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Sample records for analysis body composition

  1. Body Composition Analysis in the Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David R.; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2014-01-01

    Body composition analysis has become a useful tool in both clinical and research settings. Its use in the pediatric population is complicated by the rapid periods of growth and physical development that are characteristic of infancy, childhood, and adolescence. A thorough understanding of the changing nature of body composition during this time is essential for choosing the most appropriate measurement technique for a given individual, population, or clinical question. Growing evidence suggests that tissues such as fat, muscle, and bone are intimately involved in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism. This knowledge, when coupled with advancements in imaging techniques such as MRI and PET-CT, offers the possibility of developing new models of “functional” body composition. These models may prove to be especially important when assessing malnutrition and metabolic risk in patients with chronic disease. PMID:23469390

  2. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  3. Sarcopenia and the Analysis of Body Composition12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the “quality of lean” criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472

  4. BODY COMPOSITE ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL STRUCTURE, CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS USING BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER „TANITA“ TBF-300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the research based on the sample of 56 children with special needs, age 12 to 15, we conducted composite morphological analysis, apropos body composite physical structure analysis using BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER TANITA TBF- 300. Likewise, with Cluster analysis, actually method of conformational criteria (K-Means Cluster Analysis, using values BMI we made the assessment of physical status and fattening up. The gained results present justification, in another words, product of sensory - motor disorder in this population which is manifested with reduced kinesiology activity because of limited various motor task performance. This and similar kind of condition inevitably leads to disorder in structural analysis of physical structure, therefore to fattening up disorder

  5. [Analysis of body composition in patients with Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ting; Li, Lingling; Wu, Qinyan; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; He, Qing

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the differences in body composition between Crohn's disease(CD) patients and healthy subjects as well as the characteristics of human body composition in various types of CD. A total of 57 CD patients were prospectively selected from the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University as the study group, while 51 healthy subjects as the control group. Protein content, mineral content, fat content, lean body mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the two groups were measured by body composition analyzer. Characteristics of CD at different location and different disease activity index were investigated as well. Intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, weight, protein content, fat content, lean body mass, muscle weight, body fat ratio, waist hip ratio, body weight ratio, arm muscle circumference, arm circumference, quality of cells, BMI and basal metabolic rate in CD patients were significantly lower than those in control group(all Pbody mass in ileocolic CD patients were lower than those with small bowel and colonic CD(all Pbody mass in patients with high disease activity index were lower than those in patients with low and medium index, but higher basal metablic rate was found in the former group(all Pbody composition in patients with CD are different from healthy people. Disease location and disease activity index have an impact on protein content, fat content, and lean body mass.

  6. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  7. BODY COMPOSITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A knowledge of the exact chemical composition of .he live animal at any given stage would therefore not only permit a more precise evaluation of feeds, but it could conceivably be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock and would undoubtedly be a use- ful diagnostic tool of metabolic and physiological dis- orders.

  8. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and age-related differences of body composition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Bruna; Laccetti, Roberta; Gerardi, Clara; Trio, Rossella; Perrino, Nunzia Ruggiero; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Siani, Alfonso; Farinaro, Eduardo; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Significant changes in body composition that have important health related effects may occur in the elderly. In this study, we evaluated the bioelectrical characteristics in a large group of apparently healthy Caucasian men in the age range 50-80 years, as a function of age and body mass index. We studied 315 men with ages ranging from 50 to 80 years. They were divided into three groups according to body mass index (kg/m(2)): 18.5-24.9 normoweight (NW); 25.0-29.9 overweight (OW); > or =30 obese (OB), and they were classified in nine age subgroups: 50-59 (young-old, YO); 60-69 (old, O); 70-80 (oldest, OS). Fat-free mass, fat mass and body cell mass were investigated using conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body composition was also assessed by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and the RXc graph method. Body cell mass decreased significantly with age particularly in subgroups of the OW and OB groups (pbioelectrical impedance analysis indicating decreased soft tissue mass (fat-free mass and body cell mass), particularly in OW and OB-OS healthy men. We suggest 70 years of age as a cut-off for significant quantitative and qualitative (tissue electrical properties) body composition modifications. This bioelectrical impedance vector analysis pattern associated with ageing and across the different body mass index categories, may be useful for clinical purposes and can be used in geriatric routine to accurately assess the body composition modifications occurring in the elderly.

  9. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake?Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M.; M?ller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2...

  10. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, A; Heitmann, B L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, inexpensive and non-invasive technique to measure body composition and is therefore suitable in field studies and larger surveys. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an overview of BIA-derived body fat percentages (B...

  11. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  12. Postoperative Changes in Body Composition After Pancreaticoduodenectomy Using Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikamori, Manabu; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Asaoka, Tadafumi; Maeda, Sakae; Hama, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Hirao, Motohiro; Ikeda, Masataka; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Nakamori, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important clinical determinants of outcome after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare changes in the body composition of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), distal gastrectomy (DG), or total gastrectomy (TG). The parameters of body composition were measured using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with an inBody 720 (Biospace Inc. Tokyo. Japan) in 60 patients who had undergone PD (n = 18), DG (n = 30), or TG (n = 12). None of the patients had recurrence or were treated with chemotherapy. Changes between the preoperative data and results and those obtained 12 months after surgery were evaluated. Twelve months after surgery, the body weight change in the PD group was significantly lower than in the TG and DG groups (-1.2 ± 3.8 vs -7.4 ± 4.4 and -4.0 ± 3.2 kg, respectively; p < 0.01 vs TG, p < 0.05 vs DG). The body weight change correlated with the fat mass change in all groups. The type and extent of surgery has a different effect on long-term body weight and body composition. Bioelectric impedance analysis can be used to assess body composition and may be useful for nutritional assessment in patients who have undergone these surgeries.

  13. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either......I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... a watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  14. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Arne; Baeksgaard, L; Hilsted, J

    1997-01-01

    , which depends on the current-absorber thickness. With this system we found a good agreement (r = 0.99) between reference and measured amounts of tissue or fat percentages in a plastic phantom and in smaller (approximately 0.5-4 kg) and larger (approximately 5-20 kg) piles of tissue (ox muscle and lard...... filtration) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis. It has a potential for gaining status as a reference method in the future and may presently be used as a supplement to the traditional methods for body composition analysis....

  15. Estimating body composition from skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance analysis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Battezzati, Alberto; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; Loi, Silvana; Speziali, Chiara; Bisogno, Arianna; Colombo, Carla

    2015-11-01

    The accuracy of body composition estimates based on skinfold thickness measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is not yet adequately explored in cystic fibrosis (CF). Using DXA as reference method we verified the accuracy of these techniques and identified predictors of body composition specific for CF. One hundred forty-two CF patients (age range: 8-31 years) underwent a DXA scan. Body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated from skinfolds, while fat free mass (FFM) from single-frequency 50 kHz BIA. Bland-Altman analysis showed poor intra-individual agreement between body composition data provided by DXA and BF% estimated from skinfolds or FFM estimated from BIA. The skinfolds of the upper arm were better predictors of BF% than BMI, while compared to other BIA measurements the best predictor of FFM was the R-index (Height(2)/Resistance). Due to poor accuracy at individual level, the estimates of body composition obtained from these techniques cannot be part of the standard nutritional assessment of CF patients until reliable CF-specific equations will become available. BMI has limited value in predicting body fatness in CF patients and should be used in combination with other predictors. Skinfolds of the upper arm and R-index are strongly related to BF% and FFM and should be tested in a large CF population to develop specific predictive equations. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Composition Analysis by Using Bioelectrical Impedance in a Young Healthy Chinese Population: Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Jiong-Xian; Yang, Hao; Liu, Jing-Min; Zhen, Xiu-Yuan; Feng, Lian-Jun; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2017-06-01

    To develop a new bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) model for analyzing body composition by using isotope dilution, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference methods in young healthy Chinese populations. Thirty healthy participants were enrolled. Their body composition was analyzed using BIA and 3 reference methods. We established a model that uniformed data from 3 references methods (isotope, MRI, and DEXA) into 1 formula. This model was further validated with 209 participants. The following BIA body composition adjustment model was developed: [Formula: see text], where X represents the impedance index; when K = 1, 2, and 3, Y represents total body water, fat mass, and bone mass, respectively. The prediction accuracy of this formula was 93.3%. By incorporating the data matrix, the protein mass was calculated using BIA: [Formula: see text]. In the verification part of this study, the lean body mass measured using DEXA and BIA was 43.02 ± 8.34 kg and 45.85 ± 8.81 kg, respectively. Analysis indicated that the model fit was extremely favorable ( R 2 = .9997, P < .001). The accuracy of BIA measurement on body composition and protein mass is significantly improved by our work.

  17. Maternal body fluid composition in uncomplicated pregnancies and preeclampsia: a bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staelens, Anneleen S; Vonck, Sharona; Molenberghs, Geert; Malbrain, Manu L N G; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2016-09-01

    Body fluid composition changes during the course of pregnancy and there is evidence to suggest that these changes are different in uncomplicated pregnancies compared to hypertensive pregnancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in maternal body fluid composition during the course of an uncomplicated pregnancy and to assess differences in uncomplicated pregnancies versus hypertensive pregnancies by using a bio-impedance analysis technique. Body fluid composition of each patient was assessed using a multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analyser. Measurements were performed in 276 uncomplicated pregnancies, 34 patients with gestational hypertension, 35 with late onset preeclampsia and 11 with early onset preeclampsia. Statistical analysis was performed at nominal level α=0.05. A longitudinal linear mixed model based analysis was performed for longitudinal evolutions, and ANOVA with a post-hoc Bonferroni was used to identify differences between groups. Measurements showed that total body water (TBW), intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) and ECW/ICW significantly increase during the course of pregnancy. Late onset preeclampsia is associated with a higher TBW and ECW as compared to uncomplicated pregnancies, the ECW/ICW ratio is higher in preeclamptic patients compared to uncomplicated pregnancies and gestational hypertension, and ICW is not different between groups. Body fluid composition changes differently during the course of uncomplicated pregnancies versus hypertensive pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Viviane; Avelar, Ivan Silveira de; Andrade, Sara Rosa de Sousa; Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Silva, Maria Sebastiana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p

  19. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  20. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  1. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for the assessment of two-compartment body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, R; Mereu, E; Comandini, O; Ibanez, M E; Marini, E

    2014-11-01

    This review is directed to define the efficacy of bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for assessing two-compartment body composition. A systematic literature review using MEDLINE database up to 12 February 2014 was performed. The list of papers citing the first description of BIVA, obtained from SCOPUS, and the reference lists of included studies were also searched. Selection criteria included studies comparing the results of BIVA with those of other techniques, and studies analyzing bioelectrical vectors of obese, athletic, cachectic and lean individuals. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria. The ability of classic BIVA for assessing two-compartment body composition has been mainly evaluated by means of indirect techniques, such as anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Classic BIVA showed a high agreement with body mass index, that can be interpreted in relation to the greater body mass of obese and athletic individuals, whereas the comparison with BIA showed less consistent results, especially in diseased individuals. When a reference method was used, classic BIVA failed to accurately recognize FM% variations, whereas specific BIVA furnished good results. Specific BIVA is a promising alternative to classic BIVA for assessing two-compartment body composition, with potential application in nutritional, sport and geriatric medicine.

  2. Impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of the body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrino Edilson Serpeloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the studies of body composition, it has been observed that several factors can interfere with the estimates of relative body fat using the skinfold thicknesses method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of body composition by skinfold thicknesses measurements. Two hundred and fifty nine male subjects (23.3 ± 2.9 years took part of the study. Nine skinfold thicknesses were measured (abdominal, subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, biceps, midaxillary, chest, medial calf, and thigh using the Lange (USA and the Cescorf (Brazil calipers with accuracy of 1.0 and 0.1 mm, respectively. Significant differences were found in the comparison between the two calipers on all the investigated skinfold thicknesses (1.8 to 31.0% with highest values obtained by the Lange caliper (p < 0.01. When these values were applied to four different predictive equations, developed by different researchers, the body fat estimate was significantly modified (p < 0.01, resulting in differences of 5.2 to 6.9%. Results indicate that the use of different skinfold calipers may maximize the errors of estimation produced by different predictive equations used for the analysis of body composition.

  3. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    OpenAIRE

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, Mar?a ?.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 +/- 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrie...

  4. Accuracy of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for predicting body composition in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Hanawa, Satoshi; Murakami, Haruka; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Tanimoto, Michiya; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy for predicting body composition using single-frequent segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) between pre- and postmenopausal women. A total f 559 Japanese women aged 30-88yr were divided into 4 groups by questionnaire: natural menopause, pathological menopause, regular menstruation, or irregular menstruation. The measurement values by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used as a reference of the body composition. In terms of the results, regardless of the menopausal status, BIA slightly but significantly overestimated the percentage of body fat (standard error of estimate: 5.3%-6.7%) and the leg lean soft tissue mass (LSTM; 5.1%-6.1%), and underestimated the LSTM in the whole body (6.2%-7.6%) and arm (2.8%-3.7%). The absolute values of the predictive error for leg LSTM were significantly higher in postmenopausal groups than in the premenopausal ones. The corresponding values for the whole body and arm LSTM, and the percentage of body fat were higher in premenopausal groups than in postmenopausal ones. In conclusion, the predictive accuracy of BIA for postmenopausal women is not inferior to that for premenopausal ones, unless we target the leg LSTM. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  6. Assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance analysis and anthropometrics in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out...

  7. Evaluation of segmental body composition by gender in obese children using bioelectric impedance analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate segmental body composition of children diagnosed with obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis method in terms of different gender. Methods: 48 children, aged between 6-15 years, 21 of whom were boys while 27 were girls, diagnosed with obesity in Erciyes University Medical Faculty Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic were included in our study from April to June in 2011. Those over 95 percentile were defined as obese group. Tanita BC-418 device was used to analyze the body composition. Results: As a result of bioelectrical impedance analysis, lean body mass and body muscle mass were found to be statistically significantly higher in obese girls compared with obese boys. However, lean mass of the left arm, left leg muscle mass and basal metabolic rate were found to be statistically significantly lower in obese girls compared with obese boys. Conclusion: Consequently, it may be suggest that segmental analysis, where gender differences are taken into account, can provide proper exercise pattern and healthy way of weight loss in children for prevention of obesity and associated diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetics and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Feasibility of MR-Based Body Composition Analysis in Large Scale Population Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne West

    Full Text Available Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects.3,000 participants in the in-depth phenotyping arm of the UK Biobank imaging study underwent a comprehensive MR examination. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with the dual-echo Dixon Vibe protocol, covering neck to knees. Subjects were scanned with six slabs in supine position, without localizer. Automated body composition analysis was performed using the AMRA Profiler™ system, to segment and quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT and thigh muscles. Technical quality assurance was performed and a standard set of acceptance/rejection criteria was established. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all volume measurements and quality assurance metrics.Of the 3,000 subjects, 2,995 (99.83% were analysable for body fat, 2,828 (94.27% were analysable when body fat and one thigh was included, and 2,775 (92.50% were fully analysable for body fat and both thigh muscles. Reasons for not being able to analyse datasets were mainly due to missing slabs in the acquisition, or patient positioned so that large parts of the volume was outside of the field-of-view.In conclusion, this study showed that the rapid UK Biobank MR-protocol was well tolerated by most subjects and sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource.

  9. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  10. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  11. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis in obese women before and after bariatric surgery: changes in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; Camelo, José Simon; dos Santos, José Ernesto; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Salgado, Wilson; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    Because of the inefficacy of standard methods for the evaluation of body composition of grade III obese individuals, it is difficult to analyze the quality of weight loss after bariatric surgery in these patients. Electrical bioimpedance vector analysis and the RXc graph uses crude resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) values, like components of the Z vector, to monitor variations in body fluid and the nutritional status of obese individuals. Using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and the RXc graph, the objective of the present study was to evaluate long-term changes in weight and body composition of obese women after Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery. A study was conducted on 43 grade III obese women submitted to bariatric surgery. Anthropometric and bioimpedance (800 mA-50 kHz) data were obtained during the preoperative period and 1, 2, 3, and 4 y after surgery. BIVA was performed by plotting resistance and reactance values corrected for body height (R/H and Xc/H, Ohm/m) as bivariates on the RXc graph. BIVA software was used to plot the vectors of the RXc plane. Surgery promoted changes in body composition, with a reduction of fat mass and of fat-free mass. During the postoperative period, the vectors demonstrated migration to the right lower quadrant of the graph, corresponding to the classification of cachexia and water retention. Weight loss due to surgery results in an important reduction of fat-free mass characterized by the position of most individuals in the cachexia quadrant throughout the postoperative period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rigid-body-spring model numerical analysis of joint performance of engineered cementitious composites and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmurovska, Y.; Štemberk, P.; Křístek, V.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of effectiveness of using engineered cementitious composites with polyvinyl alcohol fibers for concrete cover layer repair. A numerical model of a monolithic concaved L-shaped concrete structural detail which is strengthened with an engineered cementitious composite layer with polyvinyl alcohol fibers is created and loaded with bending moment. The numerical analysis employs nonlinear 3-D Rigid-Body-Spring Model. The proposed material model shows reliable results and can be used in further studies. The engineered cementitious composite shows extremely good performance in tension due to the strain-hardening effect. Since durability of the bond can be decreased significantly by its degradation due to the thermal loading, this effect should be also taken into account in the future work, as well as the experimental investigation, which should be performed for validation of the proposed numerical model.

  13. Assessment of gender differences in body composition and physical fitness scoring in Saudi adults by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dokhi, Laila; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a global problem that is reaching epidemic proportions. Body composition is an important parameter for humans because previous studies indicate high values of body fat as a predictor of mortality. The aim of the study was to assess gender differences in body composition and physical fitness in Saudi adult population. This epidemiological cross-sectional study included 411 healthy adult Saudi subjects aged 18-72 years (mean +/- SD, 36.91 +/- 15.22). All participants underwent body composition analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, with a commercially available body analyzer (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). Measurements included body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, target weight, fat control, muscle control and fitness scoring based on target values. The mean BMI of the whole study population was 27.22 +/- 5.65 (median = 26.80, range = 15.6-55.4). The mean fitness score was 69.3 +/- 8.48 (median = 71.0, range = 29-99). Significant gender differences were observed in BMI, fitness score, percent body fat, and other parameters of body composition. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity, percent body fat (%BF) and poor fitness is high in Saudi population with significant gender differences. In this regard, public awareness programs including exercise and diet teaching are required at large scale to cope up with the growing burden of obesity.

  14. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James W

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that eating small, frequent meals enhances fat loss and helps to achieve better weight maintenance. Several observational studies lend support to this hypothesis, with an inverse relationship noted between the frequency of eating and adiposity. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss a meta-analysis with regression that evaluated experimental research on meal frequency with respect to changes in fat mass and lean mass. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated meal frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. Feeding frequency was positively associated with reductions in fat mass and body fat percentage as well as an increase in fat-free mass. However, sensitivity analysis of the data showed that the positive findings were the product of a single study, casting doubt as to whether more frequent meals confer beneficial effects on body composition. In conclusion, although the initial results of this meta-analysis suggest a potential benefit of increased feeding frequencies for enhancing body composition, these findings need to be interpreted with circumspection. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Assessment methods of body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment has an important role in many fields of medicine, in evaluation of health status of the individual, as well as in sports sciences as a part of physiological profile of athletes. There are several methods for body composition assessment, which provide indirect data on the body structure. For instance in anthropometry, simple techniques such as skinfold measurements provide simply, quick and nonexpensive assessment of body fat mass. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is described as a method with rising validity, especially for measurement in regional body composition. The value of BIA in routine clinical terms is still limited, while DXA has potential of becoming new golden standard for body composition assessment. More sophisiticated methods such is MRI have advantage over other techniques for estimation of regional body composition, since it provides the only accurate and viable approach for the estimation of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. This method is limited to experimental studies on smaller group of individuals, since it is expensive and not available to routine assessment. Combination of more methods may be the best approach for obtaining accurate results and informations about health status of individual.

  16. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p<0.001. The bioimpedance variables also presented significant higher values in this group. Significant difference was found in the confidence interval of the vector analysis performed for both the patients and healthy individuals (p<0.0001. The tolerance intervals showed that 55.20% of the patients were dehydrated, 10.30% presented visible edema, and 34.50% were within normal levels of hydration. Bioimpedance and vector analysis revealed that 52% of the patients presented decreased cell mass while 14.00% presented increased cell mass. CONCLUSIONS: the differences in the body composition of patients and healthy individuals were revealed through bioimpedance and vector analysis but not through their measures of arm circumference and arm muscle area.

  17. Assessment of body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis in Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Yu Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA as a means of assessing body composition in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS. Segmental, multifrequency BIA was performed on 30 patients with PWS (16 males and 14 females; mean age: 8.1 ± 3.9 years; age range: 2.9–19.6 years using eight tactile electrodes. No patient had received growth hormone treatment prior to baseline measurements. Standard deviation scores for height, weight, and body mass index were –0.96 ± 1.29, 2.28 ± 2.66, and 3.14 ± 2.74, respectively. Percentages of body fat, total body water, and soft lean mass were 45.9 ± 10.8%, 36.6 ± 7.3%, and 49.9 ± 9.9%, respectively. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with the body mass index standard deviation score (r = 0.665, p < 0.01. Follow-up BIA was also performed on five patients who received growth hormone therapy (duration of treatment: 1.5–4.6 years. All of these patients showed reductions in their body fat percentages after treatment. BIA confirmed a significantly higher percentage of body fat in patients with PWS compared with normal children. These findings and the follow-up data can be used to develop quality care strategies for patients with PWS.

  18. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Rajashekaraiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various amounts of short fibers (glass and carbon and particulate fillers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, silicon carbide (SiC, and alumina (Al2O3 were systematically introduced into the thermoplastic copolyester elastomer (TCE matrix for reinforcement purpose. The mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and Tan δ by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and three-body abrasive wear performance on a dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester have been investigated. For abrasive wear study, the experiments were planned according to L27 orthogonal array by considering three factors and three levels. The complex moduli for TCE hybrid composites were pushed to a higher level relative to the TCE filled PTFE composite. At lower temperatures (in the glassy region, the storage modulus increases with increase in wt.% of reinforcement (fiber + fillers and the value is maximum for the composite with 40 wt.% reinforcement. The loss modulus and damping peaks were also found to be higher by the incorporation of SiC and Al2O3 microfillers. The routine abrasive wear test results indicated that TCE filled PTFE composite exhibited better abrasion resistance. Improvements in the abrasion resistance, however, have not been achieved by short-fiber and particlaute filler reinforcements. From the Taguchi’s experimental findings, optimal combination of control factors were obtained for minimum wear volume and also predictive correlations were proposed. Further, the worn surface morphology of the samples was discussed.

  19. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  20. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Churruca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  1. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  2. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blasio, Francesca; de Blasio, Francesco; Miracco Berlingieri, Giulia; Bianco, Andrea; La Greca, Marta; Franssen, Frits M E; Scalfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients. MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer) in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz) impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients. After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients ( P impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age ( r =-0.316 and r =-0.346, respectively). Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength ( P impedance ratio was reduced ( P impedance ratio could give valuable information on cellular integrity and muscle quality.

  3. Current body composition measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Thaisa; Gallagher, Dympna

    2017-10-01

    The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots. Available techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need for methods that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. Based on the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians, and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning prior to conception, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods with application beginning during gestation, that is, fetal development.

  4. Pediatric body composition analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helba, Maura; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Pediatric applications of body composition analysis (BCA) have become of increased interest to pediatricians and other specialists. With the increasing prevalence of morbid obesity and with an increased awareness of anorexia nervosa, pediatric specialists are utilizing BCA data to help identify, treat, and prevent these conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine the fat mass (FM) and lean tissue mass (LTM), as well as bone mineral content (BMC). Among the readily available BCA techniques, DXA is the most widely used and it has the additional benefit of precisely quantifying regional FM and LTM. This review evaluates the strengths and limitations of DXA as a pediatric BCA method and considers the utilization of DXA to identify trends and variations in FM and LTM measurements in obese and anorexic children. (orig.)

  5. Pediatric body composition analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helba, Maura; Binkovitz, Larry A.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric applications of body composition analysis (BCA) have become of increased interest to pediatricians and other specialists. With the increasing prevalence of morbid obesity and with an increased awareness of anorexia nervosa, pediatric specialists are utilizing BCA data to help identify, treat, and prevent these conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine the fat mass (FM) and lean tissue mass (LTM), as well as bone mineral content (BMC). Among the readily available BCA techniques, DXA is the most widely used and it has the additional benefit of precisely quantifying regional FM and LTM. This review evaluates the strengths and limitations of DXA as a pediatric BCA method and considers the utilization of DXA to identify trends and variations in FM and LTM measurements in obese and anorexic children. (orig.)

  6. Body composition in heavy smokers: comparison of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, O; Reznick, A Z; Keidar, Z; Karkabi, K; Aizenbud, D

    2015-01-01

    Smokers tend to have lower body mass index, on one hand, and increased abdominal obesity, on the other hand. Also, low levels of lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) were found among older smokers compared with non-smokers. This altered body composition and its consequences raise the need for simple and reliable methods for assessment of body composition in smokers. This study aimed to compare body composition assessment by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (sBIA) with the reference method, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Body composition was measured by sBIA (Tanita BC-545) and DEXA (Hologic) in 49 heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes/day, mean age 43.8±12.0). The comparison included correlations and differences between measurements obtained using the two methods as well as the Blande-Altman analysis. Whole-body fat mass (FM) and LM measured by the two methods were found to be highly correlated (r>0.9, p0.9, p<0.001). However, sBIA significantly overestimated LM of the trunk and legs and underestimated the appendicular FM percentage. Verified by DEXA, sBIA provides reliable measures of whole-body LM, FM, and trunk FM in heavy smokers. A lesser degree of agreement was found for BMC, appendicular LM, and FM.

  7. Effect of anti IL-12/23 on body composition: results of bioelectrical impedance analysis in Caucasian psoriatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Marco; D'Adamio, Simone; Pastorino, Roberta; Andreoli, Angela; Servoli, Stella; Bianchi, Luca; Talamonti, Marina

    2018-03-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an inexpensive, non-invasive and fast method to assess body composition. Little is known of the interaction between anti IL 12/23 treatment and body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate 6- and 12-month changes in body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition assessed by BIA in psoriatic patients treated with anti-IL-12/23. Demographic and clinical data were collected for each enrolled patient. Physical examination, anthropometric assessment, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) assessment and body composition by BIA (single-frequency 50 kHz), were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months of treatment. A significant decrease in body weight, compared to baseline, in BMI, Fat Mass at month 6 and a significant increase at month 12 for body cellular mass (BCM) and Phase Angle (PhA) were observed. In addition, a significant increase was found for intracellular water. At baseline, psoriatic patients showed a lower BCM and a lower mean PhA score. During ustekinumab treatment, the mean PhA and BCM scores increased with an improvement in psoriatic disease. Thus, ustekinumab can be an effective drug for improving not only psoriasis but also the general clinical status of patients.

  8. How Healthy Is Homeschool? An Analysis of Body Composition and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Laura S.; Mitchell, Katy; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Background: Public school children regularly participate in school-based physical activity, physical education, and fitness testing. However, almost 2 million American children are homeschooled. The purpose of this research was to assess the body composition of elementary school-aged homeschool children and their corresponding cardiovascular…

  9. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  10. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  11. Maternal obesity and offspring body composition by indirect methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Castillo-Laura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reviewed the evidence that assessed the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and/or gestational weight gain and offspring body composition in childhood. A systematic review was conducted. Cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials measuring offspring body composition by indirect methods were included. Meta-analyses of the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on offspring fat-free mass, body fat percent, and fat mass were conducted through random-effects models. 20 studies were included, most of which reported a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring body fat. Standardized mean differences in body fat percent, fat mass and fat-free mass between infants of women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI and those of overweight/obese women were 0.31 percent points (95%CI: 0.19; 0.42, 0.38kg (95%CI: 0.26; 0.50, and 0.18kg (95%CI: -0.07; 0.42, respectively. Evidence so far suggests that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight is associated with higher offspring adiposity.

  12. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  13. Bioelectric impedance analysis of body composition of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Christopher Bismarck; Chukwu, Bartholomew Friday; Ikefuna, Anthony Nnaemeka; Ezenwosu, Osita Uchenna; Emodi, Ifeoma Josephine

    2015-05-01

    Body composition indices are widely used to evaluate growth and nutrition in children, particularly those with sickle cell anemia (SCA), who are known to have impaired growth, impaired skeletal maturation, and delayed puberty. The current study is aimed at determining the body composition of children with SCA. Consecutive selection of SCA children aged 6 to 18 years, who served as subjects and their age and gender matched children with HbAA (controls), selected using multi-stage systematic sampling. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the pediatric hematology and oncology clinic. Bioelectric impedance analysis was used to determine the body composition parameters, including weight, body fat percentage (BFP), visceral fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), skeletal muscle percentage, and resting metabolic rate. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 at P Children with SCA, particularly the older males, have impaired body composition indices. There is a need to conduct further studies to determine the longitudinal aspects of growth as well as quantitative and qualitative assessment of nutritional intake in children with SCA, which will inform higher alimentation requirements for HbSS children as compared with HbAA individuals.

  14. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Blasio F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesca de Blasio,1 Francesco de Blasio,2,3 Giulia Miracco Berlingieri,2 Andrea Bianco,3,4 Marta La Greca,1 Frits M E Franssen,5 Luca Scalfi1 1Department of Public Health, Medical School, “Federico II” University of Naples, 2Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Section, Clinic Center, Private Hospital, Naples, 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 4Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 5Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, the NetherlandsBackground: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA is a technique that measures body impedance (Z at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz. Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality.Objectives: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients.Methods: MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients.Results: After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001 and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively. Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005, respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005, forced

  15. Body composition analysis within 1 month after gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Kawabe, Taiichi; Hirohito, Fujikawa; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Sato, Tsutomu; Oshima, Takashi; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2016-04-01

    A significant body weight loss (BWL) is observed during 1 month after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. However, it remains unclear which body component mainly accounts for the weight loss. Two-hundred forty-four patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer between May 2010 and October 2013 were examined. Body weight and composition were evaluated by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer within 1 week before surgery (first measurement), at 1 week after surgery (second measurement), and at 1 month after surgery (third measurement). The changes in the early period were defined as the differences until the second measurement, and those in the late period were defined as the differences from the second to the third measurement. Total BWL within 1 month was -3.4 kg, and the rate of body weight at 1 month to the preoperative body weight was 94.1 %. BWL was significantly greater in the early period than in the late period (-2.1 kg vs -1.2 kg, p < 0.001). In the early period, loss of lean body mass was significantly greater than loss of fat mass (-1.5 kg vs -0.6 kg, p < 0.001). The same trend was observed when the subset of patients who had surgical morbidities was excluded. BWL during the first week after surgery was significantly greater than that during the subsequent 3 weeks. Furthermore, loss of lean body mass accounted for a significant part of the BWL during the first week.

  16. Assessment of body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazegül Pekin, A; Yılmaz, S A; Kerimoğlu, Ö Seçilmiş; Çelik, G; Doğan, N U; Beyhekim, H; Çelik, Ç

    2015-01-01

    More than half of pregnant women suffer from nausea and vomiting, in 0.5-1% of the pregnant women, if nausea and vomiting are severe and persistent, condition can progress to hyperemesis. We evaluated the fluid volume parameters in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum, before and after treatment using the bioelectrical impedance vectors. A total of 70 pregnant women who had weight loss exceeding 5% of pre-pregnancy body weight were recruited for the study in the first trimester. The measurement of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis parameters was performed on the day of hospitalisation before any treatment and after treatment at 24 h and 72 h with the same procedure. Total body water, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-free mass index increased after treatment at 24 h (P hyperemesis gravidarum, significant body composition changes occur and fluid replacement therapy performed during a short period of time, such as 24 h, provides improvement in body composition.

  17. Body composition analysis by air displacement plethysmography in normal weight to extremely obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Kazanna C; Anthony, Steven J; Thornton, John C; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2014-04-01

    To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m(2) ), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Fat-free mass (FFM, kg), fat mass (FM, kg), and body fat (BF, %) were analyzed with both technologies. All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.95, P < 0.001 for FFM, FM, and BF), but Bland-Altman analyses revealed significant bias (P < 0.01 for all). ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P < 0.01 for all). BMI explained 27% of the variance in differences between FFM measurements (P < 0.001), and 37 and 33% of the variances in differences between FM and BF measurements, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). Within normal weight and overweight classifications, ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P < 0.001 for all), but the opposite occurred within the extremely obese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (P < 0.05 for all). Body composition analyses by the two technologies were strongly congruent, but systematically different and influenced by BMI. Caution should be taken when utilizing ADP to estimate body composition parameters over a wide range of BMI classifications that include extremely obese. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  19. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Dietary Intake and Body Composition of Female Athletes over a Competitive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nepocatych

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine dietary intake, body composition and bone mineral density changes at the beginning and end of a competitive season in female athletes of sports that have been less represented in the literature. NCAA Division I basketball (n=10 and softball (n=10 players mean age (20±1 years completed 3-day food records at the beginning and end of season. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean energy intake was significantly lower at the beginning compared to the end of the season (1925±466 vs. 2326±782 kcals/day; p=0.02. Lean, fat, and total body mass, and total and regional BMD were unaltered from the beginning to the end of season (p>0.05. Macronutrient consumption by percentage did not change across the season (p>0.05 with aggregate data equalling 3.5±1.3, 1.2±0.6, and 1.2±0.5 g/kg/day for carbohydrate, fat, and protein respectively. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were below the recommended levels. Low intake of fibre (17±6.3 g/day and high sodium (3700±1120 mg/day also raise concerns. Despite no major alterations in body composition or BMD many female athletes’ diets in the sports investigated while living on campus failed to meet recommended intake levels suggesting maximal athletic performance and health parameters may be stunted due to poor nutrient choices.

  1. Validity of near infrared body composition analysis in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, S L; Nielsen, D H; Janz, K F; Wu, Y T; Cook, J S; Hansen, J R

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Futrex 5000A near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer for the assessment of body composition in children and adolescents. Forty-eight subjects (24 boys and 24 girls) with a mean age of 12.7 +/- 2.7 yr underwent three methods of body composition testing: NIR, densitometry by hydrostatic weighing (HYDRO), and skinfold anthropometry (SKF). Percent body fat (%BF) and fat free mass (FFM) derived from the Lohman's age-adjusted Siri equation served as the criterion. Within session test-retest reliability was determined for the NIR device for all subjects and between-week reliability was evaluated for all test methods in 14 subjects. Based on the excellent within- and between-session reliability (ICC ranged from 0.907-0.999), the system offers the potential of obtaining longitudinal data in growth and development studies. However, the significant mean differences, moderate correlations with the criterion (r = 0.62-0.71) and inflated standard errors of estimate (SEE = 4.9-5.5% BF, 2.2-2.9 kg FFM) and total prediction errors (TE = 5.5-8.0% BF, 2.7-3.7 kg FFM) indicate that refinement of prediction equations is needed to establish the measurement validity. Continued research with expanded populations is needed to further demonstrate and evaluate the utility of this device.

  2. Diet composition and body composition in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, L M; Davies, P S

    2000-07-01

    In studies of adult humans and in animal models, dietary intakes of the macronutrients, particularly fat, are related to body composition; however, data on children are more scarce. We sought to determine whether diet composition is related to percentage body fat in children aged 1.5-4.5 y. In 77 preschool children, a 4-d weighed-food record was used to determine intakes of total energy and energy from each macronutrient. An oxygen-18 dilution method was used to calculate percentage body fat. Habitual physical activity level was determined by calculating the ratio of total energy expenditure (from stable isotope analyses) to predicted basal metabolic rate. Dietary intake and body-composition data were analyzed to evaluate whether diet composition was related to body fat. Further analyses incorporating physical activity level were performed. Percentage body fat was not significantly correlated with dietary intake variables (total energy or percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate, or protein) and did not differ significantly among 3 increasing levels of each dietary intake variable by analysis of variance. In multiple regression analysis, physical activity level was related to body fat whereas diet composition was not. We found no relations between dietary intakes of total energy, fat, carbohydrate, or protein and percentage body fat in children. The relation between fat intake and body fat may develop over time and may not be evident in preschool children. Energy expenditure, in particular physical activity level, may have a greater influence on body composition in early childhood.

  3. Body Composition of Nigerian Diabetics using Bioimpedance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA) is an objective, safe, rapid and non-invasive method for assessing quantity of body fat. 136 diabetic patients registered at the diabetes clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital had their body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. There were 76 males and 60 ...

  4. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Subhedar; R. K. Sinha; Saumi Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was cond...

  5. Relationship between water compartments, body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and blood pressure in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łątka, Monika; Wójtowicz, Kinga; Drożdż, Tomasz; Dąbrowska, Ewelina; Kwinta, Przemko; Pietrzyk, Jacek Antoni; Drożdż, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is becoming more widely used in clinical practice as a method of body composition analysis. In healthy children blood pressure (BP) changes with age, body mass and height. Until now the relation between water compartments and BP in healthy children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition as well as water compartments (measured by electrical bioimpedance) and BP. The study was performed in 72 children (32 girls and 40 boys) aged: 6-7 and 12-13 years. BIA measurements were taken using Nutriguard Data Input device with Bianostic electrodes and following parameters were calculated: total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), intra- and extracellular water (ICW, ECW) and phase angle alpha. BP was measured twice using the oscillometric method. Elevated BP > 95th percentile for gender, age and height were observed in 9 children. A significant correlation between systolic (S)BP and TBW (R = 0.4023, p obesity (BMI > 95th percentile). Growth disorders were found in 6 children (5 of them being undernourished). In the studied children SBP and DBP correlated with water compartments, lean body and fat masses derived from BIA. The problem of unrecognized hypertension and malnutrition in children and adolescents is still underestimated in the Polish population.

  6. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasiak Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zofia Ignasiak,1 Malgorzata Radwan-Oczko,2 Krystyna Rozek-Piechura,3 Marta Cholewa,4 Anna Skrzek,5 Tomasz Ignasiak,6 Teresa Slawinska1 1Department of Biostructure, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 2Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Physiotherapy and Occupation Therapy in Internal Diseases, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 4DENTARAMA Dentistry Center, Walbrzych, Poland; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Ocupation Therapy in Motor-System Dysfunction, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 6Karkonosze State Higher School in Jelenia Gora, Jelenia Gora, Poland Objective: The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods: The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD, and gingival bleeding. Results: In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric

  7. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  8. Comparative analysis of the protein compositions between wild type and body color mutant of helicoverpa armigera adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Chen Jin'e; Liu Yan; Wang Yongqiang; Liu Peigang; Meng Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the fineness and regulation mechanism of body color mutant of Helicoverpa armigera Hbner, the protein composition differences between adult of dominant mutant, recessive mutant and wild type were studied using the SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that the protein composition of the dominant mutant and wild type had little difference. However, there were obvious differences between the recessive mutant and wild-type. Three specific stripe were chosen for mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, and two types of proteins related to energy metabolism and cytoskeleton were identified. These findings suggested that the two types of proteins may be associated with occurrence and regulation of body color mutant traits of H. armigera. (authors)

  9. Body Composition and Kinematic Analysis of the Grab Start in Youth Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin Ahmet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to compare the kinematic variables in youth swimmers during the grab start between sexes and to investigate the relationship between body composition and kinematic variables of the participants. Six female (Mage = 13.71 ± 0.49 yrs and seven male (Mage = 14.00 ± 1.07 yrs swimmers participated in this study. All participants were required to perform grab start tests in random order (three trials by each participant, while the best attempt was analyzed. Nineteen kinematic parameters consisting of block time, flight time, flight distance, total time, total distance, horizontal and vertical displacement of the center of mass (CM at take-off, horizontal and vertical displacement of the CM at entry, height of take-off and entry, relative height of take-off, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM at take-off, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM at entry, angle of take-off, angle of entry and angle of knee at block were analyzed. Out of the 19 evaluated kinematic parameters, a statistical difference between the female and male group was found only in the total distance. Therefore, both female and male groups are considered as only one group and merged after analyzing the results. Statistical analysis showed positive and negative correlations between horizontal / vertical velocity of CM at take-off and several kinematic variables (e.g. angle of entry (rhorizontal = -.868, p=.000 / rvertical = .591, p=.02, total distance (rhorizontal = .594, p=.02 / rvertical = .54, p=.04, and height of take-off (rvertical = .888, p=.000, respectively. On the other hand, positive and negative correlations were found between somatotype components and several kinematic variables (e.g. horizontal displacement of CM at entry (rendomorphy = -.626, p=.013, angle of entry (rmesomorphy = -.686, p=.005 / rectomorphy = .52, p=.047, total distance (rendomorphy = -.626, p=.012, and height of take-off (rendomorphy = -.633, p=.011

  10. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This re...... and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind........ This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...

  11. Prevalence of malnutrition and validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, Moon J; Bultink, Irene E M; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Voskuyl, Alexandre E

    2017-06-01

    The aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and to validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against whole-body DXA for the assessment of body composition in patients with SSc. Malnutrition was defined as BMI 10% in combination with a fat-free mass index (FFMI) 70 years). Body composition was assessed in 72 patients with whole-body DXA (Hologic, Discovery A) and BIA (Bodystat Quadscan 400). The manufacturer's equation and the Geneva equation were used to estimate FFM and fat mass. The agreement between BIA and whole-body DXA was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient. Malnutrition was found in 8.3% (n = 6) and low FFMI in 20.8% (n = 15) of patients. The mean difference in FFM between BIA and DXA applying the Geneva equation was 0.02 ( s . d . 2.4) kg, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98). Limits of agreement were ±4.6 kg. The manufacturer's equation was less adequate to predict FFM. This study shows a relatively low prevalence of malnutrition in comparison with other studies, but a high prevalence of low FFMI, underlining the necessity of measuring body composition in SSc patients with a standardized and validated method. A good validity of BIA in determining FFM was found at a group level, while at an individual level the FFM may vary by 4.6 kg. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Postoperative changes in body composition after gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Teruo; Mizutani, Takashi; Okuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Itsuro; Tokunaga, Akira; Tajiri, Takashi; Barbul, Adrian

    2005-03-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important clinical determinants of outcome after gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to compare changes in the body composition of patients undergoing laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG), distal gastrectomy (DG), or total gastrectomy (TG). Total body protein and fat mass were measured by performing a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis using an inBody II machine (Biospace, Tokyo, Japan) in 108 patients (72 men, 36 women) who had undergone LAG (n=24), DG (n=39), or TG (n=45). Changes between the preoperative data and results obtained on postoperative day 14 and 6 months after surgery were then evaluated. The mean preoperative body weight of the subjects was 57.6+/-10.7 kg, the mean body mass index was 22.5+/-3.4 kg/m(2), and the mean fat % was 24%+/-7%. In the immediate postoperative period (14 days), the body weight loss in the LAG group was significantly lower than in the DG and TG groups (2.5+/-0.9 kg vs. 3.5+/-1.8 kg and 4.0+/-1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.0001). The body composition studies demonstrated a loss of total body protein rather than fat mass. Six months after surgery, body weight was not significantly different from preoperative values in the LAG and DG groups (-1.2+/-3.8 kg and -1.8+/-4.7 kg, respectively), but had decreased by 8.9+/-4.9 kg in the TG group (P=0.0003). A body composition analysis revealed a loss of fat mass in the DG and TG groups. The patients who underwent gastrectomy lost body protein mass during the early postoperative period. The type and extent of surgery has an effect on long-term body mass and composition. Bioelectric impedance analysis can be used to assess body composition and may be useful for nutritional assessment in patients who have undergone gastrectomy.

  13. Validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition changes after bariatric surgery in premenopausal morbidly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Silvia; Belfiore, Annamaria; Di Somma, Carolina; Mauriello, Concetta; Rossi, Annalisa; Pizza, Genoveffa; De Rosa, Annalba; Prestieri, Giovanni; Angrisani, Luigi; Colao, Annamaria

    2010-03-01

    In obese patients, subtle variations of the hydration of soft tissues can propagate errors in bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measures of body composition. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is a useful method to evaluate tissue hydration. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a purely restrictive bariatric surgical procedure resulting in lower fat-free mass (FFM) loss than other malabsorptive or mixed intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6- and 12-month changes in body composition in a homogeneous group of premenopausal morbidly obese women treated by LAGB by comparing the results of conventional BIA and BIVA with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Forty-five consecutive morbidly obese patients (mean age, 35.3 +/- 9.1 years; body mass index, 34.5-48.7 kg/m(2)) were prospectively evaluated at the Endocrinology Unit of the Department of Molecular and Clinical Endocrinology and Oncology. The LAGB device (Lap-Band System; Inamed Health, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) was inserted laparoscopically. Soft tissue hydration was evaluated by BIVA; fat mass (FM) and FFM were evaluated by BIA (BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Firenze, Italy) and by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500A S/N 45622; Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA). Pre- and postoperative BIVA vectors indicated a normal hydration in all patients. Postoperatively, the excess of body weight loss was mainly due to a decrease in FM. The regression analysis of BIA and DXA methods at baseline and at the 6- and 12-month follow-up for FM r (2) values were 0.98, 0.94, and 0.99, respectively (p obese subjects. BIA tends to overestimate FFM, but this effect is reduced along with the weight loss during the follow-up. Under the stable hydration, the BIA method may be useful as an alternative to DXA in a selected clinical setting when repeated comparisons of body composition are required.

  14. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Karen; Stonehouse, Welma

    2015-02-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) may result in negative energy balance and weight loss through increased energy expenditure and lipid oxidation. However, results from human intervention studies investigating the weight reducing potential of MCTs, have been mixed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of MCTs, specifically C8:0 and C10:0, to long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on weight loss and body composition in adults. Changes in blood lipid levels were secondary outcomes. Randomized controlled trials >3 weeks' duration conducted in healthy adults were identified searching Web of Knowledge, Discover, PubMed, Scopus, New Zealand Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL until March 2014 with no language restriction. Identified trials were assessed for bias. Mean differences were pooled and analyzed using inverse variance models with fixed effects. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using I(2) statistic. An I(2)>50% or Pweight (-0.51 kg [95% CI-0.80 to -0.23 kg]; Preductions in body weight and composition without adversely affecting lipid profiles. However, further research is required by independent research groups using large, well-designed studies to confirm the efficacy of MCT and to determine the dosage needed for the management of a healthy body weight and composition. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Body composition: Where and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disease-related malnutrition: influence on body composition and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pirlich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a frequent clincal problem with severe medical and economic impact. This work summarizes studies on body composition analysis, risk factors, prevalence and prognostic impact of malnutrition. The diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with chronic liver disease is hampered by hyperhydration and requires body composition analysis. Using four different methods for body composition analysis (total body potassium counting, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analy...

  17. Predicting body composition using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis in healthy Asian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Shien; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Dwyer, Gregory B; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Huang, Ai-Chun; Lai, Chung-Liang; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2015-05-19

    The objectives of this study were to develop a regression model for predicting fat-free mass (FFM) in a population of healthy Taiwanese individuals using standing foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and to test the model's performance in predicting FFM with different body fat percentages (BF%). We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure the FFM of 554 healthy Asian subjects (age, 16-75 y; body mass index, 15.8-43.1 kg/m(2)). We also evaluated the validity of the developed multivariate model using a double cross-validation technique and assessed the accuracy of the model in an all-subjects sample and subgroup samples with different body fat levels. Predictors in the all-subjects multivariate model included height(2)/impedance, weight, year, and sex (FFM = 13.055 + 0.204 weight + 0.394 height(2)/Impedance - 0.136 age + 8.125 sex (sex: Female = 0, Male = 1), r(2) = 0.92, standard error of the estimate = 3.17 kg). The correlation coefficients between predictive FFM by BIA (FFMBIA) and DXA-measured FFM (FFMDXA) in female subjects with a total-subjects BF%DXA of 40 % were r = 0.87, 0.90, 0.91, 0.89, and 0.94, respectively, with bias ± 2SD of 0.0 ± 3.0 kg, -2.6 ± 1.7 kg, -1.5 ± 2.8 kg, 0.5 ± 2.7 kg, and 2.0 ± 2.9 kg, respectively. The correlation coefficients between FFMBIA and FFMDXA in male subjects with a total-subjects BF%DXA of 30 % were r = 0.89, 0.89, 0.90, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively, with bias ± 2SD of 0.0 ± 3.2 kg, -2.3 ± 2.5 kg, -0.5 ± 3.2 kg, 0.4 ± 3.1 kg, and 2.1 ± 3.2 kg, respectively. The standing foot-to-foot BIA method developed in this study can accurately predict FFM in healthy Asian individuals with different levels of body fat.

  18. Postoperative changes in body composition--comparison of bioelectrical impedance analysis and magnetic resonance imaging in bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Mirko; Färber, Julia; Haneder, Stefan; Michaely, Henrik; Kienle, Peter; Hasenberg, Till

    2015-02-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) result in a marked reduction of body fat and also visceral fat (VF) decrease up to 36 % in 16 weeks. This leads to positive effects on cardiometabolic risks, which are known to be correlated with the occurrence of VF. This study analyzed the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for determining VF in the postoperative course. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for prediction of whole VF in bariatric patients on the basis of a single slice. Eighteen patients, who underwent RYGB (18), were included in this study. MRI and BIA measurements were performed 1 day before surgery, as well as 6, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery. During the postoperative observation period, we found a significant decrease of both subcutaneous fat (SF) and VF. SF measured by MRI was highly correlated with the level of body fat shown by BIA. In contrast, the VF volume, as determined by MRI, showed no correlation with the body fat measured by BIA. In addition, we were able to show a significant correlation between MRI measured VF volume and the particular single-layer fat area. Compared to the widely used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure changes in body composition after bariatric procedures, a single-layer MRI was superior in determining VF. Single-layer MRI may be a better tool to recognize changes of VF after bariatric procedures.

  19. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Shanei, Ahmad; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Khoshhali, Mehri; Asgari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body composition prediction equations by various anthropometric measures instead of a whole body DXA scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 143 adult patients underwent DXA evaluation of the whole body. The anthropometric indices were also measured. Datasets were split randomly into two parts. Multiple regression analysis with a backward stepwise elimination procedure was used as the derivation set and then the estimates were compared with the actual measurements from the whole-body scans for a validation set. The SPSS version 20 for Windows software was used in multiple regression and data analysis. Results: Using multiple linear regression analyses, the best equation for predicting the whole-body fat mass (R2 = 0.808) included the body mass index (BMI) and gender; the best equation for predicting whole-body lean mass (R2 = 0.780) included BMI, WC, gender, and age; and the best equation for predicting trunk fat mass (R2 = 0.759) included BMI, WC, and gender. Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets. PMID:25709999

  20. Assessment of body composition in subjects with metabolic syndrome comparing single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and bioelectrical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetens, Lieselotte; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Helgegren, Hannah; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Uusitupa, Matti; Åkesson, Björn; Önning, Gunilla

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between body composition measurements made with two methods-single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The body composition measurements using SF-BIA and BIS were performed seven times during 6 months on 41 patients (13 men and 28 women) with metabolic syndrome who were taking part in a dietary intervention study. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] fat mass (FM) and median [interquartile range (IQR)] FM% measured with SF-BIA were 32.7 (6.7) kg and 36.3 (30.3-39.3)%, respectively, compared with 38.2 (8.7) kg and 40.9 (35.5-45.6)%, respectively, using BIS. The median (IQR) fat-free mass (FFM) was 60.0 (53.3-73.5) kg according to SF-BIA and 55.4 (48.8-66.5) kg according to BIS. These results obtained with the two methods were significantly different (P<0.001). Still highly significant correlations were found between the results obtained with SF-BIA and BIS for FM and FFM (all r≥0.89, P<0.001). Using Bland-Altman analysis, the bias was found to be -5.4 (4.1) kg for FM, -5.5 (3.7)% for FM%, and 5.4 (4.1) kg for FFM. Rather wide limits of agreement were found for FM, FM%, and FFM. Body composition data obtained using SF-BIA and BIS in subjects with metabolic syndrome were highly correlated but not interchangeable. FM was systematically lower when using SF-BIA than when using BIS.

  1. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Body Composition Assessment in the Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEMERATH, ELLEN W.; FIELDS, DAVID A.

    2017-01-01

    Body composition assessment provides a sharper picture of the human biological response to genetic and environmental influences than measures of body size and weight. Infant body composition is particularly important as a marker of fetal adaptation and developmental programming of subsequent health and disease, but until recently, the range of options for measuring infant body composition was relatively narrow. The purpose of this Toolkit: Methods in Human Biology review is to provide a comprehensive overview of methods of body composition methods currently used in infants 0 to 2 years of age, including anthropometric prediction equations, air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), isotope dilution, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Information on the reliability, validity, and accuracy of the methods is provided. Unique aspects of infant physiology and behavior create challenges for body composition assessment, but this review provides guidance on suitable testing approaches and environments that may aid researchers in this important area of investigation. PMID:24424686

  3. Proximal electrode placement improves the estimation of body composition in obese and lean elderly during segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Masuo, Yoshihisa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Hashii, Yukako; Ando, Soichi; Okayama, Yasuko; Morimoto, Taketoshi; Kimura, Misaka; Oda, Shingo

    2009-09-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an affordable, non-invasive, easy-to-operate, and fast alternative method to assess body composition. However, BIA tends to overestimate the percent body fat (%BF) in lean elderly and underestimate %BF in obese elderly people. This study examined whether proximal electrode placement eliminates this problem. Forty-two elderly men and women (64-96 years) who had a wide range of BMI [22.4 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD), range 16.8-33.9 kg/m(2)] and %BF (11.3-44.8%) participated in this study. Using (2)H and (18)O dilutions as the criterion for measuring total body water (TBW), we compared various BIA electrode placements; wrist-to-ankle, arm-to-arm, leg-to-leg, elbow-to-knee, five- and nine-segment models, and the combination of distal (wrists or ankles) and proximal (elbows or knees) electrodes. TBW was most strongly correlated with the square height divided by the impedance between the knees and elbows (H(2)/Z (proximal); r = 0.965, P impedance ratio of the proximal to distal segments (P/D) as an independent variable, none of the BIA methods examined showed any systematic bias against %BF. In addition, all methods were able to estimate TBW more accurately (e.g., in the wrist-to-ankle model, from R(2) = 0.90, SEE = 1.69 kg to R(2) = 0.94, SEE = 1.30 kg). The results suggest that BIA using distal electrodes alone tends to overestimate TBW in obese and underestimate TBW in lean subjects, while proximal electrodes improve the accuracy of body composition measurements.

  4. Body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis and prevalence of obesity in a school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Flores, Ricardo; González-Pérez, Brian; Cornejo-Barrera, Judith; Llanas-Rodríguez, José Daniel; Cruz-Hernández, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    the interest in the direct assessment of adiposity is increasing. The aim was to assess fat mass and lean mass by bioelectrical impedance, and to analyze the correlation between percentage Body Fat-body mass index and percentage Body Fat-WC, and determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of school-age children. a cross-sectional study was performed in 360 children; differences between the sexes were assessed by independent t-test. Prevalence of overweight and obesity were calculated according to body mass index and two percentage body fat-based cutoffs. there was no significant gender difference in body mass index (p = 0.91), while the boys were both taller and presented more abdominal obesity but with lower mean percentage body fat (p obesity in boys (12.7 % and 17.7 %) than girls (12 % and 13.9 %). it is an urgent need to implement preventive actions among school children to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity, which constitutes an important health problem in Mexico.

  5. Body composition to climate change studies - the many facets of neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra,S.

    2008-11-17

    In-vivo body composition analysis of humans and animals and in-situ analysis of soil using fast neutron inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture induced prompt-gamma rays have been described. By measuring carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O), protein, fat and water are determined. C determination in soil has become important for understanding below ground carbon sequestration process in the light of climate change studies. Various neutron sources ranging from radio isotopic to compact 14 MeV neutron generators employing the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique or micro-second pulsing were implemented. Gamma spectroscopy using recently developed digital multi-channel analyzers has also been described.

  6. Application of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess rabbit's body composition from 25 to 77 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, A; García-Ruiz, A I; Fuentes-Pila, J; Nicodemus, N

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop prediction equations for assessing, in vivo, the whole body composition of growing rabbits. The accuracy of the models obtained was externally validated with independent data sets. One hundred fifty rabbits grouped at 5 different ages (25, 35, 49, 63, and 77 d) were used. A body composition analyzer with 4 terminals was used to obtain resistance (Rs; Ω) and reactance (Xc; Ω) values. The distance between internal electrodes (D; cm), body length (Len; cm), and live BW (g) were also registered. Average values of Rs, Xc, impedance (Z), Len, D, and BW were 83.5 ± 23.1 Ω, 18.2 ± 3.8 Ω, 85.6 ± 22.9 Ω, 30.6 ± 6.9 cm, 10.8 ± 3.1 cm, and 1,454 ± 845 g, respectively. At each selected age, animals were slaughtered, ground, and frozen (-20°C) for determining water, fat, CP, ash, and GE (70.5 ± 3.36%, 27.7 ± 7.61% DM, 54.9 ± 5.41% DM, 11.1 ± 1.55% DM, and 2,267 ± 183 kJ/100 g DM, on average, respectively). Fat and GE contents increased with the age, whereas CP, ash, and water contents decreased. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the prediction equations, using BW, Len, and Z data as independent variables. Equations obtained to estimate water (g), CP (g), fat (g), ash (g), and GE (MJ) had coefficient of determination () values of 0.99, 0.99, 0.97, 0.98, and 0.99, respectively, and the relative mean prediction error (RMPE) was 2.79, 6.15, 24.3, 15.2, and 10.6%, respectively. When water was expressed as a percentage, the and RMPE were 0.85 and 2.30%, respectively. When prediction of the content of protein (% DM), fat (% DM), ash (% DM), and energy (kJ/100 g DM) was done, values of 0.79, 0.83, 0.71, and 0.86, respectively, for and 5.04, 18.9, 12.0, and 3.19%, respectively, for RMPE were obtained. It could be concluded that bioelectrical impedance analysis is a good, noninvasive method to estimate, in vivo, whole body composition of growing rabbits from 25 to 77 d of age.

  7. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometry for the determination of body composition in rats: effects of high-fat and high-sucrose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Neto Angéloco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the impedance of Wistar rats treated with high-fat and high-sucrose diets and correlate their biochemical and anthropometric parameters with chemical analysis of the carcass. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed a standard (AIN-93, high-fat (50% fat or high-sucrose (59% of sucrose diet for 4 weeks. Abdominal and thoracic circumference and body length were measured. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine resistance and reactance. Final body composition was determined by chemical analysis. RESULTS: Higher fat intake led to a high percentage of liver fat and cholesterol and low total body water in the High-Fat group, but these changes in the biochemical profile were not reflected by the anthropometric measurements or bioelectrical impedance analysis variables. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analysis changes were not observed in the High-Sucrose group. However, a positive association was found between body fat and three anthropometric variables: body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference. CONCLUSION: Bioelectrical impedance analysis did not prove to be sensitive for detecting changes in body composition, but body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference can be used for estimating the body composition of rats.

  8. Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Dwyer, Gregory B; Chao, Shu-Ping; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a common method for assessing body composition in research and clinical trials. BIA is convenient but when compared with other reference methods, the results have been inconclusive. The level of obesity degree in subjects is considered to be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the measurements. A total of 711 participants were recruited in Taiwan and were sub-grouped by gender and levels of adiposity. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement of the measured body fat percentage (BF%) between BIA and DXA. The BF% measured by the DXA and BIA methods (Tanita BC-418) were expressed as BF%DXA and BF%BIA8, respectively. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences in BF% measurements by gender and levels of adiposity. The estimated BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in the all subjects, male and female groups were all highly correlated (r = 0.934, 0.901, 0.916, all Pobesity degree in both male and female subjects.

  9. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  10. [Analysis of the nutritional status and body composition of persons with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro-Martin, I; Onrubia-Gonzalez-De la Aleja, J; Garicano-Vilar, E; Cadenato-Ruiz, C; Hernandez-Villa, I; Rodriguez-Alonso, P; Pina-Ordunez, D; Fortunez-Garrido, E; Villacorta-Perez, P; Sanz-Guisado, C; Galdine-Martin, P; Bonilla-Navarro, M A; Figueroa-Borque, M; Garcia de Angulo-Garcia de Arboleya, B

    2016-06-01

    Intellectual disability refers to substantial limitations in intellectual functioning, affecting 0.7-1.5% of the population. People with intellectual disability have higher rates of obesity, since caloric values and nutritional status, are deficient. To determine the nutritional habits, analyze the effectiveness of nutritional education and evaluate the possible effect of improvement introducing exercise and nutrition workshops, in a group of people with intellectual disability. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference) assessment was conducted in 47 patients. An ad hoc survey was designed in which exercise habits, medical and dietary history, record of 72 hours (including 2 weekdays and 1 weekend) and the adherence to Mediterranean diet data were collected. The workshops of exercise and nutrition counted with a structure of theoretical-practical explanation and games. 76.1% presented weight excess at baseline. After the intervention values of total body fat (-0.94 ± 4.4%) and visceral fat (-0.86 ± 2%), weight (-0.4 ± 3.3 kg) and body mass index (-0.2 ± 1.6 kg/m2) decreased, more in women than in men. 60.5% of subjects did not meet a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. After nutritional intervention, a significant difference (p Nutritional education and physical exercise workshops are useful for working with this group, achieving significant changes to prevent obesity and improve their health.

  11. Anthropometric indexes outperform bioelectrical impedance analysis-derived estimates of body composition in identification of metabolic abnormalities in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Verónica; Jiménez, Amanda; Flores, Lílliam; Ortega, Emilio; Coves, Maria J; Vidal, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The validity of anthropometric indexes in ascertaining the body composition (BC) in morbidly obese (MO) subjects has been questioned. Our objective was to evaluate, in MO subjects, whether bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of BC is more closely associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR) than are classic anthropometric measurements. The setting was a university hospital. The association between anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference [WC]) and BIA (total fat mass [FM] [percentage of FM], truncal FM, android FM) estimates of BC, MS, and IR was evaluated in 784 white MO subjects (212 men and 572 women). BIA estimates were calculated using equations specific for MO subjects developed by our own group and validated against dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of the MS and IR was 78.6% and 88.6%, respectively. The body mass index was greater in women with the MS (P <.001) or IR (P <.001), and the WC was larger in subjects of both genders with the MS or IR (P <.001). Moreover, the WC correlated significantly with all the MS components (P <.05). In contrast, the percentage of FM, truncal FM, and android FM were significantly associated with the MS only in women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis demonstrated the WC as the only significant predictor of the MS or IR (both P <.001). Furthermore, receiver operating curve analysis showed WC was the most accurate BC parameter for the identification of subjects with the MS (area under the curve, WC = .681, P <.001) or IR (area under the curve, WC = .753, P <.001). In MO subjects, the BIA-derived indexes of total and central adiposity were not better predictors of the MS or IR than were traditional anthropometric measurements. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Chao, Shu-Ping; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a common method for assessing body composition in research and clinical trials. BIA is convenient but when compared with other reference methods, the results have been inconclusive. The level of obesity degree in subjects is considered to be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the measurements. A total of 711 participants were recruited in Taiwan and were sub-grouped by gender and levels of adiposity. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement of the measured body fat percentage (BF%) between BIA and DXA. The BF% measured by the DXA and BIA methods (Tanita BC-418) were expressed as BF%DXA and BF%BIA8, respectively. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences in BF% measurements by gender and levels of adiposity. The estimated BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in the all subjects, male and female groups were all highly correlated (r = 0.934, 0.901, 0.916, all P< 0.001). The average estimated BF%BIA8 (22.54 ± 9.48%) was significantly lower than the average BF%DXA (26.26 ± 11.18%). The BF%BIA8 was overestimated in the male subgroup (BF%DXA< 15%), compared to BF%DXA by 0.45%, respectively. In the other subgroups, the BF%BIA8 values were all underestimated. Standing BIA estimating body fat percentage in Chinese participants have a high correlation, but underestimated on normal and high obesity degree in both male and female subjects. PMID:27467065

  13. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE COMPOSITION AND BODY COMPOSITION IN HAMMER THROWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Terzis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01. The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05. Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01. Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05. These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance

  14. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Subhedar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.

  15. Assessment methods in human body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2008-09-01

    The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth.

  16. Assessment methods in human body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Recent findings Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. Summary There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth. PMID:18685451

  17. Association of body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis with metabolic risk factor clustering among middle-aged Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Body composition monitor (BCM based on the bioelectric impedance analysis is very convenient to use. However, whether percentage body fat (PBF and visceral fat index (VFI that acquired by BCM are superior to anthropometric measures is unknown. The study explored whether PBF and VFI are better than anthropometric indexes [body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist circumference to height ratio(WHtR] in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in a representive sample across China which included 9574 Chinese men and women that were investigated in 2009–2010. PBF and VFI were compared with the BMI, WC, and WHtR through the area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and logistic regression. The results showed that the AUC for VFI was higher than BMI and PBF but lower than WHtR and WC in both men and Women. The AUC for WHtR, WC, VFI, BMI and PBF was 0.710, 0.706, 0.700, 0.693, 0.656 in men and 0.705, 0.699, 0.698, 0.675, 0.657 in women, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs tended to increase with all the indexes. The curve of ORs for WHtR was steepest and the curve for PBF was flattest in both men and women; the curve for VFI was similar to WC in women, but flatter than WC in men. From the data we concluded that VFI seems better than BMI and PBF, but not superior to WC and WHtR in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in the middle-aged Chinese.

  18. Muscle Fibre Type Composition and Body Composition in Hammer Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01). The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05). Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01). Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05). These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key points Well-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls. Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance. The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation. PMID:24149393

  19. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  20. Cross-validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y T; Nielsen, D H; Cassady, S L; Cook, J S; Janz, K F; Hansen, J R

    1993-05-01

    The reliability and validity of measurements obtained with two bioelectrical impedance analyzers (BIAs), an RJL Systems model BIA-103 and a Berkeley Medical Research BMR-2000, were investigated using the manufacturers' prediction equations for the assessment of fat-free mass (FFM) (in kilograms) in children and adolescents. Forty-seven healthy children and adolescents (23 male, 24 female), ranging in age from 8 to 20 years (mean = 12.1, SD = 2.3), participated. In the context of a repeated-measures design, the data were analyzed according to gender and maturation (Tanner staging). Hydrostatic weighing (HYDRO) and Lohman's Siri age-adjusted body density prediction equation served as the criteria for validating the BIA-obtained measurements. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC > or = .987) demonstrated good test-retest (between-week) measurement reliability for HYDRO and both BIA methods. Between-method (HYDRO versus BIA) correlation coefficients were high for both boys and girls (r > or = .97). The standard errors of estimate (SEEs) for FFM were slightly larger for boys than for girls and were consistently smaller for the RJL system than for the BMR system (RJL SEE = 1.8 kg for boys, 1.3 kg for girls; BMR SEE = 2.4 kg for boys, 1.9 kg for girls). The coefficients of determination were high for both BIA methods (r2 > or = .929). Total prediction errors (TEs) for FFM showed similar between-method trends (RJL TE = 2.1 kg for boys, 1.5 kg for girls; BMR TE = 4.4 kg for boys, 1.9 kg for girls). This study demonstrated that the RJL BIA with the manufacturer's prediction equations can be used to reliably and accurately assess FFM in 8- to 20-year-old children and adolescents. The prediction of FFM by the BMR system was acceptable for girls, but significant overprediction of FFM for boys was noted.

  1. Textile electrode straps for wrist-to-ankle bioimpedance measurements for Body Composition Analysis. Initial validation & experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, J C; Ferreira, J; Seoane, F; Buendia, R; Lindecrantz, K

    2010-01-01

    Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is one of the non-invasive monitoring technologies that could benefit from the emerging textile based measurement systems. If reliable and reproducible EBI measurements could be done with textile electrodes, that would facilitate the utilization of EBI-based personalized healthcare monitoring applications. In this work the performance of a custom-made dry-textile electrode prototype is tested. Four-electrodes ankle-to-wrist EBI measurements have been taken on healthy subjects with the Impedimed spectrometer SFB7 in the frequency range 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The EBI spectroscopy measurements taken with dry electrodes were analyzed via the Cole and Body Composition Analysis (BCA) parameters, which were compared with EBI measurements obtained with standard electrolytic electrodes. The analysis of the obtained results indicate that even when dry textile electrodes may be used for EBI spectroscopy measurements, the measurements present remarkable differences that influence in the Cole parameter estimation process and in the final production of the BCA parameters. These initial results indicate that more research work must be done to in order to obtain a textile-based electrode that ensures reliable and reproducible EBI spectroscopy measurements.

  2. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  3. Calibration of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition assessment in Ethiopian infants using air-displacement plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibæk, R; Kæstel, P; Skov, S R; Christensen, D L; Girma, T; Wells, J C K; Friis, H; Andersen, G S

    2015-10-01

    Assessment of infant body composition (BC) is crucial to understand the consequences of suboptimal nutritional status and postnatal growth, and the effects of public health interventions. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a feasible, relatively inexpensive and noninvasive method for assessing BC. However, very little research has been conducted in low- and middle-income populations, where efforts to prevent or treat malnutrition in early life are a public health priority. We aimed to develop equations for predicting fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) based on BIA in 0- to 6-month-old Ethiopian infants. The study comprised a total of 186 BC assessments performed in 101 healthy infants, delivered at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Infant air-displacement plethysmography (IADP) was the criterion method, whereas weight, length, sex, age and an impedance index (L(2)/Z50) were predictors. Prediction equations were developed using stepwise multiple linear regression and the accuracy was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation approach. A linear regression model based on body weight, age and sex predicted FFM, estimated by IADP, with an adjusted R(2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.94 and 200 g, respectively. Adding impedance index to the model resulted in a significantly improved model fit (R(2)=0.95; RMSE=181 g). For infants below 3 months of age, inclusion of impedance index did not contribute to an improved model fit for predicting FFM compared with a model already comprising weight, sex and age. The derived equations predicted FFM with acceptable accuracy and may be used in future field surveys, epidemiological studies and clinical trials conducted in similar sub-Saharan African population groups aged 0-6 months.

  4. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  5. Practical Considerations for Body Composition Assessment of Adults with Class II/III Obesity Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis or Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Stoklossa, Carlene A; Forhan, Mary; Padwal, Raj S; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Prado, Carla M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the practical considerations for body composition assessment of adults with class II/III obesity. Studies assessing adults (18-64 years) with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m 2 with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and/or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Five considerations were identified: variances in equipment and technology, equipment weight capacity, subject positioning, tissue penetration, and total body hydration. In subjects with BMI ≥35 kg/m 2 , BIA overestimated fat-free mass with scaling errors as BMI increased. DXA provided accurate and reliable body composition measures, but equipment-related barriers prevented assessment of some taller, wider, and heavier subjects. BIA is an unreliable method to assess body composition in class II/III obesity. Advancements in DXA technology (e.g., iDXA), methodology (e.g., subject positioning, longer scan times), and more inclusive testing criteria (e.g., use equipment limits not just BMI) may improve access and understanding of body composition in this cohort.

  6. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  7. The Impact of Feet Callosities, Arm Posture, and Usage of Electrolyte Wipes on Body Composition by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Morbidly Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Roekenes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the impact of feet callosities, arm posture, and use of electrolyte wipes on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA in morbidly obese adults. Methods: 36 morbidly obese patients (13 males, aged 28-70 years, BMI 41.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2 with moderate/severe feet callosities participated in this study. Body composition (percent body fat (%BF was measured while fasting using multi-frequency BIA (InBody 720®, before and after removal of callosities, with and without InBody® electrolyte wipes and custom-built auxiliary pads (to assess arm posture impact. Results from BIA were compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP, BodPod®. Results: Median %BF was significantly higher with auxiliary pads than without (50.1 (interquartile range 8.2 vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1; p Conclusion: Arm posture has a significant impact on %BF assessed by BIA, contrary to the presence of feet callosities and use of electrolyte wipes. Arm posture standardization during BIA for body composition assessment is, therefore, recommended.

  8. The Impact of Feet Callosities, Arm Posture, and Usage of Electrolyte Wipes on Body Composition by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Morbidly Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roekenes, Jessica; Strømmen, Magnus; Kulseng, Bård; Martins, Catia

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of feet callosities, arm posture, and use of electrolyte wipes on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in morbidly obese adults. 36 morbidly obese patients (13 males, aged 28-70 years, BMI 41.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2) with moderate/severe feet callosities participated in this study. Body composition (percent body fat (%BF)) was measured while fasting using multi-frequency BIA (InBody 720®), before and after removal of callosities, with and without InBody® electrolyte wipes and custom-built auxiliary pads (to assess arm posture impact). Results from BIA were compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP, BodPod®). Median %BF was significantly higher with auxiliary pads than without (50.1 (interquartile range 8.2) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); p interquartile range 9.1) vs. 50.0 (interquartile range 7.9); NS) or use of wipes (49.6 (interquartile range 8.5) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); NS). No differences in %BF were found between BIA and ADP (49.1 (IQR: 8.9) vs. 49.3 (IQR: 9.1); NS). Arm posture has a significant impact on %BF assessed by BIA, contrary to the presence of feet callosities and use of electrolyte wipes. Arm posture standardization during BIA for body composition assessment is, therefore, recommended. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Body Composition Comparison: Bioelectric Impedance Analysis with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Adult Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Joe; Ball, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the DF50 (ImpediMed Ltd, Eight Mile Plains, Queensland, Australia) bioelectrical impedance analysis device using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as the criterion in two groups: endurance athletes and power athletes. The secondary purpose was to develop accurate body fat…

  10. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    Background: Birth weight and high weight gain the first years of life is associated with later body composition and increased risk of obesity. A detailed description of body composition at 3 years of age and factors related to the distribution of fat and fat-free mass is interesting, since body...... with later increased adiposity risk. Growth in early childhood is highly related to the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. Objectives: Data used in this thesis is from the prospective cohort study SKOT which includes 330 children examined at 9, 18 and 36 months of age. The main objective with this Ph......D study was to look at which factors were related to body composition at 3 years of age with a special focus on factors related to later obesity risk. A methodological objective was to be able to predict body composition by using bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry. Secondly, an objective...

  11. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Yasushi; Saito, Manabu; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao

    2012-05-03

    Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. We recruited patients (n = 204), aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD) years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (%) body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  12. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) of the association of the Japanese Kampo concept "Suidoku" (fluid disturbance) and the body composition of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Aya; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Zukeyama, Niina; Mukae, Haru; Furusyo, Norihiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-10-22

    In Japanese Kampo medical practice, suidoku (fluid disturbance) is one of the most important concepts for selecting the proper medication. Suidoku is an excessive or uneven distribution of fluid that is indicated by splashing sounds and pitting edema. However, few objective reports about suidoku have been published. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) uses resistance values obtained from weak electrical currents to estimate body composition, including intracellular and extracellular water and muscle and fat mass. In this study, we used BIA to search for objective factors that can discriminate the various types of suidoku. Two hundred twenty-nine patients who visited the Kampo Medicine Clinic of Kyushu University Hospital from June 2010 to August 2015 were divided into non-suidoku (n = 180, 80 male and 100 female), splashing sound (n = 32, 8 male and 24 female) and edema groups (n = 17, 5 male and 12 female). Body composition values were taken from the electronic medical records of InBody730 (a vertical, segmental, multi-frequency analyzer by InBody, Tokyo Japan) testing done at the initial visit. Various parameters of the body composition values of female in the non-suidoku and suidoku groups (splashing sound and edema groups) were compared: there were too few male patients to provide significance. The age and body weight were significantly lower in the splashing sound group than in the non-suidoku group (p < 0.05). In contrast, the body weight of the edema group was significantly heavier than that of the non-suidoku group (p < 0.05). In ROC analysis, the percent Body Fat ≤ 27.8 %, Muscle Mass Index of the Trunk ≤ 6.5 kg/m 2 , VFA (Visceral fat area) ≤ 5.4 and BMI ≤ 19.2 kg/m 2 were associated with splashing sound, and Muscle Mass Index of Legs ≥ 4.8 kg/m 2 and BMI ≥ 21.4 kg/m 2 were associated with edema. Our data suggest that the use of this type of BIA to estimate body composition would be a useful

  13. Nutritional status and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis: A cross sectional study in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Ilaria; Pomati, Simone; Maggiore, Laura; Forcella, Marica; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Grande, Giulia; Muzio, Fulvio; Mariani, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of nutritional status and body composition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). A cross-sectional study was performed in a University-Hospital setting, recruiting 59 patients with AD, 34 subjects with MCI and 58 elderly healthy controls (HC). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric parameters (body mass index; calf, upper arm and waist circumferences), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and subjects were grouped by cognitive status and gender. Sociodemographic variables did not differ among the three groups (AD, MCI and HC), except for females' age, which was therefore used as covariate in a general linear multivariate model. MNA score was significantly lower in AD patients than in HC; MCI subjects achieved intermediate scores. AD patients (both sexes) had significantly (p<0.05) higher height-normalized impedance values and lower phase angles (body cell mass) compared with HC; a higher ratio of impedance to height was found in men with MCI with respect to HC. With BIVA method, MCI subjects showed a significant displacement on the RXc graph on the right side indicating lower soft tissues (Hotelling's T2 test: men = 10.6; women = 7.9;p < 0,05) just like AD patients (Hotelling's T2 test: men = 18.2; women = 16.9; p<0,001). Bioelectrical parameters significantly differ from MCI and AD to HC; MCI showed an intermediate pattern between AD and HC. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate if BIVA could reflect early AD-changes in body composition in subjects with MCI.

  14. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights

  15. A comparison between the body composition, carcass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    The body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of 61 Dormers (21 rams and 40 ewes) and 35 South ... The effects of breed, age and live weight on the carcass composition and retail cuts of meat-type lambs have been ..... Some effects of nutrition and castration on meat production from male Suffolk cross.

  16. The interplay between nutrition and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have important effects on body composition and therefore on therapeutic modalities and efforts. Indirectly, these factors may also influence the goals of nutritional therapy. Rapid weight loss due to the loss of body fat and skeletal muscle mass frequently accompanies short-term, self- limiting disease processes like injury and ...

  17. Diet affects body composition of chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, B.

    1994-01-01

    Hatchery-reared salmonids often contain proportionally greater amounts of body lipid (storage fat) and proportionally lesser amounts of body protein (muscle) and ash (bone) than do their wild counterparts of equal size. The effect of body composition on postrelease survival and subsequent return of mature adults is presently unknown. High lipid deposits may benefit the fish by providing reserve energy during adaptation to the wild, or may hinder the fish by delaying

  18. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for assessment of fluid status and body composition in neonates--the good, the bad and the unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, B E

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need for improved technologies to monitor fluid balance and body composition in neonates, particularly those receiving intensive care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis meets many of the criteria required in this environment and appears to be effective for monitoring physiological trends. The literature regarding the use of bioelectrical impedance in neonates was reviewed. It was found that prediction equations for total body water, extracellular water and fat-free mass have been developed, but many require further testing and validation in larger cohorts. Alternative approaches based on Hanai mixture theory or vector analysis are in the early stages of investigation in neonates. Further research is required into electrode positioning, bioimpedance spectroscopy and Cole analysis in order to realise the full potential of this technology.

  19. Parental determinants of neonatal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, N C; Poole, J R; Javaid, M K; Dennison, E M; Robinson, S; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Cooper, C; Sayer, A Aihie

    2007-02-01

    The prevalence of both childhood and adult obesity is rising in the developed world, and there is increasing interest in its underlying causes. A number of studies suggest a positive relationship between birth weight and childhood body mass index, but less is known about specific prenatal environmental influences on more direct measures of obesity. We used data from the Southampton Women's Survey to investigate parental influences on neonatal body composition ascertained by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Participating mothers were characterized in detail (anthropometry, lifestyle, diet) before and during pregnancy; information was also obtained on their partners. The offspring underwent assessment of fat and lean body mass by dual x-ray absorptiometry within 2 wk of birth. Linear regression methods were used to explore the parental determinants of neonatal body composition. Complete data were available for 448 mother-offspring pairs. Taller women and those with higher parity had offspring with increased birth weight, fat, and lean mass (P body fat at birth (all P Maternal size, parity, smoking history, walking speed, and fat stores are independent determinants of neonatal body composition. If these influences are shown to have persisting effects on body composition through to adulthood, they point to novel public health interventions early in life to prevent later obesity.

  20. Comparative analysis between two models of active aging and its influence on body composition, strength levels and quality of life: long-distance runners versus bodybuilders practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Izquierdo-Sánchez, Jose Manuel; Salas-Sánchez, Jesús; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the body composition, strength level, and the quality of life related to the health (QoL) in veteran sportsmen (>35 years old) in relation to sedentary ones (S), and to compare the result in the mentioned variables between two models of sports practice, long-distance runners (LDR) and bodybuilding practitioners (BBP). One hundred forty-eight male participants took part and were distributed into three groups: 47 LDR (age=42.01±6.96 years), 49 BBP (age=45.14±7.04 years), and 47 S (age=43.71±8.75 years). Body composition, upper- and lower-limb strength level, and QoL were assessed. The LDR and BBP obtained better performance in countermovement jump (CMJ) than the S ones (+0.06 m, paging on body composition, the muscle mass is reduced in all groups controlled (LDR, BBP, and S). Additionally, the %fat mass is increased only in S group (pactive aging showed healthier values in BMI and %fat mass as well as greater results in QoL than BBP and S groups. Nevertheless, the LDR group showed similar values to S ones in muscle mass. The regression analysis performed showed that the sedentary habit predicts the %fat mass and CMJ performance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  2. A Handheld and Textile-Enabled Bioimpedance System for Ubiquitous Body Composition Analysis. An Initial Functional Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Javier; Pau, Ivan; Lindecrantz, Kaj; Seoane, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made to promote a healthcare paradigm shift from the traditional reactive hospital-centered healthcare approach towards a proactive, patient-oriented, and self-managed approach that could improve service quality and help reduce costs while contributing to sustainability. Managing and caring for patients with chronic diseases accounts over 75% of healthcare costs in developed countries. One of the most resource demanding diseases is chronic kidney disease (CKD), which often leads to a gradual and irreparable loss of renal function, with up to 12% of the population showing signs of different stages of this disease. Peritoneal dialysis and home haemodialysis are life-saving home-based renal replacement treatments that, compared to conventional in-center hemodialysis, provide similar long-term patient survival, less restrictions of life-style, such as a more flexible diet, and better flexibility in terms of treatment options and locations. Bioimpedance has been largely used clinically for decades in nutrition for assessing body fluid distributions. Moreover, bioimpedance methods are used to assess the overhydratation state of CKD patients, allowing clinicians to estimate the amount of fluid that should be removed by ultrafiltration. In this work, the initial validation of a handheld bioimpedance system for the assessment of body fluid status that could be used to assist the patient in home-based CKD treatments is presented. The body fluid monitoring system comprises a custom-made handheld tetrapolar bioimpedance spectrometer and a textile-based electrode garment for total body fluid assessment. The system performance was evaluated against the same measurements acquired using a commercial bioimpedance spectrometer for medical use on several voluntary subjects. The analysis of the measurement results and the comparison of the fluid estimations indicated that both devices are equivalent from a measurement performance perspective

  3. Differences in body composition, body proportions and timing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in body composition, proportions and timing of puberty between stunted and non-stunted South African adolescents in the North West Province, South Africa. A total of 259 black adolescents (118 boys, 141 girls), aged 13-18 years were measured. The following data were ...

  4. Toward body composition reference data for infants, children, and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2014-05-01

    Growth charts for weight and height have provided the basis for assessment of children's nutritional status for over half a century, with charts for body mass index (BMI) introduced in the 1990s. However, BMI does not provide information on the proportions of fat and lean mass; and within the past decade, growth charts for children's body composition have been produced by using techniques such as skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For public health research, BIA and skinfold thicknesses show negligible average bias but have wider limits of agreement than specialized techniques. For patients, DXA is the best individual method, but multicomponent models remain ideal because they address perturbations in lean mass composition. Data can be expressed in age- and sex-specific SD scores, in some cases adjusting for height. Most such reference data derive from high-income countries, but techniques such as air-displacement plethysmography allow infant body composition growth charts to be developed in low- and middle-income settings, where the data may improve understanding of the effects of low birth weight, wasting, and stunting on body composition. Recent studies suggest that between-population variability in body composition may derive in part from genetic factors, suggesting a universal human body composition reference may not be viable. Body composition growth charts may be extended into adult life to evaluate changes in fat and lean mass through the entire life course. These reference data will improve the understanding of the association between growth, body composition, health, and disease. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Body composition analysis by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in non-obese and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva-Asiova, Z; Boyanov, M A

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare total weight, % body fat (% BF), fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This cross-sectional study included 159 women (mean age: 49.1 +/- 10.0 years) and 124 men (mean age: 51.4 +/- 8.0 years) subdivided according to sex and body mass index (BMI): BMI or = 35 kg/m(2) (40 women and 30 men). Bioelectrical impedance was performed in the fasting state on a Tanita TBF-215 leg-to-leg analyser (Tanita, Tokyo, Japan). Whole-body DXA scans were performed on a Hologic QDR 4500 A bone densitometer (Hologic, Bedford, MA, USA). Total weight, % BF, FM and FFM were tested for intermethod differences. Linear regression and correlation analysis was performed. Limits of agreement and Bland-Altman plots were built. DXA-derived body composition parameters were not significantly different from BIA estimates and were highly correlated (e.g. for FFM, r = 0.82-0.95). In lean individuals, BIA tended to produce lower values for FM and % BF and higher ones for FFM in comparison with DXA. This trend was reversed at BMI > 35 kg/m(2). The correlations decreased with increasing BMI. The limits of agreement were much better in men than in women and increased with increasing BMI in both sexes. Compared with DXA, the leg-to-leg Tanita TBF-215 analyser accurately assessed body composition in a heterogeneous group of both sexes. In the very obese women (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)), BIA measurements should be viewed with caution.

  6. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

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    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women. Body weight, fat mass (FM, percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI, FM index (FMI, FFM index (FFMI, and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI.Simple means (standard deviation of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9 kg/m(2, 24.9 (6.3%, 5.96 (2.09 kg/m(2, 17.4 (1.5 kg/m(2, and 7.29 (0.76 kg/m(2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3 kg/m(2, 31.7 (7.1%, 7.40 (2.61 kg/m(2, 15.3 (1.2 kg/m(2, and 5.86 (0.67 kg/m(2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends, but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends, but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends.The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition

  7. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Satoshi; Shinkai, Shoji; Iijima, Katsuya; Obuchi, Shuichi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kawai, Hisashi; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women). Body weight, fat mass (FM), percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI), FM index (FMI), FFM index (FFMI), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Simple means (standard deviation) of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9) kg/m(2), 24.9 (6.3)%, 5.96 (2.09) kg/m(2), 17.4 (1.5) kg/m(2), and 7.29 (0.76) kg/m(2), respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3) kg/m(2), 31.7 (7.1)%, 7.40 (2.61) kg/m(2), 15.3 (1.2) kg/m(2), and 5.86 (0.67) kg/m(2), respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends), but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends), but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends). The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body

  8. Analysis of body composition and selected lipid parameters in healthy children – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Więch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to perform an analytical evaluation of body composition and selected lipid parameters in a population of healthy children. Material and methods: The study included a group of 81 children (44 boys and 37 girls, mean age 11.56 ± 2.84 years participating in a research project in the Centre for Medical and Natural Sciences Research and Innovation in Rzeszow. Body composition measurement (TANITA BC-420 S MA and lipid profile assessment (Cholestech LDX were performed in all patients. Statistical analysis of the collected material was conducted with Statistica 10.0 (StatSoft. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis of variables. The level of statistical significance was adopted at p < 0.05. Results: A statistically significant difference in fat mass (p < 0.001, fat-free mass (p = 0.003, muscle mass (p = 0.003 and total body water (p < 0.001 was observed between children with normal body weight and overweight or obese children. A significant positive impact of FM (R = 0.09; p = 0.416 and a negative impact of total body water (R = −0.40; p < 0.001 on triglyceride parameters was demonstrated. Additionally, reduced fat mass correlated with a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (R = −0.29; p = 0.009. Conclusions: The study demonstrated differences in the selected components of body composition in a population of healthy children, which allowed to precisely monitor the nutritional status when correlated with the results of lipid profile.

  9. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  10. PHYSIQUE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF GIRLS PRACTISING CONTEMPORARY DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przednowek Karolina H.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physique and body composition are often explored in sport-related research. This is due to the fact that morphological features can be useful for determining a person’s predispositions for practising a given type of physical activity. Dance, as any other sports discipline, has an impact on the physique and motor skills of those who practise it. Most research concerning the physique and body composition of dancers conducted so far has focused on persons practising ballet or competitive ballroom dancing. Investigating these issues in contemporary dancers is a new field of study. The aim of the current study was to examine the physique and body composition of girls aged 14-17 years practising contemporary dance. Material and methods. The study involved 23 girls who trained contemporary dance twice a week for 2 hours. The participants of the study had been training since the age of six. Basic anthropometric measurements were performed. Body composition was analysed based on parameters measured using a Tanita body composition analyser. Conclusions. The analysis found that girls training contemporary dance were characterised by a leptosomatic physique. BMI values in both younger and older contemporary dancers indicated that their weight was normal. Compared to girls who did not practise any particular type of sport, contemporary dancers had a lower weight, a lower body water percentage, and a lower body fat percentage. The dancers were also characterised by a greater circumference of the waist, hips, arm, and chest compared to untrained peers.

  11. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

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    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  12. Body composition estimation from selected slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total...... the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR). Results and Discussion The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single...

  13. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  14. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  15. Comparison of segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the assessment of body composition in a community-dwelling older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miji; Shinkai, Shoji; Murayama, Hiroshi; Mori, Seijiro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the agreement of segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SMF-BIA) for the assessment of whole-body and appendicular fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a community-dwelling Japanese older population. The study population included 551 community-dwelling Japanese older adults (241 men and 310 women) aged between 65 and 87 years. Agreement between SMF-BIA and DXA for whole-body and appendicular body composition was assessed using simple linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. High coefficients of determination (R(2)) were observed for whole-body FM (R(2) = 0.91, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 1.4 kg in men and R(2) = 0.94, SEE = 1.2 kg in women) between SMF-BIA and DXA. The R(2) coefficient for whole-body LSTM was higher in men (R(2) = 0.88, SEE = 1.9 kg) than in women (R(2) = 0.83, SEE = 1.5 kg). There was systematic bias with overestimation of whole-body FM and underestimation of whole-body LSTM by SMF-BIA. Proportional bias was noted for measurement of whole-body FM and LSTM in both men and women, but there was no proportional bias between the two methods for measurement of appendicular LSTM (r = 0.05, P = 0.428 and r = -0.10, P = 0.070 for men and women, respectively). SMF-BIA is a good alternative for estimating the whole-body and appendicular FM and LSTM in a community-dwelling Japanese older population, although it overestimated FM and underestimated LSTM when validated against DXA. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Measuring body composition in dogs using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, L S; Vankan, D M; Rand, J S; Flickinger, E A; Ward, L C

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-five healthy, neutered, mixed breed dogs were used to determine the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) to predict accurately fat-free mass (FFM) in dogs using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured FFM as reference. A second aim was to compare MFBIA predictions with morphometric predictions. MFBIA-based predictors provided an accurate measure of FFM, within 1.5% when compared to DXA-derived FFM, in normal weight dogs. FFM estimates were most highly correlated with DXA-measured FFM when the prediction equation included resistance quotient, bodyweight, and body condition score. At the population level, the inclusion of impedance as a predictor variable did not add substantially to the predictive power achieved with morphometric variables alone; in individual dogs, impedance predictors were more valuable than morphometric predictors. These results indicate that, following further validation, MFBIA could provide a useful tool in clinical practice to objectively measure FFM in canine patients and help improve compliance with prevention and treatment programs for obesity in dogs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  18. Multivariate analysis of lifestyle, constitutive and body composition factors influencing bone health in community-dwelling older adults from Madeira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Blimkie, Cameron Joseph; Maia, José António; Lopes, Carla; Gouveia, Bruna Raquel; Freitas, Duarte Luís

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the association between habitual physical activity (PA), other lifestyle/constitutive factors, body composition, and bone health/strength in a large sample of older adults from Madeira, Portugal. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. Femoral strength index (FSI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total lean tissue mass (TLTM) and total fat mass (TFM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA. PA was assessed during face-to-face interviews using the Baecke questionnaire and for a sub-sample by Tritrac accelerometer. Demographic and health history information were obtained by telephone interview through questionnaire. The relationship between habitual PA variables and bone health/strength indicators (whole body BMD, FNBMD, LSBMD, and FSI) investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was similar for females (0.098≤r≤0.189) and males (0.104≤r≤0.105). Results from standard multiple regression analysis indicated that the primary and most significant predictors for FNBMD in both sexes were age, TLTM, and TFM. For LSBMD, the most significant predictor was TFM in men and TFM, age, and TLTM in females. Our regression model explained 8.3-14.2% and 14.8-29.6% of the total variance in LSBMD and FNBMD for males and females, respectively. This study suggests that habitual PA is minimally but positively associated with BMD and FSI among older adult males and females and that body composition factors like TLTM and TFM are the strongest determinants of BMD and FSI in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Body Composition Explains Greater Variance in Weight-for-Length Z-scores than Mid-Upper Arm Circumference during Infancy - A Secondary Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Admassu, Bitiya; Kæstel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Traditionally, weight-for-length/height z-score (WLZ) was used to assess wasting (a mortality risk factor) in children 0-59 months. A recent consultation reached a majority position that mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a better mortality predictor than WLZ in children 6-59 months. In addition, MUAC collected at the ages of 6-14 weeks has shown to identify infants more likely to die before reaching one year. To understand which body compartment is most affected by undernutrition, associations between anthropometric indicators and body composition data have been studied in children aged 6-59 months. To our knowledge, no such study has been done in children aged 0-6 months. We aimed to study these associations. Methods: Weight, length, MUAC, and lean and fat mass (LM and FM, respectively) obtained by air-displacement plethysmography of infants aged 0-6 months were obtained from an Ethiopian birth cohort study. The data, originally used to construct body composition reference data, measured infants at birth, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 months of age. A complete set of measurements available for 2506 out of a total of 2777 child measurements (563/598, 403/436, 414/444, 413/446, 368/415, and 345/441 in each age, respectively) was used for this analys, E-mail: is. Weight and length data were transformed to sex-and age-specific weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) values using the 2006 WHO growth standards. To remove the confounding positive association between LM or FM and length, we calculated sex- and age-specific standardised residuals values obtained from regressing LM or FM on length, separately by sex and age of measurement. The associations between MUAC, WLZ, length, and body composition residuals were assessed using correlation analysis. We used regression analysis to assess the independent contribution of body composition residuals to MUAC and WLZ. All analyses were done separately by age. Results: MUAC was strongly and positively correlated

  20. Use of D-T-produced fast neutrons for in vivo body composition analysis: a reference method for nutritional assessment in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehayias, J.J. [USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington St., Boston, 02111-1524 MA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Body composition has become the main outcome of many nutritional intervention studies including osteoporosis, malnutrition, obesity, AIDS, and aging. Traditional indirect body composition methods developed with healthy young adults do not apply to the elderly or diseased. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used to assess in vivo elements characteristic of specific body compartments. Non-bone phosphorus for muscle is measured by the {sup 31}P(n,{alpha}){sup 28}Al reaction, and nitrogen for protein via the {sup 14}N(n,2n){sup 13}N fast neutron reaction. Inelastic neutron scattering is used to measure total body carbon and oxygen. Body fat is derived from carbon after correcting for contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. Carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) is used to measure the distribution of fat and lean tissue in the body and to monitor small changes of lean mass. A sealed, D-T neutron generator is used for the production of fast neutrons. Carbon and oxygen mass and their ratio are measured in vivo at a radiation exposure of less than 0.06 mSv. Gamma-ray spectra are collected using large BGO detectors and analyzed for the 4.43 MeV state of carbon and 6.13 MeV state of oxygen, simultaneously with the irradiation. P and N analysis by delayed fast neutron activation is performed by transferring the patient to a shielded room equipped with an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A combination of measurements makes possible the assessment of the ''quality'' of fat-free mass. The neutron generator system is used to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments, to study mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging, and to investigate methods for preserving function and quality of life in the elderly. It is also used as a reference method for the validation of portable instruments of nutritional assessment. (orig.)

  1. Physical fitness of secondary school adolescents in relation to the body weight and the body composition: classification according to Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwałczyńska, Agnieszka; Jędrzejewski, Grzegorz; Lewandowski, Zdzisław; Jonak, Wiesława; Sobiech, Krzysztof A

    2017-03-01

    Underweight and obesity are important factors affecting the level of physical fitness. The aim of this study was to assess physical fitness of lower secondary school adolescents in relation to BMI. Two-hundred students, aged 14-16, were examined. Respondents were divided into 4 groups according to BMI classification. The body height and weight were determined. Physical fitness was assessed on the basis Zuchora's ISF tests. The body weight deficiency occurred in 3% of girls and 5% of boys, overweight was noted in 14% of both groups, and obesity in 6% and 12% accordingly. Statistically significant differences were determined in the components of physical fitness. They were noted in both genders between the group of children with standard body weight and overweight as well as obese children. Significant negative correlations were determined between and the components of physical fitness. More significant correlations giving evidence to the decrease of Zuchora's ISF score along with the increase of BMI were more significant in girls. Statistically significant differences between the boys and girls were determined in all five Zuchora's tests. The highest scores in physical fitness were achieved by the boys and girls with weight deficiency.

  2. Body composition assessment in athletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazić, Sanja; Lazović, Biljana; Delić, Marina; Lazić, Jelena Suzić; Aćimović, Tijana; Brkić, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Body composition represents an unbreakable unity of the human body basic structure elements and involves a relative representation of the various constituent elements of the human total body weight. It is well known that body composition changes under the influence of continuous physical activity, and, therefore, it is one of the major components of fitness, and general health of the athletes. Therefore, this topic has become a major field of interest for many exercise and sport scientists as well as clinicians who specialize not only in different training methods but also in the prevention of and rehabilitation from major injuries. To date, having considered issues of accuracy, repeatability and utility, there is no universally applicable criterion or 'gold standard' methodology for body composition assessment in athletes. The main objective of this review was to give a short overview of methods for body composition analysis in athletes and to show and compare the latest data on their usefulness and reliability in order to find the best solution for practical everyday work.

  3. Calibration of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition assessment in Ethiopian infants using air-displacement plethysmography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Wibæk; Kæstel, Pernille; Skov, R.

    2015-01-01

    , age and an impedance index (L(2)/Z50) were predictors. Prediction equations were developed using stepwise multiple linear regression and the accuracy was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation approach. RESULTS: A linear regression model based on body weight, age and sex predicted FFM, estimated...

  4. New body composition reference charts for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Ellen W; Johnson, William; Davern, Bridget A; Anderson, Christina G; Shenberger, Jeffrey S; Misra, Sonya; Ramel, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that nutritional management of the preterm infant should aim to achieve body composition that replicates the in utero fetus, but intrauterine body composition reference charts for preterm infants are lacking. Our objective was to create body composition reference curves for preterm infants that approximate the body composition of the in utero fetus from 30 to 36 wk of gestation. A total of 223 ethnically diverse infants born at 30 + 0 to 36 + 6 wk of gestation were enrolled. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were specified so that the sample would represent healthy appropriately growing fetuses (e.g., singleton, birth weight appropriate for their gestational age, and medically stable). Cross-sectional reference values were generated for fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and percentage body fat (PBF) by gestational age (GA), with the use of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and the lambda-mu-sigma method for percentile estimation. GA-specific percentile values and a percentile and z score calculator for FFM, FM, and PBF are presented. These values aligned closely with ADP centile values published for term infants from 36 to 38 wk of gestation. The medians were also similar to the mean values for the reference fetus derived from chemical analysis previously. To our knowledge, these are the first body composition reference charts for total FM and FFM at birth in preterm infants to assist in following AAP guidelines. Future work will test the clinical utility of body composition monitoring for improving nutritional management in this population. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02855814. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition, and change in adiposity, in overweight and obese adolescents: comparison with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ching S; Ward, Leigh C; Halim, Jocelyn; Gow, Megan L; Ho, Mandy; Briody, Julie N; Leung, Kelvin; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2014-10-03

    There is a need for a practical, inexpensive method to assess body composition in obese adolescents. This study aimed to 1) compare body composition parameters estimated by a stand-on, multi-frequency bioelectrical impendence (BIA) device, using a) the manufacturers' equations, and b) published and derived equations with body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and 2) assess percentage body fat (%BF) change after a weight loss intervention. Participants were 66 obese adolescents, mean age (SD) 12.9 (2.0) years. Body composition was measured by Tanita BIA MC-180MA (Tanita BIA8) and DXA (GE-Lunar Prodigy). BIA resistance and reactance data at frequencies of 5, 50, 250 and 500 kHz, were used in published equations, and to generate a new prediction equation for fat-free mass (FFM) using a split-sample method. Approximately half (n = 34) of the adolescents had their body composition measured by DXA and BIA on two occasions, three to nine months apart. The correlations between FFM (kg), fat mass (kg) and %BF measured by BIA and DXA were 0.92, 0.93 and 0.78, respectively. The Tanita BIA8 manufacturers equations significantly (P obese adolescent.

  6. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehouse, Welma; Wycherley, Thomas; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Taylor, Pennie; Brinkworth, Grant; Riley, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18–50-year-old. Methods: RCTs ≥ 4 weeks comparing the effect of dairy consumption (whole food or supplements) with control diets lower in dairy during energy restriction on body weight, fat and lean mass were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Cochrane Central and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) until March 2016. Reports were identified and critically appraised in duplicate. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Chi2- and I2-statistics indicated heterogeneity. Dose effect was assessed using meta-regression analysis. GRADE guidelines were used to rate the quality (QR) of the evidence considering risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias and effect estimates. Results: 27 RCTs were reviewed. Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20–84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (−1.16 kg [−1.66, −0.66 kg], p loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I2 = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate). No between study dose-response effects were seen. Conclusions: Increased dairy intake as part of energy restricted diets resulted in greater loss in bodyweight and fat mass while attenuating lean mass loss in 18–50-year-old adults. Further research in males is needed to investigate sex effects. PMID:27376321

  7. A bedside measure of body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is more accurate than classic BIVA to detect changes in body composition and in nutritional status in institutionalised elderly with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camina Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Barrera Ortega, Sara; Domínguez Rodríguez, Luis; Redondo del Río, M Paz

    2014-09-01

    A new analytical variation of bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), called specific BIVA, has shown to be more accurate in detecting changes in fat mass than classic BIVA. To compare classic and specific BIVA in order to identify which is more strongly associated with psycho-functional and nutritional indicators in a group of institutionalised elderly patients with dementia. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-four patients (34 women, 20 men) with dementia in moderately severe to very severe stages and aged 60-95years underwent geriatric nutritional assessment, including body mass index calculations, the Mini Nutritional Assessment, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index, and whole body composition analysis. With specific BIVA (unlike with classic BIVA), significant differences were found between women with moderately severe and very severe dementia. In the BIVA conducted for body mass index, the confidence ellipses produced with the classic BIVA approach were highly overlapping; but with specific BIVA, significant differences were observed between the women in different nutritional categories (malnutrition, risk of malnutrition, normal weight and obesity). On the other hand, both approaches distinguished malnourished women from those who were at risk of malnutrition, according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment; and men with a moderate-high risk of malnutrition from men with no risk, on the basis of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index. Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that specific BIVA is more effective than classic BIVA in identifying bioelectrical changes associated with psycho-functional and nutritional indicators in institutionalised elderly with dementia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologanu, Daniela; Ionita, Diana; Gartonea, Teodora; Stanescu, Cristina; Bogdan, Miron Alexandru

    2014-03-01

    Body composition assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important, as weight loss and muscular wasting are responsible for low exercise capacity in these patients, and low body mass index (BMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) are important prognostic factors. Our study aims were: (a) to describe body composition in COPD patients referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation center in Bucharest; (b) to examine the relationships between body composition and disease severity (bronchial obstruction, exercise capacity, quality of life); (c) to test if segmental wasting of lower limbs muscle mass (measured by segmental body composition analysis) correlates with decreased exercise capacity. We studied 36 consecutive COPD patients referred to our clinic for pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients performed pulmonary function tests, six minutes walking test (6MWT), and health status was evaluated with COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Body composition measurements were performed by direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). This study offers the first data on body composition of Romanian COPD patientsThe prevalence of nutritional depletion (defined by low BMI and/or low FFMI) among our COPD patients was 22.2%. Mean FFMI was significantly lower in normal or underweight patients versus overweight or obese patients. Patients with low FFMI had lower exercise capacity at the 6MWT and higher CAT scores than patients with normal FFMI.Depending on the BMI and FFMI values the patients were divided in four categories: normal, semistarvation, sarcopenia and cachexia. The group of patients with sarcopenia (low FFMI and normal BMI) had the lowest mean MIP (Maximal Inspiratory Pressure), the lowest mean 6MWD (six minutes walking distance) and the higher CAT mean scores among all groups. Exercise capacity was significantly lower in muscular depleted patients (with low skeletal muscle mass index - SSMI). MIP correlated significantly with FFMI and SMMI. No

  10. Body composition changes with time in pediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przkora, Rene; Barrow, Robert E; Jeschke, Marc G; Suman, Oscar E; Celis, Mario; Sanford, Arthur P; Chinkes, David L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2006-05-01

    Major trauma and burns are associated with whole body catabolism which can persist for 1 or more years after injury. This study investigates body composition in massively burned children for up to 2 years. Twenty-five pediatric patients with greater than 40% total body surface area burns were studied. At discharge, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after burn height, weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, cortisol, parathyroid hormone, and thyroid hormones were measured. Tukey's test was used for analysis. Significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Lean body mass, fat mass, bone mineral content, height, and weight increased significantly during the second year after burn. Percent predicted REE decreased significantly, whereas IGFBP-3 and parathyroid hormone levels increased significantly over time. Insulin and T3 uptake were significantly higher at discharge. Body composition of severely burned children significantly improved in the second year compared with the first year after injury. This demonstrates a need for long-term rehabilitation in these burn patients.

  11. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, G; Agosti, F; De Col, A; Marazzi, N; Tagliaferri, A; Sartorio, A

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the agreement of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the assessment of percent fat mass (%FM) in morbidly obese women. Fifty-seven women aged 19-55 years and with a body mass index (BMI) ranging from 37.3 to 55.2 kg/m(2) were studied. Values of %FM were obtained directly from ADP and DXA, whereas for BIA we estimated fat-free mass (FFM) from an equation for morbidly obese subjects and calculated %FM as (weight-FFM)/weight. The mean (s.d.) difference between ADP and DXA for the assessment of %FM was -2.4% (3.3%) with limits of agreement (LOA) from -8.8% to 4.1%. The mean (s.d.) difference between BIA and DXA for the assessment of %FM was 1.7% (3.3%) with LOA from -4.9% to 8.2%. ADP-DXA and BIA-DXA are not interchangeable methods for the assessment of body composition in morbidly obese women.

  12. Comparison of multi- and single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for assessment of body composition in post-menopausal women: effects of body mass index and accelerometer-determined physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gába, A; Kapuš, O; Cuberek, R; Botek, M

    2015-08-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used in research to assess body composition. However, studies that validate the accuracy of BIA exclusively in post-menopausal women are lacking. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the agreement of multi-frequency (MF)-BIA and single-frequency (SF)-BIA with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the estimation of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) among post-menopausal women with variation in body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA). FM and FFM were estimated by BIA and DXA in 146 post-menopausal women with a mean (SD) age of 62.8 (5.2) years. PA was determined by an accelerometer. The mean (SD) difference between MF-BIA and DXA was -1.8 (1.8) kg (P = 0.08) and 1.3 (1.8) kg (P = 0.01) for FM and FFM, respectively. SF-BIA provided a significantly lower estimate of FM [-2.0 (2.2) kg; P = 0.04] and a higher estimate of FFM [1.8 (2.4) kg; P obese and insufficiently active subjects. In other BMI and PA groups, both BIA devices showed a similar deviation from DXA. BIA tends to underestimate FM and overestimate FFM relative to DXA. MF-BIA appears to be a more appropriate method for the assessment of body composition than SF-BIA in post-menopausal woman with BMI >30 kg/m(2) and in those who are insufficiently active. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  14. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  15. Effects of bariatric surgery on the body composition of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Wally Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.

  16. Anthropometry and body composition of south Indian babies at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, S; Dwarkanath, P; Thomas, T; Vaz, M; Mhaskar, A; Mhaskar, R; Thomas, A; Bhat, S; Kurpad, Av

    2006-10-01

    To assess the consequences on body composition of increasing birth weight in Indian babies in relation to reported values in Western babies, and to assess the relationship between maternal and neonatal anthropometry and body composition. Prospective observational study. Bangalore City, India. A total of 712 women were recruited at 12.5+/-3.1 weeks of gestation (mean+/-standard deviation, SD) and followed up until delivery; 14.5% were lost to follow-up. Maternal body weight, height, mid upper-arm circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured at recruitment. Weight and body composition of the baby (skinfold thicknesses, mid upper-arm circumference, derived arm fat index and arm muscle index; AFI and AMI, respectively) were measured at birth in hospital. The mean+/-SD birth weight of all newborns was 2.80+/-0.44 kg. Birth weight was significantly related to the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness of the baby. In a small number of babies with large birth weight for gestational age, there was a relatively higher normalised AFI relative to AMI than for babies with lower or appropriate birth weight for gestational age. Maternal height and fat-free mass were significantly associated with the baby's length at birth. Skinfold thicknesses in Indian babies were similar to those reported in a Western population with comparable birth weights, and the relationship of AFI to birth weight appeared to be steeper in Indian babies. Thus, measures to increase birth weight in Indian babies should take into account possible adverse consequences on body composition. There were no significant relationships between maternal anthropometry and body composition at birth on multivariate analysis, except for sum of the baby's skinfold thicknesses and maternal fat-free mass (P<0.02).

  17. Impact of testosterone on body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maddalena, Chiara; Vodo, Stella; Petroni, Anna; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2012-12-01

    An excessive food supply has resulted in an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, conditions accompanied by serious health problems. Several studies have confirmed the significant inverse correlation between testosterone and obesity. Indeed after decades of intense controversy, a consensus has emerged that androgens are important regulators of fat mass and distribution in mammals and that androgen status affects cellularity in vivo. The high correlation of testosterone levels with body composition and its contribution to the balance of lipid metabolism are also suggested by the fact that testosterone lowering is associated with important clinical disorders such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In contrast, testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadic men has been shown to improve the lipid profile by lowering cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin are some of the substances related to feeding as well as androgen regulation. Thus, complex and delicate mechanisms appear to link androgens with various tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscles, coronary arteries and heart) and the subtle alteration of some of these interactions might be the cause of correlated diseases. This review underlines some aspects regarding the high correlations between testosterone physiology and body fat composition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Maternal active smoking and newborn body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, M P; Jiménez-Muro, A; Nerín, I; Marqueta, A; Ventura, P; Rodríguez, G

    2012-03-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in birth size but very few studies have collated changes in neonatal anthropometry. Our aims were both to assess body composition differences by anthropometry between new-borns from smoking mothers and those from non-smoking mothers, and to show whether these differences affect proportional body mass distribution. Caucasian mothers and their full term singleton new-borns (N=1216) were selected during 2009. A structured questionnaire was completed regarding obstetric and demographic data, as well as tobacco consumption. Women were categorized, according to their smoking habits, into a non-smoking group (never smoked or stopped smoking prior to pregnancy) and a smoking group (smoked throughout pregnancy). 22.1% of mothers smoked during pregnancy (median: 6 cigarettes/day, range: l-40). Smoking mothers were significantly younger than non-smoking mothers but there were no differences regarding other aspects which could affect infant weight. Infants from non-smoking mothers were heavier, longer, and body circumferences were all larger than those from smoking mothers (pfat distribution did not show statistical differences between the two groups. After gestational age, to smoke during gestation is the second main determinant of birth weight. Smoking during pregnancy involves a generalized reduction of most axiological parameters as a result of proportionate fetal growth impairment. In those infants born from mothers who smoked during gestation, neonatal lean body mass appears to be more affected than body fat, and distribution of subcutaneous fat is not different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional correlates of detailed body composition in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred James

    2018-01-01

    Methods of body composition analysis are now widely used to characterize health status, i.e., nutritional status, metabolic rates, and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the functional correlates of individual body components have not been systematically analyzed. In this study, we have used a two-compartment model, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Detailed body composition was measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging in a healthy population of 40 Caucasians, aged 65-81 yr (20 men; body mass index range: 18.6-37.2 kg/m 2 ). Physical, metabolic, as well as endocrine functions included pulmonary function, handgrip strength, gait speed, sit-to-stand test, physical activity, blood pressure, body temperature, resting energy expenditure (REE), liver and kidney functions (glomerular filtration rate), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)], plasma lipids, plasma leptin, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, insulin-like growth factor I levels, thyroid status, vitamins, and inflammation. Individual body compartments were intercorrelated, e.g., skeletal muscle mass (SM) correlated with visceral adipose tissue ( r = 0.53) and kidneys ( r = 0.62). For the functional correlates, SM ( r = 0.58) and liver volume ( r = 0.63) were associated with REE, SM correlated with handgrip strength ( r = 0.57), and kidneys with glomerular filtration rate ( r = 0.57). While visceral adipose tissue correlated with HOMA ( r = 0.59), subcutaneous adipose tissue was related to plasma leptin levels ( r = 0.84). The subcutaneous adipose tissue-to-leptin relationship was moderated by inflammation increasing the explained variance of leptin levels by 4.0%. In linear regression analysis, detailed body composition explained variances in REE (75.0%), HOMA (41.0%), and leptin (78.0%) compared with a body mass index-based model (REE 16.0%, HOMA 31.0%, leptin 45.0%). In addition, detailed body composition explained 39

  20. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, G Ja; Konovalova, M V; Vashura, A Yu; Anisimova, A V; Godina, E Z; Khomyakova, I A; Nikolaev, D V; Starunova, O A; Rudnev, S G

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  1. Can Ethnic Background Differences in Children's Body Composition Be Explained by Differences in Energy Balance-Related Behaviors? A Mediation Analysis within the Energy-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Jimenez-Pavon, D.; Manios, Y.; Singh, A.S.; Moreno, L.A.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:In affluent countries, children from non-native ethnicity have in general less favourable body composition indicators and energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) than children from native ethnicity. However, differences between countries have been reported.Methodology/Principal

  2. Can ethnic background differences in children's body composition be explained by differences in energy balance-related behaviors? A mediation analysis within the energy-project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Fernández-Alvira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In affluent countries, children from non-native ethnicity have in general less favourable body composition indicators and energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs than children from native ethnicity. However, differences between countries have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A school-based survey among 10-12 years old children was conducted in seven European countries with a standardized protocol. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured; engagement in EBRBs was self-reported. For those countries with significant ethnic differences in body composition (Greece and the Netherlands, multilevel mediation analyses were conducted, to test the mediating effect of the EBRBs in the association between ethnic background and body composition indicators. Analyses were adjusted for gender and age, and for parental education in a later step. Partial mediation was found for sugared drinks intake and sleep duration in the Greek sample, and breakfast in the Dutch sample. A suppression effect was found for engagement in sports activites in the Greek sample. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ethnic differences in children's body composition were partially mediated by differences in breakfast skipping in the Netherlands and sugared drinks intake, sports participation and sleep duration in Greece.

  3. Body size and body composition effects on heat loss from the hands during severe cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie; Macintosh, Alison; Stock, Jay

    2018-02-11

    This study investigated the influence of body size and composition on maintaining hand temperature during severe cold exposure. The hand's high surface area-to-volume ratio predisposes the hand to heat loss, increasing the risk of cold injury and even hypothermia, which are major selective pressures in cold environments. While vasoregulation may reduce heat loss from the hand, the effect of body form, tissue thermogenesis, and body insulation on heat loss is unknown. Thermal imaging was used to determine heat loss during a 3-min ice-water hand immersion test carried out on 114 volunteers (female = 63, male = 51). Established anthropometric measures were used to quantify body size, and bioelectrical impedance analysis determined skeletal muscle and fat mass. Skeletal muscle mass relative to body mass was a highly significant predictor of heat loss, while body mass, fat mass, and stature were not. Body composition and body size had little to no significant influence during rewarming after immersion. The thermogenic properties of muscle mass support maintenance of hand temperature during severe cold exposure. The findings here suggest that muscular individuals are less susceptible to heat loss and cold injury, and may be better at manual tasks in cold conditions than nonmuscular individuals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate.......70-105.56) (P basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...... a dysfunctional metabolism contributing to the high-fat-body composition....

  5. Prediction of whole-body and segmental body composition by bioelectrical impedance in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Amanda; Omaña, Wilberto; Flores, Lílliam; Coves, María José; Bellido, Diego; Perea, Verónica; Vidal, Josep

    2012-04-01

    Validated equations for body composition analysis using bioelectrical impedance (BIA) in morbidly obese (MO) subjects are scarce. Thus, our aim was todevelop new equations from physical and BIA parameters to estimate whole-body and segmental body composition inMO subjects, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study on 159 Caucasian MO subjects (female 78%, age 43.5 ± 11.8 years, BMI 45.6 ± 4.9 kg/m2) divided in two groups was conducted: model building cohort (n = 110) and model validation cohort (n 0 49). Stepwise regression analysis was used to develop specific fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) equations. Gender, body weight, and height2/impedance accounted, respectively, for 89.4% (p impedance, and waist and hip circumferences (respectively, R2 adjusted: 0.657, 0.776, and 0.770; p < 0.001). The new equations derived from physical and BIA parameters provide accurate estimates of body composition in MO subjects.

  6. Body Composition and Mortality Predictors in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Cristina; Valente, Ana; Oliveira, Telma; Garagarza, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate how different compartments of body composition can affect survival in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Multicenter longitudinal observational study of a cohort of patients in HD with 12 months of follow-up. Patients from 34 Nephrocare dialysis units in Portugal were included. A total of 697 patients on maintenance HD during 4 hours 3 days per week were enrolled. Dry weight, presence of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), lean tissue index (LTI), fat tissue index (FTI), body cell mass index (BCMI), albumin and hydration status were recorded at baseline. In all patients, the assessment of body composition was carried out using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM; Fresenius Medical Care a Deutschland GmbH, Germany). Survival during a 12-month period of follow-up. Patient's mean (±standard deviation) age was 65.4 ± 14.3 years, and median (interquartile range) HD vintage was 41 (19-81) months. Patients who died during the study period, had higher age (P < .001), lower dry weight (P = .001), BMI (P < .001), albumin (P < .001), LTI (P = .015), and also lower BCMI (P = .046). Patients with diabetes (P = .045), BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) (P < .001), albumin < 4.0 g/dL (P < .001), relative overhydration ≥ 15% (P = .001), low FTI (P = .019), and also those in the lowest tertile of BCMI (P = .022) displayed a significantly worse survival. In the Cox regression analysis, the overall mortality of patient was related to low FTI, relative overhydration, BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2), BCMI ≤ 5.2 kg/m(2), and albumin < 4.0 g/dL. Several body composition parameters demonstrated to have an important role in predicting 1-year mortality in HD patients. Albumin, FTI, and BMI were useful predictors of mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of body composition changes during weight loss in obese men using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and multi-compartment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Faber, Peter; Gibney, Eileen R; Lobley, Gerald E; Stubbs, R James; Siervo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of changes in body composition is important to assess the contribution of fat and fat free mass to total body mass change as a measure of the effectiveness of weight loss programmes. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a rapid and non-invasive technique which could be applied to assess body composition changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the BIS for the measurement of fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) changes induced by different degrees of caloric deficit in obese men. Three groups of six, obese men participated in either (i) a total fast (for 6 days); (ii) a VLCD (2.5 MJ/day for 3 weeks); or (iii) LCD (5.2 MJ/day for 6 weeks). FM was measured using a 4-compartment (4-C) model. TBW and ECW were determined by dilution methods, respectively. TBW, ECW and FM were also assessed with BIS. Body weight loss in the fasting group was 6.0 ± 1.3 kg over 6 days; the VLCD group lost 9.2 ± 1.2 kg over 21 days and the LCD group lost 12.6 ± 2.4 kg over 42 days. BIS underestimated FM changes (bias = -3.3 ± 3.8 kg) and overestimated changes in TBW and ECW by +1.8 ± 4.8 kg and +2.3 ± 6.4 kg, respectively. The measurement error was consistently larger in the fasting group and the magnitude of the bias interacted significantly with the rate of weight loss. Rapid weight loss affects the accuracy of the BIS in detecting changes in body composition. A careful interpretation of the results is needed when sizable changes in body water compartments occurs. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total body water, visceral fat accumulation, body mass index, resting metabolic rate, fat‑free mass, bone mass, and muscle mass were significantly higher in obese when compared to those with nonobese (P < 0.001). Thirteen ... Keywords: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss ...

  9. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  10. BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT WITH SEGMENTAL MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka A. Salmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment

  11. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.

    Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and

  12. Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Youth Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Erdal Tekin; Roy Wada

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of fast-food restaurant advertising on television on the body composition of adolescents as measured by percentage body fat (PBF) and to assess the sensitivity of these effects to using conventional measures of youth obesity based on body-mass index (BMI). We merge measures of body composition from bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with individual level data from th...

  13. Shakedown analysis of composites

    CERN Document Server

    Weichert, D; Schwabe, F

    1999-01-01

    One of the advantages of composite materials compared to conventional materials stems from the different mechanical characteristics of each component of a composite. This may be used to design materials for specific technological $9 purposes, where in some sense controversial material properties are required. As example one may quote metal- matrix-composites (MMCs) exhibiting at the same time high hardness and fracture toughness. To predict failure of this type $9 of materials, it is important to understand the complex processes on the microstructural level leading to failure, including in particular inelastic effects, and to link them to the macroscopic material properties. In this paper, $9 failure of metal-matrix-composites under variables loads due to accumulated plastic deformations is investigated. For this, shakedown-analysis is carried out on the micro-level. Then, by use of the technique of homogenisation, the $9 results are linked to the overall material properties on the macro- level. The methodolo...

  14. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Body composition by bioelectrical-impedance analysis compared with deuterium dilution and skinfold anthropometry in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schols, A.M.; Wouters, E.F.; Soeters, P.B.; Westerterp, K.R. (Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands))

    1991-02-01

    Body composition is an important measure of nutritional status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We generated a regression model for bioelectrical impedance (BI) by using deuterium dilution (2H2O) as a reference method in 32 COPD patients, aged 63 +/- 9 y (mean +/- SD), in stable pulmonary and cardiac condition. Height squared divided by resistance (Ht2/Res) correlated well with total body water (TBW) as measured by 2H2O (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001, SEE = 1.9 L). The best-fitting regression equation to predict TBW comprised Ht2/Res and body weight (r2 = 0.89, SEE = 1.8 L, P less than 0.001). BI-predicted TBW was used to estimate BI-fat-free mass (FFM) that was compared with skinfold-thickness-based FFM predictions (Anthr-FFM). Relative to BI-FFM a significant overestimation of 4.4 +/- 0.8 kg was found by Anthr-FFM. Our results suggest that BI is a useful measure of body composition in patients with severe COPD.

  16. Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african sharptooth catfish ( Clarias gariepinus , Burchell 1822) fingerlings fed locally formulated and commercial pelleted diets in tarpaulin tanks.

  17. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  18. BODY COMPOSITION IN HEMODIALYSIS AND PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Ho Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance analysis is a reliable technique for determining post dialysis target weight. Using this technique, we can understand body fluid status easier and conveniently. Moreover this technique can be used for check nutrition status and nutritional status of dialysis patients. We compared the body fluid status and nutrition status between hemodialysis (HD patients and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients by BCM (Body composition monitor technique. We studied 48 (30 males and 18 females PD patients, 21 (10 males and 11 females HD patients. Body composition monitoring (BCM, Fesenitus Medical Care, Germany was used as a tool for the analysis of bioimpedance. Extracellular water, Total body water, Intracellular water, Overhydration, E/I, Lean tissue mass, Fat Tissue mass was measured and those results were compared between two groups. HD patients were more hydrated than PD patients (61.9% vs. 35.4% and nutritional status such as LTI was poorer than peritoneal dialysis patients (11.7±1.7 vs. 15.3±2.6. Although total body water is more abundant in peritoneal patients (29.4±5.5L vs. 35.9±6.2L, Extracellular water and intracellular water ratio was relatively higher in Hemodialysis patients (E/I 0.98±0.13 vs. 0.87±0.12. The nutrition status was better in PD patients by comparing the percent of lean tissue mass (LTM% between two groups (LTM% 52.1±10.6% vs. 66.8±11.3. In conclusions, Hemodialysis patients were more hydrated with poorer nutrition status than peritoneal dialysis patients, but, due to the significant difference of age between two groups, further study should be required.

  19. Genome-wide linkage analysis of QTL for growth and body composition employing the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Ana I

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional strategy to map QTL is to use linkage analysis employing a limited number of markers. These analyses report wide QTL confidence intervals, making very difficult to identify the gene and polymorphisms underlying the QTL effects. The arrival of genome-wide panels of SNPs makes available thousands of markers increasing the information content and therefore the likelihood of detecting and fine mapping QTL regions. The aims of the current study are to confirm previous QTL regions for growth and body composition traits in different generations of an Iberian x Landrace intercross (IBMAP and especially identify new ones with narrow confidence intervals by employing the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip in linkage analyses. Results Three generations (F3, Backcross 1 and Backcross 2 of the IBMAP and their related animals were genotyped with PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. A total of 8,417 SNPs equidistantly distributed across autosomes were selected after filtering by quality, position and frequency to perform the QTL scan. The joint and separate analyses of the different IBMAP generations allowed confirming QTL regions previously identified in chromosomes 4 and 6 as well as new ones mainly for backfat thickness in chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 14 and 17 and shoulder weight in chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 13; and many other to the chromosome-wide signification level. In addition, most of the detected QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals, making easier the selection of positional candidate genes. Conclusions The use of higher density of markers has allowed to confirm results obtained in previous QTL scans carried out with microsatellites. Moreover several new QTL regions have been now identified in regions probably not covered by markers in previous scans, most of these QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals. Finally, prominent putative biological and positional candidate genes underlying those QTL effects are listed based on recent porcine

  20. Cross-calibration of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with eight-point tactile electrodes and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for assessment of body composition in healthy children aged 6-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung S; Hwang, Jin S; Lee, Jun A; Kim, Dong H; Park, Kyung D; Jeong, Jin S; Cheon, Gi J

    2009-04-01

    In diagnosis and treatment of obesity, body composition analysis including percent body fat (%BF) is useful in the clinical setting. Because bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) could be used quickly, easily and was non-invasive in clinical setting, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of multi-frequency BIA with eight-point tactile electrodes (MF-BIA8; InBody 720, Biospace) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy children and adolescents. A total of 166 children and adolescents under 18 (male, n = 86; female, n = 80) were recruited. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and Tanner stage were measured for each subject. The body composition such as fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and %BF was measured on BIA and DXA and compared. On linear regression analysis, DXA FFM = 1.006(BIA FFM) + 0.554, R(2) = 0.99 and the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 1.16 kg; DXA FM = 0.971(BIA FM) - 0.596, R(2) = 0.93; SEE, 1.34 kg; and DXA %BF = 0.940(BIA %BF) - 1.026, R(2) = 0.858; SEE, 3.03%. Limit of agreement in FFM, FM, and %BF was 0.7 +/- 2.3 kg, -0.9 +/- 2.9 kg and -2.2 +/- 6.1%, respectively. Although the %BF was not interchangeable with DXA, MF-BIA8 (InBody 720; Biospace) could be used to measure body composition of children and adolescents in the clinical field because of its high precision.

  1. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  2. Nutrient Requirements, Body Composition, and Health of Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    .... As pan of the Defense Women's Health Research Program, a new report from the Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women of the Institute of the Institute of Medicine examines issues of body composition, fitness, and appearance standards and their impact on the health, nutritional status, and performance of active-duty women.

  3. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  4. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, page, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of reference for planning health related program for MF personnel to prevent non-communicable disease among firefighters population.

  5. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (pbody fat (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  6. Type 2 diabetes family histories, body composition and fasting glucose levels: a cross-section analysis in healthy sedentary male and female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Thomas, Ewan; Paoli, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Petrucci, Marco; Proia, Patrizia; Bellafiore, Marianna; Palma, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is a world wide spread disease with a multifactorial pathogenetic evolution. Various factors like obesity, physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to verify if in young healthy sedentary male and female there is positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes and an increase in body weight and fat mass, or alterations in basal glycemia values. Totally183 male and 237 female healthy sedentary subjects were analysed in 2012, in Italy. They were divided in three groups: FH(+) with first degree family history, FH(++) with second degree family history and FH(-) with no family history. Anthropometrics, body composition and blood parameters were assessed. Male had the highest BMI values (Plife-style changes, such as increased physical activity and controlled quantity and quality of food intake.

  7. Body composition of Slovak midlife women with cardiovascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdová Darina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse differences in body composition of women with and without cardiovascular complications. Bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioimpedance monofrequency analyser (BIA 101 and tissue electric properties were analysed by bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA. The clinical sample (with CVD consisted of 254 women ranging in age between 39 and 65 years. The sample of women without CVD consisted of 318 women in the same age range and was created from database of our previous studies. Statistical analysis adjusted for age showed significant differences in body composition characteristics of the studied samples. The results of vector analysis showed significantly different tissue electric properties of women in studied groups, what was confirmed by the Hotelling T2- test (p=0.0000. More women with CVD attained risky mean values of obesity indices of BMI and WHR than their “healthy” counterparts. Among women with CVD 80.2% had higher value of the BMI index than optimal one (>24.9 kg/m2 and 74.4% of women had higher value of the WHR index than optimal (>0.80. From the BIA parameters strong correlation coefficient was found between BMI and FM in both groups (r=0.962 for women with CVD; r=0.968 for relatively healthy women. Our data confirmed that cardiovascular disease complications are strongly linked in body composition changes. The cross-sectional nature of our study makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding causal pathways, though variables of obesity are in line with unhealthy conditions.

  8. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of contemporary Danish children. We did find the “classical” height velocity peak during spring, but unlike many earlier studies this was coincident with peaks in BW, BMI and FFMI velocities. Seasonal variation in physical activity may explain seasonal variations in BW and body composition velocities. Taken......Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...

  9. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Alan A.; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P.; Arciero, Paul J.; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Willoughby, Darryn S.; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M.; Bannock, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limi...

  10. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Tatiane; Costa, Manoel; Oliveira, Saulo; Júnior, Marcos Barbosa; Ritti-Dias, Raphael; Santos, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9–17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1–5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear...

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition in children and adolescents: a systematic review and evidence appraisal of validity, responsiveness, reliability and measurement error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talma, H.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Bakker, B.; Hirasing, R.A.; Terwee, C.B.; Altenburg, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a practical method to estimate percentage body fat (%BF). In this systematic review, we aimed to assess validity, responsiveness, reliability and measurement error of BIA methods in estimating %BF in children and adolescents.We searched for relevant studies

  12. Body proportions, body composition and pubertal development of children in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, R; Bencke, J; Matthiesen, G; Petersen, J H; Müller, J

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was primarily to investigate anthropometric variables, body composition and pubertal development in children aged 9-13 participating in competitive sports. Secondly, the influence of age, sport, training hours and pubertal development/maternal menarcheal age on body composition and pubertal development was explored. A total of 183 (96 girls, 87 boys) children performing swimming (Sw), tennis (Te), European team handball (TH), and gymnastics (Gy) took part in the study. Anthropometric measurements and pubertal development were determined. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding hours of training per week and maternal menarcheal age. Significant differences in stature (z-scores) were found in both boys (Sw=0.06; Te=0.04; TH=0.05; Gy=-0.66, Psports. A regression analysis revealed that in girls, age and maternal menarcheal age were significantly associated with pubertal development (Psport was associated with the sum of skinfolds (Psports but are more evident in females. Most importantly, we did not find any effect of training on body composition or pubertal development, confirming previous data that children in competitive sports are selected due to constitutional factors.

  13. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Learning the health risks can motivate losing weight. Multicentered studies can be illuminating different cultural factors about obesity. Key words: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss. Date of Acceptance: 01‑Mar‑ ...

  14. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  15. Dosage of estradiol, bone and body composition in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is seen in Turner syndrome (TS) with an increased risk of fractures, and body composition is characterized by increased body fat and decreased lean body mass. To evaluate the effect of two different doses of oral 17ß-estradiol in young TS women on bone...

  16. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE: Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE and fat free mass (FFM in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry. High metabolic rate organs (HMR summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i decreases in fat free mass; (ii a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the

  17. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting

  18. Body composition changes in pregnancy: measurement, predictors and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, EM; Gallagher, D

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754

  19. Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Deuterium in Costa Rican Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana-Guzmán, E.; Salas-Chaves, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been adopted as international measure for measuring adiposity in children with the disadvantage that it varies with age, sex and sexual maturation with no differentiation between fat mass and mass free of grease. The analysis of body composition allow to know if the overweight is due to fatty tissue being the deuterium isotope dilution a validated reference method using Infrared Spectrometry Transformed of Fourier (FTIR). We studied a total 118 boys and girls from 6 to 9 years old getting the values of z score of BMI for age and percentage of fat mass by FTIR. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Costa Rica does not escape to the global problem of childhood obesity founding by BMI 18.6% of overweight and 10% of obesity and by body composition 9% of overweight and 57% of obesity. Isotopic deuterium dilution method demonstrated in this study to be more suitable for the analysis of obesity and overweight in children since BMI presented false positive and false negative results giving less accurate information of adiposity of the subject. (author)

  20. Characteristics of Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage and Other Body Composition for Koreans from KNHANES IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sangmo; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung Kil; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Eun Young; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Young Taek; Wilson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height2; kg/m2) of Korean men did not correlate with age (P = 0.452), but those of Korean women (P 9 kg/m2) in men and 2.7% (FMI > 13 kg/m2) in women. It is concluded that the muscle mass decreases and obesity increases with aging in Korean men, whereas both fat mass and obesity increase with aging in Korean women. PMID:22147997

  1. Can Basic Characteristics Estimate Body Composition in Early Infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Bracco, Beatrice; Menis, Camilla; Morniroli, Daniela; Perrone, Michela; Giannì, Maria L; Mosca, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that body composition in early life contributes to the programming of health later in life in both full-term and preterm infants. Given the important role of body composition, the increased availability of easy, noninvasive, and accurate techniques for its assessment has been recommended. The aim of the present study was to identify basic characteristics and anthropometric measurements that best correlate with body composition in infants. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessed by air-displacement plethysmography were assessed either at birth or at term-corrected age in 1239 infants (654 full-term, 585 preterm). The associations of sex, GA (gestational age), and weight with FFM (fat-free mass) and FM (fat mass) adjusted by length (g/cm) were investigated by multiple linear regression models. Bland-Altman tests were performed, and an equation for calculating FFM was determined. Preterm infants exhibited increased FM and reduced FFM compared with full-term infants (477.6 ± 204 vs 259.7 ± 147 g and 2583 ± 494 vs 2770 ± 364 g, respectively). GA, male sex, and weight were positively associated with FFM (r = 0.806, P composition represents the criterion standard. When body composition assessment is not feasible, the equation based on sex, GA, and anthropometric measurements can be useful in predicting body composition in both full-term and preterm infants.

  2. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  3. Usefulness of a Body Composition Analyzer, InBody 2.0, in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiko Okamoto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate whether InBody 2.0 might be useful in measuring the dry weight of chronic hemodialysis (HD patients. Thirty-five HD patients (22 males and 13 females; mean age 62.6 ± 14.0 years; mean HD duration 101.0 ± 118.06 months were examined. Multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis was used to estimate the ratio of extracellular water (ECW to total body water (TBW. The body resistance was measured at frequencies ranging from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The impedance index was determined at a low frequency (5 kHz and correlated closely with ECW, using sodium bromide dilution as standard comparison. The levels of serum albumin, prealbumin, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, transferrin, and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP were measured by routine methods in our hospital. The ECW/TBW ratio was significantly associated with the levels of hANP (p < 0.05. However, no associations between the levels of serum albumin, TC, TG, or transferrin and the ECW/TBW were observed. It appears that the body composition analyzer, InBody 2.0, may be useful for estimating the dry weight in chronic HD patients.

  4. Muscle strength and body composition in severe obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vieira Gadducci

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. METHODS: Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males. Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49.9 kg/m2 (the A group, and 45 patients had a body mass index between 50 and 59.9 kg/m2 (the B group. RESULTS: Absolute extension and flexion torques had weak associations with fat-free mass but a moderate association with absolute extension torque and fat-free mass of the lower limbs. There were no significant differences between the A and B groups with respect to absolute extension and flexion torques. For the A group, absolute extension and flexion torques were moderately associated with fat-free mass and with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. For the B group, there were only moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that both groups exhibited similar absolute torque values. There were weak to moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques and fat-free mass but a moderate association with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Individuals with severe obesity should strive for greater absolute torques, fat-free mass and especially fat-free mass of the lower limbs to prevent functional limitations and physical incapacity.

  5. Muscle strength and body composition in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; de Cleva, Roberto; de Faria Santarém, Gabriela Correia; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréa; Santo, Marco Aurélio

    2017-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males). Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49.9 kg/m2 (the A group), and 45 patients had a body mass index between 50 and 59.9 kg/m2 (the B group). Absolute extension and flexion torques had weak associations with fat-free mass but a moderate association with absolute extension torque and fat-free mass of the lower limbs. There were no significant differences between the A and B groups with respect to absolute extension and flexion torques. For the A group, absolute extension and flexion torques were moderately associated with fat-free mass and with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. For the B group, there were only moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Our findings demonstrate that both groups exhibited similar absolute torque values. There were weak to moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques and fat-free mass but a moderate association with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Individuals with severe obesity should strive for greater absolute torques, fat-free mass and especially fat-free mass of the lower limbs to prevent functional limitations and physical incapacity.

  6. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  7. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies.

  8. Effect of maternal metabolism on fetal growth and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, P M; Thomas, A J; Huston, L P; Fung, C M

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the various maternal metabolic and parental anthropometric and demographic factors that affect fetal growth and body composition. These data are a review of previously published data evaluating 1) demographic and anthropometric factors associated with fetal growth; 2) differences in male and female neonatal body composition; 3) anthropometric and maternal metabolic factors correlated with neonatal birth weight, fat-free mass, and fat mass using stepwise logistic regression analysis; and 4) the relationship between maternal weight gain and birth weight in women with normal glucose tolerance (control subjects) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We estimated body composition in 186 neonates using anthropometry. Fat-free mass, which comprised 86% of mean birth weight, accounted for 83% of the variance in birth weight, and fat mass, which comprised only 14% of birth weight, accounted for 46% of the variance in birth weight. Male neonates were, on average, 175 g heavier than females. There was significantly (P = 0.0001) greater fat-free mass in males than in females but no significant difference in fat mass. Using stepwise logistic regression, we accounted for 29% of the variance in birth weight, 30% in fat-free mass, and 17% in fat mass. Independent variables included maternal height, pregravid weight, weight gain during pregnancy, education, parity, paternal height and weight, neonatal sex, and gestational age. Including maternal glucose insulin sensitivity in 16 additional subjects, we explained 48% of the variance in birth weight, 53% in fat-free mass, and 46% in fat mass. There was a positive (P = 0.0007) correlation between weight gain and birth weight in control subjects, but a negative (P = 0.34) correlation in women with GDM. In control subjects, the correlation was strongest in women who were lean before conception and became progressively weaker as pregravid weight for height increased. In women with GDM, there

  9. Hydrometry and body composition : methods development and validation in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, Ana Catarina Francisco Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Motricidade Humana na especialidade de Atividade Física e Saúde It is recognized that an accurate body composition and hydration assessment is relevant for prescribing adequate training and nutritional regimens in highly trained athletes. The present dissertation presents four research studies conducted under the scope of the body composition and hydration methodological research area. An alternative solution to evaluate the extracellular water (ECW) compartment by the dilu...

  10. [Body composition assessment by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Juan Carlos; Restrepo, María Teresa; Estrada, Alejandro

    2007-06-01

    Anthropometry and electric impedance methods are widely used for body composition assessment. However the evidence is unclear whether the results obtained from the two methods can be compared. Two methods are compared for assessment of body composition; anthropometry and electric impedance. Body composition was measured in 70 women; aged 22 to 56 and 53 men; aged 24 to 54, using anthropometry (Durning/Womersley and Jackson/Pollock skinfolds equations) and electric impedance (foot to foot electric impedance) to obtain percentage body fat. The mean percentage body fat was significant higher with Durning/Womersley (25.2%) than Jackson/Pollock (20.1%) and electric impedance (19.3%) for men (pimpedance (27.6%) for women (p0.77) however, the concordance between methods to classify obesity subjects was low (Kbioelectrical impedance method. A significant difference was found between methods applied in men and women, and therefore these methods are not comparable.

  11. Effect of ‘Water Induced Thermogenesis’ on Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Body Composition of Overweight Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Vinu A.; Joshi, Anjali S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Drinking lots of water is commonly suggested as a part of weight loss regimens. However, only few systematic studies have addressed this notion. In this study, the effect of drinking 1500 ml of water, over and above the daily water intake on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of overweight subjects was assessed.

  12. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  13. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n=377 adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37% in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54–1.90 (P<0.0001 overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39–1.94, Chinese, 1.39 (1.06–1.83, African, 1.67 (1.37–2.02, and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65. Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91–2.87 for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46–2.20 for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC remained associated with CVD events (HR=1.21, 95%CI 1.12–1.32 overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR

  14. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.12-1.39) and African Americans (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.32). Finally, when using a binary definition of MetS-PC (cut point 0.505) designed to match the NCEP definition in terms of prevalence in the Health ABC cohort (35

  15. Body composition validation technique using anthropometrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal bodyweights of the participantsweremeasured inlying positionsusing anadaptation of theGuthri Smith apparatus frame towhich a firmstretcher and two spring balances were attached on a horizontal level position. The heights of the subjects were also taken on supine lying on a firm plinth. The body weight and ...

  16. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets.

  17. Body composition estimation using skinfolds in children with and without health conditions affecting growth and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Danielle; Weber, David; Leonard, Mary B.; Magge, Sheela N.; Kelly, Andrea; Stallings, Virginia A.; Pipan, Mary; Stettler, Nicolas; Zemel, Babette S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Body composition prediction equations using skinfolds are useful alternatives to advanced techniques, but their utility across diverse pediatric populations is unknown. Aim To evaluate published and new prediction equations across diverse samples of children with health conditions affecting growth and body composition. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures were obtained in children with Down syndrome (n=59), Crohn disease (n=128), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (n=67), and a healthy reference group (n=835). Published body composition equations were evaluated. New equations were developed for ages 3 to 21y using the healthy reference sample and validated in other groups and national survey data. Results Fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) from published equations were highly correlated with DXA-derived measures (r=0.71 to 0.98), but with poor agreement (mean difference: 2.4kg, −1.9kg, and 6.3% for FM, FFM and %BF). New equations produced similar correlations (r=0.85 to 1.0) with improved agreement for the reference group (0.2kg, 0.4kg, and 0.0% for FM, FFM and %BF, respectively), and in sub-groups. Conclusions New body composition prediction equations show excellent agreement with DXA, and improve body composition estimation in healthy children and those with selected conditions affecting growth. PMID:27121656

  18. Effect of sixteen weeks of combined exercise on body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , including 40min of resistance exercise, 40min of aerobic exercise and10min warm-up and cool-down. The CG did not participate in any exercise or physical activity. Body composition variables (weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, percent ...

  19. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  20. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: a cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering ...

  1. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY COMPOSITION IN ADULT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára NAGY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.

  2. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  3. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Correia de Faria Santarém

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity.To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD during the six-minute walk test (6MWT according to gender and obesity grade.University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice.Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (% by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients.The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002 than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m. The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014 than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m. There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM, FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL, trunk (FFM_TR and lower limbs (FFM_LL. Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL.Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.

  4. Impact of Incident Heart Failure on Body Composition Over Time in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Daniel E; Santanasto, Adam J; Boudreau, Robert; Harris, Tamara; Kanaya, Alka M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Butler, Javed; Kizer, Jorge R; Newman, Anne B

    2017-09-01

    Prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases significantly with age, coinciding with age-related changes in body composition that are common and consequential. Still, body composition is rarely factored in routine HF care. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort study of nondisabled adults. Using yearly dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition was assessed in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study over 6 years, comparing those who developed incident HF versus those who did not. Among 2815 Health, Aging, and Body Composition participants (48.5% men; 59.6% whites; mean age, 73.6±2.9 years), 111 developed incident HF over the 6-year study period. At entry into the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, men and women who later developed HF had higher total body mass when compared with those versus those who did not develop HF (men, 80.9±10 versus 78.6±12.9 kg, P =0.05; women, 72.7±15.0 versus 68.2±14.2 kg, P =0.01, respectively). However, after developing HF, loss of total lean body mass was disproportionate; men with HF lost 654.6 versus 391.4 g/y in non-HF participants, P =0.02. Loss of appendicular lean mass was also greater with HF (-419.9 versus -318.2 g/y; P =0.02), even after accounting for total weight change. Among women with HF, loss of total and appendicular lean mass were also greater than in non-HF participants but not to the extent seen among men. Incident HF in older adults was associated with disproportionate loss of lean mass, particularly among men. Prognostic implications are significant, with key sex-specific inferences on physical function, frailty, disability, and pharmacodynamics that all merit further investigation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Changes in body composition after spasticity treatment with intrathecal baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogberg, Olle; Samuelsson, Kersti; Ertzgaard, Per; Levi, Richard

    2017-01-19

    To assess changes in body composition, body weight and resting metabolic rate in patients who received intrathecal baclofen therapy for spasticity. Prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, with a pre/post design. Twelve patients with spasticity, fulfilling study criteria, and due for pump implantation for intrathecal baclofen therapy, completed the study. Data were obtained before, 6 months and 12 months after commencement of intrathecal baclofen therapy as regards body composition (by skinfold calliper), body weight, and resting metabolic rate (by resting oxygen consumption). Spasticity was assessed according to the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS). A reduction in spasticity according to MAS occurred. Mean fat body mass increased and mean lean body mass decreased. Mean body weight showed a non-significant increase and resting metabolic rate a non-significant decrease. This explorative study indicates that unfavourable changes in body composition might occur after intrathecal baclofen therapy. Since obesity and increased fat body mass contribute to an increased cardiovascular risk, these findings may indicate a need for initiation of countermeasures, e.g. increased physical activity and/or dietary measures, in conjunction with intrathecal baclofen therapy. Further studies, including larger study samples and control groups, are needed to corroborate these findings.

  6. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  7. Body composition and flight ranges of Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) from New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis; Holberton, R.L.

    Body composition analysis was performed on 37 Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) that had been illegally shot during migratory fueling in northern New Zealand in March 1992. Adults (n = 35) were heavy (442-721 g), with fat loads of 30-45% of body mass. Two first-year males had only 5.4%

  8. Effects of low dose versus high dose human growth hormone on body composition and lipids in adults with GH deficiency: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Connie B; Carmichael, John D; Kleinberg, David L

    2015-06-01

    Doses of growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency are now lower than previously. However, it is not clear they are as effective as higher doses. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess efficacy of low to moderate dose (LD) GH replacement on standard endpoints of GH compared to higher doses. A meta-analysis was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases from 1960 to 9/23/12. Three reviewers identified randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 6 months duration. Of 173 publications, 28 representing 22 trials (591 GH-treated patients and 562 placebo) were included. Data were independently extracted by three reviewers. Endpoints were analyzed if ≥4 studies per dose group reported baseline and 6 month data. Mean lean body mass (LBM) increased by 2.61 kg in GH-treated subjects versus 0.04 in the placebo group (P GH vs. placebo) (P = 0.0002). Changes in LBM and FM were dose-related (P = 0.02 and 0.007, respectively), high dose (HD) being more effective than low dose (LBM P = 0.03 and FM P = 0.04). In contrast, treatment with GH reduced total cholesterol -0.38 mmol/L versus. 0.01 (placebo) (P GH. LDs of hGH improve total- and LDL-C, and body composition. Higher doses are more effective on body composition, but not lipids.

  9. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (pbody fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental interactions in the etiology of weight gain and the obesity epidemic. PMID:25067962

  10. Body composition and sexual maturation in premenarcheal athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, S A; Liu, N Y; Wells, C L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare premenarcheal athletes (A) and nonathletes (NA) in terms of body composition and sexual maturation and to discern the relationship between these variables. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by the three-component system of Siri utilizing body density from hydrostatic weighing and total body water measured by deuterium oxide dilution. Sexual maturation was self-assessed using the system described by Marshall and Tanner. ANOVAs and polynomial regression analysis revealed that both the A (N = 73) and NA (N = 53) showed similar values and linear increases (P less than 0.001) in height (HT), weight (WT), breast (B) and pubic hair (PH) development from 7 to 15 yr but not in %BF (XA = 15.7 +/- 4.6; XNA = 20.5 +/- 6.4 (P less than 0.001]. The NA exhibited a quadratic curve (P less than 0.01) in %BF over age, while the A showed a negative linear relationship (P less than 0.001) with age. Scheffe post hoc tests revealed significant differences (P less than 0.03, A less than NA) at 11 and 12-15 yr. When %BF was compared to maturation, the A were found to have less fat (P less than 0.01) at stages 1 and 4 of PH and at stages 2, 3, and 4 of B. There were no significant differences between A and NA in the age at which B2, 3, or 4 or PH2, 3, or 4 occurred. Both groups exhibited similar and significant correlations between age, HT, WT, B, and PH development but not %BF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  12. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  13. The effect of dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Sepideh; Shirani, Fatemeh; Chitsazi, Maryam J; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin

    2016-05-01

    Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet is rich in foods that are proposed to be inversely associated with obesity. Therefore, DASH might better affect body weight; however, published data are conflicting. To assess the effect of DASH on body weight and composition in adults. PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google scholar were searched up to December 2015, for relevant randomized controlled clinical trials. Mean changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were extracted. Thirteen articles (ten for body weight, six for BMI and two for WC) were eligible. Meta-analysis revealed that adults on DASH diet lose more weight (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -1.42 kg, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: -2.03, -0.82) in 8-24 weeks, BMI (WMD = -0.42 kg m(-2) , 95%CI: -0.64, -0.20) in 8-52 weeks and WC (WMD = -1.05 cm, 95%CI: -1.61, -0.49) in 24 weeks compared with controls. Low caloric DASH led to even more weight reduction when compared with other low-energy diets. In addition, the effect was greater in overweight/obese participants and when compared with typical (Western or population's usual) diets. DASH diet is a good choice for weight management particularly for weight reduction in overweight and obese participants. © 2016 World Obesity.

  14. Measuring Body Composition in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Faith Casey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research shows obesity to be more prevalent amongst individuals with intellectual disability (ID making correct measurement of body composition crucial. This study reviewed the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing body composition in individuals with ID. Methods. Authors conducted electronic searches through PubMed (1990 to present and PsycINFO (1990 to present and assessed relevant articles independently based on scoping review guidelines. Reviewers included primary research related to the validity and reliability of body composition measures on individuals with ID. Results. Searches identified six articles assessing body composition methods used on individuals with ID including body mass index (BMI, skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, waist circumference, tibia length, and anthropometric girth measurements. BMI and waist circumference appear suitable measures but skinfold thickness measurements may not be advisable due to participants' noncompliance resulting in a lack of precision and inaccurate results. Conclusions. The current literature contains too few well-conducted studies to determine the precision and validity of body composition measures on individuals with ID. There may be a need to devise further regression equations that apply to individuals with specific types of ID in order to increase the reliability and validity of body composition measurements.

  15. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128

    2001-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...

  16. Maternal body composition, smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Ase; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Vangen, Siri; Gunnes, Nina; Samuelsen, Sven O; Magnus, Per

    2010-08-01

    To study associations between maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI), smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis). The sample consisted of 33,467 primiparous women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008). Data on hyperemesis, BMI, education, maternal age, eating disorders, maternal and paternal smoking habits were obtained from questionnaires. All associations were studied by logistic regression. Altogether, 353 (1.1%) women had hyperemesis. Among non-smokers, both underweight and obese women were more likely to develop hyperemesis than normal-weighted women: odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-3.88 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00-2.20, respectively. No associations were found among smokers. Women who smoked daily (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60) or occasionally (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93) had lower risk of hyperemesis than non-smokers. No effect of partner's smoking habits was observed. Both underweight and obesity were associated with hyperemesis, but only among non-smokers. Maternal prepregnant smoking reduced the risk of hyperemesis, whereas partner's smoking habits had no effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition of Staff Review Advisory Bodies - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  18. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...

  19. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  1. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... equations can be used to estimate the body composition with a fair level of accuracy. ... were assessed in order to establish the safety level of the ... So, bio- chemical evaluation is necessary to ensure the nutritional value as well as eating quality fish (Azam et al., 2004). However, the value of these body ...

  2. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  3. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  4. Toward Body Composition Reference Data for Infants, Children, and Adolescents123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Growth charts for weight and height have provided the basis for assessment of children’s nutritional status for over half a century, with charts for body mass index (BMI) introduced in the 1990s. However, BMI does not provide information on the proportions of fat and lean mass; and within the past decade, growth charts for children’s body composition have been produced by using techniques such as skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For public health research, BIA and skinfold thicknesses show negligible average bias but have wider limits of agreement than specialized techniques. For patients, DXA is the best individual method, but multicomponent models remain ideal because they address perturbations in lean mass composition. Data can be expressed in age- and sex-specific SD scores, in some cases adjusting for height. Most such reference data derive from high-income countries, but techniques such as air-displacement plethysmography allow infant body composition growth charts to be developed in low- and middle-income settings, where the data may improve understanding of the effects of low birth weight, wasting, and stunting on body composition. Recent studies suggest that between-population variability in body composition may derive in part from genetic factors, suggesting a universal human body composition reference may not be viable. Body composition growth charts may be extended into adult life to evaluate changes in fat and lean mass through the entire life course. These reference data will improve the understanding of the association between growth, body composition, health, and disease. PMID:24829484

  5. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  6. Hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation with maternal body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosus, Aydin; Eser, Ayla; Kosus, Nermin; Usluogullari, Betul; Hizli, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if maternal body fat composition and body mass index were associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 30) without nausea and vomiting (control group) and women with HG (n = 54; study group), all with singleton pregnancy at 6-14 weeks gestational age, were included. Body mass index was measured before and during pregnancy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous fat thickness were measured during pregnancy. Comparison of the groups revealed that VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index but not subcutaneous fat thickness were significantly higher in the HG group versus controls. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index predicted 83.8% and 67.1% of HG cases, respectively. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index were correlated with the development of hyperemesis gravidrum and hence could be considered as predictive markers for HG.

  7. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  8. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men’s and Women’s Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  9. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body composition assessment in Taiwanese individuals with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2011-07-01

    To measure the changes in the total and regional body fat mass, and assess the clinical usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) in detecting overweight subjects with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Prospective, cross-sectional study. General community. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n=17; age range, 42-57y; mean, 47y; 12 men, 5 women) and able-bodied people (n=17) matched by sex, age, body weight, and body height participated in the study. Not applicable. Total and regional body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Clinical characteristics such as blood pressure, serum biochemical studies, and habitual behaviors (daily cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise regimen) of all participants were evaluated. Compared with able-bodied controls, subjects with poliomyelitis had a 50% greater total body fat mass, significant increases in the regional fat mass in every part of the body, and had the greatest increase of fat mass in the thorax. Nearly all the subjects (94%) with poliomyelitis were obese according to standards of body composition. However, one third of them had a BMI value of less than 25.0kg/m(2). People with poliomyelitis have a higher prevalence of obesity and a significant increase in total and regional fat mass. Current BMI underestimates the total body fat mass percentage compared with the control; therefore, a population-specific BMI should be used to address the prevalence of obesity in postpolio survivors. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Eating frequency and weight and body composition: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Kac, Gilberto; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2017-08-01

    The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes. PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. A systematic review of the literature. Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe. Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73 % of the studies. Fourteen studies reported an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition, and seven studies found a positive association. The majority of studies applied multiple analyses adjusted for potential confounders, such as sex, age, education, income, smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake. Six studies took into account under-reporting of eating frequency and/or energy intake in the analysis, and one investigated the mediation effect of energy intake. There is not sufficient evidence confirming the association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition when misreporting bias is taken into account. However, in men, a potential protective effect of high eating frequency was observed on BMI and visceral obesity.

  12. Influence of body composition on the prevalence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of body composition on the prevalence of postural deformities among Black South African children aged 11 to 13 years in selected schools in the Potchefstroom area in the North West Province. The sample (n = 168) consisted of 47 eleven year olds, 58 twelve year olds and ...

  13. Body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among Olympic and Ironman distance triathletes residing in the Western Cape. Methods. A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study design was conducted in Western Cape Province. Twenty-six triathletes registered ...

  14. Changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...

  15. Association between blood pressure, measures of body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease develop early in life and track into adulthood. This study investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and measures of body composition in adolescents. The study participants were 307 adolescents. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters: ...

  16. Sarcopenia and body composition in diabetic Charcot osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA) requires restricted walking and offloading for several months, which lead to fat re-distribution and increased sarcopenia. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To investigate whether subjects with COA have an altered body composition compared to controls. METHOD...

  17. Fitness and body composition profiling of elite junior South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.

  18. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  19. Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African endurance athletes. ... behaviour. This places them at a high risk of developing two components of the female athlete triad namely funct ional hypotha lamic amenorrhea and low energy-availability with or without an eating disorder.

  20. Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) fed on diets with both cotton and sunflower seed cakes. ... The formulations with 10%CSC25%SFSC and 20%CSC15%SFSC could be used for making Nile tilapia diets. Keywords: Plant protein, intestine histology, ...

  1. Body composition of normal and malnourished rural South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition was evaluated using anthropometric variables (weight, height, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, biceps skinfolds). The anthropometric variables were measured according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Children were categorized by the age groups as ...

  2. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  3. Physical activity, body composition and physical fitness status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the physical activity (PA), body composition and physical fitness status of 1361 (boys: n=678; girls: n= 683) primary school children aged 9-12 years in Mpumalanga (MP) and Limpopo (LP) provinces of South Africa. Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were taken using the ...

  4. The association between leptin, body composition and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the association between leptin, body composition and physical fitness in black adolescents from two selected schools in Ikageng, in the North West Province of South Africa. Baseline measurements were obtained from 124 boys and 148 girls between the ages of 13 and 20 years, which participated in ...

  5. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat...

  6. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan. Accepted 27 May, 2011 ... Key words: Proximate composition, body size, condition factor, predictive equation, catfish, Mystus bleekeri. .... a multiple regression model having the general form: Y = a + b1 W + b2 X.

  7. Body composition and somatotype of male Zimbabwean league ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a profile of the body composition and somatotype characteristics of male Zimbabwean league basketball players, which information is lacking. Twenty six players aged 22.0±5.3 years were purposively sampled from the top teams of the Bulawayo Basketball Association. Anthropometric variables were ...

  8. Long term survey of body composition in hemodialysis patients using the Body Composition Monitor® (BCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Trolonge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2 years all 265 incident patients in self-dialysis units were included in a prospective study. Every 6-months, clinical and biological nutritional evaluation was associated to a BCM measure. 205 pts have a complete set of data at start (age 60±16 years, BMI 25±5 kg/m2, albumin 37±4 g/L, prealbumin 0.32±0.1 g/L, CRP median 5 mg/L, 135 pts at 6 mo and 56 pts at 2 years. Measures were performed before HD session to ensure stability and reproducibility of body fluid compartments by the same examiner. Lean and fat masses (lean tissue index: LTI, fat tissue index: FTI were normalized by square body height and compared with a reference range derived from 2000 healthy controls, according to gender and age. 28% of pts had values of LTI below the 10th percentile. A linear correlation exists (p<0.001 between pre-dialysis creatinine level and LTI. Albumin or prealbumin were not predictive of sarcopenia. Prescribed post dialysis BW was underestimated in 25% of pts and 16% remain overhydrated. In stable patients repeated measures analysis reveal no significant variation of LTI even in case of reevaluation of BW and gain of BW is associated with fat mass increase. BCM is a simple tool in clinical practice to evaluate body composition and hydratation status and help to guide nutritional support.

  9. [Body composition investigation of 2321 Shenzhen government and enterprise staffs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Jichang; Sun, Shiqiang; Xu, Jiazhang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Huang, Changhua; He, Shan; Liu, Can; Xu, Jian; Gong, Chunmei

    2016-01-01

    To understand the laws of human body composition change and the status of the overweight and obesity of government and enterprise staffs. In July 2013 - January 2014, 2321 adults more than 20-year-old healthy check-up crowd with complete human body composition and height as well as weight data in a medical center in Shenzhen were collected by convenience sampling method. The overweight rates of male and female were 46.41% and 18.94% respectively (standardized overweight rates were 44.02% and 14.51%, respectively), and the difference between them was statisically significant (Χ2 = 201.01, P = 0. 000). The obesity rates of male and female were 12.13% and 3.57%, respectively (standardized overweight rates were 11.11% (see symbol) 2.63%, respectively), and the difference between them was statisically significant (X2 = 48.45, P = 0.000). The parameters of bone mineral quality, visceral fat area, body fat, body fat percentage, abdominal obesity, body moisture and free fat weight increased with body weight, and there were statistical significance among normal weight, overweight and obesity groups (P = 0.000). Bone mineral quality was highest at the age of 30 to 40 for men and women, and there was the statistical significance. There was statistical significance in visceral fat area between different ages in the same gender. Body fat percentage (34.24 + 5.39)% of all ages 50 to 59 years old and body moisture (28.53 + 3.77)% of age 40 - 49 group were highest in women. Male body fat percentage (27.08 + 5.01)% at the age of 60-age group was the highest. Male and female visceral fat area increasesd with age, but there was no statistical difference between men and women at the same age. The human body composition had not a statistically significant difference among normal weight and overweight groups, but a significant difference between normal weight and obesity groups (P = 0.000). Overweight and obesity rates in Shenzhen government and enterprise staffs increase with age

  10. Body composition in men with anorexia nervosa: Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Milanese, Chiara; Bazzani, Paola Vittoria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    To compare body composition patterns before and after complete weight restoration in men with anorexia nervosa. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure body composition patterns in 10 men with anorexia nervosa before and after complete weight restoration, and in 10 healthy men matched to age and patients' post-treatment body mass index (BMI). Before weight restoration, men with anorexia nervosa displayed lower total body fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LBM) than those in the healthy comparison group, with a greater FM loss from the extremity than the trunk region. After short-term weight restoration, patients displayed complete normalization in total LBM and FM, but greater deposition of FM in the trunk region. Short-term weight restoration can normalize body composition patterns in men with anorexia nervosa, but results in a central adiposity phenotype. The clinical implication of this finding is unknown, but should be explored given the high levels of concern about central adiposity in anorexia nervosa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. GPS Composite Clock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is...

  12. A review of body composition and pharmacokinetics in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jessica J; Sawyer, Michael B

    2017-09-01

    Body surface area dosing of chemotherapeutic agents is based on limited scientific data, and often results in unpredictable plasma drug levels. Cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) imaging provides an accurate measurement of lean mass. This review summarizes emerging roles of lean mass in predicting pharmacokinetics and drug toxicities in cancer patients. Areas covered: A concise review of body composition measurement with CT cross-sectional imaging and its relationship to drug pharmacokinetics and toxicities. A comprehensive review of the predictive value of low lean mass (sarcopenia) in dose-limiting toxicities is also included. Expert commentary: Drug dosing in medical oncology faces many challenges, including heterogeneous body composition profiles. The emerging role of sarcopenia in predicting lean mass may provide the tool needed to more accurately dose patients and prevent dose-limiting toxicities.

  13. Dietary strategies and body composition in elite weightlifting: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little literature that showed the nutritional bases to optimize weightlifting performance. The objective was to perform a systematic review of the body composition and nutritional composition of diets in elite weightlifting athletes. Material and Methods: Articles published in Pubmed, Web of Science and Sport Discuss were reviewed following PRISMA Statement. The process for selecting studies was performed duplicated by two researchers in two stages (screening and application of eligibility criteria. A qualitative synthesis of the main characteristics and findings was made. The quality of studies was assessed. Results: Of the 610 articles found, 8 met the inclusion criteria, which were the studies performed in elite or high-level menopausal women, and information on dietary habits and/or body composition. Body composition identified that the percentage of fat mass was around 15%. A caloric intake of 4080.65±1602.69kcal, a protein intake of 17.29±3.2% of total daily energy (TDE, 42.48±5.6% TDE of carbohydrates and a 36.1±9.75% TDE of fats. A suboptimal dietary profile is suggested, showing an excess in fat intake, which could explain the excess body fat observed in some. Athletes’ protein intake and carbohydrates were within the recommended ranges except for 2 studies. Conclusions: An incorrect diet on the part of the elite weightlifting athletes was observed, which could condition their body composition negatively. The need for advice and intervention by a dietitian-nutritionist professionals was observed.

  14. Validity of dual X-ray absorptiometry scanning for determination of body composition in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, T; Gotfredsen, A

    1995-01-01

    Data on body composition in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are scarce. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning has proved useful for this purpose in other groups of patients. We tested the validity of the DXA scanner for the determination of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat...... mass in IDDM patients and control subjects, as compared to other reference methods, i.e. total body potassium by 40K whole body counting (TBK), total body water by tritiated water (TBW), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 24-h urinary creatinine excretion (Ucrea). A total of 13 healthy controls...

  15. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS...... with a granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed...

  16. Purification, composition analysis and antioxidant activity of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification, composition analysis and antioxidant activity of different polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of Pholiota adiposa. Yongxin Nie, Hongxia Jiang, Yanyou Su, Changxiang Zhu, Jiarui Li, Fujiang Wen ...

  17. Infant feeding and growth trajectory patterns in childhood and body composition in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H; Mearin, M Luisa; Grote, Veit; Mori, Trevor A; Szajewska, Hania; Shamir, Raanan; Koletzko, Sibylle; Weber, Martina; Beilin, Lawrence J; Huang, Rae-Chi; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-08-01

    Background: Growth patterns of breastfed and formula-fed infants may differ, with formula-fed infants growing more rapidly than breastfed infants into childhood and adulthood. Objective: Our objectives were to identify growth patterns and investigate early nutritional programming potential on growth patterns at 6 y and on body composition at 20 y. Design: The West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and 3 European cohort studies (European Childhood Obesity Trial, Norwegian Human Milk Study, and Prevention of Coeliac Disease) that collaborate in the European Union-funded Early Nutrition project combined, harmonized, and pooled data on full breastfeeding, anthropometry, and body composition. Latent growth mixture modeling was applied to identify growth patterns among the 6708 individual growth trajectories. The association of full breastfeeding for body composition at 20 y among the identified trajectory classes were tested by analysis of variance. Results: Three body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) trajectory patterns were identified and labeled as follows-class 1: persistent, accelerating, rapid growth (5%); class 2: early, nonpersistent, rapid growth (40%); and class 3: normative growth (55%). A shorter duration of full breastfeeding for body composition at 20 y ( P body composition in young adulthood. Rapid-growth patterns in early childhood could be a mediating link between infant feeding and long-term obesity risk. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Body composition changes in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Aging or disease process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Wen; Lin, Chieh-Mo; Li, Hung-Chou; Hsiao, Pei-Lin; Chung, An-Chi; Hsieh, Chu-Jung; Wu, Pi-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly affects middle-age and elderly adults. It is unclear if the presence of muscle wasting and fat accumulation in patients with COPD is age or disease-related. This study investigated the effect of age and COPD disease severity on body composition with the aim of identifying a biomarker(s) for COPD. Healthy subjects and patients with COPD of different severity were recruited. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze total and segmental body composition. Subjects included in the analysis were classified into four groups: healthy young (aged 20-45 years) (n = 35), healthy old (aged ≥ 60 years) (n = 37), moderate COPD (n = 40), and severe COPD (n = 14). In healthy old adults, leg and limb lean masses were lower by 10.6% and 8.5%, respectively, compared with healthy young adults (P changes in total and segmental body composition with aging and COPD severity. It found that aging and COPD altered the body composition differently, and the effect was most pronounced in leg lean mass. Remarkably, differences in appendicular lean masses were seen in mild COPD although no changes in body weight or BMI were apparent compared with healthy young adults. In contrast, fat depot changes were only observed in severe COPD. Aging and COPD processes are multifactorial and additional longitudinal studies are required to explore both the quantitative and qualitative changes in body composition with aging and disease process.

  19. Comparison of body composition, exercise and nutritional profiles of female and male body builders at competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, W M; Heyward, V H; Lyons, T M

    1989-03-01

    Limited research information is available on the training programs and dietary practices of competitive male and female body builders. Information on body composition, training programs, and nutritional profiles of eleven competitive male and female body builders were obtained 48 hours prior to competition. Body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing. Skinfold data were obtained to assess the distribution of subcutaneous fat. Questionnaires concerning training programs and a three day food intake record were collected. The female body builders achieved a degree of leanness similar to the males. The relative training volumes for the women were greater than those of the men for all body regions. Gender differences were found in regional deposition of subcutaneous fat between males and females, with the males showing a more uniform distribution of subcutaneous fat. The nutritional profiles of male and female body builders were similar. The pre-competitive diets were low in kilocalories, and the relative energy intakes for men and women were 28.6 kcal/kg and 29.2 kcal/kg respectively. Both men and women consumed low fat and high protein foods. All of the vitamin/mineral intakes of the body builders exceeded the RDA's with the exceptions of calcium for men and women and iron for women only.

  20. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  1. Effect of HIV infection on body composition and fat distribution in Rwandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Anastos, Kathryn; Zheng Lin; Cohen, Mardge; Binagwaho, Agnes; Kotler, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association of HIV infection with body weight and composition in Rwandan women. Body weight and composition, the latter determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and by anthropometry, were compared in 620 HIV-positive and 211 HIV-negative participants. Associations of HIV with body composition were assessed, and t tests compared the groups. HIV-positive women were younger (-7.0 years, P < .001) and shorter (-2.1 cm, P < .001). Mean body weight, body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were similar. Mean fat-free mass was 2.5% greater in HIV-negative participants, and 19% of HIV-positive group had BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) versus 26% of the HIV-negative group (P < .05). CD4 counts and body composition were not associated. Malnutrition was common in this cohort of Rwandan women. However, HIV infection was not associated with nutritional status. Factors other than malnutrition may influence quality-of-life outcomes in HIV-infected Rwandan women. Initiatives to improve nutritional status should be population-wide and not restricted to the HIV-infected population.

  2. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P Weights varied by year (P weights increased (P weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  3. Educational Web site. Radioisotopic methods of determining body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R.J.; Ellis, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    A Web site intended to inform the general public about existing nuclear technologies based on the measurement of radioisotopes in the human body has been designed. The presentation is focused on the concept of radioisotope measurements for determination of body composition (bone, muscle, water, fat), and the risks, benefits, and clinical applications of these techniques. Procedures covered are 40 K whole body counting, delayed-gamma neutron activation, prompt-gamma neutron activation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The information presented is tailored for the nonscientific public, in order to promote familiarity with and understanding of the basic concepts of radioisotope measurements in the human body. Further development of the site will include greater scientific detail, suitable for student instruction or for continuing education requirements of various certification programs. (author)

  4. Maternal and Fetal Determinants of Neonatal Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breij, Laura M; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Briceno, Daniela; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-01-01

    Body composition in early life influences the development of obesity during childhood and beyond. It is, therefore, important to adequately determine neonatal body composition. Fetal growth and maternal factors might influence neonatal fat mass percentage (FM%), independent of birth weight. In 194 healthy neonates, we investigated neonatal body composition, measured by air-displacement plethysmography (PEAPOD), and its associations with estimated fetal weight (EFW), neonatal anthropometric data, maternal preconceptional body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. There was a large variation in neonatal FM%, even in case of a similar birth weight, corrected for gender and gestational age. Neonatal FM% was associated with EFW at 30 and 36 weeks of gestation and with catch-up in weight between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation, but not with EFW at 20 weeks (p Neonatal FM% was also associated with preconceptional BMI of the mother (p maternal weight gain. Our study shows that term neonates have a large variation in FM%. Neonatal FM% is associated with EFW at 30 and 36 weeks, catch-up in weight between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation and preconceptional BMI of the mother. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Determination and regulation of body composition in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonksen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a 'hyperandrogenism' rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport. This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not have scientific backing and the Court of Arbitration for Sport subsequently rescinded the rule following an appeal from an Indian athlete barred from the Commonwealth Games. This review covers the scientific knowledge about the development and regulation of body composition in humans but also considers the lessons learnt from evolution and breeding in animals. The importance of heredity has been documented in family and twin studies. The roles of growth hormone and sex steroids are reviewed. The Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is considered as a model of the role of testosterone in development of body composition and also as evidence of the importance of other factors carried on the Y-chromosome that are of prime importance but have been systematically ignored. Finally the key factors determining body composition are considered and placed in a suggested order of importance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K.; Visscher, P.M.; Erbas, B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition in women and men, and to assess the impact of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 325 female and 299 male like-sex healthy twin pairs, on average 38 y old (18-67 y......), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program....... Further, these variance components were analysed as linear functions of age. RESULTS: In both women and men genetic contributions were significant for all phenotypes. Heritability for body mass index was 0.58 and 0.63; for body fat%, 0.59 and 0.63; for total skinfolds, 0.61 and 0.65; for extremity...

  7. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Aponte, Jose C.; Blackmond, Donna G.; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplied by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large -enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to 60) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  8. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  9. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Hill, Jacqueline C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA) to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (bod...

  10. Tracking of Body Composition in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for

  11. Bioimpedance as a tool for evaluating the body composition of suruvi (Steindachneridion scriptum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zaniboni-Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is regarded as an important tool for evaluating the body composition of different animals in a rapid, non-destructive, and low-cost manner. A South American fish species, Steindachneridion scriptum, known as suruvi, was selected for study in this investigation. A protocol to produce fish with different body composition was used to allow BIA to adequately predict the body composition of suruvi. The fish were fed twice each day with two different diets; a low lipid diet (8.90%, and a high lipid diet (18.68%. These dietary differences allowed suruvi specimens with different body compositions to be produced. The BIA readings were determined using a Quantum X Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer. Two readings (dorsal and ventral were obtained for each fish. After BIA readings were obtained, the proximate composition of the fish bodies for each individual was determined. All of the study data were used to establish correlation equations between proximate analyses and BIA values. Strong correlations were found for S. scriptum. The highest correlations were obtained for the following pairs of quantities, using BIA data from dorsal readings: moisture and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87; protein and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87; and ash and reactance in parallel (R2 = 0.82. We conclude that BIA is an effective method in determining the body composition of S. scriptum without sacrificing the fish. However, to expand the use of this new technology it is important to define strict BIA protocols to guarantee accurate estimates.

  12. The association of body composition parameters with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.

  13. Validation of a portable bioelectrical impedance analyzer for the assessment of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelis, Antony D; Chamberland, Gabriel; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Duval, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in field research has been the difficulty to adequately measure body composition, such as % body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the convergent validity of the portable bioelectrical impedance body composition analyzer, the Inbody 230, with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (General Electric Lunar Prodigy). The study population consisted of 145 men and women (age, 44.6 ± 20 years; BMI, 24.5 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2)). We measured body composition (fat mass, % body fat, total FFM, trunk FFM, and appendicular FFM) using DXA and the Inbody 230. Results show strong significant correlations between both methods for fat mass, % body fat, total FFM, and trunk FFM (r = 0.94-0.99). Furthermore, we showed a modest significant correlation between both methods for appendicular FFM (r = 0.63). Finally, as shown by Bland-Altman analysis, no significant biases were observed between Inbody 230 and DXA for fat mass, % body fat, and total FFM. However, trunk and appendicular FFM were shown to have significant biases between the Inbody 230 and DXA. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the portable Inbody 230 may be an acceptable device to measure fat mass, % body fat, and total FFM (except for women) in healthy adults. In addition, there appears to be a systematic bias for the estimation of trunk and appendicular FFM with the Inbody 230 in men and women.

  14. Neonatal body composition according to the revised institute of medicine recommendations for maternal weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Thaddeus P; Huston-Presley, Larraine; Catalano, Patrick M

    2012-10-01

    In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n=87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n=140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n=212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, Pweight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy.

  15. Relationship between sex, body composition, gait speed and body satisfaction in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, P A; García-Pinillos, F; Huertas Herrador, J A; Cózar Barba, M; Muñoz Jiménez, M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyzebody satisfaction in non-institutionalized old people and its association with sex, body mass index (BMI) and gait speed. Hundred six people have participated, 38 men (age=74.60 ±6.67 years old) and 68 women (age=72.76 ±4.68 years old). The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) has been used together with body composition and a gait speed test. Prevalence of body dissatisfaction in old people is about 5.6 %. Women have higher body fat percentage and less muscle mass. Significant differences were not found (p≥0.05) in the BSQ relating with sex. Obese old people with less gait speed showed higher score in BSQ. The Total BSQ is positively correlated with BMI (r=0.487, pgait speed (r=-0.215 pgait speed and negatively with BMI. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress analysis in FRP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jauhari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A composite material, in mechanics sense, is a structure with the ingredients as element transferring forces to adjacent members. The issue of defects and their effect on the mechanical properties of composites is of great concern among high end users. Experimental investigation of failure modes of composite materials requires correlating the fundamentals of composite materials, their mechanical properties as well as their failure characteristics in the presence of defects. In this paper, three formats of defects of hole (single, double and quadruple as a discontinuity were incorporated along with tensile testing. Unique failure modes of these specimens provided overview regarding mechanical behaviour of composite materials containing defects. Certain correlations were observed between defects and resulting properties. Results are in agreement with general behaviour of FRP composite laminates and it can be concluded that for low deformation in composite laminates, number of layers must be increased, which at the same time results in increase of von-Mises stress. Fibres are the main constituents which are responsible for strength of a composite laminate and they along with fibre orientation, play an important role on its load bearing capacity. It can be inferred based on the analysis that cross-ply configuration [0°/90°] has good load bearing capacity as well as least deflection emphasizing more strength.

  17. Early Hormonal Treatment Affects Body Composition and Body Shape in Young Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Maartje; de Mutsert, Renée; Wiepjes, Chantal M; Twisk, Jos W R; den Heijer, Martin; Rotteveel, Joost; Klink, Daniël T

    2018-02-01

    Transgender adolescents aspiring to have the body characteristics of the affirmed sex can receive hormonal treatment. However, it is unknown how body shape and composition develop during treatment and whether transgender persons obtain the desired body phenotype. To examine the change in body shape and composition from the start of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) until 22 years of age and to compare these measurements at 22 years with those of age-matched peers. 71 transwomen (birth-assigned boys) and 121 transmen (birth-assigned girls) who started treatment from 1998 through 2014 were included in this retrospective study. GnRHa treatment was started and cross-sex hormonal treatment was added at 16 years of age. Anthropometric and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry data were retrieved from medical records. Linear mixed model regression was performed to examine changes over time. SD scores (SDS) were calculated to compare body shape and composition with those of age-matched peers. Change in waist-hip ratio (WHR), total body fat (TBF), and total lean body mass (LBM) during hormonal treatment. SDS of measures of body shape and composition compared with age-matched peers at 22 years of age. In transwomen, TBF increased (+10%, 95% CI = 7-11) while total LBM (-10%, 95% CI = -11 to -7) and WHR (-0.04, 95% CI = -0.05 to -0.02) decreased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.3 (95% CI = 0.0-0.5) for WHR, and 0.0 (95% CI = -0.2 to 0.3) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -1.0 (95% CI = -1.3 to -0.7) for WHR, and +2.2 (95% CI = 2.2-2.4) for TBF. In transmen, TBF decreased (-3%, 95% CI = -4 to -1), while LBM (+3%, 95% CI = 1-4) and WHR (+0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) increased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.6 (95% CI = 0.4-0.8) for WHR, and -1.1 (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.9) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -0.5 (95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3) for WHR, and +1.8 (95% CI = 1.6-1.9) for TBF. Knowing body

  18. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  19. Composition and function of P bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.

  20. A method for estimating fetal weight based on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chen; Jie, Yu; Xiu-E, Gao; Gui-Chuan, Fan; Wen-Long, Zhang

    2018-04-02

    Fetal weight is an important factor to determine the delivery mode of pregnant women. The change of fetal weight is significant, according to regular health monitoring of pregnant women. Conventional methods of fetal weight estimation, namely those based on B-ultrasound, are very complicated and the costs are high. In this paper, we propose a new method based on body composition. An abdominal four-segment impedance model is first established upon pregnant women, as well as the method of calculation. A body composition based method is then given to estimate the fetal weight, with the solution given explicitly. Analyses of clinical data reveal the smallness of the error between the estimated value and the actual value. The error between B-ultrasound and the present method is less than 15%.

  1. Circulating leptin and body composition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, S; Karadag, F; Karul, A B; Gurgey, O; Gurel, S; Guney, E; Cildag, O

    2005-10-01

    Nutritional depletion and weight loss are two features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with COPD is a common clinical observation. Mechanisms of weight loss are still unclear in COPD. Excessive energy expenditure partly due to increased work of breathing was shown, but other mechanisms have been searched for. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays an important role in energy homeostasis and regulates body weight through control of appetite and energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating leptin levels and measures of body composition in COPD patients. Thirty male COPD outpatients (mean age 66.3 +/- 8.4) and 20 controls (mean age 65.9 +/- 10.8) were included in the study. After standard spirometry and body composition measurements, serum leptin concentration was measured by ELISA assay. COPD patients were grouped according to BMI. Mean BMI was 19.01 +/- 2.26 kg/m2 in group 1 (COPD patients with low BMI), 26.85 +/- 4.51 in group 2 COPD (COPD patients with normal/high BMI) and 27.64 +/- 2.75 kg/m2 in healthy controls (group 3). Mean serum leptin concentration was 1.41 +/- 1.86 ng/ml in group 1, 2.60 +/- 1.38 ng/ml in group 2 and 2.82 +/- 1.46 ng/ml in group 3 (p = 0.002). Leptin correlated to not only BMI but also body weight, waist circumference, triceps and biceps skinfold thickness and body fat percent (p leptin in COPD. Instead, leptin remains regulated in COPD and further decreased in patients with low BMI, probably as a compensatory mechanism to preserve body fat content, which should be evaluated in further studies.

  2. Body Composition Changes in Severely Burned Children During ICU Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Malagaris, Ioannis; Rivas, Eric; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Voigt, Charles D; Blears, Elizabeth; Mlcak, Ron P; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Suman, Oscar E

    2017-12-01

    Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. Retrospective chart review. Children's burn hospital. Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015. All patients underwent a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry within 2 weeks after injury and 2 weeks before discharge to determine body composition changes. No subject underwent anabolic intervention. We analyzed changes of bone mineral content, bone mineral density, total fat mass, total mass, and total lean mass of the entire body and specifically analyzed the changes between the upper and lower limbs. In the 24 patients, age was 10 ± 5 years, total body surface area burned was 59% ± 17%, time between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometries was 34 ± 21 days, and length of stay was 39 ± 24 days. We found a significant (p < 0.001) average loss of 3% of lean mass in the whole body; this loss was significantly greater (p < 0.001) in the upper extremities (17%) than in the lower extremities (7%). We also observed a remodeling of the fat compartments, with a significant whole-body increase in fat mass (p < 0.001) that was greater in the truncal region (p < 0.0001) and in the lower limbs (p < 0.05). ICU hospitalization is associated with greater lean mass loss in the upper limbs of burned children. Mobilization programs should include early mobilization of upper limbs to restore upper extremity function.

  3. Change in functional status and body composition in institutionalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Novo, André; Preto, Leonel; Santos, Ana; Mendes, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    The decrease on muscular strength, flexibility and balance are widely recognized as the main causes of disability in older people. A better knowledge of these variables can help to plan programs for active aging.Objective – To assess physical functioning, body composition and fear of falling and analyze these dimensions on the aging process. Methods – This is a longitudinal descriptive-correlational study. The sample comprise 51 institutionalized elderly followed for two years. The data colle...

  4. General many-body formalism for composite quantum particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, M; Betbeder-Matibet, O

    2010-05-21

    This Letter provides a formalism capable of exactly treating Pauli blocking between n-fermion particles. This formalism is based on an operator algebra made of commutators and anticommutators which contrasts with the usual scalar formalism of Green functions developed half a century ago for elementary quantum particles. We also provide the diagrams which visualize the very specific many-body physics induced by fermion exchanges between composite quantum particles.

  5. A Comparison of Methods for the Estimation of Body Composition in Highly Trained Wheelchair Games Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V.; Keil, M.; Brooke-Wavell, K.; de Groot, S.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement in body composition measurements of wheelchair athletes using skinfolds, bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) relative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A secondary objective was to develop new skinfold

  6. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  7. Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.

  8. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  10. Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kg·y(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kg·y(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cm·y(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kg·y(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kg·y(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011.

  11. Prediction of the chemical body composition of Nellore and crossbreed bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, A; Lanna, D P D; da Cruz, G M; Tullio, R R; Sakamoto, L S; de Alencar, M M

    2017-09-01

    Young Nellore and crossbreed bulls were comparatively slaughtered to generate equation models for predicting the chemical composition of the empty body and carcass from the chemical composition of the Hankins and Howe section (; ). Data were collected from 236 animals from different genetic groups: Nellore, one-half Canchim + one-half Nellore, one-half Angus + one-half Nellore, and one-half Simmental + one-half Nellore, with 48 baseline animals (BW range from 218 to 433 kg) and 188 animals finished in the feedlot (BW range from 356 to 618 kg). The chemical composition prediction equation model was developed for all genetic groups using stepwise regression analysis. Across all animals, the percentages of water and ether extract in the HH section were highly correlated ( composition were lower than those obtained from the empty body composition. It was concluded that the chemical composition of the empty body and the carcass can be predicted from the composition of the HH section, using a general equation for different genetic groups.

  12. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Tatiane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9-17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1-5 were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear regression. The propulsive force of the arm was correlated with body height (r = 0.34; p =0.013, arm span (r = 0.29; p =0.042, sitting height (r = 0.36; p =0.009, % body fat (r = 0.33; p =0.016, lean body mass (r = 0.34; p =0.015 and arm muscle area (r = 0.31; p =0.026. Using multiple linear regression models, the percent body fat and height were identified as significant predictors of the propulsive force of the arm after controlling for the maturation stage. This model explained 22% (R2 = 0.22 of associations. In conclusion, the propulsive force of swimmers was related to body height and percent body fat

  13. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  14. A Research Program of Weight and Body Composition Management for Women with Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingram, Caroyln

    2004-01-01

    ...) to examine the relationships between physical activity and body composition changes during adjuvant chemotherapy, and the changes in proportions of body water and lean tissue underlying changes...

  15. Does Inflammation Mediate the Obesity and BPH Relationship? An Epidemiologic Analysis of Body Composition and Inflammatory Markers in Blood, Urine, and Prostate Tissue, and the Relationship with Prostate Enlargement and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Koyama, Tatsuki; Fadare, Oluwole; Clark, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    BPH is a common disease associated with age and obesity. However, the biological pathways between obesity and BPH are unknown. Our objective was to investigate biomarkers of systemic and prostate tissue inflammation as potential mediators of the obesity and BPH association. Participants included 191 men without prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. Trained staff measured weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis. Systemic inflammation was estimated by serum IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α; and by urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGE-M), F2-isoprostane (F2iP), and F2-isoprostane metabolite (F2iP-M) levels. Prostate tissue was scored for grade, aggressiveness, extent, and location of inflammatory regions, and also stained for CD3 and CD20 positive lymphocytes. Analyses investigated the association between multiple body composition scales, systemic inflammation, and prostate tissue inflammation against BPH outcomes, including prostate size at ultrasound and LUTS severity by the AUA-symptom index (AUA-SI). Prostate size was significantly associated with all obesity measures. For example, prostate volume was 5.5 to 9.0 mls larger comparing men in the 25th vs. 75th percentile of % body fat, fat mass (kg) or lean mass (kg). However, prostate size was not associated with proinflammatory cytokines, PGE-M, F2iP, F2iP-M, prostate tissue inflammation scores or immune cell infiltration. In contrast, the severity of prostate tissue inflammation was significantly associated with LUTS, such that there was a 7 point difference in AUA-SI between men with mild vs. severe inflammation (p = 0.004). Additionally, men with a greater waist-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly more likely to have severe prostate tissue inflammation (p = 0.02), and a high WHR was significantly associated with moderate/severe LUTS (OR = 2.56, p = 0.03) among those participants with prostate tissue inflammation. The WHR, an estimate of centralized

  16. Does Inflammation Mediate the Obesity and BPH Relationship? An Epidemiologic Analysis of Body Composition and Inflammatory Markers in Blood, Urine, and Prostate Tissue, and the Relationship with Prostate Enlargement and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Fadare, Oluwole; Clark, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Background BPH is a common disease associated with age and obesity. However, the biological pathways between obesity and BPH are unknown. Our objective was to investigate biomarkers of systemic and prostate tissue inflammation as potential mediators of the obesity and BPH association. Methods Participants included 191 men without prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. Trained staff measured weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis. Systemic inflammation was estimated by serum IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α; and by urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGE-M), F2-isoprostane (F2iP), and F2-isoprostane metabolite (F2iP-M) levels. Prostate tissue was scored for grade, aggressiveness, extent, and location of inflammatory regions, and also stained for CD3 and CD20 positive lymphocytes. Analyses investigated the association between multiple body composition scales, systemic inflammation, and prostate tissue inflammation against BPH outcomes, including prostate size at ultrasound and LUTS severity by the AUA-symptom index (AUA-SI). Results Prostate size was significantly associated with all obesity measures. For example, prostate volume was 5.5 to 9.0 mls larger comparing men in the 25th vs. 75th percentile of % body fat, fat mass (kg) or lean mass (kg). However, prostate size was not associated with proinflammatory cytokines, PGE-M, F2iP, F2iP-M, prostate tissue inflammation scores or immune cell infiltration. In contrast, the severity of prostate tissue inflammation was significantly associated with LUTS, such that there was a 7 point difference in AUA-SI between men with mild vs. severe inflammation (p = 0.004). Additionally, men with a greater waist-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly more likely to have severe prostate tissue inflammation (p = 0.02), and a high WHR was significantly associated with moderate/severe LUTS (OR = 2.56, p = 0.03) among those participants with prostate tissue inflammation. Conclusion

  17. Phase-contrast imaging for body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huajie; Hu, Renfang; Wali, Faiz; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Shenghao; Gu, Yonggang; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for human body composition measurement, especially for the bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. The proposed method, using the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from X-ray grating-based interferometer (XGBI) to measure the BMD, has potential to replace dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which is currently widely used for body composition measurement. The DEXA method employs two absorption images acquired at two different X-ray spectra (high energy and low energy) to calculate the human body composition. In this paper, a new method to calculate BMD using a single X-ray measurement is proposed. XGBI is a relatively new X-ray technique that provides absorption, phase and scattering information simultaneously using a single X-ray spectrum. With the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from XGBI, BMD can be measured using only one single X-ray spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed with a body phantom of bone (Cortical, ICRU-44) surrounded by soft tissue (Soft, ICRU-44). BMD is calculated with both the DEXA method and the proposed method. Results show that BMD can be measured accurately with the proposed method; moreover, better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained compared to DEXA. With the proposed method, BMD can be measured with XGBI setup. Further, the proposed method can be realized using current X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) apparatus without any hardware modification, suggesting that this technique can be a promising supplementary function to current XPCI equipment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  19. Normalisation of body composition parameters for nutritional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Normalisation of body composition parameters to an index of body size facilitates comparison of a subject’s measurements with those of a population. There is an obvious focus on indexes of obesity, but first it is informative to consider Fat Free Mass (FFM) in the context of common anthropometric measures of body size namely, height and weight. The contention is that FFM is a more physiological measure of body size than body mass. Many studies have shown that FFM relates to height ^p. Although there is debate over the appropriate exponent especially in early life, it appears to lie between 2 and 3. If 2, then FFM Index (FFMI; kg/m2) and Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/m2) can be summed to give BMI. If 3 were used as exponent, then FFMI (kg/m3) plus FMI (kg/m3) gives the Ponderal Index (PI; weight/height3). In 2013, Burton argued that that a cubic exponent is appropriate for normalisation as it is a dimensionless quotient. In 2012, Wang and co-workers repeated earlier observations showing a strong linear relationship between FFM and height3. The importance of the latter study comes from the fact that a 4 compartment body composition model was used, which is recognised as the most accurate means of describing FFM. Once the basis of a FFMI has been defined it can be used to compare measurements with those of a population, either directly, as a ratio to a norm or as a Z-score. FFMI charts could be developed for use in child growth. Other related indexes can be determined for use in specific circumstances such as: body cell mass index (growth and wasting); skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) or appendicular SMMI (growth and sarcopenia); bone mineral mass index (osteoporosis); extracellular fluid index (hydration). Finally, it is logical that the same system is used to define an adiposity index, so Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/height3) can be used as it is consistent with FFMI (kg/height3) and PI. It should also be noted that the index FM/FFM, describes an individual

  20. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  1. Body composition and cardiac dimensions in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; D'alessandro, C; Piazza, M; Tocchini, L; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A; Cupisti, F; Santoro, G

    2015-09-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts are often believed to be a population at risk of malnutrition because of their tendency to keep a low weight and a lean appearance for better athletic performance, and because they start intensive training at a very young age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in adolescent elite gymnasts the effects of physical activity on body composition and cardiac morphology and function. Sixteen national level rhythmic gymnasts and 16 control adolescent female underwent anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance and echocardiography to assess body composition and cardiac morphology and function. As compared to controls, gymnasts had lower body mass index (16.9±1.1 vs. 18.7±1.0, Pgymnasts, together with a higher percentage of fat-free mass. Echocardiographic findings indicate that elite rhythmic gymnastics present left ventricular remodeling as training-induced cardiac adaptation. Intensive training, dietary attitude and evident leanness of rhythmic gymnasts are not associated with cardiac abnormalities, as it is the case of pathological leanness.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Helena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years, whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720 and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min. The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-09-29

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  4. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    was the fU-OHpr/creat ratio, which increased from 12.0 to 20.1 in the OLS group but only from 10.9 to 1 3.2 in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: One year's treatment with OLS induces a lipid malabsorption which enhances a dietary weight loss without any significant deleterious effects on body composition. OLS......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the pancreas lipase inhibitor orlistat (OLS) on calcium metabolism, bone turnover, bone mass, bone density and body composition when given for obesity as adjuvant to an energy- and fat-restricted diet. DESIGN: Randomized controlled double-blinded trial...... of treatment with OLS 120 mg three times daily or placebo for 1 y. SUBJECTS: Thirty obese subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.9+/-3.7 kg/m(2) and a mean age of 41+/-11 y. Sixteen patients were assigned to OLS and 14 to placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...

  5. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR, and body composition parameters (BIA as fat tissue (FAT%, fat-free mass (FFM%, predicted muscle mass (PMM%, and total body water (TBW% were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26% moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL and in 11 (18% severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p<0.05 in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD.

  6. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  7. Physical activity, body composition and bone density in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Fogelholm, M; Ottenheijm, R; Westerterp, K R

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) in female ballet dancers. Training history, Ca intake, body composition, total body BMD (TBMD) and site-specific BMD, and bone mineral content were described in twenty-four female ballet dancers (mean age 22.6 (SD 4.5) years). Training history was determined by questionnaires, Ca intake by 7 d dietary record, BMD and bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), total body water by 2H dilution, extracellular water by bromide dilution, body fat by underwater weighing (UWW; two-component model), DXA, and the four-component (4C) model. Dancers had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI 18.9 (SD 1.0) kg/m2) than controls (21.3 (SD 1.9) kg/m2), with significantly lower percentage body fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) v. 24.4 (SD 5.1)) but comparable fat-free mass. Mean TBMD (1.147 (SD 0.069) g/cm2) was significantly higher (6%) compared with that of a reference population. These high values could be attributed to the high BMD of legs and pelvis, the weight-bearing sites of the dancer's body. No relationship was found between age, start of ballet classes, period (years) of dancing, Ca intake, and BMD (total and site-specific). However, TBMD was positively related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to daily period (h) of training. Depending on the method used the percentage body fat ranged from 16.4 (by DXA) to 18.3 by the 4C model. These differences were significantly related to the TBMD. Percentage body fat by the different methods was not significantly different, except for DXA and 4C model. The present study showed that, despite the factors that have a negative effect on BMD, such as low body mass and late menarche, BMD in female ballet dancers was relatively high. These high values were probably caused by

  8. The effects of high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewege, M; van den Berg, R; Ward, R E; Keech, A

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for improvements in body composition in overweight and obese adults. Trials comparing HIIT and MICT in overweight or obese participants aged 18-45 years were included. Direct measures (e.g. whole-body fat mass) and indirect measures (e.g. waist circumference) were examined. From 1,334 articles initially screened, 13 were included. Studies averaged 10 weeks × 3 sessions per week training. Both HIIT and MICT elicited significant (p training time commitment. Running training displayed large effects on whole-body fat mass for both HIIT and MICT (standardized mean difference -0.82 and -0.85, respectively), but cycling training did not induce fat loss. Short-term moderate-intensity to high-intensity exercise training can induce modest body composition improvements in overweight and obese individuals without accompanying body-weight changes. HIIT and MICT show similar effectiveness across all body composition measures suggesting that HIIT may be a time-efficient component of weight management programs. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  10. In vivo body composition estimation in nongravid and reproducing first-litter sows with deuterium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, R.G. Jr.; Mahan, D.C.; Byers, F.M.

    1984-11-01

    An experiment was conducted with 64 first-litter sows to evaluate the efficacy of a D/sub 2/O dilution procedure for measuring in vivo body composition during the reproduction cycle. Eight gilts were each infused at breeding, 57 and 105 d postcoitum and at 5 and 25 d postpartum, with equivalent numbers of nongravid controls infused at corresponding periods except at 5 d postpartum. Results from D/sub 2/O dilution were compared with body water estimates obtained from chemical analysis. An early-equilibrating D/sub 2/O pool (before 15 min) was similar quantitatively to empty body (ingesta free) water in nongravid and lactating animals, but not in pregnant sows. Because of inconsistent D/sub 2/O equilibration patterns in gravid sows, the early pool was considered to have equilibrated with part but not all of the water in the conceptus products. Total body D/sub 2/O space measurement obtained from data following equilibration of D/sub 2/O in the entire body (1 to 2 h) overestimated total body water (including gastrointestinal water) by approximately 19%. Coefficients of determination for equations relating total body D/sub 2/O space to empty body and maternal body water were .96 and .88, respectively, in gestating sows and .67 and .74, respectively, for lactating sows, while coefficients of variation were below 6% in all cases. Prediction equations were developed to estimate empty and maternal body components (protein, fat and ash) from body weight and D/sub 2/O space. Accuracy of protein and ash weight prediction is lowest with this procedure because it involves the composite error of estimation of the other body components.

  11. Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: The Role of Body Composition and Muscle Strength: From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suskind, Anne M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Subak, Leslee L.; Reinders, I.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steve; Cauley, Jane A.; Harris, Tamara B; Huang, Alison J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospective relationships between body composition and muscle strength with predominantly stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in older women. DESIGN: Prospective community-dwelling observational cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body

  12. Female marine recruit training: mood, body composition, and biochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Kellogg, Mark D; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2008-11-01

    The US Marine Corps (USMC) is an elite military organization. Marine recruit training (RT) is a physically and psychologically intense 13-wk-long course designed to transform civilians into Marines through shared hardship and arduous training. Our laboratory conducted a study of female recruits in USMC RT that assessed the nature and the extent of cognitive, nutritional, and physical changes that occur during this unique period of structured mental and physical training. During RT, mood state was assessed every 4 wk with a standardized questionnaire, the POMS. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry every 4 wk, and blood samples were collected for assessing metabolic status at the start and at the completion of training. At the beginning of RT, approximately 1 wk after arrival at the training facility, levels of several negative mood states assessed by the POMS, depression, anxiety, fatigue, anger, and confusion, were considerably higher than POMS norms for age-matched, female college students. However, over the course of RT, these mood states gradually declined until, by the completion of training, they were substantially lower than college norms. Body composition changed dramatically, with muscle mass increasing by 2.5 +/- 0.2 kg on average and fat declining by 4.7 +/- 0.4 kg. There were also significant changes in several biochemical parameters associated with nutritional and physical status, particularly LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and cortisol. Other factors, such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and glucose, were more stable. Over the course of USMC RT, mood and body composition improved substantially and dramatically, an indication of the effectiveness of USMC RT for altering the physical and the cognitive status of trainees.

  13. The relationship between adipokines, body composition, and bone density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Sheryl F; Voelkel, Norbert F; McDermott, Michael T; Valdez, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data regarding the relationship between adipokines and bone mineral density (BMD) in this population is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine associations between the adipokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), leptin, adiponectin and resistin, body composition, and BMD in men with severe COPD. This was a cross-sectional study of men with severe COPD who visited the University of Colorado Hospital COPD Center. Bone density and parameters of body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-three men were included (mean age = 66 years, mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second = 32%). On bivariate analysis, there was no association between TNF-alpha and BMD. Parameters of body composition and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with total hip and spine bone density. However, with partial correlation analysis, total body mass was the only independent predictor of total hip BMD, explaining approximately 50% of the variability. Overall, 18 out of 23 men enrolled (78%) had low bone density by T-score, and nine (39%) were classified as having osteoporosis. The men with osteoporosis had lower parameters of body composition, lower mean serum leptin concentrations, and a greater impairment in measures of lung function compared to the men without osteoporosis. We conclude that the effect of adipokines on BMD does not appear to be independent of body mass. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between adipokines, body weight, and BMD in patients with COPD.

  14. Differences in Body Composition According to Gross Motor Function in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Cho, Byung Chae; Moon, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Moon Seok

    2017-11-01

    To assess differences in body composition according to gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared with healthy controls. Retrospective case-control study. Tertiary referral center for CP. Participants (N=146) comprised consecutive patients with CP (n=100; mean age, 11.5±4.2y) who were admitted for orthopedic surgery between May 2014 and March 2016 and typically developing children (TDC, n=46; control group). Not applicable. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was used to assess body composition, including body fat, soft lean mass (SLM), fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), body cell mass (BCM), bone mineral content (BMC), and basal metabolic rate. Body composition measures were compared according to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, as well as between children with CP and TDC. Children with CP with GMFCS levels IV and V had a lower height, weight, and body mass index than those with GMFCS levels I to III. Children with CP with GMFCS levels IV and V had a significantly lower SLM, SLM index, FFM, FFM index, SMM, SMM index, BCM, BCM index, BMC, and BMC index than those with GMFCS levels I to III and TDC. GMFCS level significantly affected SLM and BMC. Body composition analysis using BIA showed that nonambulatory children with CP had significantly lower FFM, SLM, SMM, BCM, and BMC than ambulatory children with CP and TDC. However, further study is required to allow the use of BIA as a valid nutritional assessment tool in patients with CP. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of eating and drinking on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, O; Gerasimidis, K; Karanikolou, A; Reilly, J J; Edwards, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis would be a more practical tool to measure body composition in clinical settings, dietetic practice and epidemiological studies if patients/subjects did not have to fast before measurements. The present study assessed whether the ingestion of food or drink had any biologically significant effect on bioimpedance measurements and body composition by the foot-to-foot method. Fifty-five healthy adults [30 males and 25 females; mean (SD) age 27.7 (7.1) years; mean (SD)body mass index 24 (3.8) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to a 2-day food trial (high-fat meal or high-carbohydrate meal) or a 2-day drink trial (water or high electrolyte drink). Body composition measurements were carried out in the fasting state, immediately after meal consumption and every 30 min for 2 h by the foot-to-foot single frequency bioimpedance technique. Bioimpedance increased significantly after the ingestion of food and fluid, although the changes were small. The electrolyte drink, high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals significantly increased the percentage body fat and fat mass. In all cases, the median percentage changes from baseline were approximately 1% in body fat percentage units. Although there were statistically significant changes in body composition estimates after food or drink consumption, these were small and within the imprecision of the impedance technique, and so are unlikely to be of clinical significance. The present study suggests that impedance measures of body fatness in clinical settings do not require strict adherence to fasting, and this should increase the opportunities for clinical application. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  17. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan

    2011-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a reference method for assessing body composition but is seldom `accessible in veterinary settings. Computed tomography (CT) can provide similar body composition estimates and we propose that it can be used in body composition studies in animals. We...

  18. Sex steroids and body composition in men with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifke, E; Friemert, M; Heilmann, M; Puvogel, N; Smaczny, C; von zur Muhlen, A; Brabant, G

    2003-05-01

    Delayed sexual maturation and low body weight is common in cystic fibrosis (CF). Concomitant data on sex hormones and concomitant body composition are lacking in men with CF. Cross-sectional study. Serum levels of testosterone, 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and LH were measured by RIA and total and regional lean body mass (LBM), fat body mass (FBM), bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in men with CF (n=40; age 24.7+/-5.4 years) and age-matched healthy controls (n=28; age 25.7+/-3.7). Only men without acute disease exacerbation or systemic glucocorticoid treatment were included. Mean levels of hormonal serum parameters differed significantly between healthy controls (testosterone=20.2+/-5.5 nmol/l; E(2)=95.0+/-20.2 pmol/l; 25(OH)D=62.8+/-28.3 nmol/l) and patients (testosterone=15.9+/-4.1 nmol/l; E(2)=60.7+/-19.4 pmol/l; 25(OH)D=39.5+/-17.8 nmol/l; Ptestosterone levels 2 s.d. below the mean of normal. Men with CF showed a relative shift from FBM to LBM and a different body fat distribution compared with healthy controls (PTestosterone was not correlated with weight, total or regional LBM or FBM, but significantly with BMD (r=0.32; Ptestosterone and body components on E(2), a testosterone-independent effect was found for FBM. CF patients with stable disease have moderately reduced serum testosterone levels. This might already imply detrimental effects on bone. The change in LBM of patients appears to have no direct association with sex hormone levels while low FBM might cause reduced net conversion of serum testosterone to E(2) with possible effects on FBM distribution.

  19. Body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, G E; Brooks, A G; Withers, R T; Dollman, J; Leaney, F; Chatterton, B E

    2001-04-01

    To determine anthropometric and body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition. There was an attempt to match subjects in the control and experimental groups for height and percentage body fat (%BF) for the initial test of this longitudinal study. Five competitive bodybuilders (-X +/- s.d.: 35.3 +/- 5.7 y; 167.3 +/- 3.7 cm; 66.38 +/- 6.30 kg; 18.3 +/- 3.5 %BF) and five athletic females (-X +/- s.d.: 30.9 +/- 13.0 y; 166.9 +/- 3.9 cm; 55.94 +/- 3.59 kg; 19.1 +/- 3.3 %BF) were recruited from advertisements in a bodybuilding newsletter and placed on sports centre noticeboards. The following measurements were conducted 12 weeks, 6 weeks and 3-5 d before the bodybuilders' competitions: anthropometric profile, body density by underwater weighing, total body water via deuterium dilution and bone mineral mass from a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. A combination of the last three measurements enabled the %BF to the determined by a four compartment model. A significant (P bodybuilders as they prepared for competition was primarily due to a reduction in fat mass (FM; -4.42 kg; 76.2%) as opposed to fat-free mass (FFM; -1.38 kg; 23.8%). The decreases in body mass and FM over the final 6 weeks were greater than those over the first 6 weeks. Their %BF decreased (P bodybuilders were accompanied by a significant decline (P bodybuilders presented with low %BFs at the start of the experiment, they still significantly decreased their body mass during the 12 week preparation for competition and most of this loss was due to a reduction in FM as opposed to FFM.

  20. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  1. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vlychou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p<0.01 in both groups, whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p=0.02. Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  2. Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).

  3. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  4. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  5. Do body build and composition influence striae distensae occurrence and visibility in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2017-11-06

    Striae have been reported to be one of the most common skin changes and a commonly encountered esthetic problem. To analyze risk factors of striae not associated with pregnancy and verify if body build and composition influence striae distensae (SD) occurrence and visibility. Eighty female students (40 with striae (the mean age 23.9 years, SD 2.05 years) and 40 without these lesions (24.7 years, SD 6.2 years)) were included in the study. The subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including questions concerning risk factors of SD. Body build and composition were examined using Tanita SC-331S Body Composition Analyzer. Women without striae more often reported a history of intended weight loss (P family history of striae was negative or unknown (P = .01). Multivariate analysis including body build and composition parameters indicated BMI as risk factor of SD (P = .021; OR =1.155, 95% CI 1.006; 1.325). History of contraceptives intake and a family history of striae are risk factors of SD occurrence, while weight loss can reduce the risk of these lesions. BMI appeared to be the risk factor of striae visibility, especially in abdomen, but not on the buttocks. Further clinical researches are needed to examine the pathophysiology of this condition and to inform patients about the possibility to reduce the risk of striae occurrence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  7. Body composition, nutritional status, and endothelial function in physically active men without metabolic syndrome--a 25 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigłowska, Małgorzata; Kostka, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Bill-Bielecka, Mirosława; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the relationship between body composition, metabolic parameters and endothelial function among physically active healthy middle-aged and older men. Out of 101 asymptomatic men prospectively tracked for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (mean observation period 25.1 years), 55 metabolically healthy individuals who maintained stable leisure time physical activity (LTPA) level throughout the observation and agreed to participate in the body composition assessment were recruited (mean age 60.3 ± 9.9 years). Body composition and raw bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Microvascular endothelial function was evaluated by means of the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using Endo-PAT2000 system. Strong correlations were observed between lifetime physical activity (PA), aerobic fitness and most of analyzed body composition parameters. The strongest inverse correlation was found for fat mass (p metabolic parameters, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and uric acid were significantly associated with most body composition indicators. Regarding endothelial function, a negative correlation was found for RHI and body mass (p metabolic profile. Maintaining regular high PA level and metabolically healthy status through young and middle adulthood may have beneficial influence on body composition parameters and may prevent age-related decrease of fat-free mass and endothelial dysfunction.

  8. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  9. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Skinfolds with Hydrodensitometry in the Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…

  10. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  11. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation.

  12. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders.

  13. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... period in 8-11-year-olds? 4.) Are there seasonal variations in changes in height, body weight (BW), BMI, FMI and FFMI of 8-11-year-olds? In the school year 2011-2012 we carried out a large randomized, controlled cross-over study among third and fourth graders in 9 Danish schools. Children were provided...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  14. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  15. Body composition in 13-year-old adolescents with abdominal obesity, depending on the BMI value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna S; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Excessive adipocyte growth during the pubertal transition predisposes to the development and persistence of obesity in adulthood. Visceral accumulation of body fat is particularly disadvantageous when it is correlated with insulin resistance, secondary hyperinsulinaemia, dysglicaemia, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to conduct a nutritional status assessment and body composition analysis in 13-year-old adolescents of both genders with visceral fat accumulation (WC ≥ 90th percentile) and different BMI values. The evaluation of state of nutrition of 1,738 Polish boys (n = 882) and girls (n = 856) aged 13 was done based on anthropometric measurements and calculated BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference) and WHtR indices (waist-to-height ratio). Taking into consideration the value of WC ≥ 90 pc, 353 people were designated (20.3 % of the total) with visceral obesity (but with various BMI), whose body composition was examined by the method of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 249 adolescents of both sexes (70.5% of the selected, 102 boys and 147 girls) and their parents agreed to the study. In adolescents with visceral obesity a significant change of body content was ascertained depending on the value of the BMI. Even in the people with a proper value of the BMI, a significantly higher than standard increase of the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and decrease of both the percentage of body lean (BL) and the content of total body water (TBW) in the body was observed. The values of the BMI, WC and WHtR in adolescents were significantly correlated with each other as well as with TBF, BL and TBW, and the strength of correlation was dependent on sex. The state of nutrition in adolescents with visceral obesity, even with a proper BMI, might contribute to the development of a metabolic syndrome.

  16. UCP1 and UCP3 Expression Is Associated with Lipid and Carbohydrate Oxidation and Body Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A P Oliveira

    Full Text Available Uncoupling proteins (UCPs are located in the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins participate in thermogenesis and energy expenditure. This study aimed to evaluate how UCP1 and UCP3 expression influences substrate oxidation and elicits possible changes in body composition in patients submitted to bariatric surgery.This is a longitudinal study comprising 13 women with obesity grade III that underwent bariatric surgery and 10 healthy weight individuals (control group. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected for gene expression analysis. QPCR was used to evaluate UCP1 and UCP3 expression.Obese patients and the control group differed significantly in terms of lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. Six months after bariatric surgery, the differences disappeared. Lipid oxidation correlated with the percentage of fat mass in the postoperative period. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the UCP1 and UCP3 genes contributed to lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. Additionally, UCP3 expression was associated with BMI, percentage of lean body mass, and percentage of mass in the postoperative period.UCP1 and UCP3 expression is associated with lipid and carbohydrate oxidation in patients submitted to bariatric surgery. In addition, UCP3 participates in body composition modulation six months postoperatively.

  17. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Freitas, André Everton de; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2016-01-01

    To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution as a reference. Percentage of total body water (%TBW), fat free mass (%FFM), and body fat (%BF) were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6-9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST), body mass index (BMI), conicity index (CI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio were also used. Mean values for body composition were 38.4%±8.4% BF, 44.9%±6.1% TBW and 61.6%±8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM), TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p<0.05). BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p<0.05). The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (σ=0.679), CI (r=0.634), and WHtR (r=0.666). In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P overweight men.

  19. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  20. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  1. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The development and clinical application of a number of nuclear techniques for studying body composition is described. These techniques include delayed neutron activation for the analysis of calcium, phsophorus, sodium and chlorine and prompt-gamma activation for the measurement of nitrogen and cadmium. In addition, the measurement of in vivo iron by nuclear resonance scattering and lead by x-ray fluorescence is described. (author)

  2. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships ...

  3. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Alan A; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P; Arciero, Paul J; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M; Bannock, Laurent; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit. The higher the baseline body fat level, the more aggressively the caloric deficit may be imposed. Slower rates of weight loss can better preserve lean mass (LM) in leaner subjects. 4) Diets focused primarily on accruing LM are driven by a sustained caloric surplus to facilitate anabolic processes and support increasing resistance-training demands. The composition and magnitude of the surplus, as well as training status of the subjects can influence the nature of the gains. 5) A wide range of dietary approaches (low-fat to low-carbohydrate/ketogenic, and all points between) can be similarly effective for improving body composition. 6) Increasing dietary protein to levels significantly beyond current recommendations for athletic populations may result in improved body composition. Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg FFM) may be required to maximize muscle retention in lean, resistance-trained subjects under hypocaloric conditions. Emerging research on very high protein intakes (>3 g/kg) has demonstrated that the known thermic, satiating, and LM-preserving effects of dietary protein might be amplified in resistance-training subjects. 7) The collective body of intermittent caloric restriction research demonstrates no significant advantage over daily caloric restriction for improving body composition. 8) The long-term success of a diet depends upon compliance and suppression or

  4. Effects of aquatic exercise and nutritional guidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Eisfeld Milano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of aquatic exercise and nutritionalguidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents. Thirty obese childrenaged 10 to 16 years, with a body mass index (BMI above the 95th percentile according to theclassification proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000, weredivided into two groups: the first group started learning to swim (GSwim, n = 10 and the secondgroup underwent a deep water running program (GDeep, n = 20. Weight, height, BMI, BMIZ-scores, relative and absolute fat, and relative and absolute lean body mass were evaluated atbaseline and after 12 weeks. The program consisted of 12 meetings for nutritional guidance (oncea week and 36 sessions of exercise (three times per week. MANOVA and Fisher’s exact testwere used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. After 12 weeks,GDeep showed a significant reduction in BMI, BMI Z-scores and relative and absolute fat,and an increase in relative and absolute lean body mass. Significant differences were observedbetween GDeep and GSwim in terms of the reduction in body fat (p = 0.014 and the increasein lean mass (p = 0.006. A program of deep water running together with nutritional guidancemay promote significant changes in the body composition of obese children and adolescents dueto the cyclic characteristic of this physical activity.

  5. Profiling the diet and body composition of subelite adolescent rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Morelli, Ester; Evangelisti, Irene; Galetta, Fabio; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Lazzeri, Donatella; Piazza, Marina; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the body composition and dietary intake of competitive club-level rhythmic gymnasts, who represent the larger cohort of the sport's practitioners. Fifty-five rhythmic gymnasts and 55 nonathlete females (13-19 years of age) were seen individually to collect a dietary recall and to take anthropometric data and bioelectric-impedance analysis. Gymnasts had lower body-mass index and lesser skinfold thickness, although middle arm-muscle circumference was similar in the 2 groups. Gymnasts had lower body-fat measures but normal levels of fat-free mass (FFM) and body-cellular mass. Gymnasts had better dietary habits than the age-matched controls. Low levels of calcium, phosphorous, iron, and zinc and a disparity between reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement were observed in both groups.

  6. [Body composition related with health in veteran athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, P A; Salas Sánchez, J; Soto Hermoso, V M

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the corporal composition of veteran athletes of resistance and his relation with the health and quality of life. It is a question of a descriptive and transverse study with a sample of 91 males (44.1 ± 6.9 years) and 16 women (41.4 ± 5.5 years) healthy medical instructors of career of resistance. For the analysis of the corporal composition there has been used an eight-electrode impedance meter (Inbody 720). The health and quality of life was analyzed by means of the scale SF-36, Spanish version. There were registered the values of athletic practice as for number of weekly meetings and duration of the session. The IMC, the abdominal fat and the percentage of fat place in healthy values, for below even of the normative values. Significant differences do not exist in any parameter of the corporal composition in relation with the number of weekly meetings of athletic practice. A negative correlation exists between the percentage of fat and the social function of the scale SF-36. The health and quality of life perceived of the veteran athletes presents superior values to the Spanish modals normative. The practice of four weekly meetings of 60 minutes of career of resistance allows to keep healthy parameters of composition corporal in spite of the age.

  7. Short term testosterone replacement therapy improves libido and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Edésio Seara de; Clapauch, Ruth; Buksman, Salo

    2009-11-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement in males with late-onset hypogonadism compared to hypogonadal men without replacement, and controls, during six months. We assessed, through ADAM, AMS, IIEF-5 and SF-36 questionnaires, and through clinical and laboratory examinations, 62 patients divided into three groups: 17 hypogonadal males (HR) used intramuscular testosterone every three weeks; 14 hypogonadal males (HV) and 31 non-hypogonadal males (CV) used oral vitamins daily. When compared to others, HR group obtained libido improvement assessed by ADAM 1 (p = 0.004), and borderline sexual potency improvement assessed by IIEF-5 (p = 0.053), besides a decrease in waist circumference after eight weeks (p = 0.018). The remaining parameters did not differ between the groups. PSA and hematocrit remained stable in those using testosterone. Six months of testosterone replacement improved sexuality and body composition, with prostatic and hematological safety.

  8. Functional body composition and related aspects in research on obesity and cachexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, M J; Baracos, V; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-01-01

    are determinants of body composition and its change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks' concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition......The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of 'functional body composition' integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo...

  9. Evaluation of body composition with bioimpedence. A comparison between athletic and non-athletic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleleo, Domenico; Bartolomeo, Nicola; Cassano, Liliana; Nitti, Alessandro; Susca, Giovanna; Mastrototaro, Giuseppina; Armenise, Umberto; Zito, Annapaola; Devito, Fiorella; Scicchitano, Pietro; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) or Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) can provide direct evaluations of body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lean and fat mass (FM), and hydration of children involved in daily competitive sports. 190 non-athletic [8.2-10.5 years] and 29 competitive children [8.0-10.5 years] were enrolled. They were evaluated: at baseline (t0), 6 months (t1) and one year (t2). Anthropometric, BIA and BIVA, lean and FM, and hydration evaluations were performed. Resistance (R/h) and reactance (Xc/h) were lower at t0 in competitive individuals when compared to controls. Xc/h (+3.28) significantly increases in competitive when compared to non-competitive individuals (+0.66, p for difference: 0.011), while phase angle (PA) was lower at t0 (5.72 vs. 6.17, p body water adjusted for height (TBW/h) significantly increased only in non-athletes (+0.50 ± 0.13, p body mass index can influence FFM/h and FM/h in both competitive and non-competitive subjects. In particular, a direct correlation was for hours/week and FFM/h, inverse for hours/week and FM/h. Body mass index does not allow evaluating differences in lean body mass and FM between athletes and non-athletes. BIA and BIVA can give more reliable details about body composition differences in competitive adolescents and non-competitive, outlining a progressive decline in ECW and increase in ICW without affecting TBW composition of athletes.

  10. Body composition of physically active women aged over 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Antonio Herrera Mogollón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of analyzing the body composition of physical active seniors: 116 women enrolled on the Program of Integrated Care for the older Adult in the Municipality of Chacao, Venezuela, were studied. Anthropometric variables were measured. Comparisons between variables revealed no statistical differences, with the exception of suprailiac skinfolds (p <0,05. Results indicated that most of the mean values were lower in the oldest group, with the exception of height, which was greater. The waist/hip ratio remained constant. More than 50% of women exhibited good nutritional status with appropriate body mass index. Cases of energy malnutrition were observed (defi ciencies and excesses, with overweight prevailing at around 20%. Waist circumference and the waist/hip ratio indicated that around 55% of the sample exhibited a high risk of developing chronic non-infectious illnesses. Comparisons with other population samples indicated greater similarity with those in their environment (Venezuelan and Mexican samples and with Italian and Australian women, and distant from the American pattern, with minor values of the variables compared.

  11. Influent of Borax Decahydrate Composition as Additional Flux into Stoneware Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakil, Siti Natrah Abd; Hussin, Rosniza; Bakar Aramjat, Abu

    2017-08-01

    Stoneware is vitrified, has less porosity and requires high sintering temperature. The influent of borax decahydrate composition at sintering temperature 1050°C and 1150°C on the thermal analysis, fracture surface, linear shrinkage, water absorption and modular of rapture (MOR) were investigated. Rectangular sample were produced by uniaxially pressing at 40MPa. The thermal behavior was determined by thermogravimetric and different thermal analysis (TGA-DTA). The Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for fracture surface analysis. The water absorption (%) of the sample were determined using Archimedes’ method. The experimental result showed that content of borax decahydrate have influent the properties of stoneware bodies.

  12. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2014-04-01

    The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. THERE WERE THREE DIETARY PATTERNS DERIVED BY CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN THIS STUDY: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m(2)), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be increased for Korean elderly health body composition.

  13. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  14. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsarella GR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass

  15. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  16. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  17. The body composition, nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and future education needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Cartwright, Laura; Corish, Clare; Sugrue, Sheila; Wood-Martin, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the body composition, nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and educational needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland. Participants included 203 male rugby players age 15-18 yr competing at Senior School's Cup level in Leinster, Ireland. Estimation of body composition included measurement of height, weight, and percentage body fat (PBF; using bioelectrical impedance analysis, Tanita BC-418). Nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and education needs were assessed by questionnaire. The range of PBF was 5.1-25.3%. Sixty-eight percent of the players in this study had a healthy PBF (10-20%), 32 (22%) were classified as underweight (benefit from appropriate nutritional education.

  18. Body composition and metabolic profile in adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Murari ROCHA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the body composition and metabolic profile in individuals in terms of different concentrations of serum vitamin D, ranging from deficiency to sufficiency. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 106 adults of both genders, who were divided into three groups according to vitamin D levels: deficiency: <20ng/mL; insufficiency: 20-29.9ng/mL; and sufficiency: 30-100ng/mL. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and body circumferences. Fat mass and lean mass were assessed using the Tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method. Clinical and biochemical evaluations were also carried out. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin index. Results: The analysis showed that the main alterations in individuals in the vitamin D deficiency group were higher triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein - cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, body fat percentage, lean mass percentage, waist circumference, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin than those of the vitamin D sufficient group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was found that vitamin D deficiency causes important body composition and metabolic changes, which may lead to diseases such as diabetes Mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

  19. [Effect of Acupuncture Therapy on Body Compositions in Patients with Obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Wu, Xue-Liang; Jiang, Chao; Shi, Rong-Xing

    2017-04-25

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture intervention in weight reduction by modulating body compositions in obesity patients. A total of 71 obesity patients during weight-loss procedure were allocated to acupuncture+nutrition-consultation group ( n =40) and simple nutrition-consultation group ( n =31). The patients of the acupuncture +nutrition-consultation group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), etc. for 30 min, once every other day, 3 times per week, 12 times altogether, and also given with weekly nutrition consultation (including subjective query, objective measurement, analysis, program for nutrition support) at the same time. The patients of the simple nutrition-consultation group were treated by only weekly nutrition consultation for 4 weeks. Before and after the treatment, the patients' body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, percentage of body fat, muscle mass, protein quality, water quality and bone mass were measured by using a composition analyzer. After 4 weeks' treatment, the body mass, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage in both acupuncture+nutrition-consultation and simple nutrition-consultation groups were significantly decreased ( P 0.05). The therapeutic effect of acupuncture+nutrition-consultation group was markedly superior to that of the simple nutrition-consultation group in increasing the improved degrees of body weight, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage ( P Acupuncture plus nutrition consultation is effective in reducing body mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat in obesity patients.

  20. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jacqueline C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (body mass index (BMI and height as predictors of newborn body composition. Methods Weight, height, head and mid-arm circumferences, skinfold thicknesses and external pelvic diameters were measured at 30 ± 2 weeks gestation in 571 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Paternal height and weight were also measured. At birth, detailed neonatal anthropometry was performed. Unrotated and varimax rotated PCA was applied to the maternal and neonatal measurements. Results Rotated PCA reduced maternal measurements to 4 independent components (fat, pelvis, height and muscle and neonatal measurements to 3 components (trunk+head, fat, and leg length. An SD increase in maternal fat was associated with a 0.16 SD increase (β in neonatal fat (p Conclusion Principal components analysis is a useful method to describe neonatal body composition and its determinants. Newborn adiposity is related to maternal nutritional status and parity, while newborn length is genetically determined. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms linking maternal pelvic size to fetal growth and the determinants and implications of the components (trunk v leg length of fetal skeletal growth.

  1. Metabolic Aspects of Caloric Restriction (500 Calories): Body Composition Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    adjusted to Increased caloric intake. Allen and Musgrave (20) felt that decreases in body fat and water in a two-component system were adequate for...about 73% of body muscle weight). Body water - The total amount of water in the body, 72% of the lean body mass. Creatinine - Urinary excretory product

  2. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  3. Summary Analysis: Hanford Site Composite Analysis Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Lehman, L. L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    The Hanford Site’s currently maintained Composite Analysis, originally completed in 1998, requires an update. A previous update effort was undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2001-2005, but was ended before completion to allow the Tank Closure & Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (TC&WM EIS) (DOE/EIS-0391) to be prepared without potential for conflicting sitewide models. This EIS was issued in 2012, and the deferral was ended with guidance in memorandum “Modeling to Support Regulatory Decision Making at Hanford” (Williams, 2012) provided with the aim of ensuring subsequent modeling is consistent with the EIS.

  4. Assessment of nutrition, supplementation and body composition parameters on the example of professional volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolska, Joanna; Witczak, Katarzyna; Mańczuk, Angelika; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball is a team game belonging to a group of sports disciplines that involve indirect fighting. Adequate energy coverage in athletes is a crucial issue. It depends primarily on the type, intensity and duration of physical activity related to the sports discipline practiced and to the training cycle duration. The average energy requirement in sportsmen is 50% higher than that of adults. The aim of the study was to characterize the mode of nutrition, including dietary supplements and to assess somatic indices in female volleyball players of the AZS Bialystok team. The study involved 17 women. Research tools included a questionnaire consisting of 24-hour recall, a questionnaire survey concerning supplement intake and body composition analysis performed using a bioimpedance analyzer InBody 220. Data analysis indicates that the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of the AZS Bialystok players meet the recommendations associated with the somatic features in volleyball. Daily diet of the volleyball players were of low-energy with regard to the recommendations for physically active people, with very low supply of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, excessive proportion of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol, and too low content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supply of vitamins and minerals was found to be alarmingly low, especially of iron and calcium; diet supplementation was insufficient. No significant abnormalities were noted in body composition of the study athletes. However, they are recommended to increase muscle mass and slightly reduce body fat. Results of diet evaluation show the need for education in the field of nutrition and the necessity of further research into dietary habits among sportsmen.

  5. Association between physical activity and body composition of high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Tlucáková, L.; Ruzbarská, B.; Cech, P.; Kacúr, P.; Zvonar, M.; Gimunová, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical activity on the body composition of adolescents. The study sample consisted of 735 students (299 boys: mean age 17.20 years; 436 girls: mean age 17.16 years). Physical activity levels were determined using the long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Questionnaires were administered online within teaching using INDARES system. Body composition was measured using body composition analyzer I...

  6. Bio-impedance body composition comparisons between athletes and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarion, A; Ribbe, E; Rebeyrol, J; Moreno, M-V; Rousseaux-Rousseaux-Blanchi, M-P; Dechavanne, C

    2013-01-01

    Body composition is a useful means for athletes' body composition assessment, relying on reference population data. This study aims at comparing body composition multifrequency impedance data of athletes and healthy adult populations. Differences were found in tissular, hydration and metabolic indices. They were significant, in the expected direction, but quite weak and additional data from reference technologies would set if specific equations are needed. The current ones are nevertheless suitable for reliable follow-up studies.

  7. The level of neighborhood walkability in a place of residence and its effect on body composition in obese and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofková, Tereza; Pridalová, Miroslava; Mitás, Josef; Pelclová, Jana

    2013-12-01

    A neighborhood environment allows defining typical features for physically active or inactive lifestyle. An accelerated pace of life and higher availability of an unhealthy lifestyle increase obesity rates. An analysis of body composition can be used as a predictor for assessment of current somatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the dependence of selected body composition parameters on neighborhood walkability in 167 women aged 20-60 years attending weight-loss programme called STOB-courses. A multifrequency bioimpedance analysis InBody 720 was used to determine the body composition of respondents. Further, ANEWS questionnaire was used to determine the level of neighborhood walkability. We divided the sample into two age groups (40 years) and into partial subgroups according to the neighborhood "level of walkability" (lower and higher level). Based on the assessment of body composition, it can be assumed more walkable neighborhood opportunities positively affect body composition. Body composition in older women is positively influenced if they lived in high walkable areas. In younger women we found only one indicator of body composition (body fat mass) influenced by neighborhood walkability. The relationship between health indicators of body composition and residential infrastructure might be useful in strategies aimed at maintaining and developing a healthy lifestyle within the community.

  8. Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Neal W; Reid, Ryan E R; Andersen, Ross E

    2016-03-01

    The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Players completed end-of-season, preseason, and midseason assessments with questionnaires relating to their off-season and in-season training. Statistically significant changes in body composition profiles were observed between the different time points because players showed various tissue gains and losses depending on the region assessed. Overall, players gained (1.38 kg, p ≤ 0.01) and lost (0.79 kg, p ≤ 0.01) fat tissue during the off-season and in-season, respectively. Players also showed a significant gain of leg lean tissue (0.29 kg, p = 0.02) and loss of arm tissue mass (-0.25 kg, p = 0.02) during the first-half of the competitive season. Several correlations emerged that may provide insight into potential trends that could be more pronounced during longer and more demanding schedules. Collegiate hockey players show changes in body composition during the off-season and in-season. The understanding of body composition profiles, body composition fluctuations, and potential variables that may influence the composition of collegiate hockey players can help coaches and athletic programs tailor their team's training, nutrition, lifestyle, and informative resources to further support their athletes.

  9. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and validate analytical methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before, during, and after conversion processing. These high-quality compositional analysis data are used to determine feedstock compositions as well as mass balances and product yields from conversion processes.

  10. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsarella, Gláucia Regina; Gasparotto, Lívia Pimenta Renó; Barcelos, Caroline Coutinho; Coimbra, Ibsen Bellini; Moretto, Maria Clara; Pascoa, Mauro Alexandre; Ferreira, Talita C B Rezende; Coimbra, Arlete Maria Valente

    2015-01-01

    Body composition (BC) in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly. To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people. A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males) aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI), muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (%) data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05. The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001), and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001). Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038) and fat % (P=0.002). The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022). The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001), bone mass (P=0.009), fat mass (P=0.018), and BMI (P=0.003). There was a negative association between fatigue and bone mass (P=0.008). Frailty in the elderly was characterized by a BC profile/phenotype with lower muscle mass and lower bone mass and with a higher fat %. The BMI was not effective in evaluating the relationship between BC and frailty. The importance of evaluating the fat % was verified when considering the tissue distribution in the elderly BC.

  11. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  12. Weight Gain in Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotheraphy: Exploring Hormonal Body Composition and Behavioral Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Nagi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to prospectively and systematically observe the relative contribution of each viable mechanism such as nutritional intake, activity levels, body composition, hormonal...

  13. The relationship between adipokines, body composition, and bone density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl F Vondracek

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl F Vondracek1, Norbert F Voelkel2, Michael T McDermott3, Connie Valdez11Department of Clinical Pharmacy; 3Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Victoria Johnson Center for Emphysema Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Data regarding the relationship between adipokines and bone mineral density (BMD in this population is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine associations between the adipokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, adiponectin and resistin, body composition, and BMD in men with severe COPD. This was a cross-sectional study of men with severe COPD who visited the University of Colorado Hospital COPD Center. Bone density and parameters of body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-three men were included (mean age = 66 years, mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second = 32%. On bivariate analysis, there was no association between TNF-α and BMD. Parameters of body composition and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with total hip and spine bone density. However, with partial correlation analysis, total body mass was the only independent predictor of total hip BMD, explaining approximately 50% of the variability. Overall, 18 out of 23 men enrolled (78% had low bone density by T-score, and nine (39% were classified as having osteoporosis. The men with osteoporosis had lower parameters of body composition, lower mean serum leptin concentrations, and a greater impairment in measures of lung function compared to the men without osteoporosis. We conclude that the effect of adipokines on BMD does not appear to be independent of body mass. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between adipokines

  14. Usefulness of a body composition analyzer, InBody 2.0, in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Machiko; Fukui, Mitsumine; Kurusu, Atsushi; Shou, Ichiyu; Maeda, Kunimi; Hamada, Chieko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether InBody 2.0 might be useful in measuring the dry weight of chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-five HD patients (22 males and 13 females; mean age 62.6 +/- 14.0 years; mean HD duration 101.0 +/- 118.06 months) were examined. Multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis was used to estimate the ratio of extracellular water (ECW) to total body water (TBW). The body resistance was measured at frequencies ranging from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The impedance index was determined at a low frequency (5 kHz) and correlated closely with ECW, using sodium bromide dilution as standard comparison. The levels of serum albumin, prealbumin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), transferrin, and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) were measured by routine methods in our hospital. The ECW/TBW ratio was significantly associated with the levels of hANP (p InBody 2.0, may be useful for estimating the dry weight in chronic HD patients.

  15. Effect of protein source and resistance training on body composition and sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger Diane R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests an inverse relationship between soy protein intake and serum concentrations of male sex hormones. Anecdotal evidence indicates that these alterations in serum sex hormones may attenuate changes in lean body mass following resistance training. However, little empirical data exists regarding the effects of soy and milk-based proteins on circulating androgens and exercise induced body composition changes. Methods For 12 weeks 20 subjects were supplemented with 50 g per day of one of four different protein sources (Soy concentrate; Soy isolate; Soy isolate and whey blend, and Whey blend only in combination with a resistance-training program. Body composition, testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG were measured at baseline and week 12. Results Protein supplementation resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass independent of protein source (0.5 ± 1.1 and 0.9 ± 1.4 kg, p = 0.006, p = 0.007. No significant differences were observed between groups for total and free testosterone, SHBG, percentage body fat, BMI or body weight. The Testosterone/Estradiol ratio increased across all groups (+13.4, p = 0.005 and estradiol decreased (p = 0.002. Within group analysis showed significant increases in the Testosterone/Estradiol ratio in soy isolate + whey blend group (+16.3, p = 0.030. Estradiol was significantly lower in the whey blend group (-9.1 ± 8.7 pg/ml, p = 0.033. Conclusion This investigation shows that 12 week supplementation with soy protein does not decrease serum testosterone or inhibit lean body mass changes in subjects engaged in a resistance exercise program.

  16. How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Jacquet, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Dieting makes you fat - the title of a book published in 1983 - embodies the notion that dieting to control body weight predisposes the individual to acquire even more body fat. While this notion is controversial, its debate underscores the large gap that exists in our understanding of basic physiological laws that govern the regulation of human body composition. A striking example is the key role attributed to adipokines as feedback signals between adipose tissue depletion and compensatory increases in food intake. Yet, the relative importance of fat depletion per se as a determinant of post-dieting hyperphagia is unknown. On the other hand, the question of whether the depletion of lean tissues can provide feedback signals on the hunger-appetite drive is rarely invoked, despite evidence that food intake during growth is dominated by the impetus for lean tissue deposition, amidst proposals for the existence of protein-static mechanisms for the regulation of growth and maintenance of lean body mass. In fact, a feedback loop between fat depletion and food intake cannot explain why human subjects recovering from starvation continue to overeat well after body fat has been restored to pre-starvation values, thereby contributing to 'fat overshooting'. In addressing the plausibility and mechanistic basis by which dieting may predispose to increased fatness, this paper integrates the results derived from re-analysis of classic longitudinal studies of human starvation and refeeding. These suggest that feedback signals from both fat and lean tissues contribute to recovering body weight through effects on energy intake and thermogenesis, and that a faster rate of fat recovery relative to lean tissue recovery is a central outcome of body composition autoregulation that drives fat overshooting. A main implication of these findings is that the risk of becoming fatter in response to dieting is greater in lean than in obese individuals.

  17. Malnutrition risk questionnaire combined with body composition measurement in malnutrition screening in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, Ágnes Anna; Molnár, Andrea; Piri, Zsolt; Pálfi, Erzsébet; Miheller, Pál

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of malnutrition screening is to predict the probability of a worse outcome due to nutritional factors. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) can be used for screening in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it does not provide details about body composition. Our aim was to assess the body composition and combine this with the MUST method to screen risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia. A total of 173 IBD outpatients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The MUST scale indicated 21.4% of IBD patients to be at risk of malnutrition. A risk of sarcopenia was detected in 27.7%. However, one third of these patients were not considered to be at risk by their MUST score. Furthermore, Crohn's disease (CD) patients had a strongly unfavorable fat-free mass index (FFMI) value compared to ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and these differences were significant among men (FFMI: 18.62 ± 2.16 vs 19.85 ± 2.22, p = 0.02, in CD and UC males, respectively). As sarcopenia is a relevant prognostic factor, the MUST method should be expanded to include body composition analysis to detect more IBD patients at risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia in order to start their nutritional therapy immediately.

  18. Neonatal body proportionality and body composition after in utero exposure to cocaine and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D A; Bauchner, H; Parker, S; Huber, A M; Kyei-Aboagye, K; Cabral, H; Zuckerman, B

    1990-10-01

    The relationship of maternal use of marijuana and cocaine during pregnancy to measures of neonatal body proportionality and body composition was assessed in a multiethnic sample of 1082 newborn infants. Maternal use of marijuana and cocaine during pregnancy was ascertained by self-report and by an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique for screening of urine samples obtained prenatally and again post partum. After each substance was analytically controlled for use of the other and for other potentially confounding variables, detection of marijuana metabolites in maternal urine was associated (p less than 0.05) with depressed mean arm muscle circumference and nonfat area of the arm but not with any measure of neonatal fatness. In contrast, detection of cocaine in maternal urine was associated (p less than 0.05) with decrements of subscapular fat folds and of the fat and nonfat areas of the arm. Although both substances were associated with depressed birth weight, there was no decrement of neonatal ponderal index or of the arm circumference/head circumference ratio in association with exposure to either substance. We conclude that both marijuana exposure and cocaine exposure during pregnancy are associated with symmetric intrauterine growth retardation, but that deficits are in differing compartments of intrauterine growth. These findings suggest that marijuana may retard fetal growth through maternal-fetal hypoxia, whereas cocaine may alter nutrient transfer to the fetus and fetal metabolism.

  19. Secular changes in body size and body composition in schoolchildren from La Plata City (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarey, Luis Manuel; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Torres, María Fernanda; Cesani, María Florencia; Luis, María Antonia; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the secular changes in body size and composition of two cohorts of children from La Plata City, Argentina, with a 35-year follow-up. subjects and methods: Cohort 1 (C1) was measured in 1969-1970 and included 1772 children (889 boys, 883 girls), and Cohort 2 (C2), measured in 2004-2005, included 1059 children (542 boys, 517 girls). Both cohorts were obtained from matching geographical areas and comprised children from 4 to 12 years. Body weight (W); Height (H); Upper arm circumference (UAC); Tricipital (TS) and Subscapular skinfolds (SS) were measured, and Body Mass Index (BMI) and muscle (UMA) and fat (AFA) brachial areas were calculated. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated by IOTF. To compare C1-C2 we used a generalized linear model with log-transformed variables, and chi square test. There were significant and positive differences between C2-C1 in W, UAC, SS, TS, and AFA. In contrast, H was not significantly different and UMA was significantly different but with negative values. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.5% and 3.8% in C1, and 17.0% and 6.8% in C2. Differences between cohorts were significant for obesity. The shifts observed for soft tissues--positive trend for fat and negative for muscle area--occurring without changes in height lead us to suppose that in these three decades, La Plata's population has experienced deterioration in living conditions and important changes in their lifestyle, such as an increased consumption of energy-dense foods and sedentary habits.

  20. Relationship between cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of orexin A/hypocretin-1 and body composition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, João C P; Otto, Markus; Kern, Werner; Baier, Paul Christian; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2018-02-19

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (hypocretin-1) is a key signal in sleep/wake regulation and promotes food intake. We investigated the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations and body composition in non-narcoleptic human subjects with a wide range of body weight to gain insight into the role of orexin A in human metabolism. We collected cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples and measured body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis in 36 subjects (16 women and 20 men) with body mass indices between 16.24 and 38.10 kg/m 2 and an age range of 19-80 years. Bivariate Pearson correlations and stepwise multiple regressions were calculated to determine associations between orexin A and body composition as well as biometric variables. Concentrations of orexin A in cerebrospinal fluid averaged 315.6 ± 6.0 pg/ml, were comparable between sexes (p > 0.15) and unrelated to age (p > 0.66); they appeared slightly reduced in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight subjects (p = .07). Orexin A concentrations decreased with body weight (r = -0.38, p = .0229) and fat-free mass (r = -0.39, p = .0173) but were not linked to body fat mass (p > 0.24). They were inversely related to total body water (r = -0.39, p = .0174) as well as intracellular (r = -0.41, p = .0139) and extracellular water (r = -0.35, p = .0341). Intracellular water was the only factor independently associated with cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations (p = .0139). We conclude that cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations do not display associations with body adiposity, but are inversely related to intracellular water content. These cross-sectional findings suggest a link between orexin A signaling and the regulation of water homeostasis in humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing body composition with DXA and bioimpedance: effects of obesity, physical activity, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyi, Eszter; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Suominen, Harri; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated to what extent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two types of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) yield similar results for body fat mass (FM) in men and women with different levels of obesity and physical activity (PA). The study population consisted of 37-81-year-old Finnish people (82 men and 86 women). FM% was estimated using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) and two BIA devices (InBody (720) and Tanita BC 418 MA). Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups on the basis of clinical cutoff points of BMI, and into low PA (LPA) and high PA (HPA) groups. Agreement between the devices was calculated by using the Bland-Altman analysis. Compared to DXA, both BIA devices provided on average 2-6% lower values for FM% in normal BMI men, in women in all BMI categories, and in both genders in both HPA and LPA groups. In obese men, the differences were smaller. The two BIA devices provided similar means for groups. Differences between the two BIA devices with increasing FM% were a result of the InBody (720) not including age in their algorithm for estimating body composition. BIA methods provided systematically lower values for FM than DXA. However, the differences depend on gender and body weight status pointing out the importance of considering these when identifying people with excess FM.

  2. Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  3. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  4. The effect of psoriasis treatment on body composition, components of metabolic syndrome and psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Tamer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immun mediated skin disorder with unknown etiology. The chronic inflammation in psoriasis have role in the development of metabolic and vascular disorders related with associating comorbidities. Recent studies have suggested a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, obesity and complexity of the association between psoriasis, body mass index (BMI and psoriasis tratment. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of psoriasis treatment with methotrexate, cyclosporine and biological agents on body composition, comorbidities and associated laboratory findings. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients treated with methotrexate, cyclosporin and biological agents were included in our study. Demographic characteristics, body composition analysis, psoriasis related comorbidities and laboratory examinations were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of systemic treatment. Results: Comorbidities and metabolic syndrome tended to be more frequent in the anti tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α treated group. Increase in body fat and weight detected in patiens receiving biologic drug therapy. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that severe psoriasis patients with longer disease duration were more likely to have metabolic syndrome because of severe and long term inflammation in pathogenesis of comorbidities.

  5. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  6. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval...

  7. The Effect of the Menstrual Cycle on Body Composition Determined by Contact-Electrode Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberledge, Emily A; Myers, Cassandra; Venditti, Jennifer J; Dixon, Curt B; Andreacci, Joseph L

    2018-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a noninvasive and relatively inexpensive method of assessing body composition. Manufacturers of BIA technology recommend to avoid testing women when they perceive to be retaining water during the menstrual cycle. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effect of the menstrual cycle on body composition determined by contact-electrode BIA analyzers. Forty-three college-aged women volunteered to participate in this study (age=21.2 ± 1.1 years; body mass index = 24.0 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ). Subjects had their body composition assessed using four different contact-electrode BIA analyzers during the following menstrual cycle phases: menstrual, follicular, early and late luteal. Regardless of the BIA analyzer used for the assessment, no significant differences in body composition measures were found between cycle phases. The results of this study indicate that the contact-electrode BIA devices used in this study can be used at any time during a woman's menstrual cycle without altering the body composition values.

  8. Clustering of Lifestyle Behaviours and Relation to Body Composition in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba María; Mouratidou, Theodora; Reisch, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background:Dietary patterns, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours are some of the main behavioural determinants of obesity; their combined influence in children has been addressed in a limited number of studies.Subjects/Methods:Children (16 228) aged 2-9 years old from eight European...... parental questionnaires. Sex-specific cluster analysis was applied to identify behavioural clusters. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were applied to examine the association between behavioural clusters and body composition indicators (BCIs).Results:Six behavioural clusters were identified (C...... derived clusters and BCI were observed only in boys; those boys in the cluster with the highest time spent in sedentary activities and low PA had increased odds of having a body mass index z-score (odds ratio (OR)=1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI)=(1.01, 1.74)) and a waist circumference z-score (OR=1...

  9. Anthropometric, body composition and physical activity of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Domingos Salvador

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the anthropometric variables, body composition and physical activity levels of students enrolled in private schools of the Educational System of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. The sample was composed by 303 students (154 males and 149 females with ages varying from 11 to 15 years. Measures of body mass, stature, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular and suprailiac, percent of body fat, and adiposity index. Data on physical activity levels were obtained by a questionnaire, which verified TV watching time. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation were used for data analyses as well as the Student’s t-test setting the level of significance at 5%. The results showed that boys had higher values for anthropometric variables except for the 11-year-old boys. For skinfolds, the suprailiac presented higher values in both sexes, suggesting more fat accumulation in the central region of the trunk. For body composition, girls showed higher percents of body fat, except for the 13-year-olds. Obesity was detected in 23.76% of the sample. More than half of the students (58.41% were classified either as sedentary or insufficiently active. With advancing age, a reduction in physical activity levels was noticed in both sexes. The majority of the students watched TV for more than 2 hours per day. The data indicated that strategic interventions are necessary to promote a more active lifestyle among adolescents. RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as variáveis antropométricas, composição corporal e atividade física de escolares da rede particular de ensino da cidade de Porto Velho. A amostra foi composta por 303 escolares, 154 do gênero masculino e 149 do feminino, na faixa etária dos 11 aos 15 anos. Foi mensurada a massa, estatura corporal, dobras cutâneas das regiões tricipital, subescapular, supra-ilíaca, percentual de gordura, índice de adiposidade. Os dados referentes aos níveis de atividade física foram

  10. Are resin composites suitable replacements for amalgam? A study of two-body wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Dimitra; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    Wear resistance is an important property of the dental materials, particularly for large restorations in the posterior regions and for the patients suffering from parafunctional activities. Additionally, the wear resistance of flowable composite resin materials is a clinical concern, although they are popular among dentists because of their easy handling. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the wear resistance of nine composite resins both condensable (G-aenial posterior, Venus, GrandioSO, Tetric EvoCeram, Ceram X duo, Filtek Supreme XTE) and new-generation flowable resin composites (G-aenial Universal Flo, GrandioSO Flow and GrandioSO Heavy Flow) and to compare these results with amalgam. Eight specimens of each material were subjected to two-body wear tests, using a chewing simulator. The wear region of each material was examined under profilometer, measuring the vertical loss (μm) and the volume loss (mm(3)) of the materials. Additionally, SEM analysis was performed to assess surfaces irregularities. The results showed significant difference of the vertical loss and the volume loss of the examined materials (p amalgam had the best wear resistance, two condensable resin composites (GrandioSO, Ceram X duo) and all flowable materials had no significant difference with amalgam. GrandioSO had the highest wear resistance and Filtek Supreme XTE the lowest wear resistance. The majority of resin composites had good wear resistance and similar to amalgam. Based on the in vitro measurements of two-body wear resistance, the new resin composites could replace amalgam for restorations placed in occlusal stress-bearing regions. New-generation flowable resin materials may also be used in occlusal contact restorations.

  11. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  12. Body composition and hydration factors in infants and young children using multicompartment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Valle, Rosa Consuelo; Valencia, Mauro E; Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Lopez-Jimenez, Cesar A; Monreal-Barraza, Brianda I; Robles-Valenzuela, Edna L; Hurtado-Valenzuela, Jaime Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background. Until recently deuterium (2H2O) analysis has been performed almost exclusively by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The IAEA has promoted the FTIR methodology to measure deuterium (2H2O) enrichment, but there is limited information in infants and small children, which have different hydration status than adults. Due to the limited information available, the optimum deuterium dose amount to be administered to children in these studies has also been controversial. The aim of this investigation were to measure body composition and determine the hydration factors in infants and young children using multi-compartment models generating algorithms for prediction of body composition. Subjects and Methods. Seventy-eight male and female infants and young children (ages 3-24 months), from the urban and agricultural zones of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico participated. We measured weight, length and circumferences to evaluate nutritional status using the WHO Growth Reference 2006. We also measured total body water (TBW) by deuterium oxide dilution, bone mineral content (BMC) through a DXA scan and body density was estimated through published algorithms. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was also measured to explore the prediction of body composition using this technique. Results. In general, children from the urban area had better nutritional indicators than children from the agricultural area. Eleven (16.1%) children had some type of malnutrition (any nutritional index below -2 Z cutoff point) and 2 were overweight. Optimal amount of deuterium for dosing in this age range was 0.53 to 0.83 mg/kg body weight, which has implications for future studies of body composition in infants and young children. DXA overestimated body fat percentage compared to other 2, 3 and 4 compartment models (p < 0.0001). Hydration of fat-free mass was not different between children with normal nutritional indexes and those with some type of malnutrition (p>0.05). Resistance or

  13. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low-in...

  14. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  15. Protein intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition at 6 years: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Tielemans (Myrte); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Intra-uterine exposure to protein may affect body composition and may increase the prevalence of childhood adiposity. Therefore, we examined whether protein intake during pregnancy is associated with offspring body composition at the age of 6 years and whether associations

  16. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  17. The adjusted effect of maternal body mass index, energy and macronutrient intakes during pregnancy, and gestational weight gain on body composition of full-term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Cabo, Catarina; Moreira, Ana Catarina; Virella, Daniel; Guerra, Tatiana; Camoes, Tania; Silva, Ana Rita; Neves, Rute; Ferreira, Goncalo Cordeiro

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy and macronutrient intakes during pregnancy, and gestational weight gain (GWG) on the body composition of full-term appropriate-for-gestational age neonates. This is a cross-sectional study of a systematically recruited convenience sample of mother-infant pairs. Food intake during pregnancy was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and its nutritional value by the Food Processor Plus (ESHA Research Inc, Salem, OR). Neonatal body composition was assessed both by anthropometry and air displacement plethysmography. Explanatory models for neonatal body composition were tested by multiple linear regression analysis. A total of 100 mother-infant pairs were included. Prepregnancy overweight was positively associated with offspring weight, weight/length, BMI, and fat-free mass in the whole sample; in males, it was also positively associated with midarm circumference, ponderal index, and fat mass. Higher energy intake from carbohydrate was positively associated with midarm circumference and weight/length in the whole sample. Higher GWG was positively associated with weight, length, and midarm circumference in females. Positive adjusted associations were found between both prepregnancy BMI and energy intake from carbohydrate and offspring body size in the whole sample. Positive adjusted associations were also found between prepregnancy overweight and adiposity in males, and between GWG and body size in females. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer--the relationship between body composition and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E

    2013-10-01

    Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  19. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric...

  20. Modeling the shape and composition of the human body using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Ng, Bennett K; Fan, Bo; Schwartz, Ann V; Cawthon, Peggy; Cummings, Steven R; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Nevitt, Michael; Santanasto, Adam; Cootes, Timothy F

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that body shape and regional body composition are strong indicators of metabolic health. The purpose of this study was to develop statistical models that accurately describe holistic body shape, thickness, and leanness. We hypothesized that there are unique body shape features that are predictive of mortality beyond standard clinical measures. We developed algorithms to process whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans into body thickness and leanness images. We performed statistical appearance modeling (SAM) and principal component analysis (PCA) to efficiently encode the variance of body shape, leanness, and thickness across sample of 400 older Americans from the Health ABC study. The sample included 200 cases and 200 controls based on 6-year mortality status, matched on sex, race and BMI. The final model contained 52 points outlining the torso, upper arms, thighs, and bony landmarks. Correlation analyses were performed on the PCA parameters to identify body shape features that vary across groups and with metabolic risk. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify sex and race, and predict mortality risk as a function of body shape parameters. These parameters are novel body composition features that uniquely identify body phenotypes of different groups and predict mortality risk. Three parameters from a SAM of body leanness and thickness accurately identified sex (training AUC = 0.99) and six accurately identified race (training AUC = 0.91) in the sample dataset. Three parameters from a SAM of only body thickness predicted mortality (training AUC = 0.66, validation AUC = 0.62). Further study is warranted to identify specific shape/composition features that predict other health outcomes.

  1. Correlations among obesity-associated gene polymorphisms, body composition, and physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Sanae; Shimoda, Taeko; Hamamoto, Yukie; Nakaya, Yutaka; Nakajima, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have focused on the correlation between β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), the β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR), and the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) polymorphisms and obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the correlation between these polymorphisms and body composition variables and between body composition and lifestyle variables in Japanese T2DM patients. Of the 48, T2DM outpatients in Kanagawa prefecture recruited for participation, 32 (6 men and 26 women) met the study criteria and were enrolled. Obesity-related gene polymorphisms were identified in 3 genes β3AR, UCP1, and β2AR using the SMart amplification process. Body composition variables were measured using a body composition analyzer. Data regarding food and nutrient consumption, family history, and lifestyle factors were collected via administration of questionnaires. Because significant differences in body composition variables were found between men and women, statistical analysis was performed with data from the 25 female subjects only. On the basis of results of genetic testing, the subjects were divided into genotype groups for two-group and three-group comparison. The β3AR, UCP1, and β2AR polymorphisms and body composition significantly correlated with the percentage of subcutaneous fat in both arms as compared with the wild type or hetero groups with β3AR polymorphisms. However, physical activity correlated with several body composition variables. These results suggest that obesity in T2DM patients is not the result of presence of an obesity-related gene polymorphism but rather the absence of daily physical activity.

  2. Changes in body composition in women using long-acting reversible contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Dos Santos, Priscilla de Nazaré; Madden, Tessa; Omvig, Karen; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-04-01

    Users of hormonal long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) report weight gain as a side effect, but few studies have assessed body composition change among LARC users. We evaluated weight and body composition of healthy women using the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), copper intrauterine device (copper IUD) or etonogestrel implant (ENG implant). We hypothesized that weight gain and body composition over 12 months would not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. We performed a prospective cohort study of a subgroup of women enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who initiated the LNG-IUS, copper IUD or ENG implant. Inclusion criteria included lack of metabolic and eating disorders or change in body weight of more than 5% in the 6 months before enrollment. We measured changes in weight and body composition (body fat percentage, total body fat mass, total lean mass and total body mass) in women who continued their method for 12 months. We analyzed data from 149 participants: 85 LNG-IUS users, 31 copper IUD users and 33 ENG implant users. The mean age was 25.9 years, 56.4% were White, 82.5% had some college education and 67.6% were nulliparous. Although lean body mass increased over 12 months in LNG-IUS and copper IUD users but not in ENG implant users, changes in body weight and body composition did not differ between the groups. In the adjusted model, Black race was associated with change in total body mass (p<.05). Among those who continued the method for 12 months, changes in body weight and composition did not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. Changes in body weight and composition over 12 months did not differ between copper IUD users and LNG-IUS and ENG implant users among those with 12 months of continuous use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multidisciplinary Shape Optimization of a Composite Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Charles Maxwell

    A multidisciplinary shape optimization tool coupling aerodynamics, structure, and performance was developed for battery powered aircraft. Utilizing high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics analysis tools and a structural wing weight tool, coupled based on the multidisciplinary feasible optimization architecture; aircraft geometry is modified in the optimization of the aircraft's range or endurance. The developed tool is applied to three geometries: a hybrid blended wing body, delta wing UAS, the ONERA M6 wing, and a modified ONERA M6 wing. First, the optimization problem is presented with the objective function, constraints, and design vector. Next, the tool's architecture and the analysis tools that are utilized are described. Finally, various optimizations are described and their results analyzed for all test subjects. Results show that less computationally expensive inviscid optimizations yield positive performance improvements using planform, airfoil, and three-dimensional degrees of freedom. From the results obtained through a series of optimizations, it is concluded that the newly developed tool is both effective at improving performance and serves as a platform ready to receive additional performance modules, further improving its computational design support potential.

  4. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Change in body composition during a weight loss trial in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, E P; Zemel, B; Moore, R H; Berkowitz, R I

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Adolescence is an important period of physiological growth. Loss of central adiposity with preservation of lean mass during weight loss is optimal. There are discrepancies in the literature concerning changes in lean mass during weight loss in adolescents. What this study adds This study provides information of regional and total body composition change in adolescents during weight loss. This study controls for important factors that impact body composition in growing adolescents such as age, sex, height, baseline weight and race. This study provides correlations of changes in waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) with total and trunk fat mass during weight loss in adolescents. Background Changes in body composition during weight loss among obese adolescents are poorly understood. This study characterized the composition of weight loss and its association with changes in waist circumference (WC) in obese adolescents. Methods Total (Tot), trunk (Tr) and appendicular (Ap) fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 61 obese adolescents (40 girls) who participated in a randomized controlled weight loss trial. Changes in body composition were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 months using mixed-effects regression models. Correlation analysis of change in WC and total and regional compartments of FM and LM were assessed. Results Weight loss for adolescents was 90.3% FM and 15.9% LM at 0-6 months, and 98.2% FM and 7% LM at 0-12 months. At 12 months, girls lost 2.67 kg more TotFM than boys in models adjusted for height, age, race and baseline weight. Boys gained LM in all compartments in all models. At 12 months, girls lost TotLM (2.23 ± 0.74, P change with TotFM (R = 0.70-0.91, P = 0.001) and WC change (R = 0.53-0.55, P adolescents during a weight loss trial using lifestyle management and sibutramine was primarily from trunk FM. Although absolute LM increased

  6. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X...

  7. Cross-sectional and prospective impact of reallocating sedentary time to physical activity on children's body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Luís B; Marques, Adilson; Minderico, Cláudia; Ekelund, Ulf

    2017-10-01

    The amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviours may have adverse health effects. To examine the substitution effects of displacing a fixed duration of sedentary time with physical activity (PA) on children's body composition. We included 386 children (197 boys). Outcomes were body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat mass and trunk fat mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sedentary time and PA were measured with accelerometers. Data were analysed by isotemporal analyses estimating the effect of reallocating 15 and 30 min d -1 of sedentary time into light (light physical activity), and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) PA on body composition. Reallocating 15 and 30 min d -1 of sedentary time into MVPA was negatively associated with body fatness in cross-sectional analyses. Prospectively, reallocating 30 min of sedentary time into 30 min of MVPA was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = -1.11, p body fat mass (β = -0.48, p  0.05) with body fatness outcomes. Substituting sedentary time with MVPA using isotemporal analysis is associated with positive effects on body composition. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  8. Body composition in normal subjects: relation to lipid and glucose variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe sex- and age-dependent values of total and regional body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in normal subjects, and furthermore to relate body composition measurements to blood lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A cross......-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 173 (84 male and 89 female) healthy subjects, BMI Body composition parameters including data on total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lean body soft tissue mass (LTM), total and regional fat mass (FM) were estimated in all...... subjects. In 87 of the subjects fasting blood glucose, S-insulin and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: The study population was for each sex divided into five decades for which results on body composition and blood lipids are presented. Body weight increased 2 kg per age decade, representing...

  9. Relationship between body composition and postural control in prepubertal overweight/obese children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Cabeza-Ruiz, Ruth; Redón, Pau; Lurbe, Empar; García-Massó, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    Excess body weight during childhood causes reduced motor functionality and problems in postural control, a negative influence which has been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, no information regarding the effect of body composition on the postural control of overweight and obese children is available. The objective of this study was therefore to establish these relationships. A cross-sectional design was used to establish relationships between body composition and postural control variables obtained in bipedal eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in twenty-two children. Centre of pressure signals were analysed in the temporal and frequency domains. Pearson correlations were applied to establish relationships between variables. Principal component analysis was applied to the body composition variables to avoid potential multicollinearity in the regression models. These principal components were used to perform a multiple linear regression analysis, from which regression models were obtained to predict postural control. Height and leg mass were the body composition variables that showed the highest correlation with postural control. Multiple regression models were also obtained and several of these models showed a higher correlation coefficient in predicting postural control than simple correlations. These models revealed that leg and trunk mass were good predictors of postural control. More equations were found in the eyes-open than eyes-closed condition. Body weight and height are negatively correlated with postural control. However, leg and trunk mass are better postural control predictors than arm or body mass. Finally, body composition variables are more useful in predicting postural control when the eyes are open. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic motivation in two exercise interventions: Associations with fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Shepherd, Sam O; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    To examine the motivational process through which increases in aerobic capacity and decreases in total body fat are achieved during high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions. Eighty-seven physically inactive adults (65% women, age = 42 ± 12, BMI = 27.67 ± 4.99 kg/m²) took part in a 10-week randomized intervention testing group-based HIT, operationalized as repeated sprints of 15-60 s interspersed with periods of recovery cycling ≤ 25 min/session, 3 sessions/wk⁻¹, or MICT, operationalized as cycling at constant workload of ∼65% maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max, 30-45 min/session⁻¹, 5 sessions/wk⁻¹. Assessments of VO2max and total body fat were made pre- and postintervention. Motivation variables were assessed midintervention and class attendance was monitored throughout. Path analysis was employed, controlling for treatment arm and baseline values of VO2max and total body fat. The 2 groups differed in adherence only, favoring HIT. Baseline VO2max predicted intrinsic motivation midintervention. Intrinsic motivation predicted program adherence, which in turn predicted increases in VO2max and decreases in total body fat by the end of the study. Intrinsic motivation in HIT and MICT is positively linked to adherence to these programs, which can facilitate improvements in fitness and body composition. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of a Deca Iron Triathlon on body composition: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Schück, R; Andonie, J L; Kohler, G

    2008-04-01

    We investigated energy balance and change of body composition in one athlete in a multistage triathlon, the World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon 2006, where athletes had to perform one Ironman triathlon of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.195 km running per day for ten consecutive days. In one well-experienced male ultra-endurance triathlete, we measured body mass, skinfold thicknesses and perimeters of extremities, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat. Energy intake was measured by analysis of nutrition, and energy expenditure was calculated using a portable heart rate monitor. This was performed to quantify energy deficit. In addition, bio-impedance measurements were performed to determine fluid metabolism. The athlete finished the race in 128 hours, 22 minutes and 42 seconds in 3rd position. Body mass decreased by 1 kilogram, skeletal muscle mass decreased by 0.9 kilograms and calculated fat mass decreased by 0.8 kilograms. Total body water increased by 2.8 liters. Total energy expenditure for the Deca Iron was 89,112 kilocalories and a total energy deficit of 11,480 kilocalories resulted. We presume that energy deficit was covered by consumption of adipose subcutaneous tissue as well as skeletal muscle mass; the degradation of muscle mass seems to lead to hypoproteinemic edemas.

  12. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  13. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  14. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    .Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationbetween GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes inbody weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a randomgroup of adult Danes.Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsampleof men and women from the Danish arm...

  15. Bioelectrical impedance is an accurate method to assess body composition in obese but not severely obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Julien; Metz, Lore; Chaplais, Elodie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and segmental body composition results between bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and to test the reproducibility of BIA in obese adolescents. We hypothesized that BIA offers an accurate and reproducible method to assess body composition in adolescents with obesity. Whole-body and segmental body compositions were assessed by BIA (Tanita MC-780) and DXA (Hologic) among 138 (110 girls and 28 boys) obese adolescents (Tanner stage 3-5) aged 14±1.5years. The BIA analysis was replicated on 3 identical occasions in 32 participants to test the reproducibility of the methods. Whole-body fat mass percentage was significantly higher using the BIA method compared with DXA (40.6±7.8 vs 38.8±4.9%, Pobese adolescents, with however a loss of correlation between BIA and DXA with increasing body fat; its validity remains uncertain for segmental analysis among obese youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between body composition and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Buenfil-Rello, Fátima Annai; Pacheco-Pantoja, Elda Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Reports regarding the association between body composition and inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have consistently yielded contradictory results. To perform a systematic review on the association between overweight/obesity and inflammatory activity in RA. FAST approach: Article search (Medline, EBSCO, Cochrane Library), followed by abstract retrieval, full text review and blinded assessment of methodological quality for final inclusion. Because of marked heterogeneity in statistical approach and RA activity assessment method, a meta-analysis could not be done. Results are presented as qualitative synthesis. One hundred and nineteen reports were found, 16 of them qualified for full text review. Eleven studies (8,147 patients; n range: 37-5,161) approved the methodological quality filter and were finally included. Interobserver agreement for methodological quality score (ICC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98; P.001) was excellent. In all reports body composition was assessed by BMI; however a marked heterogeneity was found in the method used for RA activity assessment. A significant association between BMI and RA activity was found in 6 reports having larger mean sample size: 1,274 (range: 140-5,161). On the other hand, this association was not found in 5 studies having lower mean sample size: 100 (range: 7-150). The modulation of RA clinical status by body fat mass is suggested because a significant association was found between BMI and inflammatory activity in those reports with a trend toward higher statistical power. The relationship between body composition and clinical activity in RA requires be approached with further studies with higher methodological quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal fuels and metabolic measures during pregnancy and neonatal body composition: the healthy start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Shapiro, Allison L; Brinton, John T; Glueck, Deborah H; Martinez, Mercedes; Kohn, Mary; Harrod, Curtis; Friedman, Jacob E; Dabelea, Dana

    2015-04-01

    The impact of specific maternal fuels and metabolic measures during early and late gestation on neonatal body composition is not well defined. To determine how circulating maternal glucose, lipids, and insulin resistance in the first and second halves of pregnancy influence neonatal body composition. A prospective pre-birth cohort enrolling pregnant women, the Healthy Start Study, was conducted, in which fasting maternal serum samples were collected twice during pregnancy to measure glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acids. Neonatal body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography. An observational epidemiology study of pregnant women attending obstetric clinics at the University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center. This analysis includes 804 maternal-neonate pairs. A strong positive linear relationship between maternal estimated insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) in the first half of pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (FM) and FM percentage (FM%) was detected, independent of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). In the second half of pregnancy, positive linear relationships between maternal glucose levels and offspring FM and FM% were observed, independent of prepregnancy BMI. An inverse relationship was detected between high-density lipoprotein in the first half of pregnancy and FM, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Free fatty acid levels in the second half of pregnancy were positively associated with higher birth weight, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Maternal insulin resistance in the first half of pregnancy is highly predictive of neonatal FM%, whereas maternal glycemia, even within the normal range, is an important driver of neonatal adiposity in later pregnancy, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Our data provide additional insights on potential maternal factors responsible for fetal fat accretion and early development of adiposity.

  18. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  19. Occupational exposure to phthalates in relation to gender, consumer practices and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovičová, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Šidlovská, Miroslava; Pilka, Tomáš; Wimmerová, Soňa; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found in plastic industry workers compared to community service workers and subjects of the control group significantly higher urinary concentration mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono (2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), sum di-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). We identified by multivariate analysis of covariance inverse relationship between MEHP and body parameters as waist-to-height ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference and waist circumference among females, whereas in males, no significant association was found. Results of our study show, despite of variability in terms of occupational exposure to phthalates, that plastic manufactory represents a higher occupational risk in comparison with waste management. The differences in anthropometric parameters between the two occupationally exposed groups and the general population are suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational exposure on body weight homeostasis.

  20. Endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine men...... and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (P...

  1. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  2. Association between body composition and stair negotiation ability among individuals >55 years of age: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dip RM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Renata Maciulis Dip, Marcos AS Cabrera, Sabrina Ferrari Prato Department of Public Health, Postgraduate Program in Public Health, State University of Londrina (UEL, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Background: Loss of muscle strength exerts a considerable impact on the quality of life and mortality of older adults. The present household survey study measured body composition and muscle strength with the aim of analyzing the roles of low lean mass, low muscle strength and obesity in stair negotiation ability and the effect of comorbidities on the relationship between body composition and functional capacity.Methods: Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis and muscle strength was assessed with a hand grip dynamometer. The study population comprised individuals >55 years of age from a medium-sized Brazilian municipality. The sample included 451 participants.Results: A total of 368 subjects were interviewed; their ages varied from 56 to 91 years. Among males, low muscle strength was associated with stair negotiation difficulty independent of muscle mass, age and obesity but muscle mass was not. However, when we analyzed comorbidities and body composition jointly, chronic lower limb pain and obesity were independently associated with stair negotiation difficulty but body composition and age were not. Among women, after comorbidities were included into the model, low muscle strength and obesity remained associated with stair negotiation difficulty as chronic lower limb pain and depression. The relationship between muscle function and comorbidities is discussed in this article. Keywords: sarcopenia, obesity, depression, older people

  3. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.

  4. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Monyeki, K.D.; Toriola, A.L.; Pienaar, A.E.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary

  5. Effects of milk replacer composition on growth, body composition, and nutrient excretion in preweaned Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S R; Knowlton, K F; Daniels, K M; James, R E; Pearson, R E; Capuco, A V; Akers, R M

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-four newborn Holstein heifer calves were fed 1 of 4 milk replacers (MR): control (20% CP, 21% fat; MR fed at 441 g/d); high protein/low fat (HPLF; 28% CP, 20% fat; MR fed at 951 g/d); high protein/high fat (HPHF; 27% CP, 28% fat; MR fed at 951 g/d); and HPHF MR fed at a higher rate (HPHF+; 27% CP, 28% fat; MR fed at 1,431 g/d). Dry calf starter (20% CP, 1.43% fat) composed of ground corn (44.4%), 48% CP soybean meal (44.4%), cottonseed hulls (11.2%), and molasses (1.0%) was offered free choice. Heifers were obtained from a commercial dairy, blocked by groups of 8 in the order acquired, and randomly assigned to treatments within group. Upon arrival at the research farm, heifers were fed the control for 2 feedings. Treatments were imposed when heifers were 4 +/- 1 d of age. Heifers were on study for 61 +/- 1 d. Body weight and body size measures were taken weekly. Four-day total collection of feed refusals, feces, and urine was initiated at 57 +/- 1 d of age. Heifers were slaughtered at the end of the collection period to evaluate body composition. Preplanned contrasts were used to compare control to all, HPLF to HPHF, and HPHF to HPHF+. Heifers fed the control diet consumed more starter than those fed other treatment diets, but their total dry matter intake and apparent dry matter digestibility were lowest. Fecal output was highest in heifers fed the control diet, whereas urine output and urine N excretion were lowest. Nitrogen intake and urine N excretion were greater for heifers fed HPHF+ compared with HPHF but were not affected by MR fat content (HPLF vs. HPHF). Retention (g/d) of N and P was greater in heifers fed all nutrient-dense diets compared with those fed the control diet, but was not improved by increasing fat in the milk replacer (HPLF vs. HPHF) or by increasing the amount fed. Addition of fat to the milk replacer (HPLF vs. HPHF) increased empty body weight fat content without improving average daily gain or frame measures. Increasing the volume

  6. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Pre- and Postoperative Body Composition and Metabolic Characteristics in Patients with Acromegaly: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods. We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT, the visceral fat index (VFI, sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW, intracellular water (ICW, and extracellular water (ECW were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Total energy expenditure (TEE and basal metabolism (BM were measured with a cardiopulmonary and metabolic analyzer (CMA. Tricep skinfold thickness (TST, bicep circumference, waistline, hipline, and calf circumference were measured with a skinfold caliper and tape. These indices were measured before surgery and 3 months and 1 year after surgery. Results. Overall, AT, VFI, and TST were lower, whereas sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, TBW, ICW, ECW, TEE, and BM were higher in acromegaly patients. Postoperatively, TST rose initially and then decreased, the waistline increased, and sclerotin, skeletal muscle, TEE, and BM decreased. Changes in these indices differed with gender and age in unique patterns. Conclusions. Body composition and metabolism in acromegaly patients changed after surgery, and gender and age influenced these changes.

  8. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs

  9. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Hill, Jacqueline C; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2009-02-24

    Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA) to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (body mass index (BMI) and height) as predictors of newborn body composition. Weight, height, head and mid-arm circumferences, skinfold thicknesses and external pelvic diameters were measured at 30 +/- 2 weeks gestation in 571 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Paternal height and weight were also measured. At birth, detailed neonatal anthropometry was performed. Unrotated and varimax rotated PCA was applied to the maternal and neonatal measurements. Rotated PCA reduced maternal measurements to 4 independent components (fat, pelvis, height and muscle) and neonatal measurements to 3 components (trunk+head, fat, and leg length). An SD increase in maternal fat was associated with a 0.16 SD increase (beta) in neonatal fat (p maternal parity, newborn sex and socio-economic status). Maternal pelvis, height and (for male babies) muscle predicted neonatal trunk+head (beta = 0. 09 SD; p = 0.017, beta = 0.12 SD; p = 0.006 and beta = 0.27 SD; p maternal BMI predicted neonatal fat (beta = 0.20 SD; p neonatal trunk+head (beta = 0.15 SD; p = 0.001). Both maternal (beta = 0.12 SD; p = 0.002) and paternal height (beta = 0.09 SD; p = 0.030) predicted neonatal trunk+head but the associations became weak and statistically non-significant in multivariate analysis. Only paternal height predicted neonatal leg length (beta = 0.15 SD; p = 0.003). Principal components analysis is a useful method to describe neonatal body composition and its determinants. Newborn

  10. Marine Corps Body Composition Program: The Flawed Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-07

    fitness expert and writer for ABC Bodybuilding , an error of 3% in a body fat evaluation is extreme and methods that have this margin of error should not...most other methods. In fact, bodybuilders use a seven to nine point skin fold measurement weekly during their training to monitor body fat...19.95 and recommended and endorsed by “Body-For-Life” and the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation. The caliper comes with detailed instructions

  11. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase.

  12. Effects of short-term oral corticosteroid intake on dietary intake, body weight and body composition in adults with asthma - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, B S; Gibson, P G; McElduff, P; MacDonald-Wicks, L K; Wood, L G

    2015-05-01

    Oral corticosteroids (OCS) are an efficacious treatment for asthma exacerbations, yet risk of adverse effects may decrease patient adherence to therapy. In particular, changes in appetite and dietary intake, which lead to weight gain and changes in body composition, are considered undesirable. To determine whether 10-day OCS therapy in adults with asthma causes changes in leptin, appetite, dietary intake, body weight and body composition. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over trial of 10 days prednisolone (50 mg) in adults with stable asthma (n = 55) (ACTRN12611000562976). Pre- and post-assessment included spirometry, body weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis, appetite measured using a validated visual analogue scale (VAS) and dietary intake assessed using 4-day food records. Leptin was measured as a biomarker of appetite and eosinophils as an adherence biomarker. Outcomes were analysed by generalized linear mixed models. Subject adherence was confirmed by a significant decrease in blood eosinophils (× 10(9) /L) following prednisolone compared to placebo [Coef. -0.29, 95% CI: (-0.39, -0.19) P weight (kg) [Coef. -0.38, 95% CI: (-0.81, 0.05) P = 0.083] or body fat (%) [Coef. -0.31, 95% CI: (-0.81, 0.20) P = 0.230]. Symptoms including sleep and gastrointestinal disturbance were reported significantly more often during prednisolone vs. placebo. Short-term OCS in stable asthma did not induce significant changes in appetite, dietary intake, body weight or composition, although other adverse effects may require medical management. This evidence may assist in increasing medication adherence of asthmatics prescribed OCS for exacerbations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ≥7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied.RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations.CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis.

  14. Body composition of Fanconi anemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscilla Peixoto Policarpo da; Schmit, Daniella; Bonfim, Carmem; Campos, Denise Johnsson; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Vilela, Regina Maria

    Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease linked to bone marrow failure; a possible treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Changes in the nutritional status of Fanconi anemia patients are not very well known. This study aimed to characterize body composition of adult, children and adolescent patients with Fanconi anemia who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or not. This cross-sectional study enrolled 63 patients (29 adults and 34 children and adolescents). Body composition was assessed based on diverse methods, including triceps skin fold, arm circumference, arm muscle area and bioelectrical impedance analysis, as there is no established consensus for this population. Body mass index was also considered as reference according to age. Almost half (48.3%) of the transplanted adult patients were underweight considering body mass index whereas eutrophic status was observed in 66.7% of the children and adolescents submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and in 80% of those who were not. At least 50% of all groups displayed muscle mass depletion. Half of the transplanted children and adolescents presented short/very short stature for age. All patients presented low muscle stores, underweight was common in adults, and short stature was common in children and adolescents. More studies are needed to detect whether muscle mass loss measured at the early stages of treatment results in higher risk of mortality, considering the importance of muscle mass as an essential body component to prevent mortality related to infectious and non-infectious diseases and the malnutrition inherent to Fanconi anemia. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex-specific effects of maternal anthropometrics on body composition at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tierney-Ginn, Perrie; Presley, Larraine; Minium, Judi; Hauguel deMouzon, Sylvie; Catalano, Patrick M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether maternal factors that are associated with fetal lean and fat mass differ between sexes. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort that delivered by scheduled cesarean section from 2004-2013. Maternal blood was collected before surgery for metabolic parameters. Placental weight and neonatal anthropometrics were measured within 48 hours. Anthropometric differences between sexes were assessed with the Student t test. Multiple stepwise regression analysis assessed the relationship between independent maternal variables and neonatal lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), or percentage of fat as dependent variables in male and female infants combined and separately. We analyzed 360 women with normal glucose tolerance and a wide range of pregravid body mass index (16-64 kg/m(2)) and their offspring (male, 194; female, 166). Male infants had more FM (mean difference, 40 ± 18 g; P = .03) and LBM (mean difference, 158 ± 34 g; P body fat and measured maternal variables did not differ between sexes. In both sexes, placental weight had the strongest correlation with both neonatal LBM and FM, which accounted for 20-39% of the variance. In male infants, maternal height, body mass index, and weight gain were significant predictors of both lean and fat mass. In female infants, plasma interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, respectively, were associated independently with percentage of body fat and LBM. Our findings suggest that the body composition and inflammatory environment of the mother modulate the metabolic fitness of neonates, as predicted by fat and lean mass, in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analyses of body composition charts among younger and older Chinese children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Kai-Yu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become a major public health problem in China. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of age and sex on the relationship between fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass (FM, fat-free mass index (FFMI and fat mass index (FMI in Chinese children using body composition chart analysis, and to compare the changing pattern with Caucasian and Japanese counterparts. Methods A total of 1458 children (790 boys and 668 girls between 5 and 18 years of age were studied to determine a body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The relationship of FFM and FM, FFMI and FMI were delineated by body composition charts. Results Different changing patterns in body composition were observed during 5-11y (younger age group, and 12-18y (older age group, with non-significant sex difference with FM and FMI for the younger age group and significant sex and age differences for the older age group. For the younger age group, simultaneous increase of FFM and FM was found in both genders. However, for the older age group, the increase in weight and BMI with age is largely due to the increment of FFM and FFMI in boys, and of FM and FMI in girls. In addition, different changing patterns in body composition exist between Chinese children and their Caucasian and Japanese counterparts, largely due to the higher fat mass component in Chinese subjects. Conclusions Our results indicate that age- and gender-related changing patterns of body composition in Chinese children may differ at different growth stage, and differ with those in Caucasian and Japanese children at the same age period. Such changing patterns should be considered when designing the intervention proposal for childhood obesity in China.

  17. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro(®), obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m(2) ≤ BMIBody composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  18. Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed. Measurements were taken according to the standard procedures of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). A posture grid and the New York Posture Test were used for all postural ...

  19. Radiation effect on mortality and some body compositions in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; Gaber, H.; Fahmy, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and or protein in animals body before irradiation or using radio-protector material such as soybean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span and body compartments. Therefore,286 mice (144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet (basal diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group was fed on high protein diet for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation. The data showed that: 1. The male and the female of the chow diet group which were exposed to 800 and 1200 rads died within the first two weeks and the mortality percent in all the nutritional groups increased with increasing the post irradiation days and with increasing the dose level. 2. Feed additives (skim milk or starch) along with soybean oil as the radioprotector prevented the injuries effect of radiation on the life span. This because at 7 weeks after irradiation, the mortality percent was 27-40% in the dietary groups and on mortality was observed in the male basal diet group (Soybean oil) which exposed to 800 rads. 3. There was a correlation between the decrease in body weight and the percent mortality, since increasing the percent weight loss was paralleled with increasing the mortality percent. 4. The reduction in body fat as percent body weight in the male and in the female mice which were exposed to 800 rads were pronounced in the chow diet group rather than in other groups. 5. The radioprotector substance (Soybean oil) reduced the effect of radiation on the fat-free body. 6. The reduction in the fat-free body was mainly due to the reduction in

  20. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Gallagher, D

    2015-01-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  1. Dietary energy density is positively associated with body composition of adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Xue, Hong-Mei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao; Quan, Li-Ming; Gong, Yun-Hui; Cheng, Guo

    2018-02-20

    Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults. We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). Southwest China. Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013. After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (Pcomposition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (Pcomposition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.

  2. Gender and Age - Dependent effect of type 1 diabetes on obesity and altered body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Madej, Anna; Ziółkowska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Małgorzata; Jeziorny, Krzysztof; Mianowska, Beata; Pietrzak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, body composition and fatty tissue distribution in young adults with type 1 diabetes. 197 patients with type 1 diabetes aged 20-40 years participated in the study. The control group consisted of 138 healthy adults. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Analysis of body mass composition was performed using the bioimpedance. Study groups were stratified into cohorts aged obesity were diagnosed in 35.5% and 13.2% of diabetic patients and in 26.1% and 7.3% of the control group, respectively (p=0.016). In the whole study group, advanced age (OR=1.10; pobesity, but a trend toward excessive body mass was observed in diabetic females (OR=1.18; p=0.181). Diabetic females more often had abdominal obesity than control females (mean difference - 19.2%; p=0.020). Higher total body fat mass was found in the diabetic group (p=0.037). Diabetic females had a higher amount of absolute (pobesity in early adulthood more frequently than the general population and are characterized by higher body fat mass. Gender-related differences in body weight and composition in young type 1 diabetic adults were found.

  3. Association of Mid-Life Changes in Body Size, Body Composition and Obesity Status with the Menopausal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Karvonen-Gutierrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mid-life period is a critical window for increases in body weight and changes in body composition. In this review, we summarize the clinical experience of the menopausal transition by obesity status, and examine the evidence regarding the menopausal transition and reproductive hormones effects on body weight, body composition, or fat distribution. Mid-life obesity is associated with a different menopausal experience including associations with menstrual cycle length prior to the final menstrual period (FMP, age at the FMP, and higher prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. The menopausal transition is associated with weight gain and increased central body fat distribution; the majority of evidence suggests that changes in weight are due to chronological aging whereas changes in body composition and fat distribution are primarily due to ovarian aging. Continuous and regular physical activity during mid-life may be an efficacious strategy to counteract the age-related and menopause-related changes in resting energy expenditure and to prevent weight gain and abdominal adiposity deposition.

  4. Seasonal Changes in Soccer Players' Body Composition and Dietary Intake Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina

    2017-12-01

    Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  5. Body Composition Trajectories From Infancy to Preschool in Children Born Premature Versus Full-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Johannah M; Zhang, Lei; Gray, Heather L; Weir, Katherine; Demerath, Ellen W; Ramel, Sara E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to longitudinally characterize infancy to preschool body composition trajectories and the association of early fat and fat-free mass gains with preschool age body composition in children born premature versus full-term. A cohort of appropriate-for-gestational age preterm (n = 20) and term (n = 51) infants were followed at 3 visits: "neonatal" visit 1 at 2 weeks of age for term and near term corrected age for preterm; "infancy" visit 2 at 3 to 4 months (preterm corrected age); "preschool" visit 3 at 4 years. Body composition via air displacement plethysmography and anthropometrics were measured at all visits. Tracking of infancy weight and body composition with preschool measurements was tested using Pearson partial correlation coefficients. Associations between serial body composition measurements were assessed using multiple linear regression. Early differences in body composition between premature (mean gestational age 31.9 weeks, mean birth weight 1843 g) and full-term (mean gestational age 39.8 weeks) infants were not present at preschool age. Visit 1 body composition was not correlated with preschool measurements in the preterm infants. Visit 2 measurements were correlated with preschool measures. Fat-free mass accretion from visit 1 to visit 2 was positively associated with preschool lean mass (β = 0.038, P = 0.049) in preterm children, whereas fat accretion was not associated with preschool body composition. Children born prematurely and full-term have similar body composition at preschool age. For preterms infancy fat-free mass gains, and not adiposity gains, are positively associated with preschool fat-free mass; this may be associated with lower risk of later obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes.

  6. Body Composition, Muscular Strength and Bone Status among Undernourished Children in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Despite significant advances in social and economic development, undernutrition remains a devastating public health problem that affects millions of children across the globe, particularly in developing nations. It is important to understand how changes in nutritional status affect physical health and function, so that undernutrition-related alterations can be identified and interpreted correctly. This paper aimed to determine the impact of undernutrition in children through the assessment of three nutrition-related indicators: body composition, muscular strength and bone status. This study is part of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). A total of 208 school children (102 boys, 106 girls) in the age range of 7 to 10 years were included in this analysis, of which 104 were underweight (WAZ<-2SD) and 104 were normal-weight group (-2SD≤WAZ≤+2SD), individually-matched for sex, age, and ethnicity. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height; and body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscular strength of both hands was assessed independently by hand-held dynamometer. Bone status was evaluated using a radial quantitative ultrasound system at one-third distal radius of the non-dominant hand. Anthropometric measurements and bone status were not significantly different between the sexes. Boys had significantly higher muscular strength and lean mass (p<0.05), but lower fat mass when compared to the girls (p<0.01). In both sexes, the undernourished group presented significantly lower anthropometric and body composition measurements and muscular strength than their normal-weight counterparts (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were observed for bone status between the two weight groups in boys (p = 0.09) and girls (p = 0.98). These findings imply that undernutrition can have profound negat