area as obtained by DXA. There was no association of obesity with sarcopenic obesity (P = 0.424. In contrast, sarcopenia was significantly related to sarcopenic obesity (P < 0.001, although most of the elderly women with sarcopenia (n = 171 did not exhibit sarcopenic obesity. These results highlight the importance of diagnosing sarcopenic obesity as elderly women exhibiting sarcopenia could be either eutrophic or obese.Keywords: sarcopenic obesity, aging, obesity, sarcopenia, health

  16. Effect of periodized high intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and attitudes towards hunger in active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max=22.5±4.4 years and 40.1±5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (N.=32, age and VO2max=25.6±4.4 years and 40.6±4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (P>0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (P=0.04) with HIIT, and gender x time (P=0.03) and gender x time x regimen interactions (P=0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (P=0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.

  17. THE SMALL BODY GEOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Benjamin; McMahon, Jay

    2017-10-01

    The Small Body Geophysical Analysis Tool (SBGAT) that we are developing aims at providing scientists and mission designers with a comprehensive, easy to use, open-source analysis tool. SBGAT is meant for seamless generation of valuable simulated data originating from small bodies shape models, combined with advanced shape-modification properties.The current status of SBGAT is as follows:The modular software architecture that was specified in the original SBGAT proposal was implemented in the form of two distinct packages: a dynamic library SBGAT Core containing the data structure and algorithm backbone of SBGAT, and SBGAT Gui which wraps the former inside a VTK, Qt user interface to facilitate user/data interaction. This modular development facilitates maintenance and addi- tion of new features. Note that SBGAT Core can be utilized independently from SBGAT Gui.SBGAT is presently being hosted on a GitHub repository owned by SBGAT’s main developer. This repository is public and can be accessed at https://github.com/bbercovici/SBGAT. Along with the commented code, one can find the code documentation at https://bbercovici.github.io/sbgat-doc/index.html. This code documentation is constently updated in order to reflect new functionalities.SBGAT’s user’s manual is available at https://github.com/bbercovici/SBGAT/wiki. This document contains a comprehensive tutorial indicating how to retrieve, compile and run SBGAT from scratch.Some of the upcoming development goals are listed hereafter. First, SBGAT's dynamics module will be extented: the PGM algorithm is the only type of analysis method currently implemented. Future work will therefore consists in broadening SBGAT’s capabilities with the Spherical Harmonics Expansion of the gravity field and the calculation of YORP coefficients. Second, synthetic measurements will soon be available within SBGAT. The software should be able to generate synthetic observations of different type (radar, lightcurve, point clouds

  18. Body Composition Assessment and Nutritional Status Evaluation in Men and Women Portuguese Centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Silva, A; Matos, A; Valente, A; Gil, Â; Alonso, I; Ribeiro, R; Bicho, M; Gorjão-Clara, J

    2016-03-01

    To assess body composition, nutritional status and its differences between genders in a sample of Portuguese centenarians. Observational cross-sectional study. Centenarians recruited in Portugal, able to give informed consent. A total of 252 subjects, with a median age of 100 years, mostly women (77.8%) who accepted to participate in the study, during the period of 2012 to 2014. Anthropometric data collected (weight, height, BMI, waist circumference, hip and waist/hip ratio) were evaluated according to WHO criteria. A portable tetrapolar bioimpedance analyzer was used to calculate body composition and to assess resting metabolism. Nutritional status was evaluated according to three different criteria: BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage using anthropometric equations and bioimpedance. We observed an overall mean weight of 51.02±11.03Kg, height of 1.55±0.07m and a BMI of 21.07±3.69Kg/m2. For most of the evaluated parameters, we found substantial differences between genders. The prevalence of underweight and overweight were 25.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Only 5 subjects were obese. Overweight subjects were mostly men (W=10.6% vs. M=22.6%), whereas women were more underweight (W=28.7% vs. M=13.2%). When considering the waist circumference, 26.5% were above the cut-off value. Most of centenarians (72.9%) had a healthy level of visceral fat. This measurement was highly correlated with waist circumference (r= 0.687, pobesity in study population was 6.0% with no gender differences (p = 0.225). Obesity prevalence using anthropometric equations was higher (Deurenberg: 77.7% and Gallagher: 42.8%) than the obtained value by bioimpedance analysis, although according to Bland-Altman analysis both equations showed a good agreement (Deurenberg: 95.8% and Gallagher: 97%) with bioimpedance method. The prevalence of hypohydration (12.9%) was tendentiously higher in women compared to men (W= 15.4% vs. M= 5.0%, p=0.087). Despite the frequency of osteoporosis was higher

  19. Body composition in severe refractory asthma: comparison with COPD patients and healthy smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Minas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important parameter for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD whereas the association between asthma and obesity is not fully understood. The impact of severe refractory asthma (SRA on fat free mass (FFM has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 213 subjects (70 healthy smokers, 71 COPD patients and 72 asthma patients without significant comorbidities were included in the study. In all patients, body composition assessment (using bioelectrical impendance analysis, skinfold and anthropometric measurements and spirometry were performed. Differences in fat free mass index (FFMI between groups were assessed and determinants of FFMI in asthma were evaluated. Patients with SRA had lower values of FFMI compared to patients with mild-to-moderate asthma [18.0(17.3-18.3-19.5(18.4-21.5, p<0.001], despite the fact that they were more obese. The levels of FFMI in SRA were lower than those of GOLD stage I-III COPD and comparable to those of stage IV COPD patients [18.0(17.3-18.3-18.8(17.8-20.1, p = ns]. These differences were present even after proper adjustments for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and daily use of oral corticosteroids (OCS. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of FFMI in asthmatic patients were age, use of OCS and the presence of SRA, but not smoking, sex or cumulative dose of ICS used. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: SRA is related to the presence of low FFMI that is comparable to that of GOLD stage IV COPD. The impact of this observation on asthma mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.

  20. Emotional Support, Depressive Symptoms, and Age-Related Alterations in Male Body Composition: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Men's Health 40+ Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Walther

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More depressive symptoms and low emotional support have been related to worse body composition. Body composition significantly deteriorates in aging men. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether high emotional support and low depressive symptoms are associated with better body composition and a decelerated age-related deterioration of body composition in aging men. A cross-sectional analysis including 269 self-reporting healthy men aged between 40 and 75 years living in the German-speaking part of Switzerland was conducted. Participants completed questionnaires on emotional support and depressive symptoms. The depression screening instrument was used to form a group with low (N = 225 and moderate (N = 44 depressive symptoms. Body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were measured, and cell proportion (CP, fat mass (FM, and water balance (WB were obtained using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Age-related associations emerged for WHR, CP, FM, and WB, but not for BMI. Emotional support was negatively associated with BMI, WHR, and WB, and only trend-wise with CP and FM. Group comparisons revealed that more depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of CP and higher levels of WB. Both emotional support and depressive symptoms were significant moderators of the association between age and specific measures of body composition such as CP, FM, and WB. However, after correction for multiple testing for moderation analyses only the moderation effects of depressive symptoms on the association between age and WB and CP remained significant. Low depressive symptoms were associated with a better body composition as well as a decelerated decline in body composition and the role of emotional support acting as a buffer against age-related deterioration of body composition merits further investigation.

  1. Validation of a new air displacement plethysmograph for the determination of infant body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, K.G.; Nommsen-Rivers, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    For both clinical and research purposes, it is of great importance to be able to assess infant body composition. However, a safe, simple, non-invasive, and accurate method of estimating infant body composition is not currently available. The 'PEA POD', a new air displacement plethysmograph specially designed to measure the body volume of infants, has been developed by the same research team that developed the BOD POD, which measures body volume in adults. Body density can be calculated from the measurement of body volume and body mass. From body density, the body fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) compartments can be estimated. The purpose of this research study is to validate the accuracy of FM and FFM measurements in infants based on the PEA POD, as compared to the results obtained with estimating FM and FFM from measurement of total body water (TBW). TBW will be calculated using the back extrapolation method with an 18 O tracer. Twenty-five healthy, term infants between two weeks and two months of age and 25 healthy low birth weight infants will be measured by both methods and the results compared. If the PEA POD produces results not significantly different from those based on TBW, it will provide further evidence of this device's potential usefulness in both clinical and research applications. (author)

  2. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  3. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, N; Murphy, M; Ramphul, M; O'Connor, N; Kennelly, M M; Turner, M J

    2011-08-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (pIndian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  4. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  5. Safety of GM crops: compositional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Philip D; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Ridley, William P; Walker, Kate

    2013-09-04

    The compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment program for these materials. The variety and complexity of genetically engineered traits and modes of action that will be used in GM crops in the near future, as well as our expanded knowledge of compositional variability and factors that can affect composition, raise questions about compositional analysis and how it should be applied to evaluate the safety of traits. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a nonprofit foundation whose mission is to provide science that improves public health and well-being by fostering collaboration among experts from academia, government, and industry, convened a workshop in September 2012 to examine these and related questions, and a series of papers has been assembled to describe the outcomes of that meeting.

  6. Association of Television Viewing Time with Body Composition and Calcified Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Singapore Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Khaing Nang

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed.This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman's correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis.In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93 but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31 after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations.Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation.

  7. Association of Television Viewing Time with Body Composition and Calcified Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Mueller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Lim, Yi Ting; Ong, Kai Zhi; Ee, Siqing; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed. This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women) from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman's correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day) was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93) but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31) after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations. Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation.

  8. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, ... using a cast net and were transported live to the Institute of Pure .... Fawole OO, Ogundiran MA, Ayandiran TA, Olagunju OF (2007). Proximate and Mineral Composition in some selected fresh water fishes in Nigeria. Internet J. Food Saf. 9: 52-55.

  9. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furth...

  10. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wallago attu is one of the large freshwater catfish found in Pakistan. The rapid growth and high nutritional quality encouraged investigation into the aquaculture potential of this excellent food fish. It was observed that body size had a positive influence on percent ash, percent fat and percent protein contents (wet weight) but ...

  11. Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Henriksson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.001 of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p ≤ 0.006 associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001 associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p < 0.001, but not of sons (p = 0.65 (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042. In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.

  12. Clinical Assessment of Sarcopenia and Changes in Body Composition During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Omori, Takeshi; Yanagimoto, Yoshitomo; Ohue, Masayuki; Yasui, Masayoshi; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Tomokuni, Akira; Akita, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yano, Masahiko

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in body composition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and investigate whether chemotherapy-related toxicities affect body composition in patients with esophageal cancer. In ninety-four patients who underwent NAC for esophageal cancer, body