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Sample records for analysis approach leading

  1. Safe job analysis in a lead refinery. A practical approach from the process side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, Knut; Meurer, Urban [BERZELIUS Stolberg GmbH, Stolberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    In order to increase safety and to maintain legal requirements, Berzelius Stolberg decided in 2009 to update and change the approach for the safe job analysis (SJA). The new approach takes detailed Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), which were also updated during the new approach, as a basis for all following documents. Together with supervisors and operators all SOPs were structured in single working steps, because only if the real work is properly described, the afterwards performed safe job analysis makes sense and the risks are correctly identified. After updating the SOPs, a draft of each SJA was discussed by representatives from the refinery management, works council, safety officers and operators. For every identified risk one or more measures to avoid the risk were agreed. For the technical and organisational measures an action plan was created. The behavior related measures were concentrated in a safety handbook, representing the basis for future safety training of the operators. In addition to the Safe Job Analysis the SOPs are also the basis for training manuals and also for FMEAs. All in all the new approach of safe job analysis represents not only a way to increase safety systematically according to OHSAS guidelines, but also satisfies all aspects of quality management. (orig.)

  2. Distribution of current in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries: a thermographic analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streza, M.; Nuţ, C.; Tudoran, C.; Bunea, V.; Calborean, A.; Morari, C.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental method for the investigation of the current distribution in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries has been developed. The information is extracted by analysing the heat dissipation in the electrode during the discharge by using a high-performance IR camera. The effect of the current in the metallic grid can be de-convoluted from the total heat produced in the electrode by numerical processing of the temperature distribution over the electrode surface. By its simplicity and effectiveness, the proposed method has the potential to become an important tool in optimising electrode geometry.

  3. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  4. Androgen receptor mutations associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome: a high content analysis approach leading to personalized medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T Szafran

    Full Text Available Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS is a rare disease associated with inactivating mutations of AR that disrupt male sexual differentiation, and cause a spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities having as a common denominator loss of reproductive viability. No established treatment exists for these conditions, however there are sporadic reports of patients (or recapitulated mutations in cell lines that respond to administration of supraphysiologic doses (or pulses of testosterone or synthetic ligands. Here, we utilize a novel high content analysis (HCA approach to study AR function at the single cell level in genital skin fibroblasts (GSF. We discuss in detail findings in GSF from three historical patients with AIS, which include identification of novel mechanisms of AR malfunction, and the potential ability to utilize HCA for personalized treatment of patients affected by this condition.

  5. GALA: Group Analysis Leads to Accuracy, a novel approach for solving the inverse problem in exploratory analysis of group MEG recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eKozunov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although MEG/EEG signals are highly variable between subjects, they allow characterizing systematic changes of cortical activity in both space and time. Traditionally a two-step procedure is used. The first step is a transition from sensor to source space by the means of solving an ill-posed inverse problem for each subject individually. The second is mapping of cortical regions consistently active across subjects. In practice the first step often leads to a set of active cortical regions whose location and timecourses display a great amount of interindividual variability hindering the subsequent group analysis.We propose Group Analysis Leads to Accuracy (GALA - a solution that combines the two steps into one. GALA takes advantage of individual variations of cortical geometry and sensor locations. It exploits the ensuing variability in electromagnetic forward model as a source of additional information. We assume that for different subjects functionally identical cortical regions are located in close proximity and partially overlap and their timecourses are correlated. This relaxed similarity constraint on the inverse solution can be expressed within a probabilistic framework, allowing for an iterative algorithm solving the inverse problem jointly for all subjects.A systematic simulation study showed that GALA, as compared with the standard min-norm approach, improves accuracy of true activity recovery, when accuracy is assessed both in terms of spatial proximity of the estimated and true activations and correct specification of spatial extent of the activated regions. This improvement obtained without using any noise normalization techniques for both solutions, preserved for a wide range of between-subject variations in both spatial and temporal features of regional activation. The corresponding activation timecourses exhibit significantly higher similarity across subjects. Similar results were obtained for a real MEG dataset of face

  6. A systems approach to risk management through leading safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of leading indicators for safety is to identify the potential for an accident before it occurs. Past efforts have focused on identifying general leading indicators, such as maintenance backlog, that apply widely in an industry or even across industries. Other recommendations produce more system-specific leading indicators, but start from system hazard analysis and thus are limited by the causes considered by the traditional hazard analysis techniques. Most rely on quantitative metrics, often based on probabilistic risk assessments. This paper describes a new and different approach to identifying system-specific leading indicators and provides guidance in designing a risk management structure to generate, monitor and use the results. The approach is based on the STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) model of accident causation and tools that have been designed to build on that model. STAMP extends current accident causality to include more complex causes than simply component failures and chains of failure events or deviations from operational expectations. It incorporates basic principles of systems thinking and is based on systems theory rather than traditional reliability theory. - Highlights: • Much effort has gone into developing leading indicators with only limited success. • A systems-theoretic, assumption-based approach may be more successful. • Leading indicators are warning signals of an assumption’s changing vulnerability. • Heuristic biases can be controlled by using plausibility rather than likelihood

  7. Next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions and their uncertainties: Jacobi polynomials approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shahri, F Taghavi; Tehrani, S Atashbar; Yazdi, Z Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    We present a first global QCD analysis of next-to-next-leading-order (NNLO) contributions of the spin-dependent parton distribution functions (PPDFs) and their uncertainties using the Jacobi polynomial approach. Having the NNLO contributions of the quark-quark and gluon-quark splitting functions in perturbative QCD (Nucl. Phys. B 889 (2014) 351-400), one can obtain the evolution of longitudinally polarized parton densities of hadrons up to NNLO accuracy of QCD. A very large sets of recent and up-to-date experimental data of spin structure functions of the proton $g_1^p$, neutron $g_1^n$, and deuteron $g_1^d$ have been used in this analysis. The predictions for the NNLO calculations of the polarized parton distribution functions as well as the proton, neutron and deuteron polarized structure functions are compared with the corresponding results of the NLO approximation. We form a mutually consistent set of polarized PDFs due to the inclusion of the most available experimental data including the recently publis...

  8. Lead isotopic analysis within a multiproxy approach to trace pottery sources. The example of White Slip II sherds from Late Bronze Age sites in Cyprus and Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead isotope analyses were carried out on fragments of White Slip II ware, a Late Bronze Age Cypriote pottery ware, and on raw materials possibly used for their production. Sherds originate from three Late Bronze Age sites (Hala Sultan Tekke and Sanidha in Cyprus and Minet el-Beida in Syria) and clays come from the surroundings of Sanidha, a production site for White Slip ware. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are combined with Pb isotope analyses to further investigate the effectiveness of the latter method within a multiproxy approach for pottery provenance study. The pottery sherds from the three sites are compared between themselves and with potential raw material. Additional X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analyses using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detection (EDX) facility were performed on selected sherds and clays. This work confirms that the clay source used for pottery production in Sanidha derives from local weathered gabbro. It also shows that different origins can be proposed for White Slip II ware sherds from Hala Sultan Tekke and Minet el-Beida and that clays were prepared prior to White Slip II ware production. It finally confirms the effectiveness of Pb isotopes in tracing pottery provenance not only by comparing sherd assemblages but also by comparing sherds to potential raw materials.

  9. Next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions and their uncertainties: Jacobi polynomials approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi-Shahri, F.; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Atashbar Tehrani, S.; Alizadeh Yazdi, Z.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first QCD analysis of next-to-next-leading-order (NNLO) contributions of the spin-dependent parton distribution functions (PPDFs) in the nucleon and their uncertainties using the Jacobi polynomial approach. Having the NNLO contributions of the quark-quark and gluon-quark splitting functions in perturbative QCD [Nucl. Phys. B889, 351 (2014)], one can obtain the evolution of longitudinally polarized parton densities of hadrons up to NNLO accuracy of QCD. Very large sets of recent and up-to-date experimental data of spin structure functions of the proton g1p, neutron g1n, and deuteron g1d have been used in this analysis. The predictions for the NNLO calculations of the polarized parton distribution functions as well as the proton, neutron and deuteron polarized structure functions are compared with the corresponding results of the NLO approximation. We form a mutually consistent set of polarized PDFs due to the inclusion of the most available experimental data including the recently high-precision measurements from COMPASS16 experiments [Phys. Lett. B 753, 18 (2016)]. We have performed a careful estimation of the uncertainties using the most common and practical method, the Hessian method, for the polarized PDFs originating from the experimental errors. The proton, neutron and deuteron structure functions and also their first moments, Γp ,n ,d , are in good agreement with the experimental data at small and large momentum fractions of x . We will discuss how our knowledge of spin-dependence structure functions can improve at small and large values of x by the recent COMPASS16 measurements at CERN, the PHENIX and STAR measurements at RHIC, and at the future proposed colliders such as the Electron-Ion Collider.

  10. Microdistribution of lead in bone: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bockman, R.S. [Cornell Univ., New York, NY (United States). Medical Coll.; Bronner, F. [Connecticut Univ. Health Center, Farmington, CT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A knowledge of the microdistribution of lead in bone is important in order to understand the mechanisms for accumulation and release of lead. The availability of the synchrotron x-ray microscope for sensitive measurements of bone content and distribution of lead provides a valuable tool which, when combined with kinetic, balance, and tissue measurements, can lead to better evaluation of lead toxicity. It may also provide the basis for the development of a suitable model of how lead behaves in the human body. An outline of an experimental protocol for exploitation of the x-ray microscope is given, along with synchrotron x-ray microscope measurements of the distribution of gallium in rat bone that demonstrate the feasibility of the experimental approach.

  11. Microdistribution of lead in bone: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Bockman, R.S. (Cornell Univ., New York, NY (United States). Medical Coll.); Bronner, F. (Connecticut Univ. Health Center, Farmington, CT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge of the microdistribution of lead in bone is important in order to understand the mechanisms for accumulation and release of lead. The availability of the synchrotron x-ray microscope for sensitive measurements of bone content and distribution of lead provides a valuable tool which, when combined with kinetic, balance, and tissue measurements, can lead to better evaluation of lead toxicity. It may also provide the basis for the development of a suitable model of how lead behaves in the human body. An outline of an experimental protocol for exploitation of the x-ray microscope is given, along with synchrotron x-ray microscope measurements of the distribution of gallium in rat bone that demonstrate the feasibility of the experimental approach.

  12. Economic Analysis of Leading Logistics Companies' Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Chyška, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis focuses on analysis of leading logistics companies’ stocks. Literature review defines logistics as a rapidly evolving discipline, which has its roots far in the history. Logistics is also recognized as an important force that helps to drive the global economy. Supply chain and outsourcing are also discussed since they are very much connected to logistics. Stock market and important indexes are evaluated along with different types of stock charts in the literature review, a...

  13. Real analysis a constructive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bridger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

  14. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline lead selenide. Industrial approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achimovicova, Marcela; Balaz, Peter [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Geotechnics; Durisin, Juraj [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Materials Research; Daneu, Nina [Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. for Nanostructured Materials; Kovac, Juraj; Satka, Alexander [Slovak Univ. of Technology and International Laser Centre, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Microelectronics; Feldhoff, Armin [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie; Gock, Eberhard [Technical Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Mineral and Waste Processing and Dumping Technology

    2011-04-15

    Mechanochemical synthesis of lead selenide PbSe nanoparticles was performed by high-energy milling of lead and selenium powder in a laboratory planetary ball mill and in an industrial eccentric vibratory mill. Structural properties of the synthesized lead selenide were characterized using X-ray diffraction that confirmed crystalline nature of PbSe nanoparticles. The average size of PbSe crystallites of 37 nm was calculated from X-ray diffraction data using the Williamson-Hall method. The methods of particle size distribution analysis, specific surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for characterization of surface, mean particle size, and morphology of PbSe. An application of industrial mill verified a possibility of the synthesis of a narrow bandgap semiconductor PbSe at ambient temperature and in a relatively short reaction time. (orig.)

  15. Neurological Fallacies Leading to Malpractice: A Case Studies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C; Wester, Knut; Sartwelle, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    A young woman presents with an intracranial arachnoid cyst. Another is diagnosed with migraine headache. An elderly man awakens with a stroke. And a baby delivered vaginally after 2 hours of questionable electronic fetal monitoring patterns grows up to have cerebral palsy. These seemingly disparate cases share a common underlying theme: medical myths. Myths that may lead not only to misdiagnosis and treatment harms but to seemingly never-ending medical malpractice lawsuits, potentially culminating in a settlement or judgment against an unsuspecting neurologist. This article provides a case studies approach exposing the fallacies and highlighting proper management of these common neurologic presentations.

  16. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb206 and Pb207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  17. A Thermostructural Analysis of a Diboride Composite Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Tom; Buesking, Kent; Kolodziej, Paul; Bull, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to support the design of zirconium diboride composite leading edges for hypersonic vehicles, a finite element model (FEM) of a prototype leading edge was created and finite element analysis (FEA) was employed to assess its thermal and structural response to aerothermal boundary conditions. Unidirectional material properties for the structural components of the leading edge, a continuous fiber reinforced diboride composite, were computed with COSTAR. These properties agree well with those experimentally measured. To verify the analytical approach taken with COSMOS/M, an independent FEA of one of the leading edge assembly components was also done with COSTAR. Good agreement was obtained between the two codes. Both showed that a unidirectional lay-up had the best margin of safety for a simple loading case. Both located the maximum stress in the same region and ply. The magnitudes agreed within 4 percent. Trajectory based aerothermal heating was then applied to the leading edge assembly FEM created with COSMOS/M to determine steady state temperature response, displacement, stresses, and contact forces due to thermal expansion and thermal strains. Results show that the leading edge stagnation line temperature reached 4700 F. The maximum computed failure index for the laminated composite components peaks at 4.2, and is located at the bolt flange in layer 2 of the side bracket. The temperature gradient in the tip causes a compressive stress of 279 ksi along its width and substantial tensile stresses within its depth.

  18. Analysis of lead toxicity in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillis Bruce S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is a metal with many recognized adverse health side effects, and yet the molecular processes underlying lead toxicity are still poorly understood. Quantifying the injurious effects of lead is also difficult because of the diagnostic limitations that exist when analyzing human blood and urine specimens for lead toxicity. Results We analyzed the deleterious impact of lead on human cells by measuring its effects on cytokine production and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lead activates the secretion of the chemokine IL-8 and impacts mitogen-dependent activation by increasing the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and of the chemokines IL-8 and MIP1-α in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. The recorded changes in gene expression affected major cellular functions, including metallothionein expression, and the expression of cellular metabolic enzymes and protein kinase activity. The expression of 31 genes remained elevated after the removal of lead from the testing medium thereby allowing for the measurement of adverse health effects of lead poisoning. These included thirteen metallothionein transcripts, three endothelial receptor B transcripts and a number of transcripts which encode cellular metabolic enzymes. Cellular responses to lead correlated with blood lead levels and were significantly altered in individuals with higher lead content resultantly affecting the nervous system, the negative regulation of transcription and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified changes in gene expression in individuals with elevated zinc protoporphyrin blood levels and found that genes regulating the transmission of nerve impulses were affected in these individuals. The affected pathways were G-protein mediated signaling, gap junction signaling, synaptic long-term potentiation, neuropathic pain signaling as well as CREB signaling in neurons. Cellular responses to lead were

  19. How lead consultants approach educational change in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, J.P.; Westerman, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Lee, N.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dorr, P.J.; Scheele, F.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Consultants in charge of postgraduate medical education (PGME) in hospital departments ('lead consultants') are responsible for the implementation of educational change. Although difficulties in innovating in medical education are described in the literature, little is known about how lead

  20. Lead pressure loss in the heat exchanger of the ELSY fast lead-cooled reactor by CFD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the ELSY (European lead-cooled system) design proposal for a fast lead-cooled reactor, which should comply with the goals of the 4. generation nuclear power plants, the focus is set on the usage of the possible advantages offered by the lead technology in comparison to lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). Lead is less expensive, less corrosive and has a smaller radiological emissivity in comparison with LBE. The ELSY project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a lead fast reactor for energy generation and the identification of solutions for a simple but safe system. In order to properly dimension the reactor and to allow the flow of lead in natural circulation regime, as required by the nuclear accidents scenarios, the knowledge of the lead pressure losses through each component is mandatory. The present paper discusses the pressure loss through the new innovative design proposed for the ELSY spiral heat exchanger (HX). The lack of experimental data for lead flows through heat exchangers, as well as the novelty of the HX design, motivated an approach based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis. We employed the commercial tool ANSYS CFX and successfully validate the program against theoretical predictions for pressure loss simulations through perforated plates and pipe bundles. The ELSY HX has a cylindrical design and uniformly perforated double inner and double outer walls, as described in [4]. The flow of lead represents the primary circuit, while supercritical water is planned for the secondary circuit of the reactor. The perforations in the walls and in the corresponding companion shells are displaced in a staggered way. About 200 tubes that are arranged vertically in a staggered way are planned for the secondary circuit of one HX. A detailed complete model is not feasible at the actual stage of the design, due to the complex geometry, which has reference elements ranging between 10-3/1 m scales. Therefore, unit slice models consisting of

  1. Lead distribution in soils impacted by a secondary lead smelter: Experimental and modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Arnaud R; Cancès, Benjamin; Ponthieu, Marie; Sobanska, Sophie; Benedetti, Marc F; Pourret, Olivier; Conreux, Alexandra; Calandra, Ivan; Martinet, Blandine; Morvan, Xavier; Gommeaux, Maxime; Marin, Béatrice

    2016-10-15

    Smelting activities are one of the most common sources of trace elements in the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the lead distribution in upper horizons (0-5 and 5-10cm) of acidic soils in the vicinity of a lead-acid battery recycling plant in northern France. The combination of chemical methods (sequential extractions), physical methods (Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer) and multi-surface complexation modelling enabled an assessment of the behaviour of Pb. Regardless of the studied soil, none of the Pb-bearing phases commonly identified in similarly polluted environments (e.g., anglesite) were observed. Lead was mainly associated with organic matter and manganese oxides. The association of Pb with these soil constituents can be interpreted as evidence of Pb redistribution in the studied soils following smelter particle deposition.

  2. Leading neutron production at HERA in the color dipole approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study leading neutron production in e + p → e + n + X collisions at high energies and calculate the Feynman xL distribution of these neutrons. The differential cross section is written in terms of the pion flux and of the photon-pion total cross section. We describe this process using the color dipole formalism and, assuming the validity of the additive quark model, we relate the dipole-pion with the well determined dipoleproton cross section. In this formalism we can estimate the impact of the QCD dynamics at high energies as well as the contribution of gluon saturation effects to leading neutron production. With the parameters constrained by other phenomenological information, we are able to reproduce the basic features of the recently released H1 leading neutron spectra.

  3. A Network Approach to Preparing Underrepresented Students: The LEAD Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Results are reported from an empirical study of an interorganizational collaboration to prepare underrepresented students for elite postsecondary education and beyond. The LEAD (Leadership Education and Development) Program in Business is an initiative involving twelve U.S. universities, nearly forty multinational corporations, a federal…

  4. Lead and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David K.; Fulton, Jessica J.; Clarke, Erin J.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the association between conduct problems and lead exposure. Nineteen studies on 8,561 children and adolescents were included. The average "r" across all 19 studies was 0.19 (p less than 0.001), which is considered a medium effect size. Studies that assessed lead exposure using hair element analysis yielded considerably…

  5. The Fault tree analysis of the lead acid battery’s degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BRIK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present an approach of reliability to analyze lead-acid battery’s degradation. The construction of causal tree analysis offers a framework privileged to the deductive analysis which consists in seeking the various possible combinations of events leading to the loss of batteries capacity. The description of the causality chain is completed by a fault tree analysis (FTA established from the equivalent electric circuit of battery.

  6. Climate Change Management Approaches of Cities: A Comparative Study Between Globally Leading and Turkish Metropolitan Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Filiz Karabag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on climate change policies and action at the national level, but few have studied policies and action at the city level, especially cities in emerging economies. To address this gap, the present study analyzes the management strategies globally leading cities have developed to address climate change and related issues and compares them with the city strategies of one rapidly urbanizing emerging economy, Turkey. In the analysis, the strategic plans of five leading global cities are compared with those of sixteen Turkish cities. While the leading global cities have specific managerial approaches to mitigate climate change, none of the Turkish cities exhibits any comprehensive approach. Furthermore, while leading global cities modify urban services to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, few Turkish cities adjust any services to address this challenge. Some Turkish cities propose an increased use of renewable energy sources and modification in their transportation system, but the focus in these plans is the current daily needs of their inhabitants. The findings of this study suggest several climate change strategies both for Turkish cities and cities in other developing countries.

  7. LEADING CHANGES IN ASSESSMENT USING AN EVIDENCE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Macaulay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectivesIt is has been widely accepted that assessment of learning is a critical component of education and that assessment drives/guides student learning through shaping study habits and student approaches to learning. However, although most academics would agree that assessment is a critical aspect of their roles as teachers it is often an aspect of teaching that is regarded more as an additional task rather than an integral component of the teaching/learning continuum. An additional impediment to high quality assessment is the non-evidence based-approach to the decision making process. The overall aim of this project was to improve the quality of assessment in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology undergraduate education by promoting high quality assessment.Materials and methodsTo do this we developed and trialled an audit tool for mapping assessment practices. The audit tool was designed to gather data on current assessment practices and identify areas of good practice in which assessment aligned with the learning objectives and areas in need of improvement. This evidence base will then be used to drive change in assessment.Results and conclusionsUsing the assessment mapping tool we have mapped the assessment regime in a Biochemistry and Molecular Biology major at Monash University. Criteria used included: assessment type, format, timing, assessors, provision of feedback, level of learning (Bloom’s, approaches taken to planning assessment. We have mapped assessment of content and the systematic development of higher order learning and skills progression throughout the program of study. The data has enabled us to examine the assessment at unit (course level as well as the vertical development across the major. This information is now being used to inform a review of the units and the major.

  8. Fascinating morphologies of lead tungstate nanostructures by chimie douce approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Thresiamma; Joseph, Sunny; Sunny, Anu Tresa; Mathew, Suresh [Mahatma Gandhi University, School of Chemical Sciences (India)], E-mail: smathew_mgu@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    Lead tungstate occurs in nature as tetragonal stolzite of scheelite (CaWO{sub 4}) type and monoclinic raspite. In this work, we report, the typical growth of snowflake-like tetragonal stolzite and bamboo-leaf-like monoclinic raspite nanocrystals of PbWO{sub 4} via a simple aqueous precipitation method and a polyol (polyethylene glycol-200) mediated precipitation method at room temperature (27 deg. C). The synthesised PbWO{sub 4} nanocrystals were characterised by XRD, SEM, EDAX and TGA-DTA. The UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence studies of PbWO{sub 4} nanocrystals in the two morphologies were performed. The nuclei of PbWO{sub 4} nanocrystals in aqueous medium self-assemble in a tetragonal manner to form the snowflake-like crystals. In polyol medium, PbWO{sub 4} nuclei preferentially grow by oriented attachment process to form the bamboo-leaf-like morphology. The specific morphology of the regularly assembled PbWO{sub 4} nanocrystals in the two phases finds applications in nanoelectronics and photonics. Compared to other well-known scintillators, PbWO{sub 4} is most attractive for high-energy physics applications, because of its high density, short decay time and high irradiation damage resistance.

  9. Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keng C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge. The Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLE IDS) and the Impact Analysis Process are also described to monitor WLE debris threats. The contents include: 1) Risk Management via SHM; 2) Hardware Overview; 3) Instrumentation; 4) Sensor Configuration; 5) Debris Hazard Monitoring; 6) Ascent Response Summary; 7) Response Signal; 8) Distribution of Flight Indications; 9) Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA); 10) Model Correlation; 11) Impact Tests; 12) Wing Leading Edge Modeling; 13) Ascent Debris PRA Results; and 14) MM/OD PRA Results.

  10. Effects of Uncertainties in Lead Cross Section Data in Analysis of Lead Cooled and Reflected Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous uncertainties in the analyses of innovative reactor designs, arising from approximations used in the solution of the transport equation, and in nuclear data processing and cross section libraries generation. This paper describes: the problems encountered in the analysis of the lead cooled and reflected reactors; the new cross section data libraries developed to overcome these problems; and applications of these new data libraries to the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) core benchmark analysis. The ENHS is a new lead-bismuth or lead cooled novel reactor concept that is fuelled with metallic alloy of Pu, U and Zr, and is designed to operate for 20 effective full power years without refuelling and with very small burnup reactivity swing. The computational tool benchmarked include MOCUP, a coupled MCNP-4C and ORIGEN2.1 utility codes with MCNP data libraries based on the newest evaluations. (author)

  11. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  12. Analysis of Bird Impact on a Composite Tailplane Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, M.; Marulo, F.; Meo, M.; Riccio, M.

    2008-11-01

    One of the main structural requirements of a leading edge of a tailplane is to ensure that any significant damage caused by foreign object (i.e. birdstrike, etc...) would still allow the aircraft to land safely. In particular, leading edge must be certified for a proven level of bird impact resistance. Since the experimental tests are expensive and difficult to perform, numerical simulations can provide significant help in designing high-efficiency bird-proof structures. The aim of this research paper was to evaluate two different leading edge designs by reducing the testing costs by employing state-of-the-art numerical simulations. The material considered was a sandwich structure made up of aluminium skins and flexcore as core. Before each test was carried out, pre-test numerical analyses of birdstrike were performed adopting a lagrangian approach on a tailplane leading edge of a large scale aircraft using the MSC/Dytran solver code. The numerical and experimental correlation have shown good results both in terms of global behaviour of the test article and local evolution of some measurable parameters confirming the validity of the approach and possible guidelines for structural design including the bird impact requirements.

  13. Evaluation of the dynamic impacts of customer centered lead time reduction improvements on customer-oriented and financial performance: a hybrid approach of system dynamics and queuing network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alp, Arda; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the strategic importance of reduced lead times in today’s competitive business environment, this doctoral dissertation analyzes the dynamic impacts of lead time reduction (LTR) improvements on customer satisfaction and related financial performance metrics. The core thesis is centered on development of an integrated dynamic performance measurement framework which covers operational, customer-oriented and financial performance dependencies over time. The framework is demonstrated ...

  14. Lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA): a novel and general methodology for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Mark; Lieberman, Harvey; Tserlin, Elina; Rocnik, Jennifer; Ge, Jie; Fitzgerald, Maria; Patel, Vinod; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel and general method, lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA), to benchmark two distinct small-molecule lead series using a relatively unbiased, simple technique and commercially available software. We illustrate this approach with data collected during lead optimization of two independent oncology programs as a case study. Easily generated graphics and attrition curves enabled us to calibrate progress and support go/no go decisions on each program. We believe that this data-driven technique could be used broadly by medicinal chemists and management to guide strategic decisions during drug discovery.

  15. Content Analysis Customer Education on Websites of Leading Financial Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This research focuses on examining how the web sites of some leading financial companies chosen from the list of 500 top companies in the world of Fortune in 2008 implement customer education. Using the content analysis, this research focuses on analyzing five main categories in order to evaluate the customer education program on web sites of these samples. The five categories consist of dentification customers target features of customer education, information content, method...

  16. Analysis of natural radionuclides and lead in foods and diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the present study was to determine the lead-210, polonium-210 and lead concentrations in foods and diets. Consumption of food is generally the main route by which radionuclides can enter the human organism. Precision and accuracy of the methods developed were verifies by the analysis of reference materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The method for polonium-210 analysis consisted of sample dissolution by using a microwave digester (open system) employing concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, evaporation almost dryness, addition of hydrochloric acid, polonium deposition onto silver disc for six hours and counting by alpha spectrometry. Lead was analysed by atomic absorption technique. After sample dissolution in a microwave digester (using concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) and dilution to 50 ml, 20μl of the sample was injected in a pyrolytic graphite furnace - atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with Zeeman background correction. The assessment of the contaminants in foods and diets allowed to estimate the intake of these elements and for the radionuclides were also evaluated the radiation doses that the individuals selected were exposed by the food consumption. The effective dose for lead-210 by diets intake ranged from 1.3 to 4.3 μSv/year, corresponding to 25% of the resulting from polonium-210 intake. The dose due to the both natural radionuclides varied from 6.8 to 23.0 μSv/year. These values are in good agreement with the literature data. The value estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1993) that is 60 μSv and lower than the dose of 0.02 Sv, limit established by ICRP, 1980. The lead levels found in the majority of the Brazilian foods are in good agreement with the values published by CONAT and FAO/WHO. However, some foods such as bean, potato, papaya, apple and rice present levels above of the recommended values by the Public

  17. An Exploratory Study Of Lead Recovery In Lead-Acid Battery Lifecycle In US Market: An Evidence-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: This research examines lead recovery and recycling in lead-acid batteries (LAB) which account for 88% of US lead consumption. We explore strategies to maximize lead recovery and recycling in the LAB lifecycle. Currently, there is limited information on recycling ra...

  18. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  19. A new approach to evaluate the leading hadronic corrections to the muon g-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carloni Calame, C.M., E-mail: carlo.carloni.calame@pv.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Passera, M., E-mail: massimo.passera@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Trentadue, L., E-mail: luca.trentadue@cern.ch [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra “M. Melloni”, Università di Parma, Parma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Venanzoni, G., E-mail: graziano.venanzoni@lnf.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2015-06-30

    We propose a novel approach to determine the leading hadronic corrections to the muon g-2. It consists in a measurement of the effective electromagnetic coupling in the space-like region extracted from Bhabha scattering data. We argue that this new method may become feasible at flavor factories, resulting in an alternative determination potentially competitive with the accuracy of the present results obtained with the dispersive approach via time-like data.

  20. A new approach to evaluate the leading hadronic corrections to the muon g-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Carloni Calame

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach to determine the leading hadronic corrections to the muon g-2. It consists in a measurement of the effective electromagnetic coupling in the space-like region extracted from Bhabha scattering data. We argue that this new method may become feasible at flavor factories, resulting in an alternative determination potentially competitive with the accuracy of the present results obtained with the dispersive approach via time-like data.

  1. Uncertainties in analysis of innovative lead-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous uncertainties in the prediction of innovative reactor design, arising from approximations used in the solution of the transport equation, and in nuclear data processing and cross section libraries generation. This paper describes the problems encountered in the analysis of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) core benchmark and the new cross section libraries developed to overcome these problems. The ENHS is a new lead-bismuth or lead cooled novel reactor concept that is fuelled with metallic alloy of Pu, U and Zr, and i designed to operate for 20 effective full power years without refuelling and with very small burnup reactivity swing. The computational tools benchmarked include MOCUP-a coupled MCNP-4C and ORIGEN2.1 utility codes with MCNP data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI evaluations; and KWO2-a coupled KENO-V.a and ORIGEN2.1 code with ENDFB-V.2 based 238 groups library. Uncertainties in the cross sections of lead were found particularly large and deserve careful evaluation. (author)

  2. Identification of sources of lead exposure in French children by lead isotope analysis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Jean-Paul

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of lead in the environment has decreased significantly in recent years, and so did exposure. However, there is no known safe exposure level and, therefore, the exposure of children to lead, although low, remains a major public health issue. With the lower levels of exposure, it is becoming more difficult to identify lead sources and new approaches may be required for preventive action. This study assessed the usefulness of lead isotope ratios for identifying sources of lead using data from a nationwide sample of French children aged from six months to six years with blood lead levels ≥25 μg/L. Methods Blood samples were taken from 125 children, representing about 600,000 French children; environmental samples were taken from their homes and personal information was collected. Lead isotope ratios were determined using quadrupole ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry and the isotopic signatures of potential sources of exposure were matched with those of blood in order to identify the most likely sources. Results In addition to the interpretation of lead concentrations, lead isotope ratios were potentially of use for 57% of children aged from six months to six years with blood lead level ≥ 25 μg/L (7% of overall children in France, about 332,000 children, with at least one potential source of lead and sufficiently well discriminated lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope ratios revealed a single suspected source of exposure for 32% of the subjects and were able to eliminate at least one unlikely source of exposure for 30% of the children. Conclusions In France, lead isotope ratios could provide valuable additional information in about a third of routine environmental investigations.

  3. Strangeness $S=-1$ hyperon-nucleon scattering at leading order in the covariant Weinberg's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the success of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory in the one baryon sector and in the heavy-light systems, we explore the relevance of relativistic effects in the construction of the strangeness $S=-1$ hyperon-nucleon interaction using chiral perturbation theory. Due to the non-perturbative nature of the hyperon-nucleon interaction, we follow the covariant Weinberg's approach recently proposed by Epelbaum and Gegelia to sum the leading order chiral potential using the Kadyshevsky equation (Epelbaum, 2012) in this exploratory work. By fitting the five low-energy constants to available experimental data, we find that the cutoff dependence is mitigated compared with the results obtained in the Weinberg's approach for both partial wave phase shifts and the description of experimental data. Nevertheless, at leading order, the description of experimental data remains quantitatively similar. We discuss in detail the cutoff dependence of the partial wave phase shifts and cross sections in the Wei...

  4. Nuclear shadowing in deep inelastic scattering on nuclei: leading twist versus eikonal approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use several diverse parameterizations of diffractive parton distributions, extracted in leading twist QCD analyses of the HERA diffractive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data, to make predictions for leading twist nuclear shadowing of nuclear quark and gluon distributions in DIS on nuclei. We find that the HERA diffractive data are sufficiently precise to allow us to predict large nuclear shadowing for gluons and quarks, unambiguously. We performed detailed studies of nuclear shadowing for up and charm sea quarks and gluons within several scenarios of shadowing and diffractive slopes, as well as at central impact parameters. We compare these leading twist results with those obtained from the eikonal approach to nuclear shadowing (which is based on a very different space-time picture) and observe sharply contrasting predictions for the size and Q2-dependence of nuclear shadowing. The most striking differences arise for the interaction of small dipoles with nuclei, in particular for the longitudinal structure function FLA. (author)

  5. Experimental analysis of lead-in-air sources in lead-acid battery manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, K J; Knutson, G W

    1979-07-01

    Plant-scale experimental sampling programs were carried out to determine the contribution to the lead-in-air exposure from (a) fork-truck transport of pasted plates in racks and (b) manual loading and unloading of plates from racks. Fork-truck transport was found not significant under "clean" conditions. Manual loading and unloading was found significant.

  6. Flow Analysis: A Novel Approach For Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakh, Christina; Falkova, Marina; Timofeeva, Irina; Moskvin, Alexey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    We suggest a novel approach for classification of flow analysis methods according to the conditions under which the mass transfer processes and chemical reactions take place in the flow mode: dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods. The first group includes continuous flow analysis, flow injection analysis, all injection analysis, sequential injection analysis, sequential injection chromatography, cross injection analysis, multi-commutated flow analysis, multi-syringe flow injection analysis, multi-pumping flow systems, loop flow analysis, and simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis. The second group includes segmented flow analysis, zone fluidics, flow batch analysis, sequential injection analysis with a mixing chamber, stepwise injection analysis, and multi-commutated stepwise injection analysis. The offered classification allows systematizing a large number of flow analysis methods. Recent developments and applications of dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods are presented.

  7. Collective Inclusioning: A Grounded Theory of a Bottom-Up Approach to Innovation and Leading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lysek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a grounded theory study of how leaders (e.g., entrepreneurs, managers, etc. engage people in challenging undertakings (e.g., innovation that require everyone’s commitment to such a degree that they would have to go beyond what could be reasonably expected in order to succeed. Company leaders sometimes wonder why their employees no longer show the same responsibility towards their work, and why they are more concerned with internal politics than solving customer problems. It is because company leaders no longer apply collective inclusioning to the same extent as they did in the past. Collective inclusioning can be applied in four ways by convincing, afinitizing, goal congruencing, and engaging. It can lead to fostering strong units of people for taking on challenging undertakings. Collective inclusioning is a complementing theory to other strategic management and leading theories. It offers a new perspective on how to implement a bottom-up approach to innovation.

  8. Information-theoretic approach to lead-lag effect on financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-08-01

    Recently the interest of researchers has shifted from the analysis of synchronous relationships of financial instruments to the analysis of more meaningful asynchronous relationships. Both types of analysis are concentrated mostly on Pearson's correlation coefficient and consequently intraday lead-lag relationships (where one of the variables in a pair is time-lagged) are also associated with them. Under the Efficient-Market Hypothesis such relationships are not possible as all information is embedded in the prices, but in real markets we find such dependencies. In this paper we analyse lead-lag relationships of financial instruments and extend known methodology by using mutual information instead of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mutual information is not only a more general measure, sensitive to non-linear dependencies, but also can lead to a simpler procedure of statistical validation of links between financial instruments. We analyse lagged relationships using New York Stock Exchange 100 data not only on an intraday level, but also for daily stock returns, which have usually been ignored.

  9. Discovering lead-free perovskite solar materials with a split-anion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Shi, Jian; Lian, Jie; Gao, Weiwei; Agiorgousis, Michael L.; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar materials, being low-cost and high-performance, are promising for large-scale deployment of the photovoltaic technology. A key challenge that remains to be addressed is the toxicity of these materials since the high-efficiency solar cells are made of lead-containing materials, in particular, CH3NH3PbI3. Here, based on first-principles calculation, we search for lead-free perovskite materials based on the split-anion approach, where we replace Pb with non-toxic elements while introducing dual anions (i.e., splitting the anion sites) that preserve the charge neutrality. We show that CH3NH3BiSeI2 and CH3NH3BiSI2 exhibit improved band gaps and optical absorption over CH3NH3PbI3. The split-anion approach could also be applied to pure inorganic perovskites, significantly enlarging the pool of candidate materials in the design of low-cost, high-performance and environmentally-friendly perovskite solar materials.Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar materials, being low-cost and high-performance, are promising for large-scale deployment of the photovoltaic technology. A key challenge that remains to be addressed is the toxicity of these materials since the high-efficiency solar cells are made of lead-containing materials, in particular, CH3NH3PbI3. Here, based on first-principles calculation, we search for lead-free perovskite materials based on the split-anion approach, where we replace Pb with non-toxic elements while introducing dual anions (i.e., splitting the anion sites) that preserve the charge neutrality. We show that CH3NH3BiSeI2 and CH3NH3BiSI2 exhibit improved band gaps and optical absorption over CH3NH3PbI3. The split-anion approach could also be applied to pure inorganic perovskites, significantly enlarging the pool of candidate materials in the design of low-cost, high-performance and environmentally-friendly perovskite solar materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed descriptions on

  10. Environmental health risk assessment of ambient lead levels in Lisbon, Portugal: A full chain study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casimiro, E.; Philippe Ciffroy, P.; Serpa, P.;

    2011-01-01

    to calculate the Pb levels in the various body systems. Our results showed a low health risk from Pb exposures. It also identified that ingestion of leafy vegetables (i.e. lettuce, cabbage, and spinach) and fruits contribute the most to total Pb blood levels. This full chain assessment approach of the 2FUN......The multi-causality interactions between environment and health are complex and call for an integrated multidisciplinary study approach. Emerging computational toxicology tools that link toxicology, chemistry, environmental sciences, biostatistics, and computer sciences are proving to be very...... useful for integrated full-chain human health risk assessments. In this study we use a newly developed computational tool – the 2FUN player to conduct a full-chain assessment combining measured ambient air lead concentrations with multi-media modelling and PBPK simulations to estimate the health risks...

  11. Approaches to folyl polyglutamate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    The literature review presented the effects of the polyglutamate chain on the biological and nutritional properties of folates and the main methods used for folate assays, with a special emphasis on the approaches to studying intact polyglutamates. A brief introduction regarding safety aspects of folate fortification was also given. The aim of this study was to develop a UPLC-FLR/PDA method for simultaneous determination of polyglutamyl folate vitamers. Chromatographic conditions were opt...

  12. Effects of Uncertainties in Lead Cross Section Data in Monte Carlo Analysis of lead Cooled and reflected Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the problems encountered in the analysis of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) core benchmark and the new cross section libraries developed to overcome these problems. The ENHS is a new lead-bismuth or lead cooled novel reactor concept that is fuelled with metallic alloy of Pu, U and Zr, and is designed to operate for 20 effective full power years without re-fuelling and with very small burn-up reactivity swing. There are numerous uncertainties in the prediction of core parameters of this and other innovative reactor designs, arising from approximations used in the solution of the transport equation, in nuclear data processing and cross section libraries generation. In this paper we analyzed the effects of uncertainties in lead cross sections data from several versions of ENDF, JENDL and JEFF for lead-cooled and reflected computational benchmarks. (author)

  13. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, I.; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R. A.; Cohen, D. D.

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile ( Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  14. Approaches to Sensitivity Analysis in MOLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sitarz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two approaches to the sensitivity analysis in multi-objective linear programming (MOLP. The first one is the tolerance approach and the other one is the standard sensitivity analysis. We consider the perturbation of the objective function coefficients. In the tolerance method we simultaneously change all of the objective function coefficients. In the standard sensitivity analysis we change one objective function coefficient without changing the others. In the numerical example we compare the results obtained by using these two different approaches.

  15. GCM Analysis of the collective properties of lead isotopes with exact projection on particle numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Heenen, P H; Bender, M; Bonche, P; Flocard, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    We present a microscopic analysis of the collective behaviour of the lead isotopes in the vicinity of Pb208. In this study, we rely on a coherent approach based on the Generator Coordinate Method including exact projection on N and Z numbers within a collective space generated by means of the constrained Hartree-Fock BCS method. With the same Hamiltonian used in HF+BCS calculations, we have performed a comprehensive study including monopole, quadrupole and octupole excitations as well as pairing vibrations. We find that, for the considered nuclei, the collective modes which modify the most the conclusions drawn from the mean-field theory are the octupole and pairing vibrations.

  16. Hybrid approaches for sentiment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sentiment Analysis is the task of extracting and classifying opinionated content in natural language texts. Common subtasks are the distinction between opinionated and factual texts, the classification of polarity in opinionated texts, and the extraction of the participating entities of an opinion(-event), i.e. the source from which an opinion emanates and the target towards which it is directed. With the emerging Web 2.0 which describes the shift towards a highly user-interactive communicati...

  17. Transient analysis and burnout of high temperature superconducting current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.

    The transient behaviour of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads operated between liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperatures is analysed for burnout conditions upon transition of the HTS into the normal state. Leads composed of HTS only and of HTS sheathed by pure silver or silver alloy are investigated numerically for temperature-dependent properties and analytically for temperature-independent properties. For lower values of shape factor (current density times length), the lead can be operated indefinitely without burnout. At higher values of shape factor, the lead reaches burnout in a finite time. With high current densities, the leads heat adiabatically. For a fixed shape factor, low current densities are desired to achieve long burnout times. To achieve a low helium boil-off rate in the superconducting state without danger of burnout, there is a preferred temperature dependence for thermal conductivity, and silver alloy sheaths are preferred to pure silver sheaths. However, for a given current density, pure silver sheaths take longer to burn out.

  18. Differences between IC Analysis and TG Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美玲

    2014-01-01

    Structuralism and generative approach are two representative syntax theories, which study language from different per-spectives. They employ different methodologies i.e. Immediate constituent (IC) Analysis and transformational-generative (TG) approach to make syntactical analysis. In this paper, these two methods will be applied to analyze some sentences for further dis-cussion and comparison. After analysis by examples, we find that both these two methods have their merits and inadequacies. To some extent, TG method can help IC analysis solve some problems. However, TG grammar is by no means complete and perfect. Improvements are needed to reach its ultimate goal of producing a universal grammar for all human languages.

  19. Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data-driven approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shen, Zheng; Ray, Asok; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2014-12-01

    This short paper presents a recently reported dynamic data-driven method, Symbolic Dynamic Filtering (SDF), for real-time estimation of the state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) in lead-acid batteries, as an alternative to model-based analysis techniques. In particular, SOC estimation relies on a k-NN regression algorithm while SOH estimation is obtained from the divergence between extracted features. The results show that the proposed data-driven method successfully distinguishes battery voltage responses under different SOC and SOH situations.

  20. MODERN TERRORISM: CONCEPT AND APPROACH ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIKA ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH

    2015-01-01

    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  1. Document Analysis by Crosscount Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海琴; 戴汝为

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a new feature called crosscount for document analysis is introduced.The reature crosscount is a function of white line segment with its start on the edge of document images.It reflects not only the contour of image,but also the periodicity of white lines(background)and text lines in the document images.In complex printed-page layouts,there are different blocks such as textual,graphical,tabular,and so on.Of these blocks,textual ones have the most obvious periodicity with their homogeneous white lines arranged regularly.The important property of textual blocks can be extracted by crosscount functions.here the document layouts are classified into three classes on the basis of their physical structures.Then the definition and properties of the crosscount function are described.According to the classification of document layouts,the application of this new feature to different types of document images' analysis and understanding is discussed.

  2. From the ephemeral to the enduring: how approach-oriented mindsets lead to greater status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Gavin J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-11-01

    We propose that the psychological states individuals bring into newly formed groups can produce meaningful differences in status attainment. Three experiments explored whether experimentally created approach-oriented mindsets affected status attainment in groups, both immediately and over time. We predicted that approach-oriented states would lead to greater status attainment by increasing proactive behavior. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these status gains would persist longitudinally, days after the original mindsets had dissipated, due to the self-reinforcing behavioral cycles the approach-oriented states initiated. In Experiment 1, individuals primed with a promotion focus achieved higher status in their newly formed groups, and this was mediated by proactive behavior as rated by themselves and their teammates. Experiment 2 was a longitudinal experiment and revealed that individuals primed with power achieved higher status, both immediately following the prime and when the groups were reassembled 2 days later to work on new tasks. These effects were mediated by independent coders' ratings of proactive behavior during the first few minutes of group interaction. Experiment 3 was another longitudinal experiment and revealed that priming happiness led to greater status as well as greater acquisition of material resources. Importantly, these immediate and longitudinal effects were independent of the effects of a number of stable dispositional traits. Our results establish that approach-oriented psychological states affect status attainment, over and above the more stable characteristics emphasized in prior research, and provide the most direct test yet of the self-reinforcing nature of status hierarchies. These findings depict a dynamic view of status organization in which the same group may organize itself differently depending on members' incoming psychological states. PMID:23895266

  3. Crude to leads: a triple-pronged direct NMR approach in coordination with docking simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoli, Sheraz A K; Tanoli, Nazish U; Bondancia, Tatiani M; Usmani, Saman; Kerssebaum, Rainer; Ferreira, Antonio G; Fernandes, Joao B; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2013-09-01

    The screening of compounds that bind to the target of interest (specific proteins) plays a vital role in drug discovery. Usually, the identification of biologically active compounds is done from a library of structurally known compounds. However, we successfully illustrate here, that NMR techniques including saturation transfer difference (STD), transfer nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy (TrNOESY) and STD-TOCSY (total correlation spectroscopy) in combination with separation methods not only enable the rapid and comprehensive screening of active components, but also their unequivocal structural characterization. Furthermore, a time saving for the recognition of leads is also possible with this application. To probe the binding studies, a hydroethanolic fraction of crude extract (1 mg) from natural product (Rauia resinous) was used for the initial assessment with BSA protein. The docking simulation was performed with BSA in the region of Thr190, Arg198, Arg217, Trp213, Arg256, Ala290 and Tyr451 to further refine the active compound towards the leads. Docking results mimic binding as identified by STD, Tr-NOESY and STD-TOCSY. Isovetexine-2-rhamnosoide (2) was found to be most active through group epitope mapping results as well as the docking simulation with relative free energy of -7.2770. This experiment provided excellent results through the direct NMR screening method. Using Bovine Serum Albumin as a reference, we illustrate that this approach offers an excellent way for the first hand detection of the active constituents/inhibitors from natural remedies used in folk medicinal treatments.

  4. A supply sided analysis of leading MOOC platforms and universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Peters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investing in education is generally considered as a promising strategy to fight poverty and increase prosperity. This applies to all levels of an economy reaching from individuals to local communities and countries and has a global perspective as well. However, high-quality education is often costly and not available anytime anywhere. Therefore, any promising concept that might help to democratize education is worth pursuing, in a sense that it makes education accessible for everybody without any restrictions. The characteristics attributed to MOOC – Massive Open Online Courses are promising to contribute to this objective. Hence, our objective is to analyse MOOC as it currently operates. Obviously, there is a huge demand for free high-quality education anytime anywhere but a shortage on the supply side. So, we will concentrate on supply-sided effects and study MOOC platforms as well as content providers, particularly universities. We focus our research on some of the leading platforms and universities worldwide. Relative to their size Australia and the Netherlands are very active players in the MOOC sector. Germany is lagging behind and leading universities in the UK seem to virtually refrain from offering MOOC. Our research also shows the leading role of US universities and platform providers.

  5. Lead identification for the K-Ras protein: virtual screening and combinatorial fragment-based approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathan AAK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Akbar Ali Khan Pathan,1,2,* Bhavana Panthi,3,* Zahid Khan,1 Purushotham Reddy Koppula,4–6 Mohammed Saud Alanazi,1 Sachchidanand,3 Narasimha Reddy Parine,1 Mukesh Chourasia3,* 1Genome Research Chair (GRC, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, 2Integrated Gulf Biosystems, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmacoinformatics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India; 4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, 5Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital, 6Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Kirsten rat sarcoma (K-Ras protein is a member of Ras family belonging to the small guanosine triphosphatases superfamily. The members of this family share a conserved structure and biochemical properties, acting as binary molecular switches. The guanosine triphosphate-bound active K-Ras interacts with a range of effectors, resulting in the stimulation of downstream signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Efforts to target K-Ras have been unsuccessful until now, placing it among high-value molecules against which developing a therapy would have an enormous impact. K-Ras transduces signals when it binds to guanosine triphosphate by directly binding to downstream effector proteins, but in case of guanosine diphosphate-bound conformation, these interactions get disrupted. Methods: In the present study, we targeted the nucleotide-binding site in the “on” and “off” state conformations of the K-Ras protein to find out suitable lead compounds. A structure-based virtual screening approach has been used to screen compounds from different databases, followed by a combinatorial fragment-based approach to design the apposite lead for the K-Ras protein. Results: Interestingly, the designed compounds exhibit a binding preference for the

  6. Analysis of Lead and Zinc by Mercury-Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for trace-element analysis of lead and zinc by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) where both the glassy-carbon working electrode and the electrolyte are free of mercury. Analysis of zinc requires an activation procedure of the glassy-carbon electrode. The activation is...... performed by pre-concentrating zinc on glassy carbon at -1400 mV(SCE) in a mercury-free electrolyte containing 0.1 M HCl and 2 ppm Zn2+, followed by stripping at approx. -1050 mV. A linear relationship between stripping peak areas, recorded in the derivative mode, and concentration was found in the...

  7. Approaches to remote sensing data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To present an overview of the essential steps in the remote sensing data analysis process, and to compare and contrast manual (visual) and automated analysis methods Rationale: This overview is intended to provide a framework for choosing a manual of digital analysis approach to collecting resource information. It can also be used as a basis for understanding/evaluating invited papers and poster sessions during the Symposium

  8. Introduction to Real Analysis An Educational Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bauldry, William C

    2011-01-01

    An accessible introduction to real analysis and its connection to elementary calculus Bridging the gap between the development and history of real analysis, Introduction to Real Analysis: An Educational Approach presents a comprehensive introduction to real analysis while also offering a survey of the field. With its balance of historical background, key calculus methods, and hands-on applications, this book provides readers with a solid foundation and fundamental understanding of real analysis. The book begins with an outline of basic calculus, including a close examination of problems illust

  9. Analysis and Data Mining of Lead-Zinc Ore Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zanev, Vladimir; Topalov, Stanislav; Christov, Veselin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our data mining study of Pb-Zn (lead-zinc) ore assay records from a mine enterprise in Bulgaria. We examined the dataset, cleaned outliers, visualized the data, and created dataset statistics. A Pb-Zn cluster data mining model was created for segmentation and prediction of Pb-Zn ore assay data. The Pb-Zn cluster data model consists of five clusters and DMX queries. We analyzed the Pb-Zn cluster content, size, structure, and characteristics. The set of the DM...

  10. Analysis Of Transport Properties of Mechanically Alloyed Lead Tin Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    these inclusions would not be less than that expected in alloys without these inclusions while the portion of the thermal conductivity that is not due to charge carriers (the lattice thermal conductivity) would be less than what would be expected from alloys that do not have these inclusions. Furthermore, it would be possible to approximate the observed changes in the electrical and thermal transport properties using existing physical models for the scattering of electrons and phonons by small inclusions. The approach taken to investigate this hypothesis was to first experimentally characterize the mobile carrier concentration at room temperature along with the extent and type of secondary phase inclusions present in a series of three mechanically alloyed Pb1-xSnxTe alloys with different Sn content. Second, the physically based computational model was developed. This model was used to determine what the electronic conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, total thermal conductivity, and the portion of the thermal conductivity not due to mobile charge carriers would be in these particular Pb1-x SnxTe alloys if there were to be no secondary phase inclusions. Third, the electronic conductivity, Seebeck coecient and total thermal conductivity was experimentally measured for these three alloys with inclusions present at elevated temperatures. The model predictions for electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were directly compared to the experimental elevated temperature electrical transport measurements. The computational model was then used to extract the lattice thermal conductivity from the experimentally measured total thermal conductivity. This lattice thermal conductivity was then compared to what would be expected from the alloys in the absence of secondary phase inclusions. Secondary phase inclusions were determined by X-ray diraction analysis to be present in all three alloys to a varying extent. The inclusions were found not to significantly degrade electrical

  11. Shotgun approaches to gait analysis: insights & limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptein, Ronald G; Wezenberg, Daphne; IJmker, Trienke; Houdijk, Han; Beek, Peter J; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying features for gait classification is a formidable problem. The number of candidate measures is legion. This calls for proper, objective criteria when ranking their relevance. Methods: Following a shotgun approach we determined a plenitude of kinematic and physiological gait measures and ranked their relevance using conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) supplemented by logistic and partial least squares (PLS) regressions. We illustrated this approach using data from ...

  12. Index analysis approach theory at work

    CERN Document Server

    Lowen, R

    2015-01-01

    A featured review of the AMS describes the author’s earlier work in the field of approach spaces as, ‘A landmark in the history of general topology’. In this book, the author has expanded this study further and taken it in a new and exciting direction.   The number of conceptually and technically different systems which characterize approach spaces is increased and moreover their uniform counterpart, uniform gauge spaces, is put into the picture. An extensive study of completions, both for approach spaces and for uniform gauge spaces, as well as compactifications for approach spaces is performed. A paradigm shift is created by the new concept of index analysis.   Making use of the rich intrinsic quantitative information present in approach structures, a technique is developed whereby indices are defined that measure the extent to which properties hold, and theorems become inequalities involving indices; therefore vastly extending the realm of applicability of many classical results. The theory is the...

  13. The lead cooled fast reactor benchmark Brest-300: analysis with sensitivity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead cooled fast neutrons reactor is one of the most interesting candidates for the development of atomic energy. BREST-300 is a 300 MWe lead cooled fast reactor developed by the NIKIET (Russia) with a deterministic safety approach which aims to exclude reactivity margins greater than the delayed neutron fraction. The development of innovative reactors (lead coolant, nitride fuel...) and fuel cycles with new constraints such as cycle closure or actinide burning, requires new technologies and new nuclear data. In this connection, the tool and neutron data used for the calculational analysis of reactor characteristics requires thorough validation. NIKIET developed a reactor benchmark fitting of design type calculational tools (including neutron data). In the frame of technical exchanges between NIKIET and EDF (France), results of this benchmark calculation concerning the principal parameters of fuel evolution and safety parameters has been inter-compared, in order to estimate the uncertainties and validate the codes for calculations of this new kind of reactors. Different codes and cross-sections data have been used, and sensitivity studies have been performed to understand and quantify the uncertainties sources.The comparison of results shows that the difference on keff value between ERANOS code with ERALIB1 library and the reference is of the same order of magnitude than the delayed neutron fraction. On the other hand, the discrepancy is more than twice bigger if JEF2.2 library is used with ERANOS. Analysis of discrepancies in calculation results reveals that the main effect is provided by the difference of nuclear data, namely U238, Pu239 fission and capture cross sections and lead inelastic cross sections

  14. Drag Coefficient of Water Droplets Approaching the Leading Edge of an Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. An airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Results are presented and discussed for drag coefficients of droplets with diameters in the range of 300 to 1800 micrometers, and airfoil velocities of 50, 70 and 90 meters/second. The effect of droplet oscillation on the drag coefficient is discussed.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD variants and renal cell carcinoma risk among individuals exposed to lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M van Bemmel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies are reporting associations between lead exposure and human cancers. A polymorphism in the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD gene affects lead toxicokinetics and may modify the adverse effects of lead. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tagging the ALAD region among renal cancer cases and controls to determine whether genetic variation alters the relationship between lead and renal cancer. Occupational exposure to lead and risk of cancer was examined in a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Comprehensive analysis of variation across the ALAD gene was assessed using a tagging SNP approach among 987 cases and 1298 controls. Occupational lead exposure was estimated using questionnaire-based exposure assessment and expert review. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The adjusted risk associated with the ALAD variant rs8177796(CT/TT was increased (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05-1.73, p-value = 0.02 when compared to the major allele, regardless of lead exposure. Joint effects of lead and ALAD rs2761016 suggest an increased RCC risk for the homozygous wild-type and heterozygous alleles ((GGOR = 2.68, 95%CI = 1.17-6.12, p = 0.01; (GAOR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.06-3.04 with an interaction approaching significance (p(int = 0.06. No significant modification in RCC risk was observed for the functional variant rs1800435(K68N. Haplotype analysis identified a region associated with risk supporting tagging SNP results. CONCLUSION: A common genetic variation in ALAD may alter the risk of RCC overall, and among individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Further work in larger exposed populations is warranted to determine if ALAD modifies RCC risk associated with lead exposure.

  16. A New Approach for Aeroelastic Robust Stability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhigang; Yang Chao

    2008-01-01

    Air vehicles undergo variations in structural mass and stiffness because of fuel consumption and the failure of structural components, which might lead to serious influences on the aeroelastic characteristics. An approach for aeroelastic robust stability analysis taking into account the perturbations of structural mass and stiffness is developed. Applying the perturbation method and harmonic unsteady aerodynamic forces, the frequency-domain linear fractal transformation (LFT) representation of pertorbed aeroelastic system is modeled.Then, the robust stability is analyzed by using the structured singular value μ-method. The numerical results of a bi-spar wing show its effectiveness and low computational time in dealing with the robust problems with mass and stiffness perturbations. In engineering analysis for solving aeroelastic problems, the robust approach can be applied to flutter analysis for airplane with the fuel load variation and taking the damage conditions into consideration.

  17. Practical Approach to Fragility Analysis of Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasamin Rafie Nazari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Damages during past earthquakes reveal seismic vulnerability of bridge structures and the necessity of probabilistic approach toward seismic performance evaluation of bridges and its interpretation in terms of decision variables such as repair cost, downtime and life loss. This Procedure involves hazard analysis, structural analysis, damage analysis and loss analysis. The purpose of present study is reviewing different methods developed to derive fragility curves for damage analysis of bridges and demonstrating a simple procedure for fragility analysis using Microsoft Office Excel worksheet to reach probability of occurring predefined level of damage due to different levels of seismic demand parameters. The input of this procedure is the intensity of ground motion and the output is an appropriate estimate of the expected damage. Different observed damages of the bridges are discussed and compared the practical definition of damage states. Different methods of fragility analyses are discussed and a practical step by step example is illustrated.

  18. A Mellin transform approach to wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotta, Gioacchino; Di Paola, Mario; Failla, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    The paper proposes a fractional calculus approach to continuous wavelet analysis. Upon introducing a Mellin transform expression of the mother wavelet, it is shown that the wavelet transform of an arbitrary function f(t) can be given a fractional representation involving a suitable number of Riesz integrals of f(t), and corresponding fractional moments of the mother wavelet. This result serves as a basis for an original approach to wavelet analysis of linear systems under arbitrary excitations. In particular, using the proposed fractional representation for the wavelet transform of the excitation, it is found that the wavelet transform of the response can readily be computed by a Mellin transform expression, with fractional moments obtained from a set of algebraic equations whose coefficient matrix applies for any scale a of the wavelet transform. Robustness and computationally efficiency of the proposed approach are shown in the paper.

  19. Introduction to audio analysis a MATLAB approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Audio Analysis serves as a standalone introduction to audio analysis, providing theoretical background to many state-of-the-art techniques. It covers the essential theory necessary to develop audio engineering applications, but also uses programming techniques, notably MATLAB®, to take a more applied approach to the topic. Basic theory and reproducible experiments are combined to demonstrate theoretical concepts from a practical point of view and provide a solid foundation in the field of audio analysis. Audio feature extraction, audio classification, audio segmentation, au

  20. Comparative analysis of using natural and radiogenic lead as heat-transfer agent in fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, R. A.; Gizbrekht, R. V.; Komarov, P. A.; Nesterov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    Fast reactors with lead coolant have several advantages over analogues. Performance can be further improved by replacement of natural composition lead with radiogenic one. Thus, two main issues need to be addressed: induced radioactivity in coolant and efficient neutron multiplication factor in the core will be changed and need to be estimated. To address these issues analysis of the scheme of the nuclear transformations in the lead heat-transfer agent in the process of radiation was carried out. Induced radioactivity of radiogenic and natural lead has been studied. It is shown that replacement of lead affects multiplication factor in a certain way. Application of radiogenic lead can significantly affect reactor operation.

  1. On the analysis of lead-time disturbances in production and inventory control models

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegler, VLM; Naim, MM; Syntetos, A

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the lead-time can lead to supply chain inefficiencies and risks. In this paper, we investigate the effects of lead-time disturbances on the system’s output responses of a production and inventory control model. In the adaption process of the control system for lead-time disturbance analysis, the resulting model becomes nonlinear. Hence nonlinear control theory in combination with simulation is used to analyse the impact of leadtime changes on the transient and steady state respo...

  2. Multivariate analysis: A statistical approach for computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michu, Sachin; Kaushik, Vandana

    2014-10-01

    Multivariate analysis is a type of multivariate statistical approach commonly used in, automotive diagnosis, education evaluating clusters in finance etc and more recently in the health-related professions. The objective of the paper is to provide a detailed exploratory discussion about factor analysis (FA) in image retrieval method and correlation analysis (CA) of network traffic. Image retrieval methods aim to retrieve relevant images from a collected database, based on their content. The problem is made more difficult due to the high dimension of the variable space in which the images are represented. Multivariate correlation analysis proposes an anomaly detection and analysis method based on the correlation coefficient matrix. Anomaly behaviors in the network include the various attacks on the network like DDOs attacks and network scanning.

  3. Approach to uncertainty in risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal approach to dealing with uncertainties encountered when estimating and evaluating risks to human health and the environment. Based on a literature review of modeling uncertainty, interviews with ORP technical and management staff, and input from experts on uncertainty analysis, a comprehensive approach was developed. This approach recognizes by design the constraints on budget, time, manpower, expertise, and availability of information often encountered in ''real world'' modeling. It is based on the observation that in practice risk modeling is usually done to support a decision process. As such, the approach focuses on how to frame a given risk modeling problem, how to use that framing to select an appropriate mixture of uncertainty analyses techniques, and how to integrate the techniques into an uncertainty assessment that effectively communicates important information and insight to decision-makers. The approach is presented in this report. Practical guidance on characterizing and analyzing uncertainties about model form and quantities and on effectively communicating uncertainty analysis results is included. Examples from actual applications are presented

  4. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: myraf@ucsc.edu [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuspa, Zeka E. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Welch, Alacia [National Park Service, Pinnacles National Park, 5000 Highway 146, Paicines, CA 95043 (United States); Eng, Curtis; Clark, Michael [Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Burnett, Joseph [Ventana Wildlife Society, 19045 Portola Dr. Ste. F-1, Salinas, CA 93908 (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.

  5. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot

  6. A factorization approach to next-to-leading-power threshold logarithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonocore, D.; Laenen, E.; Magnea, L.; Melville, S.; Vernazza, L.; White, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Threshold logarithms become dominant in partonic cross sections when the selected final state forces gluon radiation to be soft or collinear. Such radiation factorizes at the level of scattering amplitudes, and this leads to the resummation of threshold logarithms which appear at leading power in th

  7. Global analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions at leading and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Paukkunen, Hannu

    2009-06-01

    This is the introductory part of my PhD thesis which consists of two parts, the separate introduction and four published articles. The introduction begins by a technically detailed description of the DGLAP evolution and the fast numerical solving method for the DGLAP equations, which has been used in the numerical works of the published articles of this thesis. A write-up of the next-to-leading order (NLO) calculations for the deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) and the Drell-Yan (DY) dilepton production cross-sections is also included. The formalism of the inclusive single hadron production at NLO is described as well, although less rigorously. The introductory part ends with a discussion of the global QCD analyses in general, with a special attention paid to the major work of this thesis, the NLO analysis of nuclear parton densities and their uncertainties.

  8. ANALYSIS APPROACHES TO EVALUATION OF INFORMATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyuzin A. S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an actual problem of information systems’ security assessment and the importance of objective quantitative assessment results receiving. The author offers the creation of complex system of information security with system approach, which will be used at each stage of information system’s life cycle. On the basis of this approach the author formulates the general scheme of an information security assessment of information system, and also the principles of an assessment’s carrying out method choice. In this work the existing methods of a quantitative assessment based on object-oriented methods of the system analysis, and also the objectivity of the received estimates on the basis of this approach are considered. On the basis of the carried-out analysis, serious shortcomings of the used modern techniques of an information systems’ security assessment are allocated, then the idea of the scientific and methodical device providing the increase of objectivity and complexity of an information assessment means on the basis of expert data formalization creation necessity was formulated. The possibility of this approach application for expeditious receiving a quantitative information security assessment in the conditions security threat’s dynamics changes, functioning and developments of information system is considered. The problem definition of automated information systems’ security assessment is executed, and the general technique of protection means of information in systems of this type was formulated

  9. Analysis approaches and interventions with occupational performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze approaches and interventions with occupational performance in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, articles published in the past 10 years were searched. The key terms used were “occupational performance AND stroke” and “occupational performance AND CVA”. A total 252 articles were identified, and 79 articles were selected. All interventions were classified according to their approaches according to 6 theories. All interventions were analyzed for frequency. [Results] Regarding the approaches, there were 25 articles for studies that provided high frequency interventions aimed at improving biomechanical approaches (31.6%). This included electrical stimulation therapy, robot therapy, and sensory stimulation training, as well as others. Analysis of the frequency of interventions revealed that the most commonly used interventions, which were used in 18 articles (22.8%), made use of the concept of constraint-induced therapy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest an approach for use in clinics for selecting an appropriate intervention for occupational performance. PMID:27799719

  10. A new analytical approach to understanding nanoscale lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-01

    High levels of iron in distributed drinking water often accompany elevated lead release from lead service lines and other plumbing. Lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems are hypothesized to be the result of adsorption and transport of lead by iron oxide particles. This mechanism was explored using point-of-use drinking water samples characterized by size exclusion chromatography with UV and multi-element (ICP-MS) detection. In separations on two different stationary phases, high apparent molecular weight (>669 kDa) elution profiles for (56)Fe and (208)Pb were strongly correlated (average R(2)=0.96, N=73 samples representing 23 single-unit residences). Moreover, (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas exhibited an apparent linear dependence (R(2)=0.82), consistent with mobilization of lead via adsorption to colloidal particles rich in iron. A UV254 absorbance peak, coincident with high molecular weight (56)Fe and (208)Pb, implied that natural organic matter was interacting with the hypothesized colloidal species. High molecular weight UV254 peak areas were correlated with both (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas (R(2)=0.87 and 0.58, respectively). On average, 45% (std. dev. 10%) of total lead occurred in the size range 0.05-0.45 μm.

  11. The right side? Under time pressure, approach motivation leads to right-oriented bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Roskes; D. Sligte; S. Shalvi; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2011-01-01

    Approach motivation, a focus on achieving positive outcomes, is related to relative left-hemispheric brain activation, which translates to a variety of right-oriented behavioral biases. In two studies, we found that approach-motivated individuals display a right-oriented bias, but only when they are

  12. An international pooled analysis for obtaining a benchmark dose for environmental lead exposure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Bellinger, David; Lanphear, Bruce;

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a recognized neurotoxicant, but estimating effects at the lowest measurable levels is difficult. An international pooled analysis of data from seven cohort studies reported an inverse and supra-linear relationship between blood lead concentrations and IQ scores in children. The lack of a ...

  13. A factorization approach to next-to-leading-power threshold logarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bonocore, D; Magnea, L; Melville, S; Vernazza, L; White, C D

    2015-01-01

    Threshold logarithms become dominant in partonic cross sections when the selected final state forces gluon radiation to be soft or collinear. Such radiation factorizes at the level of scattering amplitudes, and this leads to the resummation of threshold logarithms which appear at leading power in the threshold variable. In this paper, we consider the extension of this factorization to include effects suppressed by a single power of the threshold variable. Building upon the Low-Burnett-Kroll-Del Duca (LBKD) theorem, we propose a decomposition of radiative amplitudes into universal building blocks, which contain all effects ultimately responsible for next-to-leading power (NLP) threshold logarithms in hadronic cross sections for electroweak annihilation processes. In particular, we provide a NLO evaluation of the "radiative jet function", responsible for the interference of next-to-soft and collinear effects in these cross sections. As a test, using our expression for the amplitude, we reproduce all abelian-lik...

  14. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  15. A Systematic Approach for Engagement Analysis Under Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Leddo, John; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    An overload condition can lead to high stress for an operator and further cause substantial drops in performance. On the other extreme, in automated systems, an operator may become underloaded; in which case, it is difficult for the operator to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, a disengaged operation may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss a systematic approach monitor for extremes of cognitive workload and engagement in multitasking environments. Inferences of cognitive workload ar engagement are based on subjective evaluations, objective performance measures, physiological signals, and task analysis results. The systematic approach developed In this paper aggregates these types of information collected under the multitasking environment and can provide a real-time assessment or engagement.

  16. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  17. [Analysis of washing efficiency and change in lead speciation in lead-contaminated soil of a battery factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bei; Huang, Jin-lou; Miao, Ming-sheng

    2013-09-01

    Lead-contaminated soil with different pollution load in a lead battery factory in the southwest of China was chosen as the research object, the lead content and speciation were analyzed, and different washing agents were screened. The lead washing efficiency and lead speciation were analyzed under different pH conditions, and the soil of different particle size was washed using different duration to determine the best washing time. The results showed that the soil of sites A and B in the factory was severely contaminated, the lead concentration reaching 15,703.22 mg x kg(-1) and 1747.78 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the proportion of the active-state lead was relatively high, while the residue state accounted for only 17.32%, 11.64%, 14.6% and 10.2%. EDTA and hydrochloric acid showed the best extraction effect in the 5 washing agents tested, which included EDTA, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, rhamnolipid and SDS. Cleaning under acidic conditions could not only effectively extract the total amount of lead but also effectively reduce the environmental risk of active-state lead. pH 4-7 was suggested as the most appropriate condition. The cleaning effect of coarse sand and fine sand was good, while for washing powder clay, it is better to improve the process, with the optimal washing time determined as 240 min. PMID:24289026

  18. Liquidity indicator for the Croatian economy – Factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatian business surveys (BS are conducted in the manufacturing industry, retail trade and construction sector. In all of these sectors, manager´s assessments of liquidity are measured. The aim of the paper was to form a new composite liquidity indicator by including business survey liquidity measures from all three covered economic sectors in the Croatian economy mentioned above. In calculating the leading indicator, a factor analysis approach was used. However, this kind of indicator does not exist in a Croatia or in any other European economy. Furthermore, the issue of Croatian companies´ illiquidity is highly neglected in the literature. The empirical analysis consists of two parts. In the first part the new liquidity indicator was formed using factor analysis. One factor (representing the new liquidity indicator; LI was extracted out of the three liquidity variables in three economic sectors. This factor represents the new liquidity indicator. In the second part, econometric models were applied in order to investigate the forecasting properties of the new business survey liquidity indicator, when predicting the direction of changes in Croatian industrial production. The quarterly data used in the research covered the period from January 2000 to April 2013. Based on econometric analysis, it can be concluded that the LI is a leading indicator of Croatia’s industrial production with better forecasting properties then the standard liquidity indicators (formed in a manufacturing industry.

  19. Fostering the Capacity for Distributed Leadership: A Post-Heroic Approach to Leading School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Hans W.; Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Hammonds, Hattie L.; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    Principals are being encouraged to distribute leadership to increase schools' organizational capacities, and enhance student growth and learning. Extant research on distributed leadership practices provides an emerging basis for adopting such approaches. Yet, relatively less attention has been paid to examining the principal's role in fostering…

  20. Ancillary Resistor leads to Sparse Glitches: an Extra Approach to Avert Hacker using Syndicate Browser Design

    OpenAIRE

    Devaki Pendlimarri,; Paul Bharath Bhushan Petlu

    2012-01-01

    After the invention of internet most of the people all over the world have become a fan of it because of its vast exploitation for information exchange, e-mail, e-commerce etc. for their easy leading of life. On the other side, may be equally or less/more, many people are also using it for the purpose of hacking the information which is being communicated. Because, the data/information that is being communicated through the internet is via an unsecured networks. This gives breaches to the hac...

  1. Dynamic Re-order Point Inventory Control with Lead-Time Uncertainty: Analysis and Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Babai, Mohamed Zied; Syntetos, Aris A; Dallery, Yves; Nikolopoulos, Kostantinos

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A new forecast-based dynamic inventory control approach is discussed in this paper. In this approach, forecasts and forecast uncertainties are assumed to be exogenous data known in advance at each period over a fixed horizon. The control parameters are derived by using a sequential procedure. The merits of this approach as compared to the classical one are presented. We focus on a single-stage and single-item inventory system with non-stationary demand and lead-time uncert...

  2. Factors Leading to Success in Diversified Occupation: A Livelihood Analysis in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Biswarup; Bahal, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Livelihood diversification is a sound alternative for higher economic growth and its success or failure is conditioned by the interplay of a multitude of factors. The study of the profile of the farmers in which they operate is important to highlight the factors leading to success in diversified livelihoods. Design/Methodology/Approach: A…

  3. Multihapten approach leading to a sensitive ELISA with broad cross-reactivity to microcystins and nodularin

    OpenAIRE

    Samdal, Ingunn Anita; Ballot, Andreas; Løvberg, Kjersti Eriksen; Miles, Christopher Owen

    2014-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a group of biotoxins (>150) produced by cyanoba cteria, with a worldwide distribution. MCs are hepatotoxic, and acute exposure causes severe liver damage in humans and animals. Rapid and cheap methods of analysis are therefore required to protect people and livestock, especially in developing countries. To include as many MCs as possible in a single analysis, we developed a new competitive ELISA. Ovine polyclonal antibodies were raised using a...

  4. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of lead-contaminated soil by complexing agents and approaching anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zou, Hua; Ji, Minhui; Li, Xiaolin; Li, Liqiao; Tang, Tang

    2014-02-01

    Optimizing process parameters that affect the remediation time and power consumption can improve the treatment efficiency of the electrokinetic remediation as well as determine the cost of a remediation action. Lab-scale electrokinetic remediation of Pb-contaminated soils was investigated for the effect of complexant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and acetic acid and approaching anode on the removal efficiency of Pb. When EDTA was added to the catholyte, EDTA dissolved insoluble Pb in soils to form soluble Pb-EDTA complexes, increasing Pb mobility and accordingly removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was enhanced from 47.8 to 61.5 % when the EDTA concentration was increased from 0.1 to 0.2 M, showing that EDTA played an important role in remediation. And the migration rate of Pb was increased to 72.3 % when both EDTA and acetic acid were used in the catholyte. The "approaching anode electrokinetic remediation" process in the presence of both EDTA and acetic acid had a higher Pb-removal efficiency with an average efficiency of 83.8 %. The efficiency of electrokinetic remediation was closely related to Pb speciation. Exchangeable and carbonate-bounded Pb were likely the forms which could be removed. All results indicate that the approaching anode method in the presence of EDTA and acetic acid is an advisable choice for electrokinetic remediation of Pb-contaminated soil. PMID:24203258

  5. Effects of evacuation assistant’s leading behavior on the evacuation efficiency: Information transmission approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Evacuation assistants are expected to spread the escape route information and lead evacuees toward the exit as quickly as possible. Their leading behavior influences the evacuees’ movement directly, which is confirmed to be a decisive factor of the evacuation efficiency. The transmission process of escape information and its function on the evacuees’ movement are accurately presented by the proposed extended dynamic communication field model. For evacuation assistants and evacuees, their sensitivity parameter of static floor field (SFF), , and , are fully discussed. The simulation results indicate that the appropriate is associated with the maximum of evacuees. The optimal combinations of and were found to reach the highest evacuation efficiency. There also exists an optimal value for evacuation assistants’ information transmission radius. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB706900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71225007 and 71203006), the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAK13B06), the Humanities and Social Sciences Project of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 10YJA630221 and 12YJCZH023), and the Beijing Philosophy and Social Sciences Planning Project of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, China (Grant Nos. 12JGC090 and 12JGC098).

  6. Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

  7. Experimental Finite Element Approach for Stress Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Erklig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determining the strain gauge location points in the problems of stress concentration, and it includes both experimental and numerical results. Strain gauges were proposed to be positioned to corresponding locations on beam and blocks to related node of elements of finite element models. Linear and nonlinear cases were studied. Cantilever beam problem was selected as the linear case to approve the approach and conforming contact problem was selected as the nonlinear case. An identical mesh structure was prepared for the finite element and the experimental models. The finite element analysis was carried out with ANSYS. It was shown that the results of the experimental and the numerical studies were in good agreement.

  8. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean.

  9. Potentiometric stripping analysis of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAN M. NIKOLIC

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentiometric stipping analysis (PSA was applied for the determination of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth. The soluble lead content in finished dental implants was found to be much lower than that of the individual components used for their preparation. Cadmium was not detected in dental implants and materials under the defined conditions. The soluble lead and cadmium content of teeth was slightly lower than the lead and cadmium content in whole teeth (w/w reported by other researchers, except in the case of a tooth with removed amalgam filling. The results of this work suggest that PSA may be a good method for lead and cadmium leaching studies for investigation of the biocompatibility of dental prosthetic materials.

  10. Statistical approach to partial equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yougui; Stanley, H. E.

    2009-04-01

    A statistical approach to market equilibrium and efficiency analysis is proposed in this paper. One factor that governs the exchange decisions of traders in a market, named willingness price, is highlighted and constitutes the whole theory. The supply and demand functions are formulated as the distributions of corresponding willing exchange over the willingness price. The laws of supply and demand can be derived directly from these distributions. The characteristics of excess demand function are analyzed and the necessary conditions for the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium point of the market are specified. The rationing rates of buyers and sellers are introduced to describe the ratio of realized exchange to willing exchange, and their dependence on the market price is studied in the cases of shortage and surplus. The realized market surplus, which is the criterion of market efficiency, can be written as a function of the distributions of willing exchange and the rationing rates. With this approach we can strictly prove that a market is efficient in the state of equilibrium.

  11. Re-analysis of fatigue data for welded joints using the notch stress approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard;

    2010-01-01

    Experimental fatigue data for welded joints have been collected and subjected to re-analysis using the notch stress approach according to IIW recommendations. This leads to an overview regarding the reliability of the approach, based on a large number of results (767 specimens). Evidently, there......-welded joints agree quite well with the FAT 225 curve; however a reduction to FAT 200 is suggested in order to achieve approximately the same safety as observed in the nominal stress approach....

  12. Control approach to the load frequency regulation of a Generation IV Lead-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dedicated control strategy for adjusting the electrical power according to the grid requirements. • Decoupling of the Balance of Plant from the reactor primary circuit thanks to effective feedback regulators. • Primary frequency regulation and islanding simulations assessed with an object-oriented model. - Abstract: One of the most pressing issues in the study of the power generation and distribution is the characterization of the grid behavior, whether a relevant fraction of the connected power plants relies on Renewable Energy Sources. Indeed, because of the discontinuous power supply and the limited presence of energy accumulators, concerning power imbalances may take place on the grid. The power plants ensuring high reliability performance should be ready to feed the loads when the Renewable Energy Sources are not available. In order to ensure the grid stability and the sustainability of nuclear energy, the possibility of operating Generation-IV nuclear reactors in a flexible way should be considered, i.e., the Nuclear Power Plants should adjust the mechanical power produced so as to comply with the sudden grid frequency variations. In the present work, this opportunity is assessed for the Lead-cooled Fast Reactors, adopting the Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator (ALFRED) as a representative of Lead-cooled Fast Reactor technology. For this reactor concept, because of the large thermal inertia that characterizes the system, the adoption of the “reactor-follows-turbine” scheme (currently employed in the Pressurized Water Reactors) is not feasible. An alternative solution is proposed, i.e., the set-point for the thermal power produced in the core is kept constant at the nominal value (or slowly variable), and the set-point for the mechanical power available to the alternator is adjusted according to the load demands. In order to assess the performance of the developed control scheme, two case studies are simulated. In the

  13. Cadmium and lead interaction with diatom surfaces: A combined thermodynamic and kinetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélabert, A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Boudou, A.; Feurtet-Mazel, A.

    2007-08-01

    This work is devoted to the physico-chemical study of cadmium and lead interaction with diatom-water interfaces for two marine planktonic ( Thalassiosira weissflogii, TW; Skeletonema costatum, SC) and two freshwater periphytic species ( Achnanthidium minutissimum, AMIN; Navicula minima, NMIN) by combining adsorption measurements with surface complexation modeling. Adsorption kinetics was studied as a function of pH and initial metal concentration in sodium nitrate solution and in culture media. Kinetic data were consistent with a two-step mechanism in which the loss of a water molecule from the inner coordination sphere of the metal is rate limiting. Reversible adsorption experiments, with 3 h of exposure to metal, were performed as a function of pH (2-9), metal concentration in solution (10 -9-10 -3 M), and ionic strength (10 -3-1.0 M). While the shape of pH-dependent adsorption edge is similar among all four diatom species, the constant-pH adsorption isotherm and maximal binding capacities differ. Measurements of electrophoretic mobilities ( μ) revealed negative surface potential for AMIN diatom, however, the absolute value of μ decreases with increase of [Pb 2+] aq suggesting the metal adsorption on negative surface sites. These observations allowed us to construct a surface complexation model (SCM) for cadmium and lead binding by diatom surfaces that postulates the Constant Capacitance of the electric double layer and considers Cd and Pb complexation with mainly carboxylic and, partially, silanol groups. In the full range of investigated Cd concentration, the SCM is able to describe the concentration of adsorbed metal as a function of [Cd 2+] aq without implying the presence of high affinity, low abundance sites, that are typically used to model the metal interactions with natural multi-component organic substances. At the same time, Cd fast initial reaction requires the presence of "highly reactive sites" those concentration represents only 2.5-3% of the

  14. Our On-Its-Head-and-In-Your-Dreams Approach Leads to Clean Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence; Gwinner, Don; Hicks, Al

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Inverse Design (CID), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of the CID is to revolutionize the discovery of new materials by design with tailored properties through the development and application of a novel inverse design approach powered by theory guiding experiment with an initial focus on solar energy conversion.

  15. Li Meixiang leads women to become well-off. Integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M

    1996-02-01

    This article describes the experiences of a family planning worker in Meihekou City, Jilin Province, in implementing the integrated approach to family planning. Madam Li Meixiang is credited with being an outstanding example in improving program implementation. The new approach has helped people accept a smaller family size norm. Madam Li in 1981 married and shared in the responsibility of supporting a six-member family and raising her own daughter. Their success in eliminating debt and improving their standard of living is attributed to their efforts to grow rice on 1.3 hectares of land, running a small grain-processing factory in the village, and raising pigs who were fed the chaff produced from processed rice. Li invested in a truck and the family moved into a larger house with modern conveniences. The Li family was the first to rise from poverty to a well-off position in the community. Li became interested in family planning issues after an IEC presentation in the village. In 1990 Madam Li was elected head of the women's association of the village and assumed leadership of family planning activities. Her objective was to teach other women about the advantages of a small family and to offer advice in solving economic problems. During the off-farming season Madam Li worked to establish income generation activities for other women and acceptors. Li organized an village effort to shell walnuts for a local export and import company. About 30% of the village women were involved the first year, and almost 80% were involved in the past two years. The project showed villagers how ingenuity without any cash outlay could yield profits. Over 200 families join the project in the winter and receive an average income of over 2500 yuan. Madam Li has helped villagers obtain bank loans for small scale projects and given advice on how to increase profits.

  16. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA, as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore, this paper conceptualizes foreign policy by comparing it to other types of policy. Although during the Cold War period foreign policy was equated with foreign security policy, in today’s world, security policy is only one dimension. Foreign policy’s scope has expanded to cover other issues such as trade, human rights and the environment. The growing number of domestic, international and transnational issues, stakeholders and inputs into the policy making process have made the formation and conduct of a coherent foreign policy increasingly challenging.

  17. Ancillary Resistor leads to Sparse Glitches: an Extra Approach to Avert Hacker using Syndicate Browser Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaki Pendlimarri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the invention of internet most of the people all over the world have become a fan of it because of its vast exploitation for information exchange, e-mail, e-commerce etc. for their easy leading of life. On the other side, may be equally or less/more, many people are also using it for the purpose of hacking the information which is being communicated. Because, the data/information that is being communicated through the internet is via an unsecured networks. This gives breaches to the hacker who is known as the man-in-the-middle to hack the data/information. In this paper, we describe some novel methodologies to prevent the hacker in hacking the data/information. The web browser design is being  carried out in our R&D lab and we have found that the novel methodology has given solution to prevent the man-in-the-middle from several attacks.

  18. Lead toxicity to Lemna minor predicted using a metal speciation chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Paula M C; Kreager, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, predictive measures for Pb toxicity and Lemna minor were developed from bioassays with 7 surface waters having varied chemistries (0.5-12.5 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, pH of 5.4-8.3, and water hardness of 8-266 mg/L CaCO3 ). As expected based on water quality, 10%, 20%, and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC10, IC20, and IC50, respectively) values expressed as percent net root elongation (%NRE) varied widely (e.g., IC20s ranging from 306 nM to >6920 nM total dissolved Pb), with unbounded values limited by Pb solubility. In considering chemical speciation, %NRE variability was better explained when both Pb hydroxides and the free lead ion were defined as bioavailable (i.e., f{OH} ) and colloidal Fe(III)(OH)3 precipitates were permitted to form and sorb metals (using FeOx as the binding phase). Although cause and effect could not be established because of covariance with alkalinity (p = 0.08), water hardness correlated strongly (r(2)  = 0.998, p minor and highlight the importance of chemical speciation in Pb-based risk assessments for aquatic macrophytes. PMID:25044009

  19. Thermoviscoplastic analysis of engine cowl leading edge subjected to oscillating shock-shock interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ajay K.

    1992-01-01

    A finite element thermoviscoplastic analysis method, which employs a unified constitutive model proposed by Bodner and Partom, is used to predict rate-dependent nonlinear structural behavior. The method is evaluated by predicting stress-strain behavior of a uniaxially loaded bar of nickel-based superalloy (B1900 + Hf) material. The method is used to predict the time-dependent thermoviscoplastic response of a B1900 + Hf leading edge subjected to oscillating shock-shock interaction loading. Viscoplastic analysis shows that the leading edge experiences significant plastic straining. The plastic region increases with cyclic loading in the high heat flux area.

  20. Lead toxicity to Lemna minor predicted using a metal speciation chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Paula M C; Kreager, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, predictive measures for Pb toxicity and Lemna minor were developed from bioassays with 7 surface waters having varied chemistries (0.5-12.5 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, pH of 5.4-8.3, and water hardness of 8-266 mg/L CaCO3 ). As expected based on water quality, 10%, 20%, and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC10, IC20, and IC50, respectively) values expressed as percent net root elongation (%NRE) varied widely (e.g., IC20s ranging from 306 nM to >6920 nM total dissolved Pb), with unbounded values limited by Pb solubility. In considering chemical speciation, %NRE variability was better explained when both Pb hydroxides and the free lead ion were defined as bioavailable (i.e., f{OH} ) and colloidal Fe(III)(OH)3 precipitates were permitted to form and sorb metals (using FeOx as the binding phase). Although cause and effect could not be established because of covariance with alkalinity (p = 0.08), water hardness correlated strongly (r(2)  = 0.998, p hardness and %NRE vs f{OH} ), IC20 and IC50 values produced were within a factor of 2.9 times and 2.2 times those measured, respectively. The results provide much needed effect data for L. minor and highlight the importance of chemical speciation in Pb-based risk assessments for aquatic macrophytes.

  1. An approach to automated chromosome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of approach developed with a view to automatic processing of the different stages of chromosome analysis are described in this study divided into three parts. Part 1 relates the study of automated selection of metaphase spreads, which operates a decision process in order to reject ail the non-pertinent images and keep the good ones. This approach has been achieved by Computing a simulation program that has allowed to establish the proper selection algorithms in order to design a kit of electronic logical units. Part 2 deals with the automatic processing of the morphological study of the chromosome complements in a metaphase: the metaphase photographs are processed by an optical-to-digital converter which extracts the image information and writes it out as a digital data set on a magnetic tape. For one metaphase image this data set includes some 200 000 grey values, encoded according to a 16, 32 or 64 grey-level scale, and is processed by a pattern recognition program isolating the chromosomes and investigating their characteristic features (arm tips, centromere areas), in order to get measurements equivalent to the lengths of the four arms. Part 3 studies a program of automated karyotyping by optimized pairing of human chromosomes. The data are derived from direct digitizing of the arm lengths by means of a BENSON digital reader. The program supplies' 1/ a list of the pairs, 2/ a graphic representation of the pairs so constituted according to their respective lengths and centromeric indexes, and 3/ another BENSON graphic drawing according to the author's own representation of the chromosomes, i.e. crosses with orthogonal arms, each branch being the accurate measurement of the corresponding chromosome arm. This conventionalized karyotype indicates on the last line the really abnormal or non-standard images unpaired by the program, which are of special interest for the biologist. (author)

  2. A Community-Based Approach to Leading the Nation in Smart Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-31

    Project Objectives The AEP Ohio gridSMART® Demonstration Project (Project) achieved the following objectives: • Built a secure, interoperable, and integrated smart grid infrastructure in northeast central Ohio that demonstrated the ability to maximize distribution system efficiency and reliability and consumer use of demand response programs that reduced energy consumption, peak demand, and fossil fuel emissions. • Actively attracted, educated, enlisted, and retained consumers in innovative business models that provided tools and information reducing consumption and peak demand. • Provided the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) information to evaluate technologies and preferred smart grid business models to be extended nationally. Project Description Ohio Power Company (the surviving company of a merger with Columbus Southern Power Company), doing business as AEP Ohio (AEP Ohio), took a community-based approach and incorporated a full suite of advanced smart grid technologies for 110,000 consumers in an area selected for its concentration and diversity of distribution infrastructure and consumers. It was organized and aligned around: • Technology, implementation, and operations • Consumer and stakeholder acceptance • Data management and benefit assessment Combined, these functional areas served as the foundation of the Project to integrate commercially available products, innovative technologies, and new consumer products and services within a secure two-way communication network between the utility and consumers. The Project included Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Distribution Management System (DMS), Distribution Automation Circuit Reconfiguration (DACR), Volt VAR Optimization (VVO), and Consumer Programs (CP). These technologies were combined with two-way consumer communication and information sharing, demand response, dynamic pricing, and consumer products, such as plug-in electric vehicles and smart appliances. In addition, the Project

  3. Multicriteria approach to data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio Vieira Junior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of making Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA more acceptable to the managers' community, the Weights Restrictions approaches were born. They allow DEA to not dispose of any data and permit the Decision Maker (DM to have some management over the method. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a Weights Restrictions DEA model that incorporates the DM preference. In order to perform that, we employed the MACBETH methodology as a tool to find out the bounds of the weights to be used in a Weights Restrictions approach named Virtual Weights Restrictions. Our proposal achieved an outcome that has an expressive correlation with three widely used decision-aids methodologies: the ELECTRE III, the SMART and the PROMETHEE I and II. In addition, our approach was able to join the most significant outcomes of all the above three Multicriteria decision-aids methodologies in one unique outcome.Com o objetivo de fazer a Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA mais aceitável pela comunidade gerencial, as abordagens de Restrição aos Pesos foram criadas. Estas abordagens fazem com que a DEA não descarte nenhum dado e permitem que o Decisor (DM tenha alguma gerência sobre o método. O objetivo deste artigo é sugerir um modelo de restrição aos pesos que incorpore as preferências do DM. Para realizar isto, nós empregamos a metodologia MACBETH como ferramenta para descobrir os limites dos pesos a serem utilizados na abordagem de restrição aos pesos chamada "Restrição aos Pesos Virtuais". Nossa proposta alcançou um resultado que apresenta uma correlação expressiva com três metodologias de apoio à decisão amplamente utilizadas: o ELECTRE III, o SMART e o PROMETHEE I e II. Adicionalmente, nossa abordagem foi capaz de reunir os resultados mais significativos de todas estas três metodologias de apoio à decisão em um único resultado.

  4. Lead isotope ratio analysis of bullet samples by using quadrupole ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement conditions for the precise analysis of the lead stable isotope ratio by using an ICP-MS equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer were studied in order to apply the technique to the forensic identification of bullet samples. The values of the relative standard deviation obtained for the ratio of 208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb were lower than 0.2% after optimization of the analytical conditions, including the optimum lead concentration of the sample solution to be about 70 ppb and an integration time for 1 m/s of 15 s. This method was applied to an analysis of lead in bullets for rifles and handguns; a stable isotope ratio of lead was found to be suitable for the identification of bullets. This study has demonstrated that the lead isotope ratio measured by using a quadrupole ICP-MS was useful for a practical analysis of bullet samples in forensic science. (author)

  5. A Novel Approach for the Removal of Lead(II Ion from Wastewater Using Mucilaginous Leaves of Diceriocaryum eriocarpum Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead(II ion is a very toxic element known to cause detrimental effects to human health even at very low concentrations. An adsorbent prepared using mucilaginous leaves from Diceriocaryum eriocarpum plant (DEP was used for the adsorption of lead(II ion from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed on simulated aqueous solutions under optimized conditions of adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH and initial lead(II ion concentration at 298 K. The Langmuir isotherm model more suitably described the adsorption process than the Freundlich model with linearized coefficients of 0.9661 and 0.9547, respectively. Pseudo-second order kinetic equation best described the kinetics of the reaction. Fourier transform infra-red analysis confirmed the presence of amino (–NH, carbonyl (–C=O and hydroxyl (–OH functional groups. Application of the prepared adsorbent to wastewater samples of 10 mg/L and 12 mg/L of lead(II ion concentration taken from a waste stabilization pond showed removal efficiencies of 95.8% and 96.4%, respectively. Futhermore, 0.1 M HCl was a better desorbing agent than 0.1 M NaOH and de-ionized water. The experimental data obtained demonstrated that mucilaginous leaves from DEP can be used as a suitable adsorbent for lead(II ion removal from wastewater.

  6. Tourism Destinations Network Analysis, Social Network Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is becoming one of the world's largest economical sources, and is expected to become the world's first industry by 2020. Previous studies have focused on several aspects of this industry including sociology, geography, tourism management and development, but have paid less attention to analytical and quantitative approaches. This study introduces some network analysis techniques and measures aiming at studying the structural characteristics of tourism networks. More specifically, it presents a methodology to analyze tourism destinations network. We apply the methodology to analyze mazandaran’s Tourism destination network, one of the most famous tourism areas of Iran.

  7. What is a Leading Case in EU law? An empirical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska; Panagis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Lawyers generally explain legal development by looking at explicit amendments to statutory law and modifications in judicial practice. As far as the latter are concerned, leading cases occupy a special place. This article empirically studies the process in which certain cases become leading cases....... Our analysis focuses on Les Verts, a case of considerable fame in EU law, closely scrutinising whether it contains inherent leading case material. We show how the legal relevance of a case can become “embedded” in a long process of reinterpretation by legal actors, and we demonstrate that the actual...... legal impact of Les Verts on the acquis is most visible in the area that was sidelined in the academic commentary. This implies that a leading case is a symbolic category, which might not always correspond to the actual role that the case plays in the Court’s jurisprudence....

  8. Stability analysis of a natural circulation lead-cooled fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiyue

    This dissertation is aimed at nuclear-coupled thermal hydraulics stability analysis of a natural circulation lead cooled fast reactor design. The stability concerns arise from the fact that natural circulation operation makes the system susceptible to flow instabilities similar to those observed in boiling water reactors. In order to capture the regional effects, modal expansion method which incorporates higher azimuthal modes is used to model the neutronics part of the system. A reduced order model is used in this work for the thermal-hydraulics. Consistent with the number of heat exchangers (HXs), the reactor core is divided into four equal quadrants. Each quadrant has its corresponding external segments such as riser, plenum, pipes and HX forming an equivalent 1-D closed loop. The local pressure loss along the loop is represented by a lumped friction factor. The heat transfer process in the HX is represented by a model for the coolant temperature at the core inlet that depends on the coolant temperature at the core outlet and the coolant velocity. Additionally, time lag effects are incorporated into this HX model due to the finite coolant speed. A conventional model is used for the fuel pin heat conduction to couple the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics. The feedback mechanisms include Doppler, axial/radial thermal expansion and coolant density effects. These effects are represented by a linear variation of the macroscopic cross sections with the fuel temperature. The weighted residual method is used to convert the governing PDEs to ODEs. Retaining the first and second modes, leads to six ODEs for neutronics, and five ODEs for the thermal-hydraulics in each quadrant. Three models are developed. These are: 1) natural circulation model with a closed coolant flow path but without coupled neutronics, 2) forced circulation model with constant external pressure drop across the heated channels but without coupled neutronics, 3) coupled system including neutronics with

  9. Circuit Board Analysis for Lead by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in a Course for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenhammer, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit board analysis of the atomic absorption spectroscopy, which is used to measure lead content in a course for nonscience majors, is being presented. The experiment can also be used to explain the potential environmental hazards of unsafe disposal of various used electronic equipments.

  10. Lead in Hair and in Red Wine by Potentiometric Stripping Analysis: The University Students' Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephsen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    A new program for training upper secondary school chemistry teachers (SE 537 693) depends heavily on student project work. A project in which lead in hair and in red wine was examined by potentiometric stripping analysis is described and evaluated. (JN)

  11. Mercury-Free Analysis of Lead in Drinking Water by Anodic Stripping Square Wave Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jeremy P.; Brown, Kyle L.; Cliffel, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of drinking water for lead, which has well-known health effects, is presented as an instructive example for undergraduate chemistry students. It allows the students to perform an experiment and evaluate to monitor risk factors and common hazard of everyday life.

  12. X-ray Structure Refinements and Strain Analysis of Substituted Cubic Lead Pyrochlores Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalini, G.; Somashekar, R.; Guru Row T. N.

    2001-01-01

    The phase diagrams in the PbO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} system and the PbO-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} system depict pyrochlore structure at certain molar ratios. Compositions Pb{sub 2}Nb{sub 1.51}Pb{sub 0.49}O{sub 6.30} (1), Pb{sub 2}Ta{sub 1.4}Pb{sub 0.6}O{sub 6.21} (2), and Pb{sub 2}Ta{sub 1.25}Pb{sub 0.75}O{sub 6.57} (3) belonging to this family, are refined in the cubic space group Fd{ovr 3}m (Z=8; lattice parameter a=10.762(1), 10.744(1), 10.757(5) {angstrom}, respectively) using the Rietveld refinement approach. The analyses suggest that the B-site is partially occupied by Pb leading to the general formula Pb{sub 2}(M{sub 2-y}Pb{sub y})O{sub 7-{delta}}(0.0 < y < 0.8; M=Nb or Ta). There is an overall broadening observed in the X-ray peak widths in 1, 2, and 3 compared to the Pb-deficient parent phases. It is observed that the X-ray peak widths of 2 is broad, while 3 displays narrow peak widths. It is found via strain analysis that the line broadening observed correlates with the strain in the lattice.

  13. Global approach of emergency response, reflection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergency response management approach must be dealt with adequately within company strategy, since a badly managed emergency situation can adversely affect a company, not only in terms of asset, but also in terms of the negative impact on its credibility, profitability and image. Thereby, it can be said that there are three main supports to manage the response in an emergency situation. a) Diagnosis b) Prognosis. c) Communications. To reach these capabilities it is necessary a co-ordination of different actions at the following levels. i. Facility Operation implies Local level. ii. Facility Property implies National level iii. Local Authority implies Local level iv. National Authority implies National level Taking into account all the last, these following functions must be covered: a) Management: incorporating communication, diagnosis and prognosis areas. b) Decision: incorporating communication and information means. c) Services: in order to facilitate the decision, as well as the execution of this decision. d) Analysis: in order to facilitate the situations that make easier to decide. e) Documentation: to seek the information for the analysts and decision makers. (Author)

  14. Quantitative chemical analysis of lead in canned chillis by spectrophotometric and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are the quantification of lead contents in two types of canned chilli of three trademarks, determining its inside of maximum permissible level (2 ppm), comparing moreover two trademarks that have flask and canned presentation for to determine the filling effect in the final content of lead, moreover make a comparative study of the techniques using on base to exactitude, linearity and sensibility. The techniques used were atomic absorption spectrophotometry, plasma emission spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence. The preliminary treatment of the samples was by calcination, continued of the ashes dissolution in acid medium, for later gauge a determinate volume for analyze by atomic absorption and plasma emission. For the analysis by x-ray fluorescence, after solubilyzing ashes, its precipitate the lead with PCDA (Pyrrolidine carbodithioic ammonium acid) then its filtered, filter paper is dried and counted directly. The standards preparation is made following the same procedure as in samples using lead titrisol solution. For each technique the recovery percent is determined by the addition of enough know amount. For each technique calibration curves are plotted been determined that the three are lineal in the established range of work. The recovery percent in three cases is superior to ninety five percent. By means of a variance analysis it was determined that lead contain in samples do not exceed two ppm., and the lead content in canned chillis is superior to contained in glass containers (1.7, 0.4 ppm respectively). X-ray fluorescence analysis is different to the attained results by the other two techniques due to its sensibility is less. The most advisable techniques for this kind of analysis are atomic absorption spectrophotometry and plasma emission. (Author)

  15. ICWorld: An MMOG-Based Approach to Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Wong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence analysts routinely work with "wicked" problems—critical,time-sensitive problems where analytical errors can lead to catastrophic consequences for the nation's security. In the analyst's world, important decisions are often made quickly, and are made based on consuming, understanding, and piecing together enormous volumes of data. The data is not only voluminous, but often fragmented, subjective, inaccurate and fluid.Why does multi-player on-line gaming (MMOG technology matter to the IC? Fundamentally, there are two reasons. The first is technological: stripping away the gamelike content, MMOGs are dynamic systems that represent a physical world, where users are presented with (virtual life-and-death challenges that can only be overcome through planning, collaboration and communication. The second is cultural: the emerging generation of analysts is part of what is sometimes called the "Digital Natives" (Prensky 2001 and is fluent with interactive media. MMOGs enable faster visualization, data manipulation, collaboration and analysis than traditional text and imagery.ICWorld is an MMOG approach to intelligence analysis that fuses ideasfrom experts in the fields of gaming and data visualization, with knowledge of current and future intelligence analysis processes and tools. The concept has evolved over the last year as a result of evaluations by allsource analysts from around the IC. When fully developed, the Forterra team believes that ICWorld will fundamentally address major shortcomings of intelligence analysis, and dramatically improve the effectiveness of intelligence products.

  16. Finite element analysis of vibration energy harvesting using lead-free piezoelectric materials: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuruddh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the performance of various piezoelectric materials is simulated for the unimorph cantilever-type piezoelectric energy harvester. The finite element method (FEM is used to model the piezolaminated unimorph cantilever structure. The first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT and linear piezoelectric theory are implemented in finite element simulations. The genetic algorithm (GA optimization approach is carried out to optimize the structural parameters of mechanical energy-based energy harvester for maximum power density and power output. The numerical simulation demonstrates the performance of lead-free piezoelectric materials in unimorph cantilever-based energy harvester. The lead-free piezoelectric material K0.5Na0.5NbO3-LiSbO3-CaTiO3 (2 wt.% has demonstrated maximum mean power and maximum mean power density for piezoelectric energy harvester in the ambient frequency range of 90–110 Hz. Overall, the lead-free piezoelectric materials of K0.5Na0.5NbO3-LiSbO3 (KNN-LS family have shown better performance than the conventional lead-based piezoelectric material lead zirconate titanate (PZT in the context of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  17. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  18. Three Approaches to Data Analysis Test Theory, Rough Sets and Logical Analysis of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Chikalov, Igor; Lozina, Irina; Moshkov, Mikhail; Nguyen, Hung Son; Skowron, Andrzej; Zielosko, Beata

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the following three approaches to data analysis are presented:  - Test Theory, founded by Sergei V. Yablonskii (1924-1998); the first publications appeared in 1955 and 1958, -           Rough Sets, founded by Zdzisław I. Pawlak (1926-2006); the first publications appeared in 1981 and 1982, -           Logical Analysis of Data, founded by Peter L. Hammer (1936-2006); the first publications appeared in 1986 and 1988. These three approaches have much in common, but researchers active in one of these areas often have a limited knowledge about the results and methods developed in the other two. On the other hand, each of the approaches shows some originality and we believe that the exchange of knowledge can stimulate further development of each of them. This can lead to new theoretical results and real-life applications and, in particular, new results based on combination of these three data analysis approaches can be expected.

  19. Numerical simulation of soldered joints and reliability analysis of PLCC components with J-shape leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liang; Xue Songbai; Lu Fangyan; Han Zongjie; Wang Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a study on SnPb and lead-free soldered joint reliability of PLCC devices with different lead counts under three kinds of temperature cycle profiles, which is based on non-linear finite element method. By analyzing the stress of soldered joints, it is found that the largest stress is at the area between the soldered joints and the leads, and analysis results indicate that the von Mises stress at the location slightly increases with the increase of lead counts. For PLCC with 84 leads the soldered joints was modeled for three typical loading (273-398 K, 218-398 K and 198-398 K) in order to study the influence of acceleration factors on the reliability of soldered joints. And the estimation of equivalent plastic strain of three different lead-free solder alloys (Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu, Sn3.5Ag and Sn37Pb) was also carried out.

  20. A User Requirements Analysis Approach Based on Business Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yue-bin; HAN Wen-xiu

    2001-01-01

    Requirements analysis is the most important phase of information system development.Existing requirements analysis techniques concern little or no about features of different business processes.This paper presents a user requirements analysis approach which focuses business processes on the early stage of requirements analysis. It also gives an example of the using of this approach in the analysis of an enterprise information system.

  1. A detailed next-to-leading order QCD analysis of deeply virtual Compton scattering observables

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, A; Freund, Andreas; Dermott, Martin Mc

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed next-to-leading order (NLO) leading twist QCD analysis of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) observables, for several different input scenarios, in the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme. We discuss the size of the NLO effects and the behavior of the observables in skewedness $\\zeta$, momentum transfer, $t$, and photon virtuality, $q^2=-Q^2$. We present results on the amplitude level for unpolarized and longitudinally polarized lepton probes, and unpolarized and longitudinally polarized proton targets. We make predictions for various asymmetries and for the DVCS cross section and compare with the available data.

  2. Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou You-Long; Hu Fa-Long; Zhou Can-Can; Li Chao-Liu; Dunn Keh-Jim

    2013-01-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

  3. The Repurposing of Old Drugs or Unsuccessful Lead Compounds by in Silico Approaches: New Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Annamaria; Perricone, Ugo; Lauria, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Have you a compound in your lab, which was not successful against the designed target, or a drug that is no more attractive? The drug repurposing represents the right way to reconsider them. It can be defined as the modern and rationale approach of the traditional methods adopted in drug discovery, based on the knowledge, insight and luck, alias known as serendipity. This repurposing approach can be applied both in silico and in wet. In this review we report the molecular modeling facilities that can be of huge support in the repurposing of drugs and/or unsuccessful lead compounds. In the last decades, different methods were proposed to help the scientists in drug design and in drug repurposing. The steps strongly depend on the approach applied. It could be a ligand or a structure based method, correlated to the use of specific means. These processes, starting from a compound with potential therapeutic properties and a sizeable number of toxicity passed tests, can successfully speed up the very slow development of a molecule from bench to market. Herein, we discuss the facilities available to date, classifying them by methods and types. We have reported a series of databases, ligand and structure stand-alone software, and of web-based tools, which are free accessible to scientific community. This review does not claim to be exhaustive, but can be of interest to help in drug repurposing through in silico methods, as a valuable tool for the medicinal chemistry community. PMID:26881716

  4. Comparison of different approaches for lifetime prediction of electrochemical systems - Using lead-acid batteries as example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17/19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Wenzl, Heinz [Electrical Energy Storage Group, Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology and Beratung fuer Batterien und Energietechnik, Am Bergwaeldchen 27, D-37520 Osterode (Germany)

    2008-02-01

    Different approaches for lifetime prediction for electrochemical energy storage devices are discussed with respect to their general concepts. Examples for their implementation and advantages and disadvantages are given. The models are based on: (a) physical and chemical processes and their interaction as regards ageing effects; (b) weighting of the Ah throughput whenever the operating conditions deviate from the standard conditions used for determining the lifetime under laboratory conditions; (c) an event-oriented concept from mechanical engineering (Woehler curves) which is based on a pattern recognition approach to identify severe operating conditions. Examples and details are explained for lead-acid batteries. The approaches can be applied to other electrochemical technologies including fuel cells. However, it is beyond the scope of this paper, to describe the models in all mathematical details. The models are used in system design and identification of appropriate operating strategies and therefore they must have high computational speed to allow for a comparison of a large number of system variations. (author)

  5. Leading with "Emotional" Intelligence--Existential and Motivational Analysis in Leadership and Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual and practical paper is integrating the work of Viktor Frankl (1985) and Steven Reiss (2000, 2008) into a model of Existential and Motivational Analysis (EMotiAn). This integrated model and approach may provide scholars, educators, consultants and practitioners alike with an innovative and meaningful framework for leadership and…

  6. Automatic malware analysis an emulator based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Malicious software (i.e., malware) has become a severe threat to interconnected computer systems for decades and has caused billions of dollars damages each year. A large volume of new malware samples are discovered daily. Even worse, malware is rapidly evolving becoming more sophisticated and evasive to strike against current malware analysis and defense systems. Automatic Malware Analysis presents a virtualized malware analysis framework that addresses common challenges in malware analysis. In regards to this new analysis framework, a series of analysis techniques for automatic malware analy

  7. Isotope ratio analysis of lead in biological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) allowed 0.2-0.3% imprecision (1 sigma) in 204Pb/206Pb 207Pb/'206Pb, and 208Pb/206Pb measurements at the 20-100 ppb level, which was precise enough to detect some of the isotopic variations observed in nature. Mass discrimination could be corrected within ±0.5% of the true value by periodical analysis of standard reference material of known lead isotopic composition. As a separation method for lead in human bone, which contains enormous amounts of calcium and phosphorus, anion exchange of the Pb-Br complex was found to be effective. Lead isotope ratios in bone, measured by ICP-MS after separation, were consistent with those measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Hair matrix did not have any influence on the accuracy and precision of the analysis; a digested sample could be directly analyzed and this offered rapid sample throughput. Preliminary data on lead isotope ratios in bone and hair from prehistoric and contemporary Japanese are presented. (author)

  8. The measurement of the chemically mobile fraction of lead in soil using isotopic dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemically available fraction of lead in eight soils measured by isotopic dilution analysis using 212Pb ranged from 7 to 16% of the total content of lead in soil. The soluble fractions achieved values up to 63% of the total content in 1 M NH4NO3, 1 M MgCl2 and 0.05 M DTPA solutions. Increasing the contact time between water and soil, the water-soil ratio from 1:1 to 5:1 and increasing the temperature of the soil-water suspension raised the chemically available fraction in soil. Comparing various soil parameters and the mobile fraction of lead, only pH shows a significant correlation. The amphoteric character of lead causes a minimum of mobility about pH 6; pH-values below are responsible for the higher mobility of lead as Pb2+, at pH-values above 6 soluble hydroxy and humic acid complexes are formed. (orig.)

  9. Leading order analysis of neutrino induced dimuon events in the CHORUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Oldeman, R G C; Güler, M; Kama, S; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Tolun, P; Catanesi, M G; Muciaccia, M T; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlioueva, I; Artamonov, A; Gorbunov, P; Khovansky, V; Shamanov, V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2008-01-01

    We present a leading order QCD analysis of a sample of neutrino induced charged-current events with two muons in the final state originating in the lead-scintillating fibre calorimeter of the CHORUS detector. The results are based on a sample of 8910 neutrino and 430 antineutrino induced opposite-sign dimuon events collected during the exposure of the detector to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam between 1995 and 1998. The analysis yields a value of the charm quark mass of $m_c=(1.26+- 0.16+-0.09) GeV/c^2$ and a value of the ratio of the strange to non-strange sea in the nucleon of $\\kappa=0.33+-0.05+-0.05$, improving the results obtained in similar analyses by previous experiments.

  10. Leading order analysis of neutrino induced dimuon events in the CHORUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a leading order QCD analysis of a sample of neutrino induced charged-current events with two muons in the final state originating in the lead-scintillating fibre calorimeter of the CHORUS detector. The results are based on a sample of 8910 neutrino and 430 antineutrino induced opposite-sign dimuon events collected during the exposure of the detector to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam between 1995 and 1998. The analysis yields a value of the charm quark mass of mc=(1.26±0.16±0.09)GeV/c2 and a value of the ratio of the strange to non-strange sea in the nucleon of κ=0.33±0.05±0.05, improving the results obtained in similar analyses by previous experiments

  11. Polyphase Order Analysis Based on Convolutional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Drutarovsky

    1999-01-01

    The condition of rotating machines can be determined by measuring of periodic frequency components in the vibration signal which are directly related to the (typically changing) rotational speed. Classical spectrum analysis with a constant sampling frequency is not an appropriate analysis method because of spectral smearing. Spectral analysis of vibration signal sampled synchronously with the angle of rotation, known as order analysis, suppress spectral smearing even with variable rotational ...

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches for Analysis of Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhe; Greenlief, C Michael; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based post-translational modification of a protein in response to nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and it participates in a variety of processes in diverse biological systems. The significance of this type of protein modification in health and diseases is increasingly recognized. In the central nervous system, aberrant S-nitrosylation, due to excessive NO production, is known to cause protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuronal death. This leads to an altered physiological state and consequently contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, much effort has been made to understand the mechanisms underlying protein S-nitrosylation, and several approaches have been developed to unveil S-nitrosylated proteins from different organisms. Interest in determining the dynamic changes of protein S-nitrosylation under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions has underscored the need for the development of quantitative proteomic approaches. Currently, both gel-based and gel-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative methods are widely used, and they each have advantages and disadvantages but may also be used together to produce complementary data. This review evaluates current available quantitative proteomic techniques for the analysis of protein S-nitrosylation and highlights recent advances, with emphasis on applications in neurodegenerative diseases. An important goal is to provide a comprehensive guide of feasible quantitative proteomic methodologies for examining protein S-nitrosylation in research to yield insights into disease mechanisms, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug discovery.

  13. Inventory policies analysis under demand patterns and lead times constraints in a real supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    De Sensi, Giuseppe; Longo, Francesco; Mirabelli, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports a study on a real three-echelon supply chain operating in the beverage sector. The authors, starting from the actual supply chain configuration, propose a detailed study of the inventory systems. The test of a comprehensive set of different operative scenarios, in terms of customers? demand intensity, customers? demand variability and lead times, becomes a powerful tool for inventory systems analysis along the supply chain. The main objective is the comp...

  14. Analysis of Arsenic, Lead and Mercury in Farming Areas with Mining Contaminated Soils at Zacatecas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira Santos-Santos; Mario Yarto-Ramírez; Irma Gavilán-García; José Castro-Díaz; Arturo Gavilán-García; René Rosiles; Sara Suárez; Tania López-Villegas

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to identify the concentration of heavy metals (As, Pb Hg) in contaminated soil in the county of Guadalupe, Zacatecas in order to have elements for decision making by authorities and to identify exposition routes and further research activities to evaluate and reduce environmental and health risks in the site. Analysis were developed using EPA methods: SW 846: 3050B/6010B for arsenic and lead (FLAAS); and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury (CVAAS). Compared...

  15. Deterministic and probabilistic approach to safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examples discussed in this paper show that reliability analysis methods fairly well can be applied in order to interpret deterministic safety criteria in quantitative terms. For further improved extension of applied reliability analysis it has turned out that the influence of operational and control systems and of component protection devices should be considered with the aid of reliability analysis methods in detail. Of course, an extension of probabilistic analysis must be accompanied by further development of the methods and a broadening of the data base. (orig.)

  16. [Partial lease squares approach to functional analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preda, C

    2006-01-01

    We extend the partial least squares (PLS) approach to functional data represented in our models by sample paths of stochastic process with continuous time. Due to the infinite dimension, when functional data are used as a predictor for linear regression and classification models, the estimation problem is an ill-posed one. In this context, PLS offers a simple and efficient alternative to the methods based on the principal components of the stochastic process. We compare the results given by the PLS approach and other linear models using several datasets from economy, industry and medical fields. PMID:17124795

  17. Alternate approaches to vibration and shock analysis using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R. E.; Menichello, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A method that derives an approximate equivalent static load to a base excitation shock analysis is described. The transient analysis in the current level of NASTRAN, level 16, does not directly provide for either input acceleration forcing functions or enforced boundary displacement. In the suggested alternate analysis format, equivalent force input functions are applied to the constrained locations by using the artifice of placing a large mass, with respect to the total system mass, at the desired acceleration input points. This shortcut static analysis approach is presented to approximate the expensive and time consuming dynamics analysis approach to the base excitation shock analysis.

  18. Polyphase Order Analysis Based on Convolutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drutarovsky

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The condition of rotating machines can be determined by measuring of periodic frequency components in the vibration signal which are directly related to the (typically changing rotational speed. Classical spectrum analysis with a constant sampling frequency is not an appropriate analysis method because of spectral smearing. Spectral analysis of vibration signal sampled synchronously with the angle of rotation, known as order analysis, suppress spectral smearing even with variable rotational speed. The paper presents optimised algorithm for polyphase order analysis based on non power of two DFT algorithm efficiently implemented by chirp FFT algorithm. Proposed algorithm decreases complexity of digital resampling algorithm, which is the most complex part of complete spectral order algorithm.

  19. Sentiment Analysis Using Hybrid Approach: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Ashish P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is the process of identifying people’s attitude and emotional state’s from language. The main objective is realized by identifying a set of potential features in the review and extracting opinion expressions about those features by exploiting their associations. Opinion mining, also known as Sentiment analysis, plays an important role in this process. It is the study of emotions i.e. Sentiments, Expressionsthat are stated in natural language. Natural language techniques are applied to extract emotions from unstructured data. There are several techniques which can be used to analysis such type of data. Here, we are categorizing these techniques broadly as ”supervised learning”, ”unsupervised learning” and ”hybrid techniques”. The objective of this paper is to provide the overview of Sentiment Analysis, their challenges and a comparative analysis of it’s techniques in the field of Natural Language Processing

  20. A Multiliteracies Approach to Materials Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Luke; Canning, Nick; Faulhaber, David; Lingle, Will; Redgrave, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Multiliteracies pedagogy is an approach to literacy education emphasising the diverse ways in which people make meanings and communicate their understandings to others. Within this view of literacy teaching and learning, the construal and expression of meaning is considered a result of people engaging in various knowledge processes as they…

  1. Machine learning approaches in medical image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning approaches are increasingly successful in image-based diagnosis, disease prognosis, and risk assessment. This paper highlights new research directions and discusses three main challenges related to machine learning in medical imaging: coping with variation in imaging protocols......, learning from weak labels, and interpretation and evaluation of results....

  2. Application of the Nernst-Planck approach to lead ion exchange in Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana F de Sá S; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; da Silva, Eduardo A B; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-07-01

    Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata biomass was used to remove Pb(2+) in aqueous solution from batch and continuous systems. The physicochemical characterization of algae Pelvetia particles by potentiometric titration and FTIR analysis has shown a gel structure with two major binding groups - carboxylic (2.8 mmol g(-1)) and hydroxyl (0.8 mmol g(-1)), with an affinity constant distribution for hydrogen ions well described by a Quasi-Gaussian distribution. Equilibrium adsorption (pH 3 and 5) and desorption (eluents: HNO(3) and CaCl(2)) experiments were performed, showing that the biosorption mechanism was attributed to ion exchange among calcium, lead and hydrogen ions with stoichiometry 1:1 (Ca:Pb) and 1:2 (Ca:H and Pb:H). The uptake capacity of lead ions decreased with pH, suggesting that there is a competition between H(+) and Pb(2+) for the same binding sites. A mass action law for the ternary mixture was able to predict the equilibrium data, with the selectivity constants alpha(Ca)(H)=9+/-1 and alpha(Ca)(Pb)=44+/-5, revealing a higher affinity of the biomass towards lead ions. Adsorption (initial solution pH 4.5 and 2.5) and desorption (0.3M HNO(3)) kinetics were performed in batch and continuous systems. A mass transfer model using the Nernst-Planck approximation for the ionic flux of each counter-ion was used for the prediction of the ions profiles in batch systems and packed bed columns. The intraparticle effective diffusion constants were determined as 3.73x10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for H(+), 7.56x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Pb(2+) and 6.37x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Ca(2+). PMID:20605620

  3. Orthogonal simple component analysis: A new, exploratory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya-Izquierdo, Karim; Critchley, Frank; Vines, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Combining principles with pragmatism, a new approach and accompanying algorithm are presented to a longstanding problem in applied statistics: the interpretation of principal components. Following Rousson and Gasser [53 (2004) 539–555], the ultimate goal is not to propose a method that leads automatically to a unique solution, but rather to develop tools for assisting the user in his or her choice of an interpretable solution. ¶ Accordingly, our approach is essentially exploratory. Call...

  4. Test-Analysis Correlation for Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Impacting RCC Wing Leading Edge Component Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommended that NASA develop, validate, and maintain a modeling tool capable of predicting the damage threshold for debris impacts on the Space Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) wing leading edge and nosecap assembly. The results presented in this paper are one part of a multi-level approach that supported the development of the predictive tool used to recertify the shuttle for flight following the Columbia Accident. The assessment of predictive capability was largely based on test analysis comparisons for simpler component structures. This paper provides comparisons of finite element simulations with test data for external tank foam debris impacts onto 6-in. square RCC flat panels. Both quantitative displacement and qualitative damage assessment correlations are provided. The comparisons show good agreement and provided the Space Shuttle Program with confidence in the predictive tool.

  5. Study of Object Oriented Analysis and Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Object and component technologies, rapidly maturing branches of information technology, have been becoming pervasive elements of systems development, especially the recently popular Internet applications and thus leading to increased complexity and at the same time broader range of applications. Approach: This needs to be understood in order to maximize its benefits and applications with consistent results. However, mainstream Object Oriented Systems Development (OOSD, consisting of Object Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD and Object- Oriented Programming (OOP, has a history of difficulties and is still struggling to gain prevalent acceptance. Results: There have been number of studies and experiments conducted by experts and researchers in the past which provides a solid base to take up this study and look into various intricacies present. There have been several studies and focused efforts in this direction which laid down the basis for a segment of people to form the opinion as “technology adoption is mostly the result of marketing forces, not scientific evidence” whereas there have been another segment that believes that object technology is “still long on hype and short on results ...”. The gurus of OOSD continue to tout its vast superiority over conventional systems development, even to the extent of developing a unified software development process. Conclusion: The advocates of OOSD claim many advantages including easier modeling, increased code reuse, higher system quality and easier maintenance. It is well understood that analysis and design are extremely critical aspects of successful systems development especially in the case of OOSD. As the development of any successful information system must begin with a well-conceived and implemented analysis and design, this study will focus on the most recent empirical evidence on the pros and cons of OOAD.

  6. Next-to leading order analysis of target mass corrections to structure functions and asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. T. Brady, A. Accardi, T. J. Hobbs, W. Melnitchouk

    2011-10-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of target mass corrections (TMCs) to spin-averaged structure functions and asymmetries at next-to-leading order. Several different prescriptions for TMCs are considered, including the operator product expansion, and various approximations to it, collinear factorization, and xi-scaling. We assess the impact of each of these on a number of observables, such as the neutron to proton F{sub 2} structure function ratio, and parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries for protons and deuterons which are sensitive to gamma-Z interference effects. The corrections from higher order radiative and nuclear effects on the parity-violating deuteron asymmetry are also quantified.

  7. Structural characterization of lead sulfide thin films by means of X-ray line profile analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Choudhury; B K Sarma

    2009-02-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns of chemically deposited lead sulphide thin films have been recorded and X-ray line profile analysis studies have been carried out. The lattice parameter, crystallite size, average internal stress and microstrain in the film are calculated and correlated with molarities of the solutions. Both size and strain are found to contribute towards the broadening of X-ray diffraction line. The values of the crystallite size are found to be within the range from 22–33 nm and the values of strain to be within the range from 1.0 × 10-3–2.5 × 10-3.

  8. Next-to-Next-Leading Order analysis of electroweak vacuum stability and rising inflection point

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobellis, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We show an analysis on the gauge-independent observables associated with two stationary configurations of the Standard Model (SM) potential (extrapolated to high energy at Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order (NNLO)): i) the value of the top mass ensuring stability of the SM electroweak vacuum and ii) the value of the Higgs potential at a rising inflection point. We examine in detail and reappraise the experimental and theoretical uncertainties which plague their determination, keeping alive the possibility for the SM of being stable and studying applications of such configuration to models of primordial inflation.

  9. Lead test assembly irradiation and analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to confirm the viability of using a commercial light water reactor (CLWR) as a potential source for maintaining the nation's supply of tritium. The Proposed Action discussed in this environmental assessment is a limited scale confirmatory test that would provide DOE with information needed to assess that option. This document contains the environmental assessment results for the Lead test assembly irradiation and analysis for the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee, and the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  10. Comparative analysis of employment dynamics in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU, 1980-1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Sjöström, Å.

    1999-01-01

    In this study a comparative analysis of factors hampering and encouraging the development of employment in 9 leading and 9 lagging regions in the EU during the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s is made. Derived from this comparative analysis, some lessons, which leading and lagging rural regions

  11. A behavioural approach to remittances analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Wiebke; Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud

    2012-01-01

    This paper approaches the migrant’s motivation to remit from a new, behavioural perspective. We apply the well-established Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using a structural equation model for the first time for this specific research question. Our micro-dataset stems from a 2009/10 survey, covering Albanian migrants from Kosovo living in Germany as well as their home-country households. More than 90% of Kosovar migrants living in Germany remit. However, little is known about their underlyi...

  12. Assessment of realistic nowcasting lead-times based on predictability analysis of Mediterranean Heavy Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Joan; Berenguer, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Operational quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) are provided routinely by weather services or hydrological authorities, particularly those responsible for densely populated regions of small catchments, such as those typically found in Mediterranean areas prone to flash-floods. Specific rainfall values are used as thresholds for issuing warning levels considering different time frameworks (mid-range, short-range, 24h, 1h, etc.), for example 100 mm in 24h or 60 mm in 1h. There is a clear need to determine how feasible is a specific rainfall value for a given lead-time, in particular for very short range forecasts or nowcasts typically obtained from weather radar observations (Pierce et al 2012). In this study we assess which specific nowcast lead-times can be provided for a number of heavy precipitation events (HPE) that affected Catalonia (NE Spain). The nowcasting system we employed generates QPFs through the extrapolation of rainfall fields observed with weather radar following a Lagrangian approach developed and tested successfully in previous studies (Berenguer et al. 2005, 2011).Then QPFs up to 3h are compared with two quality controlled observational data sets: weather radar quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) and raingauge data. Several high-impact weather HPE were selected including the 7 September 2005 Llobregat Delta river tornado outbreak (Bech et al. 2007) or the 2 November 2008 supercell tornadic thunderstorms (Bech et al. 2011) both producing, among other effects, local flash floods. In these two events there were torrential rainfall rates (30' amounts exceeding 38.2 and 12.3 mm respectively) and 24h accumulation values above 100 mm. A number of verification scores are used to characterize the evolution of precipitation forecast quality with time, which typically presents a decreasing trend but showing an strong dependence on the selected rainfall threshold and integration period. For example considering correlation factors, 30

  13. Application of risk analysis and quality control methods for improvement of lead molding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gołaś

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the significance of implication of risk analysis and quality control methods for the improvement of parameters of lead molding process. For this reason, Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA was developed in the conceptual stage of a new product TC-G100-NR. However, the final product was faulty (a complete lack of adhesion of brass insert to leak regardless of the previously defined potential problem and its preventive action. It contributed to the recognition of root causes, corrective actions and change of production parameters. It showed how these methods, level of their organization, systematic and rigorous study affect molding process parameters.

  14. An Ethnografic Approach to Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2007-01-01

    , followed by a discussion of their significance for the therapeutic interaction. Literature: Holck, U, Oldfield, A. and Plahl, C. (2005) Video Micro Analysis in Music Therapy Research, a Research Workshop. In: Aldridge, D., Fachner, J. & Erkkilä, J. (Eds) Many Faces of Music Therapy - Proceedings of the 6th......: Methods, Techniques and Applications in Music Therapy for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators, Researchers and Students. London: Jessica Kingsley....

  15. A different approach to hair analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair samples from Canada, China, India and New Zealand were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Comparison of the percent manganese in the alkali-soluble fraction of hair with the total manganese concentrations shows that, within groups, the percent manganese concentrations is relatively constant whereas overall concentrations are not. For multiple sclerosis patients, from Canada and New Zealand, highly significant differences were observed between controls and patients for % Mn in the alkali-soluble fraction. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Energy policy and externalities: the life cycle analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the energy sector, getting the prices right is a prerequisite for market mechanisms to work effectively towards sustainable development. However, energy production and use creates 'costs' external to traditional accounting practices, such as damages to human health and the environment resulting from residual emissions or risks associated with dependence on foreign suppliers. Energy market prices do not fully reflect those external costs. For example, the costs of climate change are not internalized and, therefore, consumers do not get the right price signals leading them to make choices that are optimised from a societal viewpoint. Economic theory has developed approaches to assessing and internalizing external costs that can be applied to the energy sector and, in principle, provide means to quantify and integrate relevant information in a comprehensive framework. The tools developed for addressing these issues are generally aimed at monetary valuation of impacts and damages and integration of the valued 'external costs' in total cost of the product, e.g. electricity. The approach of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) provides a conceptual framework for a detailed and comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options. This paper offers a summary of the LCA methodology and an overview of some of its limitations. It then illustrates, through a few examples, how the methodology can be used to inform or correct policy making and to orient investment decisions. Difficulties and issues emerging at various stages in the application and use of LCA results are discussed, although in such a short note, it is impossible to address all issues related to LCA. Therefore, as part of the concluding section, some issues are left open - and areas in which further analytical work may be needed are described. (author)

  17. Thermal analysis of the APT power coupler and similarities to superconducting magnet current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynert, J.A.; Daney, D.E.; Prenger, F.C.

    1998-12-31

    A detailed thermal analysis has been performed of the 210 kW, 700 MHz RF power coupler (PC) which transfers microwave energy from high power klystrons to the superconducting (SC) resonant cavities for the acceleration of protons. The work is part of the design for Accelerator Production of Tritium funded by the US Department of Energy. The PC is a co-axial design with the RF power transmitted in the annular region between two concentric cylinders. The PC provides a thermal connection from room temperature to superconducting niobium operating at 2.15 K. Heat transfer mechanisms considered are conduction, infra-red radiation, RF joule heating in normal and superconducting materials, and, forced and natural convection cooling. The objective of the thermal analysis is to minimize the required refrigeration power subject to manufacturability and reliability concerns. The problem is reminiscent of the optimization of superconducting magnet leads. The similarities and differences in the results between SC leads and PCs are discussed as well as the critical parameters in the PC optimization.

  18. A global optimization approach to multi-polarity sentiment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinmiao; Li, Jing; Wu, Yukeng

    2015-01-01

    Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG) and support vector machines (SVM) are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti) approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search method. From

  19. Simulation Approach to Mission Risk and Reliability Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop and demonstrate an integrated total-system risk and reliability analysis approach that is based on dynamic, probabilistic simulation. This...

  20. A Comparison of Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Approaches to Deforestation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Felardo

    2016-01-01

    The economics of deforestation has been explored in detail. Generally, the frame of analysis takes either a microeconomics or macroeconomics approach. The microeconomics approach assumes that individual decision makers are responsible for deforestation as a result of utility maximizing behavior and imperfect property right regimes. The macroeconomics approach explores nationwide trends thought to be associated with forest conversion. This paper investigates the relationship between these two ...

  1. Statistical and machine learning approaches for network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Explore the multidisciplinary nature of complex networks through machine learning techniques Statistical and Machine Learning Approaches for Network Analysis provides an accessible framework for structurally analyzing graphs by bringing together known and novel approaches on graph classes and graph measures for classification. By providing different approaches based on experimental data, the book uniquely sets itself apart from the current literature by exploring the application of machine learning techniques to various types of complex networks. Comprised of chapters written by internation

  2. Meta-analysis a structural equation modeling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Mike W-L

    2015-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to conducting meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis are two powerful statistical methods in the educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. They are often treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. This book presents a unified framework on analyzing meta-analytic data within the SEM framework, and illustrates how to conduct meta-analysis using the metaSEM package in the R statistical environment. Meta-Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach begins by introducing the impo

  3. Multivariate analysis of 2-DE protein patterns - Practical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Susanne; Grove, H.;

    2007-01-01

    , although different subsets of protein spots were selected. The explorative approach of using multivariate data analysis and variable selection in the analyses of 2-DEs seems to be promising as a fast, reliable and convenient way of screening and transforming many gel images into spot quantities.......Practical approaches to the use of multivariate data analysis of 2-DE protein patterns are demonstrated by three independent strategies for the image analysis and the multivariate analysis on the same set of 2-DE data. Four wheat varieties were selected on the basis of their baking quality. Two...

  4. A Multivariate Statistical Approach to the Analysis of Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocchi, Mario; Montresor, Elisa

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the definition of an analytical approach for evaluating the dynamics in progress in the agricultural and rural development at a territorial level. For this purpose principal components analysis and cluster analysis were applied and the different methodological approaches reviewed. A two-stage method is also proposed. This could provide the analytical tools to simplify and interpret the results of the territorial analyses, also in order to supply a flex...

  5. System analysis using multitracer approaches. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present chapter offers a qualitative or semi-quantitative step towards a synthesis of the information that the different tracers provide. It also offers some criteria that can be used to help assess the reliability of selected tracer data in evaluating tracer model ages from measurements of concentrations of multiple environmental tracers in the system. In most of the literature on isotope hydrology, the term ‘apparent age’ is used instead of ‘tracer model age’, and within this chapter the two terms are considered synonymous. This approach testing reliability of tracer data is only a first step and performs a black and white selection of the tracer data. Some consistency tests are performed, and for data passing these tests there is at least no obvious reason known that the tracer model age is not a valid description. For data that fail these tests, it is obvious that a straightforward calculation of tracer model ages will not give the intended result.

  6. Fatigue in engineering structures. A three fold analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity in most of the engineering structures in influenced by the presence of cracks or crack like defects. These structures fail, even catastrophically if a crack greater than a critically safe size exist. Although most of the optimal designed structures are initially free from critical cracks, sub-critical cracks can lead to failures under cyclic loadings, called fatigue crack growth. It is nearly impractical to prevent sub-critical crack growth in engineering structures particularly in crack sensitive structures like most of the structures in nuclear, aerospace and aeronautical domains. However, it is essential to predict the fatigue crack growth for these structures to preclude the in service failures causing loss of assets. The present research presents an automatic procedure for the prediction of fatigue crack growth in three dimensional engineering structures and the key data for the fracture mechanics based design: the stress intensity factors. Three fold analysis procedures are adopted to investigate the effects of repetitive (cyclic) loadings on the fatigue life of different geometries of aluminum alloy 2219-O. A general purpose Finite Element (FE) Code ANSYS-8.0 is used to predict/estimate the fatigue life of the geometries. Computer codes utilizing the Green's Function are developed to calculate the stress intensity factors. Another code based on superposition technique presented by Shivakumara and Foreman is developed to calculate the fatigue crack growth rate, fatigue life (No. of loading cycles are developed to validate the results and finally full scale laboratory tests are conducted for the comparison of the results. The results showing a close co-relation between the different techniques employed gives the promising feature of the analysis approach for the future work. (author)

  7. Effects of Uncertainties in Lead Cross Section Data in Monte Carlo Analysis of the RBE C-M Lead-Bismuth Cooled Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the problems encountered in the analysis of the RBEC-M a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor with a high level of primary coolant natural circulation and a gas lift system in the primary circuit. The RBEC-M lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor benchmark was suggested under an IAEA CRP on .Development of Small Reactors without On-site Refuelling. The computational tools: MOCUP, a coupled MCNP-4C and ORIGEN2.1 utility codes with MCNP data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI evaluations; and TRITON, a coupled KENO-V.a and ORIGEN2.1 codes with ENDF/B-V.2 based 238 groups library were used to simulate this benchmark. There are numerous uncertainties in the prediction of core parameters of these reactor designs, arising from approximations used in the solution of the transport equation, in nuclear data processing and cross section libraries generation. In this paper we analysed the effects of uncertainties in lead cross sections data from several versions of ENDF, JENDL and JEFF evaluations. Uncertainties in the cross sections of lead were found particularly large and deserve careful evaluation. (author)

  8. Towards a More Holistic Stakeholder Analysis Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedereviciute, Kristina; Valentini, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    in finding stakeholders on new environments (social media), where connectivity and relationships play a key role. The argument stems from the need to assess stakeholder presence beyond the dyadic ties. Consequently, the combination of the Stakeholder Salience Model (SSM) and social network analysis (SNA......) is proposed as a more holistic solution for stakeholder identification including those from social media. A process of finding “unknown” but important stakeholders from social media was identified incorporating the content search and the principles of SNA. Consequently, stakeholders from social media...... are identified based on the dimensions of connectivity and the content shared. Accordingly, the study introduces four groups of important actors from social media: unconcerned lurkers, unconcerned influencers, concerned lurkers and concerned influencers and integrates them into the existing Stakeholder Salience...

  9. Sediment Analysis Using a Structured Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Arias-Madrid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm designed for the analysis of a sedimentary sample of unconsolidated material and seeks to identify very quickly the main features that occur in a sediment and thus classify them fast and efficiently. For this purpose, it requires that the weight of each particle size to be entered in the program and using the method of Moments, which is based on four equations representing the mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis, is found the attributes of the sample in few seconds. With the program these calculations are performed in an effective and more accurately way, obtaining also the explanations of the results of the features such as grain size, sorting, symmetry and origin, which helps to improve the study of sediments and in general the study of sedimentary rocks.

  10. A Novel Genome-Wide Association Study Approach Using Genotyping by Exome Sequencing Leads to the Identification of a Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Associated Inversion Disrupting ADAMTS17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver P Forman

    Full Text Available Closed breeding populations in the dog in conjunction with advances in gene mapping and sequencing techniques facilitate mapping of autosomal recessive diseases and identification of novel disease-causing variants, often using unorthodox experimental designs. In our investigation we demonstrate successful mapping of the locus for primary open angle glaucoma in the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen dog breed with 12 cases and 12 controls, using a novel genotyping by exome sequencing approach. The resulting genome-wide association signal was followed up by genome sequencing of an individual case, leading to the identification of an inversion with a breakpoint disrupting the ADAMTS17 gene. Genotyping of additional controls and expression analysis provide strong evidence that the inversion is disease causing. Evidence of cryptic splicing resulting in novel exon transcription as a consequence of the inversion in ADAMTS17 is identified through RNAseq experiments. This investigation demonstrates how a novel genotyping by exome sequencing approach can be used to map an autosomal recessive disorder in the dog, with the use of genome sequencing to facilitate identification of a disease-associated variant.

  11. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP-AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP-AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP-AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP-AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP-AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data. PMID:27043594

  12. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP-AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-03-30

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP-AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP-AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP-AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP-AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data.

  13. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP–AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP–AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP–AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP–AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data. PMID:27043594

  14. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongyu Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP–AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP–AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP–AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP–AES (primary variable and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable. Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data.

  15. An SQL-based approach to physics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limper, Maaike, Dr

    2014-06-01

    As part of the CERN openlab collaboration a study was made into the possibility of performing analysis of the data collected by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through SQL-queries on data stored in a relational database. Currently LHC physics analysis is done using data stored in centrally produced "ROOT-ntuple" files that are distributed through the LHC computing grid. The SQL-based approach to LHC physics analysis presented in this paper allows calculations in the analysis to be done at the database and can make use of the database's in-built parallelism features. Using this approach it was possible to reproduce results for several physics analysis benchmarks. The study shows the capability of the database to handle complex analysis tasks but also illustrates the limits of using row-based storage for storing physics analysis data, as performance was limited by the I/O read speed of the system.

  16. Deterministic and risk-informed approaches for safety analysis of advanced reactors: Part I, deterministic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Kyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock, E-mail: innseockkim@gmail.co [ISSA Technology, 21318 Seneca Crossing Drive, Germantown, MD 20876 (United States); Oh, Kyu Myung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this paper and a companion paper in this issue (part II, risk-informed approaches) is to derive technical insights from a critical review of deterministic and risk-informed safety analysis approaches that have been applied to develop licensing requirements for water-cooled reactors, or proposed for safety verification of the advanced reactor design. To this end, a review was made of a number of safety analysis approaches including those specified in regulatory guides and industry standards, as well as novel methodologies proposed for licensing of advanced reactors. This paper and the companion paper present the review insights on the deterministic and risk-informed safety analysis approaches, respectively. These insights could be used in making a safety case or developing a new licensing review infrastructure for advanced reactors including Generation IV reactors.

  17. A Project Risk Ranking Approach Based on Set Pair Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Feng; Chen Yingwu

    2006-01-01

    Set Pair Analysis (SPA) is a new methodology to describe and process system uncertainty. It is different from stochastic or fuzzy methods in reasoning and operation, and it has been applied in many areas recently. In this paper, the application of SPA in risk ranking is presented, which includes review of risk ranking, introduction of Connecting Degree (CD) that is a key role in SPA., Arithmetic and Tendency Grade (TG) of CDs, and a risk ranking approach proposed. Finally a case analysis is presented to illustrate the reasonability of this approach. It is found that this approach is very convenient to operate, while the ranking result is more comprehensible.

  18. Text Analysis: A Functional Linguistic Approach of News Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦凤

    2009-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed a phenomenal growth in interest in text analysis, in which different kinds of approaches have been studied and applied in this field. This paper aims at analyzing the introduction of a cho-sen CNN News from a functional linguis.tic approach, which is mainly realized through cohesive means and textual infor-mation. The study shows that in written text, well-organized semantic cohesive means and textual information are of great significance for readers to follow the movement of an idea from one sentence to another. Therefore, functional approach plays a momentous role in the analysis of a text.

  19. Robust approach to ocular fundus image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-07-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of retinal blood vessels plays an important role both to establish the presence of some systemic diseases as hypertension and diabetes and to study their course. The paper describes a robust set of techniques developed to quantitatively evaluate morphometric aspects of the ocular fundus vascular and micro vascular network. They are defined: (1) the concept of 'Local Direction of a vessel' (LD); (2) a special form of edge detection, named Signed Edge Detection (SED), which uses LD to choose the convolution kernel in the edge detection process and is able to distinguish between the left or the right vessel edge; (3) an iterative tracking (IT) method. The developed techniques use intensively both LD and SED in: (a) the automatic detection of number, position and size of blood vessels departing from the optical papilla; (b) the tracking of body and edges of the vessels; (c) the recognition of vessel branches and crossings; (d) the extraction of a set of features as blood vessel length and average diameter, arteries and arterioles tortuosity, crossing position and angle between two vessels. The algorithms, implemented in C language, have an execution time depending on the complexity of the currently processed vascular network.

  20. [System approach and system analysis in dietology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, M A

    2004-01-01

    There is analysis of using of two variants of the auto-program of dietotherapy in the article: numeric system and basis system. They belong the same kind of building type, but are different in the type of functioning principle. Numeric system is built upon nosological principle taking into consideration the clinicopathogenetic features of disease. The basic diets built upon metabolic principle that a matter is adaptation of chemical content, alimentary and food value of diet for concrete mechanism of metabolic disturbance. At the same time metabolic conveyor is considered as system organization of the separate functional systems that are in the permanent dynamic and the interacting with each other. This organization is combined on the principle of auto regulation and set in correction and recovery of disturbed homeostasis as a whole. Selection of practical using of mentioned principles of diets is a right of the specialist-dieitian. Auto-program of diet building should help him in that and simplify the organization of dietotherapy. PMID:15049149

  1. Analysis of ECG Using Filter Bank Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thulasi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several problems in the biomedical field. However Digital Signal Processing is solving many of those problems easily and effectively. The signal processing of ECG is very useful in detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG signals. In this paper we performed analysis of noisy ECG by filtering of 50 Hz power line interference using an adaptive LMS notch filter. This is very meaningful in the measurement of biomedical events, particularly when the recorded ECG signal is very weak. The basic ECG has the frequency range from 5 Hz to 100 Hz. It becomes difficult for the Specialist to diagnose the diseases if the artifacts are present in the ECG signal. Methods of noise reduction have decisive influence on performance of all electro-cardio-graphic (ECG signal processing systems. After removing 50/60 Hz powerline interference, the ECG is lowpass filtered in a digital FIR filter. We designed a Filter Bank to separate frequency ranges of ECG signal to enhance the occurrences QRS complexes. Later the positions of R-peaks are identified and shown plotted. The result shows the ECG signal before filtering and after filtering with their frequency spectrums which clearly indicates the reduction of the power line interference in the ECG signal and a filtered ECG with identified R-peaks.

  2. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  3. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils using Gladiolus grandiflorus L cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:26615479

  4. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils using Gladiolus grandiflorus L cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils.

  5. AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS ON HALF-HOURLY ELECTRICITY LOAD PATTERNS LEADING TO HIGHER PERFORMANCES IN NEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.D. Deshani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of electricity demand can bring extensive benefits to any country as the forecasted values help the relevant authorities to take decisions regarding electricity generation, transmission and distribution appropriately. The literature reveals that, when compared to conventional time series techniques, the improved artificial intelligent approaches provide better prediction accuracies. However, the accuracy of predictions using intelligent approaches like neural networks are strongly influenced by the correct selection of inputs and the number of neuro-forecasters used for prediction. Deshani, Hansen, Attygalle, & Karunarathne (2014 suggested that a cluster analysis could be performed to group similar day types, which contribute towards selecting a better set of neuro-forecasters in neural networks. The cluster analysis was based on the daily total electricity demands as their target was to predict the daily total demands using neural networks. However, predicting half-hourly demand seems more appropriate due to the considerable changes of electricity demand observed during a particular day. As such clusters are identified considering half-hourly data within the daily load distribution curves. Thus, this paper is an improvement to Deshani et. al. (2014, which illustrates how the half hourly demand distribution within a day, is incorporated when selecting the inputs for the neuro-forecasters.

  6. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Gridach, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop the Arabic morphological automata. The proposed approach has development standardization aspect. It can be exploited by NLP applications such as syntactic and semantic analysis, information retrieval, machine translation and orthographical correction. The proposed approach is compared with Xerox Arabic Analyzer and Smrz Arabic Analyzer.

  7. Direct numerical simulation and statistical analysis of turbulent convection in lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otic, I.; Grotzbach, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kern-und Energietechnik (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Improved turbulent heat flux models are required to develop and analyze the reactor concept of an lead-bismuth cooled Accelerator-Driven-System. Because of specific properties of many liquid metals we have still no sensors for accurate measurements of the high frequency velocity fluctuations. So, the development of the turbulent heat transfer models which are required in our CFD (computational fluid dynamics) tools needs also data from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows. We use new simulation results for the model problem of Rayleigh-Benard convection to show some peculiarities of the turbulent natural convection in lead-bismuth (Pr = 0.025). Simulations for this flow at sufficiently large turbulence levels became only recently feasible because this flow requires the resolution of very small velocity scales with the need for recording long-wave structures for the slow changes in the convective temperature field. The results are analyzed regarding the principle convection and heat transfer features. They are also used to perform statistical analysis to show that the currently available modeling is indeed not adequate for these fluids. Basing on the knowledge of the details of the statistical features of turbulence in this convection type and using the two-point correlation technique, a proposal for an improved statistical turbulence model is developed which is expected to account better for the peculiarities of the heat transfer in the turbulent convection in low Prandtl number fluids. (authors)

  8. Environmental monitoring near urban lead refineries by photon and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon activation has been used in conjunction with neutron activation for multielement determinations in airborne particulates, soil, and hair samples collected near two secondary lead refineries in Metropolitan Toronto. Particle size distributions of suspended particulates collected with a high volume Andersen sampler are reported for Al, Sb, As, Br, Cl, Mn, Na, Pb, Ti and V. Increases in the concentrations of Pb, As and Sb associated with particles >3.3 μm diameter on certain days near the refineries has resulted in localized contamination as reflected in higher concentrations of these elements in soil. To assess Pb accumulation in local residents compared with control groups, approximately 250 hair samples were analyzed for Pb by photon activation analysis. Children living close to the refineries, especially boys, exhibit the most elevated levels: up to 20 times urban control values in some cases

  9. Correction and analysis of lead content in soil by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengli Xie; Jidong Lu; Pengyan Li; Jie Li; Zhaoxiang Lin

    2009-01-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is used to analyze the lead content in soils. The analyzed spectral line profile is fittcd by Lorentzian function for determining the background and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) intensity of spectral line. A self-absorption correction model based on the information of spectral broadening is introduced to calculate the true value of spectral line intensity,which refers to the elcnmntal concentration.Tile results show that the background intensity obtained by spectral profile fitting is very effective and important due to removing the interference of spectral broadening,and a better precision of calibration analysis is acquired by correcting the self-absorption effect.

  10. Four Layered Approach to Non-Functional Requirements Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Identification of non-functional requirements is important for successful development and deployment of the software product. The acceptance of the software product by the customer depends on the non-functional requirements which are incorporated in the software. For this, we need to identify all the non-functional requirements required by all stakeholders. In the literature not many approaches are available for this purpose. Hence, we have proposed a four layered analysis approach for identification of non-functional requirements. The proposed layered approach has many advantages over non-layered approach. As part of this approach some rules are also proposed to be used in each layer. The approach is applied successfully on two case studies. The identified non-functional requirements are validated using a check list and in addition the completeness of the identified non-requirements is computed using a metric.

  11. Terminal Performance of Lead-Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Andrusiv, Lubov; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Due to concerns about environmental and industrial hazards of lead, a number of military, law enforcement, and wildlife management agencies are giving careful consideration to lead-free ammunition. The goal of lead-free bullets is to gain the advantages of reduced lead use in the environment while maintaining equal or better terminal performance. Accepting reduced terminal performance would foolishly risk the lives of military and law enforcement personnel. This paper uses the established technique of studying bullet impacts in ballistic gelatin to characterize the terminal performance of eight commercial off-the- shelf lead-free handgun bullets for comparison with earlier analysis of jacketed lead bullets. Peak retarding force and energy deposit in calibrated ballistic gelatin are quantified using high speed video. The temporary stretch cavities and permanent wound cavities are also characterized. Two factors tend to reduce the terminal performance of these lead-free projectiles compared to similar jacketed ...

  12. An approach to the economic analysis of water supply projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lovei, Laszlo

    1992-01-01

    Development economists are increasingly concerned about the correct approach to economic analysis of projects. By looking for a compromise between theory (which identifies ideals) and practice (which deals within the bounds of time and resource constraints), Lovei focuses on potential guidelines for economic appraisals of water supply projects. He summarizes theory and the current World Bank guidelines on the economic analysis of water supply projects; reviews the method of economic analysis ...

  13. Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. A meta-analysis of modern studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.; Gatsonis, C.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-02

    We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according to type of tissue analyzed for lead. There were 7 blood and 5 tooth lead studies. Within each group, we obtained joint P values by two different methods and average effect sizes as measured by the partial correlation coefficients. We also investigated the sensitivity of the results to any single study. The sample sizes ranged from 75 to 724. The sign of the regression coefficient for lead was negative in 11 of 12 studies. The negative partial r's for lead ranged from -.27 to -.003. The power to find an effect was limited, below 0.6 in 7 of 12 studies. The joint P values for the blood lead studies were less than .0001 for both methods of analysis (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.15 {plus minus} .05), while for the tooth lead studies they were .0005 and .004, respectively (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.08 {plus minus} .05). The hypothesis that lead impairs children's IQ at low dose is strongly supported by this quantitative review. The effect is robust to the impact of any single study.

  14. The Covariance Adjustment Approaches for Combining Incomparable Cox Regressions Caused by Unbalanced Covariates Adjustment: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Dehesh; Najaf Zare; Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Univariate meta-analysis (UM) procedure, as a technique that provides a single overall result, has become increasingly popular. Neglecting the existence of other concomitant covariates in the models leads to loss of treatment efficiency. Our aim was proposing four new approximation approaches for the covariance matrix of the coefficients, which is not readily available for the multivariate generalized least square (MGLS) method as a multivariate meta-analysis approach. Me...

  15. Plant gravitropic signal transduction: A network analysis leads to gene discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Although a significant body of research has helped define the events of gravity perception, the role of the plant growth regulator auxin, and the mechanisms resulting in the gravity response, the events of signal transduction, those that link the biophysical action of perception to a biochemical signal that results in auxin redistribution, those that regulate the gravitropic effects on plant growth, remain, for the most part, a “black box.” Using a cold affect, dubbed the gravity persistent signal (GPS) response, we developed a mutant screen to specifically identify components of the signal transduction pathway. Cloning of the GPS genes have identified new proteins involved in gravitropic signaling. We have further exploited the GPS response using a multi-faceted approach including gene expression microarrays, proteomics analysis, and bioinformatics analysis and continued mutant analysis to identified additional genes, physiological and biochemical processes. Gene expression data provided the foundation of a regulatory network for gravitropic signaling. Based on these gene expression data and related data sets/information from the literature/repositories, we constructed a gravitropic signaling network for Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. To generate the network, both a dynamic Bayesian network approach and a time-lagged correlation coefficient approach were used. The dynamic Bayesian network added existing information of protein-protein interaction while the time-lagged correlation coefficient allowed incorporation of temporal regulation and thus could incorporate the time-course metric from the data set. Thus the methods complemented each other and provided us with a more comprehensive evaluation of connections. Each method generated a list of possible interactions associated with a statistical significance value. The two networks were then overlaid to generate a more rigorous, intersected

  16. Uncertainty analysis of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors at beginning of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work is to estimate breeding ratio, radiation damage rate and minor actinide transmutation rate of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors. Uncertainty analysis is performed taking into account uncertainty in nuclear data and composition of the reactors. We use the recently released ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data library and restrict the work to the beginning of reactor life. We work under multigroup approximation. The Bondarenko method is used to acquire effective cross sections for the homogeneous reactor. Modeling error and numerical error are estimated. The adjoint sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate generalized adjoint fluxes for the responses. The generalized adjoint fluxes are used to calculate first order sensitivities of the responses to model parameters. The acquired sensitivities are used to propagate uncertainties in the input data to find out uncertainties in the responses. We show that the uncertainty in model parameters is the dominant source of uncertainty, followed by modeling error, input data precision and numerical error. The uncertainty due to composition of the reactor is low. We identify main sources of uncertainty and note that the low-fidelity evaluation of 16O is problematic due to lack of correlation between total and elastic reactions

  17. Preliminary optimization analysis of the radiation shielding of the China Lead-based Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator Driven subcritical System (ADS) is recognized as an efficient nuclear waste transmutation device. Supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of 'the Future Advanced Nuclear Fission Energy-ADS transmutation system', the China LEAd-based Research Reactor (CLEAR-I) is proposed. Along with the approaching of the CLEAR-I design, the radiation shielding for CLEAR-I is updated and optimized step by step to meet with new shielding requirements. Employing the modeling program MCAM and calculation system VisualBUS developed by FDS Team, the shielding capability was verified using Monte Carlo method. As shown from the results, the fast neutron flux for components in reactor vessel is under the limitation and the neutron radiation for mechanism in containing room has been as low as possible. After shutdown for 7 days, the dose rate in most area of containing room is lower than 100 μSv/hr, allowing hands on operation. Replacement of components such as the spallation target in containing room is possible. (author)

  18. Inadvertent interchange of electrocardiogram limb lead connections: analysis of predicted consequences part II: double interconnection errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Derek J

    2012-01-01

    Limb lead connection errors are known to be very common in clinical practice. The consequences of all possible single limb lead interconnection errors were analyzed in an earlier publication (J Electrocardiology 2008;41:84-90). With a single limb lead interconnection error, 6 combinations of limb lead connections are possible. Two of these combinations give rise to records in which the limb lead morphology is uninterpretable. Such records show a "flat line" in lead II or III. Three of the errors give rise to records that are fully interpretable once the specific interconnection error has been identified (although one of the errors cannot reliably be recognized in the absence of a previous record for comparison). One of the errors produces no change in the electrocardiogram recording. In all cases, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages. This communication predicts the changes in limb lead appearances consequent upon all possible double limb lead interchanges and illustrates these with records electively taken with such double interconnection errors. There are only 3 possible double limb lead interconnection errors. In 2 of the possible combinations, interpretation of the limb leads is impossible, and each of these errors gives rise to a flat line in lead I. In the third combination, the record is fully interpretable once the abnormality has been identified. In all 3 types, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages.

  19. Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach Independent Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ning; Kong, Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a new statistical analysis technique, Mean Field approach to Bayesian Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA), on galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress the stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Comparing to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in the efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter-recover for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find that our MF-ICA method not only can fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but also can recover the physical parameters of galaxies accurately. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find...

  20. Inventory Modelling for a Manufacturer of Sweets: An Evaluation of an Adjusted Compund Renewal Approach for B-Items With A Relative Short Production Lead Time

    OpenAIRE

    Heuts, R.M.J.; Luijten, M.L.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are especially interested how to optimize the production/inventory control for a manufacturer of sweets, under the following circumstances: short production lead times in combination with an intermittent demand pattern for the so-called B-taste items. As for A-taste items a compound renewal approach appeared appropriate to control inventory/production, we formulated and tested an adjusted compound renewal approach for B-taste items, because a certain condition was not satisfi...

  1. The analysis of influence of integrated circuits rigid pin leads connection type on their resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotra Z. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The model of a rigid pin lead between contact platforms of substrate GIC and a hinged crystal is considered. The technique of definition of electric resistance of a lead is offered and by this technique is defined the resistance of a rigid pin lead for different types of connection. The results of work are recommended to be used at designing of semi-conductor devices and microcircuits with rigid pin leads.

  2. The analysis of the effective lead-in helps optimize the English class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2014-01-01

    Lead-in, the first part of a class guides students to enter the teaching aspects of learning; it seems to be the simplest part which takes the least time during the whole class. But the effective lead-in helps optimize the English class. Lead-in of English class in junior high school teaching methods are various. This thesis lists several of effective and practical ways and some lead-in problems that need to be taken to avoid.

  3. Different approaches to proximate analysis by thermogravimetry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayoral, M.C.; Izquierdo, M.T.; Andres, J.M.; Rubio, B. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Maria de Luna, n. 12, 50015- Zaragoza (Spain)

    2001-04-04

    The experimental optimization by the simplex method of the proximate analysis of coal and biomass by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) is reported. Heating rate, final temperature, holding time, Ar flow rate and sample size were the control variables. The response function used was chosen to minimize the difference in percentage of volatile matter with the ASTM characterization. The relative accuracy of the method was demonstrated by determination of the volatile matter contents of a number of coals in parallel with the ASTM certified method. The method is successfully used with biomass samples.

  4. The Differential Approach to Demand Analysis and the Rotterdam Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, William A.; Serletis, Apostolos

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the differential approach to applied demand analysis. The demand systems of this approach are general, having coefficients which are not neces- sarily constant. We consider the Rotterdam parameterization of differential demand systems and derive the absolute and relative price versions of the Rotterdam model, due to Theil (1965) and Barten (1966). We address estimation issues and point out that, unlike most parametric and semi-nonparametric demand systems, the Rotterdam mo...

  5. Qualitative Analysis of Foundry Industry: A DMAIC Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgala, Sumit; Kaushisha, Deepak; Rathia, Vijayesh

    2015-01-01

    DMAIC approach is a business strategy used to improve business profitability and efficiency of all operation to meet customer needs and expectations. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to apply DMAIC (Define, Measure, analysis, improve, control) approach. The emphasis was laid down towards reduction in the defects (Blow holes, Misrun, Slag inclusion, Rough surface) occurred in the sand castings by controlling the parameters with DMAIC technique. The results achieved shows ...

  6. Assumed mode approach to fast reactor core seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for a time history approach, rather than a response spectrum approach, to the seismic analysis of fast breeder reactor core structures is described. The use of a Rayleigh-Ritz/Assumed Mode formalism for developing mathematical models of reactor cores is presented. Various factors including structural nonlinearity, fluid inertia, and impact which necessitate abandonment of response spectrum methods are discussed. The use of the assumed mode formalism is described in some detail as it applies to reactor core seismic analysis. To illustrate the use of this formal approach to mathematical modeling, a sample reactor problem with increasing complexities of modeling is presented. Finally, several problem areas--fluid inertia, fluid damping, coulomb friction, impact, and modal choice--are discussed with emphasis on research needs for use in fast reactor seismic analysis

  7. Rapid lead isotope analysis of archaeological metals by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J.A.; Stos, S.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2006-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios in archaeological silver and copper were determined by MC-ICPMS using laser ablation and bulk dissolution without lead purification. Laser ablation results on high-lead metals and bulk solution analyses on all samples agree within error of TIMS data, suggesting that problems f...

  8. Analysis of the zone approach for plutonium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine the effect of different inspection strategies on inspection effort, an analysis was carried out of the zone approach for the international safeguards verifications of a model nuclear fuel cycle. The fuel cycle includes the fabrication of mixed-oxide fresh fuel for nine light-water reactors and one experimental breeder reactor and the subsequent reprocessing of the spent fuel. There are thus two zones to be considered, a plutonium zone and an irradiated fuel zone. The zone approach entails many fewer verifications of nuclear material flows between different material balance areas (facilities) than the facility-oriented approach, and it requires an annual simultaneous physical inventory verification (PIV) and monthly simultaneous interim inventory verifications for timeliness at all the facilities. Therefore, the zone approach yields snapshots of the disposition of the nuclear materials at the time of the simultaneous inventory verifications, but less verified information than a facility-oriented approach encompassing frequent flow verification

  9. A global optimization approach to multi-polarity sentiment analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Li

    Full Text Available Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG and support vector machines (SVM are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA and grid

  10. Illustration and analysis of a coordinated approach to an effective forensic trace evidence capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L

    2015-08-01

    An effective trace evidence capability is defined as one that exploits all useful particle types, chooses appropriate technologies to do so, and directly integrates the findings with case-specific problems. Limitations of current approaches inhibit the attainment of an effective capability and it has been strongly argued that a new approach to trace evidence analysis is essential. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate and analyze how forensic particle analysis can be used as a powerful practical tool in forensic investigations. The specifics in this example, including the casework investigation, laboratory analyses, and close professional interactions, provide focal points for subsequent analysis of how this outcome can be achieved. This leads to the specification of five key elements that are deemed necessary and sufficient for effective forensic particle analysis: (1) a dynamic forensic analytical approach, (2) concise and efficient protocols addressing particle combinations, (3) multidisciplinary capabilities of analysis and interpretation, (4) readily accessible external specialist resources, and (5) information integration and communication. A coordinating role, absent in current approaches to trace evidence analysis, is essential to achieving these elements. However, the level of expertise required for the coordinating role is readily attainable. Some additional laboratory protocols are also essential. However, none of these has greater staffing requirements than those routinely met by existing forensic trace evidence practitioners. The major challenges that remain are organizational acceptance, planning and implementation.

  11. Structural analysis of steam generator internals following feed water main steam line break: DLF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the possible release of radioactivity in extreme events, some postulated accidents are analysed and studied during the design stage of Steam Generator (SG). Among the various accidents postulated, the most important are Feed Water Line Break (FWLB) and Main Steam Line Break (MSLB). This report concerns with dynamic structural analysis of SG internals following FWLB/MSLB. The pressure/drag-force time histories considered were corresponding to the conditions leading to the accident of maximum potential. The SG internals were analysed using two approaches of structural dynamics. In first approach simplified DLF method was adopted. This method yields an upper bound values of stresses and deflection. In the second approach time history analysis by Mode Superposition Technique was adopted. This approach gives more realistic results. The structure was qualified as per ASME B and PV Code SecIII NB. It was concluded that in all the components except perforated flow distribution plate, the stress values based on elastic analysis are within the limits specified by ASME Code. In case of perforated flow distribution plate during the MSLB transient the stress values based on elastic analysis are higher than the ASME Code limits. Therefore, its limit load analysis had to be done. Finally, the collapse pressure evaluated using limit load analysis was shown to be within the limits of ASME B and PV Code SecIII Nb. (author). 31 refs., 94 figs., 16 tabs

  12. Data analysis of asymmetric structures advanced approaches in computational statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    Data Analysis of Asymmetric Structures provides a comprehensive presentation of a variety of models and theories for the analysis of asymmetry and its applications and provides a wealth of new approaches in every section. It meets both the practical and theoretical needs of research professionals across a wide range of disciplines and  considers data analysis in fields such as psychology, sociology, social science, ecology, and marketing. In seven comprehensive chapters this guide details theories, methods, and models for the analysis of asymmetric structures in a variety of disciplines and presents future opportunities and challenges affecting research developments and business applications.

  13. Evaluation of factors influencing child abuse leading to oro-facial lesions in Isfahan, Iran: A qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozeh Nilchian; Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar; Navid Khalighinejad; Leyli Sadri; Alireza Saeidi; Leila Arbab

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since child abuse and neglect are serious conditions which can potentially lead to inappropriate dental health, we conducted this qualitative study to define the factors influencing child abuse and neglect, which lead to oro-facial lesions. Materials and Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted by social services employees. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants to capture a range of experiences such as the physical abuse, sexual abuse, role ...

  14. Computerized two-lead resting ECG analysis for the detection of coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Grube, Andreas Bootsveld, Seyrani Yuecel, Joseph T. Shen, Michael Imhoff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resting electrocardiogram (ECG shows limited sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD. Several methods exist to enhance sensitivity and specificity of resting ECG for diagnosis of CAD, but such methods are not better than a specialist's judgement. We compared a new computer-enhanced, resting ECG analysis device, 3DMP, to coronary angiography to evaluate the device's accuracy in detecting hemodynamically relevant CAD. Methods: A convenience sample of 423 patients without prior coronary revascularization was evaluated with 3DMP before coronary angiography. 3DMP's sensitivity and specificity in detecting hemodynamically relevant coronary stenosis as diagnosed with coronary angiography were calculated as well as odds ratios for the 3DMP severity score and coronary artery disease risk factors. Results: 3DMP identified 179 of 201 patients with hemodynamically relevant stenosis (sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 81.1%. The positive and negative predictive values for identification of coronary stenosis as diagnosed in coronary angiograms were 79% and 90% respectively. CAD risk factors in a logistic regression model had markedly lower predictive power for the presence of coronary stenosis in patients than did 3DMP severity score (odds ratio 3.35 [2.24-5.01] vs. 34.87 [20.00-60.79]. Logistic regression combining severity score with risk factors did not add significantly to the prediction quality (odds ratio 36.73 [20.92-64.51]. Conclusions: 3DMP's computer-based, mathematically derived analysis of resting two-lead ECG data provides detection of hemodynamically relevant CAD with high sensitivity and specificity that appears to be at least as good as those reported for other resting and/or stress ECG methods currently used in clinical practice.

  15. Data Warehouse Requirements Analysis Framework: Business-Object Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed requirements analysis plays a key role towards the design of successful Data Warehouse (DW system. The requirements analysis specifications are used as the prime input for the construction of conceptual level multidimensional data model. This paper has proposed a Business Object based requirements analysis framework for DW system which is supported with abstraction mechanism and reuse capability. It also facilitate the stepwise mapping of requirements descriptions into high level design components of graph semantic based conceptual level object oriented multidimensional data model. The proposed framework starts with the identification of the analytical requirements using business process driven approach and finally refine the requirements in further detail to map into the conceptual level DW design model using either Demand-driven of Mixed-driven approach for DW requirements analysi

  16. Ancient bronze coins from Mediterranean basin: LAMQS potentiality for lead isotopes comparative analysis with former mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Italiano, A.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Bronze coins coming from the area of the Mediterranean basin, dated back the II-X Cent. A.D., were analyzed using different physical analytical techniques. Characteristic X-ray fluorescence was used with electrons and photons, in order to investigate the elemental composition of both the surface layers and bulk. Moreover, the quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled to laser ablation (LAMQS technique) in high vacuum was used to analyse typical material compounds from surface contamination. Mass spectrometry, at high resolution and sensitivity, extended up to 300 amu, allowed measuring the 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratios into the coins. Quantitative relative analyses of these isotopic ratios identify the coin composition such as a "fingerprint" depending on the mineral used to extract the lead. Isotopic ratios in coins can be compared to those of the possible minerals used to produce the bronze alloy. A comparison between the measured isotope ratios in the analyzed coins and the literature database, related to the mineral containing Pb as a function of its geological and geophysical extraction mine, is presented. The analysis, restricted to old coins and the mines of the Mediterranean basin, indicates a possible correlation between the coin compositions and the possible geological sites of the extracted mineral.

  17. Raman analysis of ferroelectric switching in niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, P. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Ramos-Moore, E., E-mail: evramos@fis.puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Guitar, M.A. [Functional Materials, Materials Science Department, Saarland University, Saarbrücken D-66123 (Germany); Cabrera, A.L. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436 (Chile)

    2014-04-01

    Characteristic Raman vibration modes of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) are studied as a function of ferroelectric domain switching. The microstructure of PNZT is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Ferroelectric switching is achieved by applying voltages between the top (Au) and bottom (Pt) electrodes, while acquiring the Raman spectra in situ. Vibrational active modes associated with paraelectric and ferroelectric phases are identified after measuring above and below the ferroelectric Curie temperature, respectively. Changes in the relative intensities of the Raman peaks are observed as a function of the switching voltage. The peak area associated with the ferroelectric modes is analyzed as a function of the applied voltage within one ferroelectric polarization loop, showing local maxima around the coercive voltage. This behavior can be understood in terms of the correlation between vibrational and structural properties, since ferroelectric switching modifies the interaction between the body-centered atom (Zr, Ti or Nb) and the Pb–O lattice. - Highlights: • Electric fields induce structural distortions on ferroelectric perovskites. • Ferroelectric capacitor was fabricated to perform hysteresis loops. • Raman analysis was performed in situ during ferroelectric switching. • Raman modes show hysteresis and inflections around the coercive voltages. • Data can be understood in terms of vibrational–structural correlations.

  18. Raman analysis of ferroelectric switching in niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic Raman vibration modes of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) are studied as a function of ferroelectric domain switching. The microstructure of PNZT is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Ferroelectric switching is achieved by applying voltages between the top (Au) and bottom (Pt) electrodes, while acquiring the Raman spectra in situ. Vibrational active modes associated with paraelectric and ferroelectric phases are identified after measuring above and below the ferroelectric Curie temperature, respectively. Changes in the relative intensities of the Raman peaks are observed as a function of the switching voltage. The peak area associated with the ferroelectric modes is analyzed as a function of the applied voltage within one ferroelectric polarization loop, showing local maxima around the coercive voltage. This behavior can be understood in terms of the correlation between vibrational and structural properties, since ferroelectric switching modifies the interaction between the body-centered atom (Zr, Ti or Nb) and the Pb–O lattice. - Highlights: • Electric fields induce structural distortions on ferroelectric perovskites. • Ferroelectric capacitor was fabricated to perform hysteresis loops. • Raman analysis was performed in situ during ferroelectric switching. • Raman modes show hysteresis and inflections around the coercive voltages. • Data can be understood in terms of vibrational–structural correlations

  19. Proteomic analysis of the metabolic adaptation of the biocontrol agent Pseudozyma flocculosa leading to glycolipid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélanger Richard R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast-like epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma flocculosa is known to antagonize powdery mildew fungi through proliferation on colonies presumably preceded by the release of an antifungal glycolipid (flocculosin. In culture conditions, P. flocculosa can be induced to produce or not flocculosin through manipulation of the culture medium nutrients. In order to characterize and understand the metabolic changes in P. flocculosa linked to glycolipid production, we conducted a 2-DE proteomic analysis and compared the proteomic profile of P. flocculosa growing under conditions favoring the development of the fungus (control or conducive to flocculosin synthesis (stress. A large number of protein spots (771 were detected in protein extracts of the control treatment compared to only 435 matched protein spots in extracts of the stress cultures, which clearly suggests an important metabolic reorganization in slow-growing cells producing flocculosin. From the latter treatment, we were able to identify 21 protein spots that were either specific to the treatment or up-regulated significantly (2-fold increase. All of them were identified based on similarity between predicted ORF of the newly sequenced genome of P. flocculosa with Ustilago maydis' available annotated sequences. These proteins were associated with the carbon and fatty acid metabolism, and also with the filamentous change of the fungus leading to flocculosin production. This first look into the proteome of P. flocculosa suggests that flocculosin synthesis is elicited in response to specific stress or limiting conditions.

  20. Metals and metalloids in atmospheric dust: Use of lead isotopic analysis for source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Villar, Omar I.

    Mining activities generate aerosol in a wide range of sizes. Smelting activities produce mainly fine particles ( 1 microm). The adverse effects of aerosols on human health depend mainly on two key characteristics: size and chemical composition. One of the main objectives of this research is to analyze the size distribution of contaminants in aerosol produced by mining operations. For this purpose, a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) was utilized. Results from the MOUDI samples show higher concentrations of the toxic elements like lead and arsenic in the fine fraction (Mitigation strategies could be developed if the source of contamination is well defined. Environmental conditions as wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and precipitation have an important role in the concentration of atmospheric dust. Dry environments with low relative humidity are ideal for the transport of aerosols. Results obtained from this research show the relationship between dust concentrations and meteorological parameters. Dust concentrations are highly correlated with relative humidity and wind speed. With all the data collected on site and the analysis of the meteorological parameters, models can be develop to predict the transport of particles as well as the concentration of contaminants at a specific point. These models were developed and are part of the results shown in this dissertation.

  1. Contrast and Critique of Two Approaches to Discourse Analysis: Conversation Analysis and Speech Act Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Han

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000 assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various approaches: speech act, pragmatics, conversation analysis, variation analysis, and critical discourse analysis. Each approach works in its different domain to discourse. For one dimension, it shares the same assumptions or general problems in discourse analysis with the other approaches: for instance, the explanation on how we organize language into units beyond sentence boundaries, or how language is used to convey information about the world, ourselves and human relationships (Schiffrin 1994: viii. For other dimensions, each approach holds its distinctive characteristics contributing to the vastness of discourse analysis. This paper will mainly discuss two approaches to discourse analysis- conversation analysis and speech act theory- and will attempt to point out some similarities as well as contrasting features between the two approaches, followed by a short reflection on their strengths and weaknesses in the essence of each approach. The organizational and discourse features in the exchanges among three teachers at the College of Finance and Customs in Vietnam will be analysed in terms of conversation analysis and speech act theory. 

  2. A Comparison of Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Approaches to Deforestation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Felardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economics of deforestation has been explored in detail. Generally, the frame of analysis takes either a microeconomics or macroeconomics approach. The microeconomics approach assumes that individual decision makers are responsible for deforestation as a result of utility maximizing behavior and imperfect property right regimes. The macroeconomics approach explores nationwide trends thought to be associated with forest conversion. This paper investigates the relationship between these two approaches by empirically testing the determinants of deforestation using the same data set from Thailand. The theory for both the microeconomics-based and macroeconomics-based approaches are developed and then tested statistically. The models were constructed using established theoretical frames developed in the literature. The results from both models show statistical significance consistent with prior results in the tropical deforestation literature. A comparison of the two approaches demonstrates that the macro approach is useful in identifying relevant aggregate trends in the deforestation process; the micro approach provides the opportunity to isolate factors of those trends which are necessary for effective policy decisions.

  3. Causal Comparative Analysis: Comprehensive Literacy Approach or the Traditional Reading Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuda, Jessica Ann

    2009-01-01

    A comparative analysis study, examining the significance in reading achievement between students in the Comprehensive Literacy Program to students in the Traditional Basal Reading Approach was conducted. Implementation of the Comprehensive Literacy Program was an effort to lessen the achievement gap between proficient and low progressing students.…

  4. Extending Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Approach for Reliability Analysis at the Software Architecture Design Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Aksit, Mehmet; Lemos, de Rogerio; Gacek, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Several reliability engineering approaches have been proposed to identify and recover from failures. A well-known and mature approach is the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method that is usually utilized together with Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to analyze and diagnose the causes of failures.

  5. Modeling Vocabulary Loss——Approach leading to a comprehensive analysis of vocabulary attrition?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Ⅰ.Introduction The article the author has chosen entitling itself as Modeling Vocabulary Loss (Applied Linguistics,2004) is composed by Prof.Paul Meara from University of Wales Swansea.The reason has been chosen here is definitely not because of the tentative move

  6. Thermo-fluid dynamics and corrosion analysis of a self cooled lead lithium blanket for the HiPER reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, R.; Zanzi, C.; Hernández, J.; Sanz, J.

    2015-09-01

    The HiPER reactor is the HiPER project phase devoted to power production. To reach a preliminary reactor design, tritium breeding schemes need to be adapted to the HiPER project technologies selection: direct drive ignition, 150 \\text{MJ}/\\text{shot}× 10 Hz of power released through fusion reactions, and the dry first wall scheme. In this paper we address the main challenge of the HiPER EUROFER-based self cooled lead lithium blanket, which is related to the corrosive behavior of Pb-15.7Li in contact with EUROFER. We evaluate the cooling and corrosion behavior of the so-called separated first wall blanket (SFWB) configuration by performing thermo-fluid dynamics simulations using a large eddy simulation approach. Despite the expected improvement over the integrated first wall blanket, we still find an unsatisfactory cooling performance, expressed as a low outlet Pb-15.7Li temperature plus too high corrosion rates derived from local Pb-15.7Li high temperature and velocity, which can mainly be attributed to the geometry of the channels. Nevertheless, the analysis allowed us to devise future modifications of the SFWB to overcome the limitations found with the present design.

  7. The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.

  8. Approaches and methods for econometric analysis of market power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Glauben, Thomas; Grings, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power in agricultu......This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power...... in agricultural and food markets. We provide a framework that may help researchers to evaluate and improve structural models of market power. Starting with the specification of the approaches in question, we compare published empirical studies of market power with respect to the choice of the applied approach......, functional forms, estimation methods and derived estimates of the degree of market power. Thereafter, we use our framework to evaluate several structural models based on PTA and GIM to measure oligopsony power in the Ukrainian dairy industry. The PTA-based results suggest that the estimated parameters...

  9. The Process Writing Approach: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Sandmel, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The process approach to writing instruction is one of the most popular methods for teaching writing. The authors conducted meta-analysis of 29 experimental and quasi-experimental studies conducted with students in Grades 1-12 to examine if process writing instruction improves the quality of students' writing and motivation to write. For students…

  10. The tradeoff analysis approach : lessons from Ecuador and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Bowen, W.; Crissman, C.; Yanggen, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we identify some of the factors that have limited the success of impact assessment, including the use of benefit-cost analysis as the paradigm for impact assessment. We then present a new approach to integrated assessment of agricultural production systems called Trad

  11. A Morphogenetic Design Approach with Embedded Structural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Holst, Malene Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores a morphogenetic design approach with embedded structural analysis for architectural design. A material system based on a combined space truss and membrane system has been derived as a growth system with inspiration from natural growth of plants. The structural system is...

  12. An eigencurrent approach for the analysis of finite antenna arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekers, D.J.; Eijndhoven, S.J.L. van; Tijhuis, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate description of typical finite-array behavior such as edge effects and array resonances is essential in the design of various types of antennas. The analysis approach proposed in this paper is essentially based on the concept of eigencurrents and is capable of describing finite-array beha

  13. Temperature Distribution Analysis of JAERI 60 kA HTS Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUYoukun; T.Isono

    2003-01-01

    High temperature suprerconductor (HTS)current lead has an advantage in reducing electric power consumption of a refrigerator for a large current superconducting magnet system such as a fusion device. A fusion device requires more than 20 pairs of large current leads and each current capacity is about 60 kA. The conventional 60 kA current lead needs 100 kW electric power for refrigeration and a 2/3 reduction is available by the application of a HTS current lead.

  14. Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-19

    Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

  15. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for the lead-bismuth eutectic cooled reactor. System analysis by MSG-COPD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility study for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) including related nuclear fuel cycle systems has been started from the 1999 fiscal year by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Phase 1 studies were finished at the end of March, 2000. Various options of FBRs plant systems was studied and concept of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled FBRs have been selected as one of these options. In the United States, the LBE cooled reactor has been examined by Generation IV. Plant dynamics analyses on 2 type of LBE-cooled reactors, forced circulation type which designed by JNC and natural circulation type which was designed by University of California, Berkeley, have been performed to understand the basic thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the reactors. As a result of the analysis on JNC forced circulation reactor, it has been clarified that hot coolant remains in the upper plenum by the thermal stratification in case of a manual trip condition. And the characteristics of pump coast down influences core exit high-temperature in case of a loss of power condition. In addition, as a result of analysis on the natural circulation reactor, the flow-redistribution effect in ductless core channels by the buoyancy force has been evaluated for a candidate duct core channels. (author)

  16. A functional genomics approach using metabolomics and in silico pathway analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Jochen; Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    In the field of functional genomics increasing effort is being undertaken to analyze the function of orphan genes using metabolome data. Improved analytical equipment allows screening simultaneously for a high number of metabolites. Such metabolite profiles are analyzed using multivariate data...... analysis techniques and changes in the genotype will in many cases lead to different metabolite profiles. Here, a theoretical framework that may be applied to identify the function of orphan genes is presented. The approach is based on a combination of metabolome analysis combined with in silico pathway...... analysis. Pathway analysis may be carried out using convex analysis and a change in the active pathway structure of deletion mutants expressed in a different metabolite profile may disclose the function or the functional class of an orphan gene. The concept is illustrated using a simplified model for...

  17. Increase in Organization Effectiveness Using Voice Analysis: The System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bartkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze literature related to the system theory and to present the system of increase in organization effectiveness using voice analysis. The concepts of the system approach were analyzed, the definition of the system, its components and classification were discussed. Following the principles of the system theory, the system of increase in organization effectiveness using voice analysis was designed. Each element was briefly discussed, i.e. processes influencing the employee, the environment, voice analysis system, expert system, prime and final organizational effectiveness. In addition, the relations between these elements were indentified. Article in Lithuanian

  18. Why does electron sharing lead to covalent bonding? A variational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedenberg, Klaus; Schmidt, Michael W

    2007-01-15

    Ground state energy differences between related systems can be elucidated by a comparative variational analysis of the energy functional, in which the concepts of variational kinetic pressure and variational electrostatic potential pull are found useful. This approach is applied to the formation of the bond in the hydrogen molecule ion. A highly accurate wavefunction is shown to be the superposition of two quasiatomic orbitals, each of which consists to 94% of the respective atomic 1s orbital, the remaining 6% deformation being 73% spherical and 27% nonspherical in character. The spherical deformation can be recovered to 99.9% by scaling the 1s orbital. These results quantify the conceptual metamorphosis of the free-atom wavefunction into the molecular wavefunction by orbital sharing, orbital contraction, and orbital polarization. Starting with the 1s orbital on one atom as the initial trial function, the value of the energy functional of the molecule at the equilibrium distance is stepwise lowered along several sequences of wavefunction modifications, whose energies monotonically decrease to the ground state energy of H2+. The contributions of sharing, contraction and polarization to the overall lowering of the energy functional and their kinetic and potential components exhibit a consistent pattern that can be related to the wavefunction changes on the basis of physical reasoning, including the virial theorem. It is found that orbital sharing lowers the variational kinetic energy pressure and that this is the essential cause of covalent bonding in this molecule. PMID:17143869

  19. Why does electron sharing lead to covalent bonding? A variational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedenberg, Klaus; Schmidt, Michael W

    2007-01-15

    Ground state energy differences between related systems can be elucidated by a comparative variational analysis of the energy functional, in which the concepts of variational kinetic pressure and variational electrostatic potential pull are found useful. This approach is applied to the formation of the bond in the hydrogen molecule ion. A highly accurate wavefunction is shown to be the superposition of two quasiatomic orbitals, each of which consists to 94% of the respective atomic 1s orbital, the remaining 6% deformation being 73% spherical and 27% nonspherical in character. The spherical deformation can be recovered to 99.9% by scaling the 1s orbital. These results quantify the conceptual metamorphosis of the free-atom wavefunction into the molecular wavefunction by orbital sharing, orbital contraction, and orbital polarization. Starting with the 1s orbital on one atom as the initial trial function, the value of the energy functional of the molecule at the equilibrium distance is stepwise lowered along several sequences of wavefunction modifications, whose energies monotonically decrease to the ground state energy of H2+. The contributions of sharing, contraction and polarization to the overall lowering of the energy functional and their kinetic and potential components exhibit a consistent pattern that can be related to the wavefunction changes on the basis of physical reasoning, including the virial theorem. It is found that orbital sharing lowers the variational kinetic energy pressure and that this is the essential cause of covalent bonding in this molecule.

  20. Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H: An Innovative Approach to Deliver Campus- Based Field Experiences to Pre-Entry Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Penny Pennington; Weeks, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H Club was created as a pilot program for college students seeking to gain experience as non-formal youth educators, specifically serving pre-entry level Extension educators through a university-based 4-H club. Seventeen student volunteers contributed an estimated 630 hours of service to the club during spring 2011. The club…

  1. An analysis of lead (Pb) from human hair samples (20-40 years of age) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis of lead from human hair samples in five different groups namely scavengers from Payatas Quezon City, tricycle drivers, car shop workers, paint factory workers, and students from Polytechnic University of the Philippines. The people from Nagcarlan, Laguna represented as a ''base-line value'' or as a control group. The method applied was acid digestion using HNO3 and HClO4 then the samples were subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In terms of lead found from hair, the scavengers from Payatas Q.C. obtained high exposure of lead among the samples that were tested. The result of the analysis of concentration of lead was expressed in mg/L. (Authors)

  2. Ground Truthing the ‘Conventional Wisdom’ of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  3. Vapor cooled lead and stacks thermal performance and design analysis by finite difference techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of the combined thermal performance of the stacks and vapor-cooled leads for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) demonstrates considerable interdependency. For instance, the heat transfer to the vapor-cooled lead (VCL) from warm bus heaters, environmental enclosure, and stack is a significant additional heat load to the joule heating in the leads, proportionately higher for the lower current leads that have fewer current-carrying, counter flow coolant copper tubes. Consequently, the specific coolant flow (G/sec-kA-lead pair) increases as the lead current decreases. The definition of this interdependency and the definition of necessary thermal management has required an integrated thermal model for the entire stack/VCL assemblies. Computer simulations based on finite difference thermal analyses computed all the heat interchanges of the six different stack/VCL configurations. These computer simulations verified that the heat load of the stacks beneficially alters the lead temperature profile to provide added stability against thermal runaway. Significant energy is transferred through low density foam filler in the stack from warm ambient sources to the vapor-cooled leads

  4. An Exploration of Students' Motivation to Lead: An Analysis by Race, Gender, and Student Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Collier, Daniel; Thompson, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the motivation to lead of a random sample of 1,338 undergraduate students to determine the degree to which motivation to lead can predict leadership behaviors. Results suggested that students' internal self-identity as a leader positively predicted behavior, while their "social normative" motivation to…

  5. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  6. Overview of the use of ATHENA for thermal-hydraulic analysis of systems with lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INEEL and MIT are investigating the suitability of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. This paper is concerned with the general area of thermal-hydraulics of lead-bismuth cooled reactors. The ATHENA code is being used in the thermal-hydraulic design and analysis of lead-bismuth cooled reactors. The ATHENA code was reviewed to determine its applicability for simulating lead-bismuth cooled reactors. Two modifications were made to the code as a result of this review. Specifically, a correlation to represent heat transfer from rod bundles to a liquid metal and a void correlation based on data taken in a mixture of lead-bismuth and steam were added the code. The paper also summarizes the analytical work that is being performed with the code and plans for future analytical work

  7. IDHEAS – A NEW APPROACH FOR HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. W. Parry; J.A Forester; V.N. Dang; S. M. L. Hendrickson; M. Presley; E. Lois; J. Xing

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method, IDHEAS (Integrated Decision-Tree Human Event Analysis System) that has been developed jointly by the US NRC and EPRI as an improved approach to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) that is based on an understanding of the cognitive mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that affect operator responses. The paper describes the various elements of the method, namely the performance of a detailed cognitive task analysis that is documented in a crew response tree (CRT), and the development of the associated time-line to identify the critical tasks, i.e. those whose failure results in a human failure event (HFE), and an approach to quantification that is based on explanations of why the HFE might occur.

  8. Low-level lead exposure and children's IQ: A meta-analysis and search for a threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    To assess the strength of the association between blood lead and children's IQ, a meta-analysis of the studies examining the relationship in school age children was performed. Emphasis was given to the size of the effect, since that allow comparisons that are informative about potential confounding and effect modifiers. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. A highly significant association was found between lead exposure and children's IQ (P < 0.001). An increase in blood lead from 10 to 20 [mu]g/dl was associated with a decrease of 2.6 IQ points in the meta-analysis. This result was robust to inclusion or exclusion of the strongest individual studies and to relaxing the age requirements (school age children) of the meta-analysis. Adding eight studies with effect estimates of O would still leave a significant association with blood lead (P < 0.01). There was no evidence that the effect was limited to disadvantaged children and there was a suggestion of the opposite. The studies with mean blood lead levels of 15 [mu]g/dl or lower in their sample had higher estimated blood lead slopes, suggesting that a threshold at 10 [mu]g/dl is implausible. The study with the lowest mean blood lead level was examined using nonparametric smoothing. It showed no evidence of a threshold down to blood lead concentrations of 1 [mu]g/dl. Lead interferes with GABAergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. It has been shown to bind to the NMDA receptor and inhibit long-term potentiation in the hippocampal region of the brain. Moreover, experimental studies have demonstrated that blood levels of 10 [mu]g/dl interfere with a broad range of cognitive function in primates. Given this support, these associations in humans should be considered causal. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Analysis of sexual behaviour in male rabbits across successive tests leading to sexual exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Various parameters of sexual behaviour were studied in ten male rabbits daily tested with sexually receptive females (ovariectomized, given estradiol benzoate s.c. 5 µg/day.  The aim of this study was to analyse rabbit sexual behaviour during successive tests leading to sexual exhaustion.  We allowed copulation ad libitum and determined if sexual satiety was reached within a day and sexual exhaustion across several days.  The pair was allowed to copulate freely until the male failed to show sexual interest in that female for 30 minutes. The female was then removed and replaced by another; this procedure was repeated using as many does as needed, until the male showed no interest in any female for 2 hours. Scent-marking (chinning was also recorded, before and after the copulation test.  This whole procedure was repeated daily until the male showed no sexual behaviour at all on a given day.  Within a test, copulation ad libitum led to a gradual increase in the time interval between successive mounts and ejaculations, regardless of the day of testing.  Such increments predicted that the buck was reaching sexual satiety.  The “miss” rate (i.e., the proportion of mounts that did not culminate in ejaculation significantly increased from a median of 25 on the first day to 55 on the last day of testing.  The mean time to reach copulatory inactivity decreased from 4 hrs on the first day to 1 hr on the last day.  The total number of ejaculations within a test decreased from an average of 22 to 6 (first vs last day, respectively and the number of chin marks was reduced by 69% compared with pre-mating values, regardless of the day of testing.  All bucks eventually stopped copulating after a variable number of days (range=2-15 days.  We concluded that, following copulation ad libitum with  several females, male rabbits reach sexual satiety (i.e., they are unable to continue copulating on the same day and, after several days, they also attain

  10. Defibrillation lead placement using a transthoracic transatrial approach in a case without transvenous access due to lack of the right superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yosuke; Okamura, Hideo; Sato, Syunsuke; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kouji; Noda, Takashi; Aiba, Takeshi; Kamakura, Shiro; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kusano, Kengo

    2015-06-01

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of syncope was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. She had previously undergone mastectomy of the left breast owing to breast cancer. Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) and monitor ECG revealed sick sinus syndrome (Type II) and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation were induced in an electrophysiological study. Although the patient was eligible for treatment with a dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), venography revealed lack of the right superior vena cava (R-SVC). Lead placement from the left subclavian vein would have increased the risk of lymphedema owing to the patient׳s mastectomy history. Consequently, the defibrillation lead was placed in the right ventricle by direct puncture of the right auricle through the tricuspid valve. The atrial lead was sutured to the atrial wall, and the postoperative course was unremarkable. Defibrillation lead placement using a transthoracic transatrial approach can be an alternative method in cases where a transvenous approach for lead placement is not feasible.

  11. A new approach for the analysis of functionally graded beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzababaee

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is the intention of the present study to develope a new beam theory for the analysis of functionallygraded compopsite beams to overcome the shortcomings present in the existing beam theories.Design/methodology/approach: Within the displacement field of a first-order shear deformation theory and byusing the Hamilton principle the governing equations of motion are obtained for both the new and the existingbeam theories. The beams are assumed to have isotropic, two-constituent material distribution through thethickness.Findings: It is found that the procedure used is simple and straightforward and similar to the one used in thedevelopment of shear deformation plate and shell theories. It is analytically showed that the new approach yieldsidentical results as those obtained by using the existing first-order shear deformation theory.Research limitations/implications: The new approach can be adopted in developing higher-order sheardeformation and layerwise theories. It is believed that the new approach has advantage with respect to theexisting beam theories especially for developing beam layerwise theories.Practical implications: The new shear deformation beam theory can be used to develop a new beam elementfor analysis of practical composite beam structures.Originality/value: The paper introduces an approach to develop a new theory for modeling composite beams.The resulting equations of motion may be solved analytically or by using finite element method.

  12. An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Sutoyo

    Full Text Available Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%.

  13. An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoyo, Edi; Mungad, Mungad; Hamid, Suraya; Herawan, Tutut

    2016-01-01

    Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%. PMID:26928627

  14. An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoyo, Edi; Mungad, Mungad; Hamid, Suraya; Herawan, Tutut

    2016-01-01

    Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%.

  15. Analysis of the stability of native oxide films at liquid lead/metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interface between liquid lead and different metallic solids (pure metals: Al, Fe and Ni, and T91 steel) was investigated below 400 deg C under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) by wetting experiments. The aim was to check the physical stability of native oxide films grown at the surface of the substrates, along a contact with liquid lead. Two types of metallic substrates were used: i) conventional bulk polycrystals, and ii) nanocrystalline films obtained by e-beam evaporation under UHV. The actual contact between liquid lead and the solid substrates was achieved by preparing lead drops in-situ. Wetting experiments were performed using sessile drop and/or liquid bridge methods. Fresh solid surfaces and former liquid/solid interfaces can be explored by squeezing and stretching a liquid lead bridge formed between two parallel and horizontal substrates. It is shown that the contact with liquid lead produces the detachment of the native oxide films grown on the metallic solids. It is concluded that if oxide coatings are needed to protect a metallic solid from attack by liquid lead, they should be self-renewable. (authors)

  16. An electroanalytical approach for evaluation of biochar adsorption characteristics and its application for lead and cadmium determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguihiro, Talita Mayumi; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; de Rezende, Edivaltrys Inayve Pissinati; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino, Luiz Humberto; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2013-09-01

    This work describes for first time the use of electroanalytical techniques for evaluation of adsorptive proprieties of biochar using it as electrode modifier and its application for preconcentration and determination of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) under differential pulse adsorptive voltammetric conditions (DPAdSV). Samples of biochars were obtained from castor oil cake using a predefined set of experimental conditions varying the heating rate (V), final temperature (T) and warm-up period (P) and subsequently used for carbon paste modified electrode (CPME) preparation. The proposed method was applied for Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) determination in spiked simulated industrial effluents and the limit of detection obtained for both metals were adequated for determination of these evaluated ions taking into account the limits established by Brazilian legislation. For all samples analyzed, recoveries ranged from 95% to 104% were obtained and no significative interferences were observed for common cations in water samples.

  17. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.;

    2012-01-01

    in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... linkage between foods analysed and consumed for that country. In the case of lack of occurrence data, these data can be supplemented with data from the "European" concentration database or by generating additional concentration data at country level. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  18. Determination of exposure to lead of subjects from southwestern Poland by human hair analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Izabela; Wołowiec, Paulina; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to lead from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from 267 young adults living in Wrocław (southwest Poland). The effect of the place of residence, diet, and lifestyle on lead content in hair was examined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Lead was determined at the wavelength 220.353 nm. These outcomes were reache...

  19. A New Approach to Pointer Analysis for Assignments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄波; 臧斌宇; 等

    2001-01-01

    Pointer analysis is a technique to identify at copile-time the potential values of the pointer expressions in a program,which promises significant benefits for optimzing and parallelizing complilers.In this paper,a new approach to pointer analysis for assignments is presented.In this approach,assignments are classified into three categories:pointer assignments,structure(union)assignents and normal assignments which don't affect the point-to information.Pointer analyses for these three kinds of assignments respectively make up the integrated algorithm.When analyzing a pointer assigemtn.a new method called expression expansion is used to calculate both the left targets and the right targets.The integration of recursive data structure analysis into pointer analysis is a significant originality of this paper,which uniforms the pointer analysis for heap variables and the pointer analysis for stack variables.This algorithm is implemented in Agassiz,an analyzing tool for C programs developed by Institute of Parallel Processing,Fudan University,Its accuracy and effectiveness are illustrated by experimental data.

  20. A New Approach to Pointer Analysis for Assignments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bo; ZANG Binyu; LI Jing; ZHU Chuanqi

    2001-01-01

    Pointer analysis is a technique to identify at compile-time the po tential values of the pointer expressions in a program, which promises significant benefits for optimizing and parallelizing compilers. In this paper, a new approach to pointer analysis for assignments is presented. In this approach, assignments are clas sified into three categories: pointer assignments, structure (union) assignments and normal assignments which don't affect the point-to information. Pointer analyses for these three kinds of assignments respectively make up the integrated algorithm. When analyzing a pointer assignment, a new method called expression expansion is used to calculate both the left targets and the right targets. The integration of recursive data structure analysis into pointer analysis is a significant originality of this paper, which uniforms the pointer analysis for heap variables and the pointer analysis for stack variables. This algorithm is implemented in Agassiz, an analyzing tool for C programs developed by Institute of Parallel Processing, Fudan University. Its accuracy and effectiveness are illustrated by experimental data.

  1. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis – Various Approaches to Data Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pacáková

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two various approaches to data preparation to avoid multicollinearity. The aim of the article is to find similarities among the e-communication level of EU states using hierarchical cluster analysis. The original set of fourteen indicators was first reduced on the basis of correlation analysis while in case of high correlation indicator of higher variability was included in further analysis. Secondly the data were transformed using principal component analysis while the principal components are poorly correlated. For further analysis five principal components explaining about 92% of variance were selected. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed both based on the reduced data set and the principal component scores. Both times three clusters were assumed following Pseudo t-Squared and Pseudo F Statistic, but the final clusters were not identical. An important characteristic to compare the two results found was to look at the proportion of variance accounted for by the clusters which was about ten percent higher for the principal component scores (57.8% compared to 47%. Therefore it can be stated, that in case of using principal component scores as an input variables for cluster analysis with explained proportion high enough (about 92% for in our analysis, the loss of information is lower compared to data reduction on the basis of correlation analysis.

  2. Leading coordinate analysis of reaction pathways in proton chain transfer: Application to a two-proton transfer model for the green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'leading coordinate' approach to computing an approximate reaction pathway, with subsequent determination of the true minimum energy profile, is applied to a two-proton chain transfer model based on the chromophore and its surrounding moieties within the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using an ab initio quantum chemical method, a number of different relaxed energy profiles are found for several plausible guesses at leading coordinates. The results obtained for different trial leading coordinates are rationalized through the calculation of a two-dimensional relaxed potential energy surface (PES) for the system. Analysis of the 2-D relaxed PES reveals that two of the trial pathways are entirely spurious, while two others contain useful information and can be used to furnish starting points for successful saddle-point searches. Implications for selection of trial leading coordinates in this class of proton chain transfer reactions are discussed, and a simple diagnostic function is proposed for revealing whether or not a relaxed pathway based on a trial leading coordinate is likely to furnish useful information

  3. Environmental determinants of different Blood Lead Levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in childre...

  4. Lead in atmospheric precipitation: Analysis of atmospheric precipitation pollution monitoring data for location “Kamenički vis”, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović Aleksandar R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of data collected during monitoring of lead content in atmospheric precipitation on GAW/EMEP (Global Atmosphere Watch/European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme station “Kamenicki Vis”, Serbia from 2000 to 2010 is given. Annual arithmetic mean concentrations, weighted arithmetic mean concentrations, and median of week samples are presented. Obtained data was compared with results of analysis of atmospheric precipitation collected on experimental EMEP station “Zeleno brdo“, Serbia and discussed in scope of European average levels of lead content in precipitation and air. Significant increase of average annual lead content in precipitation was observed in 2003 and 2007. Observed peaks can not be seen on average European trends thus lead to conclusion that recorded increases are characteristic for local region. In order to further discuss nature and direction of possible sources of detected lead pollution short analysis of lead emission data was performed. An effort was made to gather data from the counties that lay in directions from which dominant winds blow as well as for Serbia. For this purpose total national emissions from LRTAP (Long-range transboudary air pollution Convention emission inventory report and EMEP emission inventory were used as well as data published by relevant national authorities. According to these emission levels, majority of surrounding countries couldn’t have contributed much to the recorded increases of lead content in precipitation. However, several possible sources were revealed. In all studied countries emission levels steadily dropped during the analyzed period, whereas only for Serbia different trend was observed. Presented data leads to conclusion that recorded increase of lead content in precipitation in 2003 probably originates from trans-boundary contributions, while increases in 2007 and onwards may come from Serbia’s own emissions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  5. Microscopic and electrochemical characterization of lead film electrode applied in adsorptive stripping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead film electrodes (PbFEs) deposited in situ on glassy carbon or carbon paste supports have recently found application in adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of inorganic ions and organic substances. In this work, the PbFE, prepared in ammonia buffer solutions, was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and various voltammetric techniques. The microscopic images of the lead films deposited on the glassy carbon substrate showed a considerable variability in microstructure and compactness of the deposited layer depending on the selected experimental conditions, such as the concentration of Pb(II) species, the nucleation and deposition potential, and the time applied. The catalytic adsorptive systems of cobalt and nickel in a solution containing 0.1 ammonia buffer, 2.5 x 10-5 M nioxime and 0.25 M NaNO2 were employed to investigate the electrochemical characteristics and utility of the in situ prepared lead films. The optimal parameters, i.e. the lead concentration in the solution, the procedure of film removal, and the time and potential of lead nucleation and film deposition for the adsorptive determination of metal traces, were selected, resulting in the very good reproducibility (RSD = 4.2% for 35 scans) of recorded signals. The voltammetric utility of the lead film electrode was compared to that of glassy carbon, mercury film and bismuth film electrodes, and was subsequently evaluated as superior.

  6. The Risk Factors of Child Lead Poisoning in China: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the risk factors of child lead poisoning in China. Methods: A document retrieval was performed using MeSH (Medical subject heading terms and key words. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS was used to assess the quality of the studies, and the pooled odd ratios with a 95% confidence interval were used to identify the risk factors. We employed Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 10.0 to analyze the data. Heterogeneity was assessed by both the Chi-square and I2 tests, and publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and Egger’s test. Results: Thirty-four articles reporting 13,587 lead-poisoned children met the inclusion criteria. Unhealthy lifestyle and behaviors, environmental pollution around the home and potential for parents’ occupational exposure to lead were risk factors of child lead poisoning in the pooled analyses. Our assessments yielded no severe publication biases. Conclusions: Seventeen risk factors are associated with child lead poisoning, which can be used to identify high-risk children. Health education and promotion campaigns should be designed in order to minimize or prevent child lead poisoning in China.

  7. Convergence Analysis of a Class of Computational Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational intelligence approaches is a relatively new interdisciplinary field of research with many promising application areas. Although the computational intelligence approaches have gained huge popularity, it is difficult to analyze the convergence. In this paper, a computational model is built up for a class of computational intelligence approaches represented by the canonical forms of generic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and particle swarm optimization in order to describe the common features of these algorithms. And then, two quantification indices, that is, the variation rate and the progress rate, are defined, respectively, to indicate the variety and the optimality of the solution sets generated in the search process of the model. Moreover, we give four types of probabilistic convergence for the solution set updating sequences, and their relations are discussed. Finally, the sufficient conditions are derived for the almost sure weak convergence and the almost sure strong convergence of the model by introducing the martingale theory into the Markov chain analysis.

  8. Theoretical Approach Regarding the Bases of Success and Reasons that May Lead to Failure in Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa Loredana Dragolea; Denisa Cotîrlea Denisa

    2012-01-01

    The present paper work deals with theoretical concepts regarding the reasons that may lead to a project’s failure or success. The primary aim of the work paper is to help readers to get a view of conceptualizations of project management and its phases, while providing an opportunity to see the interferences of factors that may determine project’s success. This work paper also contains some aspects regarding key-factors and elements that may assure a good management of projects. The present su...

  9. Accounting for Errors in Model Analysis Theory: A Numerical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Steven R.; Lindell, Rebecca S.

    2004-09-01

    By studying the patterns of a group of individuals' responses to a series of multiple-choice questions, researchers can utilize Model Analysis Theory to create a probability distribution of mental models for a student population. The eigenanalysis of this distribution yields information about what mental models the students possess, as well as how consistently they utilize said mental models. Although the theory considers the probabilistic distribution to be fundamental, there exists opportunities for random errors to occur. In this paper we will discuss a numerical approach for mathematically accounting for these random errors. As an example of this methodology, analysis of data obtained from the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory will be presented. Limitations and applicability of this numerical approach will be discussed.

  10. Adaptive Molecular Resolution Approach in Hamiltonian Form: An Asymptotic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jinglong; Site, Luigi Delle

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Molecular Resolution approaches in Molecular Dynamics are becoming relevant tools for the analysis of molecular liquids characterized by the interplay of different physical scales. The essential difference among these methods is in the way the change of molecular resolution is made in a buffer/transition region. In particular a central question concerns the possibility of the existence of a global Hamiltonian which, by describing the change of resolution, is at the same time physically consistent, mathematically well defined and numerically accurate. In this paper we present an asymptotic analysis of the adaptive process complemented by numerical results and show that under certain mathematical conditions a Hamiltonian, which is physically consistent and numerically accurate, may exist. \\blue{Such conditions show that molecular simulations in the current computational implementation require systems of large size and thus a Hamiltonian approach as the one proposed, at this stage, would not be practica...

  11. Information Retrieval and Graph Analysis Approaches for Book Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoussas, Chahinez; Bellot, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    A combination of multiple information retrieval approaches is proposed for the purpose of book recommendation. In this paper, book recommendation is based on complex user's query. We used different theoretical retrieval models: probabilistic as InL2 (Divergence from Randomness model) and language model and tested their interpolated combination. Graph analysis algorithms such as PageRank have been successful in Web environments. We consider the application of this algorithm in a new retrieval approach to related document network comprised of social links. We called Directed Graph of Documents (DGD) a network constructed with documents and social information provided from each one of them. Specifically, this work tackles the problem of book recommendation in the context of INEX (Initiative for the Evaluation of XML retrieval) Social Book Search track. A series of reranking experiments demonstrate that combining retrieval models yields significant improvements in terms of standard ranked retrieval metrics. These results extend the applicability of link analysis algorithms to different environments.

  12. Computer vision approaches to medical image analysis. Revised papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post proceedings of the international workshop Computer Vision Approaches to Medical Image Analysis, CVAMIA 2006, held in Graz, Austria in May 2006 as a satellite event of the 9th European Conference on Computer Vision, EECV 2006. The 10 revised full papers and 11 revised poster papers presented together with 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from 38 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on clinical applications, image registration, image segmentation and analysis, and the poster session. (orig.)

  13. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  14. Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply a new statistical analysis technique, the Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA) in a Bayseian framework, to galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress a stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and the galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Compared to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, the MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter recovery for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters derived with galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that our MF-ICA method can not only fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but can also accurately recover the physical parameters of galaxies. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find it can provide excellent fitting results for low signal-to-noise spectra. (paper)

  15. Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Su, Shan-Shan; Kong, Xu

    2016-03-01

    We apply a new statistical analysis technique, the Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA) in a Bayseian framework, to galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress a stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and the galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Compared to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, the MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter recovery for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters derived with galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that our MF-ICA method can not only fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but can also accurately recover the physical parameters of galaxies. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find it can provide excellent fitting results for low signal-to-noise spectra.

  16. Scientific and methodical approaches to analysis of enterprise development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrechina Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern state of the Ukrainian economy urge enterprises to search for new possibilities of their development, which makes the study subject topical. The article systemises existing approaches to analysis of the potential of enterprise development and marks out two main scientific approaches: first is directed at analysis of prospects of self-development of the economic system; the second – at analysis of probability of possibilities of growth. In order to increase the quality of the process of formation of methods of analysis of potential of enterprise development, the article offers an organisation model of methods and characterises its main elements. It develops methods of analysis, in the basis of which there are indicators of potentialogical sustainability. Scientific novelty of the obtained results lies in a possibility of identification of main directions of enterprise development with the use of the enterprise development potential ration: self-development or probability of augmenting opportunities, which is traced through interconnection of resources and profit.

  17. A Safety Analysis Approach to Clinical Workflows: Application and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamis Al-Qora’n

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical workflows are safety critical workflows as they have the potential to cause harm or death to patients. Their safety needs to be considered as early as possible in the development process. Effective safety analysis methods are required to ensure the safety of these high-risk workflows, because errors that may happen through routine workflow could propagate within the workflow to result in harmful failures of the system’s output. This paper shows how to apply an approach for safety analysis of clinical workflows to analyse the safety of the workflow within a radiology department and evaluates the approach in terms of usability and benefits. The outcomes of using this approach include identification of the root causes of hazardous workflow failures that may put patients’ lives at risk. We show that the approach is applicable to this area of healthcare and is able to present added value through the detailed information on possible failures, of both their causes and effects; therefore, it has the potential to improve the safety of radiology and other clinical workflows.

  18. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ASEAN CURRENCIES USING A COPULA APPROACH AND A DYNAMIC COPULA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUKIAT CHAIBOONSRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC will be shaped developing to be a single market and production base in 2015, moving towards regional Economic Integration, 2009. These developments in international financial markets do lead to some adverse cost for AEC country borrowers. The specific objective aims to investigate the dependent measures and the co-movement among selected ASEAN currencies. A Copula Approach was used to examine dependent measures of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. Also, a Dynamic Copula Approach was tested to investigate the co-movement of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. The results of the study based on a Pearson linear correlation coefficient confirmed that Thai Baht exchange rate and each of selected ASEAN currencies have a linear correlation during the specific period excluding Vietnam exchange rate. Furthermore, based on empirical Copula Approach, Thai Baht exchange rate had a dependent structure with each of the selected in ASEAN currencies including Brunei exchange rate, Singapore exchange rate, Malaysia exchange rate, Indonesia exchange rate, Philippine exchange rate, and Vietnam exchange rate respectively. The results of Dynamic Copula estimation indicated that Thai Baht exchange rate had a co-movement with selected ASEAN currencies. The research results provide an informative and interactive ASEAN financial market to all users, including Global financial market.

  19. [Medical doctors driving technological innovation: questions about and innovation management approaches to incentive structures for lead users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Kientzler, Fionn

    2010-01-01

    Management science defines user-generated innovations as open innovation and lead user innovation. The medical technology industry finds user-generated innovations profitable and even indispensable. Innovative medical doctors as lead users need medical technology innovations in order to improve patient care. Their motivation to innovate is mostly intrinsic. But innovations may also involve extrinsic motivators such as gain in reputation or monetary incentives. Medical doctors' innovative activities often take place in hospitals and are thus embedded into the hospital's organisational setting. Hospitals find it difficult to gain short-term profits from in-house generated innovations and sometimes hesitate to support them. Strategic investment in medical doctors' innovative activities may be profitable for hospitals in the long run if innovations provide first-mover competitive advantages. Industry co-operations with innovative medical doctors offer chances but also bear potential risks. Innovative ideas generated by expert users may result in even higher complexity of medical devices; this could cause mistakes when applied by less specialised users and thus affect patient safety. Innovations that yield benefits for patients, medical doctors, hospitals and the medical technology industry can be advanced by offering adequate support for knowledge transfer and co-operation models. PMID:21147434

  20. A Key Event Path Analysis Approach for Integrated Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jingjing Liao

    2012-01-01

    By studying the key event paths of probabilistic event structure graphs (PESGs), a key event path analysis approach for integrated system models is proposed. According to translation rules concluded from integrated system architecture descriptions, the corresponding PESGs are constructed from the colored Petri Net (CPN) models. Then the definitions of cycle event paths, sequence event paths, and key event paths are given. Whereafter based on the statistic results after the simulation of CPN m...

  1. Inventory management for the health sector: ABC analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, Joana Isabel Baptista

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This project aims to analyse a hospital’s inventory management and make suggestions to improve its practices, with special attention on ABC analysis as an optimization tool for the inventory management, control and storage. Other cost reductions approaches are studied in order to contribute for the accurate management of clinical consumption...

  2. Alternative Approaches for Rating INDCs: a Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davide, Marinella; Vesco, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The “Intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs) communicated by both developing and developed countries represent a crucial element of the Paris agreement. This paper aims at analysing the INDCs submitted by Parties, through the different tools and approaches proposed by the research community. In particular, our analysis looks at the different ways to assess the effectiveness of the proposed emission reduction pledges, both in terms of aggregate and national efforts. However, we a...

  3. Performance Analysis of STFT Based Timing Approach to OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Yu-jun; TENG Yong; YIN Chang-chuan; HAO Jian-jun; YUE Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on performance analysis of the previously proposed STFT based 2-D timing approach to OFDM systems and presents simulations results of its performance in AWGN and multipath fading environment and its robustness against the duration of Channel Impulse Response (CIR) and frequency offset. Simulation results suggest that a revised version of Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) can be used to greatly reduce computational complexity, especially at higher SNR.

  4. An Ultrasound Image Despeckling Approach Based on Principle Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad F. Al-Asad; Ali M. Reza; Udomchai Techavipoo

    2014-01-01

    An approach based on principle component analysis (PCA) to filter out multiplicative noise from ultrasound images is presented in this paper. An image with speckle noise is segmented into small dyadic lengths, depending on the original size of the image, and the global covariance matrix is found. A projection matrix is then formed by selecting the maximum eigenvectors of the global covariance matrix. This projection matrix is used to filter speckle noise by projecting each segment into the si...

  5. The threat nets approach to information system security risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mirembe, Drake

    2015-01-01

    The growing demand for healthcare services is motivating hospitals to strengthen outpatient case management using information systems in order to serve more patients using the available resources. Though the use of information systems in outpatient case management raises patient data security concerns, it was established that the current approaches to information systems risk analysis do not provide logical recipes for quantifying threat impact and determining the cost-effectiveness of risk m...

  6. Applications of Crown Ether Cross-Linked Chitosan for the Analysis of Lead and Cadmium in Environmental Water Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new type of crown ether cross-linked chitosan was synthesized by the reaction of chitosan with 4,4'-dibromodibenzo-18-crown-6 (Br-DBC). Its token structure was analyzed with FT-IR and NMR and the adsorption behaviors for lead and cadmium in environmental water samples by FAAS were studied. In addition the best analysis conditions were discussed and the adsorption mechanism was explained. As the enrichment factor is above 100, both recoveries are 94%-106%, the detection limits of lead and cadmium are 0.5μg*L-1and 0.04 μg*L-1 and the relatively standard deviations of lead and cadmium are 3.1% and 2.8% respectively, this new method was successfully applied to the determination of environmental water samples. This method is fast and simple and it greatly enhances the determination ability of FAAS for lead and cadmium.

  7. Generating function approach to reliability analysis of structural systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The generating function approach is an important tool for performance assessment in multi-state systems. Aiming at strength reliability analysis of structural systems, generating function approach is introduced and developed. Static reliability models of statically determinate, indeterminate systems and fatigue reliability models are built by constructing special generating functions, which are used to describe probability distributions of strength (resistance), stress (load) and fatigue life, by defining composite operators of generating functions and performance structure functions thereof. When composition operators are executed, computational costs can be reduced by a big margin by means of collecting like terms. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the generating function approach can be widely used for probability modeling of large complex systems with hierarchical structures due to the unified form, compact expression, computer program realizability and high universality. Because the new method considers twin loads giving rise to component failure dependency, it can provide a theoretical reference and act as a powerful tool for static, dynamic reliability analysis in civil engineering structures and mechanical equipment systems with multi-mode damage coupling.

  8. Further results on the L1 analysis of sampled-data systems via kernel approximation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Hagiwara, Tomomichi

    2016-08-01

    This paper gives two methods for the L1 analysis of sampled-data systems, by which we mean computing the L∞-induced norm of sampled-data systems. This is achieved by developing what we call the kernel approximation approach in the setting of sampled-data systems. We first consider the lifting treatment of sampled-data systems and give an operator theoretic representation of their input/output relation. We further apply the fast-lifting technique by which the sampling interval [0, h) is divided into M subintervals with an equal width, and provide methods for computing the L∞-induced norm. In contrast to a similar approach developed earlier called the input approximation approach, we use an idea of kernel approximation, in which the kernel function of an input operator and the hold function of an output operator are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions. Furthermore, it is shown that the approximation errors in the piecewise constant approximation or piecewise linear approximation scheme converge to 0 at the rate of 1/M or 1/M2, respectively. In comparison with the existing input approximation approach, in which the input function (rather than the kernel function) of the input operator is approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions, we show that the kernel approximation approach gives improved computation results. More precisely, even though the convergence rates in the kernel approximation approach remain qualitatively the same as those in the input approximation approach, the newly developed former approach could lead to quantitatively improved approximation errors than the latter approach particularly when the piecewise linear approximation scheme is taken. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the kernel approximation approach with this scheme.

  9. Simulation analysis of minimum bending radius for lead frame copper alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Juanhua; Shuguo, Jia; Fengzhang, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Copper alloy has a lot of excellent properties, so it becomes an important alloy for lead frame materials for the integrated circuit. The minimum bending radius of three different copper alloys (Cu-Fe-P, Cu-Ni-Si, Cu-Cr-Sn-Zn) for lead frame materials was analyzed by using finite element. Tensile tests for the three kinds of materials were done to obtain yield stress, ultimate strength and other parameters. The strain-hardening exponent n and normal anisotropy index r of the materials were ob...

  10. In vitro and in vivo approaches for the measurement of oral bioavailability of lead (Pb) in contaminated soils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the published evidence of lead (Pb) contamination of urban soils, soil Pb risk to children through hand-to-mouth activity, reduction of soil Pb bioavailability due to soil amendments, and methods to assess bioaccessibility which correlate with bioavailability of soil Pb. Feeding tests have shown that urban soils may have much lower Pb bioavailability than previously assumed. Hence bioavailability of soil Pb is the important measure for protection of public health, not total soil Pb. Chemical extraction tests (Pb bioaccessibility) have been developed which are well correlated with the results of bioavailability tests; application of these tests can save money and time compared with feeding tests. Recent findings have revealed that fractional bioaccessibility (bioaccessible compared to total) of Pb in urban soils is only 5-10% of total soil Pb, far lower than the 60% as bioavailable as food-Pb presumed by U.S.-EPA (30% absolute bioavailability used in IEUBK model). - Highlights: → Among direct exposure pathways for Pb in urban environments, inadvertent ingestion of soil is considered the major concern. → The concentration of lead in house dusts is significantly related to that in garden soil, and is highest at older homes. → In modeling risks from diet/water/soil Pb, US-EPA presumes that soil-Pb is 60% as bioavailable as other dietary Pb. → Joplin study proved that RBALP method seriously underestimated the ability of phosphate treatments to reduce soil Pb bioavailability. → Zia et al. method has revealed that urban soils have only 5-10% bioaccessible Pb of total Pb level. - Improved risk evaluation and recommendations for Pb contaminated soils should be based on bioavailability-correlated bioaccessible soil Pb rather than total soil Pb.

  11. Scaled Facility Design Approach for Pool-Type Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Small Modular Reactor Utilizing Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sangrok; Shin, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In low carbon era, nuclear energy is the most prominent energy source of electricity. For steady ecofriendly nuclear energy supply, Generation IV reactors which are future nuclear reactor require safety, sustainability, economics and non-proliferation as four criteria. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of these reactor type and Generation IV international forum (GIF) adapted three reference LFR systems which are a small and movable systems with long life without refueling, intermediate size and huge electricity generation system for power grid. NUTRECK (Nuclear Transmutation Energy Center of Korea) has been designed reactor called URANUS (Ubiquitous, Rugged, Accident-forgiving, Non-proliferating, and Ultra-lasting Sustainer) which is small modular reactor and using lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. To prove natural circulation capability of URANUS and analyze design based accidents, scaling mock-up experiment facility will be constructed. In this paper, simple specifications of URANUS will be presented. Then based on this feature, scaling law and scaled facility design results are presented. To validate safety feature and thermodynamics characteristic of URANUS, scaled mockup facility of URANUS is designed based on the scaling law. This mockup adapts two area scale factors, core and lower parts of mock-up are scaled for 3D flow experiment. Upper parts are scaled different size to reduce electricity power and LBE tonnage. This hybrid scaling method could distort some thermal-hydraulic parameters, however, key parameters for experiment will be matched for up-scaling. Detailed design of mock-up will be determined through iteration for design optimization.

  12. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  13. Stability analysis for natural slope by kinematical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志彬; 覃长兵

    2014-01-01

    The stability of natural slope was analyzed on the basis of limit analysis. The sliding model of a kind of natural slope was presented. A new kinematically admissible velocity field for the new sliding model was constructed. The stability factor formulation by the upper bound theorem leads to a classical nonlinear programming problem, when the external work rate and internal energy dissipation were solved, and the constraint condition of the programming problem was given. The upper bound optimization problem can be solved efficiently by applying a nonlinear SQP algorithm, and stability factor was obtained, which agrees well with previous achievements.

  14. A graphical vector autoregressive modelling approach to the analysis of electronic diary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipfel Stephan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, electronic diaries are increasingly used in medical research and practice to investigate patients' processes and fluctuations in symptoms over time. To model dynamic dependence structures and feedback mechanisms between symptom-relevant variables, a multivariate time series method has to be applied. Methods We propose to analyse the temporal interrelationships among the variables by a structural modelling approach based on graphical vector autoregressive (VAR models. We give a comprehensive description of the underlying concepts and explain how the dependence structure can be recovered from electronic diary data by a search over suitable constrained (graphical VAR models. Results The graphical VAR approach is applied to the electronic diary data of 35 obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED. The dynamic relationships for the two subgroups between eating behaviour, depression, anxiety and eating control are visualized in two path diagrams. Results show that the two subgroups of obese patients with and without BED are distinguishable by the temporal patterns which influence their respective eating behaviours. Conclusion The use of the graphical VAR approach for the analysis of electronic diary data leads to a deeper insight into patient's dynamics and dependence structures. An increasing use of this modelling approach could lead to a better understanding of complex psychological and physiological mechanisms in different areas of medical care and research.

  15. The analysis of modifying effect of gold, silver and iron citrates on embryotoxicity of lead acetate in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatornaya V.F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metals and their nanoforms are widely used in modern medicine and veterinary as antimicrobial bandage and films in surgery (silver and also as an agent for targeted delivery of medicines in oncology (gold. At the same time their impact on embryogenesis and reproductive system is still poorly understood. Objective. The purpose of this experimental work was to investigate the possible modification effect of iron, gold and silver citrates on toxicity of low doses of lead acetate on reproductive function and embryogenesis of rats. Methods. 40 female rats were subdivided into 5 groups: 1st – administration of lead acetate; 2nd – lead acetate + gold citrate; 3rd – lead acetate + silver citrate; 4th – lead acetate + iron citrate; 5th – control. Solutions were administered to pregnant rats through a catheter once a day, daily from the 1st to the 19th days of pregnancy. Results. Introduction of ultra-low doses of lead acetate to pregnant female rats caused embryotoxicity; it resulted in significant decrease in the number of alive fetuses (17% and corpora lutea in ovaries. The combined administration of low doses of lead acetate + metal citrates resulted in the increased number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and percentage of alive fetuses, due to a decrease in general and pre-implantation embryonic mortality compared with the 1st experimental group at almost the same weight of fetuses. Conclusion. Results of the experiment have shown that the administration of gold, iron and silver citrates in combination with lead acetate prevents the negative impact of the latter on the reproductive system and on the processes of embryonic development. Citation: Shatornaya VF, Kaplunenko VG, Chekman IS, Garets VI, Beletskaya EN, Nefedova EA, Onul NM. [The analysis of modifying effect of gold, silver and iron citrates on embryotoxicity of lead acetate in experiment]. Morphologia. 2014;8(1:99-103. Russian.

  16. ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT OF LEAD TIME FOR JOB SHOP UNDER MIXED PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Jianguo; HE Zhen; EDWARB M Knod

    2006-01-01

    Firstly an overview of the potential impact on work-in-process (WIP) and lead time is provided when transfer lot sizes are undifferentiated from processing lot sizes. Simple performance examples are compared to those from a shop with one-piece transfer lots. Next, a mathematical programming model for minimizing lead time in the mixed-model job shop is presented, in which one-piece transfer lots are used. Key factors affecting lead time are found by analyzing the sum of the longest setup time of individual items among the shared processes (SLST) and the longest processing time of individual items among processes (LPT). And lead time can be minimized by cutting down the SLST and LPT. Reduction of the SLST is described as a traveling salesman problem (TSP), and the minimum of the SLST is solved through job shop scheduling. Removing the bottleneck and leveling the production line optimize the LPT. If the number of items produced is small, the routings are relatively short, and items and facilities are changed infrequently, the optimal schedule will remain valid. Finally a brief example serves to illustrate the method.

  17. Method of analysis for the determination of lead and cadmium in fresh meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.

    1980-01-01

    This report comprises the result of the RIKILT of an intercomparison on the determination of lead and cadmium in bovine liver and bovine kidney. The aim of this round robbin was to check a wet ashing procedure followed by a flame AAS determination as described too in EEC doc. 2266/VI/77. Special att

  18. ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an extensive program to study the small combustion sources of indoor fine particulate matter (PM), candles with lead-core wicks were burned in a 46-L glass flow- through chamber. The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters <10 micrometers (PM10) were captured ...

  19. An Analysis of Song-Leading by Kindergarten Teachers in Taiwan and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine components of the song-leading process used by kindergarten teachers in Taiwan and the United States, including the critical matter of starting pitch. Five public school kindergarten teachers in Taipei, Taiwan, and five public kindergarten teachers in Seattle, USA, were invited to participate in this study…

  20. Environmental determinants of different blood lead levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in children in France. We enrolled 484 children aged from 6months to 6years, in a nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2008-2009. We measured lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, household settled dusts, paints, cosmetics and traditional cookware). We performed two models: a multivariate generalized additive model on the geometric mean (GM), and a quantile regression model on the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th quantile of BLLs. The GM of BLLs was 13.8μg/L (=1.38μg/dL) (95% confidence intervals (CI): 12.7-14.9) and the 90th quantile was 25.7μg/L (CI: 24.2-29.5). Household and common area dust, tap water, interior paint, ceramic cookware, traditional cosmetics, playground soil and dust, and environmental tobacco smoke were associated with the GM of BLLs. Household dust and tap water made the largest contributions to both the GM and the 90th quantile of BLLs. The concentration of lead in dust was positively correlated with all quantiles of BLLs even at low concentrations. Lead concentrations in tap water above 5μg/L were also positively correlated with the GM, 75th and 90th quantiles of BLLs in children drinking tap water. Preventative actions must target household settled dust and tap water to reduce the BLLs of children in France. The use of traditional cosmetics should be avoided whereas ceramic cookware should be limited to decorative purposes.

  1. A global sensitivity analysis approach for morphogenesis models

    KAUST Repository

    Boas, Sonja E. M.

    2015-11-21

    Background Morphogenesis is a developmental process in which cells organize into shapes and patterns. Complex, non-linear and multi-factorial models with images as output are commonly used to study morphogenesis. It is difficult to understand the relation between the uncertainty in the input and the output of such ‘black-box’ models, giving rise to the need for sensitivity analysis tools. In this paper, we introduce a workflow for a global sensitivity analysis approach to study the impact of single parameters and the interactions between them on the output of morphogenesis models. Results To demonstrate the workflow, we used a published, well-studied model of vascular morphogenesis. The parameters of this cellular Potts model (CPM) represent cell properties and behaviors that drive the mechanisms of angiogenic sprouting. The global sensitivity analysis correctly identified the dominant parameters in the model, consistent with previous studies. Additionally, the analysis provided information on the relative impact of single parameters and of interactions between them. This is very relevant because interactions of parameters impede the experimental verification of the predicted effect of single parameters. The parameter interactions, although of low impact, provided also new insights in the mechanisms of in silico sprouting. Finally, the analysis indicated that the model could be reduced by one parameter. Conclusions We propose global sensitivity analysis as an alternative approach to study the mechanisms of morphogenesis. Comparison of the ranking of the impact of the model parameters to knowledge derived from experimental data and from manipulation experiments can help to falsify models and to find the operand mechanisms in morphogenesis. The workflow is applicable to all ‘black-box’ models, including high-throughput in vitro models in which output measures are affected by a set of experimental perturbations.

  2. Sensitivity analysis approach to multibody systems described by natural coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Wang, Yabin

    2014-03-01

    The classical natural coordinate modeling method which removes the Euler angles and Euler parameters from the governing equations is particularly suitable for the sensitivity analysis and optimization of multibody systems. However, the formulation has so many principles in choosing the generalized coordinates that it hinders the implementation of modeling automation. A first order direct sensitivity analysis approach to multibody systems formulated with novel natural coordinates is presented. Firstly, a new selection method for natural coordinate is developed. The method introduces 12 coordinates to describe the position and orientation of a spatial object. On the basis of the proposed natural coordinates, rigid constraint conditions, the basic constraint elements as well as the initial conditions for the governing equations are derived. Considering the characteristics of the governing equations, the newly proposed generalized-α integration method is used and the corresponding algorithm flowchart is discussed. The objective function, the detailed analysis process of first order direct sensitivity analysis and related solving strategy are provided based on the previous modeling system. Finally, in order to verify the validity and accuracy of the method presented, the sensitivity analysis of a planar spinner-slider mechanism and a spatial crank-slider mechanism are conducted. The test results agree well with that of the finite difference method, and the maximum absolute deviation of the results is less than 3%. The proposed approach is not only convenient for automatic modeling, but also helpful for the reduction of the complexity of sensitivity analysis, which provides a practical and effective way to obtain sensitivity for the optimization problems of multibody systems.

  3. Lead us not into tanktation: a simulation modelling approach to gain insights into incentives for sporting teams to tank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey N Tuck

    Full Text Available Annual draft systems are the principal method used by teams in major sporting leagues to recruit amateur players. These draft systems frequently take one of three forms: a lottery style draft, a weighted draft, or a reverse-order draft. Reverse-order drafts can create incentives for teams to deliberately under-perform, or tank, due to the perceived gain from obtaining quality players at higher draft picks. This paper uses a dynamic simulation model that captures the key components of a win-maximising sporting league, including the amateur player draft, draft choice error, player productivity, and between-team competition, to explore how competitive balance and incentives to under-perform vary according to league characteristics. We find reverse-order drafts can lead to some teams cycling between success and failure and to other teams being stuck in mid-ranking positions for extended periods of time. We also find that an incentive for teams to tank exists, but that this incentive decreases (i as uncertainty in the ability to determine quality players in the draft increases, (ii as the number of teams in the league reduces, (iii as team size decreases, and (iv as the number of teams adopting a tanking strategy increases. Simulation models can be used to explore complex stochastic dynamic systems such as sports leagues, where managers face difficult decisions regarding the structure of their league and the desire to maintain competitive balance.

  4. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: an integrated mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Hashimoto, Yohey; Moon, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-03-30

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to ≈ 1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0-47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH)(2)] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb(2)O(SO(4))]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils. PMID:22309654

  5. Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

    2004-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus. PMID:14982163

  6. Application of a series of artificial neural networks to on-site quantitative analysis of lead into real soil samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haddad, J. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bruyère, D. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 av. C. Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G. [IVEA Solution, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, Bât 503, 91400 Orsay (France); Laperche, V.; Michel, K. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 av. C. Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Canioni, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bousquet, B., E-mail: bruno.bousquet@u-bordeaux.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2014-07-01

    Artificial neural networks were applied to process data from on-site LIBS analysis of soil samples. A first artificial neural network allowed retrieving the relative amounts of silicate, calcareous and ores matrices into soils. As a consequence, each soil sample was correctly located inside the ternary diagram characterized by these three matrices, as verified by ICP-AES. Then a series of artificial neural networks were applied to quantify lead into soil samples. More precisely, two models were designed for classification purpose according to both the type of matrix and the range of lead concentrations. Then, three quantitative models were locally applied to three data subsets. This complete approach allowed reaching a relative error of prediction close to 20%, considered as satisfying in the case of on-site analysis. - Highlights: • Application of a series of artificial neural networks (ANN) to quantitative LIBS • Matrix-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Concentration-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Series of quantitative ANN models dedicated to the analysis of data subsets • Relative error of prediction lower than 20% for LIBS analysis of soil samples.

  7. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  8. Earthquake response analysis of RC bridges using simplified modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Hyung; Kim, Dookie; Park, Taehyo

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, simplified modeling approaches describing the hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete bridge piers are proposed. For this purpose, flexure-axial and shear-axial interaction models are developed and implemented into a nonlinear finite element analysis program. Comparative verifications for reinforced concrete columns prove that the analytical predictions obtained with the new formulations show good correlation with experimental results under various levels of axial forces and section types. In addition, analytical correlation studies for the inelastic earthquake response of reinforced concrete bridge structures are also carried out using the simplified modeling approaches. Relatively good agreement is observed in the results between the current modeling approach and the elaborated fiber models. It is thus encouraging that the present developments and approaches are capable of identifying the contribution of deformation mechanisms correctly. Subsequently, the present developments can be used as a simple yet effective tool for the deformation capacity evaluation of reinforced concrete columns in general and reinforced concrete bridge piers in particular.

  9. Geographic analysis of health risks of pediatric lead exposure: a golden opportunity to promote healthy neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyana, Tonny J; Margai, Florence M

    2007-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the authors investigated pediatric blood lead levels (BLLs) at 2 threshold levels in neighborhoods across the US city of Chicago, examining geographic associations with demographic risk factors and housing characteristics, using data from large-scale childhood BLL screening records from 1997 through 2003. They used logistic regression and geostatistical methods to assess disease dynamics and probability of elevated BLLs. The results showed a significant decline of elevated BLLs, with levels measured at >or= 10 microg/dL decreasing by 74%, compared with a 40% decrease for the lower levels (6-9 microg/dL). The Westside and Southside neighborhoods, with a high concentration of minority populations, had the highest prevalence rates, which were significantly associated with living in pre-1950 housing units. The findings provided insights for lead prevention, implications for lowering the threshold limit, and suggestions for the urgent task of developing healthy neighborhoods. PMID:18316267

  10. Extending dynamic segmentation with lead generation: A latent class Markov analysis of financial product portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Paas, L.J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    A recent development in marketing research concerns the incorporation of dynamics in consumer segmentation.This paper extends the latent class Markov model, a suitable technique for conducting dynamic segmentation, in order to facilitate lead generation.We demonstrate the application of the latent Markov model for these purposes using a database containing information on the ownership of twelve financial products and demographics for explaining (changes in) consumer product portfolios.Data we...

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Tritium Transport in Multi-Region Lead-Lithium Liquid Metal Blankets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    It is critical to be able to predict tritium transport in lead-lithium liquid metal (LM) blankets with great accuracy to provide information for fusion reactor safety and economy analyses. However, tritium transport processes are complex and affected by multiple physics such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow, yet there is no single computer code capable of simulating these phenomena inclusively. Thus the objectives of this research are: 1) to develop mathematical models and computational code...

  12. Design and performance of lead systems for the analysis of atrial signal components in the ECG

    OpenAIRE

    Ihara, Zenichi

    2006-01-01

    For over a century, electrocardiology has been observing human cardiac activity through recordings of electrocardiograms (ECG). The potential differences derived from the nine electrodes of the standard 12-lead ECG, placed at their designated positions, are the expression of electric dynamics of which the heart is the source. According to well-defined protocols and established criteria of diagnosis, the signals of the electrocardiogram are used as indicators of cardiac pathology. However, of ...

  13. Design and performance of lead systems for the analysis of atrial signal components in the ECG

    OpenAIRE

    Ihara, Zenichi; Vesin, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    For over a century, electrocardiology has been observing human cardiac activity through recordings of electrocardiograms (ECG). The potential differences derived from the nine electrodes of the standard 12-lead ECG, placed at their designated positions, are the expression of electric dynamics of which the heart is the source. According to well-defined protocols and established criteria of diagnosis, the signals of the electrocardiogram are used as indicators of cardiac pathology. However, of ...

  14. Natural and anthropogenic lead in soils and vegetables around Guiyang city, southwest China: A Pb isotopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fei-Li [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Liu, Cong-Qiang, E-mail: liucongqiang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yang, Yuan-Gen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Bi, Xiang-Yang [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Tao-Ze; Zhao, Zhi-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Soils, vegetables and rainwaters from three vegetable production bases in the Guiyang area, southwest China, were analyzed for Pb concentrations and isotope compositions to trace its sources in the vegetables and soils. Lead isotopic compositions were not distinguishable between yellow soils and calcareous soils, but distinguishable among sampling sites. The highest {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios were found for rainwaters (0.8547-0.8593 and 2.098-2.109, respectively), and the lowest for soils (0.7173-0.8246 and 1.766-2.048, respectively). The {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios increased in vegetables in the order of roots < stems < leaves < fruits. Plots of the {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios versus the {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios from all samples formed a straight line and supported a binary end-member mixing model for Pb in vegetables. Using deep soils and rainwaters as geogenic and anthropogenic end members in the mixing model, it was estimated that atmospheric Pb contributed 30-77% to total Pb for vegetable roots, 43-71% for stems, 72-85% for leaves, and 90% for capsicum fruits, whereas 10-70% of Pb in all vegetable parts was derived from soils. This research supports that heavy metal contamination in vegetables can result mainly from atmospheric deposition, and Pb isotope technique is useful for tracing the sources of Pb contamination in vegetables.

  15. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: An integrated mechanistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Eggshell and calcined eggshell immobilized Pb in the shooting range soil. ► Calcined eggshell was more effective on Pb immobilization compared to eggshell. ► Exchangeable Pb fractions were transformed to carbonate bound fractions. ► Calcined eggshell stabilized Pb by enwrapping into calcium silicate hydrate. ► Soil Pb toxicity can be reduced by applying eggshell and calcined eggshell. - Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to ∼1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0–47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH)2] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb2O(SO4)]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils.

  16. LEADAT: a MATLAB-based program for lead-210 data analysis of sediment cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xueqiang; MATSUMOTO Eiji

    2006-01-01

    The program described herein (LEADAT) serves to calculate sediment date and sedimentation rate using the 210Pb method for the studies of environmental processes and pollution history on a time scale of 100~150 a. The program written in MATLAB (Version7.0) permits the user to select the principal models of 210Pb method, I.e., the constant fluxes of sediment and lead-210 (CFSL) model, the constant flux of lead-210 (CFL) model, the constant initial concentration of lead-210 (CICL) model and the two-layer mixing (TLM) model. Although appropriate model selection is essentially based on understanding of the sedimentary processes, the pattern of the excess 210Pb profile is also helpful for model selection. The excess 210Pb profiles for two sediment cores collected from a brackish lake and an embayment respectively are used to demonstrate the application of the program. With a graphical user interface, the program can be easily executed. Not only ASCII but also graphical output can be generated by means of the program. Meanwhile, the code can be modified easily for extension.

  17. Standard error in the Jacobson and Truax Reliable Change Index: the "classical approach" leads to poor estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Nancy R

    2004-10-01

    Different authors have used different estimates of variability in the denominator of the Reliable Change Index (RCI). Maassen attempts to clarify some of the differences and the assumptions underlying them. In particular he compares the 'classical' approach using an estimate S(Ed) supposedly based on measurement error alone with an estimate S(Diff) based on the variability of observed differences in a population that should have no true change. Maassen concludes that not only is S(Ed) based on classical theory, but it properly estimates variability due to measurement error and practice effect while S(Diff) overestimates variability by accounting twice for the variability due to practice. Simulations show Maassen to be wrong on both accounts. With an error rate nominally set to 10%, RCI estimates using S(Diff) wrongly declare change in 10.4% and 9.4% of simulated cases without true change while estimates using S(Ed) wrongly declare change in 17.5% and 12.3% of the simulated cases (p practice effects, SEd estimates the variability of change due to measurement error to be .34, when the true variability due to measurement error was .014. Neuropsychologists should not use SEd in the denominator of the RCI. PMID:15637781

  18. International Lead Zinc Research Organization-sponsored field-data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in stationary applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A. [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States); Moseley, P.T. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Butler, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project with the following aims: to characterize relationships between valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; to establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; to identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; to identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; to recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. In the first phase of this project, ILZRO has contracted with Energetics to identify and survey manufacturers and users of VRLA batteries for stationary applications (including electric utilities, telecommunications companies, and government facilities). The confidential survey is collecting the service conditions of specific applications and performance records for specific VRLA technologies. From the data collected, Energetics is constructing a database of the service histories and analyzing the data to determine trends in performance for particular technologies in specific service conditions. ILZRO plans to make the final report of the analysis and a version of the database (that contains no proprietary information) available to ILZRO members, participants in the survey, and participants in a follow-on workshop for stakeholders in VRLA reliability. This paper presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users, discusses the analytic approach, presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that have emerged in the early analysis of the data, and previews the functionality of the database being constructed. (orig.)

  19. Thermal analysis of selected tin-based lead-free solder alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palcut, Marián; Sopoušek, J.; Trnková, L.;

    2009-01-01

    ) and thermodynamic calculations using the CALPHAD approach. The amount of the alloying elements in the materials was chosen to be close to the respective eutectic composition and the nominal compositions were the following: Sn-3.7Ag-0.7Cu, Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-1Bi (in wt.%). Thermal effects during melting and solidifying...

  20. Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherogenesis: An Energy Estimate Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ibragimov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a disease of the vasculature that is characterized by chronic inflammation and the accumulation of lipids and apoptotic cells in the walls of large arteries. This disease results in plaque growth in an infected artery typically leading to occlusion of the artery. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of human mortality in the US, much of Europe, and parts of Asia. In a previous work, we introduced a mathematical model of the biochemical aspects of the disease, in particular the inflammatory response of macrophages in the presence of chemoattractants and modified low density lipoproteins. Herein, we consider the onset of a lesion as resulting from an instability in an equilibrium configuration of cells and chemical species. We derive an appropriate norm by taking an energy estimate approach and present stability criteria. A bio-physical analysis of the mathematical results is presented.

  1. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  2. Novel Approach for Positioning Sensor Lead Wires on SiC-Based Monolithic Ceramic and FRCMC Components/Subcomponents Having Flat and Curved Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, J. Douglas; Singh, Mrityunjay; Lei, Jin-Fen; Martin, Lisa C.

    1999-01-01

    A novel attachment approach for positioning sensor lead wires on silicon carbide-based monolithic ceramic and fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite (FRCMC) components has been developed. This approach is based on an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology, named ARCJoinT, which was developed for the joining of silicon carbide-based ceramic and fiber reinforced composites. The ARCJoinT technique has previously been shown to produce joints with tailorable thickness and good high temperature strength. In this study, silicon carbide-based ceramic and FRCMC attachments of different shapes and sizes were joined onto silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/ SiC) composites having flat and curved surfaces. Based on results obtained in previous joining studies. the joined attachments should maintain their mechanical strength and integrity at temperatures up to 1350 C in air. Therefore they can be used to position and secure sensor lead wires on SiC/SiC components that are being tested in programs that are focused on developing FRCMCs for a number of demanding high temperature applications in aerospace and ground-based systems. This approach, which is suitable for installing attachments on large and complex shaped monolithic ceramic and composite components, should enhance the durability of minimally intrusive high temperature sensor systems. The technology could also be used to reinstall attachments on ceramic components that were damaged in service.

  3. Top leads for swine influenza A/H1N1 virus revealed by steered molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Binh Khanh; Viet, Man Hoang; Li, Mai Suan

    2010-12-27

    Since March 2009, the rapid spread of infection during the recent A/H1N1 swine flu pandemic has raised concerns of a far more dangerous outcome should this virus become resistant to current drug therapies. Currently oseltamivir (tamiflu) is intensively used for the treatment of influenza and is reported effective for 2009 A/H1N1 virus. However, as this virus is evolving fast, some drug-resistant strains are emerging. Therefore, it is critical to seek alternative treatments and identify roots of the drug resistance. In this paper, we use the steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach to estimate the binding affinity of ligands to the glycoprotein neuraminidase. Our idea is based on the hypothesis that the larger is the force needed to unbind a ligand from a receptor the higher its binding affinity. Using all-atom models with Gromos force field 43a1 and explicit water, we have studied the binding ability of 32 ligands to glycoprotein neuraminidase from swine flu virus A/H1N1. The electrostatic interaction is shown to play a more important role in binding affinity than the van der Waals one. We have found that four ligands 141562, 5069, 46080, and 117079 from the NSC set are the most promising candidates to cope with this virus, while peramivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir are ranked 8, 11, and 20. The observation that these four ligands are better than existing commercial drugs has been also confirmed by our results on the binding free energies obtained by the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. Our prediction may be useful for the therapeutic application. PMID:21090736

  4. An Approach to Analysis of Stable Isotopes in Microsamples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩友科; 安娜

    1991-01-01

    A new aproach to isotopic analysis of carbon,oxygen,sulfur and nitrogen in microsamples has been established.Samples were conventionally prepared by mixing microsamples to be analyzed with reference samples with known δ values in a proper proportion,and then analyzed for their stable isotopes as those at ordinary levels.According to the equilibrium relationships before and after mixing,the δvalues of unknown microsamples were calculated.The δ15N of the atmosphere was estimated at zero by this approach,which is concordant with the internationally recommended value.

  5. Unified Approach to Vulnerability Analysis of Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H. T.; Loh, P. K. K.

    2008-11-01

    Web vulnerabilities in web-based applications may be detected, classified and documented. Several Web scanners exist for vulnerabilities in Web applications implemented via different technologies. However, none of them provides the technology-independent, generic coverage of possible vulnerabilities. In this project that is funded by Mindef Singapore, we propose a new approach for Web application security and vulnerability analysis. The design addresses the categorization of scanner results with a generic data model and the design of a language-independent rule-based engine that detects, analyses and reports suspected vulnerabilities in web-based applications.

  6. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  7. Kinematic Accuracy Analysis of Lead Screw W Insertion Mechanism with Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hu; Zhang, Lei; Kong, Jiayuan

    According to the actual requirements of w insertion, a set of variable lead screw w mechanism was designed, motion characteristics of the mechanism were analyzed and kinematics simulation was carried out with MATLAB. Mechanism precision was analyzed with the analytical method and the error coefficient curve of each component in the mechanism was obtained. Dynamics simulation for rigid mechanism and mechanism with flexibility in different speed was conducted with ADAMS, furthermore, real-time elastic deformation of the flexible Connecting rod was obtained. In consideration of the influences of the elastic connecting rod, the outputs motion error and elastic deformation of components were increased with the speed of the loom.

  8. Modeling and analysis for determining optimal suppliers under stochastic lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani

    2010-01-01

    systems. The item acquisition lead times of suppliers are random variables. Backorder is allowed and shortage cost is charged based on not only per unit in shortage but also per time unit. Continuous review (s,Q) policy has been assumed. When the inventory level depletes to a reorder level, the total......, procurement cost, inventory holding cost, and shortage cost, is minimized. We also conduct extensive numerical experiments to show the advantages of our model compared with the models in the literature. According to our extensive experiments, the model developed in this paper is the best model...

  9. Determination of lead, cadmium and thallium by neutron activation analysis in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical procedure for simultaneous determination of lead (203Pb), thallium (202Tl) and cadmium (115Cd→115mIn) after fast neutron activation, based on ion-exchange separation from bromide medium and additional purification steps for Pb and Tl is described. Radioactive tracers 210Pb and 10'9Cd were used for determination of the chemical yields of Pb and Cd; for Tl it was determined gravimetrically. Two standard reference materials, BCR CRM No. 146 Sewage Sludge and NIST SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash were analyzed and satisfactory agreement with certified values was obtained. (author) 17 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 schemes

  10. Analysis of electrolyte abnormalities and the mechanisms leading to arrhythmias in heart failure. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, C; Canino, B; Brucculeri, S; Firenze, A; Caimi, G

    2016-01-01

    About 50% of deaths from heart failure (HF) are sudden, presumably referable to arrhythmias. Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in HF patients. Their incidence is almost always correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction; furthermore leading to arrhythmias, these imbalances are associated with a poor prognosis. The frequency of ventricular ectopic beats and sudden cardiac death correlate with both plasma and whole body levels of potassium, especially in alkalemia. The early recognition of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are useful for the management of these HF patients.

  11. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH4)2SO4 as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. - Highlights: • Field trials evaluated situation of grain HM in main rice growing areas of Zhejiang. • Forecasting index system to predict rice grain HM concentration was achieved. • Hybrid rice holds higher grain Cd concentration than conventional cultivars. • Low grain HM accumulation rice cultivars were successfully identified. • Developed alleviating regulator which effectively reduced grain toxic HM

  12. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Runfeng [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Cheng, Wangda [Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiaxing 314016 (China); Zeng, Fanrong; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Hu, Xinna; Zhang, Guoping [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. - Highlights: • Field trials evaluated situation of grain HM in main rice growing areas of Zhejiang. • Forecasting index system to predict rice grain HM concentration was achieved. • Hybrid rice holds higher grain Cd concentration than conventional cultivars. • Low grain HM accumulation rice cultivars were successfully identified. • Developed alleviating regulator which effectively reduced grain toxic HM.

  13. Sensitivity analysis in linear programming approach to optimal SVM classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ragona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, linear programming (LP techniques for optimal one-class and two-class classification can be considered well established and feasible; they pose an alternative to the quadratic programming (QP approach, which is usually credited with having greater complexity. Sensitivity analysis, well developed in the LP context, is generally employed to furnish answers describing how an optimal solution changes when varying the parameters in an LP problem; as a possible application in optimal classification, it can be employed for the definition of the free parameters present in LP procedures, reducing the events of computational restart from scratch when searching for a satisfactory classifier through repeated trials. The proposed method is demonstrated on a simple example which exhibits its effectiveness in reducing the computational burden, but this procedure can be extrapolated to large problems as well. Keywords: Linear Programming, Optimal Classification, Sensitivity Analysis, Support Vector Machines. Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE

  14. A tessellated continuum approach to thermal analysis: discontinuity networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Davey, K.; Prosser, R.

    2016-08-01

    Tessellated continuum mechanics is an approach for the representation of thermo-mechanical behaviour of porous media on tessellated continua. It involves the application of iteration function schemes using affine contraction and expansion maps, respectively, for the creation of porous fractal materials and associated tessellated continua. Highly complex geometries can be produced using a modest number of contraction mappings. The associated tessellations form the mesh in a numerical procedure. This paper tests the hypothesis that thermal analysis of porous structures can be achieved using a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method on a tessellation. Discontinuous behaviour is identified at a discontinuity network in a tessellation; its use is shown to provide a good representation of the physics relating to cellular heat exchanger designs. Results for different cellular designs (with corresponding tessellations) are contrasted against those obtained from direct analysis and very high accuracy is observed.

  15. Occupational exposure and biological evaluation of lead in Iranian workers-a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Sayehmiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead exposure is considered as a global health problem. The irreparable harmful effects of this heavy metal on human have been proven in various studies. Comparing to general population, workers in related industries are more exposed to lead. Several studies have investigated lead occupational exposure and its biological evaluation in Iran; however there is no overall estimate. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the occupational exposure to lead and its biological evaluation in Iranian workers, using systematic review and meta-analysis. Material and Method: This study was carried out based on information obtained from databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, Trials Register, Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct, Cochran, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Springer, Online Library Wiley, and Google Scholar from 1991 to 2016, using standard key words. All of the reviewed papers which met the inclusion criteria have been evaluated. Data combination was performed according to Random Effects Model using Stata software version 11.1. Result: In the 34 qualified studies, the mean blood lead level (BLL concentration in Iranian workers was estimated 42.8µg/dl (95% CI: 35.15-50.49. The minimum and maximum BLL were belonged to west (28.348µg/dl and center (45.928µg/dl regions of Iran, respectively. Considering different occupations, the lowest mean value was reported in textile industry workers (12.3 µg/dl, while the highest value was for zinc-lead mine workers (72.6 µg/dl. Mean breathing air lead level of Iranian workers reported in 4 studies was estimated 0.23 mg/m3 (95% CI: 0.14-0.33. Conclusion: According to the high concentration of BLL and breathing air, it is recommended to increase protective measures and frequent screening. Scheduled clinical and paraclinical examination should also be performed for workers.

  16. 铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和锌原卟啉测定结果分析%Results analysis of blood lead , urine lead and zinc protoporphyrin determination in workers exposed to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛红艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较铅作业工人和非铅作业工人血铅、尿铅浓度、红细胞锌原卟啉和血常规的差异,探讨铅作业工人红细胞锌原卟啉和血铅、尿铅浓度的相关性.方法 以蓄电池企业的252名铅作业工人作为接铅组,电子厂205名非铅作业工人作为对照组,测定血铅、尿铅浓度、红细胞锌原卟啉和血常规,并对结果进行统计学处理.结果 接铅组血红蛋白含量低于对照组(P<0.05),白细胞和红细胞、血小板则无差异(P>0.05),接铅组红细胞锌原卟啉、血铅、尿铅浓度均显著高于对照组(P<0.01),尿铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关系数(r) =0.166,血铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关系数r=0.406.结论 长期接触铅可导致血铅、尿铅浓度和红细胞锌原卟啉升高,血红蛋白降低,对白细胞、红细胞、血小板无明显影响,血铅与红细胞锌原卟咻的相关性较尿铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关性好.%[ Objective] To compare the differences of blood lead , urine lead and zinc protoporphyrin determination between workers with lead exposure and workers without lead exposure, and explore the correlation ? between erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level, urine lead level of workers. [ Methods] A total of 252 lead exposed workers from a storage battery manufacture were selected as lead exposure group, another 205 workers without lead exposure from a electronics Factory as control group. The determination of blood lead level, urinary lead level, erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin and blood routine examination were performed, and the results were statistically analyzed. [ Results] Hemoglobin content of lead exposure group was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05) , while leukocytes, erythrocytes and blood platelet were not significantly different (P>0.05). Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin , blood lead , urinary lead concentration of lead exposure group were higher than those of control

  17. Mechanical and Numerical Analysis Concerning Compressive Properties of Tin-Lead Open-Cell Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Abd-Elmouneïm; Gavrus, Adinel; Bernard, Fabrice; Azzaz, Mohammed

    2015-10-01

    The design of new or innovative materials has to meet two essential criteria: increased mechanical performance and minimization of the mass. This dual requirement leads to interest in the study of various classes of metallic foams. The actual research is focused on open-cell Tin-Lead foams manufactured by replication process using NaCl preform. A mechanical press equipped with a load cell and a local extensometer with a controlled deformation rate is used. Experimental tests were carried out in order to study the influences of both the cell size and of the relative density on the mechanical behavior during a compression deformation and to analyze the obtained properties variation within a new framework. This study has three main sections which start with the manufacturing description and mechanical characterization of the proposed metallic foams followed by the understanding and modeling of their response to a compression load via a Gibson-Ashby model, a Féret law, a proposed simple Avrami model, and a generalized Avrami model. Finally, an exposition of a numerical simulation analyzing the compression of the Sn-Pb foams concerning the variation of the relative densities with respect to the plastic strain is proposed.

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing-Leading-Edge Panel Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for Entry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2010-01-01

    Linear elastic, thermo-mechanical stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels is presented for entry heating conditions. The wing-leading-edge panels are made from reinforced carbon-carbon and serve as a part of the overall thermal protection system. Three-dimensional finite element models are described for three configurations: integrated configuration, an independent single-panel configuration, and a local lower-apex joggle segment. Entry temperature conditions are imposed and the through-the-thickness response is examined. From the integrated model, it was concluded that individual panels can be analyzed independently since minimal interaction between adjacent components occurred. From the independent single-panel model, it was concluded that increased through-the-thickness stress levels developed all along the chord of a panel s slip-side joggle region, and hence isolated local joggle sections will exhibit the same trend. From the local joggle models, it was concluded that two-dimensional plane-strain models can be used to study the influence of subsurface defects along the slip-side joggle region of these panels.

  19. An integrated sampling and analysis approach for improved biodiversity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWan, Amielle A.; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    Successful biodiversity conservation requires high quality monitoring data and analyses to ensure scientifically defensible policy, legislation, and management. Although monitoring is a critical component in assessing population status and trends, many governmental and non-governmental organizations struggle to develop and implement effective sampling protocols and statistical analyses because of the magnitude and diversity of species in conservation concern. In this article we describe a practical and sophisticated data collection and analysis framework for developing a comprehensive wildlife monitoring program that includes multi-species inventory techniques and community-level hierarchical modeling. Compared to monitoring many species individually, the multi-species approach allows for improved estimates of individual species occurrences, including rare species, and an increased understanding of the aggregated response of a community to landscape and habitat heterogeneity. We demonstrate the benefits and practicality of this approach to address challenges associated with monitoring in the context of US state agencies that are legislatively required to monitor and protect species in greatest conservation need. We believe this approach will be useful to regional, national, and international organizations interested in assessing the status of both common and rare species.

  20. An Ultrasound Image Despeckling Approach Based on Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad F. Al-Asad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach based on principle component analysis (PCA to filter out multiplicative noise from ultrasound images is presented in this paper. An image with speckle noise is segmented into small dyadic lengths, depending on the original size of the image, and the global covariance matrix is found. A projection matrix is then formed by selecting the maximum eigenvectors of the global covariance matrix. This projection matrix is used to filter speckle noise by projecting each segment into the signal subspace. The approach is based on the assumption that the signal and noise are independent and that the signal subspace is spanned by a subset of few principal eigenvectors. When applied on simulated and real ultrasound images, the proposed approach has outperformed some popular nonlinear denoising techniques such as 2D wavelets, 2D total variation filtering, and 2D anisotropic diffusion filtering in terms of edge preservation and maximum cleaning of speckle noise. It has also showed lower sensitivity to outliers resulting from the log transformation of the multiplicative noise.

  1. Mutation Analysis Approach to Develop Reliable Object-Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sarma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, modern programs are large and complex and it is essential that they should be highly reliable in applications. In order to develop highly reliable software, Java programming language developer provides a rich set of exceptions and exception handling mechanisms. Exception handling mechanisms are intended to help developers build robust programs. Given a program with exception handling constructs, for an effective testing, we are to detect whether all possible exceptions are raised and caught or not. However, complex exception handling constructs make it tedious to trace which exceptions are handled and where and which exceptions are passed on. In this paper, we address this problem and propose a mutation analysis approach to develop reliable object-oriented programs. We have applied a number of mutation operators to create a large set of mutant programs with different type of faults. We then generate test cases and test data to uncover exception related faults. The test suite so obtained is applied to the mutant programs measuring the mutation score and hence verifying whether mutant programs are effective or not. We have tested our approach with a number of case studies to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed mutation analysis technique.

  2. Analysis of integral circulation and decay heat removal experiments in the lead-bismuth CIRCE facility with RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the results of the post-test analysis of some integral circulation experiments conducted on the lead-bismuth CIRCE facility are presented in comparison with the experimental data. These experiments include the simulation of unprotected loss of flow and unprotected loss of heat sink transients in a pool-type heavy liquid metal reactor. Furthermore, the results of the pre-test analysis of a protected loss of heat sink and flow transient with decay heat removal by a heat exchanger immersed in the pool and operating in natural circulation is presented. All transient analyses have been performed with the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code. (author)

  3. Thermal Structure Analysis of SIRCA Tile for X-34 Wing Leading Edge TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper will describe in detail thermal/structural analyses of SIRCA tiles which were performed at NASA Ames under the The Tile Analysis Task of the X-34 Program. The analyses used the COSMOS/M finite element software to simulate the material response in arc-jet tests, mechanical deflection tests, and the performance of candidate designs for the TPS system. Purposes of the analysis were to verify thermal and structural models for the SIRCA tiles, to establish failure criteria for stressed tiles, to simulate the TPS response under flight aerothermal and mechanical load, and to confirm that adequate safety margins exist for the actual TPS design.

  4. Analysis of a Mathematical Model of Emerging Infectious Disease Leading to Amphibian Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dur-e-Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate a three-dimensional deterministic model of amphibian larvae population to investigate the cause of extinction due to the infectious disease. The larvae population of the model is subdivided into two classes, exposed and unexposed, depending on their vulnerability to disease. Reproduction ratio ℛ0 has been calculated and we have shown that if ℛ01, we discussed different scenarios under which an infected population can survive or be eliminated using stability and persistence analysis. Finally, we also used Hopf bifurcation analysis to study the stability of periodic solutions.

  5. A ZEUS next-to-leading-order QCD analysis of data on deep inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Allfrey, P D; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Büttner, C; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cassel, D G; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Abramowicz, H; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Everett, A; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Goncalo, R; González, O; Gosau, T; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Graciani-Díaz, R; Grigorescu, G; Grijpink, S; Groys, M; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Helbich, M; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kasemann, M; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, H; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Lammers, S; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Miglioranzi, S; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, Usan; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plamondon, M; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Robins, S; Rosin, M; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Stösslein, U; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Tyszkiewicz, A; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A; De Favereau, J; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2003-01-01

    Next-to-leading order QCD analyses of the ZEUS data on deep inelastic scattering together with fixed-target data have been perfomed, from which the gluon and the quark densities of the proton and the value of the strong coupling constant, alpha_s(M_Z), were extracted. The study includes a full treatment of the experimental systematic uncertainties including point-to-point correlations. The resulting uncertainties in the parton density functions are presented. A combined fit for alpha_s(M_Z) and the gluon and qurak densities yields a value of alpha_s(M_Z) in agreement with the world average. The parton density functions derived from ZEUS data alone indicate the importance of HERA data in determining sea quark and gluon distributions at low x. The limits of applicability of the theoretical formalism have been explored by comparing the fit predictions to ZEUS data at very low Q^2.

  6. Stability Region Analysis of PID and Series Leading Correction PID Controllers for the Time Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. RAMA REDDY

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the stability regions of PID (Proportional +Integral+ Derivative and a new PID with series leading correction (SLC for Networked control system with time delay. The new PID controller has a tuning parameter ‘β’. The relation between β, KP, KI and KD is derived. The effect of plant parameters on stabilityregion of PID controllers and SLC-PID controllers in first-order and second-order systems with time delay are also studied. Finally, an open-loop zero was inserted into the plant-unstable second order system with time delay so that the stability regions of PID and SLC-PID controllers get effectively enlarged. The total system isimplemented using MATLAB/Simulink.

  7. Gap Analysis Approach for Construction Safety Program Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanet Aksorn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve construction site safety, emphasis has been placed on the implementation of safety programs. In order to successfully gain from safety programs, factors that affect their improvement need to be studied. Sixteen critical success factors of safety programs were identified from safety literature, and these were validated by safety experts. This study was undertaken by surveying 70 respondents from medium- and large-scale construction projects. It explored the importance and the actual status of critical success factors (CSFs. Gap analysis was used to examine the differences between the importance of these CSFs and their actual status. This study found that the most critical problems characterized by the largest gaps were management support, appropriate supervision, sufficient resource allocation, teamwork, and effective enforcement. Raising these priority factors to satisfactory levels would lead to successful safety programs, thereby minimizing accidents.

  8. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  9. Failed anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: analysis of factors leading to instability after primary surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yong; AO Ying-fang; YU Jia-kuo; DAI Ling-hui; SHAO Zhen-xing

    2013-01-01

    Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery can be expected to become more common as the number of primary reconstruction keeps increasing.This study aims to investigate the factors causing instability after primary ACL reconstruction,which may provide an essential scientific base to prevent surgical failure.Methods One hundred and ten revision ACL surgeries were performed at our institute between November 2001 and July 2012.There were 74 men and 36 women,and the mean age at the time of revision was 27.6 years (range 16-56 years).The factors leading to instability after primary ACL reconstruction were retrospectively reviewed.Results Fifty-one knees failed because of bone tunnel malposition,with too anterior femoral tunnels (20 knees),posterior wall blowout (1 knee),vertical femoral tunnels (7 knees),too posterior tibial tunnels (12 knees),and too anterior tibial tunnels (10 knees).There was another knee performed with open surgery,where the femoral tunnel was drilled through the medial condyle and the tibial tunnel was too anterior.Five knees were found with malposition of the fixation.One knee with allograft was suspected of rejection and a second surgery had been made to take out the graft.Three knees met recurrent instability after postoperative infection.The other factors included traumatic (48 knees) and unidentified (12 knees).Conclusion Technical errors were the main factors leading to instability after primary ACL reconstructions,while attention should also be paid to the risk factors of re-injury and failure of graft incorporation.

  10. A root cause analysis approach to risk assessment of a pipeline network for Kuwait Oil Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Ray J.; Alfano, Tony D. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Waheed, Farrukh [Kuwait Oil Company, Ahmadi (Kuwait); Komulainen, Tiina [Kongsberg Oil and Gas Technologies, Sandvika (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    A large scale risk assessment was performed by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) for the entire Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) pipeline network. This risk assessment was unique in that it incorporated the assessment of all major sources of process related risk faced by KOC and included root cause management system related risks in addition to technical risks related to more immediate causes. The assessment was conducted across the entire pipeline network with the scope divided into three major categories:1. Integrity Management 2. Operations 3. Management Systems Aspects of integrity management were ranked and prioritized using a custom algorithm based on critical data sets. A detailed quantitative risk assessment was then used to further evaluate those issues deemed unacceptable, and finally a cost benefit analysis approach was used to compare and select improvement options. The operations assessment involved computer modeling of the entire pipeline network to assess for bottlenecks, surge and erosion analysis, and to identify opportunities within the network that could potentially lead to increased production. The management system assessment was performed by conducting a gap analysis on the existing system and by prioritizing those improvement actions that best aligned with KOC's strategic goals for pipelines. Using a broad and three-pronged approach to their overall risk assessment, KOC achieved a thorough, root cause analysis-based understanding of risks to their system as well as a detailed list of recommended remediation measures that were merged into a 5-year improvement plan. (author)

  11. A Chemoinformatics Approach to the Discovery of Lead-Like Molecules from Marine and Microbial Sources En Route to Antitumor and Antibiotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florbela Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive information of small molecules and their biological activities in the PubChem database allows chemoinformatic researchers to access and make use of large-scale biological activity data to improve the precision of drug profiling. A Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship approach, for classification, was used for the prediction of active/inactive compounds relatively to overall biological activity, antitumor and antibiotic activities using a data set of 1804 compounds from PubChem. Using the best classification models for antibiotic and antitumor activities a data set of marine and microbial natural products from the AntiMarin database were screened—57 and 16 new lead compounds for antibiotic and antitumor drug design were proposed, respectively. All compounds proposed by our approach are classified as non-antibiotic and non-antitumor compounds in the AntiMarin database. Recently several of the lead-like compounds proposed by us were reported as being active in the literature.

  12. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe

    2016-03-01

    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  13. Process and technoeconomic analysis of leading pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic ethanol production using switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Aden, Andy; Elander, Richard T; Pallapolu, Venkata Ramesh; Lee, Y Y; Garlock, Rebecca J; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R; Falls, Matthew; Holtzapple, Mark T; Sierra, Rocio; Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat A; Redmond, Tim; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E; Hames, Bonnie; Thomas, Steve; Warner, Ryan E

    2011-12-01

    Six biomass pretreatment processes to convert switchgrass to fermentable sugars and ultimately to cellulosic ethanol are compared on a consistent basis in this technoeconomic analysis. The six pretreatment processes are ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide-impregnated steam explosion (SO(2)). Each pretreatment process is modeled in the framework of an existing biochemical design model so that systematic variations of process-related changes are consistently captured. The pretreatment area process design and simulation are based on the research data generated within the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) 3 project. Overall ethanol production, total capital investment, and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) are reported along with selected sensitivity analysis. The results show limited differentiation between the projected economic performances of the pretreatment options, except for processes that exhibit significantly lower monomer sugar and resulting ethanol yields.

  14. Profit and Cost Efficiency Analysis in Banking Sector: A Case of Stochastic Frontier Approach for Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Ngan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available By using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA approach to measure the cost and profit efficiency for data of 45 Vietnam commercial banks over the years from 2007 to 2012, this paper highlights risk and asset quality factors related to cost and profit inefficiency of the banks. Besides, cost inefficiency seems to be strongly related to bank concentration, mergers, and bank ownership. These results suggested mergers and acquisition can gain potential cost inefficiency and foster banks’ competition in the banking system. Based on test of variance analysis, State owned commercial banks (SCOB is more efficiency than other domestic, commercial banks (JSCB and foreign banks in terms of profit efficiency, in contrast to cost efficiency, international banks are leading in cost efficiency than other national banks.

  15. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sweileh, Waleed M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Methods Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all ...

  16. Heat Recovery in a Pasta Factory. Pinch Analysis Leads to Optimal Heat Pump Usage.

    OpenAIRE

    Staine, Frédéric; Favrat, Daniel; Krummenacher, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    In the previous issue of the IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter (Vol, 12, No.3, pp. 29-31), an article by these authors described the use of pinch analysis (also known as pinch technology) in a buildings application. This article describes a similar procedure for integrating a heat pump into a pasta production process. Many industrial processes, and particularly those dealing with drying, are characterized by an overabundance of low- grade heat which often cannot be effi...

  17. Computerized two-lead resting ECG analysis for the detection of coronary artery stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard Grube, Andreas Bootsveld, Seyrani Yuecel, Joseph T. Shen, Michael Imhoff

    2007-01-01

    Background: Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) shows limited sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several methods exist to enhance sensitivity and specificity of resting ECG for diagnosis of CAD, but such methods are not better than a specialist's judgement. We compared a new computer-enhanced, resting ECG analysis device, 3DMP, to coronary angiography to evaluate the device's accuracy in detecting hemodynamically relevant CAD. Methods: A convenience sa...

  18. Application of CFD to Safety and Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Lead-Cooled Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jeltsov, Marti

    2011-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly being used in nuclear reactor safety analysis as a tool that enables safety related physical phenomena occurring in the reactor coolant system to be described in more detail and accuracy. Validation is a necessary step in improving predictive capability of a computationa code or coupled computational codes. Validation refers to the assessment of model accuracy incorporating any uncertainties (aleatory and epistemic) that may be of importance....

  19. Study of the speciation of lead and zinc in industrial dusts and slags and in a contaminated soil: a spectroscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the study of physicochemical forms of metals in polluted soils is necessary to understand their mobilisation, and therefore to assess the risk they represent for the environment, the objective of this research thesis is to determine the speciation of lead and zinc in a soil contaminated by particles (dust and slag) released by a lead production plant. This determination is performed by using a spectroscopic approach, optic microscopy, X ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, electronic microprobe, and Raman micro-spectrometry. In order to understand the evolution of speciation of metals and of their propagation in soils, dust and slag produced by the industrial process have been sampled, and morphologically characterized. Associations of metals with other compounds like iron oxides and carbonates have been highlighted. The author shows that the contact with the ground results in a higher alteration of particles and in metal mobilisation. She reports the study of lead and zinc localisation in various particles, and of the influence of a change of soil physicochemical conditions (pH decrease, reduction by soil clogging during humid periods)

  20. Artificial intelligence approach in analysis of DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brézillon, P J; Zaraté, P; Saci, F

    1993-01-01

    We present an approach for designing a knowledge-based system, called Sequence Acquisition In Context (SAIC), that will be able to cooperate with a biologist in the analysis of DNA sequences. The main task of the system is the acquisition of the expert knowledge that the biologist uses for solving ambiguities from gel autoradiograms, with the aim of re-using it later for solving similar ambiguities. The various types of expert knowledge constitute what we call the contextual knowledge of the sequence analysis. Contextual knowledge deals with the unavoidable problems that are common in the study of the living material (eg noise on data, difficulties of observations). Indeed, the analysis of DNA sequences from autoradiograms belongs to an emerging and promising area of investigation, namely reasoning with images. The SAIC project is developed in a theoretical framework that is shared with other applications. Not all tasks have the same importance in each application. We use this observation for designing an intelligent assistant system with three applications. In the SAIC project, we focus on knowledge acquisition, human-computer interaction and explanation. The project will benefit research in the two other applications. We also discuss our SAIC project in the context of large international projects that aim to re-use and share knowledge in a repository.

  1. Symmetric or asymmetric oil prices? A meta-analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of price asymmetries in the gasoline market is one of the most widely studied in energy economics. However, the great variation in the outcomes reported makes the drawing of any definitive conclusions difficult. Given this situation, a meta-analysis serves as an excellent tool to discover which characteristics of the various markets analyzed, and which specific features of these studies, might account for these differences. In adopting such an approach, this paper shows how the particular segment of the industry analyzed, the characteristics of the data, the years under review, the type of publication and the introduction of control variables might explain this heterogeneity in results. The paper concludes on these grounds that increased competition may significantly reduce the possibility of occurrence of asymmetric behavior. These results should be taken into consideration therefore in future studies of asymmetries in the oil industry. - Highlights: ► I study asymmetries in the price gasoline industry through a meta-analysis regression. ► The asymmetries are produced mainly in the retail market. ► The asymmetries are less frequent when we analyze recent cases. ► There may be some degree of publication bias. ► The level of competition may explain the patterns of asymmetry

  2. Analysis of the decision-making process leading to appendectomy: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Gerry; Weibull, Henrik; Larsson, Bodil Wilde

    2004-11-01

    The aim was to develop a theoretical understanding of the decision-making process leading to appendectomy. A qualitative interview study was performed in the grounded theory tradition using the constant comparative method to analyze data. The study setting was one county hospital and two local hospitals in Sweden, where 11 surgeons and 15 surgical nurses were interviewed. A model was developed which suggests that surgeons' decision making regarding appendectomy is formed by the interplay between their medical assessment of the patient's condition and a set of contextual characteristics. The latter consist of three interacting factors: (1) organizational conditions, (2) the professional actors' individual characteristics and interaction, and (3) the personal characteristics of the patient and his or her family or relatives. In case the outcome of medical assessment is ambiguous, the risk evaluation and final decision will be influenced by an interaction of the contextual characteristics. It was concluded that, compared to existing, rational models of decision making, the model presented identified potentially important contextual characteristics and an outline on when they come into play.

  3. Nonlinear Static Analysis Of 3-D RC Framed Asymmetric Building With Lead Rubber Isolator Using Sap2000v15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Asim Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many buildings in the present scenario have irregular configurations both in plan and elevation. This in future may be subjected to devastating earthquakes. So it is also necessary to enhance the seismic performance of asymmetric buildings by using seismic control techniques. In the present study a total of 9 models, asymmetrical in plan (L-shape are taken for analysis to cover the broader spectrum of low, medium & high rise buildings for the seismic control of the structures using pushover analysis, two different techniques were considered such as lead rubber bearing isolator and masonry infill walls, the analysis has been carried out using SAP2000V15. The results of bare frame and other building models have been compared, the presence of lead rubber base isolator, top story drift get reduced as compared with masonry infill wall. The trend was found to be reversed for high rise buildings especially with the application of isolation systems due to the massive increase in the story displacements suggesting the ineffectiveness of the base isolators for high rise buildings successively the plastic hinge pattern formed after carrying out the pushover analysis was also studied which indicated that structural performance was considerably improved.

  4. Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis without histograms: cumulative distribution and Bayesian approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Nelson A; Rizzi, Leandro G

    2015-01-01

    Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis has become an important tool to reveal essential aspects of phase transitions in complex systems. An efficient way to estimate the microcanonical inverse temperature $\\beta(E)$ and the microcanonical entropy $S(E)$ is achieved with the statistical temperature weighted histogram analysis method (ST-WHAM). The strength of this method lies on its flexibility, as it can be used to analyse data produced by algorithms with generalised sampling weights. However, for any sampling weight, ST-WHAM requires the calculation of derivatives of energy histograms $H(E)$, which leads to non-trivial and tedious binning tasks for models with continuous energy spectrum such as those for biomolecular and colloidal systems. Here, we discuss two alternative methods that avoid the need for such energy binning to obtain continuous estimates for $H(E)$ in order to evaluate $\\beta(E)$ by using ST-WHAM: (i) a series expansion to estimate probability densities from the empirical cumulative distrib...

  5. Multivariate statistical analysis a high-dimensional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, V

    2000-01-01

    In the last few decades the accumulation of large amounts of in­ formation in numerous applications. has stimtllated an increased in­ terest in multivariate analysis. Computer technologies allow one to use multi-dimensional and multi-parametric models successfully. At the same time, an interest arose in statistical analysis with a de­ ficiency of sample data. Nevertheless, it is difficult to describe the recent state of affairs in applied multivariate methods as satisfactory. Unimprovable (dominating) statistical procedures are still unknown except for a few specific cases. The simplest problem of estimat­ ing the mean vector with minimum quadratic risk is unsolved, even for normal distributions. Commonly used standard linear multivari­ ate procedures based on the inversion of sample covariance matrices can lead to unstable results or provide no solution in dependence of data. Programs included in standard statistical packages cannot process 'multi-collinear data' and there are no theoretical recommen­ ...

  6. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S. [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.p [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [GIAN, Physics Department, Coimbra University, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Coroado, J. [Instituto Politecnico Tomar, Dep. Arte Conservacao and Restauro, P-2300313 Tomar (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (mu-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial mu-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 mum diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of mum lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  7. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M. L.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Coroado, J.

    2010-04-01

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (µ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial µ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 µm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of µm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  8. Chemical characterization of tin-lead glazed ceramics from Aragon (Spain) by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inanez, J.G. [Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States). Museum Conservation Inst.; Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Facultat de Geografia i Historia; Speakman, R.J. [Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States). Museum Conservation Inst.; Buxeda i Garrigos, J. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Facultat de Geografia i Historia; Glascock, M.D. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center

    2010-07-01

    Majolica pottery was the most characteristic tableware produced in Spain during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. A study of the three main production centers in the historical region of Aragon during Middle Ages and Renaissance was conducted on a set of 71 samples. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and the resulting data were interpreted using an array of multivariate statistical procedures. Our results show a clear discrimination among different production centers allowing a reliable provenance attribution of ceramic sherds from the Aragonese workshops. (orig.)

  9. Chemical characterization of tin-lead glazed ceramics from Aragon (Spain) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majolica pottery was the most characteristic tableware produced in Spain during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. A study of the three main production centers in the historical region of Aragon during Middle Ages and Renaissance was conducted on a set of 71 samples. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and the resulting data were interpreted using an array of multivariate statistical procedures. Our results show a clear discrimination among different production centers allowing a reliable provenance attribution of ceramic sherds from the Aragonese workshops. (orig.)

  10. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in regulatory alternatives analysis: a case study of lead free solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Sinsheimer, Peter J; Blake, Ann; Linkov, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Regulators are implementing new programs that require manufacturers of products containing certain chemicals of concern to identify, evaluate, and adopt viable, safer alternatives. Such programs raise the difficult question for policymakers and regulated businesses of which alternatives are "viable" and "safer." To address that question, these programs use "alternatives analysis," an emerging methodology that integrates issues of human health and environmental effects with technical feasibility and economic impact. Despite the central role that alternatives analysis plays in these programs, the methodology itself is neither well-developed nor tailored to application in regulatory settings. This study uses the case of Pb-based bar solder and its non-Pb-based alternatives to examine the application of 2 multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods to alternatives analysis: multi-attribute utility analysis and outranking. The article develops and evaluates an alternatives analysis methodology and supporting decision-analysis software for use in a regulatory context, using weighting of the relevant decision criteria generated from a stakeholder elicitation process. The analysis produced complete rankings of the alternatives, including identification of the relative contribution to the ranking of each of the highest level decision criteria such as human health impacts, technical feasibility, and economic feasibility. It also examined the effect of variation in data conventions, weighting, and decision frameworks on the outcome. The results indicate that MCDA can play a critical role in emerging prevention-based regulatory programs. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods offer a means for transparent, objective, and rigorous analysis of products and processes, providing regulators and stakeholders with a common baseline understanding of the relative performance of alternatives and the trade-offs they present.

  11. Analysis of induced electrical currents from magnetic field coupling inside implantable neurostimulator leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidman Seth J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, the number of neurostimulator systems implanted in patients has been rapidly growing. Nearly 50, 000 neurostimulators are implanted worldwide annually. The most common type of implantable neurostimulators is indicated for pain relief. At the same time, commercial use of other electromagnetic technologies is expanding, making electromagnetic interference (EMI of neurostimulator function an issue of concern. Typically reported sources of neurostimulator EMI include security systems, metal detectors and wireless equipment. When near such sources, patients with implanted neurostimulators have reported adverse events such as shock, pain, and increased stimulation. In recent in vitro studies, radio frequency identification (RFID technology has been shown to inhibit the stimulation pulse of an implantable neurostimulator system during low frequency exposure at close distances. This could potentially be due to induced electrical currents inside the implantable neurostimulator leads that are caused by magnetic field coupling from the low frequency identification system. Methods To systematically address the concerns posed by EMI, we developed a test platform to assess the interference from coupled magnetic fields on implantable neurostimulator systems. To measure interference, we recorded the output of one implantable neurostimulator, programmed for best therapy threshold settings, when in close proximity to an operating low frequency RFID emitter. The output contained electrical potentials from the neurostimulator system and those induced by EMI from the RFID emitter. We also recorded the output of the same neurostimulator system programmed for best therapy threshold settings without RFID interference. Using the Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node (SENN model, we compared threshold factors of spinal cord fiber excitation for both recorded outputs. Results The electric current induced by low frequency RFID emitter

  12. Detection and Analysis of Lead,Cadmium and Arsenic Content in Common Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yining; HE; Peixia; CHENG; Ming; WANG; Minyu; HU

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect content of heavy metals( Pb,Cd,and As) in vegetables,understand the current situation of heavy metal contamination in vegetables,and to provide scientific reference for further researches. It randomly selected 6 large vegetable markets and 6 supermarkets in Changsha City,selected 8 types of typical vegetables,and detected 96 samples. In accordance with maximum level of contaminants in foods in existing GB2762- 2012 standard,Nemerow composite pollution index( Pt) and grading standards,it made evaluation: uncontaminated( Pt≤ 1),mildly contaminated( 1 < Pt≤2),moderately contaminated( 2 < Pt≤3),and highly contaminated( Pt>3). Among 96 samples,range of content of Pb,Cd and As is( 0. 06- 1. 41),( 0. 06- 1. 26) and( 0. 00- 0. 91) mg / kg respectively; the over- limit rate of these metals exceeding the safety level is 78. 13%,45. 83%,and 34. 38% separately; the composite pollution index is in( 0. 90-6. 05),the eggplant is 6. 05 and hot pepper is 3. 24; the content of Pb( F =23. 908,P =0. 001) and Cd( F =64. 908,P =0. 000)are significantly different between 8 types of vegetables and there is no significant difference between the content of As( F = 4. 634,P = 0. 705> 0. 05) in 8 types of vegetables. Study shows that common vegetables in Changsha City has problem of excess Pb,Cd and As,and the Pb over- limit rate is the highest. The composite pollution index indicates that most heavy metal contamination of vegetables is mild and moderate contamination,melon,fruit and vegetable contamination is high contamination,and Cd is the major factor leading to contamination of melons,fruits and vegetables.

  13. Quantitative analysis of lead in aqueous solutions by ultrasonic nebulizer assisted laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi-Lei; Lu, Yuan; Kong, Wei-Jin; Cheng, Kai; Zheng, Ronger

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic nebulizer unit was established to improve the quantitative analysis ability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for liquid samples detection, using solutions of the heavy metal element Pb as an example. An analytical procedure was designed to guarantee the stability and repeatability of the LIBS signal. A series of experiments were carried out strictly according to the procedure. The experimental parameters were optimized based on studies of the pulse energy influence and temporal evolution of the emission features. The plasma temperature and electron density were calculated to confirm the LTE state of the plasma. Normalizing the intensities by background was demonstrated to be an appropriate method in this work. The linear range of this system for Pb analysis was confirmed over a concentration range of 0-4,150ppm by measuring 12 samples with different concentrations. The correlation coefficient of the fitted calibration curve was as high as 99.94% in the linear range, and the LOD of Pb was confirmed as 2.93ppm. Concentration prediction experiments were performed on a further six samples. The excellent quantitative ability of the system was demonstrated by comparison of the real and predicted concentrations of the samples. The lowest relative error was 0.043% and the highest was no more than 7.1%.

  14. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  15. A Subjective Risk Analysis Approach of Container Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai-Li Yang; Jin Wang; Steve Bonsall; Jian-Bo Yang; Quan-Gen Fang

    2005-01-01

    After the 9/11 terrorism attacks, the lock-out of the American West Ports in 2002 and the breakout of SARS disease in 2003 have further focused mind of both the public and industrialists to take effective and timely measures for assessing and controlling the risks related to container supply chains (CSCs). However, due to the complexity of the risks in the chains, conventional quantitative risk assessment (QRA) methods may not be capable of providing sufficient safety management information, as achieving such a functionality requires enabling the possibility of conducting risk analysis in view of the challenges and uncertainties posed by the unavailability and incompleteness of historical failure data. Combing the fuzzy set theory (FST) and an evidential reasoning (ER) approach, the paper presents a subjective method to deal with the vulnerability-based risks, which are more ubiquitous and uncertain than the traditional hazard-based ones in the chains.

  16. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...

  17. Stochastic approach to observability analysis in water networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an alternative technique to the existing methods for observability analysis (OA in water networks, which is a prior essential step for the implementation of state estimation (SE techniques within such systems. The methodology presented here starts from a known hydraulic state and assumes random gaussian distributions for the uncertainty of some hydraulic variables, which is then propagated to the rest of the system. This process is repeated again to analyze the change in the network uncertainty when metering devices considered as error-free are included, based on which the network observability can be evaluated. The method’s potential is presented in an illustrative example, which shows the additional information that this methodology provides with respect to traditional OA approaches. This proposal allows a better understanding of the network and constitutes a practical tool to prioritize the location of additional meters, thus enhancing the transformation of large urban areas into actual smart cities.

  18. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  19. Random matrix approach to multivariate categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Aashay

    2015-01-01

    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow those from random matrix theory. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data of Indian general elections and sea level pressures in North Atlantic ocean.

  20. Statistical approach to the analysis of cell desynchronization data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotti, Edoardo; Del Fabbro, Alessio; Dalla Pellegrina, Chiara; Chignola, Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Experimental measurements on semi-synchronous tumor cell populations show that after a few cell cycles they desynchronize completely, and this desynchronization reflects the intercell variability of cell-cycle duration. It is important to identify the sources of randomness that desynchronize a population of cells living in a homogeneous environment: for example, being able to reduce randomness and induce synchronization would aid in targeting tumor cells with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Here we describe a statistical approach to the analysis of the desynchronization measurements that is based on minimal modeling hypotheses, and can be derived from simple heuristics. We use the method to analyze existing desynchronization data and to draw conclusions on the randomness of cell growth and proliferation.

  1. The Network Analysis of Urban Streets: A Primal Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Porta, S; Latora, V; Porta, Sergio; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito

    2005-01-01

    The network metaphor in the analysis of urban and territorial cases has a long tradition especially in transportation/land-use planning and economic geography. More recently, urban design has brought its contribution by means of the "space syntax" methodology. All these approaches, though under different terms like accessibility, proximity, integration,connectivity, cost or effort, focus on the idea that some places (or streets) are more important than others because they are more central. The study of centrality in complex systems,however, originated in other scientific areas, namely in structural sociology, well before its use in urban studies; moreover, as a structural property of the system, centrality has never been extensively investigated metrically in geographic networks as it has been topologically in a wide range of other relational networks like social, biological or technological. After two previous works on some structural properties of the dual and primal graph representations of urban street ne...

  2. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; SwanII, J. Edward [Mississippi State University (MSU); Fitzpatrick, Patrick J. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Jankun-Kelly, T.J. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  3. Approaches for functional analysis of flagellar proteins in African trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Michael; Lopez, Miguel A; Ralston, Katherine S; Hill, Kent L

    2009-01-01

    The eukaryotic flagellum is a highly conserved organelle serving motility, sensory, and transport functions. Although genetic, genomic, and proteomic studies have led to the identification of hundreds of flagellar and putative flagellar proteins, precisely how these proteins function individually and collectively to drive flagellum motility and other functions remains to be determined. In this chapter we provide an overview of tools and approaches available for studying flagellum protein function in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. We begin by outlining techniques for in vitro cultivation of both T. brucei life cycle stages, as well as transfection protocols for the delivery of DNA constructs. We then describe specific assays used to assess flagellum function including flagellum preparation and quantitative motility assays. We conclude the chapter with a description of molecular genetic approaches for manipulating gene function. In summary, the availability of potent molecular tools, as well as the health and economic relevance of T. brucei as a pathogen, combine to make the parasite an attractive and integral experimental system for the functional analysis of flagellar proteins. PMID:20409810

  4. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH AND MODEL ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TOURIST TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Šerić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The draw and diversity of the destination’s offer is an antecedent of the tourism visits growth. The destination supply differentiation is carried through new, specialised tourism products. The usual approach consists of forming specialised tourism products in accordance with the existing tourism destination image. Another approach, prevalent in practice of developed tourism destinations is based on innovating the destination supply through accordance with the global tourism trends. For this particular purpose, it is advisable to choose a monitoring and analysis method of tourism trends. The goal is to determine actual trends governing target markets, differentiating whims from trends during the tourism preseason. When considering the return on investment, modifying the destination’s tourism offer on the basis of a tourism whim is a risky endeavour, indeed. Adapting the destination’s supply to tourism whims can result in a shifted image, one that is unable to ensure a long term interest and tourist vacation growth. With regard to tourism trend research and based on the research conducted, an advisable model for evaluating tourism phenomena is proposed, one that determines whether tourism phenomena is a tourism trend or a tourism whim.

  5. A Critical Analysis of Rational & Emotional Approaches in Car Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishn A. Goyal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A well known fact is that investment in a Car is the costliest investment made in a life time only next to construction of a house, for any human being. It is a common knowledge that all of us are attracted towards cars right from childhood and we have developed our own perceptions for cars. When we acquire the capacity to buy cars, our experience of buying, involves both emotional and rational aspects which lead to a purchase decision. Unlike other consumable durables, the decision to buy specific brand of Car is shaped over a long period of time. The period between recognition of need to buy a car and the actual purchase may run into many weeks or even months. Considerable research has focussed on conceptually and operationally defining various factors that lead to a purchase decision. However, because of the inherent difficulties in deciphering consumer behaviour coupled with exponential changes in consumer aspirations, there is a need to constantly re-define our perceptions about consumer behaviour. Revealed Preference Theory of Samuelson & Bounded rationality Theory of Herbert Simon and many others have provided a conceptual analysis of Consumer Behaviour from the perspective of economics, we have still not been able to pinpoint whether consumers are Rational or Emotional when it comes to buying Cars. “ According to some early economic theorists (e.g., Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, Alfred Marshall, man’s/woman’s desire for goods and services exceed his/her ability to pay. Therefore, buying decisions are made through a rational process during which we assign a value to each desired product or service offering based upon our assessment of the ability of that offering to satisfy our needs and desires. This want satisfying ability is termed “utility.” As different offerings possess different levels of utility, rational behavior dictates that one seek to maximize utility.

  6. Numerical 3D analysis of cloud cavitation shedding frequency on a circular leading edge hydrofoil with a barotropic cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, M.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    A compressible density-based time-explicit low Mach number consistent viscous flow solver is utilised in combination with a barotropic cavitation model for the analysis of cloud cavitation on a circular leading edge (CLE) hydrofoil. For 5° angle of attack, cloud structure and shedding frequency for different cavitation numbers are compared to experimental data. A strong grid sensitivity is found in particular for high cavitation numbers. On a fine grid, a very good agreement with validation data is achieved even without explicit turbulence model. The neglect of viscous effects as well as a two-dimensional set-up lead to a less realistic prediction of cloud structures and frequencies. Comparative simulations with the Sauer-Schnerr cavitation model and modified pre-factors of the mass transfer terms underestimate the measured shedding frequency.

  7. A comparative analysis of research and development in Iran and four leading countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Dehghani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research and Development (R & D are indicative of countries' advancement and investment in R & D units is considered as a competitive advantage. Nowadays, only countries which attempt to pave the way for rapid scientific advance and economic success through pursuing new technological advances and bridging their knowledge and technology gaps can take part in global competition. The present paper aims at contributing to the extant literature and investigates various R & D success factors and their status in Iran and developed countries including Japan, the U. S., China, and Germany. Then, a contrastive analysis of the countries follows, and ultimately, some suggestions are postulated to develop research status in Iran. In the light of the results, industrial countries in comparison with Iran view investment in R & D as an indispensible principle of economy and have increasingly developed the requisite infrastructures for its growth as well as full bloom of science and technology.

  8. Launch Vehicle Abort Analysis for Failures Leading to Loss of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashley D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2013-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an onboard crew. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based on data already available from the Guidance, Navigation, and Control system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. The two primary areas of focus are the derivation of abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false aborts are avoided, and evaluation of success in aborting off the failing launch vehicle.

  9. Comparative Analysis for Polluted Agricultural Soils with Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarto-Ramirez, Mario; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Gavilan-Garcia, Arturo; Castro-Diaz, Jose; Gavilan-Garcia, Irma Cruz; Rosiles, Rene; Suarez, Sara

    2004-03-31

    The use of mercury in Mexico has been associated with the mining industry of Zacatecas. This activity has polluted several areas currently used for agriculture. The main objective of this study was to investigate the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As and Pb) in soil of Guadalupe Zacatecas in order to justify a further environmental risk assessment in the site. A 2X3 km grid was used for the sampling process and 20 soil samples were taken. The analysis was developed using EPA SW 846: 3050B/6010B method for arsenic and metals and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury. It was concluded that there are heavy metals in agricultural soils used for corn and bean farming. For this it is required to make an environmental risk assessment and a bioavailability study in order to determine if there's a risk for heavy metals bioaccumulation in animals or human beings or metal lixiviation to aquifers.

  10. Comparison of Standard and Novel Signal Analysis Approaches to Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife eRoebuck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a disorder characterised by repeated pauses in breathing during sleep, which leads to deoxygenation and voiced chokes at the end of each episode. OSA is associated by daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of serious conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Between 2-7% of the adult population globally has OSA, but it is estimated that up to 90% of those are undiagnosed and untreated. Diagnosis of OSA requires expensive and cumbersome screening. Audio offers a potential non-contact alternative, particularly with the ubiquity of excellent signal processing on every phone.Previous studies have focused on the classification of snoring and apnoeic chokes. However, such approaches require accurate identification of events. This leads to limited accuracy and small study populations. In this work we propose an alternative approach which uses multiscale entropy (MSE coefficients presented to a classifier to identify disorder in vocal patterns indicative of sleep apnoea. A database of 858 patients was used, the largest reported in this domain. Apnoeic choke, snore, and noise events encoded with speech analysis features were input into a linear classifier. Coefficients of MSE derived from the first 4 hours of each recording were used to train and test a random forest to classify patients as apnoeic or not.Standard speech analysis approaches for event classification achieved an out of sample accuracy (Ac of 76.9% with a sensitivity (Se of 29.2% and a specificity (Sp of 88.7% but high variance. For OSA severity classification, MSE provided an out of sample Ac of 79.9%, Se of 66.0% and Sp = 88.8%. Including demographic information improved the MSE-based classification performance to Ac = 80.5%, Se = 69.2%, Sp = 87.9%. These results indicate that audio recordings could be used in screening for OSA, but are generally under-sensitive.

  11. Can Genetic Analysis of Putative Blood Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Lead to Identification of Susceptibility Loci?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert C; Phillips, Nicole R; Tilson, Jeffrey L; Huebinger, Ryan M; Shewale, Shantanu J; Koenig, Jessica L; Mitchel, Jeffrey S; O'Bryant, Sid E; Waring, Stephen C; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Chasse, Scott; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2015-01-01

    Although 24 Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk loci have been reliably identified, a large portion of the predicted heritability for AD remains unexplained. It is expected that additional loci of small effect will be identified with an increased sample size. However, the cost of a significant increase in Case-Control sample size is prohibitive. The current study tests whether exploring the genetic basis of endophenotypes, in this case based on putative blood biomarkers for AD, can accelerate the identification of susceptibility loci using modest sample sizes. Each endophenotype was used as the outcome variable in an independent GWAS. Endophenotypes were based on circulating concentrations of proteins that contributed significantly to a published blood-based predictive algorithm for AD. Endophenotypes included Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1), Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP), Beta2 Microglobulin (B2M), Factor VII (F7), Adiponectin (ADN) and Tenascin C (TN-C). Across the seven endophenotypes, 47 SNPs were associated with outcome with a p-value ≤1x10(-7). Each signal was further characterized with respect to known genetic loci associated with AD. Signals for several endophenotypes were observed in the vicinity of CR1, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, PICALM, CLU, and PTK2B. The strongest signal was observed in association with Factor VII levels and was located within the F7 gene. Additional signals were observed in MAP3K13, ZNF320, ATP9B and TREM1. Conditional regression analyses suggested that the SNPs contributed to variation in protein concentration independent of AD status. The identification of two putatively novel AD loci (in the Factor VII and ATP9B genes), which have not been located in previous studies despite massive sample sizes, highlights the benefits of an endophenotypic approach for resolving the genetic basis for complex diseases. The coincidence of several of the endophenotypic signals with known AD loci may point to novel

  12. Can Genetic Analysis of Putative Blood Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Lead to Identification of Susceptibility Loci?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Barber

    Full Text Available Although 24 Alzheimer's disease (AD risk loci have been reliably identified, a large portion of the predicted heritability for AD remains unexplained. It is expected that additional loci of small effect will be identified with an increased sample size. However, the cost of a significant increase in Case-Control sample size is prohibitive. The current study tests whether exploring the genetic basis of endophenotypes, in this case based on putative blood biomarkers for AD, can accelerate the identification of susceptibility loci using modest sample sizes. Each endophenotype was used as the outcome variable in an independent GWAS. Endophenotypes were based on circulating concentrations of proteins that contributed significantly to a published blood-based predictive algorithm for AD. Endophenotypes included Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1, Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP, Beta2 Microglobulin (B2M, Factor VII (F7, Adiponectin (ADN and Tenascin C (TN-C. Across the seven endophenotypes, 47 SNPs were associated with outcome with a p-value ≤1x10(-7. Each signal was further characterized with respect to known genetic loci associated with AD. Signals for several endophenotypes were observed in the vicinity of CR1, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, PICALM, CLU, and PTK2B. The strongest signal was observed in association with Factor VII levels and was located within the F7 gene. Additional signals were observed in MAP3K13, ZNF320, ATP9B and TREM1. Conditional regression analyses suggested that the SNPs contributed to variation in protein concentration independent of AD status. The identification of two putatively novel AD loci (in the Factor VII and ATP9B genes, which have not been located in previous studies despite massive sample sizes, highlights the benefits of an endophenotypic approach for resolving the genetic basis for complex diseases. The coincidence of several of the endophenotypic signals with known AD loci may point

  13. DNA Microarray Data Analysis: A Novel Biclustering Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewfik Ahmed H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biclustering algorithms refer to a distinct class of clustering algorithms that perform simultaneous row-column clustering. Biclustering problems arise in DNA microarray data analysis, collaborative filtering, market research, information retrieval, text mining, electoral trends, exchange analysis, and so forth. When dealing with DNA microarray experimental data for example, the goal of biclustering algorithms is to find submatrices, that is, subgroups of genes and subgroups of conditions, where the genes exhibit highly correlated activities for every condition. In this study, we develop novel biclustering algorithms using basic linear algebra and arithmetic tools. The proposed biclustering algorithms can be used to search for all biclusters with constant values, biclusters with constant values on rows, biclusters with constant values on columns, and biclusters with coherent values from a set of data in a timely manner and without solving any optimization problem. We also show how one of the proposed biclustering algorithms can be adapted to identify biclusters with coherent evolution. The algorithms developed in this study discover all valid biclusters of each type, while almost all previous biclustering approaches will miss some.

  14. Service quality measurement. A new approach based on Conjoint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Gatta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the measurement of service quality. The main objective is to suggest an alternative criterion for service quality definition and measurement. After a brief description of the most traditional techniques and with the intent to overcome some critical factors pertaining them, I focus my attention on the choice-based conjoint analysis, a particular stated preferences method that estimates the structure of consumers’ preferences given their choices between alternative service options. Discrete choice models and the traditional compensatory utility maximization framework are extended by the inclusion of the attribute cutoffs into the decision problem formulation. The major theoretical aspects of the described approach are examined and discussed, showing that it is able to identify the relative importance of the relevant attributes, calculating elasticity and monetary evaluation, and to determine a service quality index. Then simulations enable the identification of potential service quality levels, so that marketing managers have valuable information to plan their best business strategies. We present findings from an empirical study in the public transport sector designed to gain insights into the use of the choice-based conjoint analysis.

  15. DNA Microarray Data Analysis: A Novel Biclustering Algorithm Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchagang, Alain B.; Tewfik, Ahmed H.

    2006-12-01

    Biclustering algorithms refer to a distinct class of clustering algorithms that perform simultaneous row-column clustering. Biclustering problems arise in DNA microarray data analysis, collaborative filtering, market research, information retrieval, text mining, electoral trends, exchange analysis, and so forth. When dealing with DNA microarray experimental data for example, the goal of biclustering algorithms is to find submatrices, that is, subgroups of genes and subgroups of conditions, where the genes exhibit highly correlated activities for every condition. In this study, we develop novel biclustering algorithms using basic linear algebra and arithmetic tools. The proposed biclustering algorithms can be used to search for all biclusters with constant values, biclusters with constant values on rows, biclusters with constant values on columns, and biclusters with coherent values from a set of data in a timely manner and without solving any optimization problem. We also show how one of the proposed biclustering algorithms can be adapted to identify biclusters with coherent evolution. The algorithms developed in this study discover all valid biclusters of each type, while almost all previous biclustering approaches will miss some.

  16. Pathway analysis in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An ensemble approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Michael A; McWeeney, Shannon K; Faraone, Stephen V; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Nigg, Joel T; Wilmot, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Despite a wealth of evidence for the role of genetics in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific and definitive genetic mechanisms have not been identified. Pathway analyses, a subset of gene-set analyses, extend the knowledge gained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by providing functional context for genetic associations. However, there are numerous methods for association testing of gene sets and no real consensus regarding the best approach. The present study applied six pathway analysis methods to identify pathways associated with ADHD in two GWAS datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Methods that utilize genotypes to model pathway-level effects identified more replicable pathway associations than methods using summary statistics. In addition, pathways implicated by more than one method were significantly more likely to replicate. A number of brain-relevant pathways, such as RhoA signaling, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, fibroblast growth factor receptor activity, and pathways containing potassium channel genes, were nominally significant by multiple methods in both datasets. These results support previous hypotheses about the role of regulation of neurotransmitter release, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in contributing to the ADHD phenotype and suggest the value of cross-method convergence in evaluating pathway analysis results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004716

  17. What leads Indians to participate in clinical trials? A meta-analysis of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Y Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the globalization of clinical trials, large developing nations have substantially increased their participation in multi-site studies. This participation has raised ethical concerns, among them the fear that local customs, habits and culture are not respected while asking potential participants to take part in study. This knowledge gap is particularly noticeable among Indian subjects, since despite the large number of participants, little is known regarding what factors affect their willingness to participate in clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of all studies evaluating the factors and barriers, from the perspective of potential Indian participants, contributing to their participation in clinical trials. We searched both international as well as Indian-specific bibliographic databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane, Openjgate, MedInd, Scirus and Medknow, also performing hand searches and communicating with authors to obtain additional references. We enrolled studies dealing exclusively with the participation of Indians in clinical trials. Data extraction was conducted by three researchers, with disagreement being resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Six qualitative studies and one survey were found evaluating the main themes affecting the participation of Indian subjects. Themes included Personal health benefits, Altruism, Trust in physicians, Source of extra income, Detailed knowledge, Methods for motivating participants as factors favoring, while Mistrust on trial organizations, Concerns about efficacy and safety of trials, Psychological reasons, Trial burden, Loss of confidentiality, Dependency issues, Language as the barriers. CONCLUSION: We identified factors that facilitated and barriers that have negative implications on trial participation decisions in Indian subjects. Due consideration and weightage should be assigned to these factors while planning future trials in India.

  18. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste

  19. Dynamic Range Size Analysis of Territorial Animals: An Optimality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yun; Börger, Luca; Hastings, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Home range sizes of territorial animals are often observed to vary periodically in response to seasonal changes in foraging opportunities. Here we develop the first mechanistic model focused on the temporal dynamics of home range expansion and contraction in territorial animals. We demonstrate how simple movement principles can lead to a rich suite of range size dynamics, by balancing foraging activity with defensive requirements and incorporating optimal behavioral rules into mechanistic home range analysis. Our heuristic model predicts three general temporal patterns that have been observed in empirical studies across multiple taxa. First, a positive correlation between age and territory quality promotes shrinking home ranges over an individual's lifetime, with maximal range size variability shortly before the adult stage. Second, poor sensory information, low population density, and large resource heterogeneity may all independently facilitate range size instability. Finally, aggregation behavior toward forage-rich areas helps produce divergent home range responses between individuals from different age classes. This model has broad applications for addressing important unknowns in animal space use, with potential applications also in conservation and health management strategies. PMID:27622879

  20. ANALYSIS, SELECTION AND RANKING OF FOREIGN MARKETS. A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the appropriate markets for growth and development is essential for a company that wishes expanding businesses through international economic exchanges. But in this business case foreign markets research is not sufficient even though is an important chapter in the decision technology and an indispensable condition for achieving firm’s objectives. If in marketing on the national market this market is defined requiring no more than its prospection and segmentation, in the case of the international market outside the research process there is a need of a selection of markets and their classification. Companies that have this intention know little or nothing about the conditions offered by a new market or another. Therefore, they must go, step by step, through a complex analysis process, multilevel- type, composed of selection and ranking of markets followed by the proper research through exploration and segmentation, which can lead to choosing the most profitable markets. In this regard, within this study, we propose a multi-criteria model for selection and ranking of international development markets, allowing companies access to those markets which are in compliance with the company's development strategy.

  1. Analysis of dijet events in diffractive ep interactions with tagged leading proton at the H1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polifka, Richard

    2011-08-15

    An inclusive dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering is measured. The diffractive selection is based on tagging of the leading proton in the Forward Proton Spectrometer. The statistics of events obtained during the HERA II running period (integrated luminosity of 156.7 pb{sup -1}) enables the measurement of jet final states with leading proton for the first time. The data cover the phase space of x{sub P}<0.1, vertical stroke t vertical stroke {<=}1.0 GeV{sup 2} and 4{<=} Q{sup 2} {<=}110 GeV{sup 2}. The dijet data are compared with the next to leading order predictions of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The phase space of diffractive dijets is in this analysis by factor of 3 in x{sub P} larger than in previous measurements. The QCD predictions based on the DGLAP parton evolution describe the measured data well even in a non-DGLAP enriched phase space where one on the jets goes into the region close to the direction of the outgoing proton. The measured single-differential cross sections are compared to several Monte Carlo models with different treatment of diffractive exchange implemented. (orig.)

  2. Application of potentiometric stripping analysis with constant inverse current in the analytic step for determining lead in glassware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZVONIMIR J. SUTUROVIC

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The trace amounts of lead in extraction glassware products were determined by potentiometric stripping analysis with constant inverse current in the analytic step (PSA-iR, an electrochemical technique of high sensitivity and selectivity. This paper deals with an investigation which was directed to the effect of a great number of factors on the results of PSA-iR, of lead in glassware, such as the mercury time electrodeposition, the electrolysis potential, the solution stirring rate and the constant inverse current. Linearity of the lead analytical signal was achieved within the range of mass concentrations from 2.5 mg/dm3 to 4.5 mg/dm3. A detection limit of 0.64 mg/dm3 was obtained, with a reproducibility of 4.14 % expressed as the coefficient of variation. The analyses were carried out using a computerized stripping analyzer of domestic design and manufacture (Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad and “Elektrouniverzal”, Leskovac. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by parallel analyses using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry as the reference method.

  3. Glycan Node Analysis: A Bottom-up Approach to Glycomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaare, Sahba; Aguilar, Jesús S; Hu, Yueming; Ferdosi, Shadi; Borges, Chad R

    2016-01-01

    facilitates relative quantification of individual glycan nodes in a sample. Although presently constrained in terms of its absolute limits of detection, this method expedites the analysis of clinical biofluids and shows considerable promise as a complementary approach to traditional top-down glycomics.

  4. Chemometric method of spectra analysis leading to isolation of lysozyme and CtDNA spectra affected by osmolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruździak, Piotr; Rakowska, Paulina W; Stangret, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present a chemometric method of analysis leading to isolation of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of biomacromolecules (HEW lysozyme, ctDNA) affected by osmolytes (trimethylamine-N-oxide and N,N,N-trimethylglycine, respectively) in aqueous solutions. The method is based on the difference spectra method primarily used to characterize the structure of solvent affected by solute. The cyclical usage of factor analysis allows precise information to be obtained on the shape of "affected spectra" of analyzed biomacromolecules. "Affected spectra" of selected biomacromolecules give valuable information on their structure in the presence of the osmolytes in solution, as well as on the level of perturbation in dependence of osmolyte concentration. The method also gives a possibility of insight into the mechanism of interaction in presented types of systems. It can be easily adapted to various chemical and biochemical problems where vibrational or ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy is used. PMID:23146186

  5. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass

  6. A performance-based approach to landslide risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    An approach for the risk assessment based on a probabilistic analysis of the performance of structures threatened by landslides is shown and discussed. The risk is a possible loss due to the occurrence of a potentially damaging event. Analytically the risk is the probability convolution of hazard, which defines the frequency of occurrence of the event (i.e., the demand), and fragility that defines the capacity of the system to withstand the event given its characteristics (i.e., severity) and those of the exposed goods (vulnerability), that is: Risk=p(D>=d|S,V) The inequality sets a damage (or loss) threshold beyond which the system's performance is no longer met. Therefore a consistent approach to risk assessment should: 1) adopt a probabilistic model which takes into account all the uncertainties of the involved variables (capacity and demand), 2) follow a performance approach based on given loss or damage thresholds. The proposed method belongs to the category of the semi-empirical ones: the theoretical component is given by the probabilistic capacity-demand model; the empirical component is given by the observed statistical behaviour of structures damaged by landslides. Two landslide properties alone are required: the area-extent and the type (or kinematism). All other properties required to determine the severity of landslides (such as depth, speed and frequency) are derived via probabilistic methods. The severity (or intensity) of landslides, in terms of kinetic energy, is the demand of resistance; the resistance capacity is given by the cumulative distribution functions of the limit state performance (fragility functions) assessed via damage surveys and cards compilation. The investigated limit states are aesthetic (of nominal concern alone), functional (interruption of service) and structural (economic and social losses). The damage probability is the probabilistic convolution of hazard (the probability mass function of the frequency of occurrence of given

  7. Sequential injection analysis of lead using time-based colorimetric detection and preconcentration on an anionic-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracama, Nestor Zárate; Araújo, Alberto N; Perez-Olmos, Ricardo

    2004-04-01

    The development of a sequential injection analysis manifold for the colorimetric determination of lead in water samples is described The concentration of lead was assessed from its catalytic effect on the reaction of resazurine reduction caused by sulfide in an alkali medium. To that effect, the reaction zone was stopped at the detector, and the time interval required for the attainment of an absorbance decrease of 0.800 at the wavelength of 610 nm was estimated. Interference of other transition metals of the samples was minimized by adding potassium iodide to the sample and retaining the iodocomplexes formed in an on-line anionic resin (AGI X8). Elution was made with a 2 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. The relationship [SIA] microg/L = 0.99 (+/- 0.11) x [ETAAS] microg/L + 0 (+/- 4) was obtained upon comparing the results given by the proposed system and by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) after the analysis of ten water samples. PMID:15116968

  8. Analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices by using an accelerated finite element contact block reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Li, G.

    2014-08-01

    An accelerated Finite Element Contact Block Reduction (FECBR) approach is presented for computational analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale electronic devices with arbitrary geometry and unstructured mesh. Finite element formulation is developed for the theoretical CBR/Poisson model. The FECBR approach is accelerated through eigen-pair reduction, lead mode space projection, and component mode synthesis techniques. The accelerated FECBR is applied to perform quantum mechanical ballistic transport analysis of a DG-MOSFET with taper-shaped extensions and a DG-MOSFET with Si/SiO2 interface roughness. The computed electrical transport properties of the devices obtained from the accelerated FECBR approach and associated computational cost as a function of system degrees of freedom are compared with those obtained from the original CBR and direct inversion methods. The performance of the accelerated FECBR in both its accuracy and efficiency is demonstrated.

  9. Analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices by using an accelerated finite element contact block reduction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accelerated Finite Element Contact Block Reduction (FECBR) approach is presented for computational analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale electronic devices with arbitrary geometry and unstructured mesh. Finite element formulation is developed for the theoretical CBR/Poisson model. The FECBR approach is accelerated through eigen-pair reduction, lead mode space projection, and component mode synthesis techniques. The accelerated FECBR is applied to perform quantum mechanical ballistic transport analysis of a DG-MOSFET with taper-shaped extensions and a DG-MOSFET with Si/SiO2 interface roughness. The computed electrical transport properties of the devices obtained from the accelerated FECBR approach and associated computational cost as a function of system degrees of freedom are compared with those obtained from the original CBR and direct inversion methods. The performance of the accelerated FECBR in both its accuracy and efficiency is demonstrated

  10. Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In France, nuclear facilities were designed to very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, exceptional climatic events have given rise to surges much larger than observations (outliers and had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches including the Annual Maxima (AM, the Peaks-Over Threshold (POT and the r-Largest Order Statistics (r-LOS. These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All the data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameters stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on: (i the uncertainty degrees, (ii the adequacy criteria and tests and (iii the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distributions parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500 yr return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fitting at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativity of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

  11. Poverty Analysis of Rice Farming Households: A Multidimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenuga A. H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The official measurement and analysis of poverty in Nigeria has historically relied upon the single dimension, consumption based monetary approach with little attention on multidimensional poverty assessment. This study was therefore carried out to assess the multidimensional poverty index of rice farming households in Nasarawa/Benue Rice Hub, Nigeria. The study employed stratified random sampling technique to select 149 rice farming households in the study area. Descriptive statistics, the Alkire and Foster Multidimensional Poverty Index Methodology using two different cut-off points and the Tobit regression model were the main analytical tools employed for the study. The results of the multidimensional poverty index analysis revealed that female headed households were poorer than the male headed households. On the overall, 66 percent of the rice farming households was multidimensionally poor. The study also showed that the rice farming households were deprived in 48 percent of the dimensions. A multidimensional poverty index of 0.32 was obtained for the rice farming households in the study area with varying values obtained for the male and female headed households. The result of the Tobit regression model showed that gender of the household head, health, marital status and membership of association were the major determinants of multidimensional poverty of the rice farming households in the study area. The study concluded that the rice farming households in the study area were multidimensionally poor. It was recommended that the government should give priorities to the development of the rural areas with special consideration for women through the provision of essential infrastructural facilities.

  12. Analysis of Lotka's Law: The Simon-Yule Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Sho

    1989-01-01

    Argues that a major difficulty in using Lotka's law in information science arises from the misuse of goodness of fit tests in parameter estimation. Three approaches for studying Lotka's law are presented: an index approach, a time series approach, and a generating mechanism incorporating these two influential variables to derive an equilibrium…

  13. Analysis of patient diaries in Danish ICUs: a narrative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the structure and content of patient diaries written for critically ill patients in Danish intensive care units (ICUs). BACKGROUND: Critical illness is associated with physical and psychological aftermath including cognitive impairment and post-traumatic ......OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the structure and content of patient diaries written for critically ill patients in Danish intensive care units (ICUs). BACKGROUND: Critical illness is associated with physical and psychological aftermath including cognitive impairment and post......-traumatic stress. Patient diaries written in the intensive care unit are used to help ICU-survivors come to terms with their illness. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The study had a qualitative, descriptive and explorative design, using a narrative approach of analysis. Data were analysed on several levels: extra-case level...... acknowledge the patient experience and provide new insights into nursing performance. This study offers a framework for understanding ICU patient diaries, which may facilitate cross-unit comparisons and support future guideline development. The dual perspectives of patient diaries and the ambiguous ownership...

  14. A combined approach for comparative exoproteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrivens James H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial exported proteins represent key components of the host-pathogen interplay. Hence, we sought to implement a combined approach for characterizing the entire exoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep and goats. Results An optimized protocol of three-phase partitioning (TPP was used to obtain the C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteins, and a newly introduced method of data-independent MS acquisition (LC-MSE was employed for protein identification and label-free quantification. Additionally, the recently developed tool SurfG+ was used for in silico prediction of sub-cellular localization of the identified proteins. In total, 93 different extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified with high confidence by this strategy; 44 proteins were commonly identified in two different strains, isolated from distinct hosts, then composing a core C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteome. Analysis with the SurfG+ tool showed that more than 75% (70/93 of the identified proteins could be predicted as containing signals for active exportation. Moreover, evidence could be found for probable non-classical export of most of the remaining proteins. Conclusions Comparative analyses of the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis strains, in addition to comparison with other experimentally determined corynebacterial exoproteomes, were helpful to gain novel insights into the contribution of the exported proteins in the virulence of this bacterium. The results presented here compose the most comprehensive coverage of the exoproteome of a corynebacterial species so far.

  15. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Mixer-Ejector Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric, S.; Seidel, Jonathan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The design of an engine for a civil supersonic aircraft presents a difficult multidisciplinary problem to propulsion system engineers. There are numerous competing requirements for the engine, such as to be efficient during cruise while yet quiet enough at takeoff to meet airport noise regulations. The use of mixer-ejector nozzles presents one possible solution to this challenge. However, designing a mixer-ejector which will successfully address both of these concerns is a difficult proposition. Presented in this paper is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the analysis and design of these systems. A process that uses several low-fidelity tools to evaluate both the performance and acoustics of mixer-ejectors nozzles is described. This process is further expanded to include system-level modeling of engines and aircraft to determine the effects on mission performance and noise near airports. The overall process is developed in the OpenMDAO framework currently being developed by NASA. From the developed process, sample results are given for a notional mixer-ejector design, thereby demonstrating the capabilities of the method.

  16. The Covariance Adjustment Approaches for Combining Incomparable Cox Regressions Caused by Unbalanced Covariates Adjustment: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehesh, Tania; Zare, Najaf; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Univariate meta-analysis (UM) procedure, as a technique that provides a single overall result, has become increasingly popular. Neglecting the existence of other concomitant covariates in the models leads to loss of treatment efficiency. Our aim was proposing four new approximation approaches for the covariance matrix of the coefficients, which is not readily available for the multivariate generalized least square (MGLS) method as a multivariate meta-analysis approach. Methods. We evaluated the efficiency of four new approaches including zero correlation (ZC), common correlation (CC), estimated correlation (EC), and multivariate multilevel correlation (MMC) on the estimation bias, mean square error (MSE), and 95% probability coverage of the confidence interval (CI) in the synthesis of Cox proportional hazard models coefficients in a simulation study. Result. Comparing the results of the simulation study on the MSE, bias, and CI of the estimated coefficients indicated that MMC approach was the most accurate procedure compared to EC, CC, and ZC procedures. The precision ranking of the four approaches according to all above settings was MMC ≥ EC ≥ CC ≥ ZC. Conclusion. This study highlights advantages of MGLS meta-analysis on UM approach. The results suggested the use of MMC procedure to overcome the lack of information for having a complete covariance matrix of the coefficients. PMID:26413142

  17. The Covariance Adjustment Approaches for Combining Incomparable Cox Regressions Caused by Unbalanced Covariates Adjustment: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Dehesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Univariate meta-analysis (UM procedure, as a technique that provides a single overall result, has become increasingly popular. Neglecting the existence of other concomitant covariates in the models leads to loss of treatment efficiency. Our aim was proposing four new approximation approaches for the covariance matrix of the coefficients, which is not readily available for the multivariate generalized least square (MGLS method as a multivariate meta-analysis approach. Methods. We evaluated the efficiency of four new approaches including zero correlation (ZC, common correlation (CC, estimated correlation (EC, and multivariate multilevel correlation (MMC on the estimation bias, mean square error (MSE, and 95% probability coverage of the confidence interval (CI in the synthesis of Cox proportional hazard models coefficients in a simulation study. Result. Comparing the results of the simulation study on the MSE, bias, and CI of the estimated coefficients indicated that MMC approach was the most accurate procedure compared to EC, CC, and ZC procedures. The precision ranking of the four approaches according to all above settings was MMC ≥ EC ≥ CC ≥ ZC. Conclusion. This study highlights advantages of MGLS meta-analysis on UM approach. The results suggested the use of MMC procedure to overcome the lack of information for having a complete covariance matrix of the coefficients.

  18. Landslide risk analysis: a multi-disciplinary methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sterlacchini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an analysis carried out within the European community project "ALARM" (Assessment of Landslide Risk and Mitigation in Mountain Areas, 2004 on landslide risk assessment in the municipality of Corvara in Badia, Italy. This mountainous area, located in the central Dolomites (Italian Alps, poses a significant landslide hazard to several man-made and natural objects. Three parameters for determining risk were analysed as an aid to preparedness and mitigation planning: event occurrence probability, elements at risk, and the vulnerability of these elements. Initially, a landslide hazard scenario was defined; this step was followed by the identification of the potential vulnerable elements, by the estimation of the expected physical effects, due to the occurrence of a damaging phenomenon, and by the analysis of social and economic features of the area. Finally, a potential risk scenario was defined, where the relationships between the event, its physical effects, and its economic consequences were investigated. People and public administrators with training and experience in local landsliding and slope processes were involved in each step of the analysis.

    A "cause-effect" correlation was applied, derived from the "dose-response" equation initially used in the biological sciences and then adapted by economists for the assessment of environmental risks. The relationship was analysed from a physical point of view and the cause (the natural event was correlated to the physical effects, i.e. the aesthetic, functional, and structural damage. An economic evaluation of direct and indirect damage was carried out considering the assets in the affected area (i.e., tourist flows, goods, transport and the effect on other social and economic activities. This study shows the importance of indirect damage, which is as significant as direct damage. The total amount of direct damage was estimated in 8 913 000 €; on the contrary, indirect

  19. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or ... avoid exposure to soil. Is there a medical test for lead exposure? • Blood samples can be tested ...

  20. Protein precipitation of diluted samples in SDS-containing buffer with acetone leads to higher protein recovery and reproducibility in comparison with TCA/acetone approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Cátia; Anjo, Sandra I; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Proteomic approaches are extremely valuable in many fields of research, where mass spectrometry methods have gained an increasing interest, especially because of the ability to perform quantitative analysis. Nonetheless, sample preparation prior to mass spectrometry analysis is of the utmost importance. In this work, two protein precipitation approaches, widely used for cleaning and concentrating protein samples, were tested and compared in very diluted samples solubilized in a strong buffer (containing SDS). The amount of protein recovered after acetone and TCA/acetone precipitation was assessed, as well as the protein identification and relative quantification by SWATH-MS yields were compared with the results from the same sample without precipitation. From this study, it was possible to conclude that in the case of diluted samples in denaturing buffers, the use of cold acetone as precipitation protocol is more favourable than the use of TCA/acetone in terms of reproducibility in protein recovery and number of identified and quantified proteins. Furthermore, the reproducibility in relative quantification of the proteins is even higher in samples precipitated with acetone compared with the original sample. PMID:27094026

  1. Analysis of variance of designed chromatographic data sets: The analysis of variance-target projection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Federico; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Walczak, Beata

    2015-07-31

    Direct application of popular approaches, e.g., Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Partial Least Squares (PLS) to chromatographic data originating from a well-designed experimental study including more than one factor is not recommended. In the case of a well-designed experiment involving two or more factors (crossed or nested), data are usually decomposed into the contributions associated with the studied factors (and with their interactions), and the individual effect matrices are then analyzed using, e.g., PCA, as in the case of ASCA (analysis of variance combined with simultaneous component analysis). As an alternative to the ASCA method, we propose the application of PLS followed by target projection (TP), which allows a one-factor representation of the model for each column in the design dummy matrix. PLS application follows after proper deflation of the experimental matrix, i.e., to what are called the residuals under the reduced ANOVA model. The proposed approach (ANOVA-TP) is well suited for the study of designed chromatographic data of complex samples. It allows testing of statistical significance of the studied effects, 'biomarker' identification, and enables straightforward visualization and accurate estimation of between- and within-class variance. The proposed approach has been successfully applied to a case study aimed at evaluating the effect of pasteurization on the concentrations of various phenolic constituents of rooibos tea of different quality grades and its outcomes have been compared to those of ASCA.

  2. ANALYSIS OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT OF LEADING COMPANIES IN THE HUNGARIAN DAIRY SECTOR BETWEEN 2008 AND 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorisz Talas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses trends in the working capital management of those Hungarian dairy companies that feature the highest levels of sales revenues in the domestic market and diversified product structures. In view of the significance of food industry in the national economy, a particularly important question to examine in this context is to see what impacts the economic crisis has had on the business operations of the dominant companies of the sector, what processes it has triggered in working capital management. In 2012, 44 of the 500 companies with the largest amounts of sales were operating in the food processing sector. Within the group of these 44 enterprises, dairy companies had an 11% share. On the other hand, 82% of the total sales revenues of the dairy industry was given by the 15 companies where the individual amounts of registered capital are over HUF 250 million, which reflects a strong sales revenue concentration. Therefore, it has been an interesting aspect to study how in such a concentrated sector the leading companies shape their working capital management, what processes can be observed in this respect. This study has relied on the annual reports, i.e. the balance sheets and profit & loss accounts of the companies for the fiscal period of 2008–2012. The research methodology of the analysis is based on the review of financial indicators internationally accepted and used in connection with working capital management. Moreover, the study determines a cash conversion cycle, and in this context the inventory and receivables turnover, as well as the payables turnover. It has been assessed what changes the above-mentioned indicators of the competitors belonging to the target group of analysis have undergone, if there has been a general tendency of changes to be identified. For outstanding values it has been analysed what the large-scale changes could have been caused by. Fundamentally, I have aspired to reveal whether there has been

  3. Global analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions and their uncertainties at next-to-next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Khanpour, Hamzeh

    2016-01-01

    We perform a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) using neutral current charged-lepton ($\\ell ^\\pm$ + nucleus) deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) data and Drell-Yan (DY) cross-section ratios $\\sigma_{DY}^{A}/\\sigma_{DY}^{A^\\prime}$ for several nuclear targets. We study in details the parameterizations and the atomic mass (A) dependence of the nuclear PDFs at this order. The present nuclear PDFs global analysis provides us a complete set of nuclear PDFs, $f_i^{(A,Z)}(x,Q^2)$, with a full functional dependence on $x$, A, Q$^2$. The uncertainties of the obtained nuclear modification factors for each parton flavour are estimated using the well-known Hessian method. The nuclear charm quark distributions are also added into the analysis. We compare the parametrization results with the available data and the results of other nuclear PDFs groups. We found our nuclear PDFs to be in reasonably good agreement with them. The estimates of errors provided by our glob...

  4. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, un-characterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy ...

  5. Analysis of Heart Diseases Dataset using Neural Network Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, K Usha

    2011-01-01

    One of the important techniques of Data mining is Classification. Many real world problems in various fields such as business, science, industry and medicine can be solved by using classification approach. Neural Networks have emerged as an important tool for classification. The advantages of Neural Networks helps for efficient classification of given data. In this study a Heart diseases dataset is analyzed using Neural Network approach. To increase the efficiency of the classification process parallel approach is also adopted in the training phase.

  6. Frequency domain analysis and design of nonlinear systems based on Volterra series expansion a parametric characteristic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Xingjian

    2015-01-01

    This book is a systematic summary of some new advances in the area of nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain, focusing on the application oriented theory and methods based on the GFRF concept, which is mainly done by the author in the past 8 years. The main results are formulated uniformly with a parametric characteristic approach, which provides a convenient and novel insight into nonlinear influence on system output response in terms of characteristic parameters and thus facilitate nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain.  The book starts with a brief introduction to the background of nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain, followed by recursive algorithms for computation of GFRFs for different parametric models, and nonlinear output frequency properties. Thereafter the parametric characteristic analysis method is introduced, which leads to the new understanding and formulation of the GFRFs, and nonlinear characteristic output spectrum (nCOS) and the nCOS based analysis a...

  7. Multivariate meta-analysis of mixed outcomes: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujkiewicz, Sylwia; Thompson, John R; Sutton, Alex J; Cooper, Nicola J; Harrison, Mark J; Symmons, Deborah P M; Abrams, Keith R

    2013-09-30

    Multivariate random effects meta-analysis (MRMA) is an appropriate way for synthesizing data from studies reporting multiple correlated outcomes. In a Bayesian framework, it has great potential for integrating evidence from a variety of sources. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian model for MRMA of mixed outcomes, which extends previously developed bivariate models to the trivariate case and also allows for combination of multiple outcomes that are both continuous and binary. We have constructed informative prior distributions for the correlations by using external evidence. Prior distributions for the within-study correlations were constructed by employing external individual patent data and using a double bootstrap method to obtain the correlations between mixed outcomes. The between-study model of MRMA was parameterized in the form of a product of a series of univariate conditional normal distributions. This allowed us to place explicit prior distributions on the between-study correlations, which were constructed using external summary data. Traditionally, independent 'vague' prior distributions are placed on all parameters of the model. In contrast to this approach, we constructed prior distributions for the between-study model parameters in a way that takes into account the inter-relationship between them. This is a flexible method that can be extended to incorporate mixed outcomes other than continuous and binary and beyond the trivariate case. We have applied this model to a motivating example in rheumatoid arthritis with the aim of incorporating all available evidence in the synthesis and potentially reducing uncertainty around the estimate of interest. PMID:23630081

  8. A systems analysis approach to nuclear facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to demonstrate an application of the techniques of systems analysis, which have been successful in solving a variety of problems, to nuclear facility siting. Within the framework of an overall regional land-use plan, a methodology for establishing the acceptability of a combination of site and facility is discussed. The consequences (e.g. the energy produced, thermal and chemical discharges, radioactive releases, aeshetic values, etc.) of the site-facility combination are identified and compared with formalized criteria in order to ensure 'legal acceptability'. Failure of any consequences to satisfy standard requirements results in a feedback channel which works to effect design changes in the facility. When 'legal acceptability' has been assured, the project enters the public sector for consideration. The responses of individuals and of various interested groups to the external attributes of the nuclear facility gradually emerge. The criteria by which interest groups judge technological advances reflect both their rational assessment and unconscious motivations. This process operates on individual, group, societal and international levels and may result in two basic feedback loops: one which might act to change regulatory criteria; the other which might influence facility design or site selection. Such reactions and responses on these levels result in a continuing process of confrontation, collaborative interchange and possible resolution in the direction of an acceptable solution. Finally, a Paretian approach to optimizing the site-facility combination is presented for the case where there are several possible combinations of site and facility. A hypothetical example of the latter is given, based upon typical preference functions determined for four interest groups. The research effort of the IIASA Energy Systems Project and the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project in the area of nuclear siting is summarized. (author)

  9. A Thermoeconomic Approach for the Analysis of District Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Calí

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available

    District heating is a rational way to use fossil fuels for domestic heating (and cooling in towns, especially if it is joined with a cogenerative production of electricity. As with every other process it must be economically convenient for its realization, so technical considerations must be integrated into the economic ones. Thermoeconomic theories take into account these two aspects, representing a good tool for an optimized design and correct management (Bejan et al. 1996.

    The aim of this paper is to propose the use of thermoeconomic procedures for the analysis of district heating systems, in order to define criteria for the network design. The approach consists of the choice of significant design parameters, which can be varied in order to determine the optimized system.

    An application to the Turin district heating system is presented here. The system is composed of a steam power plant and a gas turbine power plant, both cogenerative, and of the pipe network. The effects of the choices in the network project on the working conditions of the system and on the cost of its products are shown. The optimization problem has been solved by evaluating the decision variable under some particular conditions, obtained by solving fluid-dynamic, thermal and thermoeconomic problems for the whole system, corresponding to different values of the supply fluid temperature.

    The application of the thermoeconomic theory to the network allows one to determine the effects of the parameters characterizing each user to the cost of the service provided. This information constitutes a tool for making management decisions, like the opportunity and modality for future expansions of the served area.

  10. Three-dimensional thermal-structural analysis of a swept cowl leading edge subjected to skewed shock-shock interference heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesky, Sandra P.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Glass, Christopher E.; Pandey, Ajay K.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional flux-based thermal analysis method has been developed and its capability is demonstrated by predicting the transient nonlinear temperature response of a swept cowl leading edge subjected to intense three-dimensional aerodynamic heating. The predicted temperature response from the transient thermal analysis is used in a linear elastic structural analysis to determine thermal stresses. Predicted thermal stresses are compared with those obtained from a two-dimensional analysis which represents conditions along the chord where maximum heating occurs. Results indicate a need for a three-dimensional analysis to predict accurately the leading edge thermal stress response.

  11. What's the state of energy studies research?: A content analysis of three leading journals from 1999 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a content analysis conducted on 2502 papers written by 5318 authors published between 1999 and 2008 in three leading energy studies journals: Energy Policy, The Energy Journal, and The Electricity Journal. Our study finds that authors were most likely to be male, based in North America, possess a background in science or engineering, and affiliated with a university or research institute. Articles were likely to be written by authors working within disciplinary boundaries and using research methods from an economics/engineering background. The US was the most written about country among papers that adopted a country focus and electricity was the most frequently discussed energy source. Energy markets and public policy instruments were the most popular focus areas. According to these findings, we identify five thematic areas whose further investigation could enhance the energy studies field and increase the policy-relevance of contemporary research.

  12. A FACTOR ANALYSIS APPROACH IN PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF T - 20 CRICKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Reliability and Statistical Studies; ISSN (Print: 0974-8024, (Online:2229-5666Vol.6, Issue 1 (2013: 69-76A FACTOR ANALYSIS APPROACH IN PERFORMANCEANALYSIS OF T-20 CRICKETSujeet Kumar SharmaDepartment of Operations Management and Business Statistics, CEPS,Sultan Qaboos University, OmanEmail:drsujeet@squ.edu.om(Received October 03, 2012AbstractThis paper investigates the systematic covariation among various dimensions pertainingtobatting and bowling capabilities of T20 cricket usingtheadvancedstatistical technique offactor analysis.Thereal dataset of 85 batsmen and 85 bowlershas been consideredfrom IndianPremier League (IPL 2012for analysis purpose.The findings of this study show that battingcapability dominates over bowling capability.This conclusion coincides with the general opinionof several cricketing enthusiasts and experts; however till date, there is no research study, to thebest of the author’s knowledge that provides statistical evidence to support this notion.

  13. Exposures to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities. PMID:21714377

  14. Exposures to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  15. $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to (\\pi^0 \\eta^{(*)}, \\eta^{(*)}\\eta^{(*)})$ decays and the effects of next-to-leading order contributions in the perturbative QCD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhen-Jun; Lin, Dong-Ting; Fan, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the branching ratios and CP violating asymmetries of the five $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to (\\pi^0\\eta^{(*)},\\eta^{(*)}\\eta^{(*)})$ decays, by employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach and with the inclusion of all currently known next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions. We find that (a) the NLO contributions can provide about 100% enhancements to the LO pQCD predictions for the decay rates of $\\bar{B}_s^0 \\to \\eta\\eta^\\prime$ and $\\eta^\\prime \\eta^\\prime$ decays, but result in small changes to $Br(\\bar{B}_s \\to \\pi^0 \\eta^{(*)})$ and $Br(\\bar{B}_s \\to \\eta\\eta)$; (b) the newly known NLO twist-2 and twist-3 contributions to the relevant form factors can provide about 10% enhancements to the decay rates of the considered decays; (c) for $\\bar{B}_s \\to \\pi^0 \\eta^{(*)}$ decays, their direct CP-violating asymmetries $\\cala_f^{dir}$ could be enhanced significantly by the inclusion of the NLO contributions; and (d) the pQCD predictions for $Br(\\bar{B}_s \\to \\eta \\eta^{(*)})$ and...

  16. A "genome-to-lead" approach for insecticide discovery: pharmacological characterization and screening of Aedes aegypti D(1-like dopamine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Meyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many neglected tropical infectious diseases affecting humans are transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks. New mode-of-action chemistries are urgently sought to enhance vector management practices in countries where arthropod-borne diseases are endemic, especially where vector populations have acquired widespread resistance to insecticides. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a "genome-to-lead" approach for insecticide discovery that incorporates the first reported chemical screen of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR mined from a mosquito genome. A combination of molecular and pharmacological studies was used to functionally characterize two dopamine receptors (AaDOP1 and AaDOP2 from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Sequence analyses indicated that these receptors are orthologous to arthropod D(1-like (Gα(s-coupled receptors, but share less than 55% amino acid identity in conserved domains with mammalian dopamine receptors. Heterologous expression of AaDOP1 and AaDOP2 in HEK293 cells revealed dose-dependent responses to dopamine (EC(50: AaDOP1 = 3.1±1.1 nM; AaDOP2 = 240±16 nM. Interestingly, only AaDOP1 exhibited sensitivity to epinephrine (EC(50 = 5.8±1.5 nM and norepinephrine (EC(50 = 760±180 nM, while neither receptor was activated by other biogenic amines tested. Differential responses were observed between these receptors regarding their sensitivity to dopamine agonists and antagonists, level of maximal stimulation, and constitutive activity. Subsequently, a chemical library screen was implemented to discover lead chemistries active at AaDOP2. Fifty-one compounds were identified as "hits," and follow-up validation assays confirmed the antagonistic effect of selected compounds at AaDOP2. In vitro comparison studies between AaDOP2 and the human D(1 dopamine receptor (hD(1 revealed markedly different pharmacological profiles and identified amitriptyline and doxepin as AaDOP2

  17. A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Castro-Acuna, Carlos Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    Presents discussions on sources, health impacts, methods of analysis as well as lengthy discussions of lead, nitrates, and atrazine as related to water pollution and the interdisciplinary nature of the modern chemistry curriculum. (DKM)

  18. Comparative analysis of human tissue interactomes reveals factors leading to tissue-specific manifestation of hereditary diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Barshir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An open question in human genetics is what underlies the tissue-specific manifestation of hereditary diseases, which are caused by genomic aberrations that are present in cells across the human body. Here we analyzed this phenomenon for over 300 hereditary diseases by using comparative network analysis. We created an extensive resource of protein expression and interactions in 16 main human tissues, by integrating recent data of gene and protein expression across tissues with data of protein-protein interactions (PPIs. The resulting tissue interaction networks (interactomes shared a large fraction of their proteins and PPIs, and only a small fraction of them were tissue-specific. Applying this resource to hereditary diseases, we first show that most of the disease-causing genes are widely expressed across tissues, yet, enigmatically, cause disease phenotypes in few tissues only. Upon testing for factors that could lead to tissue-specific vulnerability, we find that disease-causing genes tend to have elevated transcript levels and increased number of tissue-specific PPIs in their disease tissues compared to unaffected tissues. We demonstrate through several examples that these tissue-specific PPIs can highlight disease mechanisms, and thus, owing to their small number, provide a powerful filter for interrogating disease etiologies. As two thirds of the hereditary diseases are associated with these factors, comparative tissue analysis offers a meaningful and efficient framework for enhancing the understanding of the molecular basis of hereditary diseases.

  19. Comparative analysis of human tissue interactomes reveals factors leading to tissue-specific manifestation of hereditary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshir, Ruth; Shwartz, Omer; Smoly, Ilan Y; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2014-06-01

    An open question in human genetics is what underlies the tissue-specific manifestation of hereditary diseases, which are caused by genomic aberrations that are present in cells across the human body. Here we analyzed this phenomenon for over 300 hereditary diseases by using comparative network analysis. We created an extensive resource of protein expression and interactions in 16 main human tissues, by integrating recent data of gene and protein expression across tissues with data of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The resulting tissue interaction networks (interactomes) shared a large fraction of their proteins and PPIs, and only a small fraction of them were tissue-specific. Applying this resource to hereditary diseases, we first show that most of the disease-causing genes are widely expressed across tissues, yet, enigmatically, cause disease phenotypes in few tissues only. Upon testing for factors that could lead to tissue-specific vulnerability, we find that disease-causing genes tend to have elevated transcript levels and increased number of tissue-specific PPIs in their disease tissues compared to unaffected tissues. We demonstrate through several examples that these tissue-specific PPIs can highlight disease mechanisms, and thus, owing to their small number, provide a powerful filter for interrogating disease etiologies. As two thirds of the hereditary diseases are associated with these factors, comparative tissue analysis offers a meaningful and efficient framework for enhancing the understanding of the molecular basis of hereditary diseases. PMID:24921629

  20. An analysis of the impact of LHC Run I proton-lead data on nuclear parton densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, Nestor; Penin, Jose Manuel; Salgado, Carlos A.; Zurita, Pia [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Galicia (Spain); Paukkunen, Hannu [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Galicia (Spain); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-04-15

    We report on an analysis of the impact of available experimental data on hard processes in proton-lead collisions during Run I at the large hadron collider on nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions. Our analysis is restricted to the EPS09 and DSSZ global fits. The measurements that we consider comprise production of massive gauge bosons, jets, charged hadrons and pions. This is the first time a study of nuclear PDFs includes this number of different observables. The goal of the paper is twofold: (i) checking the description of the data by nPDFs, as well as the relevance of these nuclear effects, in a quantitative manner; (ii) testing the constraining power of these data in eventual global fits, for which we use the Bayesian reweighting technique. We find an overall good, even too good, description of the data, indicating that more constraining power would require a better control over the systematic uncertainties and/or the proper proton-proton reference from LHC Run II. Some of the observables, however, show sizeable tension with specific choices of proton and nuclear PDFs. We also comment on the corresponding improvements as regards the theoretical treatment. (orig.)

  1. Scaling and disorder analysis of local I-V curves from ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymovych, Peter; Pan, Minghu; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2011-06-24

    Differential analysis of current-voltage characteristics, obtained on the surface of epitaxial films of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr(0.2)Ti(0.8))O(3)) using scanning probe microscopy, was combined with spatially resolved mapping of variations in local conductance to differentiate between candidate mechanisms of local electronic transport and the origin of disorder. Within the assumed approximations, electron transport was inferred to be determined by two mechanisms depending on the magnitude of applied bias, with the low-bias range dominated by the trap-assisted Fowler-Nordheim tunneling through the interface and the high-bias range limited by the hopping conduction through the bulk. Phenomenological analysis of the I-V curves has further revealed that the transition between the low- and high-bias regimes is manifested both in the strength of variations within the I-V curves sampled across the surface, as well as the spatial distribution of conductance. Spatial variations were concluded to originate primarily from the heterogeneity of the interfacial electronic barrier height with an additional small contribution from random changes in the tip-contact geometry.

  2. An analysis of the impact of LHC Run I proton-lead data on nuclear parton densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an analysis of the impact of available experimental data on hard processes in proton-lead collisions during Run I at the large hadron collider on nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions. Our analysis is restricted to the EPS09 and DSSZ global fits. The measurements that we consider comprise production of massive gauge bosons, jets, charged hadrons and pions. This is the first time a study of nuclear PDFs includes this number of different observables. The goal of the paper is twofold: (i) checking the description of the data by nPDFs, as well as the relevance of these nuclear effects, in a quantitative manner; (ii) testing the constraining power of these data in eventual global fits, for which we use the Bayesian reweighting technique. We find an overall good, even too good, description of the data, indicating that more constraining power would require a better control over the systematic uncertainties and/or the proper proton-proton reference from LHC Run II. Some of the observables, however, show sizeable tension with specific choices of proton and nuclear PDFs. We also comment on the corresponding improvements as regards the theoretical treatment. (orig.)

  3. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  4. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, D.; Belluta, P.; Herman, J.; Hwang, P.; Mukai, R.; Porter, D.; Jones, B.; Wood, E.; Grotzinger, J.; Edgar, L.; Hayes, A.; Hare, T.; Squyres, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe. ??2009 IEEE.

  5. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration.

  6. A new laboratory approach to shale analysis using NMR relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry is a non-invasive technique commonly used to assess hydrogen-bearing fluids in petroleum reservoir rocks. Measurements made using LF-NMR provide information on rock porosity, pore-size distributions, and in some cases, fluid types and saturations (Timur, 1967; Kenyon et al., 1986; Straley et al., 1994; Brown, 2001; Jackson, 2001; Kleinberg, 2001; Hurlimann et al., 2002). Recent improvements in LF-NMR instrument electronics have made it possible to apply methods used to measure pore fluids to assess highly viscous and even solid organic phases within reservoir rocks. T1 and T2 relaxation responses behave very differently in solids and liquids; therefore the relationship between these two modes of relaxation can be used to differentiate organic phases in rock samples or to characterize extracted organic materials. Using T1-T2 correlation data, organic components present in shales, such as kerogen and bitumen, can be examined in laboratory relaxometry measurements. In addition, implementation of a solid-echo pulse sequence to refocus T2 relaxation caused by homonuclear dipolar coupling during correlation measurements allows for improved resolution of solid-phase protons. LF-NMR measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions were carried out on raw oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation and pyrolyzed samples of these shales processed by hydrous pyrolysis and techniques meant to mimic surface and in-situ retorting. Samples processed using the In Situ Simulator approach ranged from bitumen and early oil generation through to depletion of petroleum generating potential. The standard T1-T2 correlation plots revealed distinct peaks representative of solid- and liquid-like organic phases; results on the pyrolyzed shales reflect changes that occurred during thermal processing. The solid-echo T1 and T2 measurements were used to improve assessment of the solid organic phases, specifically

  7. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  8. Analysis of Kernel Approach in Fuzzy-Based Image Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mragank Singhal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of kernel approach in the field of fuzzy based image classification in remote sensing. The goal of image classification is to separate images according to their visual content into two or more disjoint classes. Fuzzy logic is relatively young theory. Major advantage of this theory is that it allows the natural description, in linguistic terms, of problems that should be solved rather than in terms of relationships between precise numerical values. This paper describes how remote sensing data with uncertainty are handled with fuzzy based classification using Kernel approach for land use/land cover maps generation. The introduction to fuzzification using Kernel approach provides the basis for the development of more robust approaches to the remote sensing classification problem. The kernel explicitly defines a similarity measure between two samples and implicitly represents the mapping of the input space to the feature space.

  9. A Systemic Approach for Modeling and Analysis of Coopetition

    OpenAIRE

    Golnam, Arash; Sanchez, Ron; Wegmann, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Coopetition has been defined as an approach to managing that combines competition and cooperation. Coopetition transcends the traditional paradigms of competition and cooperation in an effort to achieve the advantages of both. As an inter-organizational relationship which is of a higher complexity than cooperation between non competitors, coopetition presents challenges both for business managers and researchers in the strategy field. In this paper we present a systemic approach to modeling a...

  10. Elevated Concentrations of Lead in Particulate Matter on the Neighborhood-Scale in Delhi, India As Determined by Single Particle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongru; Peters, Thomas M; Casuccio, Gary S; Lersch, Traci L; West, Roger R; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Naresh; Ault, Andrew P

    2016-05-17

    High mass concentrations of atmospheric lead particles are frequently observed in the Delhi, India metropolitan area, although the sources of lead particles are poorly understood. In this study, particles sampled across Delhi (August - December 2008) were analyzed by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX) to improve our understanding of the spatial and physicochemical variability of lead-rich particles (>90% lead). The mean mass concentration of lead-rich particles smaller than 10 μm (PM10) was 0.7 μg/m(3) (1.5 μg/m(3) std. dev.) with high variability (range: 0-6.2 μg/m(3)). Four samples (16% of 25 samples) with PM10 lead-rich particle concentrations >1.4 μg/m(3) were defined as lead events and studied further. The temporal characteristics, heterogeneous spatial distribution, and wind patterns of events, excluded regional monsoon conditions or common anthropogenic sources from being the major causes of the lead events. Individual particle composition, size, and morphology analysis indicate informal recycling operations of used lead-acid batteries as the likely source of the lead events. This source is not typically included in emission inventories, and the observed isolated hotspots with high lead concentrations could represent an elevated exposure risk in certain neighborhoods of Delhi.

  11. QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering: Laplace transform and Jacobi polynomials approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Tehrani, S. Atashbar; Mahdavi, Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    We present a detailed QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions x F3(x ,Q2) , based on Laplace transforms and the Jacobi polynomials approach. The analysis corresponds to the next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order approximations of perturbative QCD. The Laplace transform technique, as an exact analytical solution, is used for the solution of nonsinglet Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations at low- and large-x values. The extracted results are used as input to obtain the x and Q2 evolution of x F3(x ,Q2) structure functions using the Jacobi polynomials approach. In our work, the values of the typical QCD scale ΛMS¯ (nf) and the strong coupling constant αs(MZ2) are determined for four quark flavors (nf=4 ) as well. A careful estimation of the uncertainties shall be performed using the Hessian method for the valence-quark distributions, originating from the experimental errors. We compare our valence-quark parton distribution functions sets with those of other collaborations, in particular with the CT14, MMHT14, and NNPDF sets, which are contemporary with the present analysis. The obtained results from the analysis are in good agreement with those from the literature.

  12. Direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps – A clean steady state approach for overall performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    using an optimal collector working temperature. - Highlights: •A new approach for the steady state analysis of solar assisted heat pumps is presented. •The model is based on the inverse Carnot cycle and does not use fluid properties. •The approach leads to an analytical steady state description of the system. •The model effectively describes the averaged behavior of the considered system. •The model appears suitable to be applied to embedded control systems

  13. Automatic symbolic analysis of SC networks using a modified nodal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.A.; Petkovic, P.M.; Milanovic, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a symbolic analysis of Switched-Capacitor (SC) circuits in the z-domain using Modified Nodal Approach (MNA). We have selected the MNA method as one of the widely established approaches in circuit analysis. The analyses are performed using SymsimC symbolic simulator which also ena

  14. IMPORTANT BUSSINESS FACTOR ANALYSIS USING DATAMINING APPROACH IN FINANCIAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.SURESH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The term cluster analysis encompasses a number of various types of algorithms and methods for grouping objects of similar kind into relevant categories. A common question facing researchers in a lot of areas of analysis is how to organize experimental data into meaningful structures, that is, to develop taxonomies. In otherwords cluster analysis is an examining data analysis tool which aims at sorting different objects into groups in a way that the degree of association between two objects is maximal if they belong to the similar group and minimal otherwise. Given the above, cluster analysis can be used to determine structures in data without providing clarification/interpretation. In other way, cluster analysis simply discovers structures in data without explaining why they exist.

  15. Identification of leads through in silico approaches utilizing benzylthio-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl acetic acid derivatives: A potent CRTh2 antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sathya; Kulkarni, Seema A.; Sohn, Honglae; Madhavan, Thirumurthy

    2015-12-01

    Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2) is considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Herein, we describe the pharmacophore based virtual screening combined with molecular docking and 3D-QSAR methods to identify new potent CRTh2 inhibitors. Several pharmacophore models were generated and validated by Guner-Henry scoring method. The best models were utilized as 3D Pharmacophore query to screen against ZINC database and the retrieved hits were further validated by fitness score, Lipinski's rule of five, Surflex docking and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) process. The optimum CoMFA model was developed using known inhibitors and the predictive ability of model was examined by statistical parameters like q2 = 0.552 and r2pred = 0.636. The biological activities of the screened compounds were calculated using the generated CoMFA model. Finally nine compounds were found to have good potential and high inhibitory activities and they may act as novel lead compounds for CRTh2 inhibitor designing.

  16. A systematic approach to initial data analysis is good research practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Marianne; Vach, Werner; le Cessie, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Initial data analysis is conducted independently of the analysis needed to address the research questions. Shortcomings in these first steps may result in inappropriate statistical methods or incorrect conclusions. We outline a framework for initial data analysis and illustrate the impact of initial data analysis on research studies. Examples of reporting of initial data analysis in publications are given. A systematic and careful approach to initial data analysis is needed as good research practice.

  17. Design and analysis of experiments classical and regression approaches with SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Onyiah, Leonard C

    2008-01-01

    Introductory Statistical Inference and Regression Analysis Elementary Statistical Inference Regression Analysis Experiments, the Completely Randomized Design (CRD)-Classical and Regression Approaches Experiments Experiments to Compare Treatments Some Basic Ideas Requirements of a Good Experiment One-Way Experimental Layout or the CRD: Design and Analysis Analysis of Experimental Data (Fixed Effects Model) Expected Values for the Sums of Squares The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Table Follow-Up Analysis to Check fo

  18. Discrete event simulation versus conventional system reliability analysis approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) environments are rapidly developing and appear to be promising tools for building reliability and risk analysis models of safety-critical systems and human operators. If properly developed, they are an alternative to the conventional human reliability analysis models...... and systems analysis methods such as fault and event trees and Bayesian networks. As one part, the paper describes briefly the author’s experience in applying DES models to the analysis of safety-critical systems in different domains. The other part of the paper is devoted to comparing conventional...

  19. Natural products as lead structures: chemical transformations to create lead-like libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we analyze and illustrate the variation of the two main lead-like descriptors [molecular weight (MW) and the partition coefficient (logP)] in the generation of libraries in which a natural product (NP) is used as the guiding structure. Despite the different approaches used to create NP-like libraries, controlling these descriptors during the synthetic process is important to generate lead-like libraries. From this analysis, we present a schematic approach to the generation of lead-like libraries that can be applied to any starting NP. PMID:24171951

  20. Fatigue Damage Analysis by Use of Cyclic Strain Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Rye

    1996-01-01

    A number of cracks were reported in a bulk carrier (approx. 300m long) after 23 years of trade. The ship was still in good condition, no significant corrosion was found by inspection. The trade routes of the vessel were in the North Atlantic, usually one voyage in fully loaded condition followed by...... the deck. The initiation of the cracks was probably due to fatigue damage. In this paper the cracks will be investigated using the cyclic strain approach, and the obtained results will be compared with fatigue lives estimated by the S-N approach....

  1. A covariant approach to the analysis of coherent processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasev, V. P.; Shelepin, L. A.

    A general group-theory approach to the study of coherent phenomena in many-particle multilevel systems interacting with boson fields is formulated on the basis of the dynamic symmetry theory and the formalism of group representations. Algebraic models of the systems under study are proposed using this approach which yield generalized Dicke models with allowance for both radiation and collisional processes and also consider systems with a varying number of particles. By using Glauber coherent states and generalized coherent states of SU (n) groups, covariant methods are developed for calculating various characteristics of cooperative phenomena and processes on the basis of the models proposed here.

  2. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  3. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has also been associated with juvenile delinquency and criminal behavior. In adults, lead can increase blood pressure ... and-forth manner, but rather from left to right (or vise-versa), or from the top of ...

  4. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other potential lead sources include imported foods, candy, cosmetics, costume jewelry, brass keys, and toys or household ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  5. Ecological consequences of genetic modifications - an invasion analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Valosaari, Kata-Riina

    2008-01-01

    Biological invasions are considered as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, as they may lead to disruption and homogenization of natural communities, and in the worst case, to native species extinctions. The introduction of gene modified organisms (GMOs) to agricultural, fisheries and forestry practices brings them into contact with natural populations. GMOs may appear as new invasive species if they are able to (1) invade into natural habitats or (2) hybridize with their wild relativ...

  6. Computerized two-lead resting ECG analysis for the detection of coronary artery stenosis after coronary revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Grube, Andreas Bootsveld, Lutz Buellesfeld, Seyrani Yuecel, Joseph T Shen, Michael Imhoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resting electrocardiogram (ECG shows limited sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD, where patients with a history of coronary revascularization may pose special challenges. Several methods exist to enhance sensitivity and specificity of resting ECG for diagnosis of CAD, but such methods are not better than a specialist's judgement. We compared a new computer-enhanced, resting ECG analysis device, 3DMP, to coronary angiography to evaluate the device's accuracy in detecting hemodynamically relevant CAD. Methods: A convenience sample of 172 patients with a history of coronary revascularization scheduled for coronary angiography was evaluated with 3DMP before coronary angiography. 3DMP's sensitivity and specificity in detecting hemodynamically relevant coronary stenosis as diagnosed with coronary angiography were calculated as well as odds ratios for the 3DMP severity score and coronary artery disease risk factors. Results: The 3DMP system accurately identified 50 of 55 patients as having hemodynamically relevant stenosis (sensitivity 90.9%, specificity 88.0%. Positive and negative predictive values for the identification of coronary stenosis as diagnosed in coronary angiograms were 62.7% and 97.8% respectively. Risk and demographic factors in a logistic regression model had a markedly lower predictive power for the presence of coronary stenosis in these patients than did 3DMP severity score (odds ratio 2.04 [0.74-5.62] vs. 73.57 [25.10-215.68]. A logistic regression combining severity score with risk and demographic factors did not add significantly to the prediction quality (odds ratio 80.00 [27.03-236.79]. Conclusions: 3DMP's computer-based, mathematically derived analysis of resting two-lead ECG data provides detection of hemodynamically relevant CAD in patients with a history of coronary revascularization with high sensitivity and specificity that appears to be at least as good as those

  7. An Integrated Approach to Thermal Analysis of Pharmaceutical Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Shelley R. Rabel

    2015-01-01

    A three-tiered experiment for undergraduate Instrumental Analysis students is presented in which students characterize the solid-state thermal behavior of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (acetaminophen) and excipient (a-lactose hydrate) using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermal microscopy. Students are…

  8. A State Space Modeling Approach to Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Mediation is a causal process that evolves over time. Thus, a study of mediation requires data collected throughout the process. However, most applications of mediation analysis use cross-sectional rather than longitudinal data. Another implicit assumption commonly made in longitudinal designs for mediation analysis is that the same mediation…

  9. LIB spectroscopic and biochemical analysis to characterize lead toxicity alleviative nature of silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Rai, Awadesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The responses of wheat seedling treated with silicon (Si; 10 μM) and lead (Pb; 100 μM) for 7 days have been investigated by analyzing growth, Pb uptake, chlorophyll fluorescence, oxidative stress, antioxidants and nutrients regulation. Results indicated that, Pb significantly (PSi addition alleviated Pb-induced decrease in growth and alterations in photosynthesis, and also significantly (PSi addition improved the status of antioxidants. The non-protein thiols (NP-SH) showed enhanced level under Pb stress. Pb stress considerably disturbed status of the nutrients as decrease in Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Ni contents while an increase in K, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Na contents were noticed. Si addition maintained status of all the nutrients remarkably. The quickest method of element analysis: LIBS spectra revealed significantly lower uptake of Pb in seedlings grown under Si and Pb combination and same was correlated with the data of AAS. Overall results pointed out that excess Pb uptake disturbed status of nutrients, photosynthetic performance, antioxidant capacity, hence severe oxidative damage to lipids occurred. Further, Si supplementation successfully regulated these parameters by inhibiting Pb uptake hence maintained growth of wheat seedlings. Similar pattern of data recorded by the LIBS, AAS and ICAP-AES confirmed that LIBS may be one of the promising and authentic tools to monitor the mineral and metal distribution in the plants without hampering or disturbing the environment due to its eco-friendly and non-invasive nature. PMID:26700425

  10. Electrocardiogram Signal Analysis for Physical Motion Based on Wavelet Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a portable, low-cost system, Portable Motion Analyzer (PMA, is introduced to obtain data from daily physical motions, such as ECG, heart rate signals, as well as kinetic information of motion and free-living gait. It can gather, process and analysis the signals from multiple input channels. To process these signals, digital filtering and wavelet analysis is used for quantitative analysis, which can de-noise, de-composite and reconstruct the signals. Similar to the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT in the Fourier, Mallat algorithm can realize the decomposition and reconstruction of the signal according to the coefficient. Experiments show that the system can effectively de-noise analysis of the data from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and analysis the signals of body subjected to the shock of ground. It is proved efficient and stable in the most practical scenarios.

  11. Perturbation Experiments: Approaches for Metabolic Pathway Analysis in Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael; Tröndle, Julia; Albermann, Christoph; Sprenger, Georg A; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, targeted metabolic engineering of microbial cells has become one of the major tools in bioprocess design and optimization. For successful application, a detailed knowledge is necessary about the relevant metabolic pathways and their regulation inside the cells. Since in vitro experiments cannot display process conditions and behavior properly, process data about the cells' metabolic state have to be collected in vivo. For this purpose, special techniques and methods are necessary. Therefore, most techniques enabling in vivo characterization of metabolic pathways rely on perturbation experiments, which can be divided into dynamic and steady-state approaches. To avoid any process disturbance, approaches which enable perturbation of cell metabolism in parallel to the continuing production process are reasonable. Furthermore, the fast dynamics of microbial production processes amplifies the need of parallelized data generation. These points motivate the development of a parallelized approach for multiple metabolic perturbation experiments outside the operating production reactor. An appropriate approach for in vivo characterization of metabolic pathways is presented and applied exemplarily to a microbial L-phenylalanine production process on a 15 L-scale. PMID:25981857

  12. Analysis of the Romanian employment rate. A panel data approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of the employment rate in Romania. I employ a panel data approach, considering the 42 counties, in order to explore the relationship between labour productivity, average earnings, investments and employment. The results reveal a positive impact of the average wage and gross investments and a negative impact of the labour productivity on employment rate.

  13. Perturbation Experiments: Approaches for Metabolic Pathway Analysis in Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael; Tröndle, Julia; Albermann, Christoph; Sprenger, Georg A; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, targeted metabolic engineering of microbial cells has become one of the major tools in bioprocess design and optimization. For successful application, a detailed knowledge is necessary about the relevant metabolic pathways and their regulation inside the cells. Since in vitro experiments cannot display process conditions and behavior properly, process data about the cells' metabolic state have to be collected in vivo. For this purpose, special techniques and methods are necessary. Therefore, most techniques enabling in vivo characterization of metabolic pathways rely on perturbation experiments, which can be divided into dynamic and steady-state approaches. To avoid any process disturbance, approaches which enable perturbation of cell metabolism in parallel to the continuing production process are reasonable. Furthermore, the fast dynamics of microbial production processes amplifies the need of parallelized data generation. These points motivate the development of a parallelized approach for multiple metabolic perturbation experiments outside the operating production reactor. An appropriate approach for in vivo characterization of metabolic pathways is presented and applied exemplarily to a microbial L-phenylalanine production process on a 15 L-scale.

  14. Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations

  15. Approach to conceptual data integration for multidimensional data analysis in e-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhe; Huang Pei

    2006-01-01

    In e-commerce the multidimensional data analysis based on the Web data needs integrating various data sources such as XML data and relational data on the conceptual level. A conceptual data description approach to multidimensional data model --the UML galaxy diagram is presented in order to conduct multidimensional data analysis for multiple subjects. The approach is illuminated using a case of 2_roots UML galaxy diagram that takes marketing analysis of TV products involved one retailer and several suppliers into consideration.

  16. Approach, avoidance, and affect: A meta-analysis of approach-avoidance tendencies in manual reaction time tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Approach action tendencies towards positive stimuli and avoidance tendencies from negative stimuli are widely seen to foster survival. Many studies have shown that approach and avoidance arm movements are facilitated by positive and negative affect, respectively. There is considerable debate whether positively and negatively valenced stimuli prime approach and avoidance movements directly (i.e., immediate, unintentional, implicit, automatic, and stimulus-based, or indirectly (i.e., after conscious or nonconscious interpretation of the situation. The direction and size of these effects were often found to depend on the instructions referring to the stimulus object or the self, and on explicit vs. implicit stimulus evaluation. We present a meta-analysis of 29 studies included for their use of strongly positive and negative stimuli, with 81 effect sizes derived solely from the means and standard deviations (combined N = 1538, to examine the automaticity of the link between affective information processing and approach and avoidance, and to test whether it depends on instruction, type of approach-avoidance task, and stimulus type. Results show a significant small to medium-sized effect after correction for publication bias. The strongest arguments for an indirect link between affect and approach-avoidance were the absence of evidence for an effect with implicit evaluation, and the opposite directions of the effect with self and object-related interpretations. The link appears to be influenced by conscious or nonconscious intentions to deal with affective stimuli.

  17. General Approach To Materials Classification Using Neutron Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'neutron in, gamma out' method of elemental analysis has been known and used in many applications as an elemental analysis tool. This method is non-intrusive, non-destructive, fast and precise. This set of advantages makes neutron analysis attractive for even wider variety of uses beyond simple elemental analysis. The question that is addressed within this study is under what conditions neutron analysis can be used to differentiate materials of interest from a group or class of materials in the face of knowing that what is truly of interest is the molecular content of any sample under interrogation. Purpose of the study was to develop a neutron-based scanner for rapid differentiation of classes of materials sealed in small bottles. Developed scanner employs D-T neutron generator as a neutron source and HPGe gamma detectors. Materials can be placed into classes by many different properties. However, neutron analysis method can be used only few of them, such as elemental content, stoichiometric ratios and density of the scanned material. Set of parameters obtainable through neutron analysis serves as a basis for a hyperspace, where each point corresponds to a certain scanned material. Sub-volumes of the hyperspace correspond to different classes of materials. One of the most important properties of the materials are stoichiometric ratios of the elements comprising the materials. Constructing an algorithm for converting the observed gamma ray counts into quantities of the elements in the scanned sample is a crucial part of the analysis. Gamma rays produced in both fast inelastic scatterings and neutron captures are considered. Presence of certain elements in materials, such as hydrogen and chlorine can significantly change neutron dynamics within the sample, and, in turn, characteristic gamma lines development. These effects have been studied and corresponding algorithms have been developed to account for them

  18. DNA Microarray Data Analysis: A Novel Biclustering Algorithm Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tewfik Ahmed H; Tchagang Alain B

    2006-01-01

    Biclustering algorithms refer to a distinct class of clustering algorithms that perform simultaneous row-column clustering. Biclustering problems arise in DNA microarray data analysis, collaborative filtering, market research, information retrieval, text mining, electoral trends, exchange analysis, and so forth. When dealing with DNA microarray experimental data for example, the goal of biclustering algorithms is to find submatrices, that is, subgroups of genes and subgroups of conditions, w...

  19. Operational Risk Management A Practical Approach to Intelligent Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kenett, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The book will introduce modern Operational Risk (OpR) Management and illustrates the various sources of OpR assessment and OpR mitigation. This book discusses how various data sources can be integrated and analyzed and how OpR is synergetic to other risk management activities such as Financial Risk Management and Internationalization. The topics will include state of the art technology such as semantic analysis, ontology engineering, data mining and statistical analysis.

  20. Analysis of Filariasis Through Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP) Regression Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Setyo Pramono; Herti Maryani; Sri Pingit Wulandari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Indonesia is a tropical disease endemic areas, one of which is the disease elephantiasis (filariasis). Filariasis is filarial worm infectionand transmitted by mosquito bites. Baseline Health Survey (Riskesdas) 2007 showed that the percentage of patients with filariasis in the province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) was the largest in Indonesia. Methods: Secondary data analysis from Riskesdas 2007. The unit of analysis is the individual in NAD Province. Research focused on the r...