WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis based control

  1. Controller design based on μ analysis and PSO algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ali; Khosravi, Alireza; Rajabi, Farshad

    2014-03-01

    In this paper an evolutionary algorithm is employed to address the controller design problem based on μ analysis. Conventional solutions to μ synthesis problem such as D-K iteration method often lead to high order, impractical controllers. In the proposed approach, a constrained optimization problem based on μ analysis is defined and then an evolutionary approach is employed to solve the optimization problem. The goal is to achieve a more practical controller with lower order. A benchmark system named two-tank system is considered to evaluate performance of the proposed approach. Simulation results show that the proposed controller performs more effective than high order H(∞) controller and has close responses to the high order D-K iteration controller as the common solution to μ synthesis problem. © 2013 ISA Published by ISA All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of communication based distributed control of MMC for HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Teodorescu, Remus; Mathe, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    for high power and high voltage application is a very challenging task. For the reason that distributed control architecture could maintain the modularity of the MMC, this control architecture will be investigated and a distributed control system dedicated for MMC will be proposed in this paper....... The suitable communication technologies, modulation and control techniques for the proposed distributed control system are discussed and compared. Based on the frequency domain modeling and analysis of the distributed control system, the controllers of the different control loops are designed by analytical...... methods and Matlab tools. Finally, sensitiveness of the distributed control system to modulation effect (phase-shifted PWM), communication delay, individual carrier frequency and sampling frequency is studied through simulations that are made in Matlab Simulink and PLECS....

  3. Fatigue Analysis of Automobile Control Arm Based on Ncode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Huanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the vehicle chassis structure durability, the fatigue analysis and optimization design of the low control arm (LCA was taken. A finite element model was established. By using this model, the stress distribution and lowest point of lifetime of the control arm under fatigue load was calculated. Based on the results of analysis, the optimization scheme according to the structure characteristics of components was presented, and a solution to improve the control arm fatigue life was given out. The research provided reference for engineering application of calculation and optimization of chassis components fatigue life.

  4. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; analysis of human data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Wei, Timothy; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Anor, Tomer

    2010-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a neuropathophysiological disorder primarily diagnosed by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure within the brain. To date, utilization of clinical measurements have been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs enforce volume conservation principles in terms of pressure. Control volume analysis, through the integral mass and momentum conservation equations, ensures that pressure and volume are accounted for using first principles fluid physics. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians into a simple, direct and robust mechanics based framework. Clinical data obtained for analysis are discussed along with data processing techniques used to extract terms in the conservation equation. Control volume analysis provides a non-invasive, physics-based approach to extracting pressure information from magnetic resonance velocity data that cannot be measured directly by pressure instrumentation.

  5. Experimental Bifurcation Analysis Using Control-Based Continuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Starke, Jens

    The focus of this thesis is developing and implementing techniques for performing experimental bifurcation analysis on nonlinear mechanical systems. The research centers around the newly developed control-based continuation method, which allows to systematically track branches of stable and unsta......The focus of this thesis is developing and implementing techniques for performing experimental bifurcation analysis on nonlinear mechanical systems. The research centers around the newly developed control-based continuation method, which allows to systematically track branches of stable...... procedure is applied to our test rig, resulting in a reliable non-invasive, locally stabilizing control. The use of stabilizing control makes it difficult to determine the stability of the underlying uncontrolled equilibrium. Based on the idea of momentarily modifying or disabling the control and study...... the resulting behavior, we propose and test three different methods for assessing stability of equilibrium states during experimental continuation. We show that it is possible to determine the stability without allowing unbounded divergence, and that it is under certain circumstances possible to quantify...

  6. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective tests and maintenance practices that control; risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective test and maintenance practices that control risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety

  8. Component-based analysis of embedded control applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelov, Christo K.; Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of embedded systems requires the creation of industrial software technology that will make it possible to engineer systems being correct by construction. That can be achieved through the use of validated (trusted) components, verification of design models, and automatic...... instances of reusable, executable components—function blocks (FBs). System actors operate in accordance with a timed multitasking model of computation, whereby I/O signals are exchanged with the controlled plant at precisely specified time instants, resulting in the elimination of I/O jitter. The paper...... a feasible (light-weight) analysis method based on runtime observers. The latter are conceived as special-purpose actors running in parallel with the application actors, while checking system properties specified in Linear Temporal Logic. Observers are configured from reusable FBs that can be exported...

  9. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  10. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  11. Quantum control mechanism analysis through field based Hamiltonian encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Abhra; Rabitz, Herschel

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control of quantum dynamics in the laboratory is proving to be increasingly successful. The control fields can be complex, and the mechanisms by which they operate have often remained obscure. Hamiltonian encoding (HE) has been proposed as a method for understanding mechanisms in quantum dynamics. In this context mechanism is defined in terms of the dominant quantum pathways leading to the final state of the controlled system. HE operates by encoding a special modulation into the Hamiltonian and decoding its signature in the dynamics to determine the dominant pathway amplitudes. Earlier work encoded the modulation directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This present work introduces the alternative scheme of field based HE, where the modulation is encoded into the control field and not directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This distinct form of modulation yields a new perspective on mechanism and is computationally faster than the earlier approach. Field based encoding is also an important step towards a laboratory based algorithm for HE as it is the only form of encoding that may be experimentally executed. HE is also extended to cover systems with noise and uncertainty and finally, a hierarchical algorithm is introduced to reveal mechanism in a stepwise fashion of ever increasing detail as desired. This new hierarchical algorithm is an improvement over earlier approaches to HE where the entire mechanism was determined in one stroke. The improvement comes from the use of less complex modulation schemes, which leads to fewer evaluations of Schroedinger's equation. A number of simulations are presented on simple systems to illustrate the new field based encoding technique for mechanism assessment

  12. Optical polarimeter based on Fourier analysis and electronic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardy, J; Salas, V.; Torres, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show the design and implementation of an optical polarimeter using electronic control and the Fourier analysis. The polarimeter prototype will be used as a main tool for the students of the Universidad Popular del Cesar that belong to the following university programs: Electronics engineering (optoelectronics area), Math and Physics degree and the Master in Physics Sciences, in order to learning the theory and experimental aspects of the state of optical polarization via the Stokes vector measurement. Using the electronic polarimeter proposed in this paper, the students will be able to observe (in an optical bench) and understand the different interactions of the states of optical polarization when the optical waves pass through to the polarizers and retarder waves plates. The electronic polarimeter has a software that captures the optical intensity measurement and evaluates the Stokes vector. (Author)

  13. Physics-based analysis and control of human snoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Yaselly; Wang, Junshi; Han, Pan; Xi, Jinxiang; Dong, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    In order to advance the understanding of biological fluid dynamics and its effects on the acoustics of human snoring, the study pursued a physics-based computational approach. From human magnetic resonance image (MRI) scans, the researchers were able to develop both anatomically and dynamically accurate airway-uvula models. With airways defined as rigid, and the uvula defined as flexible, computational models were created with various pharynx thickness and geometries. In order to determine vortex shedding with prescribed uvula movement, the uvula fluctuation was categorized by its specific parameters: magnitude, frequency, and phase lag. Uvula vibration modes were based on one oscillation, or one harmonic frequency, and pressure probes were located in seven different positions throughout the airway-uvula model. By taking fast Fourier transforms (FFT) from the pressure probe data, it was seen that four harmonics were created throughout the simulation within one oscillation of uvula movement. Of the four harmonics, there were two pressure probes which maintained high amplitudes and led the researcher to believe that different vortices formed with different snoring frequencies. This work is supported by the NSF Grant CBET-1605434.

  14. 78 FR 3646 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Human Food AGENCY: Food and... establish and implement hazard analysis and risk- based preventive controls for human food. FDA also is... Part 110 C. Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls IV. Public Meeting and Preliminary...

  15. 78 FR 69604 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Human Food; Extension of... Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Human Food'' and its information collection... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food.'' IV. How To...

  16. 78 FR 24691 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Human Food; Extension of... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food'' that appeared in... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food'' with a 120-day...

  17. 78 FR 48636 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Human Food; Extension of... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food'' with a 120-day... Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food.'' Therefore, FDA is granted a 60- day...

  18. 78 FR 11611 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Human Food; Extension of... Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Domini Bean... Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food'' with a 120-day comment...

  19. Comparative Admittance-based Analysis for Different Droop Control Approaches in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In DC microgrids, virtual resistance based droop control is broadly used as the fundamental coordination method. As the virtual resistance guarantees load sharing effect in steady states, the output admittance determines the dynamic response of converters in transient states, which is critical...... difference in control architecture. In this paper, a comparative admittance-based analysis is carried out between these two approaches. State-space models and more general analytical models are established to derive the output admittance of droop-controlled converter in DC microgrids. Simulations...... in stability analysis and system design. So far, two different approaches of droop control (i.e. V-I droop and I-V droop) are proposed. Although they can achieve the same steady-state power sharing effect and fully compliable with each other, the output characteristics are not the same due to significant...

  20. Analysis of reaction torque-based control of a redundant free-floating space robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghe JIN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the dynamics coupling between a free-floating base and a manipulator, the non-stationary base of a space robot will face the issue of base disturbance due to a manipulator’s motion. The reaction torque acted on the satellite base’s centroid is an important index to measure the satellite base’s disturbance. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of the reaction torque is made, and a novel way to derive the analytical form of the reaction torque is proposed. In addition, the reaction torque null-space is derived, in which the manipulator’s joint motion is dynamically decoupled from the motion of the satellite base, and its novel expression demonstrates the equivalence between the reaction torque null-space and the reaction null-space. Furthermore, the reaction torque acted as an optimization index can be utilized to achieve satellite base disturbance minimization in the generalized Jacobian-based end-effector Cartesian path tracking task. Besides, supposing that the redundant degrees of freedom are abundant to achieve reaction torque-based active control, the reaction torque can be used to realize satellite base attitude control, that is, base attitude adjustment or maintenance. Moreover, because reaction torque-based control is a second-order control scheme, joint torque minimization can be regarded as the optimization task in reaction torque-based active or in-active control. A real-time simulation system of a 7-DOF space robot under Linux/RTAI is developed to verify and test the feasibility and reliability of the proposed ideas. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate that the corresponding analysis about the reaction torque is correct and the proposed methods are feasible.

  1. Pseudo-inverse Jacobian control with grey relational analysis for robot manipulators mounted on oscillatory bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Lin, C. C.; Lo, H.-S.

    2009-10-01

    Interest in complex robotic systems is growing in new application areas. An example of such a robotic system is a dexterous manipulator mounted on an oscillatory base. In literature, such systems are known as macro/micro systems. This work proposes pseudo-inverse Jacobian feedback control laws and applies grey relational analysis for tuning outer-loop PID control parameters of Cartesian computed-torque control law for robotic manipulators mounted on oscillatory bases. The priority when modifying controller parameters should be the top ranking importance among parameters. Grey relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the auxiliary signal PID of the Cartesian computed-torque law to achieve desired performance. Results of this study can be feasible to numerous mechanical systems, such as mobile robots, gantry cranes, underwater robots, and other dynamic systems mounted on oscillatory bases, for moving the end-effector to a desired Cartesian position.

  2. Neural Network Based Modeling and Analysis of LP Control Surface Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langari, Reza; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to interpretive modeling of LP based control allocation in intelligent flight control. The emphasis is placed on a nonlinear interpretation of the LP allocation process as a static map to support analytical study of the resulting closed loop system, albeit in approximate form. The approach makes use of a bi-layer neural network to capture the essential functioning of the LP allocation process. It is further shown via Lyapunov based analysis that under certain relatively mild conditions the resulting closed loop system is stable. Some preliminary conclusions from a study at Ames are stated and directions for further research are given at the conclusion of the paper.

  3. PC based controlled potential coulometric titrator for quantitative analysis of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, A.; Moorthy, A.D.; Bhogale, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    With increased requirements for process control and accountability of nuclear materials in plutonium reprocessing plants, the PC based controlled potential coulometric titrator was developed which has the capability of automatic quantitative analysis of the samples. The instruments based on electromechanical methods, incorporates an electronic potentiostat, a digital coulometer with wide dynamic range and a PC with a control interface card. The potentiostat is required to control the potential at the working electrode surface as per predetermined controlled voltage with respect to a reference electrode under wide variations in the conductivity and double layer capacitance of the electrochemical cell. The digital coulometer precisely measures the amount of electronic charge taking part in the electrochemical reactions of interest. The software has the facility to carry out three different types of analysis, i.e., primary coulometry, secondary coulometry and coulogram curve tracing. Due to complete analysis of the samples under program control, the human related errors are minimized and a better precision in the results are obtained. It has been possible to obtain an overall precession of better than +/- 0.3% in the determination of plutonium using the instrument. (author)

  4. THEXSYST - a knowledge based system for the control and analysis of technical simulation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, B.

    1991-07-01

    This system (THEXSYST) will be used for control, analysis and presentation of thermal hydraulic simulation calculations of light water reactors. THEXSYST is a modular system consisting of an expert shell with user interface, a data base, and a simulation program and uses techniques available in RSYST. A knowledge base, which was created to control the simulational calculation of pressurized water reactors, includes both the steady state calculation and the transient calculation in the domain of the depressurization, as a result of a small break loss of coolant accident. The methods developed are tested using a simulational calculation with RELAP5/Mod2. It will be seen that the application of knowledge base techniques may be a helpful tool to support existing solutions especially in graphical analysis. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Robust Stability Clearance of Flight Control Law Based on Global Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Liuli; Liu, Lei; Dong, Shuai; Wang, Yongji

    2014-01-01

    To validate the robust stability of the flight control system of hypersonic flight vehicle, which suffers from a large number of parametrical uncertainties, a new clearance framework based on structural singular value ( $\\mu $ ) theory and global uncertainty sensitivity analysis (SA) is proposed. In this framework, SA serves as the preprocess of uncertain model to be analysed to help engineers to determine which uncertainties affect the stability of the closed loop system more slightly. By ig...

  6. Stability Analysis and Control of DFIG Based Wind Turbine Using FBC Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Tavoosi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Doubly fed induction generator has numerous advantages in wind power generation over other types of generators. Once a DFIG is subjected to a large voltage dip, a large rotor voltage induces in the rotor windings. This leads to a large transient current in rotor circuit and the dc-link overvoltage, and may block power electronic converter operation. This paper first discusses dynamic modeling of DFIG wind turbines with the stator flux orientation. Then, by small signal analysis, it is found that the dynamic behavior of the DFIG based WT during voltage dip, is strongly affected by the stator dynamics. Next, a nonlinear control strategy based on flatness is proposed to improve the DFIG transient performance. The main interest of this control method is the possibility to define the behavior of the state variable system in the steady state as well as in transients. Since the DFIG electrical dynamics are nonlinear; better control performance is achieved with nonlinear control, compared with the linear control scheme. The proposed approach stabilizes the stator dynamics through rotor and grid side filter voltage control. The results of time domain simulations validate the effectiveness the nonlinear control strategy during voltage dip of generator terminal.

  7. Stability Analysis of a Voltage-Based Controller for Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Orrante-Sakanassi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A voltage-based control scheme for robot manipulators has been presented in recent literature, where feedback linearization is applied in the electrical equations of the DC motors in order to cancel the electrical current terms. However, in this paper we show that this control technique generates a system of the form Ex = Ax + Bu, where E is a singular matrix, that is to say, a generalized state-space system or singular system. This paper introduces a formal stability analysis of the respective system by considering the state-space equation as a singular system. Furthermore, in order to avoid the singularity of the closed-loop system, modified voltage-based control schemes are proposed, whose Lyapunov stability analyses conclude semiglobal asymptotic stability for the set-point control case and uniform boundedness of the solutions and semiglobal convergence of the position, as well as velocity errors for the tracking control case. The proposed control systems are simulated for the tracking and set-point cases using the CICESE Pelican robot driven by DC motors.

  8. Principal components analysis based control of a multi-dof underactuated prosthetic hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magenes Giovanni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functionality, controllability and cosmetics are the key issues to be addressed in order to accomplish a successful functional substitution of the human hand by means of a prosthesis. Not only the prosthesis should duplicate the human hand in shape, functionality, sensorization, perception and sense of body-belonging, but it should also be controlled as the natural one, in the most intuitive and undemanding way. At present, prosthetic hands are controlled by means of non-invasive interfaces based on electromyography (EMG. Driving a multi degrees of freedom (DoF hand for achieving hand dexterity implies to selectively modulate many different EMG signals in order to make each joint move independently, and this could require significant cognitive effort to the user. Methods A Principal Components Analysis (PCA based algorithm is used to drive a 16 DoFs underactuated prosthetic hand prototype (called CyberHand with a two dimensional control input, in order to perform the three prehensile forms mostly used in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs. Such Principal Components set has been derived directly from the artificial hand by collecting its sensory data while performing 50 different grasps, and subsequently used for control. Results Trials have shown that two independent input signals can be successfully used to control the posture of a real robotic hand and that correct grasps (in terms of involved fingers, stability and posture may be achieved. Conclusions This work demonstrates the effectiveness of a bio-inspired system successfully conjugating the advantages of an underactuated, anthropomorphic hand with a PCA-based control strategy, and opens up promising possibilities for the development of an intuitively controllable hand prosthesis.

  9. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... 0584-AD65 School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles... Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP) was published on... school food safety program for the preparation and service of school meals served to children. The Office...

  10. Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathnakannan Kailasam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter circuit. The output of the converter circuit is compared with reference voltage, and when the error voltage and the reference are matched the latch is reset so as to generate the PWM signal. Due to the simplicity and accuracy of the compact model, the simulation time and speed are much faster, which makes it potentially applicable in large-scale circuit simulation. This study confirms that the SET-based PWM controller is small in size, consumes ultra low power and operates at high speeds without compromising any performance. In addition these devices are capable of measuring charges of extremely high sensitivity.

  11. 78 FR 64425 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Food for Animals; Public Meeting on Proposed Rule AGENCY: Food and... requirements for current good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls for... regulations requiring preventive controls for human food and animal food, set standards for produce safety...

  12. Control of Nausea Based on Risk Analysis in Patients with Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Who Received Cisplatin-based Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hironori; Iihara, Hirotoshi; Kajikawa, Noriko; Kobayashi, Ryo; Suzuki, Akio; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    Cisplatin is commonly used for esophageal and gastric cancer, but has a high emetic risk. Although the control of vomiting is favorable, nausea is still poorly controlled in patients receiving cisplatin-based regimens. The present study was designed to determine the risks for cisplatin-induced nausea. The effect of olanzapine, an antipsychotic drug, as an antiemetic for patients with risk of poor control of nausea was subsequently examined. The prevalence of antiemetic medication and the control of nausea and vomiting were retrospectively examined in patients with esophageal or gastric cancer receiving the first cycle of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Risks for nausea were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis, in which threshold for age and cisplatin dose wer assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A total of 186 patients received cisplatin-based regimens during January 2011 and December 2016. Guideline-consistent antiemetic medication was administered to all patients. Although the rate of no vomiting was high (93%), the rate of non-significant (grade 2 or more) nausea was insufficient (64%) during the overall period. Risk analysis showed that cisplatin dose of 50 mg/m 2 or more and female gender were significant risks for nausea. Addition of olanzapine, but not of prochlorperazine, to the standard antiemetic medication was effective in suppressing nausea in patients who experienced nausea in the first cycle. Being female and cisplatin doses at 50 mg/m 2 or more were demonstrated to increase risk for nausea. Addition of olanzapine to the standard medication was effective in preventing nausea in high-risk patients with esophageal and gastric cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic Allan Variance Analysis Method with Time-Variant Window Length Based on Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem that dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR with fixed length of window cannot meet the identification accuracy requirement of fiber optic gyro (FOG signal over all time domains, a dynamic Allan variance analysis method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control is proposed. According to the characteristic of FOG signal, a fuzzy controller with the inputs of the first and second derivatives of FOG signal is designed to estimate the window length of the DAVAR. Then the Allan variances of the signals during the time-variant window are simulated to obtain the DAVAR of the FOG signal to describe the dynamic characteristic of the time-varying FOG signal. Additionally, a performance evaluation index of the algorithm based on radar chart is proposed. Experiment results show that, compared with different fixed window lengths DAVAR methods, the change of FOG signal with time can be identified effectively and the evaluation index of performance can be enhanced by 30% at least by the DAVAR method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control.

  14. Damping torque analysis of VSC-based system utilizing power synchronization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Q.; Du, W. J.; Zheng, K. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Power synchronization control is a new control strategy of VSC-HVDC for connecting a weak power system. Different from the vector control method, this control method utilizes the internal synchronization mechanism in ac systems, in principle, similar to the operation of a synchronous machine. So that the parameters of controllers in power synchronization control will change the electromechanical oscillation modes and make an impact on the transient stability of power system. This paper present a mathematical model for small-signal stability analysis of VSC station used power synchronization control and analyse the impact of the dynamic interactions by calculating the contribution of the damping torque from the power synchronization control, besides, the parameters of controllers which correspond to damping torque and synchronous torque in the power synchronization control is defined respectively. At the end of the paper, an example power system is presented to demonstrate and validate the theoretical analysis and associated conclusions are made.

  15. Research on Robot Pose Control Technology Based on Kinematics Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Xu, Lijuan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the attitude stability of the robot, proposes an attitude control method of robot based on kinematics analysis model, solve the robot walking posture transformation, grasping and controlling the motion planning problem of robot kinematics. In Cartesian space analytical model, using three axis accelerometer, magnetometer and the three axis gyroscope for the combination of attitude measurement, the gyroscope data from Calman filter, using the four element method for robot attitude angle, according to the centroid of the moving parts of the robot corresponding to obtain stability inertia parameters, using random sampling RRT motion planning method, accurate operation to any position control of space robot, to ensure the end effector along a prescribed trajectory the implementation of attitude control. The accurate positioning of the experiment is taken using MT-R robot as the research object, the test robot. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better robustness, and higher positioning accuracy, and it improves the reliability and safety of robot operation.

  16. Robust Stability Clearance of Flight Control Law Based on Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuli Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To validate the robust stability of the flight control system of hypersonic flight vehicle, which suffers from a large number of parametrical uncertainties, a new clearance framework based on structural singular value (μ theory and global uncertainty sensitivity analysis (SA is proposed. In this framework, SA serves as the preprocess of uncertain model to be analysed to help engineers to determine which uncertainties affect the stability of the closed loop system more slightly. By ignoring these unimportant uncertainties, the calculation of μ can be simplified. Instead of analysing the effect of uncertainties on μ which involves solving optimal problems repeatedly, a simpler stability analysis function which represents the effect of uncertainties on closed loop poles is proposed. Based on this stability analysis function, Sobol’s method, the most widely used global SA method, is extended and applied to the new clearance framework due to its suitability for system with strong nonlinearity and input factors varying in large interval, as well as input factors subjecting to random distributions. In this method, the sensitive indices can be estimated via Monte Carlo simulation conveniently. An example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Analysis and control of nonlinear systems a flatness-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This book examines control of nonlinear systems. Coverage ranges from mathematical system theory to practical industrial control applications. The author offers web-based videos illustrating some dynamical aspects and case studies in simulation.

  18. The current level safety analysis of the nuclear power plant units based on the safety control charts using

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, I.Z.; Biryukova, N.F.; Grozovskij, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    The methodology of graphic analysis of current safery of a NPP unit using the safety control charts, on which the values of unit safety reiting and its statistical characteristics are plotted, is suggested. The conclusions about the current safety level are made basing on the reiting change dynamics analysis. Examples of the analysis are discussed

  19. Harmonic Analysis on Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor Based on Advanced Commutation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between current, back electromotive force (back-EMF, and torque for permanent-magnet brushless DC (PM BLDC motors under advanced commutation control from the perspective of harmonics. Considering that the phase current is the influencing factor of both torque and torque ripple, this paper firstly analyzes the effects of advanced commutation on phase current and current harmonics. And then, based on the harmonics of the phase current and back-EMF, the torque harmonic expressions are deduced. The expressions reveal the relationship of harmonic order between the torque, phase current, and back-EMF and highlight the different contribution of individual torque harmonic to the total torque ripple. Finally, the proposed harmonic analysis method is verified by the experiments with different speed and load conditions.

  20. Motor vehicle crashes in diabetic patients with tight glycemic control: a population-based case control analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complications from diabetes mellitus can compromise a driver's ability to safely operate a motor vehicle, yet little is known about whether euglycemia predicts normal driving risks among adults with diabetes. We studied the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and the risk of a motor vehicle crash using a population-based case control analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified consecutive drivers reported to vehicle licensing authorities between January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2007 who had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and a HbA1c documented. The risk of a crash was calculated taking into account potential confounders including blood glucose monitoring, complications, and treatments. A total of 57 patients were involved in a crash and 738 were not involved in a crash. The mean HbA1c was lower for those in a crash than controls (7.4% versus 7.9%, unpaired t-test, p = 0.019, equal to a 26% increase in the relative risk of a crash for each 1% reduction in HbA1c (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.54. The trend was evident across the range of HbA1c values and persisted after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.55. The two other significant risk factors for a crash were a history of severe hypoglycemia requiring outside assistance (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval 2.35-7.04 and later age at diabetes diagnosis (odds ratio per decade = 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.57. CONCLUSIONS: In this selected population, tighter glycemic control, as measured by the HbA1c, is associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash.

  1. A decision support framework for the discrimination of children with controlled epilepsy based on EEG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabri Simon G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this work we consider hidden signs (biomarkers in ongoing EEG activity expressing epileptic tendency, for otherwise normal brain operation. More specifically, this study considers children with controlled epilepsy where only a few seizures without complications were noted before starting medication and who showed no clinical or electrophysiological signs of brain dysfunction. We compare EEG recordings from controlled epileptic children with age-matched control children under two different operations, an eyes closed rest condition and a mathematical task. The aim of this study is to develop reliable techniques for the extraction of biomarkers from EEG that indicate the presence of minor neurophysiological signs in cases where no clinical or significant EEG abnormalities are observed. Methods We compare two different approaches for localizing activity differences and retrieving relevant information for classifying the two groups. The first approach focuses on power spectrum analysis whereas the second approach analyzes the functional coupling of cortical assemblies using linear synchronization techniques. Results Differences could be detected during the control (rest task, but not on the more demanding mathematical task. The spectral markers provide better diagnostic ability than their synchronization counterparts, even though a combination (or fusion of both is needed for efficient classification of subjects. Conclusions Based on these differences, the study proposes concrete biomarkers that can be used in a decision support system for clinical validation. Fusion of selected biomarkers in the Theta and Alpha bands resulted in an increase of the classification score up to 80% during the rest condition. No significant discrimination was achieved during the performance of a mathematical subtraction task.

  2. Design and Simulation Analysis for Integrated Vehicle Chassis-Network Control System Based on CAN Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the different functions of the system used in the vehicle chassis control, the hierarchical control strategy also leads to many kinds of the network topology structure. According to the hierarchical control principle, this research puts forward the integrated control strategy of the chassis based on supervision mechanism. The purpose is to consider how the integrated control architecture affects the control performance of the system after the intervention of CAN network. Based on the principle of hierarchical control and fuzzy control, a fuzzy controller is designed, which is used to monitor and coordinate the ESP, AFS, and ARS. And the IVC system is constructed with the upper supervisory controller and three subcontrol systems on the Simulink platform. The network topology structure of IVC is proposed, and the IVC communication matrix based on CAN network communication is designed. With the common sensors and the subcontrollers as the CAN network independent nodes, the network induced delay and packet loss rate on the system control performance are studied by simulation. The results show that the simulation method can be used for designing the communication network of the vehicle.

  3. Motion Intention Analysis-Based Coordinated Control for Amputee-Prosthesis Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study amputee-prosthesis (AP interaction, a novel reconfigurable biped robot was designed and fabricated. In homogeneous configuration, two identical artificial legs (ALs were used to simulate the symmetrical lower limbs of a healthy person. Linear inverted pendulum model combining with ZMP stability criterion was used to generate the gait trajectories of ALs. To acquire interjoint coordination for healthy gait, rate gyroscopes were mounted on CoGs of thigh and shank of both legs. By employing principal component analysis, the measured angular velocities were processed and the motion synergy was obtained in the final. Then, one of two ALs was replaced by a bionic leg (BL, and the biped robot was changed into heterogeneous configuration to simulate the AP coupling system. To realize symmetrical stable walking, master/slave coordinated control strategy is proposed. According to information acquired by gyroscopes, BL recognized the motion intention of AL and reconstructed its kinematic variables based on interjoint coordination. By employing iterative learning control, gait tracking of BL to AL was archived. Real environment robot walking experiments validated the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. Convergence Analysis of Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled DC Microgrid Based on Multiagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a distributed control method for minimizing the operation cost in DC microgrid based on multiagent system. Each agent is autonomous and controls the local converter in a hierarchical way through droop control, voltage scheduling and collective decision making....... The collective decision for the whole system is made by proposed incremental cost consensus, and only nearest-neighbor communication is needed. The convergence characteristics of the consensus algorithm are analyzed considering different communication topologies and control parameters. Case studies verified...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Logic and PI Controller Based Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshani Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas suffer from limited grid connectivity. Small hydroplants can provide electricity at a cheap cost with low environmental impact in these regions. Self-excited induction generators are widely used in hydroplants since they operate on a standalone basis because of the connection of capacitor bank that provides reactive power at no load. However, SEIGs suffer from poor voltage and frequency regulation. Thus, an electronic load controller (ELC is connected across SEIG to regulate voltage and frequency. Generally, the control scheme for an ELC circuit is based on the conventional proportional integral control, which is easy to implement and performs well under linear load conditions. However, PI controllers handle nonlinearity poorly. This paper presents a fuzzy logic control (FLC based control scheme for ELC in a constant power generation system (SEIG. The control scheme is designed and simulated in MATLAB under both linear and nonlinear load conditions. A comparison of both the controllers is conducted which highlights the superiority of the fuzzy logic control scheme.

  6. MECHANICAL PARAMETERS CONTROL OF THE NEUTRAL RELAY OF RAIL AUTOMATICS BASED ON WAVELET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Havryliuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific paper focuses on development of a method for mechanical parameters control of the neutral relay of rail automatics by current analyzing in the coil and the relay contacts at switching based on wavelet transform. Methodology. The methodology was based on current analysis of the relay coil and contacts currents under its switching and analysis obtained results by using wavelet transform. Findings. The time dependences of the current in coil and in contacts under switching on and off for the operable relays and relays with certain defects have been measured at different voltages applied to coil (10, 12 и 14 V. When voltage applied to coil was increased the rate of coil current increased, but time constant of the circuit was changed with voltage slightly. The current value maximum at which the relay armature begun to move for the operable relays was depended on applied voltage slightly. For the time interval, at which armature was putted to the relay core fully, time constant of the circuit was changed with voltage slightly also. The maximum current value at which the armature starts to move to the relay serviceable little dependent on the applied voltage. For site based in which the anchor is completely dragged constant current rise time is also a little dependent on the applied voltage. Similar results were obtained for the current reduction time constant with turning off the voltage and current confinement. The current pick-up and the current release of the armature increases for the relay with the load anchor is proportional to the weight of cargo, as well as for the relay contact with the rear, bent down, while the flexural rear contact up these currents have smaller values. Large-scale (low-frequency coefficients of DWT can be used for a more accurate comparison of the current pick-up, and release time constants of the transient. Small scale coefficients fiberboard (HF can be used as distinguishing traits defects

  7. Converter-flux-based current control of voltage source PWM rectifiers - analysis and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R.

    2003-07-01

    Pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) rectifier technology is increasingly used in industrial applications like variable-speed motor drives, since it offers several desired features such as sinusoidal input currents, controllable power factor, bidirectional power flow and high quality DC output voltage. To achieve these features, however, an effective control system with fast and accurate current and DC voltage responses is required. From various control strategies proposed to meet these control objectives, in most cases the commonly known principle of the synchronous-frame current vector control along with some space-vector PWM scheme have been applied. Recently, however, new control approaches analogous to the well-established direct torque control (DTC) method for electrical machines have also emerged to implement a high-performance PWM rectifier. In this thesis the concepts of classical synchronous-frame current control and DTC-based PWM rectifier control are combined and a new converter-flux-based current control (CFCC) scheme is introduced. To achieve sufficient dynamic performance and to ensure a stable operation, the proposed control system is thoroughly analysed and simple rules for the controller design are suggested. Special attention is paid to the estimation of the converter flux, which is the key element of converter-flux-based control. Discrete-time implementation is also discussed. Line-voltage-sensorless reactive reactive power control methods for the L- and LCL-type line filters are presented. For the L-filter an open-loop control law for the d-axis current reference is proposed. In the case of the LCL-filter the combined open-loop control and feedback control is proposed. The influence of the erroneous filter parameter estimates on the accuracy of the developed control schemes is also discussed. A new zero vector selection rule for suppressing the zero-sequence current in parallel-connected PWM rectifiers is proposed. With this method a truly standalone and

  8. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Foong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison.

  9. Coordinated Pitch & Torque Control of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Based on Pareto Eciency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhongwei; Chen, Zhenyu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    to optimize the controller coordination based on the Pareto optimization theory. Three solutions are obtained through optimization, which includes the optimal torque solution, optimal power solution, and satisfactory solution. Detailed comparisons evaluate the performance of the three selected solutions...

  10. Stability analysis and compensation of network-induced delays in communication-based power system control: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Peter Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    This survey is to summarize and compare existing and recently emerging approaches for the analysis and compensation of the effects of network-induced delays on the stability and performance of communication-based power control systems. Several important communication-based power control systems are briefly introduced. The deterministic and stochastic methodologies of analyzing the impacts of network-induced delays on the stability of the communication-based power control systems are summarized and compared. A variety of control approaches are reviewed and compared for mitigating the effects of network-induced delays, depending on several design requirements, such as model dependence and design difficulty. The summary and comparison of these control approaches in this survey provide researchers and utilities valuable guidance for designing advanced communication-based power control systems in the future. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-cost sliding mode control of WECS based on DFIG with stability analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DJOUDI, ABDELHAK; CHEKIREB, HACHEMI; BERKOUK, EL MADJID; BACHA, SEDDIK

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to developing sliding mode control of active and reactive stator powers produced by a wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). A flux estimation model and rotor current sensor are no longer required. The controller is developed from the DFIG nonlinear-coupled model. Moreover, the global stability and the DFIG states' boundedness when our low-cost sliding mode control is applied are established analytically. It is re...

  12. Control of modular multilevel converters based on time-scale analysis and orthogonal functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarri, L.; Tani, A.; Mengoni, M.

    2014-01-01

    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a promising multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. The control of MMCs has been analyzed in detail in many papers, showing that the converter capacitors can be kept charged and balanced by controlling...... current is still a complex task and cannot be fully tackled with traditional linear control techniques. In this paper a multiple time-scale analysis is proposed to determine an approximated model of the MMC that can be used to solve the control problem of the capacitor voltages. In addition, it is shown...

  13. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-08-05

    To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. All state prisons in the United States. Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100,000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100,000 v 128.9/100,000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer

  14. Analysis and implementation of a structural vibration control algorithm based on an IIR adaptive filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Quanzhen; Luo, Jun; Li, Hengyu; Wang, Xiaohua

    2013-08-01

    With the wide application of large-scale flexible structures in spacecraft, vibration control problems in these structures have become important design issues. The filtered-X least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm is the most popular one in current active vibration control using adaptive filtering. It assumes that the source of interference can be measured and the interference source is considered as the reference signal input to the controller. However, in the actual control system, this assumption is not accurate, because it does not consider the impact of the reference signal on the output feedback signal. In this paper, an adaptive vibration active control algorithm based on an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter structure (FULMS, filtered-U least mean square) is proposed. The algorithm is based on an FXLMS algorithm framework, which replaces the finite impulse response (FIR) filter with an IIR filter. This paper focuses on the structural design of the controller, the process of the FULMS filtering control method, the design of the experimental model object, and the experimental platform construction for the entire control system. The comparison of the FXLMS algorithm with FULMS is theoretically analyzed and experimentally validated. The results show that the FULMS algorithm converges faster and controls better. The design of the FULMS controller is feasible and effective and has greater value in practical applications of aerospace engineering.

  15. Design and performance analysis of position-based impedance control for an electrohydrostatic actuation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongling FU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA is a type of power-by-wire actuator that is widely implemented in the aerospace industry for flight control, landing gears, thrust reversers, thrust vector control, and space robots. This paper presents the development and evaluation of position-based impedance control (PBIC for an EHA. Impedance control provides the actuator with compliance and facilitates the interaction with the environment. Most impedance control applications utilize electrical or valve-controlled hydraulic actuators, whereas this work realizes impedance control via a compact and efficient EHA. The structures of the EHA and PBIC are firstly introduced. A mathematical model of the actuation system is established, and values of its coefficients are identified by particle swarm optimization. This model facilitates the development of a position controller and the selection of target impedance parameters. A nonlinear proportional-integral position controller is developed for the EHA to achieve the accurate positioning requirement of PBIC. The controller compensates for the adverse effect of stiction, and a position accuracy of 0.08 mm is attained. Various experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of PBIC to the EHA. The compliance of the actuator is demonstrated in an impact test. Keywords: Actuation system, Aerospace, Electrohydrostatic actuator, Force control, Nonlinear dynamics, Particle swarm optimization, Position control

  16. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  17. Attack tree based cyber security analysis of nuclear digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khand, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    To maintain the cyber security, nuclear digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems must be analyzed for security risks because a single security breach due to a cyber attack can cause system failure, which can have catastrophic consequences on the environment and staff of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Attack trees have been widely used to analyze the cyber security of digital systems due to their ability to capture system specific as well as attacker specific details. Therefore, a methodology based on attack trees has been proposed to analyze the cyber security of the systems. The methodology has been applied for the Cyber Security Analysis (CSA) of a Bistable Processor (BP) of a Reactor Protection System (RPS). Threats have been described according to their source. Attack scenarios have been generated using the attack tree and possible counter measures according to the Security Risk Level (SRL) of each scenario have been suggested. Moreover, cyber Security Requirements (SRs) have been elicited, and suitability of the requirements has been checked. (author)

  18. Feedback control of laser welding based on frequency analysis of light emissions and adaptive beam shaping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, NOV (2012), s. 784-791 ISSN 1875-3892. [LANE 2012. Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering /7./ International Conference on Photonic Technologies. Fürth, 12.11.2012-15.12.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser weld ing * feedback control * frequency analysis * adaptive beam shaping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. IQC-based robust stability analysis for LPV control of doubly-fed induction generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, H. N.; Scherer, C. W.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Parameters of electrical machines are usually varying with time in a smooth way due to changing operating conditions, such as variations in the machine temperature and/or the magnetic saturation. This paper is concerned with robust stability analysis of controlled Doubly-Fed Induction Generators

  20. Speed Control Analysis of Brushless DC Motor Based on Maximum Amplitude DC Current Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M.A.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to develop accurate and simple current controlled modulation technique for brushless DC (BLDC motor drive. The approach is applied to control phase current based on generation of quasi-square wave current by using only one current controller for the three phases. Unlike the vector control method which is complicated to be implemented, this simple current modulation technique presents advantages such as phase currents are kept in balance and the current is controlled through only one dc signal which represent maximum amplitude value of trapezoidal current (Imax. This technique is performed with Proportional Integral (PI control algorithm and triangular carrier comparison method to generate Pulse Width Modulation (PWM signal. In addition, the PI speed controller is incorporated with the current controller to perform desirable speed operation of non-overshoot response. The performance and functionality of the BLDC motor driver are verified via simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results show the developed control system performs desirable speed operation of non-overshoot and good current waveforms.

  1. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of consensus algorithm based distributed hierarchical control for dc microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    of dynamic study. The aim of this paper is to model the complete DC microgrid system in z-domain and perform sensitivity analysis for the complete system. A generalized modeling method is proposed and the system dynamics under different control parameters, communication topologies and communication speed......Distributed control methods for microgrid systems become a popular topic in recent years. Distributed algorithms, such as consensus algorithms, can be applied for distributed information sharing. However, by using this kind of algorithms the stability analysis becomes a critical issue since...... the dynamics of electrical and communication systems interact with each other. Apart from that, the communication characteristics also affect the dynamics of the system. Due to discrete nature of information exchange in communication network, Laplace domain analysis is not accurate enough for this kind...

  2. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sec...

  3. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.

  4. Stability Analysis of Wireless Measurement and Control System Based on Dynamic Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian SONG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on data packet loss and time delay problems in wireless greenhouse measurement and control system, and temperature and humidity were taken as the research objects, the model of temperature and humidity information transmission was set up by decoupling technology according to the characteristics of wireless greenhouse measurement and control system. According to related theory of exponential stability in network control system, the stability conditions judgment of temperature and humidity control model was established, the linear matrix inequality that time delay and packet loss should satisfy was obtained when wireless measurement and control system was stable operation. The feasibility analysis of linear matrix inequality (LMI was implemented Using LMI toolbox in MATLAB, and the critical values of time delay and packet loss rate were obtained when the system was stable operation. The wireless sensor network control system simulation model with time delay and packet loss was set up using TrueTime toolbox. The simulation results have shown that the system was in a stable state when time delay and packet loss rate obtained were less than the critical values in wireless greenhouse sensor network measurement and control system; With the increase of time delay and packet loss rate, and stable performance drops; When time delay and packet loss rate obtained were more than the critical values, the measurement and control system would be in a state of flux, and when it was serious, even can lead to collapse of the whole system. As a result, the critical values determination of time delay and packet loss rate provided a theoretical basis for establishing stable greenhouse wireless sensor network (WSN measurement and control system in practical application.

  5. Metabolic control analysis of biochemical pathways based on a thermokinetic description of reaction rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    of the thermokinetic description of reaction rates to include the influence of effecters. Here the reaction rate is written as a linear function of the logarithm of the metabolite concentrations. With this type of rate function it is shown that the approach of Delgado and Liao [Biochem. J. (1992) 282, 919-927] can......Metabolic control analysis is a powerful technique for the evaluation of flux control within biochemical pathways. Its foundation is the elasticity coefficients and the flux control coefficients (FCCs). On the basis of a thermokinetic description of reaction rates it is here shown...... that the elasticity coefficients can be calculated directly from the pool levels of metabolites at steady state. The only requirement is that one thermodynamic parameter be known, namely the reaction affinity at the intercept of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve of reaction rate against reaction...

  6. Metabolic control analysis of biochemical pathways based on a thermokinetic description of reaction rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    Metabolic control analysis is a powerful technique for the evaluation of flux control within biochemical pathways. Its foundation is the elasticity coefficients and the flux control coefficients (FCCs). On the basis of a thermokinetic description of reaction rates it is here shown...... that the elasticity coefficients can be calculated directly from the pool levels of metabolites at steady state. The only requirement is that one thermodynamic parameter be known, namely the reaction affinity at the intercept of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve of reaction rate against reaction...... of the thermokinetic description of reaction rates to include the influence of effecters. Here the reaction rate is written as a linear function of the logarithm of the metabolite concentrations. With this type of rate function it is shown that the approach of Delgado and Liao [Biochem. J. (1992) 282, 919-927] can...

  7. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  8. Screening in veterinary drug analysis and sports doping control based on full-scan, accurate-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Lommen, A.; Lyris, E.; Angelis, Y.S.; Vonaparti, A.; Stamou, M.; Georgakopoulos, C.G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    A common trend in food contaminants and sports doping control is towards a limited number of targeted, full-scan, accurate-mass spectrometry (MS) methods based on time-of-flight (TOF) or Fourier-transform orbital trap (Orbitrap) mass analyzers. Retrospective analysis of the full-scan datasets of

  9. Analysis of behavior based control for planetary cliff descent using cooperative robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Erik; Farritor, Shane; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Schenker, Paul S.

    2003-09-01

    Future robotic planetary exploration will need to traverse geographically diverse and challenging terrain. Cliffs, ravines, and fissures are of great scientific interest because they may contain important data regarding past water flow and past life. Highly sloped terrain is difficult and often impossible to safely navigate using a single robot. This paper describes a control system for a team of three robots that access cliff walls at inclines up to 70°. Two robot assistants, or anchors, lower a third robot, called the rappeller, down the cliff using tethers. The anchors use actively controlled winches to first assist the rappeller in navigation about the cliff face and then retreat to safe ground. This paper describes the control of these three robots so they function as a team to explore the cliff face. Stability requirements for safe operation are identified and a behavior-based control scheme is presented. Behaviors are defined for the system and command fusion methods are described. Controller stability and sensitivity are examined. Controller performance is evaluated with simulation and a laboratory system.

  10. Formal Design and Analysis of a Wastewater Treatment Control System based on Petrinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno D. Panjaitan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new control design approach for industrial wastewater treatment where its logic control is verifiable. In this research, a treatment control design in a lab-scale was controlled by a microcontroller circuit. The developed system combined anaerobic digestion, aeration and filtration process. Its logic control algorithm was designed by using Signal Interpreted Petri Net. In the logic verification, six analysis properties were satisfied: conflict free (logical process had no conflict behavior, termination (the process could be terminated from any state, non-contradictory outputs, live (any process state could always be reached from other state, deadlock-free, and reversible (the process could always back to initial condition. In the design evaluation, the average value of transparency metrics was 0.984 close to 1 as the best value. The system performance was evaluated by pollutant removal efficiency. The highest removal efficiencies were obtained when each anaerobic and aeration treatment were performed for three days respectively and followed by filtration. Within this condition, the system obtained average removal efficiency 91.7% of Chemical Oxygen Demand and 95.4% of Total Suspended Solids. In terms of electricity consumption, the system needed only 1,857.6 Watt-hour for a batch treatment process.

  11. A Modified Control Scheme of Droop-Based Converters for Power Stability Analysis in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Usunariz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid is principally an active distribution network since it aggregates numerous DG systems through their interface converters and different loads at distribution level. This paper discusses the power sharing in autonomous AC-microgrid infrastructure by common P-f and Q-V˙ droop control schemes on parallel-connected converters. Moreover, this research work proposes a frequency and voltage restoration mechanism through the utilization of secondary control. Experimental results are presented for a two-50 kVA parallel-connected converter-based system, demonstrating the necessity for the proper operation of the secondary control in order to monitor the system’s capability to withstand any perturbations that may occur and to ensure the system’s security.

  12. Harmonic Analysis on Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor Based on Advanced Commutation Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yanpeng; Li, Bin; Sun, Jingcheng

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between current, back electromotive force (back-EMF), and torque for permanent-magnet brushless DC (PM BLDC) motors under advanced commutation control from the perspective of harmonics. Considering that the phase current is the influencing factor of both torque and torque ripple, this paper firstly analyzes the effects of advanced commutation on phase current and current harmonics. And then, based on the harmonics of the phase current and back-EMF, the...

  13. Analysis of maizena drying system using temperature control based fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Ulfah Mediaty; Nugroho, Fajar; Purbawanto, Sugeng; Setyaningsih, Dyah Nurani; Suryono

    2018-03-01

    Corn is one of the rice subtitution food that has good potential. Corn can be processed to be a maizena, and it can be used to make type of food that has been made from maizena, viz. Brownies cake, egg roll, and other cookies. Generally, maizena obtained by drying process carried out 2-3 days under the sun. However, drying process not possible during the rainy season. This drying process can be done using an automatic drying tool. This study was to analyze the design result and manufacture of maizena drying system with temperature control based fuzzylogic method. The result show that temperature of drying system with set point 40°C - 60°C work in suitable condition. The level of water content in 15% (BSN) and temperatureat 50°C included in good drying process. Time required to reach the set point of temperature in 50°C is 7.05 minutes. Drying time for 500 gr samples with temperature 50°C and power capacity 127.6 watt was 1 hour. Based on the result, drying process using temperature control based fuzzy logic method can improve energy efficiency than the conventional method of drying using a direct sunlight source with a temperature that cannot be directly controlled by human being causing the quality of drying result of flour is erratic.

  14. [Analysis of color gamut of LCD system based on LED backlight with area-controlling technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Wen; Jin, Wei-Qi; Shao, Xi-Bin; Zhang, Li-Lei; Wan, Li-Fang

    2010-05-01

    Color gamut as a significant performance index for display system describes the color reproduction ability IN real scenes. Liquid crystal display (LCD) is the most popular technology in flat panel display. However, conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlight of LCD can not behave high color gamut compared with cathode ray tube (CRT). The common used method of color gamut measuring for LCD system is introduced at the beginning. According to the inner structure and display principle of LCD system, there are three major factors deciding LCD's color gamut: spectral properties of backlight, transmittance properties of color filters and performance of liquid crystal panel. Instead of conventional backlight CCFL, RGB-LED backlight is used for improving color reproduction of LCD display system. Due to the imperfect match between RGB-LED' s spectra and color filter's transmittance, the color filter would reduce the color gamut of LCD system more or less. Therefore, LCD system based on LED backlight with area-control technique is introduced which modifies backlight control signal according to the input signal After analyzing and calculating the spectra of LED backlight which passes through the color filters using method of colorimetry, the area sizes of color gamut triangles of RGB-LED backlight with area-control and RGB-LED backlight without area-control LCD systems are compared and the relationship between color gamut and varying contrast of liquid crystal panel is analyzed. It is indicated that LED backlight with area-control technique can avoid color saturation dropping and have little effects on the contrast variation of liquid crystal panel. In other words, LED backlight with area-control technique relaxes the requirements of both color filter performance and liquid crystal panel. Thus, it is of importance to improve the color gamut of the current LCD system with area-control LED backlight.

  15. Control of Greenhouse Environmental Conditions with IOT Based Monitoring and Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Çaylı

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks applications and inter-machine communication (M2M, called the Internet of Things, help decision-makers to control complex systems thanks to the low data-rate and cost-effective data collection and analysis. These technologies offer new possibilities to monitor environmental management and agricultural policies, and to improve agricultural production, especially in low-income rural areas. In this study, IoT is proposed with a low cost, flexible and scalable data collection and analysis system. For this purpose, open source hardware microprocessor cards and sensors are stored in the greenhouse computer database using the IEEE 802.15.4 Zigbee wireless communication protocol. The data can be analyzed by greenhouse computer analysis software, which is developed with the PHP programming language. It is possible to monitor the real time data from the greenhouse computer. Also alert rules definitions can be made and the system was tested in greenhouse conditions. It has been observed that it performs operations steadily such as data transfer, sensor measurements and data processing. The proposed system may be useful for monitoring indoor climate and controlling ventilation, irrigation and heating systems, especially for small enterprises due to the modular structure.

  16. Design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand posture controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segil, Jacob L; Weir, Richard F ff

    2014-03-01

    An ideal myoelectric prosthetic hand should have the ability to continuously morph between any posture like an anatomical hand. This paper describes the design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping. The controller commands continuously morphing hand postures including functional grasps using between two and four surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes pairs. Four unique maps were developed to transform the EMG control signals in the principal component domain. A preliminary validation experiment was performed by 10 nonamputee subjects to determine the map with highest performance. The subjects used the myoelectric controller to morph a virtual hand between functional grasps in a series of randomized trials. The number of joints controlled accurately was evaluated to characterize the performance of each map. Additional metrics were studied including completion rate, time to completion, and path efficiency. The highest performing map controlled over 13 out of 15 joints accurately.

  17. Longitudinal control behaviour: Analysis and modelling based on experimental surveys in Italy and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariota, Luigi; Bifulco, Gennaro Nicola; Galante, Francesco; Montella, Alfonso; Brackstone, Mark

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses driving behaviour in car-following conditions, based on extensive individual vehicle data collected during experimental field surveys carried out in Italy and the UK. The aim is to contribute to identify simple evidence to be exploited in the ongoing process of driving assistance and automation which, in turn, would reduce rear-end crashes. In particular, identification of differences and similarities in observed car-following behaviours for different samples of drivers could justify common tuning, at a European or worldwide level, of a technological solution aimed at active safety, or, in the event of differences, could suggest the most critical aspects to be taken into account for localisation or customisation of driving assistance solutions. Without intending to be exhaustive, this paper moves one step in this direction. Indeed, driving behaviour and human errors are considered to be among the main crash contributory factors, and a promising approach for safety improvement is the progressive introduction of increasing levels of driving automation in next-generation vehicles, according to the active/preventive safety approach. However, the more advanced the system, the more complex will be the integration in the vehicle, and the interaction with the driver may sometimes become unproductive, or risky, should the driver be removed from the driving control loop. Thus, implementation of these systems will require the interaction of human driving logics with automation logics and then an enhanced ability in modelling drivers' behaviour. This will allow both higher active-safety levels and higher user acceptance to be achieved, thus ensuring that the driver is always in the control loop, even if his/her role is limited to supervising the automatic logic. Currently, the driving mode most targeted by driving assistance systems is longitudinal driving. This is required in various driving conditions, among which car-following assumes key importance

  18. Design and Quasi-Equilibrium Analysis of a Distributed Frequency-Restoration Controller for Inverter-Based Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, Nathan G [ORNL; Grijalva, Prof. Santiago [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed frequency restoration controller which operates as an outer loop to frequency droop for voltage-source inverters. By quasi-equilibrium analysis, we show that the proposed controller is able to provide arbitrarily small steady-state frequency error while maintaing power sharing between inverters without need for communication or centralized control. We derive rate of convergence, discuss design considerations (including a fundamental trade-off that must be made in design), present a design procedure to meet a maximum frequency error requirement, and show simulation results verifying our analysis and design method. The proposed controller will allow flexible plug-and-play inverter-based networks to meet a specified maximum frequency error requirement.

  19. Microarray-based analysis of fish egg quality after natural or controlled ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fostier Alexis

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preservation of fish egg quality after ovulation-control protocols is a major issue for the development of specific biotechnological processes (e.g. nuclear transfer. Depending on the species, it is often necessary to control the timing of ovulation or induce the ovulatory process. The hormonal or photoperiodic control of ovulation can induce specific egg quality defects that have been thoroughly studied. In contrast, the impact on the egg transcriptome as a result of these manipulations has received far less attention. Furthermore, the relationship between the mRNA abundance of maternally-inherited mRNAs and the developmental potential of the egg has never benefited from genome-wide studies. Thus, the present study aimed at studying the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss egg transcriptome after natural or controlled ovulation using 9152-cDNA microarrays. Results The analysis of egg transcriptome after natural or controlled ovulation led to the identification of 26 genes. The expression patterns of 17 of those genes were monitored by real-time PCR. We observed that the control of ovulation by both hormonal induction and photoperiod manipulation induced significant changes in the egg mRNA abundance of specific genes. A dramatic increase of Apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1 and tyrosine protein kinase HCK was observed in the eggs when a hormonal induction of ovulation was performed. In addition, both microarray and real-time PCR analyses showed that prohibitin 2 (PHB2 egg mRNA abundance was negatively correlated with developmental success. Conclusion First, we showed, for the first time in fish, that the control of ovulation using either a hormonal induction or a manipulated photoperiod can induce differences in the egg mRNA abundance of specific genes. While the impact of these modifications on subsequent embryonic development is unknown, our observations clearly show that the egg transcriptome is affected by an artificial

  20. Analysis and control of a parallel lower limb based on pneumatic artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most robots that are actuated by antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscles are controlled by various control algorithms that cannot adequately imitate the actual muscle distribution of human limbs. Other robots in which the distribution of pneumatic artificial muscle is similar to that of human limbs can only analyze the position of the robot using perceptual data instead of rational knowledge. In order to better imitate the movement of a human limb, the article proposes a humanoid lower limb in the form of a parallel mechanism where muscle is unevenly distributed. Next, the kinematic and dynamic movements of bionic hip joint are analyzed, where the joint movement is controlled by an observer-based fuzzy adaptive control algorithm as a whole rather than each individual pneumatic artificial muscle and parameters that are optimized by a neural network. Finally, experimental results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. We also document the role of muscle in trajectory tracking for the piriformis and musculi obturator internus in isobaric processes.

  1. Control and communication co-design: analysis and practice on performance improvement in distributed measurement and control system based on fieldbus and Ethernet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Geng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, improving control performance of a networked control system by reducing DTD in a different perspective was investigated. Two different network architectures for system implementation were presented. Analysis and improvement dealing with DTD for the experimental control system were expounded. Effects of control scheme configuration on DTD in the form of FB were investigated and corresponding improvements by reallocation of FB and re-arrangement of schedule table are proposed. Issues of DTD in hybrid network were investigated and corresponding approaches to improve performance including (1) reducing DTD in PLC or PAC by way of IEC61499 and (2) cascade Smith predictive control with BPNN-based identification were proposed and investigated. Control effects under the proposed methodologies were also given. Experimental and field practices validated these methodologies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative analysis of loop heat pipe based thermal architectures for spacecraft thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Mike; Birur, Gaj

    2004-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHP) have gained acceptance as a viable means of heat transport in many spacecraft in recent years. However, applications using LHP technology tend to only remove waste heat from a single component to an external radiator. Removing heat from multiple components has been done by using multiple LHPs. This paper discusses the development and implementation of a Loop Heat Pipe based thermal architecture for spacecraft. In this architecture, a Loop Heat Pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers is described in which heat load sharing and thermal control of multiple components can be achieved. A key element in using a LHP thermal architecture is defining the need for such an architecture early in the spacecraft design process. This paper describes an example in which a LHP based thermal architecture can be used and how such a system can have advantages in weight, cost and reliability over other kinds of distributed thermal control systems. The example used in this paper focuses on a Mars Rover Thermal Architecture. However, the principles described here are applicable to Earth orbiting spacecraft as well.

  3. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  4. GAIA: an easy-to-use web-based application for interaction analysis of case-control data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Stuart; Khan, Imtiaz A

    2006-04-05

    The advent of cheap, large scale genotyping has led to widespread adoption of genetic association mapping as the tool of choice in the search for loci underlying susceptibility to common complex disease. Whilst simple single locus analysis is relatively trivial to conduct, this is not true of more complex analysis such as those involving interactions between loci. The importance of testing for interactions between loci in association analysis has been highlighted in a number of recent high profile publications. Genetic Association Interaction Analysis (GAIA) is a web-based application for testing for statistical interactions between loci. It is based upon the widely used case-control study design for genetic association analysis and is designed so that non-specialists may routinely apply tests for interaction. GAIA allows simple testing of both additive and additive plus dominance interaction models and includes permutation testing to appropriately correct for multiple testing. The application will find use both in candidate gene based studies and in genome-wide association studies. For large scale studies GAIA includes a screening approach which prioritizes loci (based on the significance of main effects at one or both loci) for further interaction analysis. GAIA is available at http://www.bbu.cf.ac.uk/html/research/biostats.htm.

  5. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalini Lokuge

    2016-03-01

    confirmed EVD case, EMC capacity increased from 32 to 100 beds, the number of burial teams doubled, and health promotion activities increased in coverage. These improvements in response were associated with the following changes between the same periods: the proportion of confirmed/probable cases admitted to the EMC increased from 35% to 83% (χ(2 p-value<0·001, the proportion of confirmed patients admitted to the EMC <3 days of symptom onset increased from 19% to 37% (χ(2 p-value <0·001, and reported funeral contact in those admitted decreased from 33% to 16% (χ(2 p-value <0·001. Mathematical modelling confirmed the importance of both patient management capacity and surveillance and contact tracing for EVD control.Our findings demonstrate that control of EVD can be achieved using established interventions based on identification and appropriate management of those who are at risk of and develop EVD, including in the context of ongoing transmission in surrounding regions. Key attributes in achieving control were sufficient patient care capacity (including admission to specialist facilities of suspect and probable cases for assessment, integrated with adequate staffing and resourcing of community-based case detection and prevention activities. The response structure and coverage targets we present are of value in informing effective control in current and future EVD outbreaks.

  6. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Kamalini; Caleo, Grazia; Greig, Jane; Duncombe, Jennifer; McWilliam, Nicholas; Squire, James; Lamin, Manjo; Veltus, Emily; Wolz, Anja; Kobinger, Gary; de la Vega, Marc-Antoine; Gbabai, Osman; Nabieu, Sao; Lamin, Mohammed; Kremer, Ronald; Danis, Kostas; Banks, Emily; Glass, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    EVD case, EMC capacity increased from 32 to 100 beds, the number of burial teams doubled, and health promotion activities increased in coverage. These improvements in response were associated with the following changes between the same periods: the proportion of confirmed/probable cases admitted to the EMC increased from 35% to 83% (χ(2) p-valueimportance of both patient management capacity and surveillance and contact tracing for EVD control. Our findings demonstrate that control of EVD can be achieved using established interventions based on identification and appropriate management of those who are at risk of and develop EVD, including in the context of ongoing transmission in surrounding regions. Key attributes in achieving control were sufficient patient care capacity (including admission to specialist facilities of suspect and probable cases for assessment), integrated with adequate staffing and resourcing of community-based case detection and prevention activities. The response structure and coverage targets we present are of value in informing effective control in current and future EVD outbreaks.

  7. Arduino based laser control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Muñoz, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    ARDUINO is a vey usefull platform for prototypes. In this project ARDUINO will be used for controling a Semiconductor Tuneable Laser. [ANGLÈS] Diode laser for communications control based on an Arduino board. Temperature control implementation. Software and hardware protection for the laser implementation. [CASTELLÀ] Control de un láser de comunicaciones ópticas desde el ordenador utilizando una placa Arduino. Implementación de un control de temperatura y protección software y hardware ...

  8. Coordinated Pitch & Torque Control of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Based on Pareto Eciency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhongwei; Chen, Zhenyu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    control subsystem and blade pitch control subsystem. Then, the pole positions in each control subsystem are adjusted coordinately to evaluate the controller participation and used as the objective of optimization. A two-level parameters-controllers coordinated optimization scheme is proposed and applied...

  9. β-actin as a loading control for plasma-based Western blot analysis of major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rufang; Yang, Deyu; Zhou, Chanjuan; Cheng, Ke; Liu, Zhao; Chen, Liang; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-08-15

    Western blot analysis is a commonly used technique for determining specific protein levels in clinical samples. For normalization of protein levels in Western blot, a suitable loading control is required. On account of its relatively high and constant expression, β-actin has been widely employed in Western blot of cell cultures and tissue extracts. However, β-actin's presence in human plasma and this protein's putative role as a plasma-based loading control for Western blot analysis remain unknown. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the concentration of β-actin in human plasma, which is 6.29±0.54 ng/ml. In addition, the linearity of β-actin immunostaining and loaded protein amount was evaluated by Western blot, and a fine linearity (R²=0.974±0.012) was observed. Furthermore, the expression of plasma β-actin in major depressive disorder subjects and healthy controls was compared. The data revealed no statistically significant difference between these two groups. Moreover, the total coefficient of variation for β-actin expression in the two groups was 9.2±1.2%. These findings demonstrate that β-actin is present in human plasma and may possibly be used as a suitable loading control for plasma-based Western blot analysis in major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Model-based analysis and control of a network of basal ganglia spiking neurons in the normal and Parkinsonian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Khalil, Hassan K.; Oweiss, Karim G.

    2011-08-01

    Controlling the spatiotemporal firing pattern of an intricately connected network of neurons through microstimulation is highly desirable in many applications. We investigated in this paper the feasibility of using a model-based approach to the analysis and control of a basal ganglia (BG) network model of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) spiking neurons through microstimulation. Detailed analysis of this network model suggests that it can reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of BG neurons under a normal and a pathological Parkinsonian state. A simplified neuronal firing rate model, identified from the detailed HH network model, is shown to capture the essential network dynamics. Mathematical analysis of the simplified model reveals the presence of a systematic relationship between the network's structure and its dynamic response to spatiotemporally patterned microstimulation. We show that both the network synaptic organization and the local mechanism of microstimulation can impose tight constraints on the possible spatiotemporal firing patterns that can be generated by the microstimulated network, which may hinder the effectiveness of microstimulation to achieve a desired objective under certain conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that the feedback control design aided by the mathematical analysis of the simplified model is indeed effective in driving the BG network in the normal and Parskinsonian states to follow a prescribed spatiotemporal firing pattern. We further show that the rhythmic/oscillatory patterns that characterize a dopamine-depleted BG network can be suppressed as a direct consequence of controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of a subpopulation of the output Globus Pallidus internalis (GPi) neurons in the network. This work may provide plausible explanations for the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease and pave the way towards a model-based, network level analysis and closed

  11. Economic analysis of exergy efficiency based control strategy for geothermal district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keçebaş, Ali; Yabanova, İsmail

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The ExEBCS for exergy efficiency maximization in real GDHS is economically evaluated. • The initial cost for ExEBCS is more expensive than that for old one by 6.33 kUS$/year. • The cost saving makes the ExEBCS profitable by up to 7% of annual energy saving. • This results in a short payback period of 3.8 years. • The use of newly ExEBCS in GDHSs is quite suitable. - Abstract: In this study, the exergy efficiency based control strategy (ExEBCS) for exergy efficiency maximization in geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) is economically evaluated. As a real case study, the Afyon GDHS in the city of Afyonkarahisar/Turkey is considered. Its actual thermal data as of average weekly data are collected in heating seasons during the period 2006–2010 for artificial neural network (ANN) modeling. The ANN modeling of the Afyon GDHS is used as a test system to demonstrate the effectiveness and economic impact of the ExEBCS under various operating conditions. Then, the ExEBCS is evaluated economically in case of application to real Afyon GDHS of the ExEBCS. The results show that the initial cost for the ExEBCS is more expensive than that for the old one by 6.33 kUS$/year as a result of replacing automatic controller. The saving in heat production makes the ExEBCS profitable by up to 7% of annual energy saving as a result of the increase in the heat production by 88% when the control system is operated. This results in a short payback period of 3.8 years. This study confirms that the use of ExEBCS in district heating systems (especially GDHS) is quite suitable

  12. Air cooling analysis and design of impacted flexible actuator’s servo controller based on PLECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Mingjun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, SUAV (small unmanned aerial vehicle is developing with small shape, high dynamic performance and distributed structure. Meanwhile the power by wire, which can replace traditional hydraulic system to lighten weight and improve reliability, is important developing direction of actuator technology in future. When a plane which applies power by wire is doing high-g routine, the power devices’ loss is giant because of the high power. Thus it is necessary to design cooling structure to carry out heat from controller inner. To avoid over design and analyze more exactly, this paper introduces a method based on MATLAB and PLECS union Simulink to calculate controller’s loss. By power devices’ thermal resistance and working temperature referred from products manual, it is possible to define cooler’s size. Then we can achieve wind pressure and flow characteristic curve, and select the cooling fan. Compared with theory calculation, this method can achieve exact controller loss in different working conditions and take effects which influenced by temperature in consideration, by what we can avoid cooling structure’s over design.

  13. Modeling and analysis of a robust thermal control system based on forced convection thermal switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew D.; Palo, Scott E.

    2006-05-01

    There is a critical need, not just in the Department of Defense (DOD) but the entire space industry, to reduce the development time and overall cost of satellite missions. To that end, the DOD is actively pursuing the capability to reduce the deployment time of a new system from years to weeks or even days. The goal is to provide the advantages space affords not just to the strategic planner but also to the battlefield commanders. One of the most challenging aspects of this problem is the satellite's thermal control system (TCS). Traditionally the TCS must be vigorously designed, analyzed, tested, and optimized from the ground up for every satellite mission. This "reinvention of the wheel" is costly and time intensive. The next generation satellite TCS must be modular and scalable in order to cover a wide range of applications, orbits, and mission requirements. To meet these requirements a robust thermal control system utilizing forced convection thermal switches was investigated. The problem was investigated in two separate stages. The first focused on the overall design of the bus. The second stage focused on the overarching bus architecture and the design impacts of employing a thermal switch based TCS design. For the hot case, the fan provided additional cooling to increase the heat transfer rate of the subsystem. During the cold case, the result was a significant reduction in survival heater power.

  14. Relationships among Tomistoma schlegelii in Malaysia Based on Cyt b-Control Region Gene Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amirul Arib Md Adzhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomistoma schlegelii is a slender snout crocodile, secretive in nature which is currently under Appendix I of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES. Limited information is currently available on its wild population, especially in Malaysia. Thus this study aims to describe genetic relationship of T. schlegelii populations from Malaysia which was done using partial sequencing of Cytochrome b-control region mtDNA gene. The study reveals that the genetic diversity among T. schlegelii is high, ranging from 0.16% to 3.34%, suggesting healthy populations. Analysis showed that there is gene flow among populations (Da = 1.71% to 2.21% within Western Sarawak, Peninsular Malaysia, and other geographical regions coherent with Sundaland theory, suggesting that there is ancient river system connecting the two regions of Peninsular Malaysia and West Borneo when the Sunda Shelf was exposed. Unique haplotypes had been observed in Northern Sarawak (SAM01 and SAM02 as well as in Sumatera; thus each T. schlegelii deserved its own management strategies to ensure the survival of the species.

  15. Market control through eco-efficiency and eco-consumption: an analysis based on supermarkets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Guivant

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a discussion of the changing role of supermarkets in the food system. According to some authors, the system itself has now entered its third stage. Among the numerous transformations that are a part of this process, we give particular salience to two: a the role of supermarkets in turning consumers into consumers of organic foods and produce and b the strategies of the supermarket sector in sustainable management and construction. Sustainability has become an increasingly central motif in the supermarket sector’s strategies, something that has evidently become possible due to the imprecise nature of the concept. Our analysis is fundamentally based on the theory of ecological modernization and secondarily on the new economic sociology of market objects. Through this theoretical framework, we are able to illustrate retail sector tendencies in global market flux, as well as the influence of non-governmental organization and consumer group action. Lastly, we reveal the complex mosaic of the sector’s tendencies. A non-dichotomous and non-essentialist perspective is required in order to understand how environmental dynamics and demands come to form part not only of the discourse but of influential practices of these powerful economic actors which may have unintended consequences on relationships between production and consumption within the new rules of the globalization of markets. Keywords: sustainable consumption, supermarkets, theory of ecological modernization.

  16. Hazard Analysis of Software Requirements Specification for Process Module of FPGA-based Controllers in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung; Sejin; Kim, Eui-Sub; Yoo, Junbeom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Jong Yong; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Software in PLC, FPGA which are used to develop I and C system also should be analyzed to hazards and risks before used. NUREG/CR-6430 proposes the method for performing software hazard analysis. It suggests analysis technique for software affected hazards and it reveals that software hazard analysis should be performed with the aspects of software life cycle such as requirements analysis, design, detailed design, implements. It also provides the guide phrases for applying software hazard analysis. HAZOP (Hazard and operability analysis) is one of the analysis technique which is introduced in NUREG/CR-6430 and it is useful technique to use guide phrases. HAZOP is sometimes used to analyze the safety of software. Analysis method of NUREG/CR-6430 had been used in Korea nuclear power plant software for PLC development. Appropriate guide phrases and analysis process are selected to apply efficiently and NUREG/CR-6430 provides applicable methods for software hazard analysis is identified in these researches. We perform software hazard analysis of FPGA software requirements specification with two approaches which are NUREG/CR-6430 and HAZOP with using general GW. We also perform the comparative analysis with them. NUREG/CR-6430 approach has several pros and cons comparing with the HAZOP with general guide words and approach. It is enough applicable to analyze the software requirements specification of FPGA.

  17. CONTROL PROPOSAL FOR A HIGH PURITY COLUMN BASED ON THE SEPARATION OF VARIABLES BY THE INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. S. Carmo

    Full Text Available Abstract Many industries are complex when it comes to operation mode. In order to reduce the problems related to strong coupling in these processes, the search for the incorporation of artificial intelligence devices has shown an increasing trend in recent years. Due to this complexity and control in multivariable processes, diagnosis and fault monitoring in the processes have become increasingly difficult. Therefore, the application of these devices has achieved satisfactory results regarding the procedures performed with human operators. Independent Component Analysis (ICA is a signal separation technique that is based on the use of higher order statistics to estimate each of the unknown sources, through observation of various mixtures generated from these sources. Although there are recent works on using the ICA in industrial processes, few studies have been made in cases involving distillation columns. This paper proposes a control strategy based on the ICA technique, which makes the control loops decoupled and hence the performance easier. Compared to the conventional method, the technique provided a great improvement in control performance. Control structures were implemented in Simulink/Matlab® in communication with a 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-EDC plant simulated in Aspen Plus DynamicsTM.

  18. School-Based Intervention for Adolescent Obesity: Analysis of Treatment, Randomly Selected Control, and Self-Selected Control Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, David; Vance, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Assigned children (N=114) from stratified blocks of percentage overweight to a comprehensive behavioral program or to a no-treatment condition. The average child in treatment declined to percentage overweight 5.71%; children in the control group gained 2.41%. Parental participation was correlated with weight change among children in the treatment…

  19. Model-Based Integrated High Penetration Renewables Planning and Control Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, Jason [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Broadwater, Robert [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Cheng, Danling [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Costyk, David [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leyo, Mark [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Seguin, Richard [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Woyak, Jeremy [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Acharya-Menon, Amrita [Pepco Holdings, Inc. (PHI), Washington, DC (United States); Steffel, Steve [Pepco Holdings, Inc. (PHI), Washington, DC (United States); Dise, John [Clean Power Research, Napa, CA (United States); Athawale, Rasika [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Felder, Frank [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Increasing adoption of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) generation at the distribution level poses several changes for the reliable operation of electrical power distribution systems. The addition of a significant amount of PV to a distribution network can introduce a variety of operational problems, including steady-state overvoltages, reverse flows, voltage flicker and excessive controller movement among others. These adverse impacts can be mitigated through a variety of equipment upgrades which represent a cost to either the electric utility or the owner of the PV site. The study performed here aims to quantify the levels of PV generation which present operational problems on a distribution circuit and how those problems might be alleviated. The study performed here included 20 distribution feeders selected from Pepco Holdings, Inc. (PHI) service territory. These feeders are located in the states of Delaware, Maryland and New Jersey. A hosting capacity study was performed on each feeder to determine how much additional PV it could support in its current configuration. Several improvements were then performed on these circuits including phase balancing, capacitor redesign, reducing the voltage regulator set points, fixed power factor operation on the PV inverters and the installation of battery storage. After each of these improvements the hosting capacity of the circuit was reevaluated in order to determine how that particular improvement impacted the amount of PV that could be hosted by the circuit. Each of these improvements represents a real cost in terms of labor and equipment in order to be implemented. They are expected to provide a benefit in terms of the amount of additional PV generation which can be safely interconnected to the distribution feeder. A cost benefit analysis was performed in order to evaluate the expected costs of each feeder improvement and how each one was able to increase the PV hosting capacity of each feeder. It is hoped that these results

  20. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy...

  1. Comparative performance analysis of the artificial-intelligence-based thermal control algorithms for the double-skin building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at developing artificial-intelligence-(AI)-theory-based optimal control algorithms for improving the indoor temperature conditions and heating energy efficiency of the double-skin buildings. For this, one conventional rule-based and four AI-based algorithms were developed, including artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy logic (FL), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), for operating the surface openings of the double skin and the heating system. A numerical computer simulation method incorporating the matrix laboratory (MATLAB) and the transient systems simulation (TRNSYS) software was used for the comparative performance tests. The analysis results revealed that advanced thermal-environment comfort and stability can be provided by the AI-based algorithms. In particular, the FL and ANFIS algorithms were superior to the ANN algorithm in terms of providing better thermal conditions. The ANN-based algorithm, however, proved its potential to be the most energy-efficient and stable strategy among the four AI-based algorithms. It can be concluded that the optimal algorithm can be differently determined according to the major focus of the strategy. If comfortable thermal condition is the principal interest, then the FL or ANFIS algorithm could be the proper solution, and if energy saving for space heating and system operation stability is the main concerns, then the ANN-based algorithm may be applicable. - Highlights: • Integrated control algorithms were developed for the heating system and surface openings. • AI theories were applied to the control algorithms. • ANN, FL, and ANFIS were the applied AI theories. • Comparative performance tests were conducted using computer simulation. • AI algorithms presented superior temperature environment.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Logic and PI Controller Based Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Eshani; Tiwari, Sachin

    2017-01-01

    Rural areas suffer from limited grid connectivity. Small hydroplants can provide electricity at a cheap cost with low environmental impact in these regions. Self-excited induction generators are widely used in hydroplants since they operate on a standalone basis because of the connection of capacitor bank that provides reactive power at no load. However, SEIGs suffer from poor voltage and frequency regulation. Thus, an electronic load controller (ELC) is connected across SEIG to regulate volt...

  3. Spectroscopic analysis and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate; , James D.; Reed, Christopher J.; Domke, Christopher H.; Le, Linh; Seasholtz, Mary Beth; Weber, Andy; Lipp, Charles

    2017-04-18

    Apparatus for spectroscopic analysis which includes a tunable diode laser spectrometer having a digital output signal and a digital computer for receiving the digital output signal from the spectrometer, the digital computer programmed to process the digital output signal using a multivariate regression algorithm. In addition, a spectroscopic method of analysis using such apparatus. Finally, a method for controlling an ethylene cracker hydrogenator.

  4. Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    Version 3.12 of INCA provides user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems. System configuration and parameters easily adjusted, enabling INCA user to create compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in convenient manner. Full complement of graphical routines makes output easy to understand. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  5. Optimal strategy analysis based on robust predictive control for inventory system with random demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Aditya; Widowati, Sutrisno

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the optimal strategy for a single product single supplier inventory system with random demand is analyzed by using robust predictive control with additive random parameter. We formulate the dynamical system of this system as a linear state space with additive random parameter. To determine and analyze the optimal strategy for the given inventory system, we use robust predictive control approach which gives the optimal strategy i.e. the optimal product volume that should be purchased from the supplier for each time period so that the expected cost is minimal. A numerical simulation is performed with some generated random inventory data. We simulate in MATLAB software where the inventory level must be controlled as close as possible to a set point decided by us. From the results, robust predictive control model provides the optimal strategy i.e. the optimal product volume that should be purchased and the inventory level was followed the given set point.

  6. Model-based analysis of digital radio frequency control systems for a heavy-ion synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the behavior of different radio frequency control systems in a heavy-ion synchrotron, which act on the electrical fields used to accelerate charged particles, along with the longitudinal dynamics of the particles in the beam. Due to the large physical dimensions of the system, the required precision can only be achieved by a distributed control system. Since the plant is highly nonlinear and the overall system is very complex, a purely analytical treatment is not possible without introducing unacceptable simplifications. Instead, we use numerical simulation to investigate the system behavior. This thesis arises from a cooperation between the Institute of Microelectronic Systems at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt and the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy-Ion Research. A new heavy-ion synchrotron, the SIS100, is currently being built at GSI; its completion is scheduled for 2016. The starting point for the present thesis was the question whether a control concept previously devised at GSI is feasible - not only in the ideal case, but in the presence of parameter deviations, noise, and other disturbances - and how it can be optimized. In this thesis, we present a system model of a heavy-ion synchrotron. This model comprises the beam dynamics, the relevant components of the accelerator, and the relevant controllers as well as the communication between those controllers. We discuss the simulation techniques as well as several simplifications we applied in order to be able to simulate the model in an acceptable amount of time and show that these simplifications are justified. Using the model, we conducted several case studies in order to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the control concept, analyze the system's sensitivity towards disturbances and explore opportunities for future extensions. We derive specific suggestions for improvements from our results. Finally, we demonstrate that the model represents the physical reality

  7. Current control loop design and analysis based on resonant regulators for microgrid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michelle; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Voltage and current control loops play an important role in the performance of microgrids employing power electronics voltage source inverters. Correct design of feedback loops is essential for the proper operation of these systems. This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback cross......-coupling in the design of resonant regulators for inner current loops in power converters operating in standalone microgrids. It is also demonstrated that the effect of state feedback cross-coupling degrades the performance of the control loops by increasing the steady-state error. Different resonant regulators...

  8. Experimental bifurcation analysis for a driven nonlinear flexible pendulum using control-based continuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    We present a software toolbox that allows to apply continuation methods directly to a controlled lab experiment. This toolbox enables us to systematically explore how stable and unstable steady state periodic vibrations depend on parameters. The toolbox is implemented partly in MATLAB and partly ...

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Transmission Control Protocol Improvement Techniques over Space-Based Transmission Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    ... justification for the implementation of a given enhancement technique. The research questions were answered through model and simulation of a satellite transmission system via a Linux-based network topology...

  10. Damping torque analysis of virtual inertia control for DFIG-based wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, C.; Du, W.; Littler, T.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of large-scale wind generation in power systems will challenge the power system inertia due to the reason that the converter based variable speed wind turbines have no contribution to the system inertia. Traditionally, a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind power plant naturally does not provide frequency response because of the decoupling between the output power and the frequency. Moreover, DFIGs also lack power reserve margin because of the maxi mum p...

  11. Performance analysis of electronic power transformer based on neuro-fuzzy controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz, Hakan; Kececioglu, O Fatih; Yildiz, Ceyhun; Gani, Ahmet; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, electronic power transformer (EPT), which is also called solid state transformer, has attracted great interest and has been used in place of the conventional power transformers. These transformers have many important functions as high unity power factor, low harmonic distortion, constant DC bus voltage, regulated output voltage and compensation capability. In this study, proposed EPT structure contains a three-phase pulse width modulation rectifier that converts 800 Vrms AC to 2000 V DC bus at input stage, a dual active bridge converter that provides 400 V DC bus with 5:1 high frequency transformer at isolation stage and a three-phase two level inverter that is used to obtain AC output at output stage. In order to enhance dynamic performance of EPT structure, neuro fuzzy controllers which have durable and nonlinear nature are used in input and isolation stages instead of PI controllers. The main aim of EPT structure with the proposed controller is to improve the stability of power system and to provide faster response against disturbances. Moreover, a number of simulation results are carried out to verify EPT structure designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment and to analyze compensation ability for voltage harmonics, voltage flicker and voltage sag/swell conditions.

  12. Missing data in clinical trials: control-based mean imputation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Devan V; Liu, Fang; Permutt, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    In some randomized (drug versus placebo) clinical trials, the estimand of interest is the between-treatment difference in population means of a clinical endpoint that is free from the confounding effects of "rescue" medication (e.g., HbA1c change from baseline at 24 weeks that would be observed without rescue medication regardless of whether or when the assigned treatment was discontinued). In such settings, a missing data problem arises if some patients prematurely discontinue from the trial or initiate rescue medication while in the trial, the latter necessitating the discarding of post-rescue data. We caution that the commonly used mixed-effects model repeated measures analysis with the embedded missing at random assumption can deliver an exaggerated estimate of the aforementioned estimand of interest. This happens, in part, due to implicit imputation of an overly optimistic mean for "dropouts" (i.e., patients with missing endpoint data of interest) in the drug arm. We propose an alternative approach in which the missing mean for the drug arm dropouts is explicitly replaced with either the estimated mean of the entire endpoint distribution under placebo (primary analysis) or a sequence of increasingly more conservative means within a tipping point framework (sensitivity analysis); patient-level imputation is not required. A supplemental "dropout = failure" analysis is considered in which a common poor outcome is imputed for all dropouts followed by a between-treatment comparison using quantile regression. All analyses address the same estimand and can adjust for baseline covariates. Three examples and simulation results are used to support our recommendations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Real-time fMRI-based activation analysis and stimulus control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Bernarding, Johannes

    2007-03-01

    The real-time analysis of brain activation using functional MRI data offers a wide range of new experiments such as investigating self-regulation or learning strategies. However, besides special data acquisition and real-time data analysing techniques such examination requires dynamic and adaptive stimulus paradigms and self-optimising MRI-sequences. This paper presents an approach that enables the unified handling of parameters influencing the different software systems involved in the acquisition and analysing process. By developing a custom-made Experiment Description Language (EDL) this concept is used for a fast and flexible software environment which treats aspects like extraction and analysis of activation as well as the modification of the stimulus presentation. We describe how extracted real-time activation is subsequently evaluated by comparing activation patterns to previous acquired templates representing activated regions of interest for different predefined conditions. According to those results the stimulus presentation is adapted. The results showed that the developed system in combination with EDL is able to reliably detect and evaluate activation patterns in real-time. With a processing time for data analysis of about one second the approach is only limited by the natural time course of the hemodynamic response function of the brain activation.

  14. Dynamic Phasors-Based Modeling and Stability Analysis of Droop-Controlled Inverters for Microgrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Lu, Zhigang; Wang, Baocheng

    2014-01-01

    models fail to predict the system instabilities. In order to solve the problem, a new modeling approach for inverter-dominated microgrids by using dynamic phasors is presented in this paper. Our findings indicate that the proposed dynamic phasor model is able to predict accurately the stability margins...... of the system, while the conventional reduced-order small signal model fails. In addition, the virtual ω-E frame power control method, which deals with the power coupling caused by the line impedance X/R characteristic, has also been chosen as an application example of the proposed modeling technique....

  15. Broadband network on-line data acquisition system with web based interface for control and basic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Passive seismic experiment "13BB Star" is operated since mid 2013 in northern Poland and consists of 13 broadband seismic stations. One of the elements of this experiment is dedicated on-line data acquisition system comprised of both client (station) side and server side modules with web based interface that allows monitoring of network status and provides tools for preliminary data analysis. Station side is controlled by ARM Linux board that is programmed to maintain 3G/EDGE internet connection, receive data from digitizer, send data do central server among with additional auxiliary parameters like temperatures, voltages and electric current measurements. Station side is controlled by set of easy to install PHP scripts. Data is transmitted securely over SSH protocol to central server. Central server is a dedicated Linux based machine. Its duty is receiving and processing all data from all stations including auxiliary parameters. Server side software is written in PHP and Python. Additionally, it allows remote station configuration and provides web based interface for user friendly interaction. All collected data can be displayed for each day and station. It also allows manual creation of event oriented plots with different filtering abilities and provides numerous status and statistic information. Our solution is very flexible and easy to modify. In this presentation we would like to share our solution and experience. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  16. The Diagnosis of Internal Leakage of Control Valve Based on the Grey Correlation Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng DING

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The valve plays an important part in the industrial automation system. Whether it operates normally or not relates with the quality of the products directly while its faults are relatively common because of bad working conditions. And the internal leakage is one of the common faults. Consequently, this paper sets up the experimental platform to make the valve in different working condition and collect relevant data online. Then, diagnose the internal leakage of the valve by using the grey correlation analysis method. The results show that this method can not only diagnose the internal leakage of valve accurately, but also distinguish fault degree quantitatively.

  17. Analysis of the relationship between tumor dose inhomogeneity and local control in patients with skull base chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terahara, Atsuro; Niemierko, Andrzej; Goitein, Michael; Finkelstein, Dianne; Hug, Eugen; Liebsch, Norbert; O'Farrell, Desmond; Lyons, Sue; Munzenrider, John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: When irradiating a tumor that abuts or displaces any normal structures, the dose constraints to those structures (if lower than the prescribed dose) may cause dose inhomogeneity in the tumor volume at the tumor-critical structure interface. The low-dose region in the tumor volume may be one of the reasons for local failure. The aim of this study is to quantitate the effect of tumor dose inhomogeneity on local control and recurrence-free survival in patients with skull base chordoma. Methods and Materials: 132 patients with skull base chordoma were treated with combined photon and proton irradiation between 1978 and 1993. This study reviews 115 patients whose dose-volume data and follow-up data are available. The prescribed doses ranged from 66.6 Cobalt-Gray-Equivalent (CGE) to 79.2 CGE (median of 68.9 CGE). The dose to the optic structures (optic nerves and chiasma), the brain stem surface, and the brain stem center was limited to 60, 64, and 53 CGE, respectively. We used the dose-volume histogram data derived with the three-dimensional treatment planning system to evaluate several dose-volume parameters including the Equivalent Uniform Dose (EUD). We also analyzed several other patient and treatment factors in relation to local control and recurrence-free survival. Results: Local failure developed in 42 of 115 patients, with the actuarial local control rates at 5 and 10 years being 59% and 44%. Gender was a significant predictor for local control with the prognosis in males being significantly better than that in females (P 0.004, hazard ratio = 2.3). In a Cox univariate analysis, with stratification by gender, the significant predictors for local control (at the probability level of 0.05) were EUD, the target volume, the minimum dose, and the D 5cc dose. The prescribed dose, histology, age, the maximum dose, the mean dose, the median dose, the D 90% dose, and the overall treatment time were not significant factors. In a Cox multivariate analysis, the

  18. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen Pudur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC of asynchronous generator (AG coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM by sensing the load current. A MATLAB/Simulink model of Savonius rotor, asynchronous generator, ELC, and three-phase load is presented. The proposed scheme is tested under various load conditions under varying water velocities and the performances are observed to be satisfactory.

  19. Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Amaya-González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future.

  20. Mindless reading revisited: an analysis based on the SWIFT model of eye-movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthmann, Antje; Engbert, Ralf

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we revisit the mindless reading paradigm from the perspective of computational modeling. In the standard version of the paradigm, participants read sentences in both their normal version as well as the transformed (or mindless) version where each letter is replaced with a z. z-String scanning shares the oculomotor requirements with reading but none of the higher-level lexical and semantic processes. Here we use the z-string scanning task to validate the SWIFT model of saccade generation [Engbert, R., Nuthmann, A., Richter, E., & Kliegl, R. (2005). SWIFT: A dynamical model of saccade generation during reading. Psychological Review, 112(4), 777-813] as an example for an advanced theory of eye-movement control in reading. We test the central assumption of spatially distributed processing across an attentional gradient proposed by the SWIFT model. Key experimental results like prolonged average fixation durations in z-string scanning compared to normal reading and the existence of a string-length effect on fixation durations and probabilities were reproduced by the model, which lends support to the model's assumptions on visual processing. Moreover, simulation results for patterns of regressive saccades in z-string scanning confirm SWIFT's concept of activation field dynamics for the selection of saccade targets.

  1. Network Analysis and Application Control Software based on Client-Server Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ramya

    2013-04-01

    This paper outlines a comprehensive model to increase system efficiency, preserve network bandwidth, monitor incoming and outgoing packets, ensure the security of confidential files and reduce power wastage in an organization. This model illustrates the use and potential application of a Network Analysis Tool (NAT) in a multi-computer set-up of any scale. The model is designed to run in the background and not hamper any currently executing applications, while using minimum system resources. It was developed as open source software, using VB. Net, with a view to overcoming limitations of legacy systems and financial restrictions in small-to mid-level organizations like businesses and educational institutes. It is fully-customizable and serves as a simple and open-source alternative to existing software. The NAT relies on simple client-server architecture and uses remote access to monitor and maintain the computers on a network, for example logging off a user or shutting down a computer after a certain "idle" time, enabling and disabling applications, troubleshooting and so on. The NAT was tested in a laboratory and resultant data is presented, along with the results of a survey that was conducted among users.

  2. Crystallization Analysis and Control of Ammonia-Based Air Source Absorption Heat Pump in Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of heating and domestic hot water is very high and will keep increasing. Air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP was proposed to overcome the problems of low energy efficiency and high air pollution existing in boiler systems, as well as the problem of bad performance under low ambient temperatures for electrical heat pumps. In order to investigate the crystallization possibility of ammonia-salt ASAHP, crystallization margin (evaluated by solution mass concentration at generating temperature ranging from 100 to 150°C, evaporating temperature from −30 to 10°C, and condensing temperature from 30 to 65°C are analyzed. To prevent the NH3–NaSCN solution from crystallizing, ASAHP integrated with pressure booster located between the evaporator and absorber is simulated. Analysis and comparisons show that NH3–NaSCN is easy to crystallize at relatively high generating temperature, low evaporating temperature, and low condensing temperature. But crystallization margin of NH3–LiNO3 can always stay above 5% for most conditions, keeping away from crystallization. Pressure booster can effectively avoid the crystallization problem that will take place in the NH3–NaSCN ASAHP system.

  3. Subcubic Control Flow Analysis Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Van Horn, David

    We give the first direct subcubic algorithm for performing control flow analysis of higher-order functional programs. Despite the long held belief that inclusion-based flow analysis could not surpass the ``cubic bottleneck, '' we apply known set compression techniques to obtain an algorithm...... that runs in time O(n^3/log n) on a unit cost random-access memory model machine. Moreover, we refine the initial flow analysis into two more precise analyses incorporating notions of reachability. We give subcubic algorithms for these more precise analyses and relate them to an existing analysis from...

  4. A rank-based algorithm of differential expression analysis for small cell line data with statistical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyu; Cai, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Ao, Lu; Guo, You; He, Jun; Gu, Yunyan; Qi, Lishuang; Guan, Qingzhou; Lin, Xu; Guo, Zheng

    2017-10-13

    To detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in small-scale cell line experiments, usually with only two or three technical replicates for each state, the commonly used statistical methods such as significance analysis of microarrays (SAM), limma and RankProd (RP) lack statistical power, while the fold change method lacks any statistical control. In this study, we demonstrated that the within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs) of gene pairs were highly stable among technical replicates of a cell line but often widely disrupted after certain treatments such like gene knockdown, gene transfection and drug treatment. Based on this finding, we customized the RankComp algorithm, previously designed for individualized differential expression analysis through REO comparison, to identify DEGs with certain statistical control for small-scale cell line data. In both simulated and real data, the new algorithm, named CellComp, exhibited high precision with much higher sensitivity than the original RankComp, SAM, limma and RP methods. Therefore, CellComp provides an efficient tool for analyzing small-scale cell line data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point methodology and risk-based grading to consumer food safety surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Ueland, Øydis; Hagtvedt, Therese; Jacobsen, Eivind; Lavik, Randi; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities.

  6. Climatic factors controlling the productivity of pine stands. A model-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrie, R.E.; Gholz, H.L.; Linder, S.; Gower, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    A process-based forest growth model, BIOMASS, is applied to stands of four pine species (Pinus elliottii, P. radiata, P. resinosa, and P. sylvestris) growing in five sub-tropical, temperate and boreal environments (in Australia, New Zealand, Florida, Sweden and Wisconsin). Measured annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP) at these sites ranges from 0.2 to 1.6 kg C m -2 . After establishing that simulated ANPP closely matches biomass production measured for the various stands, we analyse model runs to relate simulated productivity to absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (APAR). Annual photosynthetic productivity (or gross primary production, GPP) simulated for the five stands is linearly related to utilizable APAR, derived by estimating the extent to which photosynthesis is limited by soil water deficit, high air saturation vapor deficit or low temperature. The reduction of GPP due to incomplete radiation interception is 10 to 25% for stands with high leaf area index (LAI) in Australia, New Zealand and Wisconsin and 50 to 60% for low LAI stands in Florida and Sweden. Gross carbon gain is reduced by a further 50 to 70% at sites experiencing cold winters (Sweden and Wisconsin), summer drought (Australia) or high summer humidity deficits (Australia and Wisconsin). Simulated carbon losses due to above-ground respiration average 50% of GPP, but are highly variable among the sites due to large differences in live biomass and tissue nitrogen concentrations. This results in a weaker relationship between simulated NPP and APAR. (au) 93 refs

  7. Climatic factors controlling the productivity of pine stands. A model-based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrie, R.E. [Univ. of New South Wales, School of Biological Science, Kensington, NSW (Australia); Gholz, H.L. [Univ. of Florida, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Gainesville, FL (United States); Linder, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agric. Sci., Uppsala (Sweden); Gower, S.T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Dept. of Forestry, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A process-based forest growth model, BIOMASS, is applied to stands of four pine species (Pinus elliottii, P. radiata, P. resinosa, and P. sylvestris) growing in five sub-tropical, temperate and boreal environments (in Australia, New Zealand, Florida, Sweden and Wisconsin). Measured annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP) at these sites ranges from 0.2 to 1.6 kg C m{sup -2}. After establishing that simulated ANPP closely matches biomass production measured for the various stands, we analyse model runs to relate simulated productivity to absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (APAR). Annual photosynthetic productivity (or gross primary production, GPP) simulated for the five stands is linearly related to utilizable APAR, derived by estimating the extent to which photosynthesis is limited by soil water deficit, high air saturation vapor deficit or low temperature. The reduction of GPP due to incomplete radiation interception is 10 to 25% for stands with high leaf area index (LAI) in Australia, New Zealand and Wisconsin and 50 to 60% for low LAI stands in Florida and Sweden. Gross carbon gain is reduced by a further 50 to 70% at sites experiencing cold winters (Sweden and Wisconsin), summer drought (Australia) or high summer humidity deficits (Australia and Wisconsin). Simulated carbon losses due to above-ground respiration average 50% of GPP, but are highly variable among the sites due to large differences in live biomass and tissue nitrogen concentrations. This results in a weaker relationship between simulated NPP and APAR. (au) 93 refs.

  8. Determining the energy performance of manually controlled solar shades: A stochastic model based co-simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving factor for adjustment of manually controlled solar shades was determined. • A stochastic model for manual solar shades was constructed using Markov method. • Co-simulation with Energyplus was carried out in BCVTB. • External shading even manually controlled should be used prior to LOW-E windows. • Previous studies on manual solar shades may overestimate energy savings. - Abstract: Solar shading devices play a significant role in reducing building energy consumption and maintaining a comfortable indoor condition. In this paper, a typical office building with internal roller shades in hot summer and cold winter zone was selected to determine the driving factor of control behavior of manual solar shades. Solar radiation was determined as the major factor in driving solar shading adjustment based on field measurements and logit analysis and then a stochastic model for manually adjusted solar shades was constructed by using Markov method. This model was used in BCVTB for further co-simulation with Energyplus to determine the impact of the control behavior of solar shades on energy performance. The results show that manually adjusted solar shades, whatever located inside or outside, have a relatively high energy saving performance than clear-pane windows while only external shades perform better than regularly used LOW-E windows. Simulation also indicates that using an ideal assumption of solar shade adjustment as most studies do in building simulation may lead to an overestimation of energy saving by about 16–30%. There is a need to improve occupants’ actions on shades to more effectively respond to outdoor conditions in order to lower energy consumption, and this improvement can be easily achieved by using simple strategies as a guide to control manual solar shades

  9. Analysis of Washout Filter-Based Power Sharing Strategy—An Equivalent Secondary Controller for Islanded Microgrid without LBC Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Li, Hong; Xu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    , and the performance of the secondary controller degrades due to the uncertain communication delay and data drop-out in the LBC lines. Recently, a washout filter-based power sharing method was presented without communication lines and additional control loops. In this paper, the equivalence between secondary control......As a supplement of the droop control, the concept of secondary controlled microgrid (MG) has been extensively studied for voltage and frequency restoration. However, the low band-width communication (LBC) channels are needed to exchange information between the primary and secondary controllers...... and washout filter-based power sharing strategy for islanded microgrid is demonstrated, and the generalized washout filter control scheme has been obtained. Additionally, the physical meaning of control parameters of secondary controllers is also presented. Besides, a complete small-signal model...

  10. Reliability Analysis of Main-axis Control System of the Equatorial Antarctica Astronomical Telescope Based on Fault Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Y.; Yang, S. H.

    2017-05-01

    The Antarctica astronomical telescopes work chronically on the top of the unattended South Pole, and they have only one chance to maintain every year. Due to the complexity of the optical, mechanical, and electrical systems, the telescopes are hard to be maintained and need multi-tasker expedition teams, which means an excessive awareness is essential for the reliability of the Antarctica telescopes. Based on the fault mechanism and fault mode of the main-axis control system for the equatorial Antarctica astronomical telescope AST3-3 (Antarctic Schmidt Telescopes 3-3), the method of fault tree analysis is introduced in this article, and we obtains the importance degree of the top event from the importance degree of the bottom event structure. From the above results, the hidden problems and weak links can be effectively found out, which will indicate the direction for promoting the stability of the system and optimizing the design of the system.

  11. Reliability analysis and computation of computer-based safety instrumentation and control used in German nuclear power plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yongjian; Krause, Ulrich; Gu, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    The trend of technological advancement in the field of safety instrumentation and control (I and C) leads to increasingly frequent use of computer-based (digital) control systems which consisting of distributed, connected bus communications computers and their functionalities are freely programmable by qualified software. The advantages of the new I and C system over the old I and C system with hard-wired technology are e.g. in the higher flexibility, cost-effective procurement of spare parts, higher hardware reliability (through higher integration density, intelligent self-monitoring mechanisms, etc.). On the other hand, skeptics see the new technology with the computer-based I and C a higher potential by influences of common cause failures (CCF), and the easier manipulation by sabotage (IT Security). In this joint research project funded by the Federal Ministry for Economical Affaires and Energy (BMWi) (2011-2014, FJZ 1501405) the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg and Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences are therefore trying to develop suitable methods for the demonstration of the reliability of the new instrumentation and control systems with the focus on the investigation of CCF. This expertise of both houses shall be extended to this area and a scientific contribution to the sound reliability judgments of the digital safety I and C in domestic and foreign nuclear power plants. First, the state of science and technology will be worked out through the study of national and international standards in the field of functional safety of electrical and I and C systems and accompanying literature. On the basis of the existing nuclear Standards the deterministic requirements on the structure of the new digital I and C system will be determined. The possible methods of reliability modeling will be analyzed and compared. A suitable method called multi class binomial failure rate (MCFBR) which was successfully used in safety valve applications will be

  12. The effects of repeated-sprint training on field-based fitness measures: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Macpherson, Tom; Spears, Iain; Weston, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Repeated-sprint training appears to be an efficient and practical means for the simultaneous development of different components of fitness relevant to team sports. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and meta-analyse the effect of repeated-sprint training on a selection of field-based measures of athletic performance, i.e. counter-movement jump, 10 m sprint, 20 m sprint, 30 m sprint, repeated-sprint ability and high-intensity intermittent running performance. The SPORTDiscus, PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases were searched for original research articles. Search terms included 'repeated-sprint training', 'sprint training', 'aerobic endurance', 'repeated-sprint ability', 'counter-movement jump' and 'sprint performance'. Inclusion criteria included intervention consisting of a series of ≤10 s sprints with ≤60 s recovery; trained participants; intervention duration of 2-12 weeks; field-based fitness measures; running- or cycling-based intervention; published up to, and including, February 2014. Our final dataset included six trials for counter-movement jump (two controlled trials), eight trials for 10 m sprint, four trials for 20 m sprint (three controlled trials), two trials for 30 m sprint, eight trials for repeated-sprint ability and three trials for high-intensity intermittent running performance. Analyses were conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Uncertainty in the meta-analysed effect of repeated-sprint training was expressed as 95% confidence limits (CL), along with the probability that the true value of the effect was trivial, beneficial or harmful. Magnitude-based inferences were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 standard deviations, respectively. Repeated-sprint training had a likely small beneficial effect in non-controlled counter-movement jump trials (effect size 0.33; 95% CL ±0.30), with a possibly moderate beneficial effect in controlled

  13. The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Pratap, Abhishek; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome

    2017-10-01

    The rapid advances and adoption of smartphone technology presents a novel opportunity for delivering mental health interventions on a population scale. Despite multi-sector investment along with wide-scale advertising and availability to the general population, the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps in the treatment of depression has not been empirically evaluated. Thus, we conducted the first meta-analysis of smartphone apps for depressive symptoms. An electronic database search in May 2017 identified 18 eligible randomized controlled trials of 22 smartphone apps, with outcome data from 3,414 participants. Depressive symptoms were reduced significantly more from smartphone apps than control conditions (g=0.38, 95% CI: 0.24-0.52, pSmartphone interventions had a moderate positive effect in comparison to inactive controls (g=0.56, 95% CI: 0.38-0.74), but only a small effect in comparison to active control conditions (g=0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.33). Effects from smartphone-only interventions were greater than from interventions which incorporated other human/computerized aspects along the smartphone component, although the difference was not statistically significant. The studies of cognitive training apps had a significantly smaller effect size on depression outcomes (p=0.004) than those of apps focusing on mental health. The use of mood monitoring softwares, or interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy, or apps incorporating aspects of mindfulness training, did not affect significantly study effect sizes. Overall, these results indicate that smartphone devices are a promising self-management tool for depression. Future research should aim to distil which aspects of these technologies produce beneficial effects, and for which populations. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  14. The efficacy of smartphone‐based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Pratap, Abhishek; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advances and adoption of smartphone technology presents a novel opportunity for delivering mental health interventions on a population scale. Despite multi‐sector investment along with wide‐scale advertising and availability to the general population, the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps in the treatment of depression has not been empirically evaluated. Thus, we conducted the first meta‐analysis of smartphone apps for depressive symptoms. An electronic database search in May 2017 identified 18 eligible randomized controlled trials of 22 smartphone apps, with outcome data from 3,414 participants. Depressive symptoms were reduced significantly more from smartphone apps than control conditions (g=0.38, 95% CI: 0.24‐0.52, pSmartphone interventions had a moderate positive effect in comparison to inactive controls (g=0.56, 95% CI: 0.38‐0.74), but only a small effect in comparison to active control conditions (g=0.22, 95% CI: 0.10‐0.33). Effects from smartphone‐only interventions were greater than from interventions which incorporated other human/computerized aspects along the smartphone component, although the difference was not statistically significant. The studies of cognitive training apps had a significantly smaller effect size on depression outcomes (p=0.004) than those of apps focusing on mental health. The use of mood monitoring softwares, or interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy, or apps incorporating aspects of mindfulness training, did not affect significantly study effect sizes. Overall, these results indicate that smartphone devices are a promising self‐management tool for depression. Future research should aim to distil which aspects of these technologies produce beneficial effects, and for which populations. PMID:28941113

  15. State-Space Modeling and Performance Analysis of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Based on a Model Predictive Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bassi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in wind energy technologies have led wind turbines from fixed speed to variable speed operation. This paper introduces an innovative version of a variable-speed wind turbine based on a model predictive control (MPC approach. The proposed approach provides maximum power point tracking (MPPT, whose main objective is to capture the maximum wind energy in spite of the variable nature of the wind’s speed. The proposed MPC approach also reduces the constraints of the two main functional parts of the wind turbine: the full load and partial load segments. The pitch angle for full load and the rotating force for the partial load have been fixed concurrently in order to balance power generation as well as to reduce the operations of the pitch angle. A mathematical analysis of the proposed system using state-space approach is introduced. The simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK show that the performance of the wind turbine with the MPC approach is improved compared to the traditional PID controller in both low and high wind speeds.

  16. Risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The Configuration Control; The Risk-based Configuration Control (during power operation mode, and during shutdown mode). PSA requirements. Use of Risk-based Configuration Control System. Configuration Management (basic elements, benefits, information requirements)

  17. WE-G-BRA-06: Application of Systems and Control Theory-Based Hazard Analysis to Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlicki, T [UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Samost, A; Leveson, N [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The process of delivering radiation occurs in a complex socio-technical system heavily reliant on human operators. Furthermore, both humans and software are notoriously challenging to account for in traditional hazard analysis models. High reliability industries such as aviation have approached this problem through using hazard analysis techniques grounded in systems and control theory. The purpose of this work is to apply the Systems Theoretic Accident Model Processes (STAMP) hazard model to radiotherapy. In particular, the System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) approach is used to perform a hazard analysis of a proposed on-line adaptive cranial radiosurgery procedure that omits the CT Simulation step and uses only CBCT for planning, localization, and treatment. Methods: The STPA procedure first requires the definition of high-level accidents and hazards leading to those accidents. From there, hierarchical control structures were created followed by the identification and description of control actions for each control structure. Utilizing these control structures, unsafe states of each control action were created. Scenarios contributing to unsafe control action states were then identified and translated into system requirements to constrain process behavior within safe boundaries. Results: Ten control structures were created for this new CBCT-only process which covered the areas of hospital and department management, treatment design and delivery, and vendor service. Twenty three control actions were identified that contributed to over 80 unsafe states of those control actions resulting in over 220 failure scenarios. Conclusion: The interaction of people, hardware, and software are highlighted through the STPA approach. STPA provides a hierarchical model for understanding the role of management decisions in impacting system safety so that a process design requirement can be traced back to the hazard and accident that it is intended to mitigate. Varian

  18. Analysis of indirect rotor field oriented control-based induction machine performance under inaccurate field-oriented condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Tao, Geng; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    Indirect rotor field oriented control (IRFOC) plays an important role in the high performance induction machine drives. In the indirect rotor field oriented controlbased induction machine adjustable speed control system, the rotor field angle is usually obtained by the rotor angular velocity...... used in the indirect rotor field oriented control may have considerable error. In the paper, the angle error caused by rotor resistance variation is analyzed and the impact on the output torque and the rotor field intensity of the induction machine is studied. Simulations and experimental verification...

  19. A study of temperature sensor location based on fractal analysis for cascade control schemes in tubular reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardo Ramirez-Castelan, Carlos; Moguel-Castañeda, Jazael; Puebla, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Temperature sensor location for cascade control schemes in tubular reactors is still an open research problem. Several studies have pointed out that most temperature sensitive zones along the length of the reactor are suitable to this end. In this work, we have studied the problem of sensor...... location in a cascade control configuration using fractal analysis of time series obtained by random forcing of the jacket rector. A benchmark dispersion axial model displaying different temperature profiles is used to illustrate our findings....

  20. Performance analysis of extracted rule-base multivariable type-2 self-organizing fuzzy logic controller applied to anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Xin; Doctor, Faiyaz; Fan, Shou-Zen; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2014-01-01

    We compare type-1 and type-2 self-organizing fuzzy logic controller (SOFLC) using expert initialized and pretrained extracted rule-bases applied to automatic control of anaesthesia during surgery. We perform experimental simulations using a nonfixed patient model and signal noise to account for environmental and patient drug interaction uncertainties. The simulations evaluate the performance of the SOFLCs in their ability to control anesthetic delivery rates for maintaining desired physiological set points for muscle relaxation and blood pressure during a multistage surgical procedure. The performances of the SOFLCs are evaluated by measuring the steady state errors and control stabilities which indicate the accuracy and precision of control task. Two sets of comparisons based on using expert derived and extracted rule-bases are implemented as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results indicate that type-2 SOFLCs outperform type-1 SOFLC while handling the various sources of uncertainties. SOFLCs using the extracted rules are also shown to outperform those using expert derived rules in terms of improved control stability.

  1. Performance Analysis of Extracted Rule-Base Multivariable Type-2 Self-Organizing Fuzzy Logic Controller Applied to Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shou-Zen; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2014-01-01

    We compare type-1 and type-2 self-organizing fuzzy logic controller (SOFLC) using expert initialized and pretrained extracted rule-bases applied to automatic control of anaesthesia during surgery. We perform experimental simulations using a nonfixed patient model and signal noise to account for environmental and patient drug interaction uncertainties. The simulations evaluate the performance of the SOFLCs in their ability to control anesthetic delivery rates for maintaining desired physiological set points for muscle relaxation and blood pressure during a multistage surgical procedure. The performances of the SOFLCs are evaluated by measuring the steady state errors and control stabilities which indicate the accuracy and precision of control task. Two sets of comparisons based on using expert derived and extracted rule-bases are implemented as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results indicate that type-2 SOFLCs outperform type-1 SOFLC while handling the various sources of uncertainties. SOFLCs using the extracted rules are also shown to outperform those using expert derived rules in terms of improved control stability. PMID:25587533

  2. Microcomputer-based systems for automatic control of sample irradiation and chemical analysis of short-lived isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Two systems resulted from the need for the study of the nuclear decay of short-lived radionuclides. Automation was required for better repeatability, speed of chemical separation after irradiation and for protection from the high radiation fields of the samples. A MCS-8 computer was used as the nucleus of the automatic sample irradiation system because the control system required an extensive multiple-sequential circuit. This approach reduced the sequential problem to a computer program. The automatic chemistry control system is a mixture of a fixed and a computer-based programmable control system. The fixed control receives the irradiated liquid sample from the reactor, extracts the liquid and disposes of the used sample container. The programmable control executes the chemistry program that the user has entered through the teletype. (U.S.)

  3. Software design specification and analysis technique (SDSAT) for the development of safety-critical systems based on a programmable logic controller (PLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo Ryong [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: srkoo@kaist.ac.kr; Seong, Poong Hyun [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr

    2006-06-15

    This paper introduces a Software Design Specification and Analysis Technique (SDSAT) for safety-critical systems based on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). During software development phases, the design phase performs an important role in connecting the requirements phase and the implementation phase, and it is a process of translating software requirements into software structures. In this work, the Nuclear FBD-style Design Specification and analysis (NuFDS) approach was proposed for nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) software. The NuFDS approach is suggested in a straightforward manner for effective and formal software design specification and analysis. Accordingly, the proposed NuFDS approach is composed of a software design specification technique and a software design analysis technique. In addition, for tool support in the design phase, we developed the NuSDS tool based on the NuFDS approach; this tool is used specifically for generating software design specification and analysis for nuclear fields.

  4. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z

  5. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  6. Controllability analysis of decentralised linear controllers for polymeric fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Aguado, Joaquin; Ansede, Xavier; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-10

    This work deals with the control of polymeric fuel cells. It includes a linear analysis of the system at different operating points, the comparison and selection of different control structures, and the validation of the controlled system by simulation. The work is based on a complex non linear model which has been linearised at several operating points. The linear analysis tools used are the Morari resiliency index, the condition number, and the relative gain array. These techniques are employed to compare the controllability of the system with different control structures and at different operating conditions. According to the results, the most promising control structures are selected and their performance with PI based diagonal controllers is evaluated through simulations with the complete non linear model. The range of operability of the examined control structures is compared. Conclusions indicate good performance of several diagonal linear controllers. However, very few have a wide operability range. (author)

  7. Therapeutic Alliance With a Fully Automated Mobile Phone and Web-Based Intervention: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Janine; Proudfoot, Judith; Whitton, Alexis; Birch, Mary-Rose; Boyd, Megan; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Fogarty, Andrea

    2016-02-25

    Studies of Internet-delivered psychotherapies suggest that clients report development of a therapeutic alliance in the Internet environment. Because a majority of the interventions studied to date have been therapist-assisted to some degree, it remains unclear whether a therapeutic alliance can develop within the context of an Internet-delivered self-guided intervention with no therapist support, and whether this has consequences for program outcomes. This study reports findings of a secondary analysis of data from 90 participants with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety, and/or stress who used a fully automated mobile phone and Web-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention called "myCompass" in a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT). Symptoms, functioning, and positive well-being were assessed at baseline and post-intervention using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). Therapeutic alliance was measured at post-intervention using the Agnew Relationship Measure (ARM), and this was supplemented with qualitative data obtained from 16 participant interviews. Extent of participant engagement with the program was also assessed. Mean ratings on the ARM subscales were above the neutral midpoints, and the interviewees provided rich detail of a meaningful and collaborative therapeutic relationship with the myCompass program. Whereas scores on the ARM subscales did not correlate with treatment outcomes, participants' ratings of the quality of their emotional connection with the program correlated significantly and positively with program logins, frequency of self-monitoring, and number of treatment modules completed (r values between .32-.38, P≤.002). The alliance (ARM) subscales measuring perceived empowerment (r=.26, P=.02) and perceived freedom to self-disclose (r=.25, P=.04) also correlated significantly in a positive direction with self

  8. Analysis of influence on back-EMF based sensorless control of PMSM due to parameter variations and measurement errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve better performance of sensorless control of PMSM, a precise and stable estimation of rotor position and speed is required. Several parameter uncertainties and variable measurement errors may lead to estimation error, such as resistance and inductance variations due to temperature...... and flux saturation, current and voltage errors due to measurement uncertainties, and signal delay caused by hardwares. This paper reveals some inherent principles for the performance of the back-EMF based sensorless algorithm embedded in a surface mounted PMSM system adapting vector control strategy...

  9. Effectiveness of short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis with patients with personality disorders: a matched control study using propensity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, E.K.; Verheul, R.; Thunnissen, M.; Delimon, J.; Soons, M.; Meerman, A.M.M.A.; Ziegler, U.M.; Rossum, B.V.; Andrea, H.; Stijnen, T.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Busschbach, J.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled studies on the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy with patients with personality disorders (PD) are rare. This study aims to compare 3-month short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis (STIP-TA) with other psychotherapies (OP) up to 36-month follow-up. PD

  10. Effectiveness of short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis with patients with personality disorders: : A matched control study using propensity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, E.K.; Verheul, R.; Thunissen, M.; Delimon, J.; Soons, M.; Meerman, A.M.M.A.; Ziegler, U.M.; Rossum, B.V.; Andrea, H.; Stijnen, T.; Emmelkamp, P.M.; Busschbach, J.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled studies on the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy with patients with personality disorders (PD) are rare. This study aims to compare 3-month short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis (STIP-TA) with other psychotherapies (OP) up to 36-month follow-up. PD

  11. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  12. Performance Analysis and Evaluation of Advanced Designs for Radio Communication Systems for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb

    Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern signalling system that uses radio communication to enable the exchange of high resolution and real-time train control information between the train and the wayside infrastructure. A vast majority of CBTC systems worldwide use IEEE 802.11 Wi......-Fi as the radio technology particularly due to its cost-effectiveness. The trackside networks in these systems are mostly based on conventional infrastructure Wi-Fi. It means a train has to continuously associate (i.e. perform handshake) with the trackside Wi-Fi Access Points (AP) as it moves. This is a time......-hoc Wi-Fi mode, which means no associations have to be performed with them prior to transmitting. A train simply broadcasts packets. A node upon receiving these packets forwards them to the next node and so on, forming a chain of nodes. Following this chain, packets arrive at the destination. To minimize...

  13. Model-based derivation, analysis and control of unstable microaerobic steady-states--considering Rhodospirillum rubrum as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Lisa; Rumschinski, Philipp; Faulwasser, Timm; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Grammel, Hartmut; Findeisen, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Microaerobic (oxygen-limited) conditions are critical for inducing many important microbial processes in industrial or environmental applications. At very low oxygen concentrations, however, the process performance often suffers from technical limitations. Available dissolved oxygen measurement techniques are not sensitive enough and thus control techniques, that can reliable handle these conditions, are lacking. Recently, we proposed a microaerobic process control strategy, which overcomes these restrictions and allows to assess different degrees of oxygen limitation in bioreactor batch cultivations. Here, we focus on the design of a control strategy for the automation of oxygen-limited continuous cultures using the microaerobic formation of photosynthetic membranes (PM) in Rhodospirillum rubrum as model phenomenon. We draw upon R. rubrum since the considered phenomenon depends on the optimal availability of mixed-carbon sources, hence on boundary conditions which make the process performance challenging. Empirically assessing these specific microaerobic conditions is scarcely practicable as such a process reacts highly sensitive to changes in the substrate composition and the oxygen availability in the culture broth. Therefore, we propose a model-based process control strategy which allows to stabilize steady-states of cultures grown under these conditions. As designing the appropriate strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the system behavior, we begin by deriving and validating an unstructured process model. This model is used to optimize the experimental conditions, and identify properties of the system which are critical for process performance. The derived model facilitates the good process performance via the proposed optimal control strategy. In summary the presented model-based control strategy allows to access and maintain microaerobic steady-states of interest and to precisely and efficiently transfer the culture from one stable microaerobic steady

  14. Plan delivery quality assurance for CyberKnife: Statistical process control analysis of 350 film-based patient-specific QAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellec, J; Delaby, N; Jouyaux, F; Perdrieux, M; Bouvier, J; Sorel, S; Henry, O; Lafond, C

    2017-07-01

    Robotic radiosurgery requires plan delivery quality assurance (DQA) but there has never been a published comprehensive analysis of a patient-specific DQA process in a clinic. We proposed to evaluate 350 consecutive film-based patient-specific DQAs using statistical process control. We evaluated the performance of the process to propose achievable tolerance criteria for DQA validation and we sought to identify suboptimal DQA using control charts. DQAs were performed on a CyberKnife-M6 using Gafchromic-EBT3 films. The signal-to-dose conversion was performed using a multichannel-correction and a scanning protocol that combined measurement and calibration in a single scan. The DQA analysis comprised a gamma-index analysis at 3%/1.5mm and a separate evaluation of spatial and dosimetric accuracy of the plan delivery. Each parameter was plotted on a control chart and control limits were calculated. A capability index (Cpm) was calculated to evaluate the ability of the process to produce results within specifications. The analysis of capability showed that a gamma pass rate of 85% at 3%/1.5mm was highly achievable as acceptance criteria for DQA validation using a film-based protocol (Cpm>1.33). 3.4% of DQA were outside a control limit of 88% for gamma pass-rate. The analysis of the out-of-control DQA helped identify a dosimetric error in our institute for a specific treatment type. We have defined initial tolerance criteria for DQA validations. We have shown that the implementation of a film-based patient-specific DQA protocol with the use of control charts is an effective method to improve patient treatment safety on CyberKnife. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attack Methodology Analysis: Emerging Trends in Computer-Based Attack Methodologies and Their Applicability to Control System Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston

    2005-06-01

    Threat characterization is a key component in evaluating the threat faced by control systems. Without a thorough understanding of the threat faced by critical infrastructure networks, adequate resources cannot be allocated or directed effectively to the defense of these systems. Traditional methods of threat analysis focus on identifying the capabilities and motivations of a specific attacker, assessing the value the adversary would place on targeted systems, and deploying defenses according to the threat posed by the potential adversary. Too many effective exploits and tools exist and are easily accessible to anyone with access to an Internet connection, minimal technical skills, and a significantly reduced motivational threshold to be able to narrow the field of potential adversaries effectively. Understanding how hackers evaluate new IT security research and incorporate significant new ideas into their own tools provides a means of anticipating how IT systems are most likely to be attacked in the future. This research, Attack Methodology Analysis (AMA), could supply pertinent information on how to detect and stop new types of attacks. Since the exploit methodologies and attack vectors developed in the general Information Technology (IT) arena can be converted for use against control system environments, assessing areas in which cutting edge exploit development and remediation techniques are occurring can provide significance intelligence for control system network exploitation, defense, and a means of assessing threat without identifying specific capabilities of individual opponents. Attack Methodology Analysis begins with the study of what exploit technology and attack methodologies are being developed in the Information Technology (IT) security research community within the black and white hat community. Once a solid understanding of the cutting edge security research is established, emerging trends in attack methodology can be identified and the gap between

  16. Analysis of Aircraft Control Performance using a Fuzzy Rule Base Representation of the Cooper-Harper Aircraft Handling Quality Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chris; Gupta, Pramod; Schumann, Johann

    2006-01-01

    The Cooper-Harper rating of Aircraft Handling Qualities has been adopted as a standard for measuring the performance of aircraft since it was introduced in 1966. Aircraft performance, ability to control the aircraft, and the degree of pilot compensation needed are three major key factors used in deciding the aircraft handling qualities in the Cooper- Harper rating. We formulate the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as a fuzzy rule-based system and use it to analyze the effectiveness of the aircraft controller. The automatic estimate of the system-level handling quality provides valuable up-to-date information for diagnostics and vehicle health management. Analyzing the performance of a controller requires a set of concise design requirements and performance criteria. Ir, the case of control systems fm a piloted aircraft, generally applicable quantitative design criteria are difficult to obtain. The reason for this is that the ultimate evaluation of a human-operated control system is necessarily subjective and, with aircraft, the pilot evaluates the aircraft in different ways depending on the type of the aircraft and the phase of flight. In most aerospace applications (e.g., for flight control systems), performance assessment is carried out in terms of handling qualities. Handling qualities may be defined as those dynamic and static properties of a vehicle that permit the pilot to fully exploit its performance in a variety of missions and roles. Traditionally, handling quality is measured using the Cooper-Harper rating and done subjectively by the human pilot. In this work, we have formulated the rules of the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as fuzzy rules with performance, control, and compensation as the antecedents, and pilot rating as the consequent. Appropriate direct measurements on the controller are related to the fuzzy Cooper-Harper rating system: a stability measurement like the rate of change of the cost function can be used as an indicator if the aircraft is under

  17. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  18. A μ analysis-based, controller-synthesis framework for robust bioinspired visual navigation in less-structured environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavan, J; Gremillion, G; Escobar-Alvarez, H; Humbert, J S

    2014-06-01

    Safe, autonomous navigation by aerial microsystems in less-structured environments is a difficult challenge to overcome with current technology. This paper presents a novel visual-navigation approach that combines bioinspired wide-field processing of optic flow information with control-theoretic tools for synthesis of closed loop systems, resulting in robustness and performance guarantees. Structured singular value analysis is used to synthesize a dynamic controller that provides good tracking performance in uncertain environments without resorting to explicit pose estimation or extraction of a detailed environmental depth map. Experimental results with a quadrotor demonstrate the vehicle's robust obstacle-avoidance behaviour in a straight line corridor, an S-shaped corridor and a corridor with obstacles distributed in the vehicle's path. The computational efficiency and simplicity of the current approach offers a promising alternative to satisfying the payload, power and bandwidth constraints imposed by aerial microsystems.

  19. Software design specification and analysis(NuFDS) approach for the safety critical software based on porgrammable logic controller(PLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin Yong; Choi, Seong Soo [Atomic Creative Technology Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper introduces the software design specification and analysis technique for the safety-critical system based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). During software development phases, the design phase should perform an important role to connect between requirements phase and implementation phase as a process of translating problem requirements into software structures. In this work, the Nuclear FBD-style Design Specification and analysis (NuFDS) approach was proposed. The NuFDS approach for nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) software are suggested in a straight forward manner. It consists of four major specifications as follows; Database, Software Architecture, System Behavior, and PLC Hardware Configuration. Additionally, correctness, completeness, consistency, and traceability check techniques are also suggested for the formal design analysis in NuFDS approach. In addition, for the tool supporting, we are developing NuSDS tool based on the NuFDS approach which is a tool, especially for the software design specification in nuclear fields.

  20. Analysis and control of chaotic behavior in boost converter by ramp compensation based on Lyapunov exponents assignment: theoretical and experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Najmeh; Ataei, Mohammad; Niroomand, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Applying nonlinear analysis of complex dynamics displayed by current-mode controlled boost converter. • The ramp compensation method is used to control bifurcation and chaos in these converters based on bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponents assignment. • A discrete-time iterative nonlinear mapping model has been derived by inserting the ramp compensation parameter in the dynamical equations of the system. • A design methodology for chaos control is provided in this converter based on Lyapunov exponents assignment in desired values theoretically by proper selection of compensator slope. • Practical results are provided to confirm the theoretical analysis and simulations. - Abstract: Nonlinear analysis of complex dynamics displayed by current mode dc–dc converter and idea of Lyapunov exponents assignment by ramp compensator in order to control chaotic behavior is proposed in this article. A discrete-time iterative nonlinear mapping model is derived. The occurrence of the complex behaviors of bifurcation and chaos generated by varying the circuit parameters are investigated through numerical analysis and software implementation of the circuit. Next, in order to control bifurcation and chaos in these converters, the ramp compensation method is used. By inserting the ramp compensation parameter in the dynamical equations of the system, these complex behaviors are examined theoretically and numerically as well. It is proved that through this method, the stable period-one operation of the converter can be extended. By evaluating the Lyapunov exponents (LEs) of the system, the impact of the slope on the location of LEs are determined analytically. This leads to a design methodology for control of chaos in this converter based on LEs assignment in desired values by proper selection of compensator slope. By developing an experimental set up, practical results are obtained to confirm the theoretical analysis and simulations.

  1. The effect of cupping therapy for low back pain: A meta-analysis based on existing randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Ting; Qi, Yong; Tang, Fu-Yong; Li, Fei-Meng; Li, Qi-Huo; Xu, Chang-Peng; Xie, Guo-Ping; Sun, Hong-Tao

    2017-11-06

    LBP is one of the most common symptoms with high prevalence throughout the world. Conflicting conclusions exist in RCTs on cupping for LBP. To assess the effects and safety of cupping for the patients with LBP. Pubmed, Cochrane Library databases, and Embase database were electronically researched. RCTs reporting the cupping for the patients with LBP were included. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software (version 5.3, Nordic Cochrane Centre). The primary outcome was VAS scores. The secondary outcomes included ODI scores, MPPI scores and complications. Six RCTs were included in this synthesized analysis. The results showed that cupping therapy was superior to the control management with respect to VAS scores (SMD: -0.73, [95% CI: -1.42 to -0.04]; P= 0.04), and ODI scores (SMD: -3.64, [95% CI: -5.85 to -1.42]; P= 0.001). There was no statistical significant difference as regard to MPPI scores. No serious adverse event was reported in the included studies. Cupping therapy can significantly decrease the VAS scores and ODI scores for patients with LBP compared to the control management. High heterogeneity and risk of bias existing in studies limit the authenticity of the findings.

  2. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  3. Design of LabVIEW®-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E.; Lewis, Simon W.

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW®-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-6 M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05x+8.9164 (R2 =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 × 10-8 M). The limit of detection (3σ) was determined as 5 × 10-11 M morphine. PMID:18924729

  4. Design of LabVIEW-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E; Barnett, Neil W; Lewis, Simon W

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 x 10(-10) to 5 x 10(-6) M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05(x)+8.9164 (R(2) =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 x 10(-8) M). The limit of detection (3sigma) was determined as 5 x 10(-11) M morphine.

  5. Analysis and experimental evaluation of shunt active power filter for power quality improvement based on predictive direct power control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Oualid; Moulahoum, Samir; Colak, Ilhami; Babes, Badreddine; Kabache, Nadir

    2017-10-12

    This paper discusses the use of the concept of classical and predictive direct power control for shunt active power filter function. These strategies are used to improve the active power filter performance by compensation of the reactive power and the elimination of the harmonic currents drawn by non-linear loads. A theoretical analysis followed by a simulation using MATLAB/Simulink software for the studied techniques has been established. Moreover, two test benches have been carried out using the dSPACE card 1104 for the classic and predictive DPC control to evaluate the studied methods in real time. Obtained results are presented and compared in this paper to confirm the superiority of the predictive technique. To overcome the pollution problems caused by the consumption of fossil fuels, renewable energies are the alternatives recommended to ensure green energy. In the same context, the tested predictive filter can easily be supplied by a renewable energy source that will give its impact to enhance the power quality.

  6. Adverse events following 12 and 18 month vaccinations: a population-based, self-controlled case series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumanan Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live vaccines have distinct safety profiles, potentially causing systemic reactions one to 2 weeks after administration. In the province of Ontario, Canada, live MMR vaccine is currently recommended at age 12 months and 18 months. METHODS: Using the self-controlled case series design we examined 271,495 12 month vaccinations and 184,312 18 month vaccinations to examine the relative incidence of the composite endpoint of emergency room visits or hospital admissions in consecutive one day intervals following vaccination. These were compared to a control period 20 to 28 days later. In a post-hoc analysis we examined the reasons for emergency room visits and the average acuity score at presentation for children during the at-risk period following the 12 month vaccine. RESULTS: Four to 12 days post 12 month vaccination, children had a 1.33 (1.29-1.38 increased relative incidence of the combined endpoint compared to the control period, or at least one event during the risk interval for every 168 children vaccinated. Ten to 12 days post 18 month vaccination, the relative incidence was 1.25 (95%, 1.17-1.33 which represented at least one excess event for every 730 children vaccinated. The primary reason for increased events was statistically significant elevations in emergency room visits following all vaccinations. There were non-significant increases in hospital admissions. There were an additional 20 febrile seizures for every 100,000 vaccinated at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: There are significantly elevated risks of primarily emergency room visits approximately one to two weeks following 12 and 18 month vaccination. Future studies should examine whether these events could be predicted or prevented.

  7. Analysis of the Effects of Thermal Environment on Optical Systems for Navigation Guidance and Control in Supersonic Aircraft Based on Empirical Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Yang, Yikang; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-17

    The thermal environment is an important factor in the design of optical systems. This study investigated the thermal analysis technology of optical systems for navigation guidance and control in supersonic aircraft by developing empirical equations for the front temperature gradient and rear thermal diffusion distance, and for basic factors such as flying parameters and the structure of the optical system. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to study the relationship between flying and front dome parameters and the system temperature field. Systematic deduction was then conducted based on the effects of the temperature field on the physical geometry and ray tracing performance of the front dome and rear optical lenses, by deriving the relational expressions between the system temperature field and the spot size and positioning precision of the rear optical lens. The optical systems used for navigation guidance and control in supersonic aircraft when the flight speed is in the range of 1-5 Ma were analysed using the derived equations. Using this new method it was possible to control the precision within 10% when considering the light spot received by the four-quadrant detector, and computation time was reduced compared with the traditional method of separately analysing the temperature field of the front dome and rear optical lens using FEA. Thus, the method can effectively increase the efficiency of parameter analysis and computation in an airborne optical system, facilitating the systematic, effective and integrated thermal analysis of airborne optical systems for navigation guidance and control.

  8. Efavirenz-Based Regimens in Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kryst

    Full Text Available Efavirenz, a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI is one of the most commonly prescribed antiretroviral drugs. The present article provides a systematic overview and meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing efavirenz and other active drugs currently recommended for treatment of HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive patients. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Trip Database were searched up till 23 December 2013 for randomized controlled clinical trials published as a peer-reviewed papers, and concerning efavirenz-based regimens used as initial treatment for HIV infection. Thirty-four studies were included in the systematic review, while twenty-six trials were suitable for the meta-analysis. Efavirenz was compared with drugs from four different classes: NNRTIs other than efavirenz (nevirapine or rilpivirine, integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (bPI and chemokine (C-C motif receptor 5 (CCR5 antagonists (maraviroc, all of them were added to the background regimen. Results of the current meta-analysis showed that efavirenz-based regimens were equally effective as other recommended regimens based on NNRTI, ritonavir-boosted PI or CCR5 antagonist in terms of efficacy outcomes (disease progression and/or death, plasma viral HIV RNA <50 copies/ml while statistically significant more patients treated with InSTI achieved plasma viral load <50 copies/ml at week 48. In comparison with both InSTI-based and CCR5-based therapy, efavirenz-based treatment was associated with a higher risk of therapy discontinuation due to adverse events. However, comparisons of efevirenz-based treatment with InSTI-based and CCR5-based therapy were based on a limited number of trials, therefore, conclusions from these two comparisons must be confirmed in further reliable randomized controlled studies. Results of our meta-analysis support the present clinical guidelines for antiretroviral

  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk: a meta-analysis based on 28 case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Na; Sheng, Xiaojing; Wang, Meilin; Fang, Yongjun; Shi, Danni; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2011-10-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in DNA methylation and nucleotide synthesis. Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk, but the results have been inconclusive. To determine a more precise estimation, we performed a meta-analysis of 28 studies with 4240 cases and 9289 controls. We found that the 677TT genotype showed a reduced risk of ALL compared with the 677CC genotype in the overall population (odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.92). The reduced risk was pronounced only among the Caucasian population (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.90), not the Asian (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.05). For the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, no significant association with ALL susceptibility was observed in the pooled analyses. However, significantly increased ALL risk was found in childhood in the comparison of 1298CA versus AA genotype. This study provides evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms may play an important role in the development of ALL.

  10. Efficacy of home-based non-pharmacological interventions for treating depression: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhato, Kanokporn; Lotrakul, Manote; Dellow, Alan; Ittasakul, Pichai; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2017-07-12

    To systematically review and compare the efficacy of all available home-based non-pharmacological treatments of depression. Systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Medline, Scopus and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were searched since inceptions to 7 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy of home-based non-pharmacological interventions with usual care of patients with depression were included in the review. Depression symptom scores and disease remission rates at the end of treatment. Seventeen studies were included in the review. Home-based non-pharmacological interventions were categorised as (1) home-based psychological intervention, (2) home-based exercise intervention, (3) combined home-based psychological intervention with exercise intervention and (4) complementary medicine. Complementary medicine approaches were excluded from the meta-analysis due to heterogeneity. The standardised mean differences of post-treatment depression symptom scores between usual care groups and home-based psychological intervention, home-based exercise intervention and combined home-based psychological intervention with exercise intervention were âˆ'0.57 (95% CI âˆ'0.84 to âˆ'0.31), âˆ'1.03 (95% CI âˆ'2.89 to 0.82) and âˆ'0.78 (95% CI âˆ'1.09 to âˆ'0.47), respectively. These results suggest that only home-based psychological intervention and combined home-based psychological intervention with exercise intervention could significantly decrease depression scores. Compared with usual care groups, the disease remission rate was also significantly higher for home-based psychological intervention (pooled risk ratio=1.53; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.98) and combined home-based psychological intervention with exercise intervention (pooled risk ratio=3.47; 95% CI 2.11 to 5.70). Of all the studied interventions, combined home-based psychological intervention with

  11. Robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yundan; Sun, Yongjun; Huang, Gongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties with chiller sequencing control were systematically quantified. • Robustness of chiller sequencing control was systematically analyzed. • Different sequencing control strategies were sensitive to different uncertainties. • A numerical method was developed for easy selection of chiller sequencing control. - Abstract: Multiple-chiller plant is commonly employed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system to increase operational feasibility and energy-efficiency under part load condition. In a multiple-chiller plant, chiller sequencing control plays a key role in achieving overall energy efficiency while not sacrifices the cooling sufficiency for indoor thermal comfort. Various sequencing control strategies have been developed and implemented in practice. Based on the observation that (i) uncertainty, which cannot be avoided in chiller sequencing control, has a significant impact on the control performance and may cause the control fail to achieve the expected control and/or energy performance; and (ii) in current literature few studies have systematically addressed this issue, this paper therefore presents a study on robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control in order to understand the robustness of various chiller sequencing control strategies under different types of uncertainty. Based on the robustness analysis, a simple and applicable method is developed to select the most robust control strategy for a given chiller plant in the presence of uncertainties, which will be verified using case studies

  12. An Economic Analysis of Strategies to Control Clostridium Difficile Transmission and Infection Using an Agent-Based Simulation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Nelson

    Full Text Available A number of strategies exist to reduce Clostridium difficile (C. difficile transmission. We conducted an economic evaluation of "bundling" these strategies together.We constructed an agent-based computer simulation of nosocomial C. difficile transmission and infection in a hospital setting. This model included the following components: interactions between patients and health care workers; room contamination via C. difficile shedding; C. difficile hand carriage and removal via hand hygiene; patient acquisition of C. difficile via contact with contaminated rooms or health care workers; and patient antimicrobial use. Six interventions were introduced alone and "bundled" together: (a aggressive C. difficile testing; (b empiric isolation and treatment of symptomatic patients; (c improved adherence to hand hygiene and (d contact precautions; (e improved use of soap and water for hand hygiene; and (f improved environmental cleaning. Our analysis compared these interventions using values representing 3 different scenarios: (1 base-case (BASE values that reflect typical hospital practice, (2 intervention (INT values that represent implementation of hospital-wide efforts to reduce C. diff transmission, and (3 optimal (OPT values representing the highest expected results from strong adherence to the interventions. Cost parameters for each intervention were obtained from published literature. We performed our analyses assuming low, normal, and high C. difficile importation prevalence and transmissibility of C. difficile.INT levels of the "bundled" intervention were cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year in all importation prevalence and transmissibility scenarios. OPT levels of intervention were cost-effective for normal and high importation prevalence and transmissibility scenarios. When analyzed separately, hand hygiene compliance, environmental decontamination, and empiric isolation and treatment were the

  13. Total waste-load control and allocation based on input-output analysis for Shenzhen, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, J R; Zhong, D S; Huang, Y F; Wang, H

    2001-01-01

    The general objective for this paper is to reveal the dynamic relationships between the rapid economic development, water pollution and the subsequent waste-load allocation in different economic sectors through a case-study in Shenzhen City, South China. Two-objective analysis model was employed based on the input-output table for Shenzhen with the full consideration of various constraints in local area. The improved Tchebycheff procedure was used for obtaining the solutions. The predictions were made on economic development and pollutants from wastewater in different sectors and different planning years. The present study allows for the consideration of the economic structural adjustment. It is found that the current situation of economic structure is generally good and is subject to further adjustment in Shenzhen, although it has undergone the rapid development in the past 18 years. When the maximum Gross Domestic Production and the minimum Chemical Oxygen Demand are chosen as the two objectives subject to other constraints, the harmonized results indicated a scheme that claims substantial reduction of polluting effluences in Shenzhen while closely keeping the economic growth rate as planned.

  14. MRI-based cerebrovascular reactivity using transfer function analysis reveals temporal group differences between patients with sickle cell disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jackie; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A; Kassner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measures the ability of cerebral blood vessels to change their diameter and, hence, their capacity to regulate regional blood flow in the brain. High resolution quantitative maps of CVR can be produced using blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with a carbon dioxide stimulus, and these maps have become a useful tool in the clinical evaluation of cerebrovascular disorders. However, conventional CVR analysis does not fully characterize the BOLD response to a stimulus as certain regions of the brain are slower to react to the stimulus than others, especially in disease. Transfer function analysis (TFA) is an alternative technique that can account for dynamic temporal relations between signals and has recently been adapted for CVR computation. We investigated the application of TFA in data on children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and healthy controls, and compared them to results derived from conventional CVR analysis. Data from 62 pediatric patients with SCD and 34 age-matched healthy controls were processed using conventional CVR analysis and TFA. BOLD data were acquired on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner while a carbon dioxide stimulus was quantified by sampling the end-tidal partial pressures of each exhaled breath. In addition, T1 weighted structural imaging was performed to identify grey and white matter regions for analysis. The TFA method generated maps representing both the relative magnitude change of the BOLD signal in response to the stimulus (Gain), as well as the BOLD signal speed of response (Phase) for each subject. These were compared to CVR maps calculated from conventional analysis. The effect of applying TFA on data from SCD patients versus controls was also examined. The Gain measures derived from TFA were significantly higher than CVR values based on conventional analysis in both SCD patients and healthy controls, but the difference was greater in the SCD data. Moreover

  15. Analysis and Design of a DSTATCOM Based on Sliding Mode Control Strategy for Improvement of Voltage Sag in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazanfar Shahgholian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sag is considered to be the most serious problem of power quality. It is caused by faults in the power system or by the starting of large induction motors. Voltage sag causes about 80% of the power quality problems in power systems. One of the main reasons for voltage sag is short circuit fault, which can be compensated for by a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM as an efficient and economical flexible AC transmission system (FACTS device. In this paper, compensation of this voltage sag using DSTATCOM is reviewed, in which a sliding mode control (SMC technique is employed. The results of this control system are compared with a P+Resonant control system. It will be shown that this control system is able to compensate the voltage sag over a broader range compared to other common control systems. Simulation results are obtained using PSCAD/EMTDC software and compared to that of a similar method.

  16. Walking dynamics of the passive compass-gait model under OGY-based state-feedback control: Analysis of local bifurcations via the hybrid Poincaré map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritli, Hassène; Belghith, Safya

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the passive walking dynamics of the compass-gait model under OGY-based state-feedback control. • We analyze local bifurcations via a hybrid Poincaré map. • We show exhibition of the super(sub)-critical flip bifurcation, the saddle-node(saddle) bifurcation and a saddle-flip bifurcation. • An analysis via a two-parameter bifurcation diagram is presented. • Some new hidden attractors in the controlled passive walking dynamics are displayed. - Abstract: In our previous work, we have analyzed the passive dynamic walking of the compass-gait biped model under the OGY-based state-feedback control using the impulsive hybrid nonlinear dynamics. Such study was carried out through bifurcation diagrams. It was shown that the controlled bipedal gait exhibits attractive nonlinear phenomena such as the cyclic-fold (saddle-node) bifurcation, the period-doubling (flip) bifurcation and chaos. Moreover, we revealed that, using the controlled continuous-time dynamics, we encountered a problem in finding, identifying and hence following branches of (un)stable solutions in order to characterize local bifurcations. The present paper solves such problem and then provides a further investigation of the controlled bipedal walking dynamics using the developed analytical expression of the controlled hybrid Poincaré map. Thus, we show that analysis via such Poincaré map allows to follow branches of both stable and unstable fixed points in bifurcation diagrams and hence to explore the complete dynamics of the controlled compass-gait biped model. We demonstrate the generation, other than the conventional local bifurcations in bipedal walking, i.e. the flip bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation, of a saddle-saddle bifurcation, a subcritical flip bifurcation and a new type of a local bifurcation, the saddle-flip bifurcation. In addition, to further understand the occurrence of the local bifurcations, we present an analysis with a two-parameter bifurcation

  17. Map-based cloning and functional analysis of YGL8, which controls leaf colour in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Guo, Shuang; Wang, Zhongwei; Du, Qing; Xing, Yadi; Zhang, Tianquan; Shen, Wenqiang; Sang, Xianchun; Ling, Yinghua; He, Guanghua

    2016-06-13

    As the indispensable part of plant, leaf blade mainly functions as the production workshops where organic substance is produced by photosynthesis. Leaf colour mutation is a genetic phenomenon that has a high frequency and is easily identified. The mutations always exhibit negative impact on the development of plants in any of the different stages of growth. Up to now, numerous genes involved in leaf colour mutations have been cloned. In this study, a yellow-green leaf mutant, yellow-green leaf 8 (ygl8), with stable genetic phenotype, has been screened out in the progeny of an excellent indica restorer line Jinhui 10 with seeds treated by EMS. The levels of Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll were significantly lower in ygl8 than those in the WT throughout the whole growth period, while no clear change was noted in the Chl a/b ratio. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the lamellae were clearly intumescent and intricately stacked in ygl8. Furthermore, compared with those of the WT, the stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of ylg8 were all significantly lower. Map-based cloning results showed that Loc_Os01g73450, encoding a chloroplast-targeted UMP kinase, corresponded to Ygl8 and played an important role in regulating leaf colour in rice (Oryza sativa). Complementation of ygl8 with the WT DNA sequence of Loc_Os01g73450 led to restoration of the normal phenotype, and transgenic RNA interference plants showed a yellow-green colour. Analysis of the spatial and temporal expression of Ygl8 indicated that it was highly expressed in leaf blades and weakly expressed in other tissues. qRT-PCR also showed that the expression levels of the major Photosystem I core subunits plastome-encoded PsaA, PsaB and PsbC were significantly reduced in ygl8. The expression levels of nuclear-encoded gene involved in Chl biosynthesis HEMC, HEME, and PORA were also decreased when compared with the wild-type. Independent

  18. Fuzzy logic based robotic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.

    1994-01-01

    Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.

  19. Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Model and Analysis Approach Based on Networked Control Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the importance of the clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, this paper proposes a new research approach and model approach, which quantitatively analyzes clock synchronization from the perspective of modern control theory. Two kinds of control strategies are used as examples to analyze the effect of the control strategy on clock synchronization from different perspectives, namely, the single-step optimal control and the LQG global optimal control. The proposed method establishes a state space model for clock relationship, thus making dimension extension and parameter identification easier, and is robust to changes under the condition of node failures and new nodes. And through the design of different control strategies and performance index functions, the method can satisfy various requirements of the synchronization precision, convergence speed, energy consumption and the computational complexity, and so on. Finally, the simulations show that the synchronization accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of the existing protocol, and the former convergence speed of the synchronization error is faster.

  20. Passivity-Based Control of Electric Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklasson, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of controllers for a class of electric machines. Nonlinear controllers are derived from a Lagrangian model representation using passivity techniques, and previous results on induction motors are improved and extended to Blondel-Park transformable machines. The relation to conventional techniques is discussed, and it is shown that the formalism introduced in this work facilitates analysis of conventional methods, so that open questions concerning these methods may be resolved. In addition, the thesis contains the following improvements of previously published results on the control of induction motors: (1) Improvement of a passivity-based speed/position controller, (2) Extension of passivity-based (observer-less and observer-based) controllers from regulation to tracking of rotor flux norm, (3) An extension of the classical indirect FOC (Field-Oriented Control) scheme to also include global rotor flux norm tracking, instead of only torque tracking and rotor flux norm regulation. The design is illustrated experimentally by applying the proposed control schemes to a squirrel-cage induction motor. The results show that the proposed methods have advantages over previous designs with respect to controller tuning, performance and robustness. 145 refs., 21 figs.

  1. Effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical activity and walking in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Aki; Hakala, Sanna; Paltamaa, Jaana; Heinonen, Ari; Karvanen, Juha; Sjögren, Tuulikki

    2018-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) on physical activity and walking. A systematic literature search was conducted in seven databases from January 2000 to September 2016. Randomized controlled trials of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical activity and walking outcome measures were included. Methodological quality of the studies was determined and a meta-analysis was performed. In addition, a subanalysis of technologies and an additional analysis comparing to no treatment were conducted. The meta-analysis consisted of 11 studies. The methodological quality was good (8/13). The Internet, telephone, exergaming, and pedometers were the technologies enabling distance physical rehabilitation. Technology-based distance physical rehabilitation had a large effect on physical activity (standard mean difference (SMD) 0.59; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.38 to 0.79; p effect was also observed on physical activity (SMD 0.59; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.83; p technologies. Technology-based distance physical rehabilitation increased physical activity among persons with MS, but further research on walking in MS is needed. Implications for Rehabilitation Technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions increase physical activity among persons with MS. This study was unable to identify if the technologies (Internet, telephone, or combinations) lead to differing effects on physical activity or walking in the distance physical rehabilitation interventions in MS. Further research on the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on walking in MS is needed.

  2. Group-Based Diet and Physical Activity Weight-Loss Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Aleksandra J; Abraham, Charles; Greaves, Colin J; Tarrant, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Many weight-loss interventions are delivered in groups but evidence on their effectiveness, and characteristics associated with effectiveness, is limited. We synthesised evidence on (1) design and delivery of group-based weight-loss interventions; (2) effectiveness; and (3) associations between intervention characteristics, change techniques, and effectiveness. Five online databases were searched to May 2017 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of group-based diet and/or physical activity interventions for overweight/obese adults (BMI ≥ 25). Intervention characteristics were synthesised narratively. Mean differences (MD) in weight loss were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis, and sub-group analyses were conducted to identify moderators of effectiveness. Forty-seven RCTs reporting 60 evaluations of group-based interventions were included. MD in weight loss between intervention and control groups was -3.49 [95% CI -4.15, -2.84], -3.44 [-4.23, -2.85], and -2.56 kg [-3.79, -1.33] at follow-ups closest to 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Explicitly targeting weight loss, men-only groups providing feedback and dietary goals were significantly associated with greater effectiveness (p < .05). Diet and physical activity interventions delivered in groups are effective in promoting clinically meaningful weight loss at 12 months. Intervention design and effectiveness vary considerably between studies, and evidence on what optimises the effectiveness of group-based weight-loss interventions remains limited. © 2018 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Impact of Chemical-Based Mollusciciding for Control of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles H.; Sutherland, Laura J.; Bertsch, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Programs for schistosomiasis control are advancing worldwide, with many benefits noted in terms of disease reduction. Yet risk of reinfection and recurrent disease remain, even in areas with high treatment coverage. In the search for means to better prevent new Schistosoma infections, attention has returned to an older strategy for transmission control, i.e., chemical mollusciciding, to suppress intermediate host snail species responsible for S. mansoni and S. haematobium transmission. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize prior experience in molluscicide-based control of Bulinus and Biomphalaria spp. snails, and estimate its impact on local human Schistosoma infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was registered at inception with PROSPERO (CRD42013006869). Studies were identified by online database searches and hand searches of private archives. Eligible studies included published or unpublished mollusciciding field trials performed before January 2014 involving host snails for S. mansoni or S. haematobium, with a primary focus on the use of niclosamide. Among 63 included papers, there was large variability in terms of molluscicide dosing, and treatment intervals varied from 3–52 weeks depending on location, water source, and type of application. Among 35 studies reporting on prevalence, random effects meta-analysis indicated that, on average, odds of infection were reduced 77% (OR 0.23, CI95% 0.17, 0.31) during the course of mollusciciding, with increased impact if combined with drug therapy, and progressively greater impact over time. In 17 studies reporting local incidence, risk of new infection was reduced 64% (RR 0.36 CI95% 0.25, 0.5), but additional drug treatment did not appear to influence incidence effects. Conclusion/Significance While there are hurdles to implementing molluscicide control, its impact on local transmission is typically strong, albeit incomplete. Based on past experience

  4. Kinematics Control and Analysis of Industrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongbo; Cai, Fan; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The robot’s development present situation, basic principle and control system are introduced briefly. Research is mainly focused on the study of the robot’s kinematics and motion control. The structural analysis of a planar articulated robot (SCARA) robot is presented,the coordinate system is established to obtain the position and orientation matrix of the end effector,a method of robot kinematics analysis based on homogeneous transformation method is proposed, and the kinematics solution of the robot is obtained.Establishment of industrial robot’s kinematics equation and formula for positive kinematics by example. Finally,the kinematic analysis of this robot was verified by examples.It provides a basis for structural design and motion control.It has active significance to promote the motion control of industrial robot.

  5. Analysis and Control of Buck-Boost Converter with the Same Input Polarity Based on Novel Energy Factor Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaker Nasr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents firstly a buck-boost circuit with the advantage that its output voltage polarity is the same as the input polarity. The circuit operation is presented and analyzed in different modes of operation. The well known parameters used in evaluation of DC/DC converters like Total Harmonic Distortion THD, Power Factor PF, and Ripple Factor RF have no meaning in DC/DC converters, so it is to introduce efficient concepts to permit a fair evaluation of the converter. This paper present other parameters that can be used to study the characteristics of the converter and gives a real and logic means of its operation. These main parameters are: pumping energy PE, storage energy SE, energy factor EF, and energy losses EL. In addition, the converter efficiency is not considered as 100 % as taken in most analyzing studies. The positive DC/DC buck-boost converter is evaluated according to the new concepts and the system model is deduced for different cases of operation taking into account the resistance of the circuit inductor. The circuit is implemented practically and the presented obtained results show the correct operation under different modes of operation. In addition the control design of the converter is built such that a PI controller with windup is considered. In order to test the effectiveness of the designed control algorithm, the system were exposed to different voltage reference values and the obtained results demonstrate that the system responses for all cases are very acceptable according to the criteria of the control system theory.

  6. Response surface modeling-based source contribution analysis and VOC emission control policy assessment in a typical ozone-polluted urban Shunde, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Wang, Shuxiao; Gao, Jian; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Minhui; Zhu, Zhenghua; Wei, Hao; Yang, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    To develop a sound ozone (O 3 ) pollution control strategy, it is important to well understand and characterize the source contribution due to the complex chemical and physical formation processes of O 3 . Using the "Shunde" city as a pilot summer case study, we apply an innovative response surface modeling (RSM) methodology based on the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling simulations to identify the O 3 regime and provide dynamic analysis of the precursor contributions to effectively assess the O 3 impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy. Our results show that Shunde is a typical VOC-limited urban O 3 polluted city. The "Jiangmen" city, as the main upper wind area during July 2014, its VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions make up the largest contribution (9.06%). On the contrary, the contribution from local (Shunde) emission is lowest (6.35%) among the seven neighbor regions. The local VOCs industrial source emission has the largest contribution comparing to other precursor emission sectors in Shunde. The results of dynamic source contribution analysis further show that the local NO x control could slightly increase the ground O 3 under low (10.00%) and medium (40.00%) reduction ratios, while it could start to turn positive to decrease ground O 3 under the high NO x abatement ratio (75.00%). The real-time assessment of O 3 impacts from VOCs control strategies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) shows that the joint regional VOCs emission control policy will effectively reduce the ground O 3 concentration in Shunde. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Reduction of condom use errors from a brief, clinic-based intervention: a secondary analysis of data from a randomised, controlled trial of young black males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Salazar, Laura F

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that a brief, clinic-based, single-session programme will reduce the rate of 10 selected condom use errors in a clinical sample of young black men (YBM) ages 15 through 23 years. Data were collected in clinics treating patients with sexually transmitted infections (STI) in three southern US cities. Males 15-23 years of age who identified as black/African-American, and reported recent (past 2 months) condom use were eligible. Only those also reporting condom use in the 2 months prior to a 6-month follow-up assessment (n=311) were included in this secondary analysis of data from a randomised, controlled trial. Difference scores were used to capture a Group×Time effect. YBM reported 2232 condom use events in the 2 months preceding study enrolment and 2042 in the 2 months preceding the follow-up assessment. Mean baseline error rates were 1.32 and 1.13 for young men randomised to the intervention and control conditions, respectively. Follow-up rates were 1.11 and 3.59 for young men randomised to the intervention and control conditions, respectively. Controlled findings yielded a significant effect for the influence of group assignment on the difference score (baseline to follow-up) in the condom use error rate (β=0.13; p=0.02). A brief, clinic-based counselling programme produced modest reductions in condom use errors among YBM attending STI clinics in the southern USA Intensified clinic-based intervention that helps YBM improve the quality of their condom use behaviours is warranted. NCT00849823. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Impact of combined vector-control and vaccination strategies on transmission dynamics of dengue fever: a model-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerer, Gerhart; Currie, Christine S M; Brailsford, Sally C

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a vector-borne disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. It is an important public health problem with a considerable and often under-valued disease burden in terms of frequency, cost and quality-of-life. Recent literature reviews have documented the development of mathematical models of dengue fever both to identify important characteristics for future model development as well as to assess the impact of dengue control interventions. Such reviews highlight the importance of short-term cross-protection; antibody-dependent enhancement; and seasonality (in terms of both favourable and unfavourable conditions for mosquitoes). The compartmental model extends work by Bartley (2002) and combines the following factors: seasonality, age-structure, consecutive infection by all four serotypes, cross-protection and immune enhancement, as well as combined vector-host transmission. The model is used to represent dengue transmission dynamics using parameters appropriate for Thailand and to assess the potential impact of combined vector-control and vaccination strategies including routine and catch-up vaccination strategies on disease dynamics. When seasonality and temporary cross-protection between serotypes are included, the model is able to approximate the observed incidence of dengue fever in Thailand. We find vaccination to be the most effective single intervention, albeit with imperfect efficacy (30.2 %) and limited duration of protection. However, in combination, control interventions and vaccination exhibit a marked impact on dengue fever transmission. This study shows that an imperfect vaccine can be a useful weapon in reducing disease spread within the community, although it will be most effective when promoted as one of several strategies for combating dengue fever transmission.

  9. Target-controlled inhalation anaesthesia: A cost-benefit analysis based on the cost per minute of anaesthesia by inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonnard, Sébastien; Galy, Antoine; Cros, Jérôme; Daragon, Armelle Marie; Nathan, Nathalie

    2017-02-01

    End-tidal target-controlled inhalational anaesthesia (TCIA) with halogenated agents (HA) provides a faster and more accurately titrated anaesthesia as compared to manually-controlled anaesthesia. This study aimed to measure the macro-economic cost-benefit ratio of TCIA as compared to manually-controlled anaesthesia. This retrospective and descriptive study compared direct drug spending between two hospitals before 2011 and then after the replacement of three of six anaesthesia machines with TCIA mode machines in 2012 (Aisys carestation ® , GE). The direct costs were obtained from the pharmacy department and the number and duration of the anaesthesia procedures from the computerized files of the hospital. The cost of halogenated agents was reduced in the hospital equipped with an Aisys carestation ® by 13% as was the cost of one minute of anaesthesia by inhalation (€0.138 and €0.121/min between 2011 and 2012). The extra cost of the implementation of the 3 anaesthesia machines could be paid off with the resulting savings over 6 years. TCIA appears to have a favourable cost-benefit ratio. Despite a number of factors, which would tend to minimise the saving and increase costs, we still managed to observe a 13% savings. Shorter duration of surgery, type of induction as well as the way HA concentration is targeted may influence the savings results obtained. Copyright © 2016 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability analysis and model-based control in EXTRAP-T2R with time-delay compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Erik; Witrant, Emmanuel; Briat, Corentin; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian; Brunsell, Per

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we investigate the stability problems and control issues that occur in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) device, EXTRAP-T2R (T2R), used for research in fusion plasma physics and general plasma (ionized gas) dynamics. The plant exhibits, among other things, magnetohydrodynamic instabilities known as resistive-wall modes (RWMs), growing on a time-scale set by a surrounding non-perfectly conducting shell.We propose a novel model that takes into account experimen...

  11. Theory-based self-management educational interventions on patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Fang; Suhonen, Riitta; Koskinen, Sanna; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-04-01

    To synthesize the effects of theory-based self-management educational interventions on patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in randomized controlled trials. Type 2 diabetes is a common chronic disease causing complications that put a heavy burden on society and reduce the quality of life of patients. Good self-management of diabetes can prevent complications and improve the quality of life of T2DM patients. Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials following Cochrane methods. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PSYCINFO, and Web of Science databases (1980-April 2015). The risk of bias of these eligible studies was assessed independently by two authors using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. The Publication bias of the main outcomes was examined. Statistical heterogeneity and random-effects model were used for meta-analysis. Twenty studies with 5802 participants met the inclusion criteria. The interventions in the studies were based on one or more theories which mostly belong to mid-range theories. The pooled main outcomes by random-effects model showed significant improvements in HbA1c, self-efficacy, and diabetes knowledge, but not in BMI. As for quality of life, no conclusions can be drawn as the pooled outcome became the opposite with reduced heterogeneity after one study was excluded. No significant publication bias was found in the main outcomes. To get theory-based interventions to produce more effects, the role of patients should be more involved and stronger and the education team should be trained beyond the primary preparation for the self-management education program. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Influence of long-term wearing of unstable shoes on compensatory control of posture: an electromyography-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia S P; Silva, Andreia; Macedo, Rui; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of long-term wearing of unstable shoes (WUS) on compensatory postural adjustments (CPA) to an external perturbation. Participants were divided into two groups: one wore unstable shoes while the other wore conventional shoes for 8 weeks. The ground reaction force signal was used to calculate the anterior-posterior (AP) displacement of the centre of pressure (CoP) and the electromyographic signal of gastrocnemius medialis (GM), tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles was used to assess individual muscle activity, antagonist co-activation and reciprocal activation at the joint (TA/GM and RF/(BF+GM) pairs) and muscle group levels (ventral (TA+RF)/dorsal (GM+BF) pair) within time intervals typical for CPA. The electromyographic signal was also used to assess muscle latency. The variables described were evaluated before and after the 8-week period while wearing the unstable shoes and barefoot. Long-term WUS led to: an increase of BF activity in both conditions (barefoot and wearing the unstable shoes); a decrease of GM activity; an increase of antagonist co-activation and a decrease of reciprocal activation level at the TA/GM and ventral/dorsal pairs in the unstable shoe condition. Additionally, WUS led to a decrease in CoP displacement. However, no differences were observed in muscle onset and offset. Results suggest that the prolonged use of unstable shoes leads to increased ankle and muscle groups' antagonist co-activation levels and higher performance by the postural control system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Internet and computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression in youth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled outcome trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Daniel Ebert

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents are undertreated. Computer- and Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (cCBT may be an attractive treatment alternative to regular face-to-face treatment.This meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether cCBT is effective for treating symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth.We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases (Pubmed, Cochrane controlled trial register, PsychInfo up to December 4, 2013. Only randomized controlled trials in which a computer-, Internet- or mobile-based cognitive behavioral intervention targeting either depression, anxiety or both in children or adolescents up to the age of 25 were compared to a control condition were selected. We employed a random-effects pooling model in overall effect analyses and a mixed effect model for sub-group analyses. Searches resulted in identifying 13 randomized trials, including 796 children and adolescents that met inclusion criteria. Seven studies were directed at treating anxiety, four studies at depression, and two were of a transdiagnostic nature, targeting both anxiety and depression. The overall mean effect size (Hedges' g of cCBT on symptoms of anxiety or depression at post-test was g=0.72 (95% CI:0.55-0.90, numbers needed to be treated (NNT=2.56. Heterogeneity was low (I²=20.14%, 95% CI: 0-58%. The superiority of cCBT over controls was evident for interventions targeting anxiety (g=0.68; 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; p < .001; NNT=2.70 and for interventions targeting depression (g=0.76; 95% CI: 0.41-0.12; p < .001; NNT=2.44 as well as for transdiagnostic interventions (g=0.94; 95% CI: 0.23-2.66; p < .001; NNT=2.60.Results provide evidence for the efficacy of cCBT in the treatment of anxiety and depressive symptoms in youth. Hence, such interventions may be a promising treatment alternative when evidence based face-to-face treatment is not feasible. Future studies should examine long-term effects of treatments and should

  14. Financial Analysis, Budgeting, Decision and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic processes taking place in the economic environment are stochastic processes that involve and imply risks, arising from product diversification, competition, financial derivatives transactions: swaps, futures, options and from the large number of actors involved in the stock market with a higher or a smaller uncertainty degree. Competition and competitiveness, led to major and rapid change in the business environment, they determined actors participating in the economy to find solutions and methods of collecting and processing data, in such a way that, after being transformed into information they quickly help based on their analysis in decision making, planning and financial forecasting, having an effect on increasing their economic efficiency. In these circumstances the financial analysis, decision, forecasting and control, should be based on quality information that should be a value creation source. The active nature of the financial function implies the existence of a substantially large share of financial analysis, financial decision, forecasting and control.

  15. Takagi-Sugeno model based analysis of EWMA RtR control of batch processes with stochastic metrology delay and mixed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Wong, David Shan-Hill; Wang, Yan-Wei; Fang, Huajing

    2014-07-01

    In many batch-based industrial manufacturing processes, feedback run-to-run control is used to improve production quality. However, measurements may be expensive and cannot always be performed online. Thus, the measurement delay always exists. The metrology delay will affect the stability and performance of the process. Moreover, since quality measurements are performed offline, delay is not fixed but is stochastic in nature. In this paper, a modeling approach Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) model is presented to handle stochastic metrology delay in both single-product and mixed-product processes. Based on the Markov characteristics of the delay, the membership of the T-S model is derived. Performance indices such as the mean and the variance of the closed-loop output of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control algorithm can be derived. A steady-state error of the process output always exists, which leads the output deviating from the target. To remove the steady-state error, an algorithm called compensatory EWMA run-to-run (COM-EWMA-RtR) algorithm is proposed. The validity of the T-S model analysis and the efficiency of the proposed COM-EWMA-RtR algorithm are confirmed by simulation.

  16. A Bayesian cost-effectiveness analysis of a telemedicine-based strategy for the management of sleep apnoea: a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isetta, Valentina; Negrín, Miguel A; Monasterio, Carmen; Masa, Juan F; Feu, Nuria; Álvarez, Ainhoa; Campos-Rodriguez, Francisco; Ruiz, Concepción; Abad, Jorge; Vázquez-Polo, Francisco J; Farré, Ramon; Galdeano, Marina; Lloberes, Patricia; Embid, Cristina; de la Peña, Mónica; Puertas, Javier; Dalmases, Mireia; Salord, Neus; Corral, Jaime; Jurado, Bernabé; León, Carmen; Egea, Carlos; Muñoz, Aida; Parra, Olga; Cambrodi, Roser; Martel-Escobar, María; Arqué, Meritxell; Montserrat, Josep M

    2015-11-01

    Compliance with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is essential in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), but adequate control is not always possible. This is clinically important because CPAP can reverse the morbidity and mortality associated with OSA. Telemedicine, with support provided via a web platform and video conferences, could represent a cost-effective alternative to standard care management. To assess the telemedicine impact on treatment compliance, cost-effectiveness and improvement in quality of life (QoL) when compared with traditional face-to-face follow-up. A randomised controlled trial was performed to compare a telemedicine-based CPAP follow-up strategy with standard face-to-face management. Consecutive OSA patients requiring CPAP treatment, with sufficient internet skills and who agreed to participate, were enrolled. They were followed-up at 1, 3 and 6 months and answered surveys about sleep, CPAP side effects and lifestyle. We compared CPAP compliance, cost-effectiveness and QoL between the beginning and the end of the study. A Bayesian cost-effectiveness analysis with non-informative priors was performed. We randomised 139 patients. At 6 months, we found similar levels of CPAP compliance, and improved daytime sleepiness, QoL, side effects and degree of satisfaction in both groups. Despite requiring more visits, the telemedicine group was more cost-effective: costs were lower and differences in effectiveness were not relevant. A telemedicine-based strategy for the follow-up of CPAP treatment in patients with OSA was as effective as standard hospital-based care in terms of CPAP compliance and symptom improvement, with comparable side effects and satisfaction rates. The telemedicine-based strategy had lower total costs due to savings on transport and less lost productivity (indirect costs). NCT01716676. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  17. Robust motion control of oscillatory-base manipulators h∞-control and sliding-mode-control-based approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Toda, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with alternative robust approaches to control design for an important class of systems characteristically associated with ocean-going vessels and structures. These systems, which include crane vessels, on-board cranes, radar gimbals, and a conductivity temperature and depth winch, are modelled as manipulators with oscillating bases. One design approach is based on the H-infinity control framework exploiting an effective combination of PD control, an extended matrix polytope and a robust stability analysis method with a state-dependent coefficient form. The other is based on sliding-mode control using some novel nonlinear sliding surfaces. The model demonstrates how successful motion control can be achieved by suppressing base oscillations and in the presence of uncertainties. This is important not only for ocean engineering systems in which the problems addressed here originate but more generally as a benchmark platform for robust motion control with disturbance rejection. Researche...

  18. Web-based physical activity interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiry, Leila; Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Pashaei, T

    2017-11-01

    It was estimated that approximately 60% of the world's population is classified as inactive or insufficiently active. This meta-analysis investigated the effect of web-based interventions on different types of physical activity (PA) measurements in general population and potential moderating variables. PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost, PsycINFO, Scopus, Ovid, and ScienceDirect literature searches were conducted to identify studies investigating the effect of web-based interventions on PA. Randomized controlled trials on PA changes reported in moderate to vigorous intensity, walking, and step count in the intervention group in comparison with the control group were pooled with a fixed-effects model separately. A total of 22 studies comprising 16,476 and 14,475 subjects in intervention and control groups respectively were included. Web-based interventions had positive and significant effect on increasing PA. Of 14 trials reporting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), five showed a significant increase in the MVPA level after the intervention. There was significant heterogeneity between studies (P < 0.001 and I 2  = 67.8%). Of six trials that reported the number of steps by using the pedometer, three showed a significant increase for the step counts in intervention groups (P < 0.001 and I 2  = 93.3%), of 14 trials assessed PA level by reporting walking minutes per week, four studies showed a significant increase in walking minutes. There was significant heterogeneity between studies (P < 0.001, I 2  = 68.1%). Overall, the effect of web-based interventions seemed to be influenced by the characteristics of mean age of participants, trial duration, and study quality (P < 0.05). The web-based PA interventions had a positive significant effect on increasing all the three types of PA among the general population. However, the effects appear to depend on the design of the study, age, and duration of studies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public

  19. Beam based systems and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, D

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will give a review from the operations team of the performance and issues of the beam based systems, namely RF, ADT, beam instrumentation, controls and injection systems. For each of these systems, statistics on performance and availability will be presented with the main issues encountered in 2012. The possible improvements for operational efficiency and safety will be discussed, with an attempt to answer the question "Are we ready for the new challenges brought by the 25ns beam and increased energy after LSI? ".

  20. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  2. Mindfulness-based interventions for people diagnosed with a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Strauss

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can reduce risk of depressive relapse for people with a history of recurrent depression who are currently well. However, the cognitive, affective and motivational features of depression and anxiety might render MBIs ineffective for people experiencing current symptoms. This paper presents a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs of MBIs where participants met diagnostic criteria for a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder. METHOD: Post-intervention between-group Hedges g effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Moderator analyses of primary diagnosis, intervention type and control condition were conducted and publication bias was assessed. RESULTS: Twelve studies met inclusion criteria (n = 578. There were significant post-intervention between-group benefits of MBIs relative to control conditions on primary symptom severity (Hedges g = -0.59, 95% CI = -0.12 to -1.06. Effects were demonstrated for depressive symptom severity (Hedges g = -0.73, 95% CI = -0.09 to -1.36, but not for anxiety symptom severity (Hedges g = -0.55, 95% CI = 0.09 to -1.18, for RCTs with an inactive control (Hedges g = -1.03, 95% CI = -0.40 to -1.66, but not where there was an active control (Hedges g = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.54 to -0.48 and effects were found for MBCT (Hedges g = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.15 to -0.63 but not for MBSR (Hedges g = -0.75, 95% CI = 0.31 to -1.81. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population.

  3. A LabVIEW®-based software for the control of the AUTORAD platform. A fully automated multisequential flow injection analysis Lab-on-Valve (MSFIA-LOV) system for radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbesi, Donato; Vilas, Victor Vicente; Millet, Sylvain; Sandow, Miguel; Colle, Jean-Yves; Heras, Laura Aldave de las

    2017-01-01

    A LabVIEW®-based software for the control of the fully automated multi-sequential flow injection analysis Lab-on-Valve (MSFIA-LOV) platform AutoRAD performing radiochemical analysis is described. The analytical platform interfaces an Arduino®-based device triggering multiple detectors providing a flexible and fit for purpose choice of detection systems. The different analytical devices are interfaced to the PC running LabVIEW®VI software using USB and RS232 interfaces, both for sending commands and receiving confirmation or error responses. The AUTORAD platform has been successfully applied for the chemical separation and determination of Sr, an important fission product pertinent to nuclear waste. (author)

  4. A LabVIEW®-based software for the control of the AUTORAD platform: a fully automated multisequential flow injection analysis Lab-on-Valve (MSFIA-LOV) system for radiochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbesi, Donato; Vicente Vilas, Víctor; Millet, Sylvain; Sandow, Miguel; Colle, Jean-Yves; Aldave de Las Heras, Laura

    2017-01-01

    A LabVIEW ® -based software for the control of the fully automated multi-sequential flow injection analysis Lab-on-Valve (MSFIA-LOV) platform AutoRAD performing radiochemical analysis is described. The analytical platform interfaces an Arduino ® -based device triggering multiple detectors providing a flexible and fit for purpose choice of detection systems. The different analytical devices are interfaced to the PC running LabVIEW ® VI software using USB and RS232 interfaces, both for sending commands and receiving confirmation or error responses. The AUTORAD platform has been successfully applied for the chemical separation and determination of Sr, an important fission product pertinent to nuclear waste.

  5. Effectiveness of online mindfulness-based interventions in improving mental health: A review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerman, M P J; Pots, W T M; Bohlmeijer, E T

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are increasingly being delivered through the Internet. Whereas numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effectiveness of face-to-face MBIs in the context of mental health and well-being, thus far a quantitative synthesis of the effectiveness of online MBIs is lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall effects of online MBIs on mental health. Fifteen randomised controlled trials were included in this study. A random effects model was used to compute pre-post between-group effect sizes, and the study quality of each of the included trials was rated. Results showed that online MBIs have a small but significant beneficial impact on depression (g=0.29), anxiety (g=0.22), well-being (g=0.23) and mindfulness (g=0.32). The largest effect was found for stress, with a moderate effect size (g=0.51). For stress and mindfulness, exploratory subgroup analyses demonstrated significantly higher effect sizes for guided online MBIs than for unguided online MBIs. In addition, meta-regression analysis showed that effect sizes for stress were significantly moderated by the number of intervention sessions. Effect sizes, however, were not significantly related to study quality. The findings indicate that online MBIs have potential to contribute to improving mental health outcomes, particularly stress. Limitations, directions for future research and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Model based design of electronic throttle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Fenin; Ranjan, Ashish; Bhowmick, Pathikrit; Rammohan, A.

    2017-11-01

    With the advent of torque based Engine Management Systems, the precise control and robust performance of the throttle body becomes a key factor in the overall performance of the vehicle. Electronic Throttle Control provides benefits such as improved air-fuel ratio for improving the vehicle performance and lower exhausts emissions to meet the stringent emission norms. Modern vehicles facilitate various features such as Cruise Control, Traction Control, Electronic Stability Program and Pre-crash systems. These systems require control over engine power without driver intervention, which is not possible with conventional mechanical throttle system. Thus these systems are integrated to function with the electronic throttle control. However, due to inherent non-linearities in the throttle body, the control becomes a difficult task. In order to eliminate the influence of this hysteresis at the initial operation of the butterfly valve, a control to compensate the shortage must be added to the duty required for starting throttle operation when the initial operation is detected. Therefore, a lot of work is being done in this field to incorporate the various nonlinearities to achieve robust control. In our present work, the ETB was tested to verify the working of the system. Calibration of the TPS sensors was carried out in order to acquire accurate throttle opening angle. The response of the calibrated system was then plotted against a step input signal. A linear model of the ETB was prepared using Simulink and its response was compared with the experimental data to find out the initial deviation of the model from the actual system. To reduce this deviation, non-linearities from existing literature were introduced to the system and a response analysis was performed to check the deviation from the actual system. Based on this investigation, an introduction of a new nonlinearity parameter can be used in future to reduce the deviation further making the control of the ETB more

  7. Exposure to ionizing radiation during dental X-rays is not associated with risk of developing meningioma: a meta-analysis based on seven case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    Full Text Available Many observational studies have found that exposure to dental X-rays is associated with the risk of development of meningioma. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Summary odds ratio (OR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were used to compute the risk of meningioma development according to heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to further explore the potential heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed.Seven case-control studies involving 6,174 patients and 19,459 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Neither exposure to dental X-rays nor performance of full-mouth panorex X-rays was associated with an increased risk of development of meningioma (overall: OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.70-1.32; dental X-rays: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.89-1.25; panorex X-rays: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.76-1.34. However, exposure to bitewing X-rays was associated with a slightly increased risk of development of meningioma (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34. Similar results were obtained in the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Little evidence of publication bias was observed.Based on the currently limited data, there is no association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of the heterogeneity among studies. Additional large, high-quality clinical trials are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.

  8. Exposure to ionizing radiation during dental X-rays is not associated with risk of developing meningioma: a meta-analysis based on seven case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Luo, Hong; Huang, Guang-Lei; Yin, Xin-Hai; Luo, Si-Yang; Song, Ju-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many observational studies have found that exposure to dental X-rays is associated with the risk of development of meningioma. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Summary odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to compute the risk of meningioma development according to heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to further explore the potential heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed. Seven case-control studies involving 6,174 patients and 19,459 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Neither exposure to dental X-rays nor performance of full-mouth panorex X-rays was associated with an increased risk of development of meningioma (overall: OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.70-1.32; dental X-rays: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.89-1.25; panorex X-rays: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.76-1.34). However, exposure to bitewing X-rays was associated with a slightly increased risk of development of meningioma (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34). Similar results were obtained in the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. Based on the currently limited data, there is no association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of the heterogeneity among studies. Additional large, high-quality clinical trials are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.

  9. Software based controls module development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, v.b.; kelley, g; welch, j.c.

    1999-12-10

    A project was initiated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to implement software geometric error compensation within a PC-based machine tool controller from Manufacturing Data Systems, Inc. This project may be the first in which this type of compensation system was implemented in a commercially available machine tool controller totally in software. Previous implementations typically required using an external computer and hardware to interface through the position feedback loop of the controller because direct access to the controller software was not available. The test-bed machine for this project was a 2-axis Excello 921 T-base lathe. A mathematical error model of the lathe was created using homogeneous transformation matrices to relate the positions of the machine's slides to each other and to a world reference system. Equations describing the effects of the geometric errors were derived from the model. A software architecture was developed to support geometric error compensation for machine tools with up to 3 linear axes. Rotary axes were not supported in this implementation, but the developed architecture would not preclude their support in the future. Specific implementations will be dependent upon the configuration of the machine tool. A laser measuring system from Automated Precision, Inc. was used to characterize the lathe's geometric errors as functions of axis position and direction of motion. Multiple data files generated by the laser system were combined into a single Error File that was read at system startup and used by the compensation system to provide real-time position adjustments to the axis servos. A Renishaw Ballbar was used to evaluate the compensation system. Static positioning tests were conducted in an attempt to observe improved positioning accuracy with the compensation system enabled. These tests gave inconsistent results due to the lathe's inability to position the tool repeatably. The development of the architecture and

  10. Incretin-based therapies and risk of pancreatic cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haining; Liu, Ye; Tian, Qing; Yang, Jin; Lu, Ran; Zhan, Siyan; Haukka, Jari; Hong, Tianpei

    2018-04-01

    To perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including 6 recently published large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs), to evaluate the risk of pancreatic cancer with incretin-based therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). For the period January 1, 2007 to May 1, 2017, the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register and ClininalTrials.gov databases were searched for RCTs in people with T2DM that compared incretin drugs with placebo or other antidiabetic drugs, with treatment and follow-up durations of ≥52 weeks. Two reviewers screened the studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias independently and in duplicate. A total of 33 studies (n = 79 971), including the 6 CVOTs, with 87 pancreatic cancer events were identified. Overall, the pancreatic cancer risk was not increased in patients administered incretin drugs compared with controls (Peto odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-1.02). In the 6 CVOTs, 79 pancreatic cancer events were identified in 55 248 participants. Pooled estimates of the 6 CVOTs showed an identical tendency (Peto OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-1.01). Notably, in the subgroup of participants who received treatment and follow-up for ≥104 weeks, 84 pancreatic cancer events were identified in 59 919 participants, and a lower risk of pancreatic cancer was associated with incretin-based therapies (Peto OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.95). Treatment with incretin drugs was not associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in people with T2DM. Instead, it might protect against pancreatic malignancy in patients treated for ≥104 weeks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Smartphone-based reminder system to promote pelvic floor muscle training for the management of postnatal urinary incontinence: historical control study with propensity score-matched analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kinouchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a smartphone-based reminder system in promoting pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT to help postpartum women manage urinary incontinence (UI. Methods Forty-nine and 212 postpartum women in the intervention and control groups, respectively, received PFMT guidance using a leaflet and verbal instruction as the standard care at an obstetrics clinic in Japan. Women in the intervention group also received PFMT support using the smartphone-based reminder system between January and August 2014. For analysis, they were compared with historical controls between February 2011 and January 2012, who did not receive such support and were chosen by propensity score matching. The outcomes examined were PFMT adherence and UI prevalence. The former consisted of implementation rate (i.e., the percentage of women who reported performing PFMT during the intervention period, training intensity (i.e., the number of pelvic floor muscle contractions (PFMCs per day, and training frequency (i.e., the number of days PFMT was performed per week; the latter consisted of self-reported UI prevalence at baseline and at the end of the eight-week intervention period. Result Propensity score matching resulted in 58 postpartum women (n = 29 per group. The intervention group exhibited better PFMT adherence than the control group, in terms of PFMT implementation rate (69 vs. 31%, p = 0.008, median training intensity (15 vs. 1 PFMC reps/day, p = 0.006, and training frequency (7 vs. 3 days/week, p < 0.001. UI prevalence was not different between the groups at baseline, but was significantly reduced in the intervention group at eight weeks (0 vs. 24%, p = 0.004. Conclusion Our smartphone-based reminder system appears promising in enhancing PFMT adherence and managing postpartum UI in postpartum women. By enhancing PFMT adherence and improving women’s ability to manage the condition, the reminder system could

  12. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  13. Impact of Information Technology-Based Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Nouf Sahal; Alsubki, Nada; Jones, Simon; Khunti, Kamlesh; Munro, Neil; de Lusignan, Simon

    2016-11-25

    Information technology-based interventions are increasingly being used to manage health care. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding whether these interventions improve outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, assessing the impact of information technology on changes in the levels of hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) and mapping the interventions with chronic care model (CCM) elements. Electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant studies that were published up until July 2016, a method that was supplemented by identifying articles from the references of the articles already selected using the electronic search tools. The study search and selection were performed by independent reviewers. Of the 1082 articles retrieved, 32 trials (focusing on a total of 40,454 patients) were included. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled results. Information technology-based interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction in HbA 1c levels (mean difference -0.33%, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.26, Ptechnology-based interventions were, the more improvements there were in HbA 1c levels. Information technology strategies combined with the other elements of chronic care models are associated with improved glycemic control in people with diabetes. No clinically relevant impact was observed on low-density lipoprotein levels and blood pressure, but there was evidence that the cost of care was lower. ©Nouf Sahal Alharbi, Nada Alsubki, Simon Jones, Kamlesh Khunti, Neil Munro, Simon de Lusignan. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 25.11.2016.

  14. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazwani Samson

    Full Text Available A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68, xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56% followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%, VCO (22.8% and water (21.74%. The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.

  15. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Shazwani; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Abdul Malek, Emilia; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO) nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound) was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68), xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56%) followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%), VCO (22.8%) and water (21.74%). The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.

  16. Physical controls and patterns of recruitment on the Drôme River (SE France): An analysis based on a chronosequence of high resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegay, H.; Stella, J. C.; Raepple, B.

    2014-12-01

    Along with the recent recognition of the role of vegetation in influencing channel hydraulics, and thus fluvial morphology comes the need for scientific research on vegetation recruitment and its control factors. Flood disturbance is known to create a suitable physical template for the establishment of woody pioneers. Sapling recruitment patterns and underlying physical controls were investigated on a 5 km braided reach of the Drôme River in South-eastern France, following the 2003 50-year flood event. The approach was based on the analysis of a chronosequence of high resolution aerial images acquired yearly between 2005 and 2011, complemented by airborne LiDAR data and field observations. The study highlights how physical complexity induced by natural variations in hydro-climatic and consequently hydro-geomorphic conditions facilitates variable patterns of recruitment. The initial post-flood vegetative units, which covered up to 10% of the total active channel area in 2005, was seen to double within six years. The variability of hydro-climatic conditions was reflected in the temporal and spatial patterns of recruitment, with a pronounced peak of vegetation expansion in 2007 and a decreasing trend following higher flows in 2009. Recruitment was further seen to be sustained in a variety of geomorphic units, which showed different probabilities and patterns of recruitment. Active channels were the prominent geomorphic unit in terms of total biomass development, while in-channel wood units showed the highest probability for recruitment. Vegetation recruitment understanding is becoming crucial for predicting fluvial system evolution in different hydroclimatic contexts. Applied, these findings may contribute to improve efforts made in the field of flood risk management, as well as restoration planning.

  17. Effectiveness of Short-Term Inpatient Psychotherapy Based on Transactional Analysis With Patients With Personality Disorders: A Matched Control Study Using Propensity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eva K; Verheul, Roel; Thunnissen, Moniek; Delimon, Jos; Soons, Mirjam; Meerman, Anke M M A; Ziegler, Uli M; Rossum, Bert V; Andrea, Helene; Stijnen, Theo; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2015-10-01

    Controlled studies on the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy with patients with personality disorders (PD) are rare. This study aims to compare 3-month short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis (STIP-TA) with other psychotherapies (OP) up to 36-month follow-up. PD patients treated with STIP-TA were matched with OP patients using the propensity score. The primary outcome measure was general psychiatric symptomatology; secondary outcomes were psychosocial functioning and quality of life. In 67 pairs of patients, both STIP-TA and OP showed large symptomatic and functional improvements. However, STIP-TA patients showed more symptomatic improvement at all time points compared to OP patients. At 36 months, 68% of STIP-TA patients were symptomatically recovered compared to 48% of OP patients. STIP-TA outperformed OP in terms of improvements in general psychiatric symptomatology and quality of life. Superiority of STIP-TA was most pronounced at 12-month follow-up, but remained intact over the course of the 3-year follow-up.

  18. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    -and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  19. RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Mari Maass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold

  20. Audit-based compliance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dimitrakos, T.; Corin, R.J.; Martinelli, F.; Ryan, P.Y.A.; Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; Schneider, S.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new framework for controlling compliance to discretionary access control policies [Cederquist et al. in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY), 2005; Corin et al. in Proceedings of the IFIP Workshop on Formal

  1. A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a School-Based Resilience Intervention to Prevent Depressive Symptoms for Young Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Bethany A.; Shochet, Ian M.; Orr, Jayne A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased depression in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), effective prevention approaches for this population are limited. A mixed methods pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 29) of the evidence-based Resourceful Adolescent Program-Autism Spectrum Disorder (RAP-A-ASD) designed to prevent depression was conducted in…

  2. Blood transfusion strategy and risk of postoperative delirium in nursing homes residents with hip fracture. A post hoc analysis based on the TRIFE randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandfort, Sif; Gregersen, Merete; Borris, Lars Carl; Damsgaard, Else Marie

    2017-06-01

    To investigate whether a liberal blood transfusion strategy [Hb levels ≥11.3 g/dL (7 mmol/L)] reduces the risk of postoperative delirium (POD) on day 10, among nursing home residents with hip fracture, compared to a restrictive transfusion strategy [Hb levels ≥9.7 g/dL (6 mmol/L)]. Furthermore, to investigate whether POD influences mortality within 90 days after hip surgery. This is a post hoc analysis based on The TRIFE - a randomized controlled trial. Frail anemic patients from the Orthopedic Surgical Ward at Aarhus University Hospital were enrolled consecutively between January 18, 2010 and June 6, 2013. These patients (aged ≥65 years) had been admitted from nursing homes for unilateral hip fracture surgery. After surgery, 179 patients were included in this study. On the first day of hospitalization, all enrolled patients were examined for cognitive impairment (assessed by MMSE) and delirium (assessed by CAM). Delirium was also assessed on the tenth postoperative day. The prevalence of delirium was 10 % in patients allocated to a liberal blood transfusion strategy (LB) and 21 % in the group with a restrictive blood transfusion strategy (RB). LB prevents development of delirium on day 10, compared to RB, odds ratio 0.41 (95 % CI 0.17-0.96), p = 0.04. Development of POD on day 10 increased the risk of 90-day death, hazard ratio 3.14 (95 % CI 1.72-5.78), p < 0.001. In nursing home residents undergoing surgery for hip fracture, maintaining hemoglobin level above 11.3 g/dL reduces the rate of POD on day 10 compared to a RB. Development of POD is associated with increased mortality.

  3. Gender-based outcomes of bivalirudin versus heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, George S; Firouzbakht, Tina; Modi, Kalgi; Dominic, Paari

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to perform a gender-based meta-analysis of the outcome of bivalirudin versus heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Bivalirudin has been shown to decrease major bleeding when compared to heparin ± glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in patients undergoing PCI. It is unclear, however, if those differences in outcomes are the same for men and women. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared bivalirudin to heparin with or without GPI in patients undergoing PCI and reported outcome data that were stratified by gender. Random effect model was used to pool odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 9 trials with 33,224 patients. Bivalirudin decreased major bleeding when compared to heparin plus routine GPI in both men (OR: 0.51, P < 0.001) and women (OR: 0.55, P < 0.001). However, when GPI were used selectively with heparin, the bleeding lowering effect of bivalirudin was statistically significant in men (OR: 0.69, P = 0.02) but not in women (OR: 0.71, P = 0.21). When compared to heparin ± GPI, there was a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower all-cause mortality with bivalirudin in both men (OR: 0.76, P = 0.055) and women (OR: 0.79, P = 0.21). There were no significant differences in major adverse cardiovascular events between heparin and bivalirudin in both men and women. Bivalirudin decreases major bleeding in both men and women when compared to heparin plus routine GPI. However, when compared to heparin alone, the bleeding lowering benefit of bivalirudin is less evident in women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Distributed Web-Based Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Langmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a concept and application examples for a distributed Web-based control system (DWCS. The DWCS is based of two key components: an IEC 61131-programmable Web control and a process data proxy as the process interface. Control functions can be distributed and executed ad lib in the Intranet/Internet via the DWCS.

  5. Noninteracting control of nonlinear systems based on relaxed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose methodology to solve noninteracting control problem for general nonlinear systems based on the relaxed control technique proposed by Artstein. For a class of nonlinear systems which cannot be stabilized by smooth feedback, a state-feedback relaxed control can be designed to

  6. Model-Based Fault Tolerant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Viassolo, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The Model Based Fault Tolerant Control (MBFTC) task was conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goal of MBFTC is to develop and demonstrate real-time strategies to diagnose and accommodate anomalous aircraft engine events such as sensor faults, actuator faults, or turbine gas-path component damage that can lead to in-flight shutdowns, aborted take offs, asymmetric thrust/loss of thrust control, or engine surge/stall events. A suite of model-based fault detection algorithms were developed and evaluated. Based on the performance and maturity of the developed algorithms two approaches were selected for further analysis: (i) multiple-hypothesis testing, and (ii) neural networks; both used residuals from an Extended Kalman Filter to detect the occurrence of the selected faults. A simple fusion algorithm was implemented to combine the results from each algorithm to obtain an overall estimate of the identified fault type and magnitude. The identification of the fault type and magnitude enabled the use of an online fault accommodation strategy to correct for the adverse impact of these faults on engine operability thereby enabling continued engine operation in the presence of these faults. The performance of the fault detection and accommodation algorithm was extensively tested in a simulation environment.

  7. Parameter optimization through performance analysis of model based control of a batch heat treatment furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sanyal, Dipankar

    2005-01-01

    A model based control structure for heat treating a 0.5% C steel slab in a batch furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner is designed and tested for performance to yield optimal parameter values using the model developed in the companion paper. Combustion is considered in a highly preheated and product gas diluted mode. Controlled combustion with a proposed arrangement for preheating and diluting the air by recirculating the exhaust gas that can be retrofitted with an existing burner yields satisfactory performance and emission characteristics. Finally, the effect of variable property considerations are presented and critically analyzed

  8. Base compaction specification feasibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this research is to establish the technical engineering and cost : analysis concepts that will enable WisDOT management to objectively evaluate the : feasibility of switching construction specification philosophies for aggregate base...

  9. Modular Control Flow Analysis for Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2002-01-01

    One problem in analyzing object oriented languages is that the exact control flow graph is not known statically due to dynamic dispatching. However, this is needed in order to apply the large class of known interprocedural analysis. Control Flow Analysis in the object oriented setting aims at det...... at determining run-time types of variables, thus allowing to possibly targeted method implementations. We present a flow sensitive analysis that allows separate handling of libraries and thereby efficient analysis of whole programs....

  10. Flight test trajectory control analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1983-01-01

    Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.

  11. Control of origin of sesame oil from various countries by stable isotope analysis and DNA based markers--a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Horacek

    Full Text Available The indication of origin of sesame seeds and sesame oil is one of the important factors influencing its price, as it is produced in many regions worldwide and certain provenances are especially sought after. We joined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis with DNA based molecular marker analysis to study their combined potential for the discrimination of different origins of sesame seeds. For the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope data a positive correlation between both isotope parameters was observed, indicating a dominant combined influence of climate and water availability. This enabled discrimination between sesame samples from tropical and subtropical/moderate climatic provenances. Carbon isotope values also showed differences between oil from black and white sesame seeds from identical locations, indicating higher water use efficiency of plants producing black seeds. DNA based markers gave independent evidence for geographic variation as well as provided information on the genetic relatedness of the investigated samples. Depending on the differences in ambient environmental conditions and in the genotypic fingerprint, a combination of both analytical methods is a very powerful tool to assess the declared geographic origin. To our knowledge this is the first paper on food authenticity combining the stable isotope analysis of bio-elements with DNA based markers and their combined statistical analysis.

  12. Conflicts versus analytical redundancy relations: a comparative analysis of the model based diagnosis approach from the artificial intelligence and automatic control perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Marie-Odile; Dague, Philippe; Lévy, François; Montmain, Jacky; Staroswiecki, Marcel; Travé-Massuyès, Louise

    2004-10-01

    Two distinct and parallel research communities have been working along the lines of the model-based diagnosis approach: the fault detection and isolation (FDI) community and the diagnostic (DX) community that have evolved in the fields of automatic control and artificial intelligence, respectively. This paper clarifies and links the concepts and assumptions that underlie the FDI analytical redundancy approach and the DX consistency-based logical approach. A formal framework is proposed in order to compare the two approaches and the theoretical proof of their equivalence together with the necessary and sufficient conditions is provided.

  13. Transputer-based readout controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.

    1989-01-01

    A bus-oriented readout controller is described that uses a transputer both as a direct memory access (DMA) device and a crate processor. It achieves data transfer rates of up to 13 Mbytes/s, yet is very simple in design. Data transfer is reduced to moving arrays within memory, which eliminates the need for bus arbitration and interfacing logic. A trivial extension of the basic design results in a twofold increase in the maximum data transfer speed, to 27 Mbytes/s. A second transputer, added to the crate controller for extra flexibility and processing power, enables it to form part of a second level data acquisition system, with a total of 8 links (maximum link speed 20 Mbits/s) available for intercrate communications. This design was developed for the readout system of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector. (orig.)

  14. Transputer-based readout controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.

    1989-05-01

    A bus-oriented readout controller is described that uses a transputer both as a direct memory access (DMA) device and a crate processor. It achieves data transfer rates of up to 13 Mbytes/s, yet is very simple in design. Data transfer is reduced to moving arrays within memory, which eliminates the need for bus arbitration and interfacing logic. A trivial extension of the basic design results in a twofold increase in the maximum data transfer speed, to 27 Mbytes/s. A second transputer, added to the crate controller for extra flexibility and processing power, enables it to form part of a second level data acquisition system, with a total of 8 links (maximum link speed 20 Mbits/s) available for intercrate communications. This design was developed for the readout system of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector.

  15. Cloud-based Networked Visual Servo Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Lu, Lei; Chen, Chih-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The performance of vision-based control systems, in particular of highly dynamic vision-based motion control systems, is often limited by the low sampling rate of the visual feedback caused by the long image processing time. In order to overcome this problem, the networked visual servo control...... feedback, ii) a stabilizing control law for the networked visual servo control system with time-varying feedback time delay, and iii) a sending rate scheduling strategy aiming at reducing the communication network load. The performance of the networked visual servo control system with sending rate...

  16. Disturbance observer based current controller for vector controlled IM drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Dal, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the accuracy of the current control loop, usually, well known parameter compensation and/or cross decoupling techniques are employed for advanced ac drives. In this paper, instead of using these techniques an observer-based current controller is proposed for vector controlled...... induction motor (IM) drives. The control design, based on synchronously rotating d-q frame model of the machine, has a simple structure that combines the proportional portion of a conventional PI control and output of the observer. The observer is predicted to estimate the disturbances caused by parameters...... change in current control loop and, also to remove undesired cross coupling existing between components of the stator current. The observer uses the measured stator currents and estimated PWM voltages, and produces a disturbance signal with a low pass filter. The proposed control scheme reduces cross...

  17. FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR EMG BASED PROSTHESES CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aishwarya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of prosthetic limb would be more effective if it is based on Surface Electromyogram (SEMG signals from remnant muscles. The analysis of SEMG signals depend on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time- and frequency-domain properties. Time series analysis using Auto Regressive (AR model and Mean frequency which is tolerant to white Gaussian noise are used as feature extraction techniques. EMG Histogram is used as another feature vector that was seen to give more distinct classification. The work was done with SEMG dataset obtained from the NINAPRO DATABASE, a resource for bio robotics community. Eight classes of hand movements hand open, hand close, Wrist extension, Wrist flexion, Pointing index, Ulnar deviation, Thumbs up, Thumb opposite to little finger are taken into consideration and feature vectors are extracted. The feature vectors can be given to an artificial neural network for further classification in controlling the prosthetic arm which is not dealt in this paper.

  18. Performance and Analysis of an Asynchronous Motor Drive with a New Modified Type-2 Neuro Fuzzy Based MPPT Controller Under Variable Irradiance and Variable Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakkiraiah B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, we have developed a new modified Type 2 neuro fuzzy (T2NF based MPPT controller, which combines the advantages of fractional open circuit voltage (FCV, variable step and optimized P&O algorithm. It leads to a faster and better tracking and lower oscillations around the MPP to contribute higher efficiency. The simulation result shows an efficiency of 96.41 %, an improvement of 2 ms is observed in the starting characteristics. The above concept has been extended to single phase AC photovoltaic system with improvement of 15 % in its performance. It has benefits of high efficiency and low harmonic distortion at output voltage waveform. Here DC-DC boost converter and space vector modulation based inverter are used to provide the required supply to the load. The proposed T2NF based MPPT improves the system efficiency even at abnormal weather conditions. Here a lot of reduction in torque and current ripple contents is obtained with the help of T2NF based MPPT for an asynchronous motor drive. Also the better performance of an asynchronous motor drive is analyzed with the comparison of conventional and proposed MPPT controller using Matlab-simulation results. Practical validations are also carried out and tabulated.

  19. Reformulation of Traditional Chamomile Oil: Quality Controls and Fingerprint Presentation Based on Cluster Analysis of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectral Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Arman; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Faridi, Pouya; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2017-10-01

    Herbal oils have been widely used in Iran as medicinal compounds dating back to thousands of years in Iran. Chamomile oil is widely used as an example of traditional oil. We remade chamomile oils and tried to modify it with current knowledge and facilities. Six types of oil (traditional and modified) were prepared. Microbial limit tests and physicochemical tests were performed on them. Also, principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis were done on the spectral data of attenuated total reflectance-infrared in order to obtain insight based on classification pattern of the samples. The results show that we can use modified versions of the chamomile oils (modified Clevenger-type apparatus method and microwave method) with the same content of traditional ones and with less microbial contaminations and better physicochemical properties.

  20. Reformulation of Traditional Chamomile Oil: Quality Controls and Fingerprint Presentation Based on Cluster Analysis of Attenuated Total Reflectance–Infrared Spectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Faridi, Pouya; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2017-01-01

    Herbal oils have been widely used in Iran as medicinal compounds dating back to thousands of years in Iran. Chamomile oil is widely used as an example of traditional oil. We remade chamomile oils and tried to modify it with current knowledge and facilities. Six types of oil (traditional and modified) were prepared. Microbial limit tests and physicochemical tests were performed on them. Also, principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis were done on the spectral data of attenuated total reflectance–infrared in order to obtain insight based on classification pattern of the samples. The results show that we can use modified versions of the chamomile oils (modified Clevenger-type apparatus method and microwave method) with the same content of traditional ones and with less microbial contaminations and better physicochemical properties. PMID:28585466

  1. Versatile microcomputer-based temperature controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarberry, V.R.

    1980-09-01

    The wide range of thermal responses required in laboratory and scientific equipment requires a temperature controller with a great deal of flexibility. While a number of analog temperature controllers are commercially available, they have certain limitations, such as inflexible parameter control or insufficient precision. Most lack digital interface capabilities--a necessity when the temperature controller is part of a computer-controlled automatic data acquisition system. We have developed an extremely versatile microcomputer-based temperature controller to fulfill this need in a variety of equipment. The control algorithm used allows optimal tailoring of parameters to control overshoot, response time, and accuracy. This microcomputer-based temperature controller can be used as a standalone instrument (with a teletype used to enter para-meters), or it can be integrated into a data acquisition system

  2. H∞ Based Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Pujana-Arrese

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates a strategy to design multivariable and multi-objective controllers based on the H∞ norm reduction applied to a wind turbine. The wind turbine model has been developed in the GH Bladed software and it is based on a 5 MW wind turbine defined in the Upwind European project. The designed control strategy works in the above rated power production zone and performs generator speed control and load reduction on the drive train and tower. In order to do this, two robust H∞ MISO (Multi-Input Single-Output controllers have been developed. These controllers generate collective pitch angle and generator torque set-point values to achieve the imposed control objectives. Linear models obtained in GH Bladed 4.0 are used, but the control design methodology can be used with linear models obtained from any other modelling package. Controllers are designed by setting out a mixed sensitivity problem, where some notch filters are also included in the controller dynamics. The obtained H∞ controllers have been validated in GH Bladed and an exhaustive analysis has been carried out to calculate fatigue load reduction on wind turbine components, as well as to analyze load mitigation in some extreme cases. The analysis compares the proposed control strategy based on H∞ controllers to a baseline control strategy designed using the classical control methods implemented on the present wind turbines.

  3. A CAMAC based knob controller for the LAMPF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.; Bjorklund, E.

    1987-01-01

    The control computer for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) has been recently upgraded from an SEL-840 to a VAX 11/780 running the VMS operating system. As part of this upgrade, a CAMAC-based knob controller was developed for the new control system. The knobs allow the facility operators to have slew control over software selectable accelerator devices. An alphanumeric display associated with each knob monitors the progress of the selected device. This paper describes the system requirements for the new LAMPF knob controller, and the resulting hardware and software design

  4. Weed control based on real time patchy application of herbicides using image analysis as a non-destructive estimation method for weed infestation and herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Ali

    There is an increasing concern about excessive use of herbicides for weed control in arable lands. Usually the whole field is sprayed uniformly, while the distribution of weeds often is non-uniform. Often there are spots in a field where weed pressure is very low and has no significant effect on ...... to estimate infestation of weeds at early growth stage. The image analysis method was further developed to estimate colour response of applying increasing doses of herbicides in selectivity experiments and to evaluate the weed-suppressing effect of mulches.......There is an increasing concern about excessive use of herbicides for weed control in arable lands. Usually the whole field is sprayed uniformly, while the distribution of weeds often is non-uniform. Often there are spots in a field where weed pressure is very low and has no significant effect...

  5. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean: Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ortiz

    Full Text Available Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean. Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4 showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3. Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5, the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1 the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2 the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics and (3 the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control. An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies.

  6. Meta-analysis of the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer based on case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliu Peng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is an inducible enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and playing important roles in inflammatory diseases as well as tumor development. Previous studies investigating the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC risk reported conflicting results. We performed a meta-analysis of all available studies to explore this association. METHODS: All studies published up to October 2013 on the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and CRC risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. The association between COX-2 polymorphisms and CRC risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: Ten studies with 6,774 cases and 9,772 controls were included for -1195A>G polymorphism, 13 studies including 6,807 cases and 10,052 controls were available for -765G>C polymorphism, and 8 studies containing 5,121 cases and 7,487 controls were included for 8473T>C polymorphism. With respect to -765G>C polymorphism, we did not find a significant association with CRC risk when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. However, in subgroup analyses by ethnicity and cancer location, with a Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.05/2, statistical significant increased CRC risk was found in the Asian populations (dominant model CC+CG vs. GG: OR = 1.399, 95%CI: 1.113-1.760, P = 0.004 and rectum cancer patients (CC vs. GG: OR = 2.270, 95%CI: 1.295-3.980, P = 0.004; Recessive model CC vs. CG+GG: OR = 2.269, 95%CI: 1.297-3.970, P = 0.004. In subgroup analysis according to source of control, no significant association was detected. With respect to -1195A>G and 8473T>C polymorphisms, no significant association with CRC risk was demonstrated in the overall and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that the COX-2 -765G>C polymorphism may be a risk factor for

  7. Developments in model-based optimization and control distributed control and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grancharova, Alexandra; Pereira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with optimization methods as tools for decision making and control in the presence of model uncertainty. It is oriented to the use of these tools in engineering, specifically in automatic control design with all its components: analysis of dynamical systems, identification problems, and feedback control design. Developments in Model-Based Optimization and Control takes advantage of optimization-based formulations for such classical feedback design objectives as stability, performance and feasibility, afforded by the established body of results and methodologies constituting optimal control theory. It makes particular use of the popular formulation known as predictive control or receding-horizon optimization. The individual contributions in this volume are wide-ranging in subject matter but coordinated within a five-part structure covering material on: · complexity and structure in model predictive control (MPC); · collaborative MPC; · distributed MPC; · optimization-based analysis and desi...

  8. Quality control analysis at the hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, K.

    1979-01-01

    Quality control analysis is an integral part of quality assurance. In a system as with radiopharmaceuticals where part of the finishing of the product takes place at individual hospitals, the need for quality control analysis at the hospital can be discussed. Data are presented that stresses the importance of quality control by the manufacturer as a basis for limitation of such work at hospitals. A simplified programme is proposed

  9. Observer-Based Robust Control for Hydraulic Velocity Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of robust stabilization and robust control for the secondary component speed control system with parameters uncertainty and load disturbance. The aim is to enhance the control performance of hydraulic system based on Common Pressure Rail (CPR. Firstly, a mathematical model is presented to describe the hydraulic control system. Then a novel observer is proposed, and an observed-based control strategy is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and satisfies the disturbance attenuation level. The condition for the existence of the developed controller can by efficiently solved by using the MATLAB software. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Nonlinear analysis and control of a continuous fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szederkényi, G.; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Hangos, K.M

    2002-01-01

    Different types of nonlinear controllers are designed and compared for a simple continuous bioreactor operating near optimal productivity. This operating point is located close to a fold bifurcation point. Nonlinear analysis of stability, controllability and zero dynamics is used to investigate o...... are recommended for the simple fermenter. Passivity based controllers have been found to be globally stable, not very sensitive to the uncertainties in the reaction rate and controller parameter but they require full nonlinear state feedback....

  11. Model based development of engine control algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Model based development of engine control systems has several advantages. The development time and costs are strongly reduced because much of the development and optimization work is carried out by simulating both engine and control system. After optimizing the control algorithm it can be executed

  12. Neuro- PI controller based model reference adaptive control for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control input to the plant is given by the sum of the output of conventional MRAC and the output of NN. The proposed Neural Network -based Model Reference Adaptive Controller (NN-MRAC) can significantly improve the system behavior and force the system to follow the reference model and minimize the error ...

  13. Applications toolkit for accelerator control and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borland, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has taken a unique approach to creating high-level software applications for accelerator operation and analysis. The approach is based on self-describing data, modular program toolkits, and scripts. Self-describing data provide a communication standard that aids the creation of modular program toolkits by allowing compliant programs to be used in essentially arbitrary combinations. These modular programs can be used as part of an arbitrary number of high-level applications. At APS, a group of about 70 data analysis, manipulation, and display tools is used in concert with about 20 control-system-specific tools to implement applications for commissioning and operations. High-level applications are created using scripts, which are relatively simple interpreted programs. The Tcl/Tk script language is used, allowing creating of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and a library of algorithms that are separate from the interface. This last factor allows greater automation of control by making it easy to take the human out of the loop. Applications of this methodology to operational tasks such as orbit correction, configuration management, and data review will be discussed

  14. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...... eventually apply our analysis to an example of gene regulation by positive feedback taken from the literature....

  15. Diagnosis, Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Prevention, and Control of Hypertension in Cameroon: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinic-Based and Community-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Ekundayo, Olugbemiga; Perreault, Sylvie; Potvin, Louise; Cote, Robert; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Choukem, Simeon Pierre; Assah, Felix; Kingue, Samuel; Richard, Lucie; Pongou, Roland; Frohlich, Katherine; Saji, Jude; Fournier, Pierre; Sobngwi, Eugene; Ridde, Valery; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; De Denus, Simon; Mbacham, Wilfred; Lafrance, Jean-Philippe; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Mampuya, Warner; Dzudie, Anastase; Cloutier, Lyne; Zarowsky, Christina; Tanya, Agatha; Ndom, Paul; Hatem, Marie; Rey, Evelyne; Roy, Louise; Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Dagenais, Christian; Todem, David; Weladji, Robert; Mbanya, Dora; Emami, Elham; Njoumemi, Zakariaou; Monnais, Laurence; Dubois, Carl-Ardy

    2017-05-29

    independently search, screen, extract data, and assess the quality of selected studies using suitable tools. Selected studies will be analyzed by narrative synthesis, meta-analysis, or both, depending on the nature of the data retrieved in line with the review objectives. This review is part of an ongoing research program on disease prevention and control in the context of the dual burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases in Africa. The first results are expected in 2017. This review will provide a comprehensive assessment of the burden of hypertension and control measures that have been designed and implemented in Cameroon. Findings will form the knowledge base relevant to stakeholders across the health system and researchers who are involved in hypertension prevention and control in the community and clinic settings in Cameroon, as a yardstick for similar African countries. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017054950; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ display_record.asp?ID=CRD42017054950 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6qYSjt9Jc). ©Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Jean Claude Mbanya, Jean-Claude Tardif, Olugbemiga Ekundayo, Sylvie Perreault, Louise Potvin, Robert Cote, Andre Pascal Kengne, Simeon Pierre Choukem, Felix Assah, Samuel Kingue, Lucie Richard, Roland Pongou, Katherine Frohlich, Jude Saji, Pierre Fournier, Eugene Sobngwi, Valery Ridde, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Simon De Denus, Wilfred Mbacham, Jean-Philippe Lafrance, Dickson Shey Nsagha, Warner Mampuya, Anastase Dzudie, Lyne Cloutier, Christina Zarowsky, Agatha Tanya, Paul Ndom, Marie Hatem, Evelyne Rey, Louise Roy, Roxane Borgès Da Silva, Christian Dagenais, David Todem, Robert Weladji, Dora Mbanya, Elham Emami, Zakariaou Njoumemi, Laurence Monnais, Carl-Ardy Dubois. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 29.05.2017.

  16. A Network of Automatic Control Web-Based Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hector; Sanchez Moreno, J.; Jara, Carlos A.; Candelas, F. A.; Torres, Fernando; Dormido, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an innovative project in the context of remote experimentation applied to control engineering education. Specifically, the authors describe their experience regarding the analysis, design, development, and exploitation of web-based technologies within the scope of automatic control. This work is part of an inter-university…

  17. Stray light analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fest, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Stray light is defined as unwanted light in an optical system, a familiar concept for anyone who has taken a photograph with the sun in or near their camera's field of view. This book addresses stray light terminology, radiometry, and the physics of stray light mechanisms, such as surface roughness scatter and ghost reflections. The most-efficient ways of using stray light analysis software packages are included. The book also demonstrates how the basic principles are applied in the design, fabrication, and testing phases of optical system development.

  18. Associations between CTLA-4 +49 A/G (rs231775) polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 52 case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Jiang, Zhiwei; Qiu, Hao; Tang, Weifeng; Duan, Tanghai; Wang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    To date, a number of epidemiological studies have explored the association between CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism and cancer risk with elusive results. To address this gap, we carried out a comprehensive meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CBM (Chinese BioMedical Disc) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Databases for relevant studies up to December 20, 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism and cancer risk were used to evaluate the strength of association. A total of 52 case-control studies were ultimately recruited. Our results showed the statistical evidence of an association between the CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism and decreased risk of overall cancer in all the comparison models. In stratified analyses by cancer type, ethnicity and the origin of cancer, significant decreases in cancer risk were observed in breast cancer, lung cancer, other cancers epithelial tumor and Asians. In addition, in a stratified analysis by the system of cancer, significant decreases in cancer risk were found for reproductive and breast cancer, respiratory system cancer, and malignant bone tumor in all the genetic models, and other system cancer in two genetic models: GG+AG vs. AA and GG vs. AA. This meta-analysis suggests that the CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism may be a protective factor for cancer.

  19. Risk-based surveillance for avian influenza control along poultry market chains in South China: The value of social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Marshall, Edith; Jia, Beibei; Fusheng, Guo; FrancoDixon, Mary Ann; DeHaan, Nicoline; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the poultry sector in China went through a phase of tremendous growth as well as rapid intensification and concentration. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong province, South China and started spreading throughout Asia in early 2004. Since then, control of the disease in China has relied heavily on wide-scale preventive vaccination combined with movement control, quarantine and stamping out. This strategy has been successful in drastically reducing the number of outbreaks during the past 5years. However, HPAIV H5N1 is still circulating and is regularly isolated in traditional live bird markets (LBMs) where viral infection can persist, which represent a public health hazard for people visiting them. The use of social network analysis in combination with epidemiological surveillance in South China has identified areas where the success of current strategies for HPAI control in the poultry production sector may benefit from better knowledge of poultry trading patterns and the LBM network configuration as well as their capacity for maintaining HPAIV H5N1 infection. We produced a set of LBM network maps and estimated the associated risk of HPAIV H5N1 within LBMs and along poultry market chains, providing new insights into how live poultry trade and infection are intertwined. More specifically, our study provides evidence that several biosecurity factors such as daily cage cleaning, daily cage disinfection or manure processing contribute to a reduction in HPAIV H5N1 presence in LBMs. Of significant importance is that the results of our study also show the association between social network indicators and the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in specific network configurations such as the one represented by the counties of origin of the birds traded in LBMs. This new information could be used to develop more targeted and effective control interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Qualitative Functional Decomposition Analysis of Evolved Neuromorphic Flight Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Boddhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous work, it was demonstrated that one can effectively employ CTRNN-EH (a neuromorphic variant of EH method methodology to evolve neuromorphic flight controllers for a flapping wing robot. This paper describes a novel frequency grouping-based analysis technique, developed to qualitatively decompose the evolved controllers into explainable functional control blocks. A summary of the previous work related to evolving flight controllers for two categories of the controller types, called autonomous and nonautonomous controllers, is provided, and the applicability of the newly developed decomposition analysis for both controller categories is demonstrated. Further, the paper concludes with appropriate discussion of ongoing work and implications for possible future work related to employing the CTRNN-EH methodology and the decomposition analysis techniques presented in this paper.

  1. Reduced Amygdala Volume Is Associated with Deficits in Inhibitory Control: A Voxel- and Surface-Based Morphometric Analysis of Comorbid PTSD/Mild TBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Depue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of previously deployed combat Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND are affected by comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. Despite this fact, neuroimaging studies investigating the neural correlates of cognitive dysfunction within this population are almost nonexistent, with the exception of research examining the neural correlates of diagnostic PTSD or TBI. The current study used both voxel-based and surface-based morphometry to determine whether comorbid PTSD/mTBI is characterized by altered brain structure in the same regions as observed in singular diagnostic PTSD or TBI. Furthermore, we assessed whether alterations in brain structures in these regions were associated with behavioral measures related to inhibitory control, as assessed by the Go/No-go task, self-reports of impulsivity, and/or PTSD or mTBI symptoms. Results indicate volumetric reductions in the bilateral anterior amygdala in our comorbid PTSD/mTBI sample as compared to a control sample of OEF/OIF Veterans with no history of mTBI and/or PTSD. Moreover, increased volume reduction in the amygdala predicted poorer inhibitory control as measured by performance on the Go/No-go task, increased self-reported impulsivity, and greater symptoms associated with PTSD. These findings suggest that alterations in brain anatomy in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with comorbid PTSD/mTBI are associated with both cognitive deficits and trauma symptoms related to PTSD.

  2. Development of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) and Enhancement of Microbial Safety Quality during Production of Fermented Legume Based ... Nigerian Food Journal ... Critical control points during production of iru and okpehe, two fermented condiments, were identified in four processors in Nigeria.

  3. Updated Meta-Analysis of Learner Control within Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karich, Abbey C.; Burns, Matthew K.; Maki, Kathrin E.

    2014-01-01

    Giving a student control over their learning has theoretical and intuitive appeal, but its effects are neither powerful nor consistent in the empirical literature base. This meta-analysis updated previous meta-analytic research by Niemiec, Sikorski, and Walberg by studying the overall effectiveness of providing learner control within educational…

  4. Modeling, analysis and control of a variable geometry actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.; Knaap, A. van der; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    A new design of variable geometry force actuator is presented in this paper. Based upon this design, a model is derived which is used for steady-state analysis, as well as controller design in the presence of friction. The controlled actuator model is finally used to evaluate the power consumption

  5. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  6. Spatial analysis and mapping of malaria risk in an endemic area, south of Iran: a GIS based decision making for planning of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Charrahy, Z; Haghdoost, A A; Zamani, G; Abedi, F; Sedaghat, M M; Soltani, M; Shahi, M; Raeisi, A

    2012-04-01

    Bashagard district is one of the important malaria endemic areas in southern Iran. From this region a total of 16,199 indigenous cases have been reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the situation of the disease and provide the risk map for the area. ArcGIS9.2 was used for mapping spatial distribution of malaria incidence. Hot spots were obtained using evidence-based weighting method for transmission risk. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, altitude, slope and distance to rivers were combined by weighted multi criteria evaluation for mapping malaria hazard area at the district level. Similarly, risk map was developed by overlaying weighted hazard, land use/land cover, population density, malaria incidence, development factors and intervention methods. Our results reveal that the disease mainly occurs in north and east of the study area. Consequently the district is divided into three strata. Appropriate interventions are recommended for each stratum based on national malaria policy. Malaria hazard and risk map, stratification based on relevant information and data analyzing provide a useful method preparedness and early warning system for malaria control, although regular updating is required timely. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. State Analysis: A Control Architecture View of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the state analysis process is shown. The topics include: 1) Issues with growing complexity; 2) Limits of common practice; 3) Exploiting a control point of view; 4) A glimpse at the State Analysis process; 5) Synergy with model-based systems engineering; and 6) Bridging the systems to software gap.

  8. Development of a novel disturbance observer based fractional order PD controller for a gun control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Zheng, Liang; Chen, Jilin; Wang, Li; Hou, Yuanlong

    2014-01-01

    Motion control of gun barrels is an ongoing topic for the development of gun control equipment (GCE) with excellent performances. In this paper, a novel disturbance observer (DOB) based fractional order PD (FOPD) control strategy is proposed for the GCE. By adopting the DOB, the control system behaves as if it were the nominal closed-loop system in the absence of disturbances and uncertainties. The optimal control parameters of the FOPD are determined from the loop-shaping perspective, and the Q-filter of the DOB is deliberately designed with consideration of system robustness. The linear frame of the proposed control system will enable the analysis process more convenient. The disturbance rejection properties and the tracking performances of the control system are investigated by both numerical and experimental tests, the results demonstrate that the proposed DOB based FOPD control system is of more robustness, and it is much more suitable for the gun control system with strong nonlinearity and disturbance.

  9. Randomised controlled trial and economic analysis of an internet-based weight management programme: POWeR+ (Positive Online Weight Reduction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Hobbs, Fd Richard; Kelly, Jo; Smith, Emily R; Bradbury, Katherine J; Hughes, Stephanie; Smith, Peter Wf; Moore, Michael V; Lean, Mike Ej; Margetts, Barrie M; Byrne, Christopher D; Griffin, Simon; Davoudianfar, Mina; Hooper, Julie; Yao, Guiqing; Zhu, Shihua; Raftery, James; Yardley, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural counselling with intensive follow-up for obesity is effective, but in resource-constrained primary care settings briefer approaches are needed. To estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an internet-based behavioural intervention with regular face-to-face or remote support in primary care, compared with brief advice. Individually randomised three-arm parallel trial with health economic evaluation and nested qualitative interviews. Primary care general practices in the UK. Patients with a body mass index of ≥ 30 kg/m 2 (or ≥ 28 kg/m 2 with risk factors) identified from general practice records, recruited by postal invitation. Positive Online Weight Reduction (POWeR+) is a 24-session, web-based weight management intervention completed over 6 months. Following online registration, the website randomly allocated participants using computer-generated random numbers to (1) the control intervention ( n  = 279), which had previously been demonstrated to be clinically effective (brief web-based information that minimised pressure to cut down foods, instead encouraging swaps to healthier choices and increasing fruit and vegetables, plus 6-monthly nurse weighing); (2) POWeR+F ( n  = 269), POWeR+ supplemented by face-to-face nurse support (up to seven contacts); or (3) POWeR+R ( n  = 270), POWeR+ supplemented by remote nurse support (up to five e-mails or brief telephone calls). The primary outcome was a modelled estimate of average weight reduction over 12 months, assessed blind to group where possible, using multiple imputation for missing data. The secondary outcome was the number of participants maintaining a 5% weight reduction at 12 months. A total of 818 eligible individuals were randomised using computer-generated random numbers. Weight change, averaged over 12 months, was documented in 666 out of 818 participants (81%; control, n  = 227; POWeR+F, n  = 221; POWeR+R, n  = 218). The control group

  10. A model-based control system concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarzen, K.E.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of a new concept for DCSs developed within the KBRTCS (Knowledge-Based Real-Time Control Systems) project performed between 1988 and 1991 as a part of the Swedish IT4 programme. The partners of the project have been the Department of Automatic Control at Lund University, Asea Brown Boveri, and during parts of the project, SattControl, and TeleLogic. The aim of the project has been to develop a concept for future generations of DCSs based on a plant database containing a description of the plant together with the control system. The database is object-based and supports multiple views of an objects. A demonstrator is presented where a DCS system of this type is emulated. The demonstrator contains a number of control, monitoring, and diagnosis applications that execute in real time against a simulations of Steritherm sterilization process. (25 refs.)

  11. Active disturbance rejection control: methodology and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Xue, Wenchao

    2014-07-01

    The methodology of ADRC and the progress of its theoretical analysis are reviewed in the paper. Several breakthroughs for control of nonlinear uncertain systems, made possible by ADRC, are discussed. The key in employing ADRC, which is to accurately determine the "total disturbance" that affects the output of the system, is illuminated. The latest results in theoretical analysis of the ADRC-based control systems are introduced. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Costs and cost-effectiveness of a mental health intervention for war-affected young persons: decision analysis based on a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Ryan K; Salhi, Carmel; Hann, Katrina; Salomon, Joshua A; Kim, Jane J; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2016-05-01

    One billion children live in war-affected regions of the world. We conducted the first cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention for war-affected youth in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a broader cost analysis. The Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) is a behavioural treatment for reducing functional impairment associated with psychological distress among war-affected young persons. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from July 2012 to July 2013. Participants (n = 436, aged 15-24) were randomized to YRI (n = 222) or care as usual (n = 214). Functional impairment was indexed by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale; scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). An 'ingredients approach' estimated financial and economic costs, assuming a societal perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were also expressed in terms of gains across dimensions of mental health and schooling. Secondary analyses explored whether intervention effects were largest among those worst-off (upper quartile) at baseline. Retention at 6-month follow-up was 85% (n = 371). The estimated economic cost of the intervention was $104 per participant. Functional impairment was lower among YRI recipients, compared with controls, following the intervention but not at 6-month follow-up, and yielded an ICER of $7260 per QALY gained. At 8-month follow-up, teachers' interviews indicated that YRI recipients observed higher school enrolment [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 8.9], denoting a cost of $431 per additional school year gained, as well as better school attendance (P = 0.007, OR 34.9) and performance (P = 0.03, effect size = -1.31). Secondary analyses indicated that the intervention was cost-effective among those worst-off at baseline, yielding an ICER of $3564 per QALY gained. The YRI is not cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of three times average gross domestic product

  13. A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a School-Based Resilience Intervention to Prevent Depressive Symptoms for Young Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Bethany A; Shochet, Ian M; Orr, Jayne A

    2017-11-01

    Despite increased depression in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), effective prevention approaches for this population are limited. A mixed methods pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 29) of the evidence-based Resourceful Adolescent Program-Autism Spectrum Disorder (RAP-A-ASD) designed to prevent depression was conducted in schools with adolescents with ASD in years 6 and 7. Quantitative results showed significant intervention effects on parent reports of adolescent coping self-efficacy (maintained at 6 month follow-up) but no effect on depressive symptoms or mental health. Qualitative outcomes reflected perceived improvements from the intervention for adolescents' coping self-efficacy, self-confidence, social skills, and affect regulation. Converging results remain encouraging given this population's difficulties coping with adversity, managing emotions and interacting socially which strongly influence developmental outcomes.

  14. Multilevel model based glucose control for type-1 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gabin, Winston; Jacobsen, Elling W

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a disease that involves alterations at multiple biological levels, ranging from intracellular signalling to organ processes. Since glucose homeostasis is the consequence of complex interactions that involve a number of factors, the control of diabetes should be based on a multilevel analysis. In this paper, a novel approach to design of closed-loop glucose controllers based on multilevel models is presented. A control scheme is proposed based on combining a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model with an insulin signal transduction model for type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Based on this, an insulin feedback control schemes is designed. Two main advantages of explicitly utilizing information at the intracellular level were obtained. First, significant reduction of hypoglycaemic risk by reducing the undershoot in glucose levels in response to added insulin. Second, robust performance for inter-patient changes, demonstrated through application of the multilevel control strategy to a well established in silico population of diabetic patients.

  15. Control Flow Analysis Can Find New Flaws Too

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpaolo

    2004-01-01

    A previous study showed how control flow analysis can be applied to analyse key distribution protocols based on symmetric key cryptography. We have extended both the theoretical treatment and our fully automatic verifier to deal with protocols based on asymmetric cryptography. This paper reports...

  16. Solar Dynamic Power System Stability Analysis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct dynamic analysis, control design, and control performance test of solar power system. Solar power system consists of generation system and distribution network system. A bench mark system is used in this research, which includes a generator with excitation system and governor, an ac/dc converter, six DDCU's and forty-eight loads. A detailed model is used for modeling generator. Excitation system is represented by a third order model. DDCU is represented by a seventh order system. The load is modeled by the combination of constant power and constant impedance. Eigen-analysis and eigen-sensitivity analysis are used for system dynamic analysis. The effects of excitation system, governor, ac/dc converter control, and the type of load on system stability are discussed. In order to improve system transient stability, nonlinear ac/dc converter control is introduced. The direct linearization method is used for control design. The dynamic analysis results show that these controls affect system stability in different ways. The parameter coordination of controllers are recommended based on the dynamic analysis. It is concluded from the present studies that system stability is improved by the coordination of control parameters and the nonlinear ac/dc converter control stabilize system oscillation caused by the load change and system fault efficiently.

  17. Stress analysis of magnetically controlled reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Tong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To provide technique references for vibration reduction of magnetically controlled reactors (MCRs, stress, which is the inherent reason of vibration and noise, should be investigated. Stresses in reactor cores are produced due to the magnetostriction deformation of silicon steel and electromagnetic force between the core discs. So far, stress analysis on reactor cores was based on one-way coupled numerical method, which did not consider the influence of the stress on magnetic properties of the core material. Thus, multi-group magnetization and magnetostriction characteristics curves of silicon steel under different tensile stresses are measured firstly to support the computation. From the experiment results, it can be seen that magnetic properties of silicon steel change with stress. Then an electromagneto-mechanical two-way coupled numerical model for MCRs considering magnetostrictive effect and electromagnetic force effect is proposed. Stress distribution of MCR cores under the combination excitation of the sinusoidal wave current and different direct currents are calculated. From the computed results, it can be seen that a larger direct current has greater influence on MCRs vibration, which provides a theory basis for further analysis of vibration and noise reduction.

  18. on control : an analysis of control phenomena in afrikaans and an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before turning to the problem or the MDP, however, I shall present an analysis of data from Afrikaans in support of the theory or control outlined above. 3. Control in Afrikaans. 3.1. Assumptions about Afrikaans. I Shall be assuming that the base rules for Afrikaans are in the rele- vant respects the same as those for English, ...

  19. On genome-wide association studies for family-based designs: an integrative analysis approach combining ascertained family samples with unselected controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasky-Su, J.; Won, S.; Mick, E.; Anney, R.J.; Franke, B.; Neale, B.; Biederman, J.; Smalley, S.L.; Loo, S.K.; Todorov, A.A.; Faraone, S.V.; Weiss, S.T.; Lange, C.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of control individuals with genome-wide genotype data are now available through various databases. These controls are regularly used in case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to increase the statistical power. Controls are often "unselected" for the disease of interest and

  20. Small, microcomputer-based CAMAC controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The beam buncher necessary to condition the beam from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory 25 MV tandem accelerator for post-acceleration by the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is CAMAC-based and will be controlled via one of the serial highways of the accelerator control system. However, prior to integration into the accelerator system, the buncher requires testing, including runs on the model EN tandem at Oak Ridge. In order to facilitate testing and initial operation of the buncher, a microcomputer-based controller was assembled. The controller consists of a CAMAC crate, several CAMAC modules, a touch panel display, a controller box, and software. The controller box contains one shaft encoder and two switches. One of the switches is a coarse/fine selector. The other switch is assignable via the touch panel display and is used, for example, to turn devices on and off. Operation of the controller is described. It can be quickly assembled to control any small CAMAC-based system. 2 figures

  1. Effect of a smoking ban and school-based prevention and control policies on adolescent smoking in Spain: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Gandarillas, Ana; Mata, Nelva; Cantero, Jose Luis; Durbán, María

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the impact of a smoking ban in schools and of school-based smoking prevention and control policies on adolescent smoking. Annual surveys carried out between 2001 and 2005 that were representative of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region, with 203 schools and 9127 students participating. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were: the periods before (years 2001-2002) and after the law; and through a survey of school management boards: compliance with the law, policy reflected in the school regulations, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed with two dependent variables: current smoking and the proportion giving up smoking. Smoking declined in 2003, the first year after the law came into force (Odds ratio: 0.80; CI 95%: 0.66-0.96), and this decline was maintained in 2005. By contrast, smoking increased in those schools that did not undertake educational programmes regarding smoking (Odds ratio: 1.34; CI 95%: 1.13-1.59), and in those that received complaints about smoking (Odds ratio: 1.12; CI 95%: 0.96-1.29). This association is partly due to the effect of the increase in giving up smoking. The inclusion of contextual variables into the model with the individual factors reduces the variability of smoking between schools by 32.6%. In summary, the coming into force of a law banning smoking in schools, and the implementing of educational policies for the prevention and control of smoking are related to a lower risk of adolescent smoking.

  2. Robustness and Actuator Bandwidth of MRP-Based Sliding Mode Control for Spacecraft Attitude Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jung-Hoon; Ra, Sung-Woong

    2009-12-01

    Nonlinear sliding surface design in variable structure systems for spacecraft attitude control problems is studied. A robustness analysis is performed for regular form of system, and calculation of actuator bandwidth is presented by reviewing sliding surface dynamics. To achieve non-singular attitude description and minimal parameterization, spacecraft attitude control problems are considered based on modified Rodrigues parameters (MRP). It is shown that the derived controller ensures the sliding motion in pre-determined region irrespective of unmodeled effects and disturbances.

  3. Analysis of the orderly distribution of oil and gas fields in China based on the theory of co-control of source and heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongcheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking a hydrocarbon zone or a basin group as a unit, this paper analyzed the vertical hydrocarbon generation regularity of onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in China, based on the theory of co-control of source and heat. The results demonstrated that the hydrocarbon generation modes of oil and gas fields in China are orderly. First, the hydrocarbon zones in southeastern China offshore area, including the East and South China Sea basins, are dominated by single hydrocarbon generation mode, which displays as either single oil generation in the near shore or single gas generation in the offshore controlled by both source and heat. Second, the eastern hydrocarbon zones, including the Bohai Bay, Songliao and Jianghan basins and the North and South Yellow Sea basins, are dominated by a two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode, which performs as “upper oil and lower gas”. Third, the central hydrocarbon zones, including the Ordos, Sichuan and Chuxiong basins, are also dominated by the “upper oil and lower gas” two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode. In the Ordos Basin, gas is mainly generated in the Triassic, and oil is predominantly generated in the Paleozoic. In the Sichuan Basin, oil was discovered in the Jurassic, and gas was mostly discovered in the Sinian and Triassic. Fourth, the western hydrocarbon zones are dominated by a “sandwich” multi-layer mode, such as the Junggar, Tarim, Qaidam basins. In summary, the theory of co-control of source and heat will be widely applied to oil and gas exploration all over China. Oil targets should be focused on the near shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the upper strata in the eastern and middle hydrocarbon zones, and the Ordovician, Permian and Paleogene strata in the western hydrocarbon zone, while gas targets should be focused on the off-shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the Cambrian, Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Quaternary strata in the western hydrocarbon zone. A pattern of

  4. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  5. Control-flow analysis of function calls and returns by abstract interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack......-based control-flow analysis from abstract interpretation principles....

  6. Analysis and control of underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choukchou-Braham, Amal; Djemaï, Mohamed; Busawon, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides readers with tools for the analysis, and control of systems with fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom to be controlled, i.e., underactuated systems. The text deals with the consequences of a lack of a general theory that would allow methodical treatment of such systems and the ad hoc approach to control design that often results, imposing a level of organization whenever the latter is lacking. The authors take as their starting point the construction of a graphical characterization or control flow diagram reflecting the transmission of generalized forces through the degrees of freedom. Underactuated systems are classified according to the three main structures by which this is found to happen—chain, tree, and isolated vertex—and control design procedures proposed. The procedure is applied to several well-known examples of underactuated systems: acrobot; pendubot; Tora system; ball and beam; inertia wheel; and robotic arm with elastic joint. The text is illustrated with MATL...

  7. Response Based Emergency Control System for Power System Transient Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A transient stability control system for the electric power system composed of a prediction method and a control method is proposed based on trajectory information. This system, which is independent of system parameters and models, can detect the transient stability of the electric power system quickly and provide the control law when the system is unstable. Firstly, system instability is detected by the characteristic concave or convex shape of the trajectory. Secondly, the control method is proposed based on the analysis of the slope of the state plane trajectory when the power system is unstable. Two control objectives are provided according to the methods of acquiring the far end point: one is the minimal cost to restore the system to a stable state; the other one is the minimal cost to limit the maximum swing angle. The simulation indicates that the mentioned transient stability control system is efficient.

  8. Controller reconfiguration based on LTR design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    2003-01-01

    Design of controller reconfiguration (CR) for systems with sensor faults are considered in this paper. One way to accommodate a failing sensor, is by replacing it by an observer based on the remaining outputs. A similar approach can be applied for a faulty actuator by duality. By including...... observers in the loop to replace faulty components, the nominal feedback controller does not need to be redesigned. The CR observer design problem for the faulty sensors or actuators can be rewritten into a standard loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem, to which standard LTR design methods can...... be applied. Finally, it is shown that this CR architecture, where an CR observer is included in the feedback loop in between the system and the nominal controller, can be transformed into a more general fault tolerant controller (FTC) architecture based on the Youla parameterization....

  9. T-cell receptor excision circle levels and safety of paediatric immunization: A population-based self-controlled case series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Duque, Daniel Rodriguez; Murphy, Malia Sq; Hawken, Steven; Pham-Huy, Anne; Kwong, Jeffrey; Deeks, Shelley L; Potter, Beth K; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Bulman, Dennis E; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Little, Julian

    2018-02-08

    T-cell receptor excision circle levels are a surrogate marker of T-cell production and immune system function. We sought to determine whether non-pathological levels of infant T-cell receptor excision circles were associated with adverse events following immunization. A self-controlled case series design was applied on a sample of 231,693 children who completed newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in Ontario, Canada between August 2013 and December 2015. Exposures included routinely administered pediatric vaccines up to 15 months of age. Main outcomes were combined health services utilization for recognized adverse events following immunization. 1,406,981 vaccination events were included in the final dataset. 103,007 children received the Pneu-C-13 or Men-C-C vaccine and 97,998 received the MMR vaccine at 12 months of age. 67,725 children received the varicella immunization at 15 months. Our analysis identified no association between newborn T-cell receptor excision circle levels and subsequent health services utilization events following DTa-IPV-Hib, Pneu-C-13, and Men-C-C vaccinations at 2-month (RI 0.94[95%CI 0.87-1.02]), 4-month (RI 0.82[95%CI 0.75-0.9]), 6-month (RI 0.63[95%CI 0.57-0.7]) and 12-month (RI 0.49[95%CI 0.44-0.55]). We also found no trends in health services utilization following MMR (RI 1.43[95%1.34-1.52]) or varicella (RI 1.14[95%CI 1.05-1.23]) vaccination. Our findings provide further support for the safety of pediatric vaccinations.

  10. Model-based expert systems for linac computer controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    1988-09-01

    The use of machine modeling and beam simulation programs for the control of accelerator operation has become standard practice. The success of a model-based control operation depends on how the parameter to be controlled is measured, how the measured data is analyzed, how the result of the analysis is interpreted, and how a solution is implemented. There is considerable interest in applying expert systems technology that can automate all of these processes. The design of an expert system to control the beam trajectory in linear accelerators will be discussed as an illustration of this approach. 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Distributed model based control of multi unit evaporation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudi Samyudia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to the analysis and design of distributed control systems for multi-unit plants. The approach is established after treating the effect of recycled dynamics as a gap metric uncertainty from which a distributed controller can be designed sequentially for each unit to tackle the uncertainty. We then use a single effect multi-unit evaporation system to illustrate how the proposed method is used to analyze different control strategies and to systematically achieve a better closed-loop performance using a distributed model-based controller

  12. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  13. A Calculus for Control Flow Analysis of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    The design of a process calculus for anaysing security protocols is governed by three factors: how to express the security protocol in a precise and faithful manner, how to accommodate the variety of attack scenarios, and how to utilise the strengths (and limit the weaknesses) of the underlying...... analysis methodology. We pursue an analysis methodology based on control flow analysis in flow logic style and we have previously shown its ability to analyse a variety of security protocols. This paper develops a calculus, LysaNS that allows for much greater control and clarity in the description...

  14. Are signalized intersections with cycle tracks safer? A case-control study based on automated surrogate safety analysis using video data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangenehpour, Sohail; Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Saunier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cities in North America have been building bicycle infrastructure, in particular cycle tracks, with the intention of promoting urban cycling and improving cyclist safety. These facilities have been built and expanded but very little research has been done to investigate the safety impacts of cycle tracks, in particular at intersections, where cyclists interact with turning motor-vehicles. Some safety research has looked at injury data and most have reached the conclusion that cycle tracks have positive effects of cyclist safety. The objective of this work is to investigate the safety effects of cycle tracks at signalized intersections using a case-control study. For this purpose, a video-based method is proposed for analyzing the post-encroachment time as a surrogate measure of the severity of the interactions between cyclists and turning vehicles travelling in the same direction. Using the city of Montreal as the case study, a sample of intersections with and without cycle tracks on the right and left sides of the road were carefully selected accounting for intersection geometry and traffic volumes. More than 90h of video were collected from 23 intersections and processed to obtain cyclist and motor-vehicle trajectories and interactions. After cyclist and motor-vehicle interactions were defined, ordered logit models with random effects were developed to evaluate the safety effects of cycle tracks at intersections. Based on the extracted data from the recorded videos, it was found that intersection approaches with cycle tracks on the right are safer than intersection approaches with no cycle track. However, intersections with cycle tracks on the left compared to no cycle tracks seem to be significantly safer. Results also identify that the likelihood of a cyclist being involved in a dangerous interaction increases with increasing turning vehicle flow and decreases as the size of the cyclist group arriving at the intersection increases. The results highlight the

  15. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W. [Department of Physics, FMIPA, InstitutTeknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha No. 10. Bandung 40132, Indonesia supri@fi.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  16. Model Based Control of Reefer Container Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær

    This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together with the Da......This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together...

  17. A Component-Based Access Control Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiming; Morisset, Charles; Stolz, Volker

    A control of access to information is increasingly becoming necessary as the systems managing this information is more and more open and available through non secure networks. Integrating an access control monitor within a large system is a complex task, since it has to be an "all or nothing" integration. The least error or mistake could lead to jeopardize the whole system. We present a formal specification of an access control monitor using the calculus of refinement of component and object systems (rCOS). We illustrate this implementation with the well known Role Based Access Control (RBAC) policy and we show how to integrate it within a larger system. Keywords: Component, Access Control, RBAC, Composition

  18. ROUTING BASE CONGESTION CONTROL METRICS IN MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dalal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile adhoc network is self-configurable and adaptive. Due to node mobility we cannot predict load on the network which leads to congestion, one of the widely researched area in manets. A lot of congestion control techniques and metrics have been proposed to overcome it before its occurrence or after it has occurred. In this survey we identify the currently used congestion control metrics. Through this survey we also propose a congestion control metric RFR(resource free ratio which considers three most important parameters to provide congestion free route discovery. Further we show the results of node selection based on fuzzy logic calculations using the proposed metric.

  19. Disturbance observer based hierarchical control of coaxial-rotor UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, M Rida; Cherki, Brahim; Braham, Amal Choukchou

    2017-03-01

    This paper propose an hierarchical controller based on a new disturbance observer with finite time convergence (FTDO) to solve the path tracking of a small coaxial-rotor-typs Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) despite of unknown aerodynamic efforts. The hierarchical control technique is used to separate the flight control problem into an inner loop that controls attitude and an outer loop that controls the thrust force acting on the vehicle. The new disturbance observer with finite time convergence is intergated to online estimate the unknown uncertainties and disturbances and to actively compensate them in finite time.The analysis further extends to the design of a control law that takes the disturbance estimation procedure into account. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed control strategy. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models. Volume 2. Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Combustion-Based NOx Controls for Wall and Tangential Furnace Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H. Christopher [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Tran, Loan K. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1999-04-30

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of reports describing work conducted at North Carolina State University sponsored by Grant Number DE-FG05-95ER30250 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The title of the project is “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments.” The work conducted under sponsorship of this grant pertains primarily to two main topics: (1) development of new methods for quantitative analysis of variability and uncertainty applicable to any type of model; and (2) analysis of variability and uncertainty in the performance, emissions, and cost of electric power plant combustion-based NOx control technologies. These two main topics are reported separately in Volumes 1 and 2.

  1. Performance analysis of LMFBR control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.; Birney, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    Control rods in the FFTF and LMFBR's will consist of pin bundles of stainless steel-clad boron carbide pellets. In the FFTF reference design, sixty-one pins of 0.474-inch diameter each containing a 36-inch stack of 0.362-inch diameter boron carbide pellets comprise a control rod. Reactivity control is provided by the 10 B (n,α) 7 Li reaction in the boron carbide. This reaction is accompanied by an energy release of 2.8 MeV, and heating from this reaction typically approaches 100 watts/cm 3 for natural boron carbide pellets in an LMFBR flux. Performance analysis of LMFBR control rods must include an assessment of the thermal performance of control pins. In addition, irradiation performance with regard to helium release, pellet swelling, and reactivity worth depletion as a function of service time must be evaluated

  2. Relation chain based clustering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-ning; Zhao, Ming-yang; Luo, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Clustering analysis is currently one of well-developed branches in data mining technology which is supposed to find the hidden structures in the multidimensional space called feature or pattern space. A datum in the space usually possesses a vector form and the elements in the vector represent several specifically selected features. These features are often of efficiency to the problem oriented. Generally, clustering analysis goes into two divisions: one is based on the agglomerative clustering method, and the other one is based on divisive clustering method. The former refers to a bottom-up process which regards each datum as a singleton cluster while the latter refers to a top-down process which regards entire data as a cluster. As the collected literatures, it is noted that the divisive clustering is currently overwhelming both in application and research. Although some famous divisive clustering methods are designed and well developed, clustering problems are still far from being solved. The k - means algorithm is the original divisive clustering method which initially assigns some important index values, such as the clustering number and the initial clustering prototype positions, and that could not be reasonable in some certain occasions. More than the initial problem, the k - means algorithm may also falls into local optimum, clusters in a rigid way and is not available for non-Gaussian distribution. One can see that seeking for a good or natural clustering result, in fact, originates from the one's understanding of the concept of clustering. Thus, the confusion or misunderstanding of the definition of clustering always derives some unsatisfied clustering results. One should consider the definition deeply and seriously. This paper demonstrates the nature of clustering, gives the way of understanding clustering, discusses the methodology of designing a clustering algorithm, and proposes a new clustering method based on relation chains among 2D patterns. In

  3. Questionnaire-based analysis of the current level of asthma control and management in Niigata Prefecture, Japan: Changes from 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hasegawa

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that antiinflammatory agents, including inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists, contributed to improved asthma control, whereas oral theophylline is characteristically used in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. However, not all asthma-related problems, such as satisfaction in daily life, improved and self-evaluation of asthma control by patients may play a key role in improving their satisfaction in daily life.

  4. Model based control of refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth Larsen, L.F.

    2005-11-15

    The subject for this Ph.D. thesis is model based control of refrigeration systems. Model based control covers a variety of different types of controls, that incorporates mathematical models. In this thesis the main subject therefore has been restricted to deal with system optimizing control. The optimizing control is divided into two layers, where the system oriented top layers deals with set-point optimizing control and the lower layer deals with dynamical optimizing control in the subsystems. The thesis has two main contributions, i.e. a novel approach for set-point optimization and a novel approach for desynchronization based on dynamical optimization. The focus in the development of the proposed set-point optimizing control has been on deriving a simple and general method, that with ease can be applied on various compositions of the same class of systems, such as refrigeration systems. The method is based on a set of parameter depended static equations describing the considered process. By adapting the parameters to the given process, predict the steady state and computing a steady state gradient of the cost function, the process can be driven continuously towards zero gradient, i.e. the optimum (if the cost function is convex). The method furthermore deals with system constrains by introducing barrier functions, hereby the best possible performance taking the given constrains in to account can be obtained, e.g. under extreme operational conditions. The proposed method has been applied on a test refrigeration system, placed at Aalborg University, for minimization of the energy consumption. Here it was proved that by using general static parameter depended system equations it was possible drive the set-points close to the optimum and thus reduce the power consumption with up to 20%. In the dynamical optimizing layer the idea is to optimize the operation of the subsystem or the groupings of subsystems, that limits the obtainable system performance. In systems

  5. Firmware Modification Analysis in Programmable Logic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic ) based on the inputs, then produces outputs that further controls physical devices [5, 6]. As shown in Figure...operating system and software drivers that control devices such as pumps, solenoids, robotics , and telemetry sensors. PLC manufacturers custom design this...legislation. Mcgraw and others [47, 52] emphasized that although government and cyber-security policies around the world are making forward progress , network

  6. Special Quality Control Features of Activation Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 87, - (2002), s. 47 ISSN 0003-018X. [Transactions of the American Nuclear Society. Washington, D.C., 17.01.2002-21.01.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : quality control * activation analysis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  7. Power system stability modelling, analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, Abdelhay A

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject from both a physical and mathematical perspective and covers a range of topics including modelling, computation of load flow in the transmission grid, stability analysis under both steady-state and disturbed conditions, and appropriate controls to enhance stability.

  8. Analysis, Control and Design of Walking Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis five research questions are discussed that are related to the development of two-legged (bipedal) walking robots. The research questions are categorized in three main topics: analysis, control and actuation and design. The research questions are: - How can we analyze the behavior of a

  9. Business controls voor value based management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, H.B.A.

    The article summarizes key management control building blocks for a value-based management framework. A translated version of this article was awarded a the classification of article of particular merit by the IFAC (for the IFAC 2001 articles of merit competition).

  10. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  11. Fuzzy Logic Based Automatic Door Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun SUMBUL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, fuzzy logic based an automatic door control system is designed to provide for heat energy savings. The heat energy loss usually occurs in where outomotic doors are used. Designed fuzzy logic system’s Input statuses (WS: Walking Speed and DD: Distance Door and the output status (DOS: Door Opening Speed is determined. According to these cases, rule base (25 rules is created; the rules are processed by a fuzzy logic and by appyled to control of an automatic door. An interface program is prepared by using Matlab Graphical User Interface (GUI programming language and some sample results are checked on Matlab using fuzzy logic toolbox. Designed fuzzy logic controller is tested at different speed cases and the results are plotted. As a result; in this study, we have obtained very good results in control of an automatic door with fuzzy logic. The results of analyses have indicated that the controls performed with fuzzy logic provided heat energy savings, less heat energy loss and reliable, consistent controls and that are feasible to in real.

  12. Quality control and analysis of radiotracer compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, G.; Thomson, R.

    1977-01-01

    Special emphasis was on the problems and errors possible in quality control and analysis. The principles underlying quality control were outlined, and analytical techniques applicable to radiotracers were described. Chapter concluded with a selection of examples showing the effects of impurities on the use of radiotracers. The subject of quality control and analysis was treated from the viewpoint of the user and those research workers who need to synthesize and analyze their own radiochemicals. The quality characteristics for radiotracers are of two kinds, valuable or attributive. These were discussed in the chapter. For counting low radioactive concentration, scintillation techniques are in general use, whereas ionization techniques are now used mainly for the measurement of high radioactive concentrations or large quantities of radioactivity, for scanning chromatograms, and a number of very specific purposes. Determination of radionuclidic purity was discussed. Use of radiotracers in pharmaceuticals were presented. 4 figures, 6 tables

  13. Resonance analysis in parallel voltage-controlled Distributed Generation inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to the fast responses of the inner voltage and current control loops, the dynamic behaviors of parallel voltage-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverters not only relies on the stability of load sharing among them, but subjects to the interactions between the voltage control loops...... of the inverters and the remaining system dynamics. This paper addresses the later interactions and the consequent resonances through the frequency-domain analysis of the inverters output impedances and the remaining equivalent network impedance. Furthermore, impacts of the virtual output impedance loop...... and the voltage feedforward loop in the current controller are evaluated based on such an impedance interactions analysis. Simulation results are presented to confirm the validity of the theoretical analysis....

  14. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  15. Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jian; Feng Quanke; Zhu Ruiqi

    2008-01-01

    For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating

  16. Detailed statistical analysis plan for a cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a novel school-based intervention to prevent obesity in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Siobhan; Lloyd, Jenny; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Dean, Sarah; Green, Colin; Taylor, Rod S; Ryan, Emma; Wyatt, Katrina

    2016-12-15

    The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) trial is being conducted to determine whether a novel school-based intervention is effective and cost-effective in preventing obesity in 9-10 year-old children. This article describes the detailed statistical analysis plan for the HeLP trial, including an amendment (and rationale for amendment) made to originally planned sensitivity analyses. The HeLP trial is a definitive, pragmatic, superiority, cluster randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups and blinded outcome assessment. This update article describes in detail (1) the primary and secondary outcomes, (2) the statistical analysis principles (including which children will be included in each analysis, how the clustered nature of the study design will be accounted for, which covariates will be included in each analysis, how the results will be presented), (3) planned sensitivity analyses, planned subgroup analyses and planned adherence-adjusted analyses for the primary outcome, (4) planned analyses for the secondary outcomes and (e) planned longitudinal analyses. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) register: ISRCTN15811706 . Registered on 1 May 2012.

  17. Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plott, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

  18. Network-based production quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongjin; Tseng, Bill; Chiou, Richard

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of remote quality control using a host of advanced automation equipment with Internet accessibility. Recent emphasis on product quality and reduction of waste stems from the dynamic, globalized and customer-driven market, which brings opportunities and threats to companies, depending on the response speed and production strategies. The current trends in industry also include a wide spread of distributed manufacturing systems, where design, production, and management facilities are geographically dispersed. This situation mandates not only the accessibility to remotely located production equipment for monitoring and control, but efficient means of responding to changing environment to counter process variations and diverse customer demands. To compete under such an environment, companies are striving to achieve 100%, sensor-based, automated inspection for zero-defect manufacturing. In this study, the Internet-based quality control scheme is referred to as "E-Quality for Manufacturing" or "EQM" for short. By its definition, EQM refers to a holistic approach to design and to embed efficient quality control functions in the context of network integrated manufacturing systems. Such system let designers located far away from the production facility to monitor, control and adjust the quality inspection processes as production design evolves.

  19. Bortezomib-based vs non-bortezomib-based post-transplantation treatment in multiple myeloma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of Phase III randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XP

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Liu,1 Colin K He,2 Xiangyu Meng,1 Li He,1 Kaili Li,1 Qing Liang,1 Liang Shao,1 Shangqin Liu1 1Department of Hematology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Orient Health Care, NYC, USA Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bortezomib-based vs non-bortezomib-based post-transplantation therapy in patients with multiple myeloma.Methods: Data of relevant randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of bortezomib as post-transplantation consolidation or maintenance therapy was obtained through a comprehensive search. The outcome measures included response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and adverse events (AEs. The hazard ratio (HR, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were applied to evaluate the effect of bortezomib in relation to the end points such as progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and AEs.Results: Three randomized controlled trials comprising 1,518 participants were included in this study. Pooled ORs for the rates of overall response, and complete response and near complete response, were 1.85 and 1.75, respectively. Pooled HR for progression-free survival favored bortezomib-based therapy over non-bortezomib-based therapy (0.73, 95% CI: 0.67–0.81, while no statistically significant difference could be found between the two groups regarding the pooled HR for 3-year overall survival. Moreover, incidence rates of overall adverse events and grade 3 and 4 peripheral neuropathy were similar in the bortezomib-based groups and the non-bortezomib-based groups (P=0.12 and P=0.41, respectively. The corresponding cumulative meta-analyses of the rates of overall response rate, complete response and near complete response, and grades 3 and 4 peripheral neuropathy supported the superiority of bortezomib-based maintenance therapy over consolidation therapy.Conclusion: Bortezomib-based therapy after

  20. PIC BASED SOLAR CHARGING CONTROLLER FOR BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs Jaya N. Ingole; Mrs Dr. Madhuri A. Choudhary; Dr. R.D. Kanphade

    2012-01-01

    Solar resource is unlimited the government is trying to implement the use of Solar panels as an energy source in rural and sub urban areas for lighting the street lights, but the battery used to store the power gets affected due to overcharge & discharges. This paper presents the use of PIC16F72 based solar charger controller for controlling the overcharging and discharging of a solar cell. It works by continuously optimizing the interface between the solar array and battery. First, the varia...

  1. Web based remote instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhekne, P.S.; Patil, Jitendra; Kulkarni, Jitendra; Babu, Prasad; Lad, U.C.; Rahurkar, A.G.; Kaura, H.K.

    2001-01-01

    The Web-based technology provides a very powerful communication medium for transmitting effectively multimedia information containing data generated from various sources, which may be in the form of audio, video, text, still or moving images etc. Large number of sophisticated web based software tools are available that can be used to monitor and control distributed electronic instrumentation projects. For example data can be collected online from various smart sensors/instruments such as images from CCD camera, pressure/ humidity sensor, light intensity transducer, smoke detectors etc and uploaded in real time to a central web server. This information can be processed further, to take control action in real time from any remote client, of course with due security care. The web-based technology offers greater flexibility, higher functionality, and high degree of integration providing standardization. Further easy to use standard browser based interface at the client end to monitor, view and control the desired process parameters allow you to cut down the development time and cost to a great extent. A system based on a web client-server approach has been designed and developed at Computer division, BARC and is operational since last year to monitor and control remotely various environmental parameters of distributed computer centers. In this paper we shall discuss details of this system, its current status and additional features which are currently under development. This type of system is typically very useful for Meteorology, Environmental monitoring of Nuclear stations, Radio active labs, Nuclear waste immobilization plants, Medical and Biological research labs., Security surveillance and in many such distributed situations. A brief description of various tools used for this project such as Java, CGI, Java Script, HTML, VBScript, M-JPEG, TCP/IP, UDP, RTP etc. along with their merits/demerits have also been included

  2. Importance-performance analysis based SWOT analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Phadermrod, Boonyarat; Crowder, Richard M.; Wills, Gary B.

    2016-01-01

    SWOT analysis, a commonly used tool for strategic planning, is traditionally a form of brainstorming. Hence, it has been criticised that it is likely to hold subjective views of the individuals who participate in a brainstorming session and that SWOT factors are not prioritized by their significance thus it may result in an improper strategic action. While most studies of SWOT analysis have only focused on solving these shortcomings separately, this study offers an approach to diminish both s...

  3. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2009-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  4. Nonlinear Disturbance Observer Based Robust Tracking Control of Pneumatic Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssif Mohamed Toum Elobaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently pneumatic muscles (PMs are used in various applications due to their simple construction, lightweight, and high force-to-weight ratio. However, pneumatic muscles are facing various problems due to their nonlinear characteristics and various uncertainties in real applications. To cope with the uncertainties and strong nonlinearity of a PM model, a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO is designed to estimate the lumped disturbance. Based on the disturbance observer, the tracking control of PM is studied. Stability analysis based on Lyapunov method with respect to our proposed control law is discussed. The simulation results show the validity, effectiveness, and enhancing robustness of the proposed methods.

  5. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markman, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control

  6. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  7. Use-Misuse Case Driven Analysis of Positive Train Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartong, Mark; Goel, Rajni; Wijesekera, Duminda

    Forensic analysis helps identify the causes of crimes and accidents. Determination of cause, however, requires detailed knowledge of a system's design and operational characteristics. This paper advocates that "use cases," which specify operational interactions and requirements, and "misuse cases," which specify potential misuse or abuse scenarios, can be used to analyze and link forensic evidence and create postincident reconstructions. Use-misuse case analysis techniques involving non-probabilistic and probabilistic methods are described and applied to Positive Train Control (PTC) Systems — a network-based automated system that controls the movements of passenger and freight trains.

  8. REACTOR ANALYSIS AND VIRTUAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT (RAVEN) FY12 REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Joshua Cogliati; Diego Mandelli; Robert Kinoshita

    2012-09-01

    RAVEN is a complex software tool that will have tasks spanning from being the RELAP-7 user interface, to using RELAP-7 to perform Risk Informed Safety Characterization (RISMC), and to controlling RELAP-7 calculation execution. The goal of this document is to: 1. Highlight the functional requirements of the different tasks of RAVEN 2. Identify shared functions that could be aggregate in modules so to obtain a minimal software redundancy and maximize software utilization. RAVEN is in fact a software framework that will allow exploiting the following functionalities: • Derive and actuate the control logic required to: o Simulate the plant control system o Simulate the operator (procedure guided) actions o Perform Monte Carlo sampling of random distributed events o Perform event three based analysis • Provide a GUI to: o Input a plant description to RELAP-7 (component, control variable, control parameters) o Concurrent monitoring of Control Parameters o Concurrent alteration of control parameters • Provide Post Processing data mining capability based on o Dimensionality reduction o Cardinality reduction In this document it will be shown how an appropriate mathematical formulation of the control logic and probabilistic analysis leads to have most of the software infrastructure leveraged between the two main tasks. Further, this document will go through the development accomplished this year, including simulation results, and priorities for the next years development

  9. Global stability analysis and control of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okosun Kazeem Oare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of leptospirosis control measures, preventive vaccination and treatment of infective humans that may curtail the disease transmission. For this, a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of the disease that includes preventive, vaccination, treatment of infective vectors and humans control measures are considered. Firstly, the constant control parameters’ case is analyzed, also calculate the basic reproduction number and investigate the existence and stability of equilibria. The threshold condition for disease-free equilibrium is found to be locally asymptotically stable and can only be achieved when the basic reproduction number is less than unity. The model is found to exhibit the existence of multiple endemic equilibria. Furthermore, to assess the relative impact of each of the constant control parameters measures the sensitivity index of the basic reproductive number to the model’s parameters are calculated. In the time-dependent constant control case, Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle is used to derive necessary conditions for the optimal control of the disease. The cost-effectiveness analysis is carried out by first of all using ANOVA to check on the mean costs. Then followed by Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER for all the possible combinations of the disease control measures. Our results revealed that the most cost-effective strategy for the control of leptospirosis is the combination of the vaccination and treatment of infective livestocks. Though the combinations of all control measures is also effective, however, this strategy is not cost-effective and so too costly. Therefore, more efforts from policy makers on vaccination and treatment of infectives livestocks regime would go a long way to combat the disease epidemic.

  10. Comparison Analysis of Model Predictive Controller with Classical PID Controller For pH Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available pH control plays a important role in any chemical plant and process industries. For the past four decades the classical PID controller has been occupied by the industries. Due to the faster computing   technology in the industry demands a tighter advanced control strategy. To fulfill the needs and requirements Model Predictive Control (MPC is the best among all the advanced control algorithms available in the present scenario. The study and analysis has been done for First Order plus Delay Time (FOPDT model controlled by Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and MPC using the Matlab software. This paper explores the capability of the MPC strategy, analyze and compare the control effects with conventional control strategy in pH control. A comparison results between the PID and MPC is plotted using the software. The results clearly show that MPC provide better performance than the classical controller.

  11. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ABBAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.

  12. Time dependent policy-based access control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilikos, Panagiotis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2017-01-01

    Access control policies are essential to determine who is allowed to access data in a system without compromising the data's security. However, applications inside a distributed environment may require those policies to be dependent on the actual content of the data, the flow of information, while...... also on other attributes of the environment such as the time. In this paper, we use systems of Timed Automata to model distributed systems and we present a logic in which one can express time-dependent policies for access control. We show how a fragment of our logic can be reduced to a logic...... that current model checkers for Timed Automata such as UPPAAL can handle and we present a translator that performs this reduction. We then use our translator and UPPAAL to enforce time-dependent policy-based access control on an example application from the aerospace industry....

  13. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Syed M Usman; Hussain, Sajid; Siddiqui, Ali Akber; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-01-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input and Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively

  14. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman Ali, Syed M.; Hussain, Sajid; Akber Siddiqui, Ali; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-12-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input & Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively.

  15. Performance Analysis: Control of Hazardous Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, Connie E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Freeman, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kerr, Christine E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-06

    LLNL experienced 26 occurrences related to the control of hazardous energy from January 1, 2008 through August 2010. These occurrences were 17% of the total number of reported occurrences during this 32-month period. The Performance Analysis and Reporting Section of the Contractor Assurance Office (CAO) routinely analyzes reported occurrences and issues looking for patterns that may indicate changes in LLNL’s performance and early indications of performance trends. It became apparent through these analyses that LLNL might have experienced a change in the control of hazardous energy and that these occurrences should be analyzed in more detail to determine if the perceived change in performance was real, whether that change is significant and if the causes of the occurrences are similar. This report documents the results of this more detailed analysis.

  16. Ultra-high throughput sequencing-based small RNA discovery and discrete statistical biomarker analysis in a collection of cervical tumours and matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Sam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultra-high throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities both for discovery of novel molecular species and for detailed comparisons of gene expression patterns. Small RNA populations are particularly well suited to this analysis, as many different small RNAs can be completely sequenced in a single instrument run. Results We prepared small RNA libraries from 29 tumour/normal pairs of human cervical tissue samples. Analysis of the resulting sequences (42 million in total defined 64 new human microRNA (miRNA genes. Both arms of the hairpin precursor were observed in twenty-three of the newly identified miRNA candidates. We tested several computational approaches for the analysis of class differences between high throughput sequencing datasets and describe a novel application of a log linear model that has provided the most effective analysis for this data. This method resulted in the identification of 67 miRNAs that were differentially-expressed between the tumour and normal samples at a false discovery rate less than 0.001. Conclusions This approach can potentially be applied to any kind of RNA sequencing data for analysing differential sequence representation between biological sample sets.

  17. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  18. Access Control Based on Trail Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBARELO, P. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionals are constantly seeking qualification and consequently increasing their knowledge in their area of expertise. Thus, it is interesting to develop a computer system that knows its users and their work history. Using this information, even in the case of professional role change, the system could allow the renewed authorization for activities, based on previously authorized use. This article proposes a model for user access control that is embedded in a context-aware environment. The model applies the concept of trails to manage access control, recording activities usage in contexts and applying this history as a criterion to grant new accesses. Despite the fact that previous related research works consider contexts, none of them uses the concept of trails. Hence, the main contribution of this work is the use of a new access control criterion, namely, the history of previous accesses (trails. A prototype was implemented and applied in an evaluation based on scenarios. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, allowing for access control systems to use an alternative way to support access rights.

  19. USB-based controller for generic MEM device deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jonathan; Teare, Scott; Wilcox, Christopher; Restaino, Sergio; Martinez, Ty; Payne, Don

    2006-01-01

    The use of Micro-Electro-Machined (MEM) devices as deformable mirrors (DM) for active and adaptive optics is increasing dramatically. Such increases are due to both the cost and simplicity of use of these devices. Our experience with MEM DMs has been positive, however the controlling protocols of these devices presents some issues. Based on our experience and needs we decided to design a generic controller based on a fast communication protocol. These requirements have pushed us to design a system around a USB 2.0 protocol. In this paper we present our architectural design for such controller. We present also experimental data and analysis on the performance of the controller. We describe the pros and cons of such approach versus other techniques. We will address how general such architecture is and how portable is to other systems.

  20. Adaptive control for solar energy based DC microgrid system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinhao

    During the upgrading of current electric power grid, it is expected to develop smarter, more robust and more reliable power systems integrated with distributed generations. To realize these objectives, traditional control techniques are no longer effective in either stabilizing systems or delivering optimal and robust performances. Therefore, development of advanced control methods has received increasing attention in power engineering. This work addresses two specific problems in the control of solar panel based microgrid systems. First, a new control scheme is proposed for the microgrid systems to achieve optimal energy conversion ratio in the solar panels. The control system can optimize the efficiency of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm by implementing two layers of adaptive control. Such a hierarchical control architecture has greatly improved the system performance, which is validated through both mathematical analysis and computer simulation. Second, in the development of the microgrid transmission system, the issues related to the tele-communication delay and constant power load (CPL)'s negative incremental impedance are investigated. A reference model based method is proposed for pole and zero placements that address the challenges of the time delay and CPL in closed-loop control. The effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control design methods are demonstrated in a simulation testbed. Practical aspects of the proposed methods for general microgrid systems are also discussed.

  1. Development of an Android OS Based Controller of a Double Motor Propulsion System for Connected Electric Vehicles and Communication Delays Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments of technologies that facilitate vehicle connectivity represent a market demand. In particular, mobile device (MD technology provides advanced user interface, customization, and upgradability characteristics that can facilitate connectivity and possibly aid in the goal of autonomous driving. This work explores the use of a MD in the control system of a conceptual electric vehicle (EV. While the use of MD for real-time control and monitoring has been reported, proper consideration has not been given to delays in data flow and their effects on system performance. The motor of a novel propulsion system for an EV was conditioned to be controlled in a wireless local area network by an ecosystem that includes a MD and an electronic board. An intended accelerator signal is predefined and sent to the motor and rotational speed values produced in the motor are sent back to the MD. Sample periods in which the communication really occurs are registered. Delays in the sample periods and produced errors in the accelerator and rotational speed signals are presented and analyzed. Maximum delays found in communications were of 0.2 s, while the maximum error produced in the accelerator signal was of 3.54%. Delays are also simulated, with a response that is similar to the behavior observed in the experiments.

  2. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, Dines

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation....... To this end, four distinct modes of operation are identified (dry weather, filling, saturation and emptying) and for each of these the process gain matrix is found. Based on the gain matrices a controllability analysis is performed, to screen for suitable pairings between measurements and actuators...... in the case study area of Copenhagen. The analysis effectively reduces the number of potential controlled variables, by considering the sensitivity of the measurements towards changes in the manipulated variables. Several potential pairings are generated and the best alternative is chosen for closed...

  3. An image analysis of TLC patterns for quality control of saffron based on soil salinity effect: A strategy for data (pre)-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshti, Hassan; Poursorkh, Zahra; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Zarre, Shahin; Ataolahi, Sahar

    2018-01-15

    Quality of saffron, a valuable food additive, could considerably affect the consumers' health. In this work, a novel preprocessing strategy for image analysis of saffron thin layer chromatographic (TLC) patterns was introduced. This includes performing a series of image pre-processing techniques on TLC images such as compression, inversion, elimination of general baseline (using asymmetric least squares (AsLS)), removing spots shift and concavity (by correlation optimization warping (COW)), and finally conversion to RGB chromatograms. Subsequently, an unsupervised multivariate data analysis including principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering was utilized to investigate the soil salinity effect, as a cultivation parameter, on saffron TLC patterns. This method was used as a rapid and simple technique to obtain the chemical fingerprints of saffron TLC images. Finally, the separated TLC spots were chemically identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Accordingly, the saffron quality from different areas of Iran was evaluated and classified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of online mindfulness-based interventions in improving mental health: A review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommers-Spijkerman, Maria Petronella Johanna; Pots, Wendy Theresia Maria; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are increasingly being delivered through the Internet. Whereas numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effectiveness of face-to-face MBIs in the context of mental health and well-being, thus far a quantitative synthesis of the effectiveness of online MBIs

  5. Cost-effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and reliever asthma therapy in Denmark--cost-effectiveness analysis based on five randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickstrøm, Jannie; Dam, Nanna; Malmberg, Irena

    2009-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the Symbicort SMART regime in Denmark vs higher dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) plus reliever medication, similar dose inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta(2)-agonist (ICS/LABA) combination therapy plus reliever medication or higher......Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (Symbicort SMART) is an effective asthma-management regime where patients use budesonide/formoterol both as maintenance treatment and as additional doses as needed to improve overall asthma control by reducing symptoms and exacerbations...

  6. Shock analysis on hydraulic drive control rod during scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Qin Benke; Bo Hanliang

    2013-01-01

    Control rod hydraulic drive mechanism (CRHDM) is a new invention of Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University. The hydraulic absorber buffers the control rod when it scrams. The control rod fast drop impact experiment was conducted and the key parameters of control rod hydraulic buffering performance were obtained. Based on the test results and according to D'Alembert principle, the maximum inertial impact force on the control rod during the fast drop period was applied as equivalent static load force on the control rod. The deformations and stress distributions on the control rod in this worst case were calculated by using finite element software ABAQUS. Calculation results were compared with the experiment results, and it was verified that nonlinear transient dynamics analysis in this problem can be simplified as static analysis. Damage criterion of the control rod fast drop impact process was also given. And it lays foundation for optimal design of the control rod and hydraulic absorber. (authors)

  7. Virologic response to tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimens in antiretroviral therapy experienced HIV-1 patients: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Berhan

    Full Text Available The development of tipranavir and darunavir, second generation non-peptidic HIV protease inhibitors, with marked improved resistance profiles, has opened a new perspective on the treatment of antiretroviral therapy (ART experienced HIV patients with poor viral load control. The aim of this study was to determine the virologic response in ART experienced patients to tipranavir-ritonavir and darunavir-ritonavir based regimens.A computer based literature search was conducted in the databases of HINARI (Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative, Medline and Cochrane library. Meta-analysis was performed by including randomized controlled studies that were conducted in ART experienced patients with plasma viral load above 1,000 copies HIV RNA/ml. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for viral loads of <50 copies and <400 copies HIV RNA/ml at the end of the intervention were determined by the random effects model. Meta-regression, sensitivity analysis and funnel plots were done. The number of HIV-1 patients who were on either a tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen and achieved viral load less than 50 copies HIV RNA/ml was significantly higher (overall OR = 3.4; 95% CI, 2.61-4.52 than the number of HIV-1 patients who were on investigator selected boosted comparator HIV-1 protease inhibitors (CPIs-ritonavir. Similarly, the number of patients with viral load less than 400 copies HIV RNA/ml was significantly higher in either the tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen treated group (overall OR = 3.0; 95% CI, 2.15-4.11. Meta-regression showed that the viral load reduction was independent of baseline viral load, baseline CD4 count and duration of tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen.Tipranavir and darunavir based regimens were more effective in patients who were ART experienced and had poor viral load control. Further studies are required to determine their consistent

  8. The analysis and compensation of errors of precise simple harmonic motion control under high speed and large load conditions based on servo electric cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-xi; Ding, Guo-qing

    2017-10-01

    Simple harmonic waves and synthesized simple harmonic waves are widely used in the test of instruments. However, because of the errors caused by clearance of gear and time-delay error of FPGA, it is difficult to control servo electric cylinder in precise simple harmonic motion under high speed, high frequency and large load conditions. To solve the problem, a method of error compensation is proposed in this paper. In the method, a displacement sensor is fitted on the piston rod of the electric cylinder. By using the displacement sensor, the real-time displacement of the piston rod is obtained and fed back to the input of servo motor, then a closed loop control is realized. There is compensation of pulses in the next period of the synthetic waves. This paper uses FPGA as the processing core. The software mainly comprises a waveform generator, an Ethernet module, a memory module, a pulse generator, a pulse selector, a protection module, an error compensation module. A durability of shock absorbers is used as the testing platform. The durability mainly comprises a single electric cylinder, a servo motor for driving the electric cylinder, and the servo motor driver.

  9. Application of a clinic-based algorithm as a tool to identify female athletes at risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury: a prospective cohort study with a nested, matched case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetschius, John; Smith, Helen C; Vacek, Pamela M; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Shultz, Sandra J; Tourville, Timothy W; Slauterbeck, James; Johnson, Robert J; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2012-09-01

    When landing from a jump, the production of increased intersegmental knee abduction moments and coupled valgus motions has been associated with an increased risk of suffering a noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in one study. This research has led to the development of a clinic-based algorithm that utilizes measures of knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibial length, and quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio data to predict the probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) when landing from a jump in female athletes. The ability of this algorithm to identify athletes at increased risk of suffering ACL injury has not been assessed. The pKAM is associated with ACL injury in female athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. This study was based on secondary analysis of data obtained from a previous investigation that focused on the use of the drop vertical jump (DVJ) test to assess the risk of ACL injury in female athletes. The DVJ screenings were performed on 1855 female high school and college athletes over 3 years. Knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, and tibial length were measured from videos of the DVJ obtained during preseason screenings. Mass was measured using a physician's scale, and quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio was included using a surrogate value. These data were entered into the clinic-based algorithm that determined the pKAM. The association of pKAM with ACL injury was assessed using conditional logistic regression. A total of 20 athletes sustained ACL injury and were matched with 45 uninjured control athletes who were recruited from the same teams. There was no relationship between the risk of suffering ACL injury and pKAM, as determined by the clinic-based algorithm. The pKAM was not associated with noncontact ACL injury in our group of injured athletes and matched controls.

  10. Optimized Aircraft Electric Control System Based on Adaptive Tabu Search Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah Khalid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Three conventional control constant instantaneous power control, sinusoidal current control, and synchronous reference frame techniques for extracting reference currents for shunt active power filters have been optimized using Fuzzy Logic control and Adaptive Tabu search Algorithm and their performances have been compared. Critical analysis of Comparison of the compensation ability of different control strategies based on THD and speed will be done, and suggestions will be given for the selection of technique to be used. The simulated results using MATLAB model are presented, and they will clearly prove the value of the proposed control method of aircraft shunt APF. The waveforms observed after the application of filter will be having the harmonics within the limits and the power quality will be improved.

  11. Access control mechanism of wireless gateway based on open flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the access control of wireless gateway and improve the access control of wireless gateway devices, an access control mechanism of SDN architecture which is based on Open vSwitch is proposed. The mechanism utilizes the features of the controller--centralized control and programmable. Controller send access control flow table based on the business logic. Open vSwitch helps achieve a specific access control strategy based on the flow table.

  12. Design and Analysis of Morpheus Lander Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Yang, Lee; Fritz, Mathew; Nguyen, Louis H.; Johnson, Wyatt R.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Morpheus Lander is a vertical takeoff and landing test bed vehicle developed to demonstrate the system performance of the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system capability for the integrated autonomous landing and hazard avoidance system hardware and software. The Morpheus flight control system design must be robust to various mission profiles. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Morpheus flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics and propellant slosh. Under the assumption that the Morpheus time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Both control gains in the inner attitude control loop and guidance gains in the outer position control loop are designed to maximize the vehicle performance while ensuring robustness. The flight control system designs provided herein have been demonstrated to provide stable control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the NASA/JSC Trick-based Morpheus time domain simulation.

  13. Association Between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Congenital Heart Disease: A Meta-analysis based on 9,329 cases and 15,076 controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Chao; Li, Hui; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei; Lun, Li-Min

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the risk for congenital heart disease (CHD). Electronic literature databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before Jun, 2014. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The publication bias was explored using Begg's test. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the crude results. A total of 35 studies were included in this meta-analysis. For the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, we detected significant association in all genetic models for Asian children and the maternal population. Significant association was also detected in T vs. C for a Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.163, 95% CI: 1.008–1.342) and in both T vs. C (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 1.043–1.214) and the dominant model (OR = 1.216, 95% CI:b1.096–1.348) for a Caucasian maternal population. For the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, the association was detected in CC vs. AC for the Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.484, 95% CI: 1.035–2.128). Our results support the MTHFR -677T allele as a susceptibility factor for CHD in the Asian maternal population and the -1298C allele as a risk factor in the Caucasian paediatric population. PMID:25472587

  14. Intelligent Control of Micro Grid: A Big Data-Based Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Li; Wang, Zhiseng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a structure of micro grid system with big data-based control center is introduced. Energy data from distributed generation, storage and load are analized through the control center, and from the results new trends will be predicted and applied as a feedback to optimize the control. Therefore, each step proceeded in micro grid can be adjusted and orgnized in a form of comprehensive management. A framework of real-time data collection, data processing and data analysis will be proposed by employing big data technology. Consequently, a integrated distributed generation and a optimized energy storage and transmission process can be implemented in the micro grid system.

  15. GA-Based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the greatest difficulty encountered when designing a fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC or an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller (AFSMC capable of rapidly and efficiently controlling complex and nonlinear systems is how to select the most appropriate initial values for the parameter vector. In this paper, we describe a method of stability analysis for a GA-based reference adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller capable of handling these types of problems for a nonlinear system. First, we approximate and describe an uncertain and nonlinear plant for the tracking of a reference trajectory via a fuzzy model incorporating fuzzy logic control rules. Next, the initial values of the consequent parameter vector are decided via a genetic algorithm. After this, an adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller, designed to simultaneously stabilize and control the system, is derived. The stability of the nonlinear system is ensured by the derivation of the stability criterion based upon Lyapunov's direct method. Finally, an example, a numerical simulation, is provided to demonstrate the control methodology.

  16. Microcomputer-based monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talaska, D.

    1979-03-01

    This report describes a microcomputer-based monitoring and control system devised within, and used by, the Cryogenic Operations group at SLAC. Presently, a version of it is operating at the one meter liquid hydrogen bubble chamber augmenting the conventional pneumatic and human feedback system. Its use has greatly improved the controlled tolerances of temperature and pulse shape, and it has nearly eliminated the need for operating personnel to adjust the conventional pneumatic control system. The latter is most important since the rapid cycling machine can demand attentions beyond the operator's skill. Similar microcomputer systems are being prepared to monitor and control cryogenic devices situated in regions of radiation which preclude human entry and at diverse locations which defy the dexterity of the few operators assigned to maintain them. An IMSAI 8080 microcomputer is basic to the system. The key to the use of the IMSAI 8080 in this system was in the development of unique interface circuitry, and the report is mostly concerned with this

  17. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  18. Agents-based distributed processes control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gligor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large industrial distributed systems have revealed a remarkable development in recent years. We may note an increase of their structural and functional complexity, at the same time with those on requirements side. These are some reasons why there are involvednumerous researches, energy and resources to solve problems related to these types of systems. The paper addresses the issue of industrial distributed systems with special attention being given to the distributed industrial processes control systems. A solution for a distributed process control system based on mobile intelligent agents is presented.The main objective of the proposed system is to provide an optimal solution in terms of costs, maintenance, reliability and flexibility. The paper focuses on requirements, architecture, functionality and advantages brought by the proposed solution.

  19. Wind Turbine Control: Robust Model Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood

    . This is because, on the one hand, control methods can decrease the cost of energy by keeping the turbine close to its maximum efficiency. On the other hand, they can reduce structural fatigue and therefore increase the lifetime of the wind turbine. The power produced by a wind turbine is proportional...... to the square of its rotor radius, therefore it seems reasonable to increase the size of the wind turbine in order to capture more power. However as the size increases, the mass of the blades increases by cube of the rotor size. This means in order to keep structural feasibility and mass of the whole structure...... reasonable, the ratio of mass to size should be reduced. This trend results in more flexible structures. Control of the flexible structure of a wind turbine in a wind field with stochastic nature is very challenging. In this thesis we are examining a number of robust model based methods for wind turbine...

  20. Neural Network Based Montioring and Control of Fluidized Bed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodruzzaman, M.; Essawy, M.A.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop chaos analysis and neural network-based modeling techniques and apply them to the pressure-drop data obtained from the Fluid Bed Combustion (FBC) system (a small scale prototype model) located at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown. The second goal was to develop neural network-based chaos control techniques and provide a suggestive prototype for possible real-time application to the FBC system. The experimental pressure data were collected from a cold FBC experimental set-up at the Morgantown Center. We have performed several analysis on these data in order to unveil their dynamical and chaotic characteristics. The phase-space attractors were constructed from the one dimensional time series data, using the time-delay embedding method, for both normal and abnormal conditions. Several identifying parameters were also computed from these attractors such as the correlation dimension, the Kolmogorov entropy, and the Lyapunov exponents. These chaotic attractor parameters can be used to discriminate between the normal and abnormal operating conditions of the FBC system. It was found that, the abnormal data has higher correlation dimension, larger Kolmogorov entropy and larger positive Lyapunov exponents as compared to the normal data. Chaotic system control using neural network based techniques were also investigated and compared to conventional chaotic system control techniques. Both types of chaotic system control techniques were applied to some typical chaotic systems such as the logistic, the Henon, and the Lorenz systems. A prototype model for real-time implementation of these techniques has been suggested to control the FBC system. These models can be implemented for real-time control in a next phase of the project after obtaining further measurements from the experimental model. After testing the control algorithms developed for the FBC model, the next step is to implement them on hardware and link them to

  1. Commercial FPGA based multipurpose controller: implementation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, I.; Campo, M. del; Echevarria, P.; Belver, D.; Muguira, L.; Garmendia, N.; Hassanzadegan, H.; Eguiraun, M.; Jugo, J.; Etxebarria, V.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a fast acquisition multipurpose controller, focussing on its EPICS integration and on its XML based configuration. This controller is based on a Lyrtech VHS-ADC board which encloses an FPGA, connected to a Host PC. This Host acts as local controller and implements an IOC integrating the device in an EPICS network. These tasks have been performed using Java as the main tool to program the PC to make the device fit the desired application. All the process includes the use of different technologies: JNA to handle C functions i.e. FPGA API, JavaIOC to integrate EPICS and XML w3c DOM classes to easily configure the particular application. In order to manage the functions, Java specific tools have been developed: Methods to manage the FPGA (read/write registers, acquire data,...), methods to create and use the EPICS server (put, get, monitor,...), mathematical methods to process the data (numeric format conversions,...) and methods to create/ initialize the application structure by means of an XML file (parse elements, build the DOM and the specific application structure). This XML file has some common nodes and tags for all the applications: FPGA registers specifications definition and EPICS variables. This means that the user only has to include a node for the specific application and use the mentioned tools. A main class is in charge of managing the FPGA and EPICS server according to this XML file. This multipurpose controller has been successfully used to implement a BPM and an LLRF application for the ESS-Bilbao (European Spallation Source) facility. (authors)

  2. Martingale residual-based method to control for confounders measured only in a validation sample in time-to-event analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, Rebecca M; Abrahamowicz, Michal

    2016-11-10

    Unmeasured confounding remains an important problem in observational studies, including pharmacoepidemiological studies of large administrative databases. Several recently developed methods utilize smaller validation samples, with information on additional confounders, to control for confounders unmeasured in the main, larger database. However, up-to-date applications of these methods to survival analyses seem to be limited to propensity score calibration, which relies on a strong surrogacy assumption. We propose a new method, specifically designed for time-to-event analyses, which uses martingale residuals, in addition to measured covariates, to enhance imputation of the unmeasured confounders in the main database. The method is applicable for analyses with both time-invariant data and time-varying exposure/confounders. In simulations, our method consistently eliminated bias because of unmeasured confounding, regardless of surrogacy violation and other relevant design parameters, and almost always yielded lower mean squared errors than other methods applicable for survival analyses, outperforming propensity score calibration in several scenarios. We apply the method to a real-life pharmacoepidemiological database study of the association between glucocorticoid therapy and risk of type II diabetes mellitus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, with additional potential confounders available in an external validation sample. Compared with conventional analyses, which adjust only for confounders measured in the main database, our estimates suggest a considerably weaker association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. DIY SENSOR BASED CONTROL FOR HYDROPONIC GARDENNING

    OpenAIRE

    Yuvaraju.M*, Vasanthabalan.V

    2017-01-01

    Hydroponic is the different planting method followed in agriculture. This method is based on water and does not depend on soil. Here the nutrient is added with water and the plants are grown in water. This method need continuous monitoring for growthing and automatic system used here will fulfill the demand. This automatic system control the water pH level, water temperature, surrounding temperature and humidity. In addition it can be monitored remotely using IOT. The sensors used are pH sens...

  4. Development of a data base system for quality control of MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kuniaki; Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Mishima, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of improvement and speed up of work concerning quality control for mixed oxide fuel fabrication, we have been developing a data base system having a data base consisting of data as to fabrication conditions and inspects, We have aimed to develop a data base system having capability of analysis and function giving informations as to quality control. The data base system is full interactive system on real time basis, consequently it makes analyzing and editing data easy. It has capability of relational research, numerical analysis, correlation analysis, drawing control charts, histograms, and other figures, and expressing status of fabrication processes using control charts. (author)

  5. Design and rationale of a prospective, collaborative meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials of angiotensin receptor antagonists in Marfan syndrome, based on individual patient data: A report from the Marfan Treatment Trialists' Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Alex; Emberson, Jonathan; Lacro, Ronald V.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Stylianou, Mario; Mahony, Lynn; Pearson, Gail D.; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; De Backer, Julie; De Paepe, Anne M.; Arbustini, Eloisa; Erdem, Guliz; Jin, Xu Yu; Flather, Marcus D.; Mullen, Michael J.; Child, Anne H.; Forteza, Alberto; Evangelista, Arturo; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Sandor, George; Bhatt, Ami B.; Creager, Mark A.; Devereux, Richard B.; Loeys, Bart; Forfar, J. Colin; Neubauer, Stefan; Watkins, Hugh; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Dietz, Harry C.; Baigent, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Rationale A number of randomized trials are underway, which will address the effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on aortic root enlargement and a range of other end points in patients with Marfan syndrome. If individual participant data from these trials were to be combined, a meta-analysis of the resulting data, totaling approximately 2,300 patients, would allow estimation across a number of trials of the treatment effects both of ARB therapy and of β-blockade. Such an analysis would also allow estimation of treatment effects in particular subgroups of patients on a range of end points of interest and would allow a more powerful estimate of the effects of these treatments on a composite end point of several clinical outcomes than would be available from any individual trial. Design A prospective, collaborative meta-analysis based on individual patient data from all randomized trials in Marfan syndrome of (i) ARBs versus placebo (or open-label control) and (ii) ARBs versus β-blockers will be performed. A prospective study design, in which the principal hypotheses, trial eligibility criteria, analyses, and methods are specified in advance of the unblinding of the component trials, will help to limit bias owing to data-dependent emphasis on the results of particular trials. The use of individual patient data will allow for analysis of the effects of ARBs in particular patient subgroups and for time-to-event analysis for clinical outcomes. The meta-analysis protocol summarized in this report was written on behalf of the Marfan Treatment Trialists' Collaboration and finalized in late 2012, without foreknowledge of the results of any component trial, and will be made available online (http://www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/research/meta-trials). PMID:25965707

  6. Design and rationale of a prospective, collaborative meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials of angiotensin receptor antagonists in Marfan syndrome, based on individual patient data: A report from the Marfan Treatment Trialists' Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Alex; Emberson, Jonathan; Lacro, Ronald V; Sleeper, Lynn A; Stylianou, Mario; Mahony, Lynn; Pearson, Gail D; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; De Backer, Julie; De Paepe, Anne M; Arbustini, Eloisa; Erdem, Guliz; Jin, Xu Yu; Flather, Marcus D; Mullen, Michael J; Child, Anne H; Forteza, Alberto; Evangelista, Arturo; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Sandor, George; Bhatt, Ami B; Creager, Mark A; Devereux, Richard B; Loeys, Bart; Forfar, J Colin; Neubauer, Stefan; Watkins, Hugh; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Dietz, Harry C; Baigent, Colin

    2015-05-01

    A number of randomized trials are underway, which will address the effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on aortic root enlargement and a range of other end points in patients with Marfan syndrome. If individual participant data from these trials were to be combined, a meta-analysis of the resulting data, totaling approximately 2,300 patients, would allow estimation across a number of trials of the treatment effects both of ARB therapy and of β-blockade. Such an analysis would also allow estimation of treatment effects in particular subgroups of patients on a range of end points of interest and would allow a more powerful estimate of the effects of these treatments on a composite end point of several clinical outcomes than would be available from any individual trial. A prospective, collaborative meta-analysis based on individual patient data from all randomized trials in Marfan syndrome of (i) ARBs versus placebo (or open-label control) and (ii) ARBs versus β-blockers will be performed. A prospective study design, in which the principal hypotheses, trial eligibility criteria, analyses, and methods are specified in advance of the unblinding of the component trials, will help to limit bias owing to data-dependent emphasis on the results of particular trials. The use of individual patient data will allow for analysis of the effects of ARBs in particular patient subgroups and for time-to-event analysis for clinical outcomes. The meta-analysis protocol summarized in this report was written on behalf of the Marfan Treatment Trialists' Collaboration and finalized in late 2012, without foreknowledge of the results of any component trial, and will be made available online (http://www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/research/meta-trials). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonlinear adaptive control based on fuzzy sliding mode technique and fuzzy-based compensator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy Dzung; Vo, Hoang Duy; Seo, Tae-Il

    2017-09-01

    It is difficult to efficiently control nonlinear systems in the presence of uncertainty and disturbance (UAD). One of the main reasons derives from the negative impact of the unknown features of UAD as well as the response delay of the control system on the accuracy rate in the real time of the control signal. In order to deal with this, we propose a new controller named CO-FSMC for a class of nonlinear control systems subjected to UAD, which is constituted of a fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) and a fuzzy-based compensator (CO). Firstly, the FSMC and CO are designed independently, and then an adaptive fuzzy structure is discovered to combine them. Solutions for avoiding the singular cases of the fuzzy-based function approximation and reducing the calculating cost are proposed. Based on the solutions, fuzzy sliding mode technique, lumped disturbance observer and Lyapunov stability analysis, a closed-loop adaptive control law is formulated. Simulations along with a real application based on a semi-active train-car suspension are performed to fully evaluate the method. The obtained results reflected that vibration of the chassis mass is insensitive to UAD. Compared with the other fuzzy sliding mode control strategies, the CO-FSMC can provide the best control ability to reduce unwanted vibrations. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovering Government Control over Mara Salvatrucha territory: Analysis based on the “Santa Tecla, a Municipality Free of Violence” Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet Antoinette Zoethout

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first half of a much more extensive investigation over Mara Salvatrucha’s social and territorial control in colonia San José del Pino and theSan Rafael community, both from the Santa Tecla municipality. In a case study conducted within the framework of a Master’s Degree in Latin American Studies at the University of Amsterdam, the effects of preventive public security policies in the area were mapped, with emphasis on the strategy known as “Santa Tecla, a Municipality free of Violence” (MLV. The article takes a closer look at the effects of the peace process which began in 2012 with the implementation of the community policing philosophy and the MLV strategy over the social fabric and local sustainability in the above mentioned communities. It also evaluates the recovery of local governance after decades of a lack of Government presence in the area. As a result of the new public security policy, crime rates have decrease, fear has decrease, local sustainability has improved and both values and social networks have been reestablished. However, it is necessary to create a public security police able to withstand on the medium and long term all demands and needs of the sector regardless who is governing the municipality; this effort cannot stop if the ultimate goal is achieving the best results.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 179-246

  9. Lyapunov function-based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness, and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of joint level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to a recently proposed energy-like Liapunov function approach, except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. This approach gives way to a much simpler analysis and leads to a new class of control designs which guarantee both global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and parameter uncertainty are present as model perturbations, a sliding mode-like modification of the control law results in a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is formulated within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by simply replacing unknown model parameters by their estimates (i.e., certainty equivalence adaptation).

  10. Control Flow Analysis for SF Combinator Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lester

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Programs that transform other programs often require access to the internal structure of the program to be transformed. This is at odds with the usual extensional view of functional programming, as embodied by the lambda calculus and SK combinator calculus. The recently-developed SF combinator calculus offers an alternative, intensional model of computation that may serve as a foundation for developing principled languages in which to express intensional computation, including program transformation. Until now there have been no static analyses for reasoning about or verifying programs written in SF-calculus. We take the first step towards remedying this by developing a formulation of the popular control flow analysis 0CFA for SK-calculus and extending it to support SF-calculus. We prove its correctness and demonstrate that the analysis is invariant under the usual translation from SK-calculus into SF-calculus.

  11. Model-based determination of the influence of textile fabric on bioassay analysis and the effectiveness of a textile slow-release system of DEET in mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malengier, Benny; Goessens, Tineke; Mafo, Flora F; De Vrieze, Mike; Van Langenhove, Lieva; Wanji, Samuel; Lynen, Frederic

    2015-08-01

    Determining the effectiveness of a product in repelling mosquitoes or other flying insects is a difficult task. One approach is to use a bioassay with textile fabric. We investigated the role of the textile substrate in a bioassay with a numerical model, and compared the outcome with known results for DEET. The model was then used to determine the effectiveness of textile slow-release formulations based on coatings, and results were compared with those of a field study in the Cameroon. Slow-release formulations are difficult to evaluate with standard tests, as the compound needs a build-up time not present in these tests. We found excellent correspondence between the model and the known DEET results without matching parameters. Slow-release approaches are deemed possible but have several drawbacks. Modelling can help in identifying optimal use conditions. The field test with a slow-release system performed better than anticipated by the model, with initially more than 90% repellency. DEET-coated textile was considered not to be marketable, however. We advise that bioassays characterise in more detail the type of textile fabric used so as to allow conclusions to be drawn by textile modelling. As regards coated-textile slow-release systems, more research is needed. We nevertheless advise usage mainly at entry points, e.g. as scrims. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Pixel extraction based integral imaging with controllable viewing direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chao-Chao; Deng, Huan; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2012-01-01

    We propose pixel extraction based integral imaging with a controllable viewing direction. The proposed integral imaging can provide viewers three-dimensional (3D) images in a very small viewing angle. The viewing angle and the viewing direction of the reconstructed 3D images are controlled by the pixels extracted from an elemental image array. Theoretical analysis and a 3D display experiment of the viewing direction controllable integral imaging are carried out. The experimental results verify the correctness of the theory. A 3D display based on the integral imaging can protect the viewer’s privacy and has huge potential for a television to show multiple 3D programs at the same time. (paper)

  13. Effects of web-based stress and depression literacy intervention on improving work engagement among workers with low work engagement: An analysis of secondary outcome of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tsuchiya, Masao; Shimada, Kyoko; Namba, Katsuyuki; Shimazu, Akihito

    2017-01-24

    The purpose of this randomized, controlled trial was to examine the effects of a psychoeducational information website on improving work engagement among individual workers with low work engagement, where work engagement was measured as a secondary outcome. Participants were recruited from registered members of a web survey site in Japan. Participants who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Immediately after the baseline survey, the intervention group was invited to study a psychoeducational website called the "UTSMed," which provided general mental health literacy and cognitive behavioral skills. Work engagement was assessed by using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale at baseline, 1-, and 4-month follow-ups for both intervention and control groups. An exploratory analysis was conducted for a subgroup with low (lower than the median scores) work engagement scores at baseline. A total of 1,236 workers completed the baseline survey. In the low work engagement subgroup, a total of 313 and 300 participants were allocated to an intervention and control group, respectively. In the high work engagement subgroup, 305 and 318 participants were allocated to an intervention and control group, respectively. The program showed a significant effect on work engagement (t = 1.98, P = 0.048) at the 4-month follow-up in the low work engagement subgroup, with a small effect size (d = 0.17). A web-based psychoeducation resource of mental health literacy and cognitive behavioral skills may be effective for improving work engagement among individual workers with low work engagement.

  14. Cell-Based Systems Biology Analysis of Human AS03-Adjuvanted H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine Responses: A Phase I Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Leigh M; Hoek, Kristen L; Goll, Johannes B; Samir, Parimal; Galassie, Allison; Allos, Tara M; Niu, Xinnan; Gordy, Laura E; Creech, C Buddy; Prasad, Nripesh; Jensen, Travis L; Hill, Heather; Levy, Shawn E; Joyce, Sebastian; Link, Andrew J; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine development for influenza A/H5N1 is an important public health priority, but H5N1 vaccines are less immunogenic than seasonal influenza vaccines. Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) markedly enhances immune responses to H5N1 vaccine antigens, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We compared the safety (primary endpoint), immunogenicity (secondary), gene expression (tertiary) and cytokine responses (exploratory) between AS03-adjuvanted and unadjuvanted inactivated split-virus H5N1 influenza vaccines. In a double-blinded clinical trial, we randomized twenty adults aged 18-49 to receive two doses of either AS03-adjuvanted (n = 10) or unadjuvanted (n = 10) H5N1 vaccine 28 days apart. We used a systems biology approach to characterize and correlate changes in serum cytokines, antibody titers, and gene expression levels in six immune cell types at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days after the first vaccination. Both vaccines were well-tolerated. Nine of 10 subjects in the adjuvanted group and 0/10 in the unadjuvanted group exhibited seroprotection (hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer > 1:40) at day 56. Within 24 hours of AS03-adjuvanted vaccination, increased serum levels of IL-6 and IP-10 were noted. Interferon signaling and antigen processing and presentation-related gene responses were induced in dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils. Upregulation of MHC class II antigen presentation-related genes was seen in neutrophils. Three days after AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, upregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and division was detected in NK cells and correlated with serum levels of IP-10. Early upregulation of interferon signaling-related genes was also found to predict seroprotection 56 days after first vaccination. Using this cell-based systems approach, novel mechanisms of action for AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccination were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01573312.

  15. Nonlinear control system for optical interferometry based on variable structure control and sliding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roberta I; Sakamoto, João M S; Teixeira, Marcelo C M; Martinez, Guilherme A; Pereira, Fernando C; Kitano, Cláudio

    2017-03-20

    This work presents a novel nonlinear control system designed for interferometry based on variable structure control and sliding modes. This approach can fully compensate the nonlinear behavior of the interferometer and lead to high accuracy control for large disturbances, featuring low cost, ease of implementation and high robustness, without a reset circuit (when compared with a linear control system). A deep stability analysis was accomplished and the global asymptotic stability of the system was proved. The results showed that the nonlinear control is able to keep the interferometer in the quadrature point and suppress signal fading for arbitrary signals, sinusoidal signals, or zero input signal, even under strong external disturbances. The system showed itself suitable to characterize a multi-axis piezoelectric flextentional actuator, which displacements that are much smaller than half wavelength. The high robustness allows the system to be embedded and to operate in harsh environments as factories, bringing the interferometry outside the laboratory.

  16. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of BMPs in controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China based on the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used in managing agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP) at the watershed level. Most BMPs are related to land use, tillage management, and fertilizer levels. In total, seven BMP scenarios (Reforest1, Reforest2, No Tillage, Contour tillage, and fertilizer level 1-4) that are related to these three factors were estimated in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of these BMPs on ANSP reduction in a large tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, which are based on the simulation results of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results indicated that reforestation was the most economically efficient of all BMPs, and its net benefits were up to CNY 4.36×10(7) years(-1) (about USD 7.08×10(6) years(-1)). Regarding tillage practices, no tillage practice was more environmentally friendly than other tillage practices, and contour tillage was more economically efficient. Reducing the local fertilizer level to 0.8-fold less than that of 2010 can yield a satisfactory environmental and economic efficiency. Reforestation and fertilizer management were more effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP), whereas tillage management was more effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN). When CNY 10,000 (about USD 162) was applied to reforestation, no tillage, contour tillage, and an 0.8-fold reduction in the fertilizer level, then annual TN load can be reduced by 0.08, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.04 t and annual TP load can be reduced by 0.04, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 t, respectively. The cost-benefit (CB) ratios of the BMPs were as follows: reforestation (207 %) > contour tillage (129 %) > no tillage (114 %) > fertilizer management (96 and 89 %). The most economical and effective BMPs can be designated as follows: BMP1 (returning arable land with slopes greater than 25° to forests and those lands with slopes of 15-25° to orchards), BMP2 (implementing no tillage

  17. Applied Research of Enterprise Cost Control Based on Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches the enterprise cost control through the linear programming model, and analyzes the restriction factors of the labor of enterprise production, raw materials, processing equipment, sales price, and other factors affecting the enterprise income, so as to obtain an enterprise cost control model based on the linear programming. This model can calculate rational production mode in the case of limited resources, and acquire optimal enterprise income. The production guiding program and scheduling arrangement of the enterprise can be obtained through calculation results, so as to provide scientific and effective guidance for the enterprise production. This paper adds the sensitivity analysis in the linear programming model, so as to learn about the stability of the enterprise cost control model based on linear programming through the sensitivity analysis, and verify the rationality of the model, and indicate the direction for the enterprise cost control. The calculation results of the model can provide a certain reference for the enterprise planning in the market economy environment, which have strong reference and practical significance in terms of the enterprise cost control.

  18. A quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Stacy A.; Dugan, Joanne B.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an informal quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (FCS). The analysis technique combines a coverage model with a fault tree model. To demonstrate the method's extensive capabilities, we replace the fault tree with a digraph model of the F18 FCS, the only model available to us. The substitution shows that while digraphs have primarily been used for qualitative analysis, they can also be used for quantitative analysis. Based on our assumptions and the particular failure rates assigned to the F18 FCS components, we show that coverage does have a significant effect on the system's reliability and thus it is important to include coverage in the reliability analysis.

  19. Knowledge-based methods for control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis consists of three projects which combine artificial intelligence and control. The first part describes an expert system interface for system identification, using the interactive identification program Idpac. The interface works as an intelligent help system, using the command spy strategy. It contains a multitude of help system ideas. The concept of scripts is introduced as a data structure used to describe the procedural part of the knowledge in the interface. Production rules are used to represent diagnostic knowledge. A small knowledge database of scripts and rules has been developed and an example run is shown. The second part describes an expert system for frequency response analysis. This is one of the oldest and most widely used methods to determine the dynamics of a stable linear system. Though quite simple, it requires knowledge and experience of the user, in order to produce reliable results. The expert system is designed to help the user in performing the analysis. It checks whether the system is linear, finds the frequency and amplitude ranges, verifies the results, and, if errors should occur, tries to give explanation and remedies for them. The third part describes three diagnostic methods for use with industrial processes. They are measurement validation, i.e., consistency checking of sensor and measurement values using any redundancy of instrumentation; alarm analysis, i.e. analysis of multiple alarm situations to find which alarms are directly connected to primary faults and which alarms are consequential effects of the primary ones; and fault diagnosis, i.e., a search for the causes of and remedies for faults. The three methods use multilevel flow models, (MFM), to describe the target process. They have been implemented in the programming tool G2, and successfully tested on two small processes. (164 refs.) (au)

  20. Kinematics and Dynamics of Motion Control Based on Acceleration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Ohba, Yuzuru; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The first IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control was held in 1990 pointed out the importance of physical interpretation of motion control. The software servoing technology is now common in machine tools, robotics, and mechatronics. It has been intensively developed for the numerical control (NC) machines. Recently, motion control in unknown environment will be more and more important. Conventional motion control is not always suitable due to the lack of adaptive capability to the environment. A more sophisticated ability in motion control is necessary for compliant contact with environment. Acceleration control is the key technology of motion control in unknown environment. The acceleration control can make a motion system to be a zero control stiffness system without losing the robustness. Furthermore, a realization of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is necessary for future human assistance. A human assistant motion will require various control stiffness corresponding to the task. The review paper focuses on the modal coordinate system to integrate the various control stiffness in the virtual axes. A bilateral teleoperation is a good candidate to consider the future human assistant motion and integration of decentralized systems. Thus the paper reviews and discusses the bilateral teleoperation from the control stiffness and the modal control design points of view.

  1. Comparative analysis of distributed power control algorithms in CDMA

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhamid, Mohanad F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents comparative analysis of various algorithms of distributed power control used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. These algorithms include Distributed Balancing power control algorithm (DB), Modified Distributed Balancing power control algorithm (MDB), Fully Distributed Power Control algorithm (FDPC), Distributed Power Control algorithm (DPC), Distributed Constrained Power Control algorithm (DCPC), Unconstrained Second-Order Power Control algorithm (USOPC), Con...

  2. Radioactivity analysis of food and accuracy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    From the fact that radioactive substances have been detected from the foods such as agricultural and livestock products and marine products due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare stipulated new standards geared to general foods on radioactive cesium by replacing the interim standards up to now. Various institutions began to measure radioactivity on the basis of this instruction, but as a new challenge, a problem of the reliability of the data occurred. Therefore, accuracy control to indicate the proof that the quality of the data can be retained at an appropriate level judging from an objective manner is important. In order to consecutively implement quality management activities, it is necessary for each inspection agency to build an accuracy control system. This paper introduces support service, as a new attempt, for establishing the accuracy control system. This service is offered jointly by three organizations, such as TUV Rheinland Japan Ltd., Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, and Japan Chemical Analysis Center. This service consists of the training of radioactivity measurement practitioners, proficiency test for radioactive substance measurement, and personal authentication. (O.A.)

  3. Simulation-based Testing of Control Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Ozgur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olama, Mohammed M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-10

    It is impossible to adequately test complex software by examining its operation in a physical prototype of the system monitored. Adequate test coverage can require millions of test cases, and the cost of equipment prototypes combined with the real-time constraints of testing with them makes it infeasible to sample more than a small number of these tests. Model based testing seeks to avoid this problem by allowing for large numbers of relatively inexpensive virtual prototypes that operate in simulation time at a speed limited only by the available computing resources. In this report, we describe how a computer system emulator can be used as part of a model based testing environment; specifically, we show that a complete software stack including operating system and application software - can be deployed within a simulated environment, and that these simulations can proceed as fast as possible. To illustrate this approach to model based testing, we describe how it is being used to test several building control systems that act to coordinate air conditioning loads for the purpose of reducing peak demand. These tests involve the use of ADEVS (A Discrete Event System Simulator) and QEMU (Quick Emulator) to host the operational software within the simulation, and a building model developed with the MODELICA programming language using Buildings Library and packaged as an FMU (Functional Mock-up Unit) that serves as the virtual test environment.

  4. PI controller based model reference adaptive control for nonlinear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    efficiently updating the weight is useful in many applications such identification of nonlinear systems. Off-line iterative algorithm can be employed in such care of identification or modeling. However, in the aspect of control, the NN should work in on line manner. In the control system structure, the output of NN is the control ...

  5. Decentralized, cooperative control of multivehicle systems: Design and stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Lesley Anne

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation addresses the design and stability analysis of decentralized, cooperative control laws for multivehicle systems. Advances in communication, navigation, and surveillance systems have enabled greater autonomy in multivehicle systems, and there is a shift toward decentralized, cooperative systems for computational efficiency and robustness. In a decentralized control scheme, control inputs are determined onboard each vehicle; therefore, decentralized controllers are more efficient for large numbers of vehicles, and the system is more robust to communication failures and reconfiguration. The design of decentralized, cooperative control laws is explored for a nonlinear vehicle model that can be represented in a double-integrator form. Cooperative controllers are functions of spacing errors with respect to other vehicles in the system, where the communication structure defines the information that is available to each vehicle. Control inputs are selected to achieve internal stability, or zero steady-state spacing errors, between vehicles in the system. Closed-loop equations of motion for the cooperative system can be written in a structural form, where damping and stiffness matrices contain control gains acting on the velocity and positions of the vehicles, respectively. The form of the stiffness matrix is determined by the communication structure, where different communication structures yield different control forms. Communication structures are compared using two structural analysis tools: modal cost and frequency-response functions, which evaluate the response of the multivehicle systems to disturbances. The frequency-response information is shown to reveal the string stability of different cooperative control forms. The effects of time delays in the feedback states of the cooperative control laws on system stability are also investigated. Closed-loop equations of motion are modeled as delay differential equations, and two stability notions are

  6. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

  7. Stability Analysis and Design of Impulsive Control Lorenz Systems Family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongbin; Zhang Fengli; Zhang Hongbin; Yu Juebang; Liao Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Lorenz systems family unifying Lorenz system, Chen system and Lue system is a typical chaotic family. In this paper, we consider impulsive control Lorenz chaotic systems family with time-varying impulse intervals. By establishing an effective tool of a set of inequalities, we analyze the asymptotic stability of impulsive control Lorenz systems family and obtain some new less conservative conditions. Based on the stability analysis, we design a novel impulsive controller with time-varying impulse intervals. Illustrative examples are provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our method. The obtained results not only can be used to design impulsive control for Lorenz systems family, but also can be extended to other chaotic systems. (general)

  8. Angle Stability Analysis for Voltage-Controlled Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Jia, Chenxi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    a criterion to analyze the quasi-steady angle stability and the direct current (DC) side stability for VSCs. The operating limit and the angle instability mechanism are revealed, which is generally applicable to the voltage-controlled converters. During the analysis, the influence of the parameters on angle...... stability is studied. Further, the difference on instability mechanism between power electronic converters and synchronous generators are explained in detail. Finally, experiment results with corrective actions verify the analysis.......Power electronics based voltage source converters (VSCs) keep increasing in modern electrical systems. As a branch of stability problems, angle stability is significant for an electrical system. Based on small disturbance analysis and time scale decomposition perspective, this paper proposes...

  9. A model–based approach to fault–tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A model-based controller architecture for Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) is presented in this paper. The controller architecture is based on a general controller parameterization. The FTC architecture consists of two main parts, a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) part and a controller reconfigur...

  10. DTI Analysis of Presbycusis Using Voxel-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Li, M; Gao, F; Zhang, X; Shi, L; Yu, L; Zhao, B; Chen, W; Wang, G; Wang, X

    2016-07-14

    Presbycusis is the most common sensory deficit in the aging population. A recent study reported using a DTI-based tractography technique to identify a lack of integrity in a portion of the auditory pathway in patients with presbycusis. The aim of our study was to investigate the white matter pathology of patients with presbycusis by using a voxel-based analysis that is highly sensitive to local intensity changes in DTI data. Fifteen patients with presbycusis and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned on a 3T scanner. Fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were obtained from the DTI data. Intergroup statistics were implemented on these measurements, which were transformed to Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates by using a nonrigid image registration method called large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Increased axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy were found near the right-side hearing-related areas in patients with presbycusis. Increased radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity were also found near a language-related area (Broca area) in patients with presbycusis. Our findings could be important for exploring reliable imaging evidence of presbycusis and could complement an ROI-based approach. © 2016 American Society of Neuroradiology.

  11. Toner display based on particle control technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Toner Display is based on an electrical movement of charged particles. Two types of black toner and white particles charged in the different electric polarity are enclosed between two electrodes. The particle movement is controlled by the external electric field applied between two transparent electrodes. The toner is collected to the electrode by an electrostatic force across the insulating layer to display a black image. The toners can be put back to the counter electrode by applying a reverse electric field, and white solid image is displayed. We have studied on the movement of three color particles independently to display color image in Toner Display. Two positively charged color particles with different amount of charge to mass ratio and negatively charged white particles were enclosed in the toner display cell. Yellow, cyan and white images were displayed by an application of voltage.

  12. Complex Wavelet Based Modulation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luneau, Jean-Marc; Lebrun, Jérôme; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    Low-frequency modulation of sound carry important information for speech and music. The modulation spectrum i commonly obtained by spectral analysis of the sole temporal envelopes of the sub-bands out of a time-frequency analysis. Processing in this domain usually creates undesirable distortions...... polynomial trends. Moreover an analytic Hilbert-like transform is possible with complex wavelets implemented as an orthogonal filter bank. By working in an alternative transform domain coined as “Modulation Subbands”, this transform shows very promising denoising capabilities and suggests new approaches for joint...

  13. The Asthma Control Test, Japanese Version (ACT-J as a Predictor of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA Guideline-Defined Asthma Control: Analysis of a Questionnaire-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hasegawa

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: ACT scores of ≥23 and ≤22 are useful for identifying patients with controlled and uncontrolled asthma, respectively, as defined by GINA 2006, and the latter is more strongly predictive than the former. The reason for the higher cut-off point of the ACT-J relative to other versions of the ACT is unclear and warrants further investigation.

  14. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  15. Impact of Game-Based Health Promotion Programs on Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameryoun, Ahmad; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G

    Sedentary lifestyle is growing among children and adolescents that may contribute to problems such as overweight and obesity. Consequently, interventions to improve weight loss in this population are necessary. The aim of this current review was to evaluate the effectiveness of game-based interventions to reduce body mass index (BMI) among children who were overweight or obese. All randomized controlled trials with a game-based approach for lowering weight in obese/overweight youths aged 5-18 years old were identified from January 2005 to June 2017 across PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Two independent reviewers completed data extraction sheets on information such as sample size, country of origin, age of participants, type of interventions, and BMI change from pre- to posttest. A consensus on collected data was obtained, and a final list of studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria was arrived at. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software, and effect size was measured by standardized mean difference (SMD) and Hedges' g measure. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also examined using I 2 index and funnel plot. A total of 388 articles were identified from electronic and manuals' searches. After deletion of duplicated articles, 138 articles remained that were then screened in terms of relevance. Of those, 41 articles were examined to determine eligibility. Finally, 10 articles met inclusion/exclusion criteria and were entered into the quantitative meta-analysis. Results indicated a small but significant effect size in terms of BMI reduction [SMD, -0.234; standard error (SE), 0.069] among included studies. The average BMI z-score reduction was -0.181 (SE, 0.071). Trials which used other types of interventions along with active game-based approaches achieved greater effect sizes than single game-based interventions. There was a significant difference between studies based on their country of origin, BMI value

  16. Control derivative to optimal control analysis | Omolehin | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal control theory, generally, is to determine the control signals which will cause a process to satisfy the physical constraints and at the same time optimize some performance criterion. In this work, a numerical method for finding solution to linear optimal control problems with bounded state constraints is examined.

  17. Active vibration control based on piezoelectric smart composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Lu, Qingqing; Fei, Fan; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-12-01

    An aircraft’s vertical fin may experience dramatic buffet loads in high angle of attack flight conditions, and these buffet loads would cause huge vibration and dynamic stress on the vertical fin structure. To reduce the dynamic vibration of the vertical fin structure, macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators were used in this paper. The drive moment equations and sensing voltage equations of the MFC actuators were developed. Finite element analysis models based on three kinds of models of simplified vertical fin structures with surface-bonded MFC actuators were established in ABAQUS. The equivalent damping ratio of the structure was employed in finite element analysis, in order to measure the effectiveness of vibration control. Further, an open-loop test for the active vibration control system of the vertical fin with MFC actuators was designed and developed. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the MFC actuators as well as the developed methodology.

  18. Active vibration control based on piezoelectric smart composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Le; Lu, Qingqing; Fei, Fan; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft’s vertical fin may experience dramatic buffet loads in high angle of attack flight conditions, and these buffet loads would cause huge vibration and dynamic stress on the vertical fin structure. To reduce the dynamic vibration of the vertical fin structure, macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators were used in this paper. The drive moment equations and sensing voltage equations of the MFC actuators were developed. Finite element analysis models based on three kinds of models of simplified vertical fin structures with surface-bonded MFC actuators were established in ABAQUS. The equivalent damping ratio of the structure was employed in finite element analysis, in order to measure the effectiveness of vibration control. Further, an open-loop test for the active vibration control system of the vertical fin with MFC actuators was designed and developed. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the MFC actuators as well as the developed methodology. (paper)

  19. Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Based Temperature-Controlled Heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research then compares the control performance of PID (Proportional Integral and Derivative) and Fuzzy logic controllers. Conclusions are made based on these control performances. The results show that the control performance for a Fuzzy controller is quite similar to PID controller but comparatively gives a better ...

  20. "A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and a group version of cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy for chronically depressed patients": Correction to Michalak et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and a group version of cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy for chronically depressed patients" by Johannes Michalak, Martin Schultze, Thomas Heidenreich and Elisabeth Schramm (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 83[5], 951-963). In the article there was an error in the Method section in the Statistical Analysis subsection. The last sentence in the seventh paragraph should read "A remitter was defined as a participant with a HAM-D score of 8 or less at posttreatment." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36864-001.) Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has recently been proposed as a treatment option for chronic depression. The cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) is the only approach specifically developed to date for the treatment of chronically depressed patients. The efficacy of MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (TAU), and CBASP (group version) plus TAU, was compared to TAU alone in a prospective, bicenter, randomized controlled trial. One hundred and six patients with a current DSM-IV defined major depressive episode and persistent depressive symptoms for more than 2 years were randomized to TAU only (N = 35), or to TAU with additional 8-week group therapy of either 8 sessions of MBCT (n = 36) or CBASP (n = 35). The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (24-item HAM-D, Hamilton, 1967) at the end of treatment. Secondary outcome measures were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and measures of social functioning and quality of life. In the overall sample as well as at 1 treatment site, MBCT was no more effective than TAU in reducing depressive symptoms, although it was significantly superior to TAU at the other treatment site. CBASP was significantly more effective than TAU in reducing depressive

  1. Effect of boundary on controlled memristor-based oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Fouda, Mohamed E.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, the applications of memristors have spread into many fields and especially in the circuit theory. Many models have been proposed for the HP-memristor based on the window functions. In this paper, we introduce a complete mathematical analysis of the controlled reactance-less oscillator for two different window functions of Joglekar\\'s model (linear and nonlinear dopant drift) to discuss the effect of changing the window function on the oscillator\\'s behavior. The generalized necessary and sufficient conditions based on the circuit elements and control voltages for both the linear and nonlinear models are introduced. Moreover, closed form expressions for the oscillation frequency and duty cycle are derived for these models and verified using PSPICE simulations showing an excellent matching. Finally a comparison between the linear and nonlinear models which shows their effect on the oscillation frequency and conditions of oscillation is introduced. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Inelastic Structural Control Based on MBC and FAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex structure has the characters of many degrees of freedom and intricate shape, especially inelastic behavior under strong external loadings. It is hard to apply the structural control technology to it. In this paper, a new method that combines the Market-Based Control (MBC strategy and Force Analogy Method (FAM is presented to analyze the inelastic behavior of structure with magnetorheological dampers. The MBC is used to reduce the structural vibration response, and FAM is proposed to perform the inelastic analysis. A numerical example is used to compare the control effect of the new method and LQR algorithm, which show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed computational method.

  3. Simulation-based biagnostics and control for nuclar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced simulation-based diagnostics and control guidance systems for the identification and management of off-normal transient events in nuclear power plants is currently under investigation. To date a great deal of progress has been made in effectively and efficiently combining information obtained through fuzzy pattern recognition and macroscopic mass and energy inventory analysis for use in multiple failure diagnostics. Work has also begun on the unique problem of diagnostics and surveillance methodologies for advanced passively-safe reactors systems utilizing both statistical and fuzzy information. Plans are also being formulated for the development of deterministic optimal control algorithms combined with Monte Carlo incremental learning algorithms to be used for the flexible and efficient control of reactor transients.

  4. Epoch-based analysis of speech signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the acoustic characteristics of ejective sounds differ from the corresponding voiced and voiceless pulmonic sound conjugates, mainly in the source of excitation, epoch-based analysis is useful, in addition to the spectral or spectrographic analysis. The most frequently used features for analysis of ejective sounds are: ...

  5. Flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control of chaotic finance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, G.; Siano, P.; Loia, V.; Tommasetti, A.; Troisi, O.

    2017-11-01

    A flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control is applied to the problem of stabilization of the dynamics of a chaotic finance system, describing interaction between the interest rate, the investment demand and the price exponent. By proving that the system is differentially flat and by applying differential flatness diffeomorphisms, its transformation to the linear canonical (Brunovsky) is performed. For the latter description of the system, the design of a stabilizing state feedback controller becomes possible. A first problem in the design of such a controller is that the dynamic model of the finance system is unknown and thus it has to be identified with the use neurofuzzy approximators. The estimated dynamics provided by the approximators is used in the computation of the control input, thus establishing an indirect adaptive control scheme. The learning rate of the approximators is chosen from the requirement the system's Lyapunov function to have always a negative first-order derivative. Another problem that has to be dealt with is that the control loop is implemented only with the use of output feedback. To estimate the non-measurable state vector elements of the finance system, a state observer is implemented in the control loop. The computation of the feedback control signal requires the solution of two algebraic Riccati equations at each iteration of the control algorithm. Lyapunov stability analysis demonstrates first that an H-infinity tracking performance criterion is satisfied. This signifies elevated robustness against modelling errors and external perturbations. Moreover, the global asymptotic stability is proven for the control loop.

  6. Target Tracking Based Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    NATO Advanced Study PG Institute, Braunlage/ Harz , FRG, June 21 July 2, 1I82 Springer, Berlin, 1983, pp. 493-501. 141 B. Bhanu."Recognition of...Braunlage/ Harz . FRG, June 21 - July 2, 1082 Springer, Berlin, 1083. pp 10.1-124. [81 R.B. Cate, T.*1B. Dennis, J.T. Mallin, K.S. Nedelman, NEIL Trenchard, and...34Image, Sequence Processing and Dynamic Scene Analysis", Proceedings of NATO,. Advanced Study Institute, Braunlage/ Harz , FRG, June 21 - July 2, 1982

  7. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  8. On Cyber Attacks and Signature Based Intrusion Detection for MODBUS Based Industrial Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial control system communication networks are vulnerable to reconnaissance, response injection, command injection, and denial of service attacks.  Such attacks can lead to an inability to monitor and control industrial control systems and can ultimately lead to system failure. This can result in financial loss for control system operators and economic and safety issues for the citizens who use these services.  This paper describes a set of 28 cyber attacks against industrial control systems which use the MODBUS application layer network protocol. The paper also describes a set of standalone and state based intrusion detection system rules which can be used to detect cyber attacks and to store evidence of attacks for post incident analysis. All attacks described in this paper were validated in a laboratory environment. The detection rate of the intrusion detection system rules presented by attack class is also presented.

  9. Fuzzy logic based control system for fresh water aquaculture: A MATLAB based simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Dinesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy control is regarded as the most widely used application of fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is an innovative technology to design solutions for multiparameter and non-linear control problems. One of the greatest advantages of fuzzy control is that it uses human experience and process information obtained from operator rather than a mathematical model for the definition of a control strategy. As a result, it often delivers solutions faster than conventional control design techniques. The proposed system is an attempt to apply fuzzy logic techniques to predict the stress factor on the fish, based on line data and rule base generated using domain expert. The proposed work includes a use of Data acquisition system, an interfacing device for on line parameter acquisition and analysis, fuzzy logic controller (FLC for inferring the stress factor. The system takes stress parameters on the fish as inputs, fuzzified by using FLC with knowledge base rules and finally provides single output. All the parameters are controlled and calibrated by the fuzzy logic toolbox and MATLAB programming.

  10. Research in Neural Network Based Adaptive Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calise, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    .... We regard this as a major step towards flight certification of adaptive controllers. The approach is more general in that it permits a broad class of input nonlinearities, including such effects as discrete and bang/bang control...

  11. Towards automatic model based controller design for reconfigurable plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Stoustrup, Jakob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces model-based Plug and Play Process Control, a novel concept for process control, which allows a model-based control system to be reconfigured when a sensor or an actuator is plugged into a controlled process. The work reported in this paper focuses on composing a monolithic m...

  12. DOOCS based control system for FPGA based cavity simulator and controller in VUV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucyk, P.

    2005-09-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser XFEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new perspectives for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated for LLRF 1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by ELHEP 2 group in Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller for stabilizing the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. Ths paper describes the concept, implementation and tests of the DOOCS based control system for SIMCON. The designed system is based the concept of autonomic and extendable modules connected by well defined, unified interfaces. The communication module controls the access to the hardware. It is crucial, that all modules (this presented in thesis and developed in the future) use this interface. Direct access to the control tables let the engineers to perform algorithm development or diagnostic measurements of the LLRF system. Default control tables generator makes the whole SIMCON an autonomic device, which can start immediately the operation without any additional tools. (orig.)

  13. DOOCS based control system for FPGA based cavity simulator and controller in VUV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucyk, P.D.

    2006-03-15

    The X-ray free-electron laser XFEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new perspectives for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated for LLRF 1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by ELHEP 2 group in Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller for stabilizing the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. This paper describes the concept, implementation and tests of the DOOCS based control system for SIMCON. The designed system is based the concept of autonomic and extendable modules connected by well defined, unified interfaces. The communication module controls the access to the hardware. It is crucial, that all modules (this presented in thesis and developed in the future) use this interface. Direct access to the control tables let the engineers to perform algorithm development or diagnostic measurements of the LLRF system. Default control tables generator makes the whole SIMCON an autonomic device, which can start immediately the operation without any additional tools. (Orig.)

  14. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  15. Improved methods in neural network-based adaptive output feedback control, with applications to flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nakwan

    Utilizing the universal approximation property of neural networks, we develop several novel approaches to neural network-based adaptive output feedback control of nonlinear systems, and illustrate these approaches for several flight control applications. In particular, we address the problem of non-affine systems and eliminate the fixed point assumption present in earlier work. All of the stability proofs are carried out in a form that eliminates an algebraic loop in the neural network implementation. An approximate input/output feedback linearizing controller is augmented with a neural network using input/output sequences of the uncertain system. These approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. All physical systems also have control position and rate limits, which may either deteriorate performance or cause instability for a sufficiently high control bandwidth. Here we apply a method for protecting an adaptive process from the effects of input saturation and time delays, known as "pseudo control hedging". This method was originally developed for the state feedback case, and we provide a stability analysis that extends its domain of applicability to the case of output feedback. The approach is illustrated by the design of a pitch-attitude flight control system for a linearized model of an R-50 experimental helicopter, and by the design of a pitch-rate control system for a 58-state model of a flexible aircraft consisting of rigid body dynamics coupled with actuator and flexible modes. A new approach to augmentation of an existing linear controller is introduced. It is especially useful when there is limited information concerning the plant model, and the existing controller. The approach is applied to the design of an adaptive autopilot for a guided munition. Design of a neural network adaptive control that ensures asymptotically stable tracking performance is also addressed.

  16. Nonlinear region of attraction analysis for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Chen; Cun Bao Ma; Dong Song

    2017-01-01

    The stability analysis method based on region of attraction is proposed for the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification in this article. Current practice for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification is largely dependent on linear theoretical analysis and nonlinear simulation research. This problem can be improved by the nonlinear stability analysis of flight control system. Firstly, the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight dynamic model is simplified and fitted by...

  17. From the Experience of Interactivity and Entertainment to Lower Intention to Smoke: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Path Analysis of a Web-Based Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Georges Elias; Wang, Hua; Calabro, Karen Sue; Mitra, Natasha; Shegog, Ross; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2017-02-16

    Web-based programs for smoking prevention are being increasingly used with some success among adolescents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that link the experience of such programs to intended nicotine or tobacco control outcomes. Based on the experiential learning theory and extended elaboration likelihood model, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a Web-based intervention, A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), on adolescents' intention to smoke, while considering the experience of interactivity and entertainment as predictors of reduced intention to smoke, under a transitional user experience model. A total of 101 adolescents were recruited from after-school programs, provided consent, screened, and randomized in a single-blinded format to 1 of 2 conditions: the full ASPIRE program as the experimental condition (n=50) or an online , text-based version of ASPIRE as the control condition (n=51). Data were collected at baseline and immediate follow-up. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models and path analyses were conducted. A total of 82 participants completed the study and were included in the analysis. Participants in the experimental condition were more likely to show a decrease in their intention to smoke than those in the control condition (beta=-0.18, P=.008). Perceived interactivity (beta=-0.27, P=.004) and entertainment (beta=-0.20, P=.04) were each associated with a decrease in intention to smoke independently. Results of path analyses indicated that perceived interactivity and perceived entertainment mediated the relationship between ASPIRE use and emotional involvement. Furthermore, perceived presence mediated the relationship between perceived interactivity and emotional involvement. There was a direct relationship between perceived entertainment and emotional involvement. Emotional involvement predicted a decrease in intention to smoke (beta=-0.16, P=.04). Adolescents' experience of interactivity and entertainment

  18. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  19. Evidence based practice readiness: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jessica D; Welton, John M

    2018-01-15

    To analyse and define the concept "evidence based practice readiness" in nurses. Evidence based practice readiness is a term commonly used in health literature, but without a clear understanding of what readiness means. Concept analysis is needed to define the meaning of evidence based practice readiness. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of evidence based practice readiness as well as antecedents and consequences. A Boolean search of PubMed and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature was conducted and limited to those published after the year 2000. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Evidence based practice readiness incorporates personal and organisational readiness. Antecedents include the ability to recognize the need for evidence based practice, ability to access and interpret evidence based practice, and a supportive environment. The concept analysis demonstrates the complexity of the concept and its implications for nursing practice. The four pillars of evidence based practice readiness: nursing, training, equipping and leadership support are necessary to achieve evidence based practice readiness. Nurse managers are in the position to address all elements of evidence based practice readiness. Creating an environment that fosters evidence based practice can improve patient outcomes, decreased health care cost, increase nurses' job satisfaction and decrease nursing turnover. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pawlowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and control of the greenhouse environment play a decisive role in greenhouse production processes. Assurance of optimal climate conditions has a direct influence on crop growth performance, but it usually increases the required equipment cost. Traditionally, greenhouse installations have required a great effort to connect and distribute all the sensors and data acquisition systems. These installations need many data and power wires to be distributed along the greenhouses, making the system complex and expensive. For this reason, and others such as unavailability of distributed actuators, only individual sensors are usually located in a fixed point that is selected as representative of the overall greenhouse dynamics. On the other hand, the actuation system in greenhouses is usually composed by mechanical devices controlled by relays, being desirable to reduce the number of commutations of the control signals from security and economical point of views. Therefore, and in order to face these drawbacks, this paper describes how the greenhouse climate control can be represented as an event-based system in combination with wireless sensor networks, where low-frequency dynamics variables have to be controlled and control actions are mainly calculated against events produced by external disturbances. The proposed control system allows saving costs related with wear minimization and prolonging the actuator life, but keeping promising performance results. Analysis and conclusions are given by means of simulation results.

  2. JAX: a micro-computer based X-ray diffractometer controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naval, P.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a micro-computer based X-ray diffractometer controller and explores its possibilities in simplifying acquisition and analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data. The interrupt-driven controller can operate in both present time and present count data acquisition modes and allows a data analysis program to execute concurrently with data collection. (Auth.). 16 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Adaptive control of a Stewart platform-based manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei; Campbell, Charles E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A joint-space adaptive control scheme for controlling noncompliant motion of a Stewart platform-based manipulator (SPBM) was implemented in the Hardware Real-Time Emulator at Goddard Space Flight Center. The six-degrees of freedom SPBM uses two platforms and six linear actuators driven by dc motors. The adaptive control scheme is based on proportional-derivative controllers whose gains are adjusted by an adaptation law based on model reference adaptive control and Liapunov direct method. It is concluded that the adaptive control scheme provides superior tracking capability as compared to fixed-gain controllers.

  4. Qt based control system software for Low Energy Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.; Singh, S.; Nagraju, S.B.V.; Gupta, S.; Singh, P.

    2012-01-01

    Qt based control system software for Low Energy Accelerating Facility (LEAF) is operational at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai. LEAF is a 50 keV negative ion electrostatic accelerator based on SNICS ion source. Control system uses Nokia Trolltech's QT 4.x API for control system software. Ni 6008 USB based multifunction cards has been used for control and read back field equipments such as power supplies, pumps, valves etc. Control system architecture is designed to be client server. Qt is chosen for its excellent GUI capability and platform independent nature. Control system follows client server architecture. The paper will describe the control system. (author)

  5. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a control method for non-linear systems based on generalized predictive control. Generalized predictive control (GPC) was developed to control linear systems, including open-loop unstable and non-minimum phase systems, but has also been proposed to be extended for the control...... of non-linear systems. GPC is model based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model, a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis...

  6. Model Based Control of Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    control is to let an optimization procedure take over the task of operating the refrigeration system and thereby replace the role of the operator in the traditional control structure. In the context of refrigeration systems, the idea is to divide the optimizing control structure into two parts: A part......Today refrigeration control systems consist of a number of self-contained distributed control loops that during the past years has been optimized obtaining a high performance of the individual subsystems, thus disregarding cross-couplings as well dynamically as statically. The supervisory control...... of the supermarket refrigeration systems therefore greatly relies on a human operator to detect and accommodate failures, and to optimize system performance under varying operational condition. Today these functions are maintained by monitoring centres located all over the world. Initiated by the growing need...

  7. Arduino based acquisition system for control applications

    OpenAIRE

    Granado Navarro, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design an implement a low cost acquisition system intended for control applications using the Arduino prototyping platform. Arduino has become a popular open-source single-board microcontroller among electronic hobbyists, and it is gaining acceptance as a quick prototyping tool for engineering and educational projects also. A computer, using a control application done in LabVIEW or IDE Arduino, must control all the system by cable or wireless. The pro...

  8. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR WASTE TANKS - PART II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    As part of an ongoing study to evaluate the discontinuity in the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm, a study was conducted this year to assess the minimum concentrations below 1 molar nitrate, see Figure 1. Current controls on the tank farm solution chemistry are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the primary steel waste tanks. The controls are based upon a series of experiments performed with simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks, namely ASTM A537 carbon steel (A537). During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions (i.e., less than 1 molar nitrate). The experimental results and conclusions herein provide a statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall exposed to various solutions with dilute concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Understanding the probability for pitting will allow the facility to make tank-specific risk-based decisions for chemistry control. Based on previous electrochemical testing, a statistical test matrix was developed to refine and solidify the application of the statistical mixture/amount model to corrosion of A537 steel. A mixture/amount model was identified based on statistical analysis of recent and historically collected electrochemical data. This model provides a more complex relationship between the nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the probability of pitting than is represented by the model underlying the current chemistry control program, and its use may provide a technical basis for the utilization of less nitrite to inhibit pitting at concentrations below 1 molar nitrate. FY09 results fit within the mixture/amount model, and further refine the nitrate regime in which the model is applicable. The combination of visual observations and cyclic

  9. Development of FPGA-Based Control Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Jeong, See Chae; Choi, Woong Seock; Lee, Chang Jae; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Ha, Jae Hong [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    It is well known that existing nuclear power plant (NPP) control systems contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Various studies have been conducted to address control system hardware obsolescence. Obsolete analog and digital control systems in non-nuclear power plants are commonly replaced with modern digital control systems, programmable logic controllers (PLC) and distributed control systems (DCS). Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative means for obsolete control systems. FPGAs are advanced digital integrated circuits (ICs) that contain configurable (programmable) blocks of logic along with configurable interconnects between these blocks. Designers can configure (program) such devices to perform a tremendous variety of tasks. FPGAs have been evolved from the technology of Programmable Logic Device (PLD). Nowadays they can contain millions of logic gates by nanotechnology and so be used to implement extremely large and complex functions that previously could be realized only using Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This paper is to present the development of a FPGAbased control board performing user-defined control functions. An Actel ProASIC{sup plus} FPGA platform is implemented as the comparator of Plant Protection System (PPS). Functional simulation is implemented for the comparator.

  10. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two...... mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we...... describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two...

  11. An Industrial Model Based Disturbance Feedback Control Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawai, Fukiko; Nakazawa, Chikashi; Vinther, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model based disturbance feedback control scheme. Industrial process systems have been traditionally controlled by using relay and PID controller. However these controllers are affected by disturbances and model errors and these effects degrade control performance. The authors...... propose a new control method that can decrease the negative impact of disturbance and model errors. The control method is motivated by industrial practice by Fuji Electric. Simulation tests are examined with a conventional PID controller and the disturbance feedback control. The simulation results...... demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method comparing with the conventional PID controller...

  12. [Import risk analysis in animal disease control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ruth; Breidenbach, Eric; Thür, Barbara; Griot, Christian; Engels, Monika; Stärk, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    At the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office risk analyses are conducted according to international standards. A risk analysis contains the elements risk management, risk assessment and risk communication. A risk assessment is based on risk profile, hazard identification and a pathway model. All available information is gathered, documented and assessed and the risk estimated. The question. "What is the probability that unprocessed wild boar meat imported to Switzerland from the federal state Mecklenburg Western Pommerania is contaminated with classical swine fever virus?" was answered by a release assessment. The hazard identification recognized classical swine fever virus and attenuated live virus vaccine used for oral immunization as hazards. The probability of contamination was estimated to be small. The question: "What is the likelihood to introduce Aujeszky's disease to Switzerland and infect the indigenous pig population with the disease, by means of importing pork and meat products?" was answered by assessing the release, exposure and resulting consequences. The risk of an infection of the indigenous pig population was estimated to be very small, as 80% of the imported products derive from countries or zones free from Aujeszky's disease. Furthermore the majority of the imported products are processed. The strict implementation of the regulations governing feeding of food wastes to pigs reduces the probability of exposure. In all assessments the risk management decides on a strategy to deal with the risk, taking into consideration the results and recommendations derived from the risk assessment as well as other relevant factors.

  13. Java based LCD reconstruction and analysis tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, Gary; Cassell, Ron; Graf, Norman; Johnson, Tony; Ronan, Mike

    2001-01-01

    We summarize the current status and future developments of the North American Group's Java-based system for studying physics and detector design issues at a linear collider. The system is built around Java Analysis Studio (JAS) an experiment-independent Java-based utility for data analysis. Although the system is an integrated package running in JAS, many parts of it are also standalone Java utilities

  14. JAVA based LCD Reconstruction and Analysis Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, G.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize the current status and future developments of the North American Group's Java-based system for studying physics and detector design issues at a linear collider. The system is built around Java Analysis Studio (JAS) an experiment-independent Java-based utility for data analysis. Although the system is an integrated package running in JAS, many parts of it are also standalone Java utilities

  15. Gaze-Based Controlling a Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    Research and applications of gaze interaction has mainly been conducted on a 2 dimensional surface (usually screens) for controlling a computer or controlling the movements of a robot. Emerging wearable and mobile technologies, such as google glasses may shift how gaze is used as an interactive...

  16. Problems in event based engine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Jensen, Michael; Chevalier, Alain Marie Roger

    1994-01-01

    Physically a four cycle spark ignition engine operates on the basis of four engine processes or events: intake, compression, ignition (or expansion) and exhaust. These events each occupy approximately 180° of crank angle. In conventional engine controllers, it is an accepted practice to sample...... problems on accurate air/fuel ratio control of a spark ignition (SI) engine....

  17. Research on Air Quality Evaluation based on Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Zilin; Guo, Min; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huan

    2018-01-01

    Economic growth has led to environmental capacity decline and the deterioration of air quality. Air quality evaluation as a fundamental of environmental monitoring and air pollution control has become increasingly important. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), this paper evaluates the air quality of a large city in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area in recent 10 years and identifies influencing factors, in order to provide reference to air quality management and air pollution control.

  18. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  19. Control-flow analysis of function calls and returns by abstract interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract interpretation techniques are used to derive a control-flow analysis for a simple higher-order functional language. The analysis approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In additi...... a rational reconstruction of a constraint-based CFA from abstract interpretation principles....

  20. Preference-Based Recommendations for OLAP Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerbi, Houssem; Ravat, Franck; Teste, Olivier; Zurfluh, Gilles

    This paper presents a framework for integrating OLAP and recommendations. We focus on the anticipatory recommendation process that assists the user during his OLAP analysis by proposing to him the forthcoming analysis step. We present a context-aware preference model that matches decision-makers intuition, and we discuss a preference-based approach for generating personalized recommendations.

  1. Demand Management Based on Model Predictive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand management (DM is the process that helps companies to sell the right product to the right customer, at the right time, and for the right price. Therefore the challenge for any company is to determine how much to sell, at what price, and to which market segment while maximizing its profits. DM also helps managers efficiently allocate undifferentiated units of capacity to the available demand with the goal of maximizing revenue. This paper introduces control system approach to demand management with dynamic pricing (DP using the model predictive control (MPC technique. In addition, we present a proper dynamical system analogy based on active suspension and a stability analysis is provided via the Lyapunov direct method.

  2. Design and Performance Analysis of Incremental Networked Predictive Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Donghua

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and performance analysis of networked control systems with network-induced delay, packet disorder, and packet dropout. Based on the incremental form of the plant input-output model and an incremental error feedback control strategy, an incremental networked predictive control (INPC) scheme is proposed to actively compensate for the round-trip time delay resulting from the above communication constraints. The output tracking performance and closed-loop stability of the resulting INPC system are considered for two cases: 1) plant-model match case and 2) plant-model mismatch case. For the former case, the INPC system can achieve the same output tracking performance and closed-loop stability as those of the corresponding local control system. For the latter case, a sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop INPC system is derived using the switched system theory. Furthermore, for both cases, the INPC system can achieve a zero steady-state output tracking error for step commands. Finally, both numerical simulations and practical experiments on an Internet-based servo motor system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Real-time control of Tokamak plasmas: from control of physics to physics-based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felici, F. A. A.

    2011-11-01

    shown effective stabilization of both 3/2 and 2/1 NTMs, and have localized the most effective deposition location. Studies of current-profile driven destabilization of tearing modes in TCV plasmas with significant amounts of ECCD show a great sensitivity to details of the current profile, but failed to identify a stationary region in the parameter space in which NTMs are always destabilized, suggesting that transient effects play a role. The simultaneous control of magnetic and kinetic plasma profiles is another key requirement for advanced tokamak operation. While control of kinetic plasma profiles around an operating point can be handled using standard linear control techniques, the strongly nonlinear physics of the coupled profiles complicates the problem. Since internal magnetic quantities are difficult to measure with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution – even after years of diagnostic development – routine control of tokamak plasma profiles remains a daunting and challenging task. In this thesis, physics understanding of plasma current and energy transport is embedded in the control solution. The new lightweight transport code RAPTOR (RApid Plasma Transport simulatOR) has been derived focusing on simplicity and speed of simulation for real-time control. The partial differential equation for current diffusion is solved in real-time during a plasma shot in the TCV control system using RAPTOR. For the first time, this concept is applied experimentally to the tokamak current density profile problem. The real-time simulation gives a physics-model based estimate of key plasma quantities, to be controlled or monitored in real-time by different control systems. Any available diagnostics can be included into the simulation providing additional constraints and removing measurement uncertainties. The real-time simulation approach holds the advantage that knowledge of the plasma profiles is no longer restricted to those points in space and time where they are

  4. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification...

  5. Detection of SARMs in doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2018-03-15

    The class of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) has been the subject of intense and dedicated clinical research over the past two decades. Potential therapeutic applications of SARMs are manifold and focus particularly on the treatment of conditions manifesting in muscle loss such as general sarcopenia, cancer-associated cachexia, muscular dystrophy, etc. Consequently, based on the substantial muscle- and bone-anabolic properties of SARMs, these agents constitute substances with significant potential for misuse in sport and have therefore been added to the Word Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA's) Prohibited List in 2008. Since then, numerous adverse analytical findings have been reported for various different SARMs, which has underlined the importance of proactive and preventive anti-doping measures concerning emerging drugs such as these anabolic agents, which have evidently been misused in sport despite the fact that none of these SARMs has yet received full clinical approval. In this review, analytical data on SARMs generated in the context of research conducted for sports drug testing purposes are summarized and state-of-the-art test methods aiming at intact drugs as well as diagnostic urinary metabolites are discussed. Doping control analytical approaches predominantly rely on chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry, which have allowed for appropriately covering the considerable variety of pharmacophores present in SARMs such as the non-steroidal representatives ACP-105, BMS-564929, GLPG0492 (DT-200), LG-121071, LGD-2226, LGD-4033/VK 5211, ostarine/enobosarm, RAD-140, S-40503, etc. as well as steroidal compounds such as MK-0773 and YK-11. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Team-Based Care: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Dawon

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this concept analysis is to clarify and analyze the concept of team-based care in clinical practice. Team-based care has garnered attention as a way to enhance healthcare delivery and patient care related to quality and safety. However, there is no consensus on the concept of team-based care; as a result, the lack of common definition impedes further studies on team-based care. This analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's strategy. Literature searches were conducted using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and PsycINFO, with a timeline from January 1985 to December 2015. The analysis demonstrates that the concept of team-based care has three core attributes: (a) interprofessional collaboration, (b) patient-centered approach, and (c) integrated care process. This is accomplished through understanding other team members' roles and responsibilities, a climate of mutual respect, and organizational support. Consequences of team-based care are identified with three aspects: (a) patient, (b) healthcare professional, and (c) healthcare organization. This concept analysis helps better understand the characteristics of team-based care in the clinical practice as well as promote the development of a theoretical definition of team-based care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of a pharmaceutical tablet production process from the control engineering perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, Jakob; Gruber, Arlin; Khinast, Johannes G; Horn, Martin

    2017-01-30

    This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of a pharmaceutical direct compaction process. Sensitivity analysis is an important tool for gaining valuable process insights and designing a process control concept. Examining its results in a systematic manner makes it possible to assign actuating signals to controlled variables. This paper presents mathematical models for individual unit operations, on which the sensitivity analysis is based. Two sensitivity analysis methods are outlined: (i) based on the so-called Sobol indices and (ii) based on the steady-state gains and the frequency response of the proposed plant model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictive Control Based upon State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive online computation of the control vector by solving the optimal control problem of a non-linear multivariable process with arbitrary performance indices is investigated. Two different methods are considered in the search for an optimal, parameterized control vector: Pontryagin's Maximum Principle and optimization by using the performance index and its gradient directly. Unfortunately, solving this optimization problem has turned out to be a rather time-consuming task which has resulted in a time delay that cannot be accepted when the actual process is exposed to rapidly-varying disturbances. However, an instantaneous feedback strategy operating in parallel with the original control aogorithm was found to be able to cope with this problem.

  9. Direct Torque Control in presence of Current sensor failure in Variable Speed Wind System: Effect analysis, detection and control reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Arbi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of current sensor failure in a Direct Torque Control applied to a Double Fed Induction Generator based Variable Speed Wind System. The effect of scaling and offset current sensor errors is discussed through sensibility analysis. A control reconfiguration is then proposed to remedy this sensor failure. Simulation results emphasize the good performances of the proposed current sensor fault tolerant control

  10. A multi-agent based cell controller

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Leitão; Francisco José de Oliveira Restivo; Goran Putnik

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the opportunity to use multi-agents technology in automation and distributed manufacturing systems and the expected improvements. To support the discussion, it is described a manufacturing cell control application developed using the multi-agent technology, and the results are compared with other control application developed in the past by some of the authors, using a traditional approach, for the same flexible manufacturing cell.

  11. PC Based wireless stepper motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Omar; Khan, Shahnawaz; Abideen, Zainul

    2013-01-01

    This project is about making an embedded system in order to control different functionalities of a stepper motor. The main functions of this stepper motor are to control the speed and direction. The whole hardware consists of two parts. One is the transmitter side and the other side is the receiver side. The transmitter side consists of PC, Encoder, a microcontroller and RF (Radio Frequency) transmitter. On the receiver side there is an RF receiver, a decoder, a microcontroller, a motor drive...

  12. A quality control method for nuclear instrumentation and control systems based on software safety prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Han Seong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2000-04-01

    In the case of safety-related applications like nuclear instrumentation and control (NI&C), safety-oriented quality control is required. The objective of this paper is to present a software safety classification method as a safety-oriented quality control tool. Based on this method, we predict the risk (and thus safety) of software items that are at the core of NI&C systems. Then we classify the software items according to the degree of the risk. The method can be used earlier than at the detailed design phase. Furthermore, the method can also be used in all the development phases without major changes. The proposed method seeks to utilize the measures that can be obtained from the safety analysis and requirements analysis. Using the measures proved to be desirable in a few aspects. The authors have introduced fuzzy approximate reasoning to the classification method because experts' knowledge covers the vague frontiers between good quality and bad quality with linguistic uncertainty and fuzziness. Fuzzy Colored Petri Net (FCPN) is introduced in order to offer a formal framework for the classification method and facilitate the knowledge representation, modification, or verification. Through the proposed quality control method, high-quality NI&C systems can be developed effectively and used safely.

  13. Fpga-based control of piezoelectric actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhász László

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many industrial applications like semiconductor production and optical inspection systems, the availability of positioning systems capable to follow trajectory paths in the range of several centimetres, featuring at the same time a nanometre-range precision, is demanding. Pure piezoelectric stages and standard positioning systems with motor and spindle are not able to meet such requirements, because of the small operation range and inadequacies like backlash and friction. One concept for overcoming these problems consists of a hybrid positioning system built through the integration of a DC-drive in series with a piezoelectric actuator. The wide range of potential applications enables a considerable market potential for such an actuator, but due to the high variety of possible positioned objects and dynamic requirements, the required control complexity may be significant. In this paper, a real-time capable state-space control concept for the piezoelectric actuators, embedded in such a hybrid micropositioning system, is presented. The implementation of the controller together with a real-time capable hysteresis compensation measure is performed using a low-budget FPGA-board, whereas the superimposed integrated controller is realized with a dSPACE RCP-system. The advantages of the designed control over a traditional proportional-integral control structure are proven through experimental results using a commercially available hybrid micropositioning system. Positioning results by different dynamic requirements featuring positioning velocities from 1 μm/s up to 5 cm/s are given.

  14. A model-based approach for fault-tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A model-based controller architecture for faulttolerant control (FTC) is presented in this paper. The controller architecture is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. The FTC architecture consists of two central parts, fault detection and isolation (FDI) part and a con...

  15. Adherence-adjusted estimates of benefits and harms from treatment with amoxicillin for LRTI: secondary analysis of a 12-country randomised placebo-controlled trial using randomisation-based efficacy estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, David; Hood, Kerenza; Farewell, Daniel; Butler, Christopher C; Verheij, Theo; Goossens, Herman; Stuart, Beth; Mullee, Mark; Little, Paul

    2015-03-06

    Estimate the efficacy of amoxicillin for acute uncomplicated lower-respiratory-tract infection (LRTI) in primary care and demonstrate the use of randomisation-based efficacy estimators. Secondary analysis of a two-arm individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial. Primary care practices in 12 European countries. Patients aged 18 or older consulting with an acute LRTI in whom pneumonia was not suspected by the clinician. Amoxicillin (two 500 mg tablets three times a day for 7 days) or matched placebo. Clinician-rated symptom severity between days 2-4; new/worsening symptoms and presence of side effects at 4-weeks. Adherence was captured using self-report and tablet counts. 2061 participants were randomised to the amoxicillin or placebo group. On average, 88% of the prescribed amoxicillin was taken. The original analysis demonstrated small increases in both benefits and harms from amoxicillin. Minor improvements in the benefits of amoxicillin were observed when an adjustments for adherence were made (mean difference in symptom severity -0.08, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.01, OR for new/worsening symptoms 0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.98) as well as minor increases in harms (OR for side effects 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.57). Adherence to amoxicillin was high, and the findings from the original analysis were robust to non-adherence. Participants consulting to primary care with an acute uncomplicated LRTI can on average expect minor improvements in outcome from taking amoxicillin. However, they are also at an increased risk of experiencing side effects. Eudract-CT 2007-001586-15 and ISRCTN52261229. The trial was registered at EudraCT in 2007 due to an administrative misunderstanding that EudraCT was a suitable registry--which it was not in 2007, but has become since. On discovery of this error, the trial was also registered at ISRCTN (January 2009). Trial procedures did not change between the two registrations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  16. System analysis for material control and accountancy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Daly, T.A.; Bucher, R.G.; Rothman, A.B.; Cha, B.C.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Seefeldt, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The systems analysis for material control and accountancy technology (SAMCAT) program involves a working group structured to ensure that direct operating measurements, accountancy experience, and knowledge of the processes and flows of nuclear material in the total US Department of Energy (DOE) complex of production fuel cycles would be the major bases for developing and implementing a plan of action. This working group consists of facility operators, DOE Office of Safeguards Security headquarters and field offices, and government laboratories. The program focus is to develop a system for decision support in validating the material control and accountancy (MC ampersand A) aspects of the masters safeguards and security agreements effectiveness and in evaluating proposed MC ampersand A upgrades. This paper is a status report on the current capabilities of the system

  17. Applications Of Artificial Intelligence In Control System Analysis And Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, J. D.

    1987-10-01

    To date, applications of artificial intelligence in control system analysis and design are primarily associated with the design process. These applications take the form of knowledge bases incorporating expertise on a design method, such as multivariable linear controller design, or on a field such as identification. My experience has demonstrated that, while such expert systems are useful, perhaps a greater benefit will come from applications in the maintenance of technical databases, as are found in real-time data acquisition systems, and of modeling and design databases, which represent the status of a computer-aided design process for a human user. This reflects the observation that computers are best at maintaining relations about large sets of objects, whereas humans are best at maintaining knowledge of depth, as occurs when a design option involving a sequence of steps is explored. This paper will discuss some of these issues, and will provide some examples which illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence.

  18. An Analysis of the PLLs With Secondary Control Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    with the small-signal modeling of some of these PLLs, which significantly simplifies the analysis. Using these models, the effects of adding the SCP on the PLL structure are studied. The obtained results show that the SCP may not be a practical approach to improve the PLL dynamic performance as it aggravates......The phase-locked loops (PLLs) are widely used in different areas of applications particularly for synchronization and control purposes in grid connected applications. A major challenge associated with the PLLs is how to improve their dynamic performance without jeopardizing their stability...... and filtering capability. Recently, some approaches based on adding a secondary control path (SCP) to the PLL structure have been proposed to deal with this challenge. The objective of this letter is to briefly analyze these approaches. The study starts with an overview of the PLLs with SCP. The letter proceeds...

  19. The control of base nuclear installations; Le controle des installations nucleaires de base (INB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-04-15

    The Authority of Nuclear Safety ( A.S.N). presents in this column the current events of the control of the nuclear base installations during november, december 2008 and january 2009, classified by nuclear site. This information is also available in real-time on the A.S.N. web site, www.asn.fr, in the column 'news'. We can consult all the notices of significant incident published as well as the following letters of inspection, the notices of information about the reactors shutdown, press releases and the A.S.N. information notes. (N.C.)

  20. Flatness based GPI Control for Flexible Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becedas, Jonathan; Feliu, Vicente; Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt

    In this article, a new method to control a flexible robotic arm using a conventional direct current (DC) motor with a gear actuator strongly affected by non-linear friction torque is proposed. This control method does not require friction compensation and hence the estimation of this term because the control scheme is robust with respect to this effect. In addition, the only variables to measure are the motor shaft and tip angular positions. Velocity measurements, which always introduce errors and noises, are not required. The use of filters to estimate velocities and bounded derivatives are not needed. The Generalized Proportional Integral GPI controller is designed using a two-stage design procedure entitling an outer loop, designed under the assumption of no motor dynamics, and subsequently an inner loop which forces the motor response to track the control input position reference trajectory derived in the previous design stage. Velocity measurements, which always introduce errors and noises, are not required. Experimental results are presented.

  1. Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

  2. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  3. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  4. Microprocessor-based preaccelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.W.; Kocanda, R.F.; Shea, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A modular microprocessor system is used to control the Fermilab high voltage test facility. Operationally, the system has been patterned after typical Fermilab accelerator control systems. The operator can select pages of analog parameters and digital status to be displayed on an alphanumeric screen; analog readings or settings may be displayed either in engineering units or in volts; devices are selected for on/off or analog control by cursor position; an incremental shaft-encoder knob adjusts the value of analog parameters and digital time delays. Settings of parameters can also be entered from a 16-key keyboard and transmitted to the device. Two microprocessor systems are used--one in the high voltage equipment dome and one at ground potential. Communication between the processors is via two serial, digital, fiber optic light links

  5. Use Of A Rule-Based System For Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, John A.

    1987-10-01

    A rule-based, digital, closed-loop controller that incorporates 'fuzzy' logic has been designed and implemented for the control of power on the 5 MWt MIT Research Reactor under both steady-state and transient conditions. Based on this experience and having designed several other controllers for the same purpose, a comparison is made of the rule-based and analytic approaches. Differences in the division of labor between plant engineers and control specialists, the type of knowledge required and its acquisition, the use of performance criteria, and controller testing are discussed. The design, implementation, and calibration of rule-based controllers are reviewed with specific examples taken from the completed work at the MIT Research Reactor. An evaluation is then made of the possible role of rule-based technology in process control. It is noted that there are no comprehensive guidelines for the design of rule-based controllers and that such systems are quite difficult to calibrate. The advantage of rule-based systems is that they are generally more robust than their analy-tic counterparts. The rule-based and analytic technologies should therefore be used to complement each other with rule-based systems being employed both as backups to analytic controllers and as a means of improving the man-machine interface by providing human operators with the rationale for automatic control actions.

  6. Information-flow-based Access Control for Virtualized Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Postoev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the method of information-flow-based access control, adopted for virtualized systems. General structure of access control system for virtual infrastructure is proposed.

  7. Control Engineering Analysis of Mechanical Pitch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernicke, Olaf; Gauterin, Eckhard; Schulte, Horst; Zajac, Michal

    2014-12-01

    With the help of a local stability analysis the coefficient range of a discrete damper, used for centrifugal forced, mechanical pitch system of small wind turbines (SWT), is gained for equilibrium points. - By a global stability analysis the gained coefficient range can be validated. An appropriate approach by Takagi-Sugeno is presented in the paper.

  8. Design of coordinated controller in nuclear power plant based on digital instrument and control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Liu Xinkai; Zhao Qiang; Deng Xiangxin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) is a multi-input and multi-output, no-linear and time-varying complex system. The conventional PID controller is usually used in NPP control system which is based on analog instrument. The system parameters are easy to overshoot and the response time is longer in the control mode of the conventional PID. In order to improve this condition, a new coordinated control strategy which is based on expert system and the original controllers in the digital instrument and control technology was presented. In order to verify and validate it, the proposed coordinated control technology was tested by the full-scope real-time simulation system. The results prove that using digital instrument and control technology to achieve coordinated controller is feasible, the coordinated controller can effectively improve the dynamic operating characteristics of the system, and the coordinated controller is superior to the conventional PID controller in control performance. (authors)

  9. Possibilities to employ noise analysis techniques in controlling nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Pallares, C.; Iglesias Ferrer, R.; Sarabia Molina, I.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows basic requirements the authors think must be complied with by monitoring systems for operational surveillance based on noise analysis techniques that in turn can be employed in the regulatory control

  10. Robust Mediation Analysis Based on Median Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis has many applications in psychology and the social sciences. The most prevalent methods typically assume that the error distribution is normal and homoscedastic. However, this assumption may rarely be met in practice, which can affect the validity of the mediation analysis. To address this problem, we propose robust mediation analysis based on median regression. Our approach is robust to various departures from the assumption of homoscedasticity and normality, including heavy-tailed, skewed, contaminated, and heteroscedastic distributions. Simulation studies show that under these circumstances, the proposed method is more efficient and powerful than standard mediation analysis. We further extend the proposed robust method to multilevel mediation analysis, and demonstrate through simulation studies that the new approach outperforms the standard multilevel mediation analysis. We illustrate the proposed method using data from a program designed to increase reemployment and enhance mental health of job seekers. PMID:24079925

  11. Design of Threshold Controller Based Chaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, I. Raja; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2010-01-01

    We propose a very simple implementation of a second-order nonautonomous chaotic oscillator, using a threshold controller as the only source of nonlinearity. We demonstrate the efficacy and simplicity of our design through numerical and experimental results. Further, we show that this approach...

  12. Model-based control of hopper dredgers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The modern trailing suction hopper dredgers are advanced ships that are equipped with many automation systems that can be controlled with integrated computer systems from the bridge. From the operators it is expected that they generate the right set-points for all these systems. The latest ships are

  13. Minicomputer based, controlled materials information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.; Jessen, T.; Meadors, O.; Seibel, D.

    1976-01-01

    The LLL, Materials Management Group and Data Processing Services have developed a transaction-oriented, minicomputer system for the management of the Laboratory's controlled materials. The system consists of a multi-vendor hardware system designed for ease of operation, maximum reliability, and quick response and the requirements imposed on the hardware and software systems are discussed

  14. Cobacabana (control of balance by card-based navigation) : A card-based system for job shop control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, M.J.

    Existing card-based production control systems such as Kanban are mostly dedicated to repetitive production environments. Cards-based systems for job shop control are lacking, while particularly this industry segment shows a need for simple control systems. This paper aims at filling the gap by

  15. Silver Biocide Analysis & Control Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rapid, accurate measurement and process control of silver ion biocide concentrations in future space missions is needed. The purpose of the Phase I program is to...

  16. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  17. Interactive flight control system analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, J. K.; Konar, A. F.; Ward, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of the development, use, and documentation of the interactive software (DIGIKON IV) for flight control system analyses is presented. A list of recommendations for future development is also included.

  18. Silver Biocide Analysis & Control Device, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rapid, accurate measurement and process control of silver ion biocide concentrations in future space missions is needed. The purpose of the Phase II program is to...

  19. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and thei......A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography......-arabinose, a level that resulted in realistic intermediate concentrations in the model, flux control coefficients for L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and L-xylulose reductase were 0.68, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The analysis can be used as a guide to identify targets for metabolic engineering...

  20. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.

    2015-01-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H ∞ control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments

  1. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M

    2015-04-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H(∞) control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  2. Automated waste canister docking and emplacement using a sensor-based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.D.

    1992-08-01

    A sensor-based intelligent control system is described that utilizes a multiple degree-of-freedom robotic system for the automated remote manipulation and precision docking of large payloads such as waste canisters. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing are used to control the automated precision docking of a large object with a passive target cavity. Real-time sensor processing and model-based analysis are used to control payload position to a precision of ± 0.5 millimeter

  3. Power system stabilizers based on modern control techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, O.P.; Chen, G.P.; Zhang, Y.; El-Metwally, K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Developments in digital technology have made it feasible to develop and implement improved controllers based on sophisticated control techniques. Power system stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and artificial networks are being developed. Each of these control techniques possesses unique features and strengths. In this paper, the relative performance of power systems stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and neural network, both in simulation studies and real time tests on a physical model of a power system, is presented and compared to that of a fixed parameter conventional power system stabilizer. (author) 16 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Rule-based fault-tolerant flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Fault tolerance has always been a desirable characteristic of aircraft. The ability to withstand unexpected changes in aircraft configuration has a direct impact on the ability to complete a mission effectively and safely. The possible synergistic effects of combining techniques of modern control theory, statistical hypothesis testing, and artificial intelligence in the attempt to provide failure accommodation for aircraft are investigated. This effort has resulted in the definition of a theory for rule based control and a system for development of such a rule based controller. Although presented here in response to the goal of aircraft fault tolerance, the rule based control technique is applicable to a wide range of complex control problems.

  5. Relationship of Oct-4 to malignant stage: a meta-analysis based on 502 positive/high Oct-4 cases and 522 negative/low case-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Beilong; Lin, Yan; Lai, Yingrong; Zheng, Fangfang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Huang, Rijiao; Yang, Weilin; Chen, Zhenguang

    2016-01-12

    Octamer 4 (Oct-4), an important member of the POU domain transcription factor family, has been suggested to function as a master switch during differentiation of human somatic cells and more recently has come to be linked with neoplastic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Oct-4 and cancer stage using a meta-analysis approach. Relevant articles published as of May 2015 were retrieved from the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The strengths of relationship for outcomes of interest were estimated based on odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 11 articles on Oct-4 and cancer staging that collectively included 502 positive/high Oct-4 cases and 522 negative/low case-free controls were chosen. Positive/high Oct-4 was significantly associated with cancer stage in several kinds of cancer. Specifically, positive/high Oct-4 was associated with cancer stage III/IV (fixed effects: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.12-2.10), primary tumor (T3-4) (random effects: OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 0.99-3.77), and cancer grade of differentiation (intermediate-poor) (random effects: OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.5-7.61). These findings suggest that positive/high Oct-4 is more strongly linked to stage III/IV cancer and cancer grade of differentiation, and is correlated with malignant characteristics that lead to poor prognosis in different types of cancer, especially in Asian. Given variability related to ethnicity and differences in cancer types, additional studies are warranted to establish the generalizability of our findings.

  6. Flatness-based fault tolerant control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martínez-Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un método de control tolerante a fallas para sistemas no lineales planos. Las propiedades intrínsecas d e los sistemas planos generan redundancia analítica y permiten calcular todos los estados y las entradas de control del sistema. Los residuo s son calculados comparando las medidas reales provenientes de los se nsores y las señales obtenidas gracias al conjunto de ecuacione s del sistema plano. Fallas multiplicativas y aditivas se pueden man ejar de manera indistinta. Las señales redundantes obtenidas co n las ecuaciones del sistema plano son usadas para reconfigurar el si stema con falla. La factibilidad del método propuesto es verifi cada para fallas aditivas en un sistema de tres tanques.

  7. CICERO: Control Information system Concepts based\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    RD38 : Modern High Energy Physics experiments and accelerators require sophisticated control systems to ensure their safe operation and to optimise their performance. Due to their complexity and to the large number of sensors needed for these purposes, they turn out to be difficult and costly to maintain with the present technology. The situation will seriously worsen with the LHC era. Various R\\&D departments of industrial companies are directly concerned with similar difficulties in power plants and complex automated systems. We propose to combine our efforts to study the various aspects of this problem. We intend to outline the main building blocks of generic control information system. As a result of this study we aim to provide technical solutions which could later be the major components of a basic turnkey system for medium to large scale HEP experiments and accelerators.

  8. Greenhouse intelligent control system based on microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congwei

    2018-04-01

    As one of the hallmarks of agricultural modernization, intelligent greenhouse has the advantages of high yield, excellent quality, no pollution and continuous planting. Taking AT89S52 microcontroller as the main controller, the greenhouse intelligent control system uses soil moisture sensor, temperature and humidity sensors, light intensity sensor and CO2 concentration sensor to collect measurements and display them on the 12864 LCD screen real-time. Meantime, climate parameter values can be manually set online. The collected measured values are compared with the set standard values, and then the lighting, ventilation fans, warming lamps, water pumps and other facilities automatically start to adjust the climate such as light intensity, CO2 concentration, temperature, air humidity and soil moisture of the greenhouse parameter. So, the state of the environment in the greenhouse Stabilizes and the crop grows in a suitable environment.

  9. Bluetooth based function control in a car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Sumanth, N.; Jude, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to show the various functions that can be controlled in a Car using the Wireless Bluetooth Technology. Due to the portable and wireless nature of this technology, it is easier for the end user to operate the functions in a car. The functions that are built into the system can be used from a distance of 10 meters. The Passive Keyless System and the Remote Keyless System methodologies are adopted. These are operated by the ATMEGA328P microcontroller.

  10. Human reliability analysis for advanced control room of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung-Ro; Park, Seong-Kyu

    2000-01-01

    There are two purposes in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) which was performed during Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Phase 2 research project. One is to present the human error probability quantification results for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and the other is to provide a list of the critical operator actions for Human Factor Engineering (HFE). Critical operator actions were identified from the KNGR HRA/RSA based on selection criteria and incorporated in the MMI Task Analysis, where they receive additional treatment. The use of HRA/PSA results in design, procedure development, and training was ensured by their incorporation in the MMI task analysis and MCR design such as fixed position alarms, displays and controls. Any dominant PSA sequence that takes credit for human performance to achieve acceptable results was incorporated in MMIS validation activities through the PSA-based critical operator actions. The integration of KNGR HRA into MMI design was sufficiently addressed all applicable review criteria of NUREG-0800, Chapter 18, Section 2 F and NUREG-0711. (S.Y.)

  11. Introduction to time-delay systems analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century can be characterized as the ”time-delay boom” leading to numerous important results. The purpose of this book is two-fold, to familiarize the non-expert reader with time-delay systems and to provide a systematic treatment of modern ideas and techniques for experts. This book is based on the course ”Introduction to time-delay systems” for graduate students in Engineering and Applied Mathematics that the author taught in Tel Aviv University in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. The sufficient background to follow most of the material are the undergraduate courses in mathematics and an introduction to control. The book leads the reader from some basic classical results on time-delay systems to recent developments on Lyapunov-based analysis and design with applications to the hot topics of sampled-data and network-based control. The objective is to provide useful tools that will allow the reader not only to apply the existing methods, but also to develop new ones. It...

  12. Research on reactor power controller based on artificial immune P and PID cascade control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Liu Xinkai

    2014-01-01

    The Reactor Power control system usually adopts the traditional PID controller, the traditional PID controller can meet the operating requirements, but the control effect is not very good. In order to improve this condition, the paper proposes an immune P and PID cascade controller which based the immune mechanism of B-cell co-operating with T-cell, the nuclear power controller based on artificial immune is less reported. In order to verify and validate the control strategy, the designed controller debugs with the full-scope real-time simulation system of nuclear power plants. The simulation results shows that the immune controller can effectively improve the dynamic operating characteristics of the reactor system, and the immune controller is superior to the traditional PID controller in control performance. (authors)

  13. Dynamic Model Based Vector Control of Linear Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    sensorless control is critical for LIM control in some special case. Reference [13] introduces a direct torque and flux control based on space...Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1054–1061, 1992. [4] J. Nash, “ Direct torque control , induction motor vector ...13] C. Lascu, I. Boldea, and F. Blaabjerg, “A modified direct torque control for induction motor sensorless drive,” Industry Applications,

  14. Analysis and control of employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Turnover is a relatively simple and easily described concept. However, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect, and thus, not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some which can be corrected and some which cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role.

  15. Soft System Analysis to Integrate Technology & Human in Controller Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-16

    Computer-based decision support tools (DST), : shared information, and other forms of automation : are increasingly being planned for use by controllers : and pilots to support Air Traffic Management (ATM) : and Air Traffic Control (ATC) in the Next ...

  16. Digital Printing Quality Detection and Analysis Technology Based on CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Zheng, Liping

    2017-12-01

    With the help of CCD digital printing quality detection and analysis technology, it can carry out rapid evaluation and objective detection of printing quality, and can play a certain control effect on printing quality. It can be said CDD digital printing quality testing and analysis of the rational application of technology, its digital printing and printing materials for a variety of printing equipments to improve the quality of a very positive role. In this paper, we do an in-depth study and discussion based on the CCD digital print quality testing and analysis technology.

  17. Dynamic Control of a Simulator Servo System Using CMAC Controller RBF Identifier-Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihong, Wang; Lei, Yu

    Neural control technique is well-suited to the problem of controlling dynamic system. A kind of CMAC controller for flight simulator servo system RBF identifier-based is presented. The controller consists of the RBF identifier, the single neuron PID controller and the CMAC feedforward controller. The RBF neural network is used to identify the model of the plant and adjust the single neuron PID controller's parameter. The suitable parameter of the controller is given as fast as possible by used searching. This method could shorten transient response time clearly. The simulation experiment has proved the method can improve control precision and the response rapidness.

  18. Velocity and Motion Control of a Self-Balancing Vehicle Based on a Cascade Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Velazquez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents balancing, velocity and motion control of a self-balancing vehicle. A cascade controller is implemented for both balancing control and angular velocity control. This controller is tested in simulations using a proposed mathematical model of the system. Motion control is achieved based on the kinematics of the robot. Control hardware is designed and integrated to implement the proposed controllers. Pitch is kept under 1° from the equilibrium position with no external disturbances. The linear cascade control is able to handle slight changes in the system dynamics, such as in the centre of mass and the slope on an inclined surface.

  19. Spacelab data analysis and interactive control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Drake, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The study consisted of two main tasks, a series of interviews of Spacelab users and a survey of data processing and display equipment. Findings from the user interviews on questions of interactive control, downlink data formats, and Spacelab computer software development are presented. Equipment for quick look processing and display of scientific data in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) was surveyed. Results of this survey effort are discussed in detail, along with recommendations for NASA development of several specific display systems which meet common requirements of many Spacelab experiments.

  20. Similarity based approximate reasoning: fuzzy control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raha, S.; Hossain, A.; Ghosh, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to similarity based approximate reasoning that elucidates the connection between similarity and existing approaches to inference in approximate reasoning methodology. A set of axioms is proposed to get a reasonable measure of similarity between two fuzzy sets. The