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  1. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis; Vermiculitas da regiao do nordeste brasileiro: analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C.M.O., E-mail: raposo@dmg.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  2. Analysis of the computed tomography in the acute abdomen; Analise da tomografia computadorizada no abdome agudo

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    Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moraes, Everton [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil); Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Antunes, Paulo Sergio Pase [Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Gazzoni, Fernando [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Porto Alegre (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Andrade, Rubens Gabriel Feijo [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Cardiologia; Bueno, Leticia Rossi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica]. E-mail: brunorgs@pop.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Introduction: This study tends to test the capacity of the computed tomography in assist in the diagnosis and the approach of the acute abdomen. Material and method: This is a longitudinal and prospective study, in which were analyzed the patients with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. There were obtained 105 cases of acute abdomen and after the application of the exclusions criteria were included 28 patients in the study. Results: Computed tomography changed the diagnostic hypothesis of the physicians in 50% of the cases (p < 0.05), and the confidence index in 85.71% of the cases (p 0.014). Computed tomography also altered the management in 46.43% of the cases (p > 0.05), where 78.57% of the patients had surgical indication before computed tomography and 67.86% after computed tomography (p = 0.0546). The index of accurate diagnosis of computed tomography, when compared to the anatomopathologic examination and the final diagnosis, was observed in 82.14% of the cases (p = 0.013). When the analysis was done dividing the patients in surgical and nonsurgical group, were obtained an accuracy of 89.28% (p 0.0001). The difference of 7.2 days of hospitalization (p = 0.003) was obtained compared with the mean of the acute abdomen without use the computed tomography. Conclusion: The computed tomography is correlative with the anatomopathology and has great accuracy in the surgical indication, associated with the capacity of increase the confident index of the physicians, reduces the hospitalization time, reduces the number of surgeries and is cost-effective. (author)

  3. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1; Diagnostico da mucoviscidose utilizando analise por ativacao com neutrons. Parte 1

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    Bellido, Luis F.; Bellido, Alfredo V

    1997-02-01

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author) 33 refs., 13 figs.

  4. An analysis of metallurgical ladle preheating; Uma analise do processo de pre-aquecimento da panela de aciaria

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    Rodrigues, Eliana F. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas; Figueira, Renato M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the pre-heating effects of the siderurgical ladle refractory lining on the steel making process is developed. The modeling is based essentially on the transient two-dimensional heat conduction equation, expressed in cylindrical coordinates, and also taking into account radiation and convection boundary conditions. The solution procedure is accomplished by means of an `ANSYS` F.E.M. scheme. The analysis enables the evaluation of the preheating influence on the other phases of the complete continuous casting process . The conditions which have to be used in the control of the whole process can be determined by this simulation, enabling the optimization of energy consumption, refractory lining wear, and holding time. (author) 10 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrates formation in drilling activities; Analise termodinamica da formacao de hidratos em atividades de perfuracao

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    Baptista, Joao Marcelo Mussi; Rossi, Luciano Fernando dos Santos; Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: joaommussi@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: lfrossi@cefetpr.br, e-mail: rmorales@cefetpr.br

    2006-07-01

    The present work has for objective to present an analysis of hydrates formation in drilling activities. This analysis presents a study of the state conditions for gas hydrates formation in inhibitors containing systems (salts and alcohols, separately). To describe the nonidealities of liquid phase in electrolytic solutions, the activity coefficient model of Debye-Hueckel is used, as [4], and to describe the influence of alcohols in the activity of water, the UNQUAC model is used, as Parrish and Prausnitz. The hydrate phase is described by thermodynamic statistic model of van der Waals and Platteeuw, and the gaseous phase fugacities are modeled by the Peng-Robinson Equation of State. Some results are presented for saline inhibitors, and for methanol and ethyleneglycol. (author)

  6. An analysis on the costs of Belo Monte hydroelectric power plant; Uma analise sobre os custos da hidreletrica Belo Monte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: energiapara@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The Belo Monte hydropower plant's low generation cost is among the arguments used by Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brazil (ELETRONORTE), a Brazilian state electric utility, to make possible its construction. This paper shows that the generation cost presented by ELETROBRAS is very low in relation to the world pattern of cost and probably unrealistic. It also shows that the generation cost cannot be used separately to determine the Belo Monte dam's economic feasibility. There is the need to include other costs, such as: socio environmental degradation and control, financial compensation for using the hydraulic resources, transmission and thermal backup stations, beyond, evidently, generation cost for assuring the credibility of the Belo Monte hydropower plant's economic analysis. (author)

  7. Cashew nut analysis by magnetic resonance tomography; Analise da castanha do cajueiro por tomografia de ressonancia magnetica

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    Paiva, Joao Rodrigues de; Lima, Antonio Calixto [EMBRAPA, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Agroindustria Tropical]. E-mail: paiva@cnpat.embrapa.br; Biscegli, Clovis Isberto [EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Agroindustria Tropical]. E-mail: clovis@cnpdia.embrapa.br

    2004-11-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the technique of magnetic resonance tomography for cashew nut analysis, compared to the traditional method of clone selection. Samples of cashew nut from 40 clones harvested in 2002 were analyzed using both methods. Using traditional method most of clones showed high and medium values of the industrial indicators nut and seed mass and industrial yield and low values of seed breakage. By magnetic resonance tomography majority of clones showed cashew nuts with empty spaces between the nut and the endocarp, which can protect the seed during decortication. The results for the two methods were complementary and the tomography, besides being a promising option for the quality evaluation of cashew nut, can give support to other researches related to cashew nut study. (author)

  8. Analysis of lichens for use in biomonitoring of environmental pollution; Analise de liquens para uso na biomonitoracao da poluicao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horimoto, Lidia K.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Marcelli, Marcello P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Th, V and Zn obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the analyses of epiphytic lichen samples collected in different sites of the States of Sao Paulo and Parana. These lichens were collected in the following sites: Cidade Universitaria, Campo Limpo Paulista, Sao Bernardo do Campo and Itanhaen situated in the State of Sao Paulo and one sample was from Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa of Parana State. The purpose of these analyses were to obtain preliminary information of air quality of these regions and also select a region of interest for biomonitoring studies. (author)

  9. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  10. Analysis of dose distribution of Leipzig conical applicator; Analise da distribuicao de dose do aplicador conico tipo Leipzig

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    Takizawa, Ricardo H.; Flosi, Adriana A. [A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The dose distribution of Leipzig conical metallic applicators compared to the dose distribution calculated through a planning system with calculation algorithm based on TG43 was analyzed, since this algorithm does not take into account the heterogeneities present. The dose distribution of the subject applicator associated with a GammaMed Plus iX®, used in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with Iridium 192 source was observed. The batch calibration of EBT2 films with a 6MV beam of a Clinac 600C® linear accelerator was performed for the dose range of 0.1Gy to 8.0Gy. The experiment was performed with each applicator of the available set, with different diameters, being used as a function of the size of the lesion to be treated, positioned on a solid water phantom with 10cm depth, offering scattering conditions.It was prescribed 4.0Gy at 3mm depth. The surface dose was observed at 3, 5 and 7mm depth, using solid water plates between the applicator and the film. Using an Epson scanner, images were obtained, which can be analyzed by Image J software, allowing the calibration of the batch of films and analysis of the dose distribution of the applicator. Afterwards, the simulation of the cited experiment was carried out in a commercial planning system. Dose superficiality was observed, being larger in experiment (27.8%), and absolute dose deviation in depth with that observed in the planning system, being smaller in experiment (7.5%)

  11. The ethanol industry from the analysis technology road maps; A industria do etanol a partir da analise de roadmaps tecnologicos

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    Calil Neto, Antonio; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira Cavalacanti; Freire, Estevao [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the ethanol industry in the coming years should be buoyed by several factors, among which gain prominence: feedstock, conversion technologies and products. This article aims, from the analysis of technological road maps, is dealing with Brazil in the face of the global market, is primarily addressing the international context, to assess which technologies tend to predominate, with emphasis on the ethanol industry, addressing convergent and complementary the technology road maps, especially regarding the barriers and challenges, costs and logistics, and other broader issues that govern the production of sustainable feedstock, conversion technologies and biofuels industry, with emphasis on ethanol. Conventional biofuels today are generally not competitive with fossil fuels at market prices, except for the cane ethanol already has a good performance in economic terms. Moreover, strategies for first generation ethanol differ from those for the second generation, which is at an earlier stage of technology development and still subject to comparatively high production costs. The non-economic fundamental barrier to the development of biofuels, particularly ethanol, is the uncertainty as to its sustainability. The debate sometimes on competition with food production and the potential destruction of valuable ecosystems put biofuels in the center of the discussion about sustainability. The challenges facing the ethanol industry range from the need to implement on a large scale to reduce costs along the production chain, through the need for second-generation technologies to reach the level of market, with the behavior of these factors and others will depend on each setting route. (author)

  12. Characterization of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, by thermal analysis; Caracterizacao de uma argila de Vitoria da Conquista, BA, por analise termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Light coloration burned clays are very useful in the coatings production because of their aesthetic. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (south-west Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by various techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. Transformation alpha to beta quartz is characterized by a 573 deg C peak. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by rupture tension with acceptable results. (author)

  13. Economic and financial feasibility analysis of natural gas urban distribution; Analise da viabilidade economica e financeira para o desenvolvimento da rede urbana de distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Guilherme G.; Cunha, Eduardo N.; Teixeira, Clovis C. [Companhia de Gas do Estado do RS (SULGAS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    SULGAS has developed more judicious systematics investments analysis in the natural gas distribution plants in urban areas . A survey has been made of the variables that influence this type of investment, identifying the most relevant ones. Spread sheet in platform Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic was elaborated that makes possible the deterministic analysis, sensibility, and risk analysis of the projects, through consolidated indicators usable in economic engineering. The great differentiation of this proposal is the possibility/flexibility of the economic impact analysis that each future customer has in the branch where he is linked. The spread sheet presents graphical platforms in which the schematical drawings of the projects are inserted on satellite photos of the region, making possible the projects architectures visualization in parallel with the economic analysis. This graphical platform is tied with the alternatives selected in the economic analysis, being brought up to date the images in accordance with the projects selected in the spread sheet. The risk analysis are carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation, generating investment return probability from each branch, cell, or customer, depending on the criteria defined in the spread sheet. This makes possible the insertion and economic analysis of the factors that can influence the investments in NG distribution system, becoming an important tool in the decision making. (author)

  14. Verification of the viability of virions detection using neutron activation analysis; Verificacao da viabilidade de deteccao de virions atraves da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacha, R.; Silva, A.X. da; Crispim, V.R [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Couceiro, J.N.S.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes. Dept. de Virologia

    2002-07-01

    The use of nuclear techniques, as Neutron Activation Analysis, can be an alternative way for the microbiological diagnosis, bringing a significant profit in the analysis time, for not needing pre cultivated samples in appropriate way. In this technique, the samples are collected and submitted to a thermal neutron beam. The interaction of these neutrons with the samples generates gamma rays whose energy spectre is a characteristic of the elemental composition of these samples. Of this done one, a virus presence can be detected in the sample through the distinction of its respective elemental compositions allowing, also, carrying through the analysis in real time. In this work, computational simulations had been become fulfilled using the radiation transport code based on the Monte Carlo Method, MCNP4B, to verify the viability of the application of this system for the virus particle detection in its natural collection environment. (author)

  15. Flow cytometric analysis of p21 protein expression on irradiated human lymphocytes; Analise por citometria de fluxo da expressao da proteina p21 em linfocitos humanos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, N.F.G.; Amaral, A., E-mail: neyliane@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Laboratorio de Modelagem e Biodosimetria Aplicada; Freitas-Silva, R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Garanhuns, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas; Pereira, V.R.A. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes. Departamento de Imunologia. Lab. de Imunoparasitologia; Tasat, D.R. [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Laboratorio de Biologia Celular del Pulmon

    2013-08-15

    Cell cycle blockage in G1 is a mechanism p21 protein-regulated and coupled to DNA damage response to permit genetic content analysis, damage repair and cell death. Analysis of proteins that participates of this response has progressed with new analytic tools, and data contributes to comprehension of radioinduced molecular events as well as to new approaches on practices that employ ionizing radiation. On this perspective, the aim of this research was to evaluate, by flow cytometry, p21 expression on irradiated human lymphocytes, maintained under different experimental conditions. Peripheral blood samples from 10 healthy subjects were irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2 and 4 Gy. Lymphocytes were processed to analysis on ex vivo (no cultured) condition and after 24; 48 and 72 hours culture, with and without phytohemagglutinin stimulation. p21 protein expression levels were measured by flow cytometry, as percentage values. Results indicate that flow cytometric assay allows detection of changes on p21 expression, since it was detected significant increase on phytohemagglutinin-stimulated samples, for all times, against basal expression (ex vivo). However, it was not observed significant alterations on p21 protein radioinduced levels, for all doses, times and culture conditions analyzed. These results not indicate so p21 protein as bioindicator of ionizing radiation exposure. Nevertheless, data confirmation may to require analysis of a more numerous population. (author)

  16. Techniques of data analysis for the electric power quality control; Analise de envoltoria de dados: uma aplicacao no controle da qualidade da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondi Neto, Luiz; Chiganer, Luis; Fukuda, Fernando Hideo; Roberto Junior, Vincenzo de; Antonio, Elias Restum; Oliveira, Fabiano S. [Universidade Veiga de Almeida, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia]. E-mail: lbiondi@embratel.net.br; lchiganer@uol.com.br; fukuda@uninet.com.br; droberto@uninet.com.br; sosscan@br.homeshopping.com.br; fabiano@imagelink.com.br; Lins, Marcos Estellita [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao]. E-mail: estelitt@iis.com.br

    2001-07-01

    The electric power quality depends on the proportion of harmonics which compose the electric signal. By other hand, connected equipment to the electric net introduce harmonics on it. In practice, when many equipment are connected to the net the affected electric signal have to be classified according to its pureness. In order to face these situations, it has been developed a maths technique based on lineal programming whose main goal is to measure performance of the operational units when the presence of multiple entrances and multiple exits becomes difficult the comparison. At the end of the analysis, this technique is able to point the relatively efficient units and relatively inefficient units. Finally, this article presents a real case analysis based on measurements of the fundamental tension and its harmonics components of fifth and seventh order in an industrial equipment.

  17. Analysis of the reactive power and harmonic distortions compensation in industrial electric network; Analise da compensacao da potencia reativa e distorcoes harmonicas em redes eletricas industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Carlo Augustus; Andrade, Jose Celso Borges de [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2000-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze simultaneously some options of power factor correction in industrial electric plants, regarding new economic penalties legislation and to approach the calculation of current and voltage distortions, caused by non linear loads, sometimes augmented by the required load reactive power compensation. Distortion limits are described and they are the basis for the analysis of suitable mitigation methods, taking into account economical and technical criteria, for existing installations of future expansion. (author)

  18. Availability analysis of the nuclear instrumentation of a research reactor; Analise da disponibilidade da instrumentacao nuclear de um reator de pesquisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques

    2016-07-01

    The maintenance of systems and equipment is a central question related to Production Engineering. Although systems are not fully reliable, it is often necessary to minimize the failure occurrence likelihood. The failures occurrences can have disastrous consequences during a plane flight or operation of a nuclear power plant. The elaboration of a maintenance plan has as objective the prevention and recovery from system failures, increasing reliability and reducing the cost of unplanned shutdowns. It is also important to consider the issues related to organizations safety, especially those dealing with dangerous technologies. The objective of this thesis is to propose a method for maintenance analysis of a nuclear research reactor, using a socio-technical approach, and focused on existing conditions in Brazil. The research reactor studied belongs to the federal government and it is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The specific objective of this thesis is to develop the availability analysis of one of the principal systems of the research reactor, the nuclear instrumentation system. In this analysis, were taken into account not only the technical aspects of the modules related to nuclear instrumentation system, but also the human and organizational factors that could affect the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. The results showed the influence of these factors on the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. (author)

  19. Season custom tariff analysis for electric power use in an agro-industry; Analise da tarifa horo-sazonal no uso da energia eletrica em uma agroindustria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, L.G.C.

    1991-05-01

    An investigation about the season custom tariffs in Brazil, and the research to achieve the electric parameters involved in its utilization is shown, analyzing the change of the conventional custom tariff for the blue and green season custom tariffs. This analysis made in a agro-industry where manioc flour is produced, located in Garca, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A comparison between the blue and green custom tariff was accomplished in order to the better advantage in the system introduction, considering the use schedule and electric parameters involved. (author). 26 refs, 31 figs, 41 tabs, 3 apps

  20. Silicon high vacuum brazing study and microstructural analysis of the joint formation; Estudo da brasagem de silicio em alto vacuo e analise microestructural da juncao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, E.C.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Francisco, F.R.; Bagnato, O.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: erika.santana@lnls.br

    2010-07-01

    On the project of Synchrotron Light Source, silicon-crystal are often used as monochromator and mirrors, to reflect the electrons beam. Silicon is known as a very fragile material, and its optical elements must be designed carefully. Usually, it is bonded in a cooling support made by copper. Thermal contact between the crystal plate and cooling support is made of In-Ga liquid alloy. Due to the difficult of this bonding, brazing tests are being taken with Fe-Ni alloy, in order to improve the silicon mirrors application and performance. Wet ability tests were performed between the silicon plate and commercial fillers. A brazing test was made of silicon and Al12Si, as filler, with Fe-Ni, as base material. Results of microstructure analysis indicated that the braze of a silicon plate is quite promissory. (author)

  1. Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

  2. Analysis of implementation of energy efficiency labeling of buildings in hotel developments; Analise da aplicacao da etiquetagem de eficiencia energetica de edificacoes em empreendimentos hoteleiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Myrthes Marcele Farias dos; Faria, Ricardo Wargas de; Hamada, Luciana; Nascimento, Paulo Roberto Lopes do [Servico Brasileiro de Apoio as Micro e Pequenas Empresas (SEBRAE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia e Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    Most Brazilian constructions have low performance in terms of energy, since they received little attention (or none) concerning the energy efficiency. One of the main aspects observed is the intense use of electric energy for climatization and lighting in order to provide comfortable conditions for the dwellers. In 2009, new perspectives to change this situation emerged, due to an initiative by the Federal Government, that established the necessary regulations for energy efficiency labelling in buildings, and broadened the Brazilian Labelling Program (PBE), which, up until then, encompassed only machinery and equipment. The purpose of this article is to analyze the compliance with the new regulations for energy efficiency of constructions in the hotel sector, where small businesses are predominant, aiming at highlighting the barriers and opportunities connected to the possibilities of labeling. Hotels have been targeted for large investments, since they have become the pillars of Brazil's project to welcome tourists during the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. Taking into consideration the need to develop specific methodologies for lodging possibilities, in addition to the scarce information on the use of energy in small businesses, this article is part of a series of researches carried out within the framework of the Sebrae/RJ - Procel Agreement. The outcome is a global analysis, from a business point of view, on the use of labels of energy efficiency in hotel buildings, organized upon two perspectives: the external environment (opportunities and threats) and the internal environment (strong and weak points). (author)

  3. Optical fiber smart sensor for conformity analysis of Brazilian gasoline; Sensor inteligente a fibra otica para analise da conformidade da gosolina brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Possetti, Gustavo R.C.; Camilotti, Emmanuelle; Arruda, Lucia V.R. de; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, Jose L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cocco, Lilian C.; Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Falate, Rosane [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The conventional techniques employed to monitor the gasoline quality are expensive, time-consuming and demands on specialized workers to its execution. A study about the applicability of a long period grating, a fiber optic device, as an auxiliary tool for the analysis of Brazilian gasoline conformity is presented in this work. The long period grating spectral response was measured with the device immersed in samples of gasoline A with different proportions of hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel. A resolution of 0.23 % was obtained for the concentrations range of commercial interest, between 20 % and 40 %. The device performance was also tested with a set of conform and non-conform gasoline C samples. The device spectral response for these samples, as well as the samples densities and the conformity status were employed to train and to validate an artificial neural network with radial base function. The obtained results show that fiber optic sensors supervised by artificial neural networks can constitute systems for smart measurement with high applicability in the analyses of gasoline conformity, reducing costs and time related to conventional tests. (author)

  4. Application of neutron activation analysis method in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant; Aplicacao do metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons na analise de folhas da planta medicinal Casearia obliqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina I.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: celinayamashita@yahoo.com.br; mitiko@ipen.br; Sertie, Jaime A.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2005-07-01

    The pharmacological properties of medicinal plants have been related to the presence of organic compounds, however elements are also known to have an important participation in the active compounds constitution process. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine elements in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant collected at two different locations in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, SP. Soil samples collected from where this plant was grown were also analyzed in order to verify if there is a correlation between the elements present in soils and plant leaves. Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined in C. obliqua leaves and the elements As, Ca, Ce, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, U and Zn in soils. Soil samples collected from two different locations presented similar concentrations for most elements. Likewise, C. obliqua leaves collected from the two locations presented similar elemental contents. These results suggest that analysis of extracts from these leaf samples and the evaluation of their pharmacological activities should be carried out. Certified reference materials IAEA-Soil-7, USGS W-1, NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves and NIST 1515 Apple Leaves were analyzed and the quality of the obtained results was assured. (author)

  5. Cisão corpo/mente na escola: uma analise a partir da epistemologia social/Split body and mind in school: a social epistemology analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Zaboli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A proposta aqui foi a de apresentar uma epistemologia social acerca do objeto: cisão corpo e mente na escola e na Educação Física. A escolha da referida base teórica para a abordagem do objeto em questão está pautada no interesse de distinguir uma nova interpretação que module o antagonismo entre as matrizes materialistas e idealistas que há muito discutem o tema. Mais estritamente, nossa abordagem atenta para as determinações epistêmicas que o paradigma moderno da realidade humana cindida em corpo e mente possibilita em relação às construções sócio-históricas em torno dos arrolamentos de poder no âmbito da escola e da Educação Física. Para tanto, estabelecemos, dentre outros, um diálogo com Thomas Popkewitz e Michel Foucault, principais autores que versam sobre o tema da epistemologia social e das relações de poder, respectivamente. Doravante, nosso trabalho discorre especificamente sobre a escola como dispositivo de poder que agencia seus ideais sócio-culturais sobre o solo da cisão entre corpo e mente. Mais ainda, detemo-nos no fato de a escola e a Educação Física utilizarem os saberes técnicos e tecnológicos desenvolvidos sob o paradigma da cisão, com o fim de incrementarem os agenciamentos de poder em prol de ajustes sócio-culturais concernentes aos modos de pensar (mente e os modos de agir (corpo do humano em geral e em particular. Por último, restou-nos fôlego para tratarmos o fenômeno esporte enquanto palco político e artefato de agenciamento dos saberes e dos poderes, pois tem a capacidade de assegurar operações diretas sobre os modos de vida da população em prol de propostas ideológicas que sobre a sociedade moderna procuram unilateralmente controlar os modos de subjetivação dos sujeitos individuais e coletivos.The purpose of this article is to present a social epistemology concerning the following object: the split body and mind in the school and in the Physical Education. The choice of

  6. Evaluation of the strengthening of the conditions of voltage security using sensitivity analysis; Avaliacao do reforco das condicoes da seguranca de tensao utilizando a analise de sensibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, A.L.S.; Costa, V.M. da; Peres, W. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia], Emails: arleilucas@gmail.com, vander@lacee.ufjf.br, wesley.peres@yahoo.com.br; Prada, R.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Email: prada@ele.puc-rio.br

    2009-07-01

    Voltage stability or voltage security analysis has motivated an expressive attention of power systems researchers. In this work, a simple and fast method evaluates voltage security and proposes conditions to improve the loading margin. System analysis is carried out in terms of active power transmission path. Sensitivity analysis provides the most adequate buses to active and reactive power redispatch. A sequential iterative methodology to reinforce system conditions is presented. (author)

  7. Exergetic analysis of the operation of a petrochemical pole cogeneration system; Analise exergetica da operacao de uma planta de cogeracao de um polo petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: ednildo@ufba.br; Gallo, Waldyr L. R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gallo@unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an exergy analysis for a petrochemical cogeneration system (the greater operating in Brazil). The system is described, the method employed to simulate the system is presented, and the exergy efficiencies are defined. The analysis presents the exergy efficiencies and irreversibility for each sub-system. The results obtained from real data were used to compare operation strategies which are not clear from energy balances. (author)

  8. Analysis of energy quality problems in low voltage circuits; Analise de problemas de qualidade da energia em circuitos de baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hermes R.P.M. de; Jesus, Nelson C. de; Figueiredo, Carlos E.C. [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Batista, Edson L. [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Inijui, RS (Brazil); Martinez, Manuel L.B. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2005-12-15

    This article presents an analysis and diagnosis related to a typical commercial consumer with problems of energy quality, supplied by low voltage net. In this direction, after the supplied voltage to have been monitored through specific analysers and careful investigations, it was concluded that the origin of disturbances was located in the consumer systems. The main steps used in the analysis and measurements results are described.

  9. Application of activation analysis for determination of some elements in cassiterite samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao para a determinacao de alguns elementos em amostras de cassiterita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre

    1978-07-01

    This work consists in the development of an analytical method using activation by thermal neutrons for the determination of some minor elements and traces present in cassiterite (tin ore). This method was then applied to determine these elements in samples of cassiterite from different regions of Brazil. An analysis was made of the mineralogy characteristic of cassiterite as well as of the minerals most commonly associated with it. Four main types of interference were found to occur in the analysis by activation of trace elements in samples of cassiterite. The method involves the analysis without chemical separation for the determination of some elements and the analysis with chemical separation for the determination of other elements. The steps involved in both types of analysis are described. In the analysis with chemical separation the matrix element (tin) is separated by distillation in an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HBr medium, after fusion of the ore with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Arsine and antimony are determined in the distilled, whereas some lanthanide elements and uranium are determined in the distillation residue by separating them as a group by precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. A discussion on the precision, accuracy and sensibility of the method is also included. (author)

  10. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  11. Energy conservation analysis using Fuzzy logic considering technical and environmental aspects; Analise da conservacao de energia utilizando logica fuzzy considerando aspectos tecnicos e o meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil; Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Guardia, Eduardo Crestana [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica; Reis, Alexandre de Souza Rodrigues dos; Pinto, Luiz Fernando do Monte [Furnas Centrais Eletricas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the results obtained in the Project of Research and Development of Furnas Centrais Eletricas, which was accomplished with the partnership of the Fundacao de Pesquisa e Assessoramento a Industria - FUPAI. This project analyzed technically and economically the pollution caused in the electric net by the use, in growing scale, of nonlinear loads, such as: compact fluorescent lamps, microwave ovens, VHS systems, DVD, sound systems, etc. It was also analyzed the environmental impact caused by these lamps due to the presence of the mercury; and as complement to the traditional theory of economical analysis, a tool of economical analysis was developed using the theory of fuzzy sets for the uncertainty variables or of difficult quantification. (author)

  12. An analysis of Science and Technology indicator by stages in the petroleum production chain; Analise de indicador de C e T nos elos da cadeia produtiva petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Ana Amelia M.G.; Antunes, Adelaide M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos

    2004-07-01

    Taking into account the global importance of the petroleum industry, the present work aims to present a study of this industry through the lens of its production chain, using bibliometric indicators of technological innovation in order to determine critical competitiveness factors. The concept of the production chain includes the set of activities undertaken progressively from raw material to the final product, including distribution and sales, with each segment being a link in the chain. The petroleum industry is composed of a production chain which may be divided into the following segments: exploration and production, transportation of crude oil and natural gas, refining, transportation of derivatives and distribution. The development of the present work involved the analysis of information about the petroleum production chain in Brazil and elsewhere, gathered through research in specialized database. The analysis of bibliometric indicators of technological innovation in each link of the production chain maps the technological trends existing in this chain. (author)

  13. Analysis of the energy consumed in the oil pumping and its products; Analise da energia consumida no bombeamento de petroleo e seus derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Fabio Arbex [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santiago, Adilson da Silva [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work describes a computer application for monitoring the operation of a set of motor-pumps of a pipeline. It provides information for the analysis of the electrical and hydraulic variables of these equipment allowing a better control of the transference of fluids through the pipeline. It also makes possible knowing the consumption of energy and the power level used. It helps establishing optimal operation conditions and to generate efficiency indices for the control of the equipment. (author)

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis of axial rotors for using of the river kinetic energy; Analise hidrodinamica de rotores axiais para aproveitamento da energia cinetica dos rios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, C.J.C.; Gouveia, M.S.A.V.; Mesquita, A.L. Amarante [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1996-07-01

    In order to make use of kinetic energy of Amazon rivers, a methodology is presented for horizontal-axis hydraulic turbine rotors design, based on the Glauert momentum vortex theory in conjunction with section data of two-dimensional air foil available in literature. Comparison with results obtained for wind turbine applications from others authors are performed in order to verify the validity of the procedure for the calculation of the power coefficient. For the hydraulic rotors an analysis is also presented to take account all the design parameters. (author)

  15. Use of ionizing radiation in polymer packaging: social knowledge: a qualitative analysis; Uso da radiacao ionizante em polimeros de embalagens: conhecimento social: uma analise qualitativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wanderlei

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge of parts the population (represented by layman and students, and professionals who work in areas with possible applications of radioactivity) related to the benefits of ionizing radiation on polymer packaging foodstuff. The basic questions raised here were intended to prompt answers that could supply parameters of analysis to confirm or to deny that the population in general ignore radioactivity and its applications in the field of foodstuff, besides not appear to be prepared to shift its paradigms, deep-rooted by impressions that remain strong, which are fed by occurrences of nuclear accidents broadcast mainly through the television media. (author)

  16. Comparative QRA (Quantitative Risk Analysis) of natural gas distribution pipelines in urban areas; Analise comparativa dos riscos da operacao de linhas de gas natural em areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz Fernando S. de [Energy Solutions South America (Brazil); Cardoso, Cassia de O.; Storch, Rafael [Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline network grows around the world, but its operation inherently imposes a risk to the people living next to pipelines. Due to this, it is necessary to conduct a risk analysis during the environmental licensing in Brazil. Despite the risk analysis methodology is well established, some points of its application for the distribution pipelines are still under discussion. This paper presents a methodology that examines the influences of major projects and operating parameters on the risk calculation of a distribution pipeline accident in urban areas as well as the possible accident scenarios assessment complexity. The impact of some scenarios has been evaluated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool. The results indicate that, under certain conditions, the risks from the pipeline operation under operating pressures of 20 bar may be acceptable in location class 3 or even in class 4. These results play a very important role if management decisions on the growth of the distribution of natural gas network in densely populated areas as well as in the improvement of laws to control the activity of distribution of natural gas. (author)

  17. Numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney; Analise numerica da conveccao natural turbulenta em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasil, Cristiana S.; Valle, Ramon M.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Ferreira, Andre G. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: tite@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ferreira@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney operating in steady flow, with prescribed conditions of temperature in the ground. The solar radiation heats the air under the cover, which flows to the tower without artificial pumping. The hot air produced may be used to dry several agricultural products. The numerical analysis of the natural convection in this kind of dryer has fundamental importance on the design and building of this device. The mathematical model includes the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model variables (k and e ). The k- e model of turbulence with wall functions was used. A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve the system of equations that describes thermal and hydro dynamically the flow. The velocity and temperature fields are shown to the flow in the solar chimney. With geometrical alterations on the device, one can obtain a detailed description of the flow, which allow the guideline for a suitable configuration to build an experimental prototype. (author)

  18. Unusual manifestations of neurocysticercosis in MR imaging: analysis of 172 cases; Manifestacoes incomuns na ressonancia magnetica da neurocisticercose: analise de 172 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Lazaro; Ferreira, Nelson Fortes; Mendonca, Renato [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Med Imagem]. E-mail: lazden.terra.com.br; Maschietto, Murilo; Maschietto, Roberta; Cury, Ricardo [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Med Imagem. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica; Lima, Sergio Santos [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Med Imagem. Dept. de Imagens

    2003-09-01

    The typical manifestations of neurocysticercosis are described widely in the literature. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the uncommon presentations of different forms of neurocysticercosis in MR imaging. A retrospective analysis of 172 cases of neurocysticercosis in MR studies was carried out over a period of 13 years. One hundred and four males and 68 females with a mean age of 32 {+-} 3.7 years were studied. The studies were performed on 1.5 T G E MR units and T1 was used before and after gadolinium injection, T2 and gradient-echo (T2*) sequences. The authors divided the unusual manifestations of neurocysticercosis into: intraventricular, subarachnoid, spinal, orbital, intra parenchymatous, and reactivation of previously calcified lesions. The results obtained were: intra parenchymatous 95 cases (55.23%); intraventricular 27 cases (15.69%); subarachnoid 20 cases (11.63%); spinal 6 cases (3.49%); orbital 1 case (0.58%); reactivated lesion 1 case (0.58%); association of intraventricular and intra parenchymatous 12 cases (6.98%); association of subarachnoid and intra parenchymatous 6 cases (3.49%); association of subarachnoid and intraventricular, 4 cases (2.32%). MR imaging is a sensitive and specific method in the analysis of different forms of unusual manifestations of neurocysticercosis, which should appear in the differential diagnosis of parenchymal, ventricular, spinal, cysternal, and orbital lesions. (author)

  19. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques; Caracterizacao, analise e datacao de ceramicas arqueologicas da Bacia Amazonica atraves de tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  20. Analysis of life cycle technology of BTL (Biomass to Liquid): state of art and recommendations; Analise do ciclo de vida das tecnologias BTL: estado da arte e recomendacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Maria Luiza G.; Lora, Electo E.S. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida; Ugaya, Cassia M.L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    In the last decades, the intensive and no rational use of energy resources from fossil fuels has been causing climatic changes, due to the increase in air pollutants, mainly Co2. The production of liquid fuels from biomass stands out as one of the principal energy alternatives with low environmental impact that could substitute the fuels derived from petroleum in the transportation section. The present work shows a revision from the main Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) studies performed for biofuel production by BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. In this revision, it is possible to identify some of the main environmental impacts associated with this type of fuel production, as a function of the energy and material required to its production. Likewise, it is possible to elaborate recommendations in fuel production that allow the increase of benefits to the environment. (author)

  1. Analysis of the fuel influence in obtaining HAp by combustion reaction; Analise da influencia do combustivel na obtencao de HAp via reacao de combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.L.; Leite, A.M.D.; Viana, K.M.S., E-mail: kalineviana@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications has led to investigation of the calcium phosphate bioceramics, and in particular hydroxyapatite (HAp), being a material similar to bone tissue, with excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconduction, enabling bone regeneration which allows the use at implants and prostheses. The synthesis of the nanometric HAp by combustion reaction enables obtaining the nanometric HAp with a more similar structure biological apatite as possible. This work aims to synthesize HAp by combustion reaction using two different routes of synthesis, first, using urea as fuel and the second using glycine, after this, evaluate the influence of fuels used in the microstructure of the hydroxyapatite obtained. The HAp obtained was characterized by: XRD, FTIR and SEM. Through analysis of the results, there is the synthesis conditions used that glycine has performed more favorable to obtaining HAp. (author)

  2. Analysis of the electrical bills of residential consumers: tax and economic aspects; Analise da fatura de energia eletrica de consumidores residenciais: aspectos economicos e tributarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], e-mail: lnunesreis@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: danilo.pinto@ufjf.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Residential consumers represent a significant part of the market of electric energy and are increasing by deriving tributes of the tariff of energy. These consumers are uninformed about the abuses that happen to them. This work has as objective to analyze and to argue the behavior of the tariffs of energy in the period of 2002 the 2006, demonstrating the occurred increases and pointing a relation enters the rise of the price of this energy and the increase of the number of clandestine linkings and difficulty to hold the basics statements of actually electrical regiments. ANEEL's data show that in 1995 the tariff for class residential was R$ 76.26 and industrial was R$ 43.59; in 2003 passed respectively to R$ 236.34 and R$ 110.48. This analysis is directly related to the difficulty of obtaining a national energy management totally sustainable. (author)

  3. Parametric analysis of applicability of sand production control in oil wells; Analise parametrica da aplicabilidade do controle de producao de areia em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Filipe S.B. da; Couto, Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia do Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    The present work discusses about the selection of the best sand control method to be adopted for offshore operations according to a specific technologic limitation and by demands imposed by the environment in which it is used. First of all, the paper mentions the phenomena of solids carrying. Then the source environments of the study are analyzed. This approach is considered important because it is the basis for understanding the final part of the research, composed of the method/environment correlation. Three fictitious offshore fields based on real data are presented. In each of them, two wells are studied, one cased, and one open holed. Parameters like permeability and UCS have the same conceptual relevance as the sand control methods presented. The analysis of methods follows those used for the environments. The following methods are presented: by restriction of solids flow, by drag strength reduction and by increase of cohesion strength. Emphasis is given on mechanic methods. Finally, this study concludes its initial purpose, which is selecting the best sand control method for each well, substantiating in each one, the reason for the choice. (author)

  4. Automated system of hydrostatic test - one reality of the analysis of the pipeline integrity; Sistema de teste hidrostatico automatizado - uma realidade na analise da integridade dos dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxe, Victor; Ataide, Leonardo [CONDUTO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The accomplishment of hydrostatic tests in pipeline has been used to long years in the certification of the construction methods and assembly. Now with the considerable increase of the installed pipeline, the hydrostatic tests became a tool of significant importance in the evaluation and analysis of the structural integrity of the mesh pipeline. Inserted in this purpose, to CONDUIT it developed an automated system of hydrostatic tests for lines Onshore and Offshore, where the monitoring and registrations, of the essential variables - in 'real team' - such as pressure, temperature, flows and volumes, they made possible to detect leaks, besides the one of small scales, with larger speed and reliability. A supervisory system controlled with PLC's, interlinked the sensor ones and computers, they register and operate the essential variables and the injection of chemical during whole the test, besides generating graphs in 'real team' with inferior input to 5 seconds, making possible the monitoring of several lines, simultaneous and independently. With a system compact, versatile, of easy and fast mobilization, it allows installation in places where the traditional measurement instruments and control are unviable, as uninhabited and automated platforms, points in field open of difficult access, guaranteeing like this continuity and reliability in all of the stages of the test. The application of this technology results in the reduction of work hand and period, bringing reliable necessary results in any situation. (author)

  5. Geostatistical and stratigraphic analysis of deltaic reservoirs from the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Analise estratigrafica e geoestatistica de reservatorios deltaicos da Bacia do Reconcavo (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carlos Moreira

    1997-07-01

    This study presents the characterization of the external geometry of deltaic oil reservoirs, including the description of their areal distribution using geo statistic tools, such as variography and kriging. A high-resolution stratigraphic study was developed over a 25 km{sup 2} area, by using data from 276 closely-spaced wells of an oil-producer field from the Reconcavo Basin, northeastern Brazil. The studied succession records the progressive lacustrine transgression of a deltaic environment. Core data and stratigraphic cross sections suggest that the oil reservoirs are mostly amalgamated, delta-front lobes, and subordinately, crevasse deposits. Some important geometrical elements were recognized by the detailed variographic analysis developed for each stratigraphic unit (zone). The average width for the groups of deltaic lobes of one zone was measured from the variographic feature informally named as hole effect. This procedure was not possible for the other zones due to the intense lateral amalgamation of sandstones, indicated by many variographic nested structures. Net sand krigged maps for the main zones suggest a NNW-SSE orientation for the deltaic lobes, as also their common amalgamation and compensation arrangements. High-resolution stratigraphic analyses should include a more regional characterization of the depositional system that comprises the studied succession. On the other hand, geostatistical studies should be developed only after the recognition of the depositional processes acting in the study area and the geological meaning of the variable to be treated, including its spatial variability scales as a function of sand body thickness, orientation and amalgamation. (author)

  6. Um Estudo Empirico Sobre o Fim da CorregAo Monetaria Integral e sea Impacto na Analise das Demonstrag6es Contabeis: Uma Analise Setorial"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Meirelles Salotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo avalia as consequencias de não se considerarem os efeitos da inflação nas analises das demonstrações contábeis e, além disso, se esses impactos são diferentes em cada setor da economia. A pesquisa considera apenas as empresas que divulgaram as suas demonstrações contábeis corrigidas no periodo de 1996 a 2002. Verificou-se a existência de diferença significativa entre indices calculados pela Lei Societária (sem corregAo e pela Correção Monetária Integral, tendo sido utilizado o teste de médias emparelhadas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que a falta de correção monetária nas demonstrações contábeis apresentadas de 1996 a 2002 pode causar distorções na análise da real condição patrimonial e financeira das empresas. Embora essas distorções não sejam igualmente percebidas em todos os setores e em todos os indices, elas podem resultar em conclusões equivocadas por parte dos usuários dessas informações.

  7. Analysis of risk assessment of brachytherapy from the radiotherapy services of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Analise da percepcao de risco da braquiterapia dos servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas; Paiva, Eduardo de, E-mail: adam@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: epaiva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Roberto Salomon de, E-mail: salomon@inca.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (PQRT/INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Qualidade em Radioterapia

    2014-07-01

    Currently there are few applications on the risk analysis procedures related to radiotherapy, mainly in the practice of brachytherapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the perception of risk levels, present in the practice of high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR), using a form based on the concept of the risk matrix and a database (SEVRRA) containing information about the processes related to routine brachytherapy. A form containing information regarding the brachytherapy procedure HDR and an attachment indicating how to complete it properly was delivered to a medical physicist of each service/institution. The reference value for the risk levels found, considered acceptable for all performed analyzes, was set at a percentage limit of 33% (assuming a failure in each 3 existing processes). The results showed that the overall risk analysis showed a value for average percentage of prioritized risk of 18% below the recommended range. About the analyzed groups, the higher average percentage of relative risk was found less than 12% of the recommended range, associated with the group of patients. On existing steps, the highest average percentage of relative risk was found less than 1% of the recommended range, associated with stage records and treatment planning. This study showed that although this procedure does not have a large history of accidents, still poses risks considerable that must be managed with great accuracy and immediate action to an effective decrease these risk percentages.

  8. Analysis of risk perception of teletherapy in radiotherapy services of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil; Analise da percepcao de risco da teleterapia dos servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam F.; Paiva, Eduardo de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Roberto S. de, E-mail: adam@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Qualidade em Radioterapia

    2015-12-15

    Currently there are few applications on the risk analysis procedures related to radiation therapy, especially in the practice of radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the perception of risk levels present in the practice of teletherapy (only the use of linear accelerators), through a form based on the risk matrix concept and a database (SEVRRA) containing information about the processes related to routine teletherapy. Was delivered to a medical physicist for each service, a form containing information relating to teletherapy procedure and an annex indicating how to fill it properly. The results show that, according to the opinion of 16 medical physicists participants, six of these analyzes showed a prioritized risk percentage above 50%, other five had a risk of prioritized percentage between 0 and 50%, and the remainder had a risk percentage prioritized null. Two steps groups had the highest incidence of cases classified with high and very high risk: records and treatment planning group and equipment group. It was then possible to find the most risk processes these steps groups. Finally, we performed an analysis of the effectiveness of the controls present in the proposed form. The four most incidents controls, three of them had a percentage efficiency above 80%, and viable its continuous use in the analyzed services, as well as serving as a recommendation for use in other services not analyzed. This study showed that, although there are considerable histories of accidents for teletherapy procedure, you can not only identify the risks of higher expression but also mitigate them, based on actions and appropriate recommendations for each case analyzed properly. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the fuel rod integrity in PWR reactors from the spectrometric analysis of the primary coolant; Avaliacao da integridade de varetas combustiveis em reatores PWR a partir da analise espectrometrica da agua do primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Iara Arraes

    1999-02-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the transport of fission products, from the fuel rod to the coolant of a PWR reactor. To achieve this purpose, several steps were followed. Firstly, it was presented a description of the fuel elements and the main mechanisms of fuel rod failure, indicating the most important nuclides and their transport mechanisms. Secondly, taking both the kinetic and diffusion models for the transport of fission products as a basis, a simple analytical and semi-empirical model was developed. This model was also based on theoretical considerations and measurements of coolant's activity, according to internationally adopted methodologies. Several factors are considered in the modelling procedures: intrinsic factors to the reactor itself, factors which depend on the reactor's operational mode, isotope characteristic factors, and factors which depend on the type of rod failure. The model was applied for different reactor's operational parameters in the presence of failed rods. The main conclusions drawn from the analysis of the model's output are relative to the variation on the coolant's water activity with the fuel burnup, the linear operation power and the primary purification rate and to the different behaviour of iodine and noble gases. The model was saturated from a certain failure size and showed to be unable to distinguish between a single big fail and many small ones. (author)

  10. Métodos de analise dos danos da lagarta da espiga¹, em médias de gerações envolvendo IAC Maya e Zapalote Chico Method for analysis of damage of the corn earworm heliothis zea in generation means from IAC Maya and Zapalote Chico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    1982-01-01

    utilizing the revised scale described by WIDSTROM (27. The data obtained was analised by two different ways. The grades were distributed at first in two different classes: grades 0 and 1 and grades > 2. The grades were afterwards distributed in the following two classes: grades 0 and grades > 1. The chi-square test was applied to verify which of the two types of classes adjusts better with their respective expected ratios. The results showed that when the grades were divided in the classes 0+1 and > 2 the data were more uniform within each treatment. The analysis of variance for each damage class separately, presented F values highly significant for the classes zero and zero plus one, whereas for the classes > 1 and > 2 the damage averages were very similar and the F values were not significant. The class zero plus one had F value higher and the coefficient of variation smaller than the class zero. The ZC 2451 corn compared to the variety IAC Maya XII, exibited good resistance to the corn earworm, under the field conditions of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This resistance is of the type non preference and or antibiosis, because there was a higher percentage of ears of ZC 2451 free of earworm damage.

  11. Feasibility analysis of installing a natural gas cogeneration system in a slaughterhouse; Analise da viabilidade da implantacao de um sistema de cogeracao de energia a gas natural em um frigorifico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Alessandro Tomio; Dib, Fernando Henrique; Campitelli, Flavio Moreti; Romao Junior, Ricardo Agudo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], Email: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work the analysis of the viability of implantation of a natural gas cogeneration system in a bovine slaughterhouse is carried out. Among the studied configurations there are the current plant and the modified plant that allow the use of natural gas. For evaluation of the performance, energetic and exegetic analyses for each one of the configurations are carried out. It's also accomplished a thermo economic analysis that makes possible to evaluate the reflexes of the investment and combustible on the composition of the cost of products. (author)

  12. Analysis of institutional evolution of regulatory activity in the Brazilian electric sector: 1920-1997; Analise da evolucao institucional da atividade de regulacao no setor eletrico brasileiro: 1920-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Mauricio Lopes; Ferreira, Elnatan Chagas; Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMIC/FEEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], Email: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    An analysis of the institutional evolution of the governmental organizations which were responsible for the regulation of the electrical energy sector in Brazil (before the establishment of the ANEEL) is presented . Taking into account the various levels of subordination and independence in their actuation, the different missions and powers given to these agencies regarding the inspection, controlling, planning and regulating the industry, are compared and discussed. The conducted analysis is essentially formal, based on the legal instruments which defined and established the creation of those agencies. (author)

  13. Economic and energetic analysis of potatoes irrigation in the South area of Minas Gerais State - Southeast Brazil; Analise energetica e economica da irrigacao da batata no Sul de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henrique Moreira; Rodrigues, Vania Lucia; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Grupo de Agroenergia

    1988-12-31

    This work describes the most common methods for potatoes irrigation presently in use in the South area of Minas Gerais State - Southeast Brazil - and calculates the diesel oil consumption in this activity. Based on that an economic analysis is performed. Electric power is presented as an alternative for diesel oil in such activity 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city; Analise de liquens por ativacao neutronica para estudo da poluicao atmosferica da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: alessandrafuga@yahoo.com.br; Marcelli, Marcelo P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia]. E-mail: mpmarcelli@superig.com.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at {mu}g g{sup -1} levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g{sup -1} levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  15. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars; Analise da viabilidade de utilizacao da cinza do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como adicao mineral em argamassas cimenticias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A., E-mail: jvfazzan@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Departamento de Fisica e Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  16. Characterization of elements in trace amounts in imperial topaz through neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacao de elementos em teores de traco em topazio imperial atraves da analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ester Figueiredo de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sabioni, Antonio C. S. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept de Fisica; Ferreira, Cesar M. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept de Geologia

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the mineral characterization of the elements in trace amounts of imperial topaz, original form Mina Capao da Lama, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, through the neutron activation analysis. Recent results have permitted to quantify Cr, Cs, Mn, Na, Ga, Sb and Au. The main goal of this study is the contribution to the mineral and gemological research of the imperial topaz.

  17. Analysis of edentulous maxillae using computed tomography and panoramic radiography in the surgical planning of dental implants; Analise da maxila edentula por meio da tomografia computadorizada e radiografia panoramica no planejamento cirurgico de implantes dentarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahuinco, Humberto Lazaro Choquepuma; Souza, Ricardo Pires de [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis (HOSPHEL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: humbertchs@hotmail.com

    2006-04-15

    Objective: to determine agreement of three observers on analysis of linear measurements of edentulous maxillae using computed tomography and panoramic radiography in the surgical planning of dental implants. Material and Method: the samples of 17 patients were analyzed with computed tomography and panoramic radiography. Linear measurements obtained from both methods were made at the following anatomical points: left tuberosity, left canine pillar, incisive foramen, right canine pillar and right tuberosity. Kendall's W test was applied to assess the level of agreement. Results: measured W-values from the samples of the anatomical points mentioned above, analyzed with panoramic radiography and computed tomography, were: 0.75 and 0.901; 0.916 and 0.956; 0.843 and 0.964; 0.963 and 0.931; 0.95 and 0.89 respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: agreement occurred in the measurements of variables.That means that if the three observers were to select an implant to be placed in each of the anatomical regions studied, there would be a good chance whey would choose the same type. (author)

  18. Analysis of fluid dynamics to the riser of a FCC cold pilot plant aided with response surface methodology; Analise da fluidodinamica em um riser de FCC de uma unidade piloto a frio com auxilio da metodologia de superficie de resposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Kamylla A.L. dos; Luna-Finkler, Christine L.; Lima Filho, Hilario J.B. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Benachour, Mohand; Dantas, Carlos Costa; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    It was planned and executed the implementation of a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) to the riser of a FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) cold pilot plant, to identify the basic fluid dynamic characteristics of this type of reactor. The Fluid Catalytic Cracking is the major process in oil refineries in the world. It is realized in a vertical cylindrical reactor called riser, with a short contact time between the cracking catalyst and vacuum gas oil vapors. The constant evolution of the FCC process has required the analysis of fluid dynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. However, analysis of images produced by the application of CFD to study of risers requires preliminary concepts of the relationship between response variables and independent variables. With the CCRD implementation was performed a total of 12 experiments, being 4 full factorial, 4 axial points and 4 central points. The dependent variables were the velocities of the components (cracking catalyst and compressed air) and the pressure drop in the riser. There was a great contribution of solids flow rate for the solid phase velocity and for the pressure drop. The effects of interaction between the flow rate phases are considerably senses in pressure drop through the riser, however, for the velocities of both phases this interaction becomes negligible. (author)

  19. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  20. Impact analysis of the methodology for estimation of porosity in petroleum reserves using Monte Carlo simulation; Analise de impactos da metodologia de estimativa da porosidade em reservas de petroleo por meio de simulacao de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Gabriel A.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Analises Geoeconomicas de Recursos Minerais]. E-mail: gabriel@ige.unicamp.br; Vidal, Alexandre C.; Suslick, Saul B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia e Recursos Naturais]. E-mails: vidal@ige.unicamp.br; suslick@ige.unicamp.br

    2006-04-15

    In many papers dealing with estimation of oil reserves, engineers usually assume that well porosity can be modeled as a Gaussian distribution, that is, under this assumption the expected value of porosity can be estimated from the average porosity values from well log and petrophysical data. But, other distributions can be used to model local porosity when Gaussian distribution cannot fit sample data. In this paper, using actual porosity data of a 3-NA-002-RJS well from the Campos Basin, it is shown that for a selected interval, the logistic distribution fits the data better than other distributions and its expected value should be used to estimate the well porosities of the entire population. In such cases, as numerical analysis shows, using arithmetic mean instead of expected value may give rise to errors. The data shows that using an average as porosity estimator will overestimate the P90 and underestimate the P10 estimates. (author)

  1. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology;Analise preliminar das doses para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em exames radiograficos na radiologia veterinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  2. Identification and analysis of local and regional impacts from the introduction of biodiesel production in the state of Piaui, Brazil; Identificacao e analise dos impactos locais e regionais da introducao da producao de biodiesel no estado do Piaui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Omar Inacio Benedetti; Rathmann, Regis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Padula, Antonio Domingos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent moves towards the insertion of biofuels in the energy matrix of a number of countries are opening new prospects for agricultural production and for agroindustrial chains. This study aims at understanding the mechanisms taking place within a production system geared towards biodiesel production. The emergence of this new productive base raises new research issues: in what circumstances are the structuring, organization and implementation of these biodiesel productive chains taking place in Brazil? What are the effects of biodiesel production on local economies? Hence, the central objective of this study is the development and validation of an analytical structure capable of characterizing the biodiesel productive arrangements and identifying their economic and social impacts at the regions where they are installed. A preliminary analysis identified that a biodiesel productive arrangement is emerging in the State of Piaui, Northeastern Brazil, Our theoretical basis comprises elements from the regional economy, biorefineries, local production arrangements and innovation. For the analyses, we employed the methods of input-output, local quotient and shift-share. It can be said that a new social-economic dynamics is taking place in Piaui; however, the company needs to assess its interaction with local institutions as well as its castor bean production strategies. (author)

  3. Emergetic analysis of the electrolytic hydrogen production using the secondary energy from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant; Analise emergetica da producao de hidrogenio eletrolitico aproveitando a energia vertida nao turbinada da Usina Hidroeletrica de Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarussi, Maria Alessandra Silva Nunes; Espinola, Michel Osvaldo Galeano [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2006-07-01

    Due to the possibility of increase in the energy market in a few years and awareness of the necessity of using the secondary energy in hydroelectric power plants and also concerned about the environmental problems related to energy enterprises, the present paper develops the emergy analyses of electrolytic hydrogen production in the Itaipu Power Plant located in the countries of Brazil and Paraguay. The emergy analyses despite being unknown by the major people and technicians responsible for the development of Environmental Impacts Studies, named EIA/RIMAS in Brazil, represents a way to fulfill all requirements imposed by law and government and also an important manner to internalize externalities in the evaluation of all variables involved in the execution and maintenance of natural and artificial processes. Afterwards, this database can be used to be compared with other actual processes of producing and supplying energy, guiding stake holders when deciding where and how to implement and take advantage of available energy sources. This work aims to evaluate with emergetic criteria the research done by Antonio Carlos Fonseca Santos Jr.: Analysis of the Economic Feasibility of Hydrogen Production in Hydroelectric Power Plants: A Case Study at Itaipu. (author)

  4. Increasing the complexity of a refinery: a analysis of the economic impacts of the introduction of new process in refineries; O aumento da complexidade de uma refinaria: uma analise dos impactos economicos da introducao de novos processos em refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Cristiane M.; Seidl, Peter R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The importance of the refining segment in the oil productive chain turns decision making on production and investment to be made at refineries dependent upon general context of the oil industry. Several technical and economic factors limit the possibilities to be foreseen by the managers. The ultimate goal of a refinery is to meet market demand in a region. Moreover, the type of processed oil and refining techniques will shape the profile of the production of derivatives. In a segment dynamic and full of uncertainties, such as refining, where the type of oil supplied to processing, specifications of products, and their demands, changes in the course of time, how to keep refining margins acceptable? This paper presents the relationship between the characteristics and the use of different kinds of oil, the characteristics of the national market of derivatives, and some characteristics of the refining processes considered in the study. The possible economic impacts that the introduction of different processes can bring to a refinery are analysed and alternatives for expansion are evaluated. To achieve these goals, a methodology for analysis considering the yield of Marlin oil refining for different schemes has been developed. (author)

  5. Metrological control of the gas flow and analysis of mass conservation in Bolivia-Brasil gas pipeline; Controle metrologico da vazao de gas e analise da conservacao de massa no gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio Cesar [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro; Frota, Mauricio Nogueira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade Industrial

    2005-07-01

    International gas pipelines reflect a integrated commerce and impose a metrological challenge for the custody transferences that indistinctly imply in significant economic impact. This work argues the complex analysis of the mass balance and expression of uncertainties of the Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (3.150 Km of length, 557 Km in Bolivian territory and 2.593 Km that cross Brazil of West for East), today carrying approximately 60% from its maximum capacity (30 million of cubic meters daily), operating for the Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., a enterprise controlled by PETROBRAS Gas S/A (GASPETRO). The TBG measuring methods always taking care of the necessities of the customers as well as being lined up with the changes of the natural gas market. In six years of existence, the TBG came along with the legislation created for regulating agency in formation and adjusted to the establishment of the contract inspector, important landmarks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that guide the metrological subjects of the TBG, making use of efficient tools in answers for each demand and searching to satisfy its proper necessities, the necessities of its customers and the new demands of the regulating agency. (author)

  6. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing {sup 131}I; Avaliacao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em servicos de medicina nuclear atraves da analise de aerossois contendo {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao, E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paula, Gustavo Affonso de [Escola SESC de Ensino Medio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of {sup 131}I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of {sup 131}I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam {sup 131}I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m{sup 3}. This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10{sup 3} Bq of {sup 131}I / m{sup 3} corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures.

  7. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy review of Ponta Grossa formation, Parana Basin - emphasis on the Tibagi Member sandstones; Analise de facies e revisao da estratigrafia de sequencias da Formacao Ponta Grossa, Bacia do Parana - enfase nos arenitos do Membro Tibagi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Ary Gustavo [PETROBRAS, Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio Exploracao e Producao da Bacia de Campos. Gerencia de Avaliacao de Blocos e Interpretacao Geologica e Geofisica]. E-mail: ary.candido@petrobras.com.br; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires

    2006-11-15

    Lithostratigraphic studies of Ponta Grossa Formation (Devonian - Parana Basin) suggest the recognition of three members, denominated: Jaguariaiva Member, Tibagi Member and Sao Domingos Member. This work studies the formation as a whole, but predominantly the Tibagi Member, the most controversial, regarding its stratigraphic genesis. Differing from the other members, that are predominantly pelitic, the Tibagi Member has a sandy composition with the facies; distal storm, proximal storm, deltaic outlet bars and littoral drift currents. The disposition of these facies, formed in marine transitional environment, reveals deposition with a pro gradational array, beginning in shallow platformal environment, with strong storm influence, and covered by deltaic outlet bar deposits. Finally, the coastal drift currents process prevailed. Based on the facies analysis and the comparison between gamma-ray profiles of outcrops and geophysical profiles of wells, the formation was divided in two depositional sequences. In the upper sequence, where it is suggested that Tibagi Member sandstones represent deposits formed in a tract similar to a shelf edge systems tract. This system tract was used (elaborated for passive margin basins, and not for ramp type basins, as the Parana Basin), to have the possibility of obtaining good explanations to understand the deltaic progradation associated with the deposition of that interval, clarifying issues referring to the relative sea level behavior, to the sedimentary contribution, and to the stratigraphic pile up. Finally, comparisons were made with existing stratigraphic models, with the aim to establish a discussion on this important subject in order to promote new debate on the Ponta Grossa Formation stratigraphic sequences. (author)

  8. Investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis; Investigacao da resistencia a corrosao da liga Ti-13Nb-13Zr por meio de tecnicas eletroquimicas e de analise de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Sergio Luiz de

    2006-07-01

    In this work, the in vitro corrosion resistance of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy, manufactured at a national laboratory, and used for orthopedic applications, has been investigated in solutions that simulate the body fluids. The electrolytes used were 0.9 % (mass) NaCl, Hanks' solution, a culture medium (MEM), and the two last electrolytes, without and with addition of hydrogen peroxide. The aim of peroxide addition was to simulate the conditions found when inflammatory reactions occur due to surgical procedures. The corrosion resistance of alloys commercially in use as biomaterials, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V, as well as of the pure titanium (Ti-cp), was also studied for comparison with the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance characterization was carried out by electrochemical and surface analysis techniques. The electrochemical tests used were: open circuit potential measurements as a function of tim; potentiodynamic polarization; and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE). The impedance experimental diagrams were interpreted using equivalent electric circuits that simulate an oxide film with a duplex structure composed of an internal and compact, barrier type layer, and an external porous layer. The results showed that the corrosion resistance is due mainly to the barrier type layer. The titanium alloys and the Ti-cp showed high corrosion resistance in all electrolytes used. The oxides formed on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr, either naturally or during immersion in MEM ar Hank's solution was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (MEV). The results showed that the presence of hydrogen peroxide in MEM promotes the growth of the porous layer and incorporation of mineral ions, besides favouring hydroxyapatite formation. The cytotoxicity of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was also evaluated and it was shown to be non-toxic. (author)

  9. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment; Analise ambiental da celula a combustivel de membrana trocadora de protons sob o enfoque da avaliacao do ciclo de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi

    2006-07-01

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and

  10. Self protected transformers: performance analysis; Transformadores autoprotegidos: analise de desempenho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Luiz Damiao S.; Gomes, Silvio Franco; Tenius, Sergio Ricardo [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    This paper analyses the project details of the distribution self protected transformer, the construction characteristics, the advantages resulting from the utilization in conventional installations, the application limitations and the special care with this product. The work presents an analysis of the equipment technical specifications which are presently applied by the main brazilian utilities, with comments and suggestions which might contribute to the process of self protected distribution transformers normatization.

  11. Effects of 960 nm diode laser irradiation on dental enamel in vitro: temperature and morphological analysis and evaluation of enamel demineralization; Estudo in vitro dos efeitos promovidos pelo laser de diodo em 960 nm no esmalte dental humano: analise de temperatura, analise morfologica e avaliacao da resistencia a desmineralizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Ilka Tiemy

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of diode laser irradiation on enamel demineralization. To achieve this goal appropriate photon absorbing substances for the laser radiation, safe laser parameters and adequate temperature measuring apparatus had to be determined. Next, the effects of diode laser and acidulated phosphate fluoride on enamel demineralization by calcium content analysis were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In the first part of the study, five dyes consisting of vegetable coal diluted in five different liquids were analyzed and vegetable coal diluted in physiological solution was chosen for use as absorber. Methodologies to measure pulp chamber temperature were evaluated and modeling clay was chosen as fixture for the enamel samples held at body temperature. In the second part of the study, different energy density parameters (1.8 J/cm{sup 2}, 3.7 J/cm{sup 2}, 5.6 J/cm{sup 2}, 7.4 J/cm{sup 2} and 9.3 J/cm{sup 2}) exposure times (10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 seconds) and time intervals between dye application and laser irradiation (5, 30, 60, 90 e 120 seconds) were evaluated with respect to temperature changes in the pulp chamber. The enamel morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Acid resistance was measured using seventy five enamel specimens, divided in five groups (control, fluoride, laser, laser + fluoride and fluoride + laser). The amount of calcium lost during demineralization in lactic acid was measured by ICP-AES. The results obtained in this experiment permit the conclusion that diode laser irradiation did not increase acid resistance. When associated with fluoride, the acid resistance did not differ from the results obtained with fluoride alone. (author)

  12. O controle espetacular nas capas da revista Veja : uma analise discursiva

    OpenAIRE

    Elissandro Martins Inacio

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho tem como objetivo refletir, a partir de uma perspectiva discursiva, sobre a constituição do acontecimento discursivo relativo à política. Para nosso estudo, desenvolvemos uma análise a partir da noção de acontecimento de Michel Foucault (2002). Visando descrever a constituição do discurso político como controle por meio da formação de saber espetacular, selecionamos algumas capas da revista Veja. Ao descrevermos práticas institucionais da Veja, possibilitamos ao leitor d...

  13. Proibicao de discriminacao de preco por genero nos contratos de seguro: analise economica da decisao do tribunal da Uniao Europeia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penido, Thiago; Bergamaschine Mata Diz, Jamile

    2012-01-01

    O trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a extensao da eficacia do principio da igualdade e a consequente proibicao de discriminacao no ambito das relacoes juridicas privadas, verificando, especificamente...

  14. Use of geographic information system in the analysis of distribution of cetaceans in Parana Coast/Utilizacao de sistema de informacao geografica na analise da distribuicao de cetaceos na Costa Paranaense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barros, Ana Carolina Vizintim Fernandes; Barros, Mirian Vizintim Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    .... The storage, handling and analysis of these data can be performed by the Geographic Information System--GIS, which is an important tool because allows it the manipulation of large volumes of data and...

  15. Impact of inclusion of synchrophasor measuring in estimation of states and generalized observability analysis; Impacto da inclusao de medicao sincrofasorial na estimacao de estados e na analise de observabilidade generalizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krefta, Gilmar Francisco [Compania Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Protecao de Sistemas Eletricos], E-mail: gilmar.krefta@copel.com; Lourenco, Elizete Maria [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: elizete@eletrica.ufpr.br

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to establish elements, data and criteria for defining a grid for assessing the inclusion of the measurement synchrophasor in state estimation of electric power systems and the analysis of topological observability.

  16. Volume totalizers analysis of pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO National Operational Control Center; Analise de totalizadores de volume em oleodutos operados pelo Centro Nacional de Controle e Operacao da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago Lessa; Montalvao, Antonio Filipe Falcao [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Thais Carrijo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present the results and methodology in the analysis of differences in volume totals used in systems such as batch tracking and leak detection of pipelines operated by the National Center for Operational Control (CNCO) at TRANSPETRO. In order to optimize this type of analysis, software was developed to acquisition and processing of historical data using the methodology developed. The methodology developed takes into account the particularities encountered in systems operated by TRANSPETRO, more specifically, by CNCO. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Portland cement from X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis; Avaliacao de cimento Portland a partir da difracao de raios X associada a analise por agrupamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobbo, Luciano de Andrade, E-mail: luciano.gobbo@panalytical.com [Panalytical Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Tarcisio Jose, E-mail: tarcisio.montanheiro@gmail.com [Instituto Geologico, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Filipe, E-mail: flpmontanheiro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LEBAC/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia Aplicada. Lab. de Estudos de Bacias; Sant' Agostino, Lilia Mascarenhas, E-mail: agostino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2013-12-15

    The Brazilian cement industry produced 64 million tons of cement in 2012, with noteworthy contribution of CP-II (slag), CP-III (blast furnace) and CP-IV (pozzolanic) cements. The industrial pole comprises about 80 factories that utilize raw materials of different origins and chemical compositions that require enhanced analytical technologies to optimize production in order to gain space in the growing consumer market in Brazil. This paper assesses the sensitivity of mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis to distinguish different kinds of cements with different additions. This technique can be applied, for example, in the prospection of different types of limestone (calcitic, dolomitic and siliceous) as well as in the qualification of different clinkers. The cluster analysis does not require any specific knowledge of the mineralogical composition of the diffractograms to be clustered; rather, it is based on their similarity. The materials tested for addition have different origins: fly ashes from different power stations from South Brazil and slag from different steel plants in the Southeast. Cement with different additions of limestone and white Portland cement were also used. The Rietveld method of qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for measuring the results generated by the cluster analysis technique. (author)

  18. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis; Analise da confiabilidade do sistema de suprimento de energia eletrica de emergencia de um reator nuclear de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  19. Calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) minimum for accident analysis of main steam line break at Angra-1; Calculo do minimo DNBR para analise do acidente de ruptura da linha principal de vapor em Angra-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Marcio Dornellas [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: mdorne@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    The maintenance costs, the operational problems and the failures possibilities of the boron injection system, composed by pumps, valves, heated lines and the boron injection tank, make this tank removal or the boron concentration reduction advisable for Angra 1 Power Plant. The main accident from chapter XV of the final safety analysis report affected by this modification is the main steam line break. It is necessary the interaction of the areas of Accidents and Transients Analysis (RETRAN 02/Mod 5.1 code), Neutronics (APA System) and Thermohydraulics (COBRA IIIC/MIT) to analyse this accident. The present Angra 1 boron concentration is 20000 ppm and it could be reduced to 2000 ppm as a result of the present study. The Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) is the restrictive parameter of this accident, which is calculated from the initials and boundary conditions obtained from the Transients and Accidents Analysis and Neutronics areas. (author)

  20. Analysis of the reliability of the centrifugal pumping system on the Northeast pole platforms in the Campos basin; Analise de confiabilidade do sistema de bombeio centrifugo das plataformas do polo nordeste da bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz; Bardy, Mariana [Principia Engenharia de Informatica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Simoes Filho, Salvador [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Div. de Engenharia Basica Industrial; Neves, Edinei [PETROBRAS, Campos, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao

    1999-12-01

    The results of the statistical analysis of useful life data for the Submersible Centrifugal Pumping (BCS) sets installed in the wells in the Northeast Pole of the Campos Basin are given in this work. The objective is to analyze the data compiled with a view to determine the failure rate distributions for the various system components. These are important for the reliability analysis of the BCS systems and to predict the expected number of equipment acquisitions over a yearly period. In addition, suggestions are made aimed at improving the operational reliability of the systems analyzed. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the parametric neutron activation applied in the soil and sediments analysis using the IPR-R1 reactor; Avaliacao da ativacao neutronica parametrica na analise de solos e sedimentos, utilizando o reator IPR-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Milton B.; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de; Kastner, Geraldo F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rossi, Eduardo H.M. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    1997-10-01

    This work describes a mono standard method for multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis using sodium as comparator, and gamma spectrometry with a ultrapure Ge detector. The method was checked by analysing 16 elements presents in soils and sediments reference materials from IAEA and United States Geological Survey. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Implementation of the robustness analysis methodology for decenal planning in the expansion of electric sector; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise de robustez ao planejamento decenal de expansao do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata de Azevedo Moreira da

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this dissertation is to develop an application from one of the techniques of 'soft' operational research, the Robustness Analysis, to the problem of decision making under uncertainty, as part of the planning of the electricity expansion planning process in Brazil. Initially are shown desirable characteristics of a methodology that will complement the traditional methods used in determining the expansion of the sector. Departing from the Decenal Plan for Power Expansion (2007/2016), an analysis of the different trends that can occur during the planning process is presented, so as to facilitate the visualization of the consequences of uncertainties that may change the schedule of the planned expansion and also help the interaction between actors working in the expansion planning of electricity generation. (author)

  3. Application of operational contingency analysis as a tool to reduce loss in the energy and utility area; Aplicacao da analise de contingencia operacional como ferramenta de minimizacao de perdas na area de energia e utilidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano Francisco dos; Alvarenga, Zenilton Galhano; Grijo, Fabio Becalli [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao de Gusa e Energia

    2009-11-01

    All new implementation of activities and equipment needs special attention regarding programming, preparation and operations performance, service and necessary interventions in order to achieve success considering operation, safety and environment. The real challenge in order to realize this change is to guarantee for the costumers the minimum interference, once it is performed on an operational routine basis. The energy distribution area from ArcelorMittal Tubarao (IGC-D) has a very important operational tool to succeed on this task: the operational contingency analysis. The objective of this paper is showing how the operational contingency analysis has been used as a tool to help IGC-D operation on preventing interruptions on supplying the internal costumers as well as keeping the maximum efficiency at the plant. (author)

  4. A human reliability analysis of the Three Mile power plant accident considering the THERP and ATHEANA methodologies; Uma analise da confiabilidade humana do acidente na Usina de Three Mile Island II considerando as metodologias Therp e Atheana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2004-03-15

    The main purpose of this work is the study of human reliability using the THERP (Technique for Human Error Prediction) and ATHEANA methods (A Technique for Human Error Analysis), and some tables and also, from case studies presented on the THERP Handbook to develop a qualitative and quantitative study of nuclear power plant accident. This accident occurred in the TMI (Three Mile Island Unit 2) power plant, PWR type plant, on March 28th, 1979. The accident analysis has revealed a series of incorrect actions, which resulted in the Unit 2 shut down and permanent loss of the reactor. This study also aims at enhancing the understanding of the THERP method and ATHEANA, and of its practical applications. In addition, it is possible to understand the influence of plant operational status on human failures and of these on equipment of a system, in this case, a nuclear power plant. (author)

  5. A pre-analysis for the optimal operational scheduling of a pipeline network; Uma pre-analise do problema de otimizacao da programacao das operacoes de uma malha dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Daniel I.; Brondani, William M.; Arantes, Lucas G.; Boschetto, Suelen N.; Lueders, Ricardo; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work suggests a Pre-analysis in the input parameters of an optimization system (Bonacin et al., 2007; Boschetto et al., 2008). The proposed method is based on programming techniques that use lists of objects threaded, where objects are elements belonging to the same class, according to the concept of the object-oriented programming. The Preanalysis makes a previous evaluation of a batch sequencing, getting information to be entered into an optimization block. The continuous time Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model gets such information and determines the scheduling. The models are applied on a pipeline network that connects different areas including refineries, terminals, and final clients. Many oil derivatives (e.g. gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha) can be sent or received in this network. The Pre-analysis objective is to reduce the computational time of an MILP model, and the proposed approach can aid the decision-making process to obtain a more detailed scheduling. (author)

  6. Analysis of performance of protection systems with utilization of EMPT program. A practical case: differential protection in Itaipu line; Analise de desempenho de sistemas de protecao com utilizacao do programa EMTP. Um caso pratico: protecao diferencial de linha da Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, C.S.; Carvalho Junior, D.S.; Villas, J.E.T. [Marte Engenharia Ltda. (Brazil); Frontin, S.O.; Teme, P.P.; Ordacgi Filho, J.M. [Itaipu Binacional (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    This work presents the model used in the differential protection system program (EMTP) for the existing 500 kV, 60 Hz Itaipu lines. It also describes the logics of scanning, comparison and reset display. It also shows results of the Itaipu 500 kV system disturbance simulations and comparison with analogic computer analysis considering the interaction of the same elements which compose the differential protection. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The new courses of ethanol production in Brazil: an analysis from learning curves; Os novos rumos da producao de alcool combustivel no Brasil: uma analise a partir de curvas de aprendizagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pereira, Andre Santos [Centre de Recherche sur Environement et Developement (CIRED), Paris (France); Mendonca, Marco Aurelio [Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    PROALCOOL is known internationally as the most successful biofuel promotion program. Prior analysis of the effectiveness of such a program is fundamental to formulation of public policy, not only in the area of energy, but in all sectors of the economy. The article applies learning curve methodology to evaluate the ethanol market in Brazil in order to give an idea about the effort, in terms of investments, required for its advancement. (author)

  8. Brazilian program for production and use of biodiesel: an analysis of the regulatory aspects under the viewpoint of social inclusion; Programa nacional de producao e uso do biodiesel: uma analise dos aspectos regulatorios sob a otica da inclusao social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longa, Dulce Conceicao Pinheiro; Guimaraes, Paulo Roberto Britto; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Arquitetura

    2006-07-01

    The current article makes an analysis of the Brazilian Program of Biodiesel Use, having focus on the present social inclusion policy. In this sense, it is presented an update of the regulatory boundaries, emphasizing social issues, the employment and wealth generation, through substantial familiar agriculture whose purpose is the regional development and maintenance of the environment. Finalizing, it presents a review of the legal marks, concluding and recommendations. (author)

  9. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  10. Method for the calculation of volumetric fraction of retained austenite through the software for analysis of digital images; Metodo para o calculo da fracao volumetrica de austenita retida atraves do software de analise digital de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, S.; Costa, F.H.; Hashimoto, T.M.; Pereira, M.S., E-mail: sandro_Lombardo@hotmail.co [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Abdalla, A.J. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados

    2010-07-01

    In order to calculate the volume fraction of the retained austenite in aeronautic multiphase steels, it was used a digital analysis software for image processing. The materials studied were steels AISI 43XX with carbon content between 30, 40 and 50%, heat treated by conventional quenching and isothermal cooling in bainitic and intercritical region, characterized by optical microscopy, etching by reagent Sodium Metabisulfite (10%) for 30 seconds, with forced drying. The results were compared with the methods of X-Ray Diffraction and Magnetic Saturation through photomicrographs, showing that with this technic it is possible to quantify the percentage of retained austenite in the martensitic matrix, in the different types of steels. (author)

  11. Application of perturbation methods for sensitivity analysis for nuclear power plant steam generators; Aplicacao da teoria de perturbacao a analise de sensibilidade em geradores de vapor de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurjao, Emir Candeia

    1996-02-01

    The differential and GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) formalisms of the Perturbation Theory were applied in this work to a simplified U-tubes steam generator model to perform sensitivity analysis. The adjoint and importance equations, with the corresponding expressions for the sensitivity coefficients, were derived for this steam generator model. The system was numerically was numerically solved in a Fortran program, called GEVADJ, in order to calculate the sensitivity coefficients. A transient loss of forced primary coolant in the nuclear power plant Angra-1 was used as example case. The average and final values of functionals: secondary pressure and enthalpy were studied in relation to changes in the secondary feedwater flow, enthalpy and total volume in secondary circuit. Absolute variations in the above functionals were calculated using the perturbative methods, considering the variations in the feedwater flow and total secondary volume. Comparison with the same variations obtained via direct model showed in general good agreement, demonstrating the potentiality of perturbative methods for sensitivity analysis of nuclear systems. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para a determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de ovos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Bruna G.; Maihara, Vera A.; Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: pagliaro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x10{sup 12} cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  13. Analysis of crystallite size and microdeformation crystal lattice the tungsten carbide milling in mill high energy; Analise do tamanho do cristalito e microdeformacao da rede cristalina do carbeto de tugstenio moidos em moinho de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.T. da; Nunes, M.A.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Oliveira, R.M.V. de; Silva, G.G. da [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Natal (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de; Gomes, U.U. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The tungsten carbide (WC) has wide application due to its properties like high melting point, high hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and good electrical conductivity. The microstructural characteristics of the starting powders influences the final properties of the carbide. In this context, the use of nanoparticle powders is an efficient way to improve the final properties of the WC. The high energy milling stands out from other processes to obtain nanometric powders due to constant microstructural changes caused by this process. Therefore, the objective is to undertake an analysis of microstructural characteristics on the crystallite size and microdeformations of the crystal lattice using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement. The results show an efficiency of the milling process to reduce the crystallite size, leading to a significant deformation in the crystal lattice of WC from 5h milling. (author)

  14. Voltage collapse - critical analysis of the attainment of collapse margin by successive power fluxes and parabolic approach; Colapso de tensao - analise critica do metodo de obtencao da margem de colapso por fluxos de potencia sucessivos e aproximacao parabolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Ramon Sade; Lima, Julio Cesar Marques de; Terra, Luiz Danilo Barbosa [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1997-12-01

    The present paper shows research results on Voltage Collapse when the Electrical Power System is submitted to several load variations. A study will be reported that validates a methodology of the determination of the Voltage Collapse Margin, in accordance with Ejebe (1996) and its applications in the contingency ranking using the Voltage Collapse as a Performance Index. The purpose is to obtain an accurate and fast method that perform security analysis in the operation system phase. The verifications will be developed using the IEEE 14 Bus System and, in sequence, checked to validated to any systems. The comparatives results of the method applications and approximations adopted will be assessed. Finally, the modifications that should be implemented in order to validate the method in the Electrical System Operation will be performed. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Failure analysis of a heat exchanger used of a wood pulp bleaching process; Analise de falha de um trocador de calor utilizado no processo de branqueamento da polpa de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, D.B.V.; Moreto, J.A.; Rossino, L.S.; Spinelli, D.; Tarpani, J.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (SMM/EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materais, Aeronautica e Automobilistica

    2010-07-01

    This study involved an investigation of the failure of a heat exchanger used in the ozone destruction stage of a wood pulp bleaching process at a pulp plant. The following procedures were carried out to determine the causes of the failure: a chemical analysis of the component, atomic absorption spectroscopy, measurements of hardness and of corrosion-related mass loss, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, and chemical microanalysis by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion damage of the heat exchanger was caused by chloric and sulfuric acid, which led to pitting, grooving and cracking, as well as generalized corrosion of the component (AISI 316L steel). Nitric acid caused minimal damage to the heat exchanger, with minor generalized corrosion and occasional pitting. White crystals rich in sulfur and chlorine were identified as the corrosive agents acting inside the heat exchanger. (author)

  16. No fluorinated compounds in the uranium conversion process: risk analysis and proposition of pictograms; Os compostos nao fluorados nos processos da conversao do uranio: analise de riscos e proposicao de pictogramas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronimo, Adroaldo Clovis; Oliveira, Wagner dos Santos, E-mail: acejota18@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: oliveira@feq.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de, E-mail: araquino@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    The plants comprising the chemical conversion of uranium, which are part of the nuclear fuel cycle, present some risks, among others, because are associated with the non-fluorinated compounds handled in these processes. This study is the analysis of the risks associated with these compounds, i e, the non-fluorinated reactants and products, handled in different chemical processing plants, which include the production of uranium hexafluoride, while emphasizing the responsibilities and actions that fit to the chemical engineer with regard to minimizing risks during the various stages. The work is based on the experience gained during the development and mastery of the technology of production of uranium hexafluoride, the IPEN/ CNEN-SP, during the '80s, with the support of COPESP -Navy of Brazil. (author)

  17. Analysis of the physico-chemical quality Enalapril and Simvastatin drugs manipulated in magistral pharmacies from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; Analise da qualidade fisico-quimica dos medicamentos Enalapril e Sinvastatina manipulados em farmacias magistrais de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tatiana Cristina Bomfim

    2013-07-01

    The increasing expansion of compounding pharmacy associated with several reports on variances in the quality of compounded drugs demonstrates the need for verification of quality, safety and efficacy of these products. In this work, physical and chemical analyzes were performed to evaluate the quality of some capsules manipulated enalapril and simvastatin, acquired in five pharmacies in Belo Horizonte /Brazil. Among the analyzes are pharmacopoeial tests for appearance, identification, determination of weight, content, related compounds and uniformity of dosage units, and was also performed neutron activation analysis for the determination of inorganic impurities in drugs sampled. The results showed that 60% of the samples were unsatisfactory for pharmacopoeial tests. The contents of the capsules sampled for individual testing unit dose uniformity between 0% and 136.2%. This test is important in evaluating the quality, which influences the safety and efficacy of drug treatment, since it allows you to check if the product contains the proper dosage and necessary for successful pharmacotherapy. On the other hand, underdosing can lead to reduced or absent desired therapeutic response, and overdoses can provide an undesirable effects and even toxic. The concentration of inorganic impurities was considered to be relatively small. However, no specific limits for some chemical elements in medicine hamper a better thread. In addition, further studies must be performed to assess chronic exposure to low concentrations of inorganic impurities, since drugs can be continuously used, and other sources of exposure must also be considered in order to evaluate the risk. The problems related to the quality and safety of compounded drugs are still reality in the country and reveal a serious public health problem, especially regarding the lack of uniformity between the unit doses of medications. It is suggested that the competent authorities to sanitary products, propose changes in

  18. Cogeneration in breweries analysis and simulation of systems for simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration using natural gas; Sistemas de refrigeracao a partir da cogeracao: analise e simulacao de propostas para o caso de cervejarias utilizando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido

    1998-07-01

    The present work analyses some proposals of cogeneration systems for the simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration in a brewery. The requirements of steam, refrigeration and electricity, as well as the production of beer in a plant of the Antarctica Company, located in Jaguariuna - SP were collected monthly for the year of 1997. Three conceptions of systems using two gas turbines with heat recovery steam generator were then proposed to meet the surveyed demand. The proposals differ in the refrigeration system: the first one uses a traditional ammonia compression system while the second uses an ammonia absorption system, the third proposal is a combination of the compression and absorption systems. These proposals are compared to the present configuration which purchases electricity from the Public Utility for power and refrigeration (using an ammonia compression)system, and fuel oil to generate steam for process heat. The technical, economical and environmental feasibility of the proposals, as well as of the present configuration are discussed on the basis of mass balances, energy balances (first law of Thermodynamics), exergy fluxes (second law analysis), operational and capital cost, based on simulation of the performance of each configuration proposed to meet the monthly electricity, steam and refrigeration requirements for the referred plant. The turbines were chosen so as to meet the peek energy demand of the plant and two cases were simulated for each proposal: turbine operational meets only the demand of the plant and turbine operates at full load, selling electricity for the Public utility. Results obtained show that the current operational costs are higher than any of the proposals presented. The high capital costs of the proposals, though,make them less interesting financially. The simulation of the case of excess electricity to the Public Utility is very attractive, considering the cost of natural gas 3,38 U$/M btu and the fare of 40 U

  19. Analysis of the possibility of use of a pump powered by solar energy supply of water in micro sprinklers; Analise da possibilidade de utilizacao de uma motobomba acionada por energia solar na alimentacao de agua em micro aspersores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Paulo Takashi; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Jousseph, Carlos Alberto C.; Grosbelli, Andressa; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Paran (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: paulooyama@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the high cost of connecting electricity in distant places of conventional networks, solar photovoltaic energy is widely used in street lighting, water pumping, health clinics, etc.. To contribute to a better use of such energy, the project aimed to analyze the water-flow, power and electric current of a motor powered by two Solarex solar module manufacturer, model MSX 56, standard voltage of 12V, the current standard of 3.35A and 56W of potency using a pump, Shurflo Ltd manufacturer, model 2088-732, a pressure transducer model HUBA-510, a flow transducer for pumping water. The analysis for the height of 18.2 mca, corresponding height to 178.554 kPa, showed a flow rate of 365.308 L/h. Based on the results obtained in the laboratory, it was concluded that: the emitter Rain Bird QN-14, showed FVC nearly of 0.7%, ranking it as good, the emitter flow rates were in line with those presented in the catalog manufacturer, in the pressure range from 100 to 200 kPa, its effective radius was limited between 1.00 and 3.00 m away from the emitter, the profile of three-dimensional distribution of precipitation and isohyetal were quite irregular, which makes it possible the use of irrigation equipment in small areas. (author)

  20. Comparative analysis of the structure and morphology of a zirconia synthesized by combustion reaction with commercial zirconia; Analise comparativa da estrutura e morfologia de uma zirconia sintetizada por reacao de combustao com uma zirconia comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.N.; Dantas, J.; Cunha, R.B.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: fnilson.s@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Pallone, E.M.J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Basicas

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to obtain zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) by combustion reaction, and to make a comparative analysis regarding the structure and morphology of a commercial monoclinic zirconia. The synthetic ZrO{sub 2} was obtained by combustion reaction in batch of 15 g of product, used as precursor the n-propoxide of zirconium IV and urea. The commercial ZrO{sub 2} was supplied by Saint-Gobain Zirpro. The samples were characterized by DRX, SEM and particle size distribution. The results showed for the synthesized ZrO{sub 2} a major phase formation of monoclinic zirconia with trace of the orthorhombic zirconia phase, with crystallite size 16 nm and crystallinity 57%. In the commercial sample was identified only the single monoclinic phase with crystallite size 39 nm and crystallinity of 86%. Both samples have shown homogeneous morphology, constituted of very fine particles of approximately hexagonal shape, with average particle size of 47 to 72 nm, for the synthesized and commercial ZrO{sub 2}, respectively. Comparing among samples, it was found that synthesis by combustion reaction was effective to get monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with traces of orthorhombic phase with morphology of the finer particles than commercial monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}. (author)

  1. Optimization of the isotopic analysis of UF{sub 6} by quadrupole mass spectrometry technique; Otimizacao da analise isotopica de UF{sub 6} utilizando-se a tecnica de espectrometria de massas por quadrupolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Peterson

    2006-07-01

    In the present work a procedure for determination of the isotopic ratio {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U in UF{sub 6} samples was established using a quadrupole mass spectrometer with ionization by electron impact and ion detection by Faraday cup or electron multiplier. For this, the following items were optimized in the spectrometer: the parameters in the ion source that provided the most intense peak, with good shape, for the corresponding mass of the most abundant isotope; the resolution that reduced the non linear effects and the number of analytic cycles that reduced the uncertainty in the results. The measurement process was characterized with respect to the effects of mass discrimination, linearity and memory effect. The mass discrimination showed to be linearly dependent of the sample pressure in the batch volume, for the pressure ranges from 0.15 to 0.30 mbar and from 0.30 to 0.40 mbar. The spectrometer was shown linear in the measurement of isotopic ratios between 0.005 and 0.045. The memory factor for the ion source and for the introduction system were, respectively, 1.000 {+-} 0.001 and 1.003 {+-} 0.003; the first one can be ignored, the second one can be eliminated by washing the batch volume with the new sample. A methodology for routine analysis of UF{sub 6} samples and the determination of the uncertainties were set up in details as well. (author)

  2. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  3. Statistical analysis of natural radiation levels inside the UNICAMP campus through the use of Geiger-Muller counter; Analise estatistica dos niveis de radiacao natural dentro da UNICAMP atraves do uso de contador Geiger-Muller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontolan, Juliana A.; Biral, Antonio Renato P., E-mail: fontolanjuliana@gmail.com.br, E-mail: biral@ceb.unicamp.br [Hospital das Clinicas (CEB/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomedica

    2013-07-01

    It is known that the distribution at time intervals of random and unrelated events leads to the Poisson distribution . This work aims to study the distribution in time intervals of events resulting from radioactive decay of atoms present in the UNICAMP where activities involving the use of ionizing radiation are performed environments . The proposal is that the distribution surveys at intervals of these events in different locations of the university are carried out through the use of a Geiger-Mueller tube . In a next step , the evaluation of distributions obtained by using non- parametric statistics (Chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff) will be taken . For analyzes involving correlations we intend to use the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical tool . Measured in six different places within the Campinas , with the use of Geiger- Muller its count mode and a time window of 20 seconds was performed . Through statistical tools chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff tests, using the EXCEL program , it was observed that the distributions actually refer to a Poisson distribution. Finally, the next step is to perform analyzes involving correlations using the statistical tool ANOVA.

  4. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis application for determining iron concentration in forage grasses used in intensive cattle production system; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para determinacao de ferro em forrageiras usadas no sistema intensivo de producao de bovinos de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Primavesi, Odo [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste

    2002-07-01

    Iron is an essential element to the life. It is an important hemoglobin component and it is involved in the transport of oxygen to cells. A deficiency of iron results in an unsuitable synthesis of hemoglobin and a delay in the growth. Iron contents above the tolerable level in animal feed can cause serious damages to the health and the death in extreme cases. The forages are the main source of feed to cattle in grazing. It is known from the literature, that the growth and the nutritious value of the forage are influenced by specie and physiologic age of the plant, soil fertility and environmental conditions. Therefore, an agronomical evaluations of the forages are necessary before to introduce in an intensive cattle production systems to program adequate grazing management. Neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the Fe concentration in the main tropical forage grasses used in intensive dairy cattle production systems in Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Iron concentrations were smaller in the rain season than in the dry one. Comparison of results obtained in the analyses of forages with daily requirements of iron in dry matter, showed that the Fe concentration in forages was adequate. (author)

  6. Factor analysis for the adoption of nuclear technology in diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases; Analise de fatores para adocao da tecnologia nuclear no diagnostico e tratamento de doencas cronicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Renato Cesar, E-mail: rcsato@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - UNIFESP, Sao Paulo (SP), (Brazil); Zouain, Desiree Moraes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    To identify and evaluate latent variables (variables that are not directly observed) for adopting and using nuclear technologies in diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases. The measurement and management of these latent factors are important for health care due to complexities of the sector. Methods: An exploratory factor analysis study was conducted among 52 physicians practicing in the areas of Cardiology, Neurology and Oncology in the State of Sao Paulo who agreed to participate in the study between 2009 and 2010. Data were collected using an attitude measurement questionnaire, and analyzed according to the principal component method with Varimax rotation. Results: The component matrix after factor rotation showed three elucidative groups arranged according to demand for nuclear technology: clinical factors, structural factors, and technological factors. Clinical factors included questionnaire answers referring to medical history, previous interventions, complexity and chronicity of the disease. Structural factors included patient age, physician's practice area, and payment ability. Technological factors included prospective growth in the use of nuclear technology and availability of services. Conclusions: The clinical factors group dimension identified in the study included patient history, prior interventions, and complexity and chronicity of the disease. This dimension is the main motivating for adopting nuclear technology in diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases. (author)

  7. Analysis of the potential use of palm oil biodiesel for power generation in Amazonian remote systems; Analise do potencial do biodiesel de dende para geracao eletrica em sistemas isolados da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential of palm-oil biodiesel production and consumption in remote Amazonian systems (not connected to the national grid), taking into account economic, social and environmental impacts of this biofuel alternative. Through a detailed analysis of remote systems and in particular the examination of the national subside called 'Combustible Consumption Account', the study presents potential scenarios of biodiesel demand for electricity generation in the region, considering also the generation and grid connections projects in forthcoming years. Definition of current and future quantities of biodiesel needed to maintain thermal production in this system defines the Biodiesel investment necessities in remote Amazonian states (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima). Possibility of using biodiesel made progress with the launch of the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) in 2004. Although African Palm-oil trees adapt very well Amazonian soil, wide adoption of this specie as raw material for biodiesel production shows some barriers, like raise of palm oil price in global market, palm tree long maturation time and attractive price for conventional diesel in the region. Even if using palmoil biodiesel result in obvious significant social and environmental benefits, these benefits tend not to compensate the inefficiency of the market and, thus, expand the biofuel production in the Northern Region. (author)

  8. Analysis of the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes irradiated with {sup 60}Co; Analise da frequencia de alteracoes cromossomicas instaveis em linfocitos humanos irradiados com {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: july_cgm@hotmail.com, E-mail: mendes_sb@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: santos_neide@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations induced by gamma radiation from a {sup 60}Co source at two different doses. Samples were obtained from a healthy donor and exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Gammacel 220 ) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy of Pernambuco Federal University (DEN/UFPe/Brazil) with a rate of air Kerma to 3,277 Gy/h. Exposures resulted in absorbed dose 0.51 Gy and 0.77 Gy. Mitotic metaphases were obtained by culturing lymphocytes for chromosome analysis and the slides were stained with 5% Giemsa. Among the unstable chromosomal aberrations the dicentric chromosomes, ring chromosomes and acentric fragments were analyzed. To calculate the significance level the chi - square test was used, considering relevant differences between the frequencies when the value of p < 0.05. To calculate the significance level of the chi - square test was used, considering relevant differences between the frequencies when the value of p < 0.05. The results showed that there was significant difference of the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes (from 0.18 to 0.51 to 0.37 Gy to 0.77 Gy), however there was no statistically significant difference between the frequencies of acentric fragments ( 0.054 to 0, 51 Gy to 0.063 to 0.77 Gy) and ring chromosomes (0.001 to 0.51 Gy to 0.003 to 0.77 Gy). The low number of rings is found justified, considering that in irradiated human lymphocytes, its appearance is rare relative to dicentrics. The results confirm that dicentrics are the most reliable biomarkers in estimating dose after exposure to gamma radiation. These two points will make the calibration curve dose-response being built for Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of CRCN-NE/CNEN.

  9. Use of the sensitivity analysis for multi-attributes decision models for oil exploration and production systems; Uso da analise de sensibilidade em modelos de decisao multiatributos para sistemas de exploracao e producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Ricardo

    2000-07-01

    Today, oil companies must be able to survive in a hostile and competitive environment. Such environment involves volatility of oil prices, the narrow margins of profitability, and ever increasing environmental restrictions. In order to survive, firms must have the appropriate tools to consider the tradeoffs involving the financial, environmental, technological and of market parameters which are the key elements within the investment decision-making process. The aim of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the weights (relative importance) of the attributes int the multi-criteria decision model through a high dimension sensitivity analysis. Among the benefits of such method are: provide the analyst (decision-maker) with a better characterization and control of the weights of the attributes, providing the user with a clear view of the entire decision process. The methodology suggested in this dissertation was applied in two oil exploration and production case studies. The first case involved the selection of an exploratory target among three options. In this case, there is interaction of the objectives of the company, where financial, technological and of market parameters interact. In the second case, a hypothetical production project is suggested. For this second study, the decision-maker has the option of using one of the following production systems: a FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading); a TLP (Tension Leg Platform); or a SS (Semi Submersible). The attributes for each one of the production systems are financial, technological and environmental. In this second case, the model makes it possible to simulate several options, providing the manager with the choice of the most appropriate production system to this objectives and preferences. (author)

  10. Analysis of the environmental impact study of PCH (small hydropower plant) Ninho da Aguia. Proposal for optimization of the environmental licensing process using a simplified matrix; Analise do estudo de impacto ambiental da PCH Ninho da Aguia. Proposta de otimizacao do processo de licenciamento ambiental utilizando uma matriz simplificada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Tania Aparecida de Souza

    2004-07-01

    This work intended to study the methodologies used for EIA - Study of Environmental Impact - and propose the adaptation of a simplified matrix for the assessment of environmental impacts regarding small hydropower plants. A case study of Ninho da Aguia SHP, located in the city of Delfim Moreira, MG, was used for elaborating the matrix. The methodology used the analysis of all the negative impacts and they were given combined weight based on a pre-established impact scale. The weights that were given to each impact were distributed according to the combination of features presented in the referred EIA. The results attained show that the environmental damage is reduced by 45% when the mitigating measures suggested by the EIA and by the analysis carried out by this study are applied. Besides, this preliminary proposal will make it possible for environmental licensing process to be accelerated. Today, this process is considered as an inhibiting investment because of it takes too much time. Also, the proposal may be used as initial guidelines regarding the environmental cost of the implementation of enterprises. The proposed matrix shows itself as efficient because it is easy to be used and it is a useful tool for the analysis of projects that will be implemented. (author)

  11. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident; Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-15

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  12. The process of candidates choose graduate programs: an analysis from the advisor perspective; O processo de escolha de candidatos a programas de Pos-Graduacao: uma analise a partir da perspectiva do orientador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ridnal Joao do

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to identify the criteria used by advisors in the decision-making on whether to accept a candidate for mentoring in a postgraduate strictu sensu program and examines possible relationships between this decision and their scientific production and mentees evasion. In order to meet these goals one seeks to identify and analyze the selection criteria of candidates for the master's and doctorate programs at an institution; in this case, the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN. More specifically, one seeks to study similarities and differences between those criteria among the advisors; find out whether there is a correlation between the selection criteria and the advisors characteristics (Profile); identify the selection process used by advisors and point out which are the motivations that lead to evasion according to their point of view. To meet these challenges, as the starting point of the research, a conceptual model was designed in order to form the basis for the preparation of the script for the interviews with open-ended questions as to identify the selection criteria used by a small group of advisors with a predefined profile. From that point, based on the responses obtained in interviews, the survey was expanded to all advisors working in the IPEN Postgraduate program by implementing an online survey using Google Docs app for data collection. These data were then analyzed and reorganized according to an operational model of research that would guide the analysis by structural equation modeling (SEM) by means of the SmartPLS software, in order to identify the presence or absence of correlation between the criteria adopted by the advisors and their academic production and the evasion of their mentees, for that one relied on studies in: Bazerman and Moore (2010); Cohen (1988); Hair Jr. et al (2009); Hansmann and Ringle (2004); Martins (1997); Ringle, C.; Silva and Bido (2014); Sousa (2007); Sousa and Yu (2014); Torres (2014); Yu (2011

  13. Systemic analysis of industrial cogeneration; Analise sistemica da cogeracao industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M. Eugenia de P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Clayton D.R.

    2001-07-01

    This paper optimizes, by using linear programming, the production configuration of an industry as far the net income is concerned when acting to increase either the electric power generation capacity, or efficiency of the cogeneration cycle equipment. A sugar and hydrated alcohol facility has been chosen as a production unity due to the utilization of facility real data measured.

  14. Estimativa do tempo decorrido de morte atraves da analise do esfriamento corporal

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Renato Silveira Costa

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: O estudo da cronotanatognose (determinação do tempo de morte) baseia-se na avaliação dos fenômenos cadavéricos conhecidos como fenômenos consecutivos, posto que surgem algum tempo após a morte, a saber: a evaporação cutânea, os livores hipostáticos, a rigidez cadavérica e o esfriamento corporal. Dentre esses fenômenos, somente as variações da temperatura corporal são passíveis de medição, sendo que os demais permitem, apenas, avaliações qualitativas, sujeitas à interpretação individua...

  15. Analise dos alelos S e Z da alfa 1 antitripsina em uma amostra de pacientes fibrocisticos

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A fibrose cística é uma alteração genética que cursa principalmente com manifestações pulmonares e pancreáticas. A correlação genótipo-fenótipo da fibrose cística é motivo de árduos estudos. Somente a correlação com a insuficiência pancreática foi encontrada. Percebeu-se, também, que o curso e a severidade da manifestação pulmonar não estão correlacionados com o genótipo CFTR. A alfaI antitripsina inibe as proteases que desencadeiam as reações inflamatórias do plasma. Seu papel inibitório mai...

  16. Tomografia computadorizada da coluna lombar: analise de tres casos de metástase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilberto Minguetti

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A Tomografia Computadorizada (TC da coluna vertebral tem evoluido sensivelmente desde o advento dos tomógrafos computadorizados para corpo inteiro. Com a recente inclusão dos mecanismos de alta resolução (HR em tais equipamentos, mecanismos estes especialmente desenhados para observação detalhada das mais delicadas estruturas anatômicas, a avaliação das patologias associadas à coluna tem alcançado uma precisão há muito desejada. No presente trabalho os autores descrevem a anatomia normal da região lombar vista pela TC e analisam a localização, características e efeitos de três casos de metástase naquela região. Na opinião dos autores, além das informações acima referidas a TC permitiria ainda uma melhor planificação para uma eventual biópsia, seguimento radioterapêutico e mais adequada orientação diagnóstica e cirúrgica para qualquer tipo de patologia da coluna.

  17. GOVERNANÇA CORPORATIVA: UMA ANALISE DA IMPORTÂNCIA DA SUCESSO FAMILIAR EM UMA EMPRESA MINEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor de Assis Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar e analisar a importância da governance corporative para o crescimento, desenvolvimento e obtenção de sucesso em empresas de controle familiar. O tema governance corporative é recente no Brail e no mundo, mas várias emrpesas familiars adotaram e vêem cada vez mais adotando seus mecanismos,já que no ambiente empresarial a governaça assumiu um importânte papel. Deste modo foi realizado,um estudo de caso em uma empresa familiar da zona da mata mineira com o objetivo de avaliar os fundamentos de governance corportativaadotados pela emrpesa. Foram coletadas informações através de distribuição de questionarioa para saber a importância dos fundamentos de governance corporative na visão dos membros da familia e dos funcionários da empresa.Os resultados do estudo de caso indicaram a presence dos principios basicos da governanca corporative na empresa. A conclusão é de que este trabalho teve exito, pois conseguiu responder a questão central proposta.

  18. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement; Estudo sobre a determinacao de antimonio em amostras ambientais pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons: validacao da metodologia e determinacao da incerteza da medicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Tassiane Cristina Martins

    2011-07-01

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest due to the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application in industry. The determination of antimony has been a challenge for researchers since this element is found in low concentrations which make its analysis a difficult task. Therefore, although neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an appropriate method for the determination of various elements in different types of matrix, in the case of Sb its analysis presents some difficulties, mainly due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the NAA method for Sb determination in environmental samples. To establish appropriate conditions for Sb determinations, preliminary assays were carried out for further analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). The experimental procedure was to irradiate samples with a synthetic Sb standard for a period of 8 or 16 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, followed by gamma ray spectrometry. The quantification of Sb was performed by measuring the radioactive isotopes of {sup 122}Sb and '1{sup 24}Sb. The results of preliminary assays indicated the presence of Sb in Whatman no 40 filter paper used in the preparation of the synthetic standard, but at very low concentrations, which could be considered negligible. In the case of the plastic material used in bags for the sample irradiation, it should be chosen carefully, because depending on the thickness, they may contain Sb. The analyses of the stability of the diluted Sb standard solution showed no change in the Sb concentration within eight months after its preparation. Results obtained in the analysis of certified reference materials indicated the interference of {sup 76}As and also of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 152}Eu in the Sb determinations by measuring '1{sup 22}Sb, due to the proximity of the gamma ray energies. The high activity of '2{sup 4}Na

  19. Study of seasonal variation of the gamma radiation at Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brazil: radiometry and risk analysis; Estudo da variacao sazonal dos niveis de radiacao gama na Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brasil: radiometria e analise de risco ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the natural gamma radiation at the Areia Preta Beach (APB) in Guarapari, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The level of this radiation is dependent on the concentration of the radioactive mineral monazite in the sand. Probable risks of the exposure to gamma radiation at the APB were evaluated by the preliminary environmental risk analysis technique. For this purpose were conducted two annual sets monitoring gamma radiation in the APB every two months and so, acquired the seasonal variation of the radioactive levels. Additional/y was investigated the granulometry of the heavy mineral fraction and also carried out electronic microscopic scanning and radiometric age dating of the monazites of the APB, the mineral separation by magnetic susceptibility, and the mineralogic determination of the sediment. In order to gain a more complete picture of the seasonal variation, and, consequently, of the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at the APB, the radiometric variation was also studied at some other beaches in the same region. The results indicate that the highest radiometric values are measured in summer and the lowest in winter. The radiometric dating of the monazites from the APB revealed the ages of 475 and 530 Ma. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis indicates a minimum risk of excessive radioactive exposition. It would take a period of approximately 870 years of a beach fully crowded to result in one case of bad consequences due to exposure to gamma radiation. (author)

  20. Analysis of RDC n. 20/2006 da Anvisa/MS practices: point of view of the residents in medical physics of radiotherapy; Analise pratica da RDC n. 20/2006 da Anvisa/MS: visao do residente em fisica medica de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, Noe R.; Pianoschi, Thatiane; Alva-Sanhez, Mirko S. [Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Operations of the radiotherapy services in Brazil are overseen by the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa), which due to the complexity and concern about the use of ionizing radiation in health, coordinated the development of the technical regulation RDC number 20 for the operation of radiotherapy. The regulation aims to protect the health of patients, professionals involved and the general public. The objective of this study was to analyze practices, especially in the aspects of responsibilities of Physicists, to facilitate adjustment of radiotherapy services to the regulation described in Technical RDC number 20/2006 Anvisa. Thus, the analysis can be used as an alignment tool among professional organ monitoring and Physical radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Nondestructive analysis of the natural uranium mass through the measurement of delayed neutrons using the technique of pulsed neutron source; Analise nao destrutiva da massa de uranio natural atraves da medida de neutrons atrasados com o uso da tecnica de fonte pulsada de neutrons rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto

    1979-07-01

    This work presents results of non destructive mass analysis of natural uranium by the pulsed source technique. Fissioning is produced by irradiating the test sample with pulses of 14 MeV neutrons and the uranium mass is calculated on a relative scale from the measured emission of delayed neutrons. Individual measurements were normalised against the integral counts of a scintillation detector measuring the 14 MeV neutron intensity. Delayed neutrons were measured using a specially constructed slab detector operated in anti synchronism with the fast pulsed source. The 14 MeV neutrons were produced via the T(d,n) {sup 4}He reaction using a 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerated operated at 200 kV in the pulsed source mode. Three types of sample were analysed, namely: discs of metallic uranium, pellets of sintered uranium oxide and plates of uranium aluminium alloy sandwiched between aluminium. These plates simulated those of Material Testing Reactor fuel elements. Results of measurements were reproducible to within an overall error in the range 1.6 to 3.9%; the specific error depending on the shape, size and mass of the sample. (author)

  2. Characterization of thorium excretion in a region rich in monazite, as subsidy for the analysis of the incorporation in situations of occupational and public exposure; Caracterizacao da excrecao de torio em uma regiao rica em monazita, como subsidio para a analise da incorporacao em situacoes de exposicao ocupacional e de publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliao, Ligia Mendes Quintaes de Castro

    1998-07-01

    The northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro is characterized by the presence of large deposits of monazite sand In this region a monazite sand extraction plant is located, which has been in operation for more than 20 years In order to analyse the background contribution to the internal contamination, 72 inhabitants of this region were monitored through excreta analysis Some people have contributed with more than one sample to our study In the high background radiation area it was possible to detect significant amounts of {sup 232}Th in urine samples suggesting a chronic thorium incorporation In 'normal' background areas, as in the city of Rio da Janeiro, the amount of {sup 232}Th excreted in urine is not significant. The average {sup 252}Th concentration in feces samples from the non exposed population is about one third of the average of {sup 232}Th concentration in feces samples from the workers and twice of the average concentration in feces samples from inhabitants of the city of Rio de Janeiro The results indicate that the thorium intake is influenced by the place of the residence and show how important is to characterize the region where workers live when an occupational control is done. (author)

  3. Study in vitro of dental enamel irradiated with a high power diode laser operating at 960 nm: morphological analysis of post-irradiation dental surface and thermal effect analysis in pulp chamber due to laser application; Estudo in vitro do esmalte dental irradiado com laser de diodo de alta potencia em 960 nm: analise morfologica da superficie dental pos-irradiada e analise do comportamento termico na camara pulpar devido a aplicacao laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto Junior, Jose

    2001-07-01

    Objectives: This study examines the structural and thermal modifications induced in dental enamel under dye assisted diode laser irradiation. The aim of this study is to verify if this laser-assisted treatment is capable to modify the enamel surface by causing fusion of the enamel surface layer. At the same time, the pulpal temperature rise must be kept low enough in order not to cause pulpar necrosis. To achieve this target, it is necessary to determine suitable laser parameters. As is known, fusion of the enamel surface followed by re-solidification produce a more acid resistant layer. This surface treatment is being researched as a new method for caries prevention. Method and Materials: A series of fourteen identically prepared enamel samples of human teeth were irradiated with a high power diode laser operating at 960 nm and using fiber delivery. Prior to irradiation, a fine layer of cromophorous ink was applied to the enamel surface. In the first part of the experiment the best parameter for pulse duration was determined. In the second part of the experimental phase the same energy density was used but with different repetition rates. During irradiation we monitored the temperature rise in the pulpal cavity. The morphology of the treated samples was analysed under SEM. Results: The morphology of the treated samples showed a homogeneously re-solidified enamel layer. The results of the temperature analysis showed a decrease of the pulpal temperature rise with decreasing repetition rate. Conclusion: With the diode laser it is possible to cause morphological alterations of the enamel surface, which is known to increase the enamel resistance against acid attack, and still maintain the temperature rise in the pulpar chamber below damage threshold. (author)

  4. Metodos de analise em programas de seguranca alimentar e nutricional: uma experiencia no Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Carvalho, Alice Teles; de Almeida, Erika Rodrigues; Nilson, Eduardo Augusto Fernandes; Ubarana, Juliana Amorim; Fernandez, Irela Mazar; Immink, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    .... As etapas metodologicas compreenderam a definicao dos programas a serem analisados, dos locais de coleta de dados, do publico participante da pesquisa e dos procedimentos de coleta e analise dos dados...

  5. Neutron activation analysis for determining of inorganic trace elements in by-products of soybean, cotton, corn, wheat, sorghum and rice; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para determinacao de elementos inorganicos em subprodutos da soja, algodao, milho, trigo, sorgo e arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teruya, Carla M.; Armelin, Maria Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva Filho, Jose Cleto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Ciencias Animais; Silva, Aliomar G. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste

    1999-11-01

    In the present paper the instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine some essential and toxic elements in six agroindustrial by-products utilized to feed animal. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 10% and the accuracy near to 5%. (author) 7 refs., 1 tab.

  6. O que seria uma gramatica da enunciação? A proposta de uma analise transversal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir do Nascimento FLORES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta uma proposta de abordagem da enunciação que busca estudar a língua em diferentes níveis da análise linguística. Desenvolve-se o conceito de transversalidade enunciativa cuja característica primordial é descrever o uso linguístico relacionando as unidades dos níveis da análise linguística entre si dentro do mesmo nível e em níveis diferentes.

  7. Analysis of the perception of risk of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro using the risk evaluation system in radiotherapy (SEVRRA / FORUM); Analise da percepcao de risco de servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro usando o sistema de avaliacao de risco em radioterapia (SEVRRA/FORO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    In this work it was possible to analyze the perception of risks associated with existing processes in the high-dose rate brachytherapy and teletherapy using linear accelerators of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, through the combined use of two proposed methods: FMECA and risk matrix, using a general analysis and other more specific ones. The database software (SEVRRA) was used to identify possible existing processes in radiotherapy services (brachytherapy and teletherapy) and to classify the sequence of events in risk levels. The risk levels were analyzed at each stage and sub-stage, present in the treatment of patients undergoing high dose rate gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy and teletherapy treatments with the use of linear accelerators applying electron or photon beams in order to establish recommendations to the risks of highest priority for each case. The results show that although the procedure of high dose rate brachytherapy be automated and less susceptible to errors or failures, daily, one can still find considerable amounts of processes with worrying levels of risk perception. The processes that are more subject to radiological accident risks was associated with procedures, for of which the majority of the failures record and planning step of the treatment. The controls analyzed showed low efficiency, warning of the need to seek and implement new more efficient controls in routine brachytherapy for each participant service. About teletherapy procedure it was found that most of the failures were related to the registration and planning of treatment and equipment stages. The controls analyzed to teletherapy showed a poor result with a first type of analysis performed by suggesting a new type of more appropriate analysis. With a second type of analysis, these controls could be better analyzed and showed an order of importance according to a percentage of efficiency. Controls such as 'Double-check', &apos

  8. Use of the MCNP code for analysis of the attenuation of the radiation produced by radioactive sources used in radiotherapy in skin tumors; Uso do codigo MCNP para analise da atenuacao da radiacao produzida por fontes radioativas utilizadas em radioterapia em tumores de pele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, A., E-mail: ariane.tada@gmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salles, T.; Yoriyaz, H., E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b, E-mail: tasallesc@gmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Fernandes, M.A.R, E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia

    2010-07-01

    The present work had as objective to analyze the distribution profile of a therapeutic dose of radiation produced by radioactive sources used in radiotherapy procedures in superficial lesions on the skin. The experimental measurements for analysis of dosimetric radiation sources were compared with calculations obtained from the computer system based on the Monte Carlo Method. The results obtained by the computations calculations using the code MCNP-4C showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements. A comparison of different treatment modalities allows an indication of more appropriate procedures for each clinical case. (author)

  9. Technical and economical analysis for the implementation of small scale GTL (Gas-to-liquids) technology to monetizing the associated remote offshore stranded natural gas in Brazil; Analise tecnica e economica da aplicacao da tecnologia GTL de pequena escala para a monetizacao do gas natural associado remoto offshore no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo Branco, David Alves

    2008-02-15

    The volume of stranded natural gas global reserves is substantial and represents more than a third of the world's proven natural gas reserves. In Brazil, recent discoveries operated by PETROBRAS, with participation of other companies, show trend of stranded gas reserves incorporation, associated gas or not. This dissertation's main objective is to make a technical and economic analysis of the implementation of small-scale GTL technology for the exploitation of stranded associated natural gas offshore in Brazil. Thus, the dissertation held, initially, a survey of the processes of gasification and the manufacturers with technologies and projects based on these processes, for specific offshore applications. In a second stage, the conditions of the offshore environment were examined. After the confrontation of the technologies available and the operation conditions, a technological alternative has been chosen to be used in an illustrative economic analysis. The results show that GTL offshore option becomes viable at a minimum price of about US $ 40.00 / barrel. Although this value is greater than the robustness price adopted by PETROBRAS, there are prospects for the reduction of GTL technology costs. (author)

  10. Application of the probe Horiba U-23 in the analysis of physical-chemical parameters of groundwater influences on the Osamu Utsumi uranium mine in Caldas-MG; Aplicacao da sonda Horiba U-23 na analise de parametros fisico-quimicos das aguas subterraneas sobre influencia da mina de uranio Osamu Utsumi em Caldas-MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Flavio H.S., E-mail: flaviohsmoreira2@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber L.C.; Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Fleming, Peter Marshall, E-mail: pmf@cnen.gov.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, BH (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents data on the analysis of physical-chemical parameters of groundwater in the uranium mine Osamu Utsumi, belonging to the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, in the municipality of Caldas. This work is part of the team responsible for the evaluation of Plano de Recuperacao de Areas Degradadas (PRAD), team consists of researchers from Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC and of the Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnologico Nuclear - CDTN, units of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN. Sampling was carried out in eleven wells in the 'bota-fora 4' area and digs mine. Analyses of groundwater quality were performed using the multiparameter probe Horiba U23, recent acquisition of LAPOC. The results characterize the groundwater of ten wells monitored as acidic and with a high electrical conductivity, due to the impacts caused by drainage Mining Acid (DAM)

  11. A historical analysis of the evolution of the program efficiency 'Low income households consumers of electrical energy' in the interior of Sao Paulo state; Uma analise historica da evolucao da eficiencia do programa 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica' no interior do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], e-mail: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br; Tavares, Mauricio Lopes [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia], e-mail: mautavar@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An analysis of the criteria used to select the beneficiaries of the federally-funded social program 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica (Low Income Households Consumers of Electrical Energy)' in the State of Sao Paulo is presented. The study is based on statistical data obtained from the database of Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz - CPFL, one of the most important electrical energy distributor in the mentioned region. The concept of 'low income household' is also discussed, based on studies presented by IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica and by FIPE - Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, comparing the expected number of low income households with the actual number of consumers who receive the subsidy. (author)

  12. Analysis of the distribution of government take arising from the oil and gas industry between the government spheres and its impact over the economy of Rio de Janeiro; Analise da reparticao das participacoes governamentais advindas da industria do petroleo entre as esferas de governo e seu impacto sobre a economia do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Juliana Barbosa; Szklo, Alexandre Salem

    2012-07-01

    Royalties and the windfall profits tax derived from petroleum exploration and production in Brazil are government take with huge impacts on the financial health of the state and cities of Rio de Janeiro. Considering the relevance of oil revenue, this study evaluates the significance of the amount transferred between government levels, comparing the current allocation system with international cases. The implemented methodology to reach the result has been the evaluation and data analysis, based on the finances of the state of Rio de Janeiro and the cities that have common borders with the Campos Basin. Furthermore, international cases have been analyzed. Findings indicate that, on one hand, the centralization of the oil revenue at federal level guarantees a better capacity to absorb uncertainties and the variation on the amount received; on the other hand, under a local level, it's possible to identify and better supply the local necessities and scarcities, not to mention, realize a more effective control. In the Brazilian case, this point is even more relevant, as far as debate concerning the distribution of government take cannot be done without considering a broader tax reform, especially in the case of petroleum, which should be associated with the incidence of ICMS on the destination.(author)

  13. Analysis of the pre-rift/rifte transition interval (Serraria and Barra de Itiuba formations) from the Sergipe-Alagoas basin; Analise da secao de transicao pre-rifte/rifte (formacoes Serraria e Barra de Itiuba) da Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, C.B.; Mizusaki, A.M.P. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: camilita@terra.com.br; ana.misuzaki@ufrgs.br; Garcia, A.J.V. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: garcia@euler.unisinos.br

    2003-07-01

    The pre-rift/rift transition is represented by the Serraria and Barra de Itiuba formations. This interval was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative descriptions of cores, electric log analysis and studies of outcropping sections. The integration of surface and subsurface data allowed the stratigraphic characterization of sandstone bodies in the pre-rift/rift. These sandstones bodies were deposited by fluvial braided, lacustrine and deltaic systems (delta plain, delta front and pro delta). The sedimentary deposits characterized in the Serraria Formation are of channel, flooding of the fluvial system and eolic. The upper interval of this formation is characterized by to coarse medium-grained sandstones identified as the Caioba Sandstone. The Barra de Itiuba Formation contains lake, pro delta, frontal bar, distributary mouth, crevasse and distributary channel deposits. The sandstone units were specifically characterized in terms of their potential reservoir quality, and they were characterized the reservoirs R1 (good to medium quality) and Caioba (good quality) from the pre-rift phase, and reservoirs R2 (medium quality) and R3 (medium to good quality) from the rift phase. The reservoirs from pre-rift phase phase show the better reservoirs quality potential of the pre-rift/rift transition in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. (author)

  14. Analysis of the feasibility to integrate the semi-arid family agriculture in the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel: Ceara case, Brazil; Analise da viabilidade para insercao da agricultura familiar do semiarido no Programa Nacional de Producao e Uso de Biodiesel: o caso do Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siniscalchi, Carina Renno

    2010-03-15

    In 2004, it was established the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) which encourages the participation of family farming in the biodiesel production chain, boosting rural development and social inclusion of these workers. From 2008 on, the PNPB decided that it would be mandatory the add 2% of biodiesel into diesel, named B2, and from 2010 on, the obligation of B5 was imposed. However, after two years of mandatory mixing, over 80% of the raw material for biodiesel production comes from large producers of soybeans in the Midwest. Thus, the focus of this study was to identify the main constraints and opportunities for family farming to participate in the program, based on the analysis of design parameters and guiding PNPB and the main stages of the agricultural seeds in the semi-arid. The study focused on Ceara as it is the state that greatly encourages the participation of small farmers through subsidies associated with the adoption of agro-ecological farming practices (author)

  15. Relações entre a analise do discurso e a ciência da história

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiana Nair Pothin Narzetti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available 0 presente trabalho pretende analisar o modo como a Análise do discurso derivada de Michel Pêcheux se relacionava com uma das regiões do conhecimento que estão na sua base — o marxismo ou a ciência da história. 0 nosso ponto de partida é expor o modo como o próprio Pêcheux via essa relação da AD com a referida ciência, no período de elaboração e maturação da disciplina (anos 69 a 75. Para isso, primeiramente, mostramos o sentido amplo que Pêcheux, na linha do grupo althusseriano, atribuía expressão "ciência da história". Mostramos, em seguida, que o projeto pecheutiano de desenvolver a teoria e a análise do discurso se entroncava no projeto althusseriano de desenvolver urna teoria das ideologias. Consideramos a reconstrução do modo como Pêcheux entendia a relação entre a AD e a ciência da história importante, porque a expressão "ciência da história" tem um sentido especial que é freqüentemente ignorado e, por isso, tem conduzido à interpretação apressada que define aAD como uma "disciplina de entremeio", situada entre a ciência da história, a Lingüística e a Psicanálise, interpretação essa que Pêcheux recusava explicitamente.

  16. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    . coli, 53% for organic matter and 14% for ammonia nitrogen. There was an increase of 34% for oxygen and a decrease of 46% in turbidity. The analysis of the technical operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings, held in the AHP-Analytic Hierarchy Process, showed that 65.62% of the water entering the reservoir Billings can be used to generate electricity, while 34.38% this water can be used to supply the 'RMSP'. The feasibility study compared the economic cost of the flotation process with the cost of input of water from other sources and concluded that the cost of the flotation of the waters of the Pinheiros river to serve the supply of the metropolitan region is economically viable. (author)

  17. Louvação a Eunice : um estudo de analise da obras para piano de Eunice Katunda

    OpenAIRE

    Iracele A. Vera Livero de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho tem como principal objetivo realizar uma análise da obra para piano de Eunice Katunda (1915-1990), peças compostas no período de 1946 a 1982. Foi realizado o levantamento das peças, o estudo ao piano, a análise individual, bem como um exame das ferramentas analíticas mais adequadas e pertinentes, conforme características peculiares de cada uma. O estudo de análise investigou as técnicas e os procedimentos da composição, quanto a organização do material utilizado. A fim d...

  18. Analysis of mercury and selenium in biological samples by neutron activation analysis; Analise de mercurio e selenio em materiais biologicos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catharino, Marilia Gabriela Miranda

    2002-07-01

    In the present work, hair samples from populations suspected of contamination by mercury, in the localities of Serra do Navio, Vila Nova and Tartarugalzinho, in the State of Amapa, were analyzed. Hair samples of children under odontopediatric treatment were also analyzed for mercury, in order to study the possibility of transfer of mercury from the dental amalgam and also to obtain data of hair mercury in a control population of children. Another step of the work was the development of a method for the determination of selenium, by using the short-lived radioisotope {sup 77}mSe. After the certification of the method it was applied to the analysis of hair, nails and a vitamin supplement. A comparison was made with the results obtain ed by using the long-lived radioisotope of selenium, {sup 75}Se. The results obtained for mercury in the hair samples of populations living in the State of Amapa have shown that the mercury concentrations in these populations are much higher than in the controls. As for the hair samples of children under treatment with mercury amalgam, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of mercury after the treatment. On the other hand, these data were important to obtain data for a control population of children. The results obtained by using the radioisotope {sup 77}mSe showed that the method developed was suitable for the analyzed matrixes and the results were similar to the ones obtained by employing the usual AANI method, with the radioisotope {sup 75}Se. (author)

  19. ÍNDICES GEOMORFOLÓGICOS APLICADOS A ANALISE MORFOESTRUTURAL DA ZONA DE FALHA DO RIO ALONZO – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivando Vitor Couto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investiga a influência morfoestrutural e morfotectônica no arranjo das drenagens da zona de falha rio Alonzo. Para tanto, utiliza-se, principalmente, de análises de índices geomorfológicos da rede de drenagem. A metodologia aplicada fundamentou-se na integração de dados Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM e nas variáveis morfométricas em ambiente de Sistema de Informação Geográfica SIG. A fim de obter parâmetros de análise de anomalias geomórficas e controles estruturais, a identificação e a vetorização das feições foram pautadas em interpretação visual e pela comparação entre índices morfométricos, tais como: Fator de Simetria Topografia Transversal, Assimetria de Bacias de Drenagens e Índices RDE (Relação Declividade Extensão. O rio Alonzo drena uma área de aproximadamente 2620 km², possui uma extensão de 171 km, desde sua nascente, no município de Ortigueira, até a sua foz, nas proximidades do município de Grandes Rios. As altitudes variam de 1000 m a 380 m, representando uma amplitude de 620 m. O rio encontra-se, em sua maior parte, ajustado às falhas e fraturas, sendo diferenciados dois trechos em ascensão (convexo e em subsidência (côncavo

  20. Thermal history from Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, SP/MG , Brazil and dyke rich margins using apatite fission track analysis; Historia termica do macico alcalino de Pocos de Caldas (SP/MG) e adjacencias atraves da analise de datacao por tracos de fissao em apatitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Ana Olivia Barufi; Godoy, Daniel Francoso de [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias. Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia]. E-mail: aobf@rc.unesp.br; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Ribeiro, Luis Felipe Brandini [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia; Guedes, Sandro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2005-09-15

    The South American Platform in southeastern Brazil records a long history of tectonic magmatic and uplift events, which resulted from the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, Cretaceous reactivation and epirogeneic processes. Specific manifestations include the basic magmatism of the Serra Geral Formation of the Parana Basin and alkaline magmatism of Pocos de Caldas - Cabo Frio Lineament, as well as the uplift of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar mountain ranges. Thermo tectonic and geochronological studies using the K-Ar method and apatite fission track analysis in samples of the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif show an initial evolution beginning 89 Ma related to a tectonic uplift, interpreted as related to the intrusion's doming. This was followed by an important episode of rapid cooling related to the formation of the massif. At the same time, the mountains that surround the massif record heating events in response to the alkaline intrusion, between 70 and 50 Ma. Periods of slow uplift, probably related to the South American Erosion Cycle (between 50 and 30 Ma) and Velhas Erosion Cycle (from 25 Ma), indicate a strong manifestation of denudation in this area. (author)

  1. Balanço comercial numa analise quantitativa Trade balance in quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martus Antonio Rodrigues Tavares

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Tentativa de comprovação da validade do modelo econométrico utilizado por Lemgruber no período 1965-1974. Procedeu-se ao teste do modelo, utilizando-se o período de 1965-1977 a fim de realizar a comprovação pretendida, face a nova conjuntura internacional de elevados preços do petróleo, de desvalorização do dólar frente às moedas de alguns países industrializados e de baixo crescimento da economia mundial, bem como das mudanças na política econômica de comércio exterior do Brasil. Procedeu-se também a um teste de modelo alternativo para melhor aplicação econométrica a conjuntura atual de comércio exterior. Ao final observou-se que os modelos estudados são suficientes para mostrar que a melhora do nosso balanço comercial está sujeita às variáveis externas como, renda mundial, preços de importações e exportações, não se desprezando também a variável interna — taxa de câmbio.Attempt to confirm the validity of the econometric model utilized by Lemgruber for the period 1965-1974. This model was applied to the period 1965-1977, in order to test it in the face of a new set of international crisis, such as the increase of petroleum prices, the devaluation of the dollar in relation to the currencies of other industrial countries, and the low growth-rate of the world economy, as well as in the face of the changes in Brazil's foreign economic policy. An alternative model was also tested for econometric applicability to the actual situation of foreign trade. It was observed, in the end, that the models studied sufficiently demonstrated that the improvement of our balance of trade is subject to such external variables as world income and import-export prices, as well as to the internal variable of exchange rate.

  2. Sustainability analysis in petroleum production facilities; Analise de sustentabilidade em instalacoes de producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Jose Marcos Leite [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Adriano [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The global sustainability aspects are discussed and a method for sustainability analysis in oil and gas production surface facilities is presented. The proposed method requires a multidisciplinary viewpoint and considers social, economic and environmental sustainability aspects during the early design programming and planning phases. Traditionally, Feasibility (Technical and Economical), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and risk (Hazop) analysis are performed separately. On the other hand, the proposed methodology merges economical, environmental and social sustainability analysis; which allows deciding the most globally sustainable scenario. A checklist containing global sustainability aspects (Economical, Social, Environmental, Health, Safety, etc.) and a qualitative analysis of these aspects is suggested. The first step for applying the proposed method consists in checking the aspects and the corresponding suggestions for improving the global sustainability. Secondly, the impact of each aspect on sustainability is verified. Finally, the most important aspects are selected and different scenarios are simulated allowing choosing the most sustainable scenario. The results and conclusions are then presented in a Global Sustainability Report. The proposed analysis was applied to study the sustainability of a small offshore platform design. In this case study, several aspects that could potentially improve sustainability were identified. The simulated scenarios showed that some critical aspects contributed decisively to the global sustainability. These critical aspects are not easily identified if only the traditional economical, environmental and risk analysis are applied. (author)

  3. Automated analysis of pumping tests; Analise automatizada de testes de bombeamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, Luiz Alberto Nozaki

    1996-01-01

    An automated procedure for analysis of pumping test data performed in groundwater wells is described. A computer software was developed to be used under the Windows operational system. The software allows the choice of 3 mathematical models for representing the aquifer behavior, which are: Confined aquifer (Theis model); Leaky aquifer (Hantush model); unconfined aquifer (Boulton model). The analysis of pumping test data using the proper aquifer model, allows for the determination of the model parameters such as transmissivity, storage coefficient, leakage coefficient and delay index. The computer program can be used for the analysis of data obtained from both pumping tests, with one or more pumping rates, and recovery tests. In the multiple rate case, a de superposition procedure has been implemented in order to obtain the equivalent aquifer response for the first flow rate, which is used in obtaining an initial estimate of the model parameters. Such initial estimate is required in the non-linear regression analysis method. The solutions to the partial differential equations describing the aquifer behavior were obtained in Laplace space, followed by numerical inversion of the transformed solution using the Stehfest algorithm. The data analysis procedure is based on a non-linear regression method by matching the field data to the theoretical response of a selected aquifer model, for a given type of test. A least squared regression analysis method was implemented using either Gauss-Newton or Levenberg-Marquardt procedures for minimization of a objective function. The computer software can also be applied to multiple rate test data in order to determine the non-linear well coefficient, allowing for the computation of the well inflow performance curve. (author)

  4. Gas analysis in transformer insulation oil; Analise de gases em oleo isolante de transformador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Paulo Edgard Palma; Scarpati, Iran Bedoni; Castro, Roney Valadares [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work describes the studies, research and the setting up of gas extraction and analysis system for the gases dissolved in transformer insulation oils, using gas chromatography, at the Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (Brazilian siderurgy company) coke plant laboratory 2 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Hydrodynamic analysis of propellers under steady state operation; Analise hidrodinamica de propulsores em regime permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Carlos Antonio Levi da; Troyman, Antonio Carlos Ramos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Oceanica

    1995-07-01

    Surface panel method has been applied to the propeller analysis. For the propeller modeling, the boss and blades surfaces have been discretized in quadrilateral panels with dipoles and sources constant distributions. The surface of the blade wakes have been represented by panels with dipole constant distributions. This discussion focused only the propeller under steady state operation.

  6. Analysis of static concentrator photovoltaic modules on facades; Analise de modulos fotovoltaicos concentradores estaticos em fachadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanesco, Izete; Moehlecke, Adriano; Pereira, Marcia S.; Severo, Tiago C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro Brasileiro para Desenvolvimento da Energia Solar Fotovoltaica - CB-Solar]. E-mail: izete@pucrs.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the optimization and the analysis of a static concentrator photovoltaic module PEC-44D designed for building facade. The linear optical system were designed for the facial solar cells. The acceptance angles {theta}{sub P} and {xi} were optimized, considering a vertical facade (90 degree) inclination angle faced to the north.

  7. Business analysis of generation considering environmental opportunities; Analise de negocios de geracao considerando oportunidades ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrillo, Ivo Ordonha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia; Pelegrini, Marcelo A.; Gemignani, Matheus M.F.

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Business's Power Generation Evaluation Considering Environmental Opportunities' is about developing a methodology to analyze feasibility of new power generation factory from the point of view of the investor, examining the technical, economic-financial, risk, regulatory, social and environmental aspects. The opportunities arising from Kyoto Protocol were added in feasibility's analysis. (author)

  8. Adaptive fuzzy system for analysis of natural circulation; Sistema fuzzy adaptativo para analise de circulacao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Antonio Cesar Ferreira [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-04-01

    This work consists of the analysis of natural circulation in a thermal hydraulics loop to a system of passive cooling of a nuclear reactor. The loop in reduced scale is similar to a passive heat removal system of a Pressurized Water Reactor. Using some experts of the area and of the system simulator, a set of fuzzy rules are defined to represent the problem and the associated uncertainties. The results are satisfactory if compared for example to experimental ones. With this model, inferences can be accomplished by the engineer, for adjustment and control of the problem variables. (author)

  9. Analysis of contrast and absorbed doses in mammography; Analise de contraste e doses absorvidas em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, F.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica]. E-mail: fernando@fmrp.usp.br; Dias, T.S.K. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ghilardi Netto, T.; Subtil, L.J.; Silva, R. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2001-07-01

    One of the great causes of mortality between women in the world is the breast cancer. The mammograms are the method most efficient to detect some cases of cancer of breast before this to be clinically concrete. The quality of a picture system must be determined by the ability to detect tissue soft masses, cyst or tumors, but also calcifications. This detection is directly connected with the contrast obtained in these pictures. This work has for objective to develop a method for the analysis of this contrast in mammograms verifying the doses referred to these mammograms and comparing them with national and international levels of reference. (author)

  10. Thermoeconomic analysis incorporating the concept of ecological efficiency; Analise termoeconomica incorporando o conceito de eficiencia ecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [University of Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Environment Science ], Email: iraides@debas.eel.usp.br; Silveira, J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Energy], Email: joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the pollution resulting from the natural gas combustion for a thermoelectric power plant (230 MW) by utilizing the combined cycle (CC) and recovering kettle, with no burning and with fuel complementary burning. Initially the CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and Particulate Matter emission levels are determined. Later, the thermoelectric power plant environmental impact is evaluated through the utilization of a methodology based on the ecological efficiency ({epsilon}), parameter that integrates in a single coefficient the aspects that define the environmental impact intensity, with basis on the fuel utilized, combustion technology, pollution index and power plant thermodynamic efficiency. The objective is to apply the concept of ecological efficiency in a thermoeconomic analysis method which utilizes function diagram and allows the estimation of the electricity production cost. It is concluded that the use of a system with no complementary burning is better than the one with complementary burning, both from the ecological and the economical points of view. (author)

  11. Measurement analysis using the Fricke dosemeter; Analise de medicoes com o dosimetro Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, G.A.C. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: gcpedrosa@inmetro.gov.br; Dantas, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: ccd@ufpe.br; Campos, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: auster@elogica.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The Fricke dosemeter has been used for absolute determination of the radiation dose between 40 and 350 Gy for X-rays, Gamma rays and fast electrons energies. The great inconvenient of that dosimetric system is the impossibility of using for measurements of exposure or low dose rates. A Fricke dosimetry system was implanted at the Nuclear Sciences Regional Center (CRCN), in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, for the determination of radiation doses for spectrometry and mass dosimetry with plasma source. The statistical analysis of the obtained results have shown that using the spectrometric method that system cna be used for maintenance of factors of CRCN standard calibrations and the dose assessment thru mail system of radiotherapy centers of the country.

  12. Exergy analysis of an integrated steel mill; Analise exergetica de uma usina siderurgica integrada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Angela Mara da Silva; Souza, Angela Menin Teixeira de; Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Andrade, Roberto Marcio de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy performance of an integrated Brazilian steel mill using coke. The emissions evaluation was carried out through a mass balance and the energy performance was analyzed through an exergy balance of the plant. These evaluations allow the identification of the actual potential for the steel mill energy efficiency improvement and its situation regarding to greenhouse gas emission. Furthermore, the analysis results point out the critical processes of energy degradation, which means exergy destruction, and the alternatives to energy improvement or reduction of losses. The carbon flow is also analyzed. Besides its use as a reduction agent in blast furnaces, carbon is an important energy source in steel production. Finally, water consumption is specially focused since it is a huge input for the refrigeration processes in steel mills systems. (author)

  13. Thermal hydrodynamic analysis of a countercurrent gas centrifuge; Analise termo hidrodinamica de uma centrifuga a contracorrente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    1999-07-01

    The influence of the thermal countercurrent on the separative performance of countercurrent centrifuges is treated in this work. The methodology used consists in modeling the gas flow inside the rotor under thermal boundary conditions supplied by the structural thermal model. The gas flow model, also called hydrodynamical model, is based on the Finite Volume Method for cylindrical geometry with azimuthal symmetry. The structural thermal model is based on the Nodal Method and take into account simultaneously, the conduction convection and radiation phenomena. The procedure adopted for this study consisted in the definition of the operational and geometric conditions of a centrifuge which was used as a pattern to the accomplished analysis. This configuration, called 'Standard Centrifuge', was used for the accomplishment of several simulations where the importance of the realistic boundary thermal conditions for the numerical evaluation of the centrifuge separative capacity was evidenced. A selective alteration for the optical properties based on simple engineering procedures was proposed. An improvement of 5% was obtained with this alteration. (author)

  14. Analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines; Analise de integridade e risco para dutos onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Aurelio [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increasing expansion of the oil and gas industry in Brazil, the current legal requirements relating to security, health and environment in the industrial installations, is necessary that the companies, responsible by the operation of pipelines for oil and gas transport, adopt efficient techniques to assure the operational continuity of these of trustworthy form and insurance. To fulfill this important function it is important that the companies implement a management program to control and register the integrity of the pipelines during the all operational life cycle. Inside of this context of management of the integrity of pipelines, the DNV developed the software ORBIT Pipeline with the intention to serve as an important tool to monitor the technique and security condition of the pipeline, to define the frequency and content technician of the inspection program and to recommend the work of intervention or repair in pipeline when necessary. Additionally to these activities that are carried through directly in the ORBIT Pipeline, also an evaluation of the activity of third part and the land/soil movement is made inside of the systematic for analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines performed by DNV. (author)

  15. Analysis of the emergency plan of Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plants: a critical view related to accessibility and mobility of people with special needs; Analise do plano de emergencia da Central Nuclear de Angra dos Reis: uma visao critica com relacao a acessibilidade e mobilidade de pessoas com necessidades especiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Luanda C.A., E-mail: luanda.correa@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Geissa; Souza, Edmilson M., E-mail: edmilsonsouza@uezo.rj.gov.br, E-mail: geissasantosnaval@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual da Zona Oeste (UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work intends to make a critical analysis of the emergency plan of the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plants related to appropriate transportation, accommodation and infrastructure for people with special needs.

  16. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    ciprofloxacina, seguida pelo meropenem. A necessidade de um mecanismo efetivo para reduzir a contaminação bacteriana dentro dos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos foi enfatizada, e o risco da exposição ocupacional e infecção cruzada na prática odontológica, em especial quando causada por patógenos oportunistas como a P. aeruginosa foi realçado.

  17. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  18. Trabalho e subjetividade no contexto hospitalar: análise institucional do discurso produzido em grupo com profissionais de enfermagem da pediatria

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo realizar uma analise institucional do discurso produzido em grupo por profissionais da equipe de enfermagem da Clinica Pediatrica de um hospital escola da rede publica de saude da cidade de Sao Paulo. Nossa analise foca a relacao que este profissional estabelece com o trabalho a partir do referencial metodologico conceitual da Analise Institucional do Discurso desenvolvido por Guirado (2010). Como produto desse estudo demonstramos que a relacao construida...

  19. Proposal for the optimization of the procedures for the analysis, assessment and follow-up of energy efficiency at the Manaus Energia S/A enterprise environment; Proposta de otimizacao dos procedimentos para analise, avaliacao e acompanhamento de projetos de eficiencia energetica no ambito da empresa Manaus Energia S/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Benjamim Cordeiro [Manaus Energia S/A., AM (Brazil). Programa de Eficiencia Energetica e Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2006-07-01

    The present article has for objective, to present a proposal to optimize the procedures for analysis and evaluation of projects that composes the annual Program of Energy Efficiency of Manaus Energia S/A, assisting to criteria of market prices, sustainability and return for the company. (author)

  20. The importance of Real Options Theory in the analysis of investment: what is the added value to a GTL (Gas to Liquid) plant considering managerial flexibility; Qual o valor agregado a uma planta 'Gas to Liquid' considerando-se a flexibilidade gerencial: a importancia da teoria das opcoes reais na analise de investimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Marcela Lobo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this article is to do an investment analysis applying Real Options Theory in the plant Gas to Liquid (GTL). This analysis is the most indicated, because there are several flexibilities in this plant, related to the inputs (many products can be applied) as well the outputs (there are many possible combinations to use). In order to make the analysis as close as possible of reality and the most accurate it became fundamental to calculate the value that those flexibilities add to final value of the plant. It is going to be calculated the value of switch use of inputs (possibility to each semester to choose different resources) and the value of switch use of outputs (the possibility of the plant to produce more than one combination of outputs). Although in order to be feasible the implementation of the real option of switch use it is necessary to know if the added value is bigger or lesser from the cost of implementation. In the research it is achieve the conclusion that the value of switch use of inputs is lower than the cost of its implementation. (author)

  1. Gastrointestinal transit after transverse colostomy: study of solid radiopaque markers progression and others clinical and radiological events - analysis of 20 cases; Transito gastrintestinal apos fechamento de transversostomia: estudo atraves da progressao de marcadores solidos radiopacos e de outros eventos clinicos e radiologicos - analise de 20 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Claudio Roberto

    1988-07-01

    The gastrointestinal transit was studied in 20 patients with loop transverse colostomies and previously normal colons. This analysis was performed through radiological observation of progression of 20 radiopaque pellets and measurements of its transit time in the various segments of the digestive tract. An evaluation of other related clinical and radiological events was carried out sentimentality's. In order to better understand the influence of the surgical procedure, the study was performed under similar dietary and supportive care conditions and standard radiological studies before and after the re-establishment of transit, thus enabling a comparison with the same individual. (author)

  2. Analise dinamica da tendencia para o equilibrio num modelo simples a Segunda Lei de Newton e a Segunda Lei da Termodinamica

    CERN Document Server

    De Abreu, R

    2002-01-01

    We relate Newton's Second Law with the Second Law of Thermodynamics through the analysis of a simple model introducing a dynamic pressure concept. From this analyses we can clarify some conceptual problems resulting from several concepts of heat and work on the First Law of Thermodynamics.

  3. A comparative analysis of reliability, maintainability and availability for two alternatives of the production submarine systems: ANM and submarine ducts versus BOP and a subsea well testing tree; Analise comparativa da confiabilidade, mantenabilidade e disponibilidade para duas alternativas de sistemas submarino de producao: ANM e dutos submarinos versus BOP e arvore submarina de teste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Arlindo Antonio de; Polillo Filho, Adolfo; Santos, Otto Luiz Alcantara [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This technical article presents a study using the concepts of the Engineering of the Reliability and Risk Analysis with the objective of doing a comparative evaluation of the reliability of two alternative production systems for a marine well: one composed by a wet christmas tree (ANM) producing through underwater ducts (flow lines) and other, usually used in tests of long duration, using a subsea BOP and a subsea well testing tree (AST). The central point of the work was the evaluation of the probability of happening an event considered as critic, denominated 'critical flaw', during the well production life. The work uses one of the procedures and methodologies adopted in the Well Construction Engineering, GERISK, together with four computer applications for data treatment, generation of flaw distribution curves and times of repair, modelling and Monte Carlo simulations. The adopted strategy was the one of starting from the existent report, to assume an interval for the possible real value of the relevant parameters and then to establish the scenarios (more probable, optimist and pessimist). Based on those sceneries, the considered premises, the modelling and the reliabilities obtained for each one of the variables, the simulations have been made. As results, are presented the medium readiness, MTTFF (Mean Time To First Failure), the number of flaws and the expected costs. The work also displays the sensibility analysis in respect to the time of production of the well. (author)

  4. Analysis of the legal aspects in public tender electronic made by PETROBRAS through the system Petronect under Decree no. 2.745/98; Analise da juridicidade das licitacoes eletronicas feitas pela PETROBRAS atraves do sistema Petronect nos termos do decreto 2.745/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestes, Madelon Rocha Ribeiro [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A. (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work examines the question of possible of use an electronic tool through internet, the Petronect, to facilitate the completion of procedures to carry through licitations for the PETROBRAS Group that is being debated in diverse instances in the Brazilian present time. This analysis should take into account the existing law on licitations, the constitutionality of Decree 2.745/98, as well as economic facts. Due to the understanding of TCU - expressed on several occasions - in the sense that PETROBRAS would be required to use the Law 8.666/93 in its bids, is being challenged the constitutionality of Decree 2.745/98 and their use for licitations procedures. They will be examined the conceptual and legal aspects of the decree, and the relationship and the importance of the function for the Group Purchases damage. Thus, the analysis will cover the new issues raised by EC 19/98, the constitutionality of the decree, the position of the Court of Auditors of the Union and the Federal Supreme Court (STF) and the legislation published on this subject. The existing conclusion in this work shows how right - under the optical legal and constitutional - the use of the portal Petronect to carry out the licitations of PETROBRAS under Decree 2.745/98 and non-use of Law 8.666/93, for this is not appropriate to the specific activity of company. (author)

  5. Legal and institutional aspects of the Public Auction 038/08 to approve changes in the authorizations of small hydroelectric power plant: absence of risk analysis; Aspectos legais e institucionais da audiencia publica 038/08 para aprovar mudancas na autorizacao de PCHS: a analise de riscos que faltou fazer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugnaloni, Ivo Augusto de Abreu [Enercons Consultoria em Energia Ltda, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: ivo@enercons.com.br

    2011-07-15

    The National Regulation Agency of Electrical Energy of Brazil, ANEEL, submitted to the Public Auction 038/08, a new project of regulation destined to turn easier the authorization of small hydropower stations, without mention to the risks that the new criteria could bring, moreover to the environment. This work does an analysis about this risks to the investors, to the riverside communities, and the society. With information from the site www.aneel.gov.br the work shows the important difficulties that ANEEL has, in terms of personal quantities, to approve projects and accomplish the supervising of construction activities. The work concludes that this is the true cause of the actual retard in the project and conclusion of the plants and that the new rules contain many and important risks. And more, that if the actual ANEEL difficulties still being, they have the capacity to turn Brazil more dependant of natural gas to supply its necessities of electric energy. (author)

  6. Thermal analysis and sintering process of KSr{sub 2}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 15} ceramic doped with CuO; Analises termicas e processo de sinterizacao da ceramica KSr{sub 2}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 15} dopada com CuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Delia do Carmo; Cardoso, Celso Xavier [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia], e-mail: dcvieira@fct.unesp.br; Duran, Rafael Matos [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica

    2009-07-01

    KSr{sub 2}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 15} is a ferroelectric material. The sintering process of the KSr{sub 2}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 15} ceramic doped with different amounts of CuO was investigated in this research. It was found that CuO is effective as promoter of the densification process of the KSN ceramic. The developed microstructures were different due to the amount of CuO and secondary phases were observed in the microstructures. However, the results of X - ray diffraction showed that only the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure was identified in all the investigated ceramic systems. The thermal behavior of CuO and also of the CuO - KSN phase mixture was investigated by thermal analysis. (author)

  7. Evaluation of essential trace elements in preterm and full term milk and childhood formulas by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao dos teores de elementos essenciais no leite materno de maes de recem-nascidos prematuros e a termo e em formulas infantis por meio da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paola de Souza

    2009-07-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need of trace elements during infancy and their adequate availability in human milk. Deficiency of minor and trace elements can lead to various disorders in infants. During early childhood trace element requirements, are more critical due to faster growth rates. In this study, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in human colostrum samples from mothers of preterm and full-term newborns. Samples were collected by manual expression from the first to the fifth day after birth. After collection, human colostrum samples were frozen and freeze-dried for analyses. Few of the most commonly commercialized were also analyzed. The essential element concentrations were determined in 30 colostrum samples and 17 milk formula brands by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Multivariate analyses were applied and the results were separated in two clusters. However the separation was not related to the corresponding gestational age. Results of this study showed that the concentration levels of the essential element Ca, K and Na in the milk formula samples analyzed were in agreement with the printed information on the labels. All concentration levels were also within ANVISA and Codex Allimentarius recommended values and thus adequate for infant nutritional needs. (author)

  8. Study of the optical densitometry measurement for analysis of osseous and renal scintigraphies with MDP-{sup 99m} Tc and DMSA-{sup 99m} Tc; Estudo da medida densitometrica optica para analise de cintilografias osseas e renais obtidas com MDP-{sup 99m} Tc e DMSA-{sup 99m} Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria Clara Carvalho da

    2001-07-01

    The optical densitometry can be used as a technique for radiographic images measurement to determine the radiopharmaceutical uptake or reception by human organs. In this paper were studied optical densitometry measurements using about 600 osseous scintigraphies produced with MDP-{sup 99m}Tc in eighteen parts of the human skeleton from 170 healthy and sick people and also in 56 renal scintigraphies produce with DMSA-{sup 99m}Tc in the same number of people both healthy and sick that performed this second examination type. The results showed that for the skeleton, the optical densitometry can give a correct analysis of the person pathological areas and, if it will be automated, through microcomputer it can become a useful instrument to perform diagnoses with smaller probability of mistakes than the visual traditional method performed by the physician, turning the most effective individual treatment. For the kidney, the optical densitometry can visualize the relative renal function showing the uptake percentage of the radiopharmaceutical by the organ, but it is not capable to supply a complete diagnosis. (author)

  9. The ANEEL and the PL 3.337/2004; analysis of the management, organization and social control of the regulator agencies under the legal optics; A ANEEL e o PL 3.337/2004: uma analise da gestao, organizacao e controle social das agencias reguladoras sob o prisma juridico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Hirdan Katarina de Medeiros; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mails: hirdanmedeiros@iee.usp.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    Since 1990 movement of opening economic sectors and public services long ago explored only the State in Brazil, what it parallel caused the institution of agencies with the target to oversee and to regulate definitive sector affection to the utility public. Ahead of this context, the agency process was attended to it, with looks it to monitor, to regulate and to oversee the activities of steady the incoming actors and already in these markets by means of specific and various laws. Thus, justifying the importance of the existence of a General Law of the Regulating Agencies, the Legislative Bill meets in the National Congress no. 3.337/04. Therefore, the present work, by means of bibliographical research and analysis the Bill in question, it intended to approach the points most controversial raised by studious of the Brazilian right in relation to the impact of the these changes proposals in the structure of the National Agency of Electric Energy. In this direction, the main focus was the contract of management, the interaction between the agencies and the institutions of free market defense, the agencies of control and the public hearings and consultations. (author)

  10. Viability analysis of electric energy cogeneration in combined cycle with sugar-cane biomass gasification and natural gas; Analise de viabilidade da cogeracao de energia eletrica em ciclo combinado com gaseificacao de biomassa de cana-de-acucar e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Neto, Vicente

    2001-03-15

    The objective of this thesis is evaluate the technical and economic viability of electric energy generation projects using as fuel the biomass produced in the sugar cane Brazilian industry, specifically the cane trash, the straw and the leaves of the plant, as complemental option to the expansion of the Brazilian electric system, hour in phase of deep modification in the institutional scenery, through the sale of electric energy for direct consumers or utilities, characterizing the business possibilities for the ethanol distilleries already integrated into the energy reality of the country. The analyzed technology is thermoelectric generation with combined cycle, operating in cogeneration, integrated to biomass gasification systems for the production of combustible gas, with and without addition of natural gas. The considered technology is known by the acronym BIG/GTCC, originated in Biomass Integrate Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Turbine. The economic analysis is made herself through a modeling and construction of economy project curves based on the prices of the electric energy, of the natural gas and in the costs of the retired biomass in an mechanized way.(author)

  11. Technical application of current analysis to detect broken bars in three-phase induction motors at ArcelorMittal Tubarao; A aplicacao da tecnica de analise de corrente para deteccao de barras quebradas nos motores e inducao trifasicos na ArcelorMittal Tubarao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Harison Araujo; Rocha, Rogerio Hubner; Oliveira Filho, Jessui de; Spinasse, Amarildo; Calente, Aderaldo [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao de Gusa e Energia

    2009-11-01

    Most modern machinery operates from three-phase induction motors that, in time, can develop faults. These faults can cause the machine to stop working or decrease its efficiency level in the productive process. When a motor suffers a fault it generates indication of defects in several ways: changing in vibrating signals, temperature variations, noises, and electromagnetic field alteration. Known as motor current signature analysis, this technique allows fault detection with mechanical and electrical origin in squirrel-cage three-phase induction motors. This technique is used within ArcelorMittal Tubarao to analyze and follow the motor's rotor broken bar tendency. At ArcelorMittal Tubarao, 450 motors are monitored, at 13200, 3300 and 440V and with power rating exceeding 55 KW. This paper will show the results of applying this technique during the last 2 years, as well as the several types of broken bars detected, fault characteristics, the type of load it operates in each fault encountered, and the fault range caused in the productive process. (author)

  12. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for determining As, Br, K, La, Mn, Na and Sm in samples of pine wood; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental para determinacao de As, Br, K, La, Mn, Na e Sm em amostras de madeiras de Pinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helder de; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sarries, Gabriel Adrian [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    1999-11-01

    Multi-elementary and considered non destructive, the neutron activation analysis is a technique that allows simultaneous and instrumental determination of several elements, becoming especially useful when it is fundamental the knowledge of the total chemical composition, as in the certification of reference materials, application in geochemistry, analyses of aerosols, determination of origin of materials, forensic analyzes and of environmental pollution. However, the dependence of reactors, or other neutrons sources, the generation of radioactive material and the time waiting needed for some determinations are the main barriers pointed int he application of that technique. The present work aimed at establishing the best conditions for the detection of elements of short half-life Br, K, La, Mn, Na and Sm in samples of wood of Pinus, because the reactor used is located distant of the laboratory where the measures of the induced radioactivity are made, to determine trace elements that possess half-lives smaller than two days. For such, suitable equations, using the Surface of Response technique in the SAS software, to minimize the uncertainties of detection of the photopeak function of the elementary concentration and as a decay time.(author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Preliminary analysis of the regolithic clay covers from the region of Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate its use in the traditional ceramic industry; Analise preliminar das coberturas regoliticas argilosas da regiao de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, visando sua utilizacao na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Varajao, A.F.D.C. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia; Moreno, M.M.T. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2009-07-01

    The region of Alfenas, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is predominantly constituted of Pre-Cambrian rocks with well developed alteration profiles in association with colluvial and alluvial sediments. No study to date has examined in detail its potential use in the ceramic industry. The scarce knowledge of its mineralogical and technological properties limits its value and consequently its industrial use. Until now, these clay materials have been used in a rudimental manner, in small scale in the fabrication of red tiles. The present study aimed at analyzing these clays mineralogically (X-ray diffraction), chemically (major and minor elements by X-ray fluorescence and organic carbon analysis) and technologically (pressing granulometric distribution; mechanical resistance; water absorption, apparent porosity; linear firing shrinkage; color of firing and others) in order to better understand the raw material and develop adequate technological applications. The best results of ceramic properties were the samples with higher organic content (more plastic clays) and higher values of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (kaolinite and gibbsite) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well lower SiO{sub 2} content and finer grain size which contribute to a better sintering. (author)

  14. Analysis of technologies for natural gas transportation in Brazil: results comparison of the application of payback and NPV (Net Present Value) methods; Analise de tecnologias de transporte de gas natural no Brasil: comparacao dos resultados da aplicacao dos metodos 'payback' e VPL (Valor Presente Liquido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioco, Juliana Souza; Santarem, Clarissa Andrade [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    The increased demand for natural gas leads to global integration of markets, leading to decisions that cover the various technologies of transportation, noting the specific locations. The transport of natural gas considered more traditional (Liquefied Natural Gas and Pipeline) often unviable economically areas of operation due to cost. In this case, there are alternative technologies to reduce those costs. The article is to compare the technologies of transport, using the methodology of the Net Present Value (VPL) to identify one that has more positive VPL, which is the most profitable. Thus, in search of validate the results of SUBERO et al. (2004) for gas transport by Pipelines, Liquefied Natural Gas and Compressed Natural Gas. In addition, they are compared these results with the method of VPL and with the economic analysis presented in using the payback period of CHANG (2001) and SANTAREM et al. (2007). It was found that the results obtained in Brazil were identical to those obtained by CHANG (2001) and SUBERO et al. (2007), saving only some differences in magnitude due to the specific characteristics of the Brazilian economy. In other words, for the Brazilian case, the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was the most economically viable with the method of VPL, followed by technology, Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), regardless of the interest rates of 10% and 6.5% and periods of 20 and 30 years. The contribution of this work is to show that despite of the method, payback or VPL, the various alternatives for transporting natural gas to Brazil have the same ranking and economic viability. (author)

  15. Development of a methodology and software for analysis of energy and economic feasibility of introducing natural gas facilities in residential an commercial sector; Desenvolvimento de metodologia e de software para analise de viabilidade energetica e economica da introducao de instalacoes para gas natural no setor residencial e comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Marcos Fabio de; Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Energia e Gas; Santos, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). RedeGasEnergia

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing participation of the natural gas in the world-wide and national energy matrix, beyond the constant search for an alternative source of energy that has an acceptable behavior of the ambient point of view, they become each time more necessary studies to make possible the expansion of the use of this fuel in the diverse energy sectors, such as: Industrial, advertising, residential, to propagate, among others; Of these sectors, the residential one is what more it needs innovations and/or technological adaptations to exert a massive participation in the demand of the natural gas. This work has as objective to establish a methodology adjusted for analysis of the energy and economic viability of the introduction of installations for natural gas in the residential and commercial sector, as well as the implementation of a software that will more facilitate to the taking of decisions of this the confection of the plant low of the enterprise until the choice of the adjusted material for the installation of the tubing, besides showing to the viability technique - economic of the use of the natural gas for supplying all even though the energy necessities of this construction or of its joint participation with the electric energy or with the GLP. The methodology will mainly have support in first and the second law of the thermodynamics, beyond the norms Brazilian techniques that conduct this sector of the civil construction, taking in consideration the fixed and changeable costs of the energy construction of the construction and the involved ones. One expects, on the basis of the literature, that the introduction of installations for natural gas in the residential and commercial sector presents viability economic technique and, increasing with this the demand of this fuel and consequently its participation in the national energy matrix. (author)

  16. Analysis of the electric heating conventional system replacement by the solar heating in day-care centers at Poco de Caldas - MG; Analise da substituicao de sistema convencional de aquecimento eletrico por aquecimento solar em creches em Pocos de Caldas -MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Carlos Tadeu [Escola Tecnica Limassis, Delfim Moreira, MG (Brazil); Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Located in the South of Minas Gerais, average altitude of 1186 m and population about 170.000 inhabitants Pocos de Caldas is one of the most developed tourist cities of Minas Gerais. Beyond this quality, that makes it one of the best cities in quality of life in Brazil, measured for the HDI, the city presents an enviable educational polar region comparing to cities of the south region. With 91 institutions of education, from children's education to superior education, Pocos de Caldas has more than 49,000 students today. From this scholar population, 1870 pupils represent the children's education in particular or municipal day-care centers, called CEI. Pocos de Caldas has its own generation of energy through the Municipal Department of Electricity, DME. The energy production today arrives the house of 58 MW reaching 100% of the population in 2005. The analysis of the substitution of conventional system of electric heating for solar heating in day-care centers has left of an unknown project, with the objective to minimize the consumption of energy unfastened during the children's baths who stay at CEI. In this context, this work presents a study carried through this project, after the implantation of the related system in four of the eleven day-care centers that the initial project composes. The data had been collected in the DME and the City department of Education. The pathological manifestations in the points of water consumption of the related day-care centers as well as the state of conservation of the systems of implanted solar heating had been investigated also. (author)

  17. Study of mineral and essential trace elements in milk and dairy products by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and neutron activation analysis; Estudo da composicao mineral e dos elementos-traco essenciais em amostras de leite e produtos lacteos por espectrometria de emissao atomica com plasma induzido e analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia

    2002-07-01

    The importance of food composition related to nutritional and toxicological contents has been emphasized in recent years. Some chemical elements are needed for cell metabolism, while excess or deficiency may be responsible for disorders. Milk is considered the most important food during the first months of life, nutritional needs of children being satisfied by milk and dairy products. These foods provide the main trace elements for the good growth of different tissues as well as the functioning of several enzymatic systems. Important deficiencies in mineral during this period can interfere with children's development. Determination of mineral and trace elements by using spectroscopic techniques generally involves a pretreatment of sample. Sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because of the long preparation time and the possibilities for contamination and losses of the analyte associated with this step. Different procedures of sample preparation (dry ashing digestion, wet digestion using an open focused microwave and a hot plate) were evaluated for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk and dairy products by the ICP OES technique. In this work the concentrations obtained for the elements determined by the ICP OES technique after using the different treatments of sample were compared to the results obtained by the INAA technique, that does not require dissolution of sample. The partial digestion with diluted hydrochloric acid was found to be suitable for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk samples and dairy products. (author)

  18. Application of the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) for established of energy efficiency standards: refrigerators sold in Brazil; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise do custo do ciclo de vida (ACCV) para o estabelicimento de padroes de eficiencia energetica: refrigeradores comercializados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Herculano Xavier da; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Guilherme de Castilho [Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagens (CETEA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the work in the thesis developed by Silva Jr. (2005) who discusses the application of the methodologies of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) as a tool to propose energy efficiency standards, additional to the voluntary labels already existing in the one-door Brazilian refrigerators. Another objective is to study the role of these instruments (energy efficiency labels and standards and environmental labels) as means to supply technical subsidies for the establishment of maximum level of electric energy consumption and environmental quality impact for electrical equipment in Brazil. The LCCA methodology allows to evaluate the impacts of the energy efficiency increasing in electrical equipment, resulting in important saving (energy, financial, carbon dioxide emissions avoided etc.) for the country and its citizens. The results reached in this studies offer important data to subsidize deep discussions with manufacturers and the government to stipulate minimum energy efficiency standards for the Brazilian refrigerators. Thus, with increase of 28,1% on the energy efficiency of the one-door Brazilian refrigerators in 2008 to reach a values of savings that can be in order of 54,63 TWh (with respective reduction of demand power of 208 MW), of US$ 6,23 Billions of Dollar (R$ 17,2 Billions of Reais) of reduction in the account of electric energy for the population and of approximately 22 billions of tons of CO{sub 2} not emitted on the environment after 30 years of the implantation of standard. These values, that can not be despised by government, manufacturers and consumers. One other interest of this work is to start the discussion, the possibility of the creation of environmental labelling (e.g., Green Seal - USA, Eco-label - EU etc.) that is an additional program/methodology, which, it may be utilized as support for development of technologies and for the increase of energy and environmental efficiency of the electric equipment. These

  19. Uma analise critica sobre “Vida de Empreguete” e a inserção da mulher no mercado de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Lins Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo do trabalho é analisar a inserção da mulher no mercado de trabalho e entender como isso se relaciona com as estruturas simbólicas da sociedade acerca do sexo feminino e suas consequências. Isso é relevante em face da tripla jornada de trabalho, níveis de stress e problemas de saúde que o sexo feminino passa a vivenciar em decorrência dessa conquista jurídica, logo se percebe a necessidade de políticas públicas que permitam as mulheres exerçam seus direitos sem prejudicar a sua saúde e viabilizem sua inserção e reconhecimento social. Assim para essa análise se utilizará da música Vida de Empreguete, para demonstrar que a conquistas sociais podem representar uma inversão social e não um reconhecimento, logo galgar posições não significa mudança de identidades sobre o sujeito. Para isso se recorrerá a vertente jurídico-sociologica, mediante levantamento bibliográfico e estatístico sobre a relação empregatícia da mulher e se terá como marco teórico o simbolismo de Pierre de Bourdieu para demonstrar as relações simbólicas e consequentemente o preconceito implícito ainda no mercado de trabalho feminino. Palavra-chave: Direitos da mulher, identidade de gênero, feminismo e preconceito   Abstract: The objective is to analyze the integration of women into the labor market and understand how it relates to the symbolic structures of society about women and their consequences. This is relevant in the face of triple workload, stress levels and health problems that the female starts to experience as a result of this achievement legal, one soon realizes the need for public policies that enable women to exercise their rights without undermining their health and make possible their integration and social recognition. So for this analysis is the use of music Vida de Empreguete, to show that the social achievements may represent a reversal and not a social recognition, not just climb positions, changing

  20. Effect of economic indicators and uncertainties on the selection of a production strategy; Analise da influencia de indicadores economicos e incertezas na escolha da estrategia de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Fabio Rodrigues; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Suslick, Saul B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2004-07-01

    The decision of a firm to make investments on petroleum fields depends on the expected economic performance and on the firm economics context and on country economic and regulatory constraints. Traditionally, the Net Present Value (NPV) has being used for decision criterion as a measure of profitability of investments. The other indicators are used to help investment decision, because, according to the priorities established by the firm, only one indicator may not be sufficient. On this paper we will show production strategies considering a set of economic indicators: NPV, actualized Np, Return on investment (ROI), Equivalent Present Value (EPV), Cost Benefit, and NPV/Np ratio. The use of different economic indicators permits capture different aspects from in a decision process, i.e., each indicator or a set of economic measures may result in a different perspective, that will influence the decision manager. It is important to emphasize the use of more than one indicators may been advantageous, mainly on oil reservoirs that present high level of uncertainties. The presented application is related to the choice of the production strategy of a petroleum field. The indicators are used to evaluate the performance of the field and of the production and injection wells. A sensitivity analysis was performed in order to show the use of indicators on uncertain scenarios (oil prices, taxes, etc). The results show that the use of various indicators proportionate a decision taking with a lesser risk, as well as makes possible to capture other project characteristics which not always can be represented by the traditional use of NPV. (author)

  1. 0 Dizer-Verdadeiro: Analise Narrativa de"Desenredo.:conto de Guimaraes Rosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Luz Pessoa de Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Retoma-se, neste artigo, um exercicio de analise narrative do conto Desenredo l , de Guimaraas Rosa, realizado com a finalidade didatica de ilustrar, em s.ale de aula, passes, possibilidades e interesse do exame da organizacao narrative de textos da "grande literatura". A analise obedece aos principios da teoria semiotics do discurso, tal coma vem sendo desenvolvida pelo Grupo de Investigações Sêmio-Lingüísticas, sob a direç]aoo de A.J. Greimas. Da teoria, serão retomados aqui apenas dois principios gerais: o de percurso gerativo do sentido, necessário para situar o nível de análise da narrativa, e a definçãoo mesma da narratividade.

  2. Analise funcional das traduccións en linguas en proceso de normalización: o caso da traducción do comic en galego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinner, Carsten

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the case of the Galician language, the translation of comics is quite important, because it contributes to the normalization of use of the Galician language and allows young readers to become familiar with the norm. The article focusses on an analysis of the Galician translation with the French original and a Spanish version of the text.

    [gl] A traducción de comics, no caso do galego xoga un papel moi importante xa que o seu obxectivo é sobre todo normalizar o uso da lingua galega ñas xeracións novas e familiariza-la xuventude coa norma. A contribución pretende unha análise ben polo miúdo dunha traducción galega de Asterix comparándoa co orixinal francés e coa traducción española.

  3. Avaliação dos resultados do programa de analise da qualidade de produtos do Instituto Nacional de Metrologia e Qualidade Industrial - INMETRO

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Cilene Tabai

    2001-01-01

    A realidade da política atual de controle de alimentos no País tem sido pouco estudada. Sendo assim, analisou-se o Programa de Análise da Qualidade de Produtos - PAQP, desenvolvido pelo Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial - INMETRO. Os objetivos deste estudo foram de caracterizar o programa, verificar sua influência nos órgãos governamentais fiscalizadores, analisar seu efeito para as empresas de alimentos e avaliar sua repercussão para os consumidores da cid...

  4. The production chain analysis of the Brazilian petroleum industry; Analise da cadeia produtiva da industria petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Ana Amelia Magalhaes Gomes; Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: mmartini@nitnet.com.br; adelaide@eq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    The production chain of the oil industry encompasses production systems that operate within different ecosystems. The industry can be split into exploration, production, transportation, refining and distribution, and its importance derives from the influence it has on the nation.s economy. The aim of this study is to provide a holistic view of the different links in the oil production chain, using bibliometric indicators for technological innovation. The methodology employed to analyze the production chain took as its starting point a study of demand, i.e. a characterization of the consumers and identification of the needs and expectations of this consumer market with respect to the products supplied by the different segments of the country.s oil industry. The data was first collected through bibliographical research and a search of specialized databases on the oil production chain in Brazil and worldwide, after which it was analyzed. The result was an identification of the critical competitive factors in the chain, and a tool to assist in the management of the oil industry, to improve its competitiveness and support public and private policy-making. This article is part of a broader study, which will constitute a doctoral thesis. (author)

  5. Analise granulometrica da textura de nucleos celulares : elaboração de ferramentas computacionais e aplicação em modelos biologicos

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Luis Adam

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: A textura da cromatina de núcleos de células é tratada com especial atenção pelo patologista, pois pode refletir alterações metabólicas, atividade proliferativa, estado nutricional e a especialização da célula. Este trabalho propõe aprofundar o estudo da textura das imagens da cromatina de núcleos de células utilizando características granulométricas. levantando na literatura os diferentes métodos de extração de resíduos. Três grupos de métodos granulométricos foram implementados, a s...

  6. Historico, usos oficiais e avaliação da redução de escala de analise volumetrica para fins didaticos

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Terra

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Os métodos ditos clássicos representaram um papel fundamental no desenvolvimento da Química. Durante os séculos XVIII e XIX eram praticamente os únicos processos usados nas análises químicas e hoje, mesmo com o desenvolvimento tecnológico, têm sua presença constante. Depois de realizada uma extensa pesquisa bibliográfica, apresenta-se uma descrição do desenvolvimento da volumetria que permite contextualizar importantes aspectos científicos de relevância para abordagens didáticas de di...

  7. ANALISE E ADEQUAÇÃO DA PRÁTICA DOCENTE DE FÍSICA EXPERIMENTAL NA REGIÃO DO MATO GRANDE

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Pablo Nascimento da Silva; Aldivan Soares Barbosa; José Evangelista Filho; Jacques Cousteau da Silva Borges

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho realiza uma análise inicial a cerca da formação e da pratica docente na região do Mato Grande, Interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, onde recentemente se instalou um campus do Instituto Federal de educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte – IFRN. Dessa forma, buscou-se conhecer a realidade do ensino de Física nessa região, em especial a abordagem experimental, bem como a formação dos professores nesse campo especifico e diante dessa realidade, propor melhor...

  8. Avaliação dos resultados do programa de analise da qualidade de produtos do Instituto Nacional de Metrologia e Qualidade Industrial - INMETRO

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Cilene Tabai

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: A realidade da política atual de controle de alimentos no País tem sido pouco estudada. Sendo assim, analisou-se o Programa de Análise da Qualidade de Produtos - PAQP, desenvolvido pelo Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial - INMETRO. Os objetivos deste estudo foram de caracterizar o programa, verificar sua influência nos órgãos governamentais fiscalizadores, analisar seu efeito para as empresas de alimentos e avaliar sua repercussão para os consumidore...

  9. Analise comparativa da organização e metodologia da seleção clonal da videira na frança e Brasil Clone selection methods for grapevine in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A origem policlonal da videira, associando-se sua sensibilidade à ocorrência de mutações somáticas espontâneas, faz com que exista uma grande variabilidade genética no interior de uma mesma cultivar dessa espécie, permitindo, por meio da seleção clonal, a obtenção de descendências que atendam aos objetivos específicos de produção, como produtividade e qualidade. Em razão da ocorrência generalizada de viroses na maioria dos vinhedos, a seleção clonal da videira é obrigatoriamente genética e sanitária, devendo obedecer a um certo número de etapas para que os clones selecionados possam atender aos requisitos qualitativos desejados. Na França, o programa de seleção clonal da videira data dos anos 60, e já permitiu a obtenção de centenas de clones de cultivares porta-enxerto e cultivares de vinho e mesa. Com este trabalho objetivou-se ilustrar as diferentes etapas e organização da seleção clonal da videira na França.The polyclone origin of grapevine has been associated with the high occurrence of somatic mutations. Most part of these mutations are spontaneous and are responsible for most of the genetic variability inside a variety of this species. The large genetic variability found in grapevine has allowed grape breeders to obtain new varieties with better agronomic traits only by clone selection. However, due to the virus occurrence, the clone selection has been used also to eliminate plant pathogens, as a routine procedure. The selection process of plants without virus follows a severe set of rules where several steps are developed before the new clone is obtained. The program of clone selection in France, has been developed since the 60's decade and has been responsible for the creation of hundreds of varieties of rootstocks, table grapes and wine grapes. This work has as main objective, make a report about the organization of the several stages of clone selection in France.

  10. Analise dos impactos tecnico-economicos da utilização do piche de alcatrão de eucalipto como precursor de fibras de carbono ativadas

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: Apresenta-se um estudo do processo de obtenção de fibras de carbono ativadas a partir do piche vegetal com objetivo de aumentar valor agregado de sub-produtos da produção de carvão vegetal, abrindo desta forma, a possibilidade de novos mercados para esses sub-produtos. Para tanto, analisou-se através de séries históricas, a evolução da produção de carvão vegetal, sua demanda e oferta, assim como os principais setores consumidores, destacando-se dentre outros o setor industrial. Atravé...

  11. ANALISE E ADEQUAÇÃO DA PRÁTICA DOCENTE DE FÍSICA EXPERIMENTAL NA REGIÃO DO MATO GRANDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Pablo Nascimento da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho realiza uma análise inicial a cerca da formação e da pratica docente na região do Mato Grande, Interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, onde recentemente se instalou um campus do Instituto Federal de educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte – IFRN. Dessa forma, buscou-se conhecer a realidade do ensino de Física nessa região, em especial a abordagem experimental, bem como a formação dos professores nesse campo especifico e diante dessa realidade, propor melhorias, a partir da oferta de curso de capacitação em Física experimental. Verificou-se a existência de práticas experimentais no Ensino de Física nestas escolas e quais os métodos utilizados nestas práticas, além de ter sido levantado se a formação dos Professores que lecionam Física é direcionada para a utilização de atividades experimentais em laboratório ou sala de aula. Diante dos resultados propõe-se um curso de capacitação em Física Experimental para os docentes, com o intuito de elevar o nível de ensino no interior do Rio Grande do Norte. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Física experimental, Formação Docente, ensino de Física

  12. Analise das necessidades de tratamento odontologico dos pacientes atendidos no serviço de triagem-semiologia da FOP-UNICAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Maria Paparotto Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as necessidades de tratamento odontológico dos pacientes atendidos na clínica de graduação da Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba - UNICAMP. Foram analisados 1.000 prontuários clínicos assim como as radiografias panorâmicas de pessoas com idade maior ou igual a 12 anos que foram triadas pela Área de Semiologia. A média de idade foi de 51 anos, 63% eram do gênero feminino, 79,9% tinham de cor de pele branca e a maioria (62%) tinha como instrução o...

  13. Analise da expressão genica das celulas mononucleares de sangue de cordão umbilical humano : implicação no ciclo celular

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cristina Malheiros Luzo

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: A reconstituição da linhagem hematopoiética é um procedimento comum no tratamento de várias doenças hematológicas e não hematológicas. A medula óssea tem sido a principal fonte de obtenção de células tronco nos últimos 50 anos. Recentemente, células tronco obtidas de sangue periférico pós-mobilização e células mononucleares de sangue de cordão umbilical humano têm sido utilizadas com sucesso. Entretanto, as células tronco parecem ter características diferentes. Vários estudos foram pu...

  14. A politica estadunidense de desgermanizacao do sistema de transporte aereo brasileiro: o caso da Condor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quintaneiro, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Analise e avaliacao da politica dos Estados Unidos de extincao das atividades da empresa de transporte aereo Condor, por meio de sua inclusao na Lista Negra, do corte no fornecimento de combustivel...

  15. Expanded austenite in nitrided layers deposited on austenitic and super austenitic stainless steel grades; Analise da austenita expandida em camadas nitretadas em acos inoxidaveis austeniticos e superaustenitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteletti, L.C.; Fernandes, F.A.P.; Heck, S.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materais, Aeronautica e Automobilistica; Oliveira, A.M. [Instituto de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao (IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Gallego, J., E-mail: gallego@dem.feis.unesp.b [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    In this work nitrided layers deposited on austenitic and super austenitic stainless steels were analyzed through optical microscopy and X-rays diffraction analysis (XRD). It was observed that the formation of N supersaturated phase, called expanded austenite, has promoted significant increment of hardness (> 1000HV). XRD results have indicated the anomalous displacement of the diffracted peaks, in comparison with the normal austenite. This behavior, combined with peaks broadening, it was analyzed in different nitriding temperatures which results showed good agreement with the literature. (author)

  16. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to soil analysis; Espectrometria de fluorescencia de raios X aplicada as analises de solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Scapin Junior, Wilson Santo; Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Imakima, Kengo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). E-mail: vsalvado@baitaca.ipen.br; imsato@net.ipen.br; kengo@sup.ipen.br

    1997-07-01

    This paper studies the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to the soil analysis. A comparative study of the WD-XRFS and ED-XRFS techniques was carried out by using the following soil samples: SL-1, SOIL-7 and marine sediment SD-M-2/TM, from IAEA, and clay, JG-1a from Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ)

  17. Safety analysis of 5 MW IEAR-1 reactor; Analise de seguranca do reator IEA-R1 a 5 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio T. e; Maprelian, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Antonio C.I.; Cabral, Eduardo L.L.; Molnary, Leslie de; Mesquita, Ricardo N.; Mendonca, Arlindo G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores. E-mail: teixeira@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the methods and procedures utilized in the safety analysis of IEA-R1 research reactor. Four postulated accidents are quantitatively analyzed, being the fuel channel blockage accident considered as the Maximum Credible Accident for the reactor. The potential accident consequences and the criteria for radiological doses acceptance are evaluated and discussed. (author)

  18. Implementation of statistical analysis methods for medical physics data; Implementacao de metodos de analise estatistica para dados de fisica medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Marilia S.; Pinto, Nivia G.P.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F., E-mail: mariliasilvat@gmail.co, E-mail: lfolive@oi.com.b, E-mail: cely_barroso@hotmail.co, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The objective of biomedical research with different radiation natures is to contribute for the understanding of the basic physics and biochemistry of the biological systems, the disease diagnostic and the development of the therapeutic techniques. The main benefits are: the cure of tumors through the therapy, the anticipated detection of diseases through the diagnostic, the using as prophylactic mean for blood transfusion, etc. Therefore, for the better understanding of the biological interactions occurring after exposure to radiation, it is necessary for the optimization of therapeutic procedures and strategies for reduction of radioinduced effects. The group pf applied physics of the Physics Institute of UERJ have been working in the characterization of biological samples (human tissues, teeth, saliva, soil, plants, sediments, air, water, organic matrixes, ceramics, fossil material, among others) using X-rays diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The application of these techniques for measurement, analysis and interpretation of the biological tissues characteristics are experimenting considerable interest in the Medical and Environmental Physics. All quantitative data analysis must be initiated with descriptive statistic calculation (means and standard deviations) in order to obtain a previous notion on what the analysis will reveal. It is well known que o high values of standard deviation found in experimental measurements of biologicals samples can be attributed to biological factors, due to the specific characteristics of each individual (age, gender, environment, alimentary habits, etc). This work has the main objective the development of a program for the use of specific statistic methods for the optimization of experimental data an analysis. The specialized programs for this analysis are proprietary, another objective of this work is the implementation of a code which is free and can be shared by the other research groups. As the program developed since the

  19. Loading and stress analysis of gas pipeline structures; Analise de esforcos e tensoes em estruturas de gasodutos durante despressurizacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Savi, Marcelo Amorim [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Pacheco, Pedro Manuel Calas Lopes [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Repairing and maintenance activities on Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline often need blow down lines. During the blow down process, the high speed of discharging gases imposes great efforts to the structures. A detailed analysis of this situation is essential for a safe operation. This paper describes two phases of a project, developed under TBG coordination. It consists in analyzing the stress and forces involved in this operation, in order to design facilities to blow down pipes and develop a safe blow down procedure for the gas pipeline. The first phase consists of a supersonic flowing simulation in the blow down gas pipeline device. The pressure behavior, mass flow and the speed at the device's ending point are calculated for different operational conditions. In the second phase, the equivalent loading caused by blow down operations is used as input in a stress analysis program to determine stress, critical sessions evaluation and material recommendations for blow down devices. (author)

  20. Economic analysis of a 20 kW gasifier; Analise economica de um gaseificador de 20 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Rocha, Brigida Ramati Pereira da [Universidade Federal do Para (NEDS/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia para o Desenvolvimento Sustentavel], e-mail: neds@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    The gasification of biomass residues has been pointed as an alternative in electricity supplying for small communities of the Amazon region, because it promotes a significant substitution of the diesel oil in the electric power generation. This paper presents an economic analysis of an electricity generation system (gasifier and generator set) of 20 kw that is installed in the community of Jenipauba, in the State of Para. That analysis confirms the economic attractiveness of that energy alternative on the generator sets that operate exclusively with diesel oil. It also shows the impact of the labor law on electricity generation cost, as well as the need of subsidizing the electric power generation, because the community of Jenipauba is very poor. (author)

  1. Analysis of liquid radioactive wastes of Angra-1 reactor; Analise de efluentes liquidos radioativos de Angra-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Nadia Soido F.; Peres, Sueli da Silva [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); S. Filho, Aluisio Mendes [Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Any activity that produces or uses radioactive materials generates radioactive wastes. Normal operation of nuclear power plant produces radioactive waste that can be in gas, liquid or solid form and its level of radioactivity can vary. Gases and liquids wastes are treated and released into environment. The main source of radioactivity released to environment from Angra 1 are liquids from Waste Monitor Tanks. Those releases are under administrative control to meet the discharge limits established by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). A representative sample of each batch is taken for analysis for principal gamma- emitting radionuclides and, if the analysis indicate that release can be made, the quantity of activity is recorded. Within the licensing process of Angra 1, monthly a proportional composite samples are made up with a aliquot of each batch and sent to Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) to analyze and compare with the results reported. This comparative analyses showed that when the activity of that samples was very high, the activity measured on composite samples was higher than the sum of the activities measured on each batch. The operator was advised and requested to identify and solve the problem. This work presents the problem occurred and the solution found to improve the performance of measurements. (author)

  2. Exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of a model cogeneration system; Analise exergoeconomica e otimizacao de um modelo de sistema de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Leonardo S.R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Conhecimento de Materiais e Mecanica]. E-mail: lsrv@cepel.br; Donatelli, Joao L.M. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: donatelli@lttc.com.ufrj.br; Cruz, Manuel E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: manuel@serv.com.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we perform exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses, a mathematical optimization and an exergoeconomic optimization of a gas turbine-heat recovery boiler cogeneration system with fixed electricity and steam production rates. The exergy balance is calculated with the IPSE pro thermal system simulation program. In the exergetic analysis, exergy destruction rates, exergetic efficiencies and structural bond coefficients for each component are evaluated as functions of the decision variables of the optimization problem. In the exergoeconomic analysis the cost for each exergetic flow is determined through cost balance equations and additional auxiliary equations from cost partition criteria. Mathematical optimization is performed by the metric variable method (software EES - Engineering Equation Solver) and by the successive quadratic programming (IMSL library - Fortran Power Station). The exergoeconomic optimization is performed on the basis of the exergoeconomic variables. System optimization is also performed by evaluating the derivative of the objective function through finite differences. This paper concludes with a comparison between the four optimization techniques employed. (author)

  3. Analysis of public policies for new renewable energy in Brazil; Analise de politicas publicas para novas energias renovaveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, M.C.; Fadigas, E.A.F.A.; Baitelo, R.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy have a prominent place among the solutions to combat global warming, but its potential is still untapped in Brazil. Without long-term policies with clear rules, you can not attract entrepreneurs and ensure stability of operation of this market. The main tools of government to promote renewable energy generation have not been efficient - the Incentive Program for Alternative Sources of Energy (Proinfa) was implemented in 2002 but put into operation just over two thirds of the energy proposal. The low success rate in repeated auctions focused on renewable energy. The objective of this paper is to discuss the prospects of the expansion of electricity generation by renewable energies in Brazil and some fundamental requirements for effective structuring of this market in the country. This argument is supported by the analysis of the proposed mechanisms used internationally and in the country, under a new law for renewable energies. As a practical demonstration of the analysis, we present a simulation of conditions of formation of the final price of renewable resources in different conditions as varied market rate of return, cost of transmission, and sale of carbon credits.

  4. Neutron activation analysis of phytotherapic obtained from medicinal plants; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de fitoterapicos obtidos de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Henrique S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: hs_moreira@hotmail.com; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mitiko@ipen.br; mbvascon@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper determines the inorganic constituents in phytotherapic samples for posterior study of the relationship existent among the concentrations of the found elements and the their possible therapeutical effects. The samples of phytotherapic pills (Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba and Ginseng) were analysed by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn samples were determined in the phytotherapics, The Centella asiatica presented the higher concentrations of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. In the sample of Ginko biloba, higher levels of As and Ca were found, while in the sample ol Ginseng the element As were not detected. The found results have shown the the NAA method is appropriated for analysing this type of materials due to his simplicity, multielemental capacity and quality of the results obtained. (author)

  5. Data integration for performance analysis of petroleum wells; Integracao de dados para analise de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arturo, Naisa Carrillo; Mendes, Jose Ricardo; Morooka, Celso [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Miura, Kazuo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this work a new parameter called the System Performance Index is proposed, which allows a more profound study of the performance of petroleum wells. An outstanding characteristic of this parameter is that it uses a large amount of field data measured periodically. This index allows the assessing of the performance and technologies used in the wells. This study presents a comparison of the performance of vertical, directional and horizontal wells. The sand control technologies used in the wells are also evaluated. Finally, the proposed parameter enables a practical analysis that can be implemented as a strategic tool for oil field performance and optimization studies. Data used in this work were kindly supplied by PETROBRAS. (author)

  6. The isotopic analysis of boron by charged particle irradiation; Analise isotopica de boro utilizando feixes de particulas carregadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre Junior, Ubirajara M.; Costa, Vilmar L. da; Suita, Julio C.; Teixeira, Danilo L.; Bernedo, Alfredo V.B.; Cabral, Tania S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    An analytical isotopic method for boron analysis is discribed, based in the spectrometry of protons at 130{sup 0} C from scattering and/or reactions like {sup 10} B(p,p){sup 10} B and {sup 11} B(p,p){sup 11} B which were simultaneously measured. The basic parameters involved in such measurements, are discussed including cinematic, angular distribution, preparation of targets and its substracs. Particle spectra of targets with natural isotopic concentration and enriched in {sup 10} B are presented. The ratio [{sup 11} B(p{sub o})/{sup 10} B(p{sub o})] at 130{sup 0} C for targets of {sup nat} B in respect of the incident proton beam energy between 14 and 24 MeV are shown. The results of our enriched {sup 10} B are compared with results obtained in mass spectrometry. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Bioenergy in Brazil and Europe: a comparative analysis; Bioenergia no Brasil e na Europa: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Nivalde Jose de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia], e-mail: nivalde@ie.ufrj.br; Dantas, Guilherme de Azevedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (GESEL/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos do Setor Eletrico], e-mail: guilhermecrvg@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    A higher application of bioenergy is one of the existing ways to adequate the necessity of an expansion in the energy supply with the mitigation of global warming. The consumption of biofuel in the transport sector is the most usual and important use of biomass, however, bioenergy may also have a relevant contribution to the world electrical matrix. A comparative analysis shows that Brazil has consolidate the usage of biofuel while Europe is having problems to accomplish the biofuels levels established in the European Union guidelines. However, some european countries are developing their bioelectrical generation potential in a much more efficient way than Brazil. Therefore , brazilian policies to support bioelectricity should observe the successful instruments applied in Europe. (author)

  8. Analise Termodinamica da aceleracao de uma massa

    CERN Document Server

    De Abreu, R

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the acceleration of a mass with a simple structure taking into account Thermodynamics. Two situations are analysed. The first one for the application of a localized force to a point of the mass. The second one for the application of a force to the entire mass. The two situations are not equivalent. For the first situation we have an increase of temperature of the mass, resulting from an internal damping, during a transient.

  9. Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers hay production; Analise energetica na producao de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro T. [UNIOESTE, Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose R.C.; Bueno, Osmar C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Facudade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio T. [EMBRAPA - Gado de leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipment, followed by the irrigation system. The energetic efficiency presented by the whole system was 4.2, being considered positive and demonstrating that the agriculture ecosystem is sustainable. Most of the direct energy employed in this system was oil derived on fuel form. There was, however, a great consume of another oil derived energy such as fertilizer, but mainly on the nitrogen form (28.89% of the total employed energy). (author)

  10. Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method; Analise quimica de material superconductor atraves do metodo de Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Junior, E.S.; Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T., E-mail: georges@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Eng. Metalurgica e Materiais; Bispo, E.R.; Polasek, A. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amorim, H.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

  11. Analysis of the of bones through 3D computerized tomography; Analise de estrutura ossea atraves de microtomografia computadorizada 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I.; Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Oliveira, L.F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica; Alves, J.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2009-03-15

    This work shows the analysis of the internal structure of the bones samples through 3D micro tomography technique (3D-{mu}TC). The comprehension of the bone structure is particularly important when related to osteoporosis diagnosis because this implies in a deterioration of the trabecular bone architecture, which increases the fragility and the possibility to have bone fractures. Two bone samples (human calcaneous and Wistar rat femur) were used, and the method was a radiographic system in real time with an X Ray microfocus tube. The quantifications parameters are based on stereological principles and they are five: a bone volume fraction, trabecular number, the ratio between surface and bone volume, the trabecular thickness and the trabecular separation. The quantifications were done with a program developed especially for this purpose in Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory - COPPE/UFRJ. This program uses as input the 3D reconstructions images and generates a table with the quantifications. The results of the human calcaneous quantifications are presented in tables 1 and 2, and the 3D reconstructions are illustrated in Figure 5. The Figure 6 illustrate the 2D reconstructed image and the Figure 7 the 3D visualization respectively of the Wistar femur sample. The obtained results show that the 3D-{mu}TC is a powerful technique that can be used to analyze bone microstructures. (author)

  12. Analysis of the radiometric survey during the Argonauta reactor operation; Analise do levantamento radiometrico durante operacao do reator Argonauta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Eara de S.L.; Cardozo, Katia K.M.; Silva, Joao Carlos P.; Santos, Joao Regis dos, E-mail: esluz@ien.gov.br, E-mail: cardozo@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcarlos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: regis@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-IEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering-IEN/CNEN, operates normally, the powers between 1.7 and 340 W on neutrongraphy procedures, production of radionuclides and experimental reactor physics lessons to postgraduate courses. The doses from neutrons and gamma radiation are measured when the reactor is critical, inside the reactor hall and surrounding regions. A study of the data obtained was performed to evaluate the daily need of this survey in the reactor hall. Taking into account the principle ALARA, which aims to optimize and minimize the dose received by the individual, we propose, in this work, through an analysis of the acquired data in occupational radiometric surveys, a reformulation of the area monitoring routine practiced by the team of radiological protection of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering - IEN/CNEN-RJ, whereas other monitoring routines regarding the radiological protection are also applied in the routine of the reactor. The operations under review occurred with the reactor operating 340 W power at intervals of 60, 120 and 180 minutes, in monitoring points in controlled areas, supervised and free. The results showed significant dose values in the output of the J-Channel 9 when the operation occurs with this open. With 180 minutes of operation, the measured values of dose rate were lower than the values at 60 min and 120 operations min. At the point in the supervised area, offsite to the reactor hall, situated in the direction of the J-Channel 9, the value reduces more than 14% in any operating time in relation to the dose rate measured at the point opposite the canal. There is a 50% reduction in the dose rates for operations with and J-9 closed. The results suggest a new frequency of radiometric survey whose mode of operation is maintained in similar conditions, since combined with other relevant practices of radiation protection.

  13. Analysis of energetic efficiency in stenters of textile industry; Analise de eficiencia energetica em ramas de industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Antonio Rogerio; Ferraz, Andre; Rocha, Ivan; Azevedo, Jorge; Oshiro, Hugo K.; Konishi, Ricardo; Piazza, Walter; Lehmkuhl, Willian [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    This paper presents the research on the use of alternative energy within the textile industry: a strategy aimed at reducing costs and securing market share. The use of natural gas allows for the direct heating and drying of textiles through convection, instead of the conventional indirect heating method of thermal fluids. This measure alone reduces significantly the energy costs and grants the process superior efficiency and sustainability. This case examines the improvements to the process of drying textiles through thermal equipment called stenters, whose purpose is to remove humidity from the cloth during its fabrication. As such, SCGAS, in association with FURB, has performed an operational and technological evaluation of the drying process used by a customer enterprise. The data collected enabled the researchers to map all sources (inputs and outputs) of mass and energy for each different stenter. This composed the basis for the analysis done and the subsequent proposal of improvements, which varied from the conversion of stenter from indirect to direct heating and the development of even more energy efficient solutions for the direct heating system. The data obtained shows that, for the indirect heating system, 28% of the thermal energy produced could be recovered, given the temperature of the exhaust gases reached 360 deg C. The indirect heating stenters presented energy efficiency between 24% and 27%, whiles the direct heating ones presented between 27,4% and 34,8%. Additionally, if an automated control system for the natural gas and oxidizing air flows was to be installed, it would guarantee greater quality combustion with a significant increase in energy efficiency, as well as a decrease in carbon monoxide emissions by a factor of eight. (author)

  14. Comparative analysis of bacterial decrease by Er:YAG laser radiation and by a tip mounted on a high-rotation device after remove of carious tissue in dentine: study 'in anima mobile'; Analise comparativa da reducao bacteriana com irradiacao do laser Er:YAG ou ponta montada em alta rotacao apos remocao de tecido cariado em dentina: estudo in anima nobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blay, Claudia Campos

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze bacterial decrease after removal of carious tissue in dentine by Er:YAG laser, comparing the results with those achieved by using a tip mounted on a high-rotation device. In view of the difficulty of totally eliminating microorganisms from dentine, even after removing all the carious tissue, and since the presence of a smear layer is a proven fact, it would be extremely convenient to eliminate or to achieve better disinfecting of this notoriously contaminated dentine layer, so as to prevent failure of the restoration process in most cases. For this study, we selected 30 pre-molars and molars with caries rated as medium sized and which required restoration treatment. The teeth were divided in two groups, where 15 teeth received conventional treatment (control group - I) and 15 teeth were treated with Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key Laser) (laser group - II). Microbiologic analysis was used in order to determine presence or absence of bacteria. In group I as well as in group II a previous curettage of part of the dentine caries was performed, and the sample was seeded in an Agar culture medium and incubated at 37 deg C for 72 hours, for a quantitative analysis of bacteria colony forming units (c.f.u.) and qualitative bacterial analysis. After this procedure, carious lesions were removed in group I, using a spherical diamond drill mounted on a high rotation tip, followed by cleaning of the cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate at 2%. In group II, an Er:YAG laser emitting a wave length of 2,94 {mu}m, delivering a 250 mJ energy per pulse at a repetition rate of 2 Hz was used for carious tissue removal. Furthermore in group II (laser), the cavity was conditioned by performing a sweeping at all walls of the preparation with the 50/10 fiber (Kavo), in contact mode, using an energy of 60 mJ per pulse at a frequency of 10 Hz. After removing all caries and performing a cleaning operation in both groups, dentine shavings were collected and

  15. Analise da farmacocinetica e dos indices PK/PD da doxiciclina no plasma, fluido gengival e saliva e avaliação de seu efeito sobre a osteoclastogenese mediada por RANKL

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Cesar Nobre Franco

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: Doxiciclina (Dox) é um antimicrobiano pertencente à família das tetraciclinas com um amplo espectro de ação contra bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. Além de suas propriedades antimicrobianas, Dox é atualmente empregada na periodontia como um modulador da resposta do hospedeiro (MRH), ao inibir a atividade da enzima metaloproteinase de matriz (MMP), a qual está relacionada ao processo de destruição tecidual. Neste contexto, este trabalho teve os seguintes objetivos: 1-determin...

  16. Reactivity analysis for numerical solution of the point kinetic equation for subcritical; Analise da reatividade para solucao numerica da equacao da cinetica pontual para sistemas subcriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz, E-mail: ejunior@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel Artur Pinheiro, E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison between the reactivity calculated by the approximation based on the multiplication factor (K{sub eff}) and a new approach for the reactivity calculation to be used in the kinetics point equation for subcritical systems. To obtain the necessary kinetic parameters as well and the reference Power value calculation and validation, a subcritical system was simulated with the Monte Carlo code Serpent. This study is important for determining nuclear Power in such systems. The results shown consistent values with the validation method and new in-depth studies to calculate the reactivity should be performed to such systems, making the issue a very current theme. (author)

  17. Analysis of the sum kriging and the kriging sum - a case study; Analise do problema da krigagem da soma e da soma das krigagens - estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abbadia, Martinho Romulo Iria

    1999-02-01

    This work presents some thicknesses estimates in overlapped sedimentary sections. The adopted procedure consists of the accomplishment of kriging followed by weighed corrections that provide mathematical consistency to the operation of thicknesses addition. These weighed corrections are based on the proportions between: the thicknesses of the estimated layers and the total thickness of the analyzed section; the standard deviation of the estimation error and the addition of these standard deviations; the variance of the estimation error and the addition of these variances. The proposed method is characterized by its simplicity and operational flexibility, being distinguished by: the number of intervals to be analyzed is theoretically limitless; stationary thicknesses are not required; choice of distinct neighborhoods for each analyzed interval is allowed; it has freedom for the use of distinct models in each investigated interval, making it possible to choose different functions, amplitudes and anisotropies. The technique was applied in an oil field situated in the northeast of Brazil, helping in localising the preferential depositional areas for turbiditic reservoirs and allowing inferences with respect to structural aspects of studied area. (author)

  18. Analysis of the methodology coherence of the new tariffs reviewing at ANEEL; Analise da coerencia da metodologia de revisao tarifaria da ANEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, Claudia De Rosa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cpeano@superig.com.br; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia e Administracao. Dept. de Economia]. E-mail: fanuatti@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work analyses the methodology adopted by ANEEL in electricity distribution companies' tariff revision. The theoretical approach assumes that the institutional endowment and existing regulatory framework restricts the regulators choice of tariff revision mechanism design. Regulators choice of methodology can contribute to the creation of a good reputation, reducing uncertainties and promoting efficiency. We evaluate how the chosen methods satisfy the aspect of internal coherence among them and with the commitments found in the basic legal framework of the industry. We conclude that the adoption of a Reference Firm as a benchmark presents some coherency and transparency, but the methodology has consistency problems and is not suitable to the maturity level and administrative capacity of the regulatory system. (author)

  19. ANALISE DA VARIAÇÃO DA INTENSIDADE ESPECTRAL DE PROTEÍNA E ÁGUA NA DERME APÓS EXPOSIÇÃO À RADIAÇÃO DE INFRAVERMELHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Priscila Campos Pereira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A irradiação da luz infravermelha (IR diminui o conteúdo de carotenoides, β-caroteno e licopeno, favorece a formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS e metalo proteinases de matriz (MMP influenciando na formação dos radicais livres, diminuição de proteínas e conteúdo hídrico na pele. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a variação da intensidade espectral de proteína e água na derme após exposição à irradiação (IR por meio de doses de 50 e 150 mW. Foram realizadas medidas por meio da técnica de espectroscopia Raman Confocal na região do antebraço. Observou-se em geral diminuição na intensidade do pico de proteína para as duas doses de irradiação, quanto à água não houve diminuição para um participante. Conclui-se que a técnica usada é uma ferramenta imortante para análise das alterações dos arranjos quimicos presentes na pele após irradiação da luz (IR.

  20. Transient analysis importance for gas wells flow; A importancia da analise transiente no escoamento de pocos de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Marcelo; Lorensini, Rodrigo V.; Lopes, Jansen M.; Sales, Antonio E.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    With the increase of Brazil's natural gas demand a program was instituted aiming to anticipate the national gas production. In this context, gas field development projects have been prioritized. Natural gas production in deep and ultra-deep water has the challenge to flow the production without the risk of hydrate formation and to ensure equipment and flow lines integrity. Flowing simulations indicate that temperatures in gas wells production systems may reach very low values, depending on the adopted initial conditions. This is a critical condition, since equipment and materials applied to the production system have temperature restrictions and provides a thermodynamic condition to hydrate formation. This paper shows the importance of unsteady-state studies and analyzes to predict unfavorable conditions, still during basic project phase, contributing to an appropriate definition of materials and equipment that attain the required conditions, and assisting in the elaboration of operational procedures that mitigate the problems identified during the simulations. (author)

  1. Calculation of the Doppler broadening function using Fourier analysis;Calculo da funcao de alargamento Doppler utilizando analise de Fourier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz

    2010-07-01

    An efficient and precise method for calculation of Doppler broadening function is very important to obtain average group microscopic cross sections, self shielding factors, resonance integrals and others reactor physics parameter. In this thesis two different methods for calculation of Doppler broadening function and interference term will be presented. The main method is based on a new integral form for Doppler broadening function {psi}(x,{zeta}) which gives a mathematical interpretation of the approximation proposed by Bethe and Placzek, as the convolution of the Lorentzian function with a Gaussian function. This interpretation besides leading to a new integral form for {psi}(x,{zeta}), enables to obtain a simple analytic solution for the Doppler broadening function. (author)

  2. Well test: production analysis and allocation measurement; Teste de poco: analise da producao e medicao de apropriacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geron, Luis Carlos [Smar Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Sertaozinho, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Aplicacoes; Tateishi, Sergio Hideki [Smar Equipamentos Industriais Ltda, Sertaozinho, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2008-07-01

    The well test is an instrument frequently used to evaluate the production capacity of wells and it usually has specific requirements in the flow measurement, that are not necessary in the flow measurement system for custody transfer applications. Starting with the requirement to measure the injected product in the well when it is in the recuperation phase and it also includes compliance to specific standards for allocation measurement, because these hydrocarbon products are not treated as well as that ones in the production streams. Other important issue associated to the well test is the employment of new technologies, that helps to reduce the uncertainty of measurement as digital communication between the field devices and the flow computer through an open protocol as the Foundation Field bus. Another indication of technology evolution in the flow measurement focusing a lower uncertainty is the new version of API MPMS 11.1:2004, that requires calculation with double precision floating point, as well the correction factors with 5 decimal digits. (author)

  3. Radiation protection analysis in open facilities of industrial radiography; Analise da radioprotecao em instalacoes abertas de radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leocadio, Joao C.; Tauhata, Luiz [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Crispim, Verginia R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    This work had the objective to analyze the open facilities or mobile industrial radiography to obtain the distribution of doses in the radiographers, to evaluate the radiological conditions and the operational procedures, besides to present proposed for the reference levels and to esteem the potential exposure. The results of the additional monitoring revealed an improvement of the radiation protection conditions in the open facilities and the risk of potential exposure was reduced. With relationship to the radiation protection procedures, the accompaniment of the radiographic testing verified that most of the problems was solved. The advantage of the proposed reference levels is that the supervisors would enlarge the frequency of audits to accomplish the investigations and interventions. The mobile industrial radiography with bunkers presented distributions with 95% of the doses below 0,2 mSv and interventions. The mobile industrial radiography with bunkers presented distributions with 95% of the doses below 0,2 mSv and the distributions of the facilities with cordoned area they had 75% of the doses below 0,4 mSv. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Procel in basic education: an analysis of Program effectiveness; PROCEL na educacao basica: uma analise da eficacia do programa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Daniel de Andrade; Penteado, Claudio Luis de Camargo [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to the National Program for Electricity Conservation (PROCEL), focusing on its sub-program PROCEL in basic education, in order to analyze its effectiveness. For this, there was a case study in a school where some teachers received training PROCEL for mounting the discipline PTC: technology and environment. The goal is to present data on the electricity consumption of the students before and after studying in the field, and observe possible changes in the use of electricity. The objective this paper to contribute to the improvement of the actions of PROCEL, or any other program that promotes the rational use of energy. (author)

  5. Analysis of the opening model of the Brazilian upstream business; Analise da adequacao do modelo de E e P brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the institutional model adopted for the reform of the oil industry in Brazil, beginning with the approval of Law n. 9.478 by the Brazilian Parliament in 1997. The reform of the Brazilian oil industry took place in the context of the reforms of the world's national economies throughout the 1980's and 1990's. From this worldwide process of reform stemmed a huge increase in the international capital flow directed to long-run investment opportunities in the economic infrastructure sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse both the regulatory model for the oil and gas upstream activities in Brazil and the bidding model adopted at Brazil's National Petroleum Agency's auctions for the acquisition of exploration areas. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal (in memoriam), whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  6. Amostragem em cana-de-açúcar, para fins de analise foliar Sampling leaves for leaf analysis studies in sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Êste trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar, a partir da experimentação local, um sistema adequado de amostragem de fôlhas, como base para posteriores estudos que visem estabelecer os níveis de nutrição para a cana-de-açúcar, através da análise foliar. A amostragem foi efetuada na cana planta, variedade CB. 41/76, num experimento fatorial reduzido a NPK 2³ e obedeceu ao seguinte critério: foram colhidas fôlhas de quatro posições, definidas pelo sistema de Kuijper (fôlha +1, + 2, +3, e +4; para as fôlhas de uma mesma posição foram separadas três partes (lâmina com nervura, lâmina sem nervura, e bainha; as amostras foram retiradas em seis idades da planta (4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9 meses. A variação dos teores dos principais constituintes minerais nos tecidos colhidos, em cada época, foi examinada estatísticamente, em função da adubação química usada, considerados seus efeitos na produção de cana. Pelos resultados obtidos e levando em conta o trabalho analítico no laboratório e simplificação de amostragem, é indicada a seleção da fôlha de posição +3, aos 4 e 8-9 meses de idade da planta, para determinar nos 20 cm centrais da lâmina, excluída a nervura principal, os elementos nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio e magnésio.A group of 576 leaf samples of cane, variety CB.41/76. was collected form a 2³ NPK factorial experiment in order to determine the most raliable sampling technique as a basis for the local conditions of the State of São Paulo. The selection of tissues for analysis was carried out on the plantation with respect to the age at sampling time (4, 5. 6, 7, 8 and 9 months in age, leaf part (blades, blades with midribs removed, and sheaths, and leaf position (leaves +1, +2, +3 and +4. This included the four youngest visible-dewlap leaves on the cane top, numbered according to the system of Kuijper. After each tissue was analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, the data were examined

  7. Abuso sexual infantojuvenil: acoes municipais da Saude para a garantia do atendimento

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Paixao, Ana Cristina Wanderley; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    O artigo traz uma analise das acoes da Secretaria Municipal de Saude e Defesa Civil do Rio de Janeiro para garantir o atendimento especializado a populacao infantojuvenil vitima de violencia sexual...

  8. Analise das solicitações dinamicas na via ferrea através da simulação da interação entre o veiculo e a via

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Bandeira Guimarães

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho apresenta uma ampla revisão sobre a análise de tensões devidas a solicitações estáticas e dinâmicas na via férrea. A partir desta revisão é desenvolvido um modelo sobre apoio discreto da interação dinâmica vertical entre veículo e via ferroviários, para a faixa de freqüência de interesse variando entre 50 e 2500 hertz, que permite determinar vários parâmetros relacionados à análise de tensões dinâmicas, como a força no contato entre a roda e o trilho e as deformações dev...

  9. Ambrosiaster se uitleg van die Filemonbrief en die retoriese analise van hierdie brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Francois Tolmie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Die studie van Paulus se brief aan Filemon het gebaat by die hernude belangstelling in die retoriese analise van Nuwe-Testamentiese geskrifte, in die sin dat ’n groot aantal retoriese analises van die brief gepubliseer is. Hierdie retoriese analises is vanuit ’n verskeidenheid perspektiewe gedoen, maar tot dusver het niemand nog die manier sistematies ondersoek waarop die vierde-eeuse outeur, wat later die naam Ambrosiastergekry het, die brief in sy kommentaar op die Pauliniese briewe geïnterpreteer het nie. Hierdie artikel bied dus ’n oorsig van Ambrosiaster se interpretasie van die brief aan Filemon en dui aan watter bydrae dit tot die retoriese analise van die brief kan maak. Ambrosiaster’s exposition of the Letter to Philemon and the rhetorical analysis of the letter. In recent times, the study of Paul’s letter to Philemon benefitted from the renewed interest in the rhetorical analysis of New Testament writings, in the sense that a large number of rhetorical studies of the letter have been published. These rhetorical analyses of the letter have been done from different perspectives, but thus far, no one has systematically investigated the way in which the fourth-century author, who was later called Ambrosiaster, interpreted the letter in his commentary on the Pauline letters. Accordingly, this article offers an overview of Ambrosiaster’s interpretation of the letter to Philemon, and then outlines the contribution that his reading of the letter can make to the rhetorical interpretation of it.

  10. Analises morfometricas em bacias hidrograficas integradas a um sistema de informações geograficas

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaeli Neto, Silvio Luis; Dalmolin, Quintino; Robbi, Claudia

    1994-01-01

    Orientador: Quintino Dalmolin Co-orientador: M.Sc.Claudia Robbi Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná Resumo: Bacia hidrográfica e uma unidade topograficamente definida, que apresenta relações sistêmicas entre seus componentes e sobre a qual são realizados estudos de caráter hidrológico, geomorfológico, pedológico, geológico, ambiental, social e de uso, manejo e conservação do solo. Analises nestes campos podem usufruir dos benefícios da quantificação das variáveis ...

  11. Daily quality controls analysis of a CT scanner simulator; Analise dos testes diarios de controle de qualidade de um tomografo simulador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maira Milanelo; Santos, Gabriela R.; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: maira.vasques@hc.fmusp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing technological developments, radiotherapy practices, which allow for better involvement of the tumor with the required therapeutic dose and minimize the complications of normal tissues, have become reality in several Radiotherapy services. The use of these resources in turn, was only possible due to the progress made in planning based on digital volumetric images of good quality, such as computed tomography (CT), which allow the correct delimitation of the tumor volume and critical structures. Specific tests for quality control in a CT scanner used in radiotherapy, named CT simulator, should be applied as part of the institutional Quality Assurance Program. This study presents the methodology used in the Instituto de Radiologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMUSP) for daily testing of the CT scanner simulator and the results obtained throughout more than two years. The experience gained in the period conducted showed that the tests are easy to perform and can be done in a few minutes by a trained professional. Data analysis showed good reproducibility, which allowed the tests could be performed less frequently, after 16 months of data collection. (author)

  12. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  13. Analyzing natural gas distribution in Brazil through EVA (Economic Value Added); Analise economico-financeira da industria de distribuicao de gas natural brasileiro sob a otica da geracao de valor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando Rodrigues; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    Although the Brazilian gas market has been showing steady growth and positive news regarding new discoveries, it is not immune to be questioned about its capacity of value generation, and, in particular, if the new companies, operating in distribution have generated it. Value creation, and its management, has become one of the main activities of the modern corporation in order to align the management and shareholders interests. Despite its advancements, the Brazilian NG industry can be considered at its early stages when compared to those of other countries whose industry is more traditional and mature. The process of unbundling of the gas industry, as well as of the public utilities, has become one of the icons of the Brazilian government policies since the mid 90's. Taking into account regulatory change which had only allowed in the last couple of decades the participation of private ownership into the domestic gas market, a follow up of these companies' performances is of interest. Following the concept of value generation, the present study examines the Brazilian gas distribution sector. Based on a detailed analysis of the financial statements of some of the main companies in the sector, that together represent around 68% of the total Brazilian market, this paper verifies whether the gas distribution sector have presented a positive or negative EVA{sup R}, in other words, if, during the period from 2002 to 2007, these newly companies in the gas industry have created or destroyed value in Brazil. (author)

  14. O lado invisível da participação política: gestão da informação dos mecanismos digitais de participação política nos parlamentos da America Latina, com uma analise do caso da Câmara dos Deputados do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sampaio Perna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Em um cenário de expansão democrática da América Latina, os olhares se voltam para iniciativas que impulsionam o aprimoramento da democracia. No eixo da participação surgem projetos para aproximar os cidadãos da esfera pública, entre os quais aqueles relacionados ao uso da Internet nas práticas democráticas em parlamentos. Esta pesquisa examina uma das dimensões dos mecanismos digitais de interação e participação política oferecidas por parlamentos para a sociedade, a gestão da informação. Primeiramente, mapeamos as formas de participação política empregadas nos portais legislativos da América Latina, com o objetivo de conhecer as informações que cercam as iniciativas e contextualizar o estudo de caso da Câmara dos Deputados do Brasil. Em seguida, procuramos entender como a Câmara dos Deputados do Brasil realiza a coleta, a organização, a distribuição, o armazenamento e o uso da informação concernente aos mecanismos de interação e participação política, de caráter multilateral, empregados em seu Portal. Concluímos que os parlamentos latino-americanos colocam à disposição da sociedade dezenas de canais digitais de interação e participação, como uma tendência irreversível das democracias modernas, mas a gestão da informação inerente às experiências ainda é um desafio a ser alcançado.

  15. Critical analysis of the PETROBRAS monopoly end - particularities of the Bahia state, Brazil; Uma analise critica do fim do monopolio da PETROBRAS - particularidades para o Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Alexandre B.; Ribeiro, Bradson F. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural; Rocha, Georges S. [Centro Federal de Tecnologia da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Agencia Nacional de Petroleo - ANP - created in 1997 by the petroleum law has the role of regulating oil and natural gas industry activities in Brazil inciting the power self-sufficiency. The petroleum law states the end of petroleum exploration monopoly in Brazil performed by PETROBRAS. Between 1998 and 2004 ANP carried out six bid rounds in brazilian sedimentary basins offered to national and foreign companies. The exploratory activities in Bahia are resulting in commercial discoveries and positive impact to local economy. The petrochemical industry expects the startup of Manati field operation to supply repressed demand of natural gas as fuel and raw material. This article analyzes the legal and institutional processes and economics performances of these activities in Bahia's state. (author)

  16. Stability of Low Embankments on Soft Clay. Part 3. Centrifuge Tests and Numerical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    consideracoes praticas a respeito da analise de estabilidade de taludes . M.Sc. thesis (in portuguese), Fed. Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. .-. Murray, R.T...do programa BISPO para analise de estabilidade de taludes . Research Report (in portuguese), Brazilian Road Research Institute, IPR-DNER, Rio de Janeiro

  17. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis; Analise de esmalte e dentina de humanos pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marco A.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: vankfire@gmail.com; Adachi, Eduardo M.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  18. Processo de trabalho de gerência: uma revisão da literatura Processo de trabajo de gerencia: un enfoque sobre las dimensiones del analise Management work process: a focus over analitics' dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Ermel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é identificar como o trabalho de gerência tem sido abordado nas publicações científicas. Tomou-se como objeto a produção bibliográfica sobre gerência produzida entre 1989 a 1999. A coleta de dados envolveu a busca nas bases de dados Medline e Lilacs. Os trabalhos encontrados foram analisados segundo a técnica de Análise de Conteúdo, proposta por Bardin. Os resultados mostraram que 38% das publicações abordavam a dimensão organizacional da gerência; 34% abordavam a dimensão técnica; 9% a dimensão política e 19% articulavam duas ou mais dessas dimensões. A análise da literatura nos indica a necessidade de desenvolver produções científicas que discutam a gerência como um trabalho político, técnico e organizacional.El objetivo de este articulo é identificar cómo el trabajo de gerencia ha sido estudiado en las publicaciones científicas. El objecto de análisis fue la producción bibliografica acerca de la gerencia entre los años de 1989 a 1999. La búsqueda fue hecha en las bases de datos Medline e Lilacs. Ls trabajos encuentrados fueron analisados segun la técnica de Analisis de Contenido, propuesta por Bardin. Los resultados mostraram que 38% das publicaciones abordaban la dimensión organizacional de la gerencia; 34% abordaban la dimensión técnica; 9% abordaban la dimensión política e 19% articulaban dos o más de estas dimensiones. El análisis de la literatura indicó la necesidad de desarrollarse producciones científicas que discutan la gerencia como un trabajo político-técnico y organizacional.The objective of this paper is to identify how the management work has been studied in scientific publications. The bibliography of management produced in 1989 to 1999 was analyzed. The date was collected in Medline and Lilacs data bases. The scientific publications founded, were analysed second the technique of Contents' Analysis, proposal by Bardin. The results showed that 38% described

  19. Analise fotoelastica da distribuição de tensões produzida na mandibula pela simulação do esforço mastigatorio em sobredentaduras muco-dento-suportadas e protese total

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Andre Kalabaide Vaz

    1997-01-01

    Resumo: Este estudo verificou a distribuição dos esforços mastigatórios em mandíbulas sob próteses do tipo sobre dentaduras e prótese tota1. Foram confeccionadas 3 mandíbulas em material fotoelástico, obtidas pela moldagem de uma mandíbula humana desdentada pela técnica da dupla impressão. Os moldes foram preenchidos com resina fotoelástica PLM-4 (Photolastic lnc., Raleigh, USA) na fase fluída, no interior de um fomo à uma temperatura de 105°C, onde após o processo de polimerização foram obt...

  20. Coding and data analysis during qualitative empirical research in Practical Theology/Kodering en data-analise tydens kwalitatiewe empiriese navorsing in Praktiese Teologie

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petria M Theron

    2015-01-01

    .... In this article, it is argued for a more systematic approach during the coding and data analysis phase of qualitative research and the article concludes with a proposed model for coding and data analysis in practical theological studies.

  1. ANALISIS METODOLÓGICO PARA LA MODELACIÓN DE LA SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA A NIVEL NACIONAL ANALISE METODOLÓGICO PARA A MODELAÇÃO DE A SEGURIDADE ALIMENTAR A NÍVEL NACIONAL METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS TO MODELING FOOD SECURITY FROM A NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA P GIRALDO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad científica y política ha incrementado el interés por entender e intervenir el problema de seguridad alimentaria, especialmente desde la crisis alimentaria en la década de los 70's. Diferentes estrategias metodológicas han sido utilizadas con el ánimo de proyectar, predecir y evaluar políticas como soporte para la toma de decisiones en el sector público. Este artículo explora un conjunto de metodologías usadas para el estudio de la seguridad alimentaria a nivel nacional, herramientas estratégicas para una apropiada formulación, evaluación y aplicación de políticas. Se discute el potencial uso de metodologías complementarias al análisis tradicional, especialmente la Dinámica de Sistemas, como una herramienta de simulación que permite el análisis de relaciones causales, el establecimiento de variables críticas y la evaluación de escenarios a favor de una efectiva toma de decisionesA comunidade científica e política hão acrescentado o interesse por entender e intervir o problema de seguridade alimentar, especialmente, desde a crise alimentar na década dos 70's. Diferentes estratégias metodológicas hão sido utilizadas com o interesse de projetar, predizer e avaliar políticas como suportes para a toma de decisões no setor público. Este artigo explora um conjunto de metodologias empregadas no estudo da seguridade alimentar a nível nacional, ferramentas estratégicas para uma apropriada formulação, avaliação e aplicação de políticas. Discutese o potencial uso de metodologias complementárias à análise tradicional, especialmente a Dinâmica de Sistemas, como ferramentas de simulação que permite a analise de relações causais, o estabelecimento de variáveis críticas e a avaliação de cenários a favor de uma toma de decisõesThe scientific and politic community has had increasing concerns for strategic understanding and intervention of the food security problem, especially since the 70's food

  2. Da formação discursiva a Semântica global: breve analise do tema corrupção em programas de governo das eleições presidenciais 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Leiser BARONAS; Regiana Perpétua MANENTI

    2009-01-01

    Neste ,trabalho do mirante da Análise de Discurso francesa analisamos textualizações do discurso político em Programas de Governo de candidatos a presidente do Brasil das últimas eleições. Trabalhamos como o tema Corrupção foi dado a circular nesses distintos programas de governo. Mobilizamos inicialmente o conceito de formação discursiva, elaborado por Courtine (2007) em Análise do discurso: o discurso comunista endereçado aos cristãos, procurando verificar como os enunciados que dizem o tem...

  3. An energetic analysis of a Chinese type bio digester in Brazil; Uma analise energetica de um biodigestor tipo chines no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, Antonio; Moreira, Marco A.R.G.; Rebello, Renata B.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    The energetic analysis has proved to be an important instrument for the evaluation of energetic alternatives concerning strategies objectives through the analysis of a Chinese type bio digester in the Brazilian use situation this work demonstrates that the technology is viable for Brazilian countryside areas 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Modelo padrao para relatorio de analise de seguranca de usinas de reprocessamento de combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-15

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization.

  5. Validation of virtual instrument for data analysis in metrology of time and frequency; Validacao do instrumento virtual para analise de dados em metrologia de tempo e frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel; Rocha, Pedro; Carvalho, Ricardo, E-mail: bjordan@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio Primario de Tempo e Frequencia; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2016-07-01

    Commercial Software (CS) for collection, analysis and plot time and frequency data plots are being increasingly used in reference laboratories worldwide. With this, it has greatly improved the results of calculations of uncertainty for these values. We propose the creation of a collection of software and data analysis using Virtual Instruments (VI) developed the Primary Laboratory Time and frequency of the National Observatory - ON and validation of this instrument. To validate the instrument developed, it made a comparative analysis between the results obtained (VI) with the results obtained by (CS) widely used in many metrology laboratories. From these results we can conclude that there was equivalence between the analyzed data. (author)

  6. Principal component analysis of NEXAFS spectra for molybdenum speciation in hydrotreating catalysts; Analise por componentes principais de espectros nexafs na especiacao do molibdenio em catalisadores de hidrotratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faro Junior, Arnaldo da C.; Rodrigues, Victor de O.; Eon, Jean-G., E-mail: farojr@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Rocha, Angela S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    Bulk and supported molybdenum based catalysts, modified by nickel, phosphorous or tungsten were studied by NEXAFS spectroscopy at the Mo L{sub III} and L{sub II} edges. The techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) together with a linear combination analysis (LCA) allowed the detection and quantification of molybdenum atoms in two different coordination states in the oxide form of the catalysts, namely tetrahedral and octahedral coordination. (author)

  7. Time dependent analysis of Xenon spatial oscillations in small power reactors; Analise temporal das oscilacoes espaciais de Xenonio em reatores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decco, Claudia Cristina Ghirardello

    1997-07-01

    This work presents time dependent analysis of xenon spatial oscillations studying the influence of the power density distribution, type of reactivity perturbation, power level and core size, using the one-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis with the MID2 and citation codes, respectively. It is concluded that small pressurized water reactors with height smaller than 1.5 m are stable and do not have xenon spatial oscillations. (author)

  8. Morphological images analysis and chromosomic aberrations classification based on fuzzy logic; Analise morfologica de imagens e classificacao de aberracoes cromossomicas por meio de logica fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Leonardo Peres

    2011-07-01

    This work has implemented a methodology for automation of images analysis of chromosomes of human cells irradiated at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (located at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil), and therefore subject to morphological aberrations. This methodology intends to be a tool for helping cytogeneticists on identification, characterization and classification of chromosomal metaphasic analysis. The methodology development has included the creation of a software application based on artificial intelligence techniques using Fuzzy Logic combined with image processing techniques. The developed application was named CHRIMAN and is composed of modules that contain the methodological steps which are important requirements in order to achieve an automated analysis. The first step is the standardization of the bi-dimensional digital image acquisition procedure through coupling a simple digital camera to the ocular of the conventional metaphasic analysis microscope. Second step is related to the image treatment achieved through digital filters application; storing and organization of information obtained both from image content itself, and from selected extracted features, for further use on pattern recognition algorithms. The third step consists on characterizing, counting and classification of stored digital images and extracted features information. The accuracy in the recognition of chromosome images is 93.9%. This classification is based on classical standards obtained at Buckton [1973], and enables support to geneticist on chromosomic analysis procedure, decreasing analysis time, and creating conditions to include this method on a broader evaluation system on human cell damage due to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  9. Aspectos moleculares da fração acida de querosene de aviação : sintese de padrões (fenolicos, acidos carboxilicos e neutros) para analise em cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas

    OpenAIRE

    Joana D'Arc Felix de Sousa

    1990-01-01

    Resumo: O petróleo Cabiúnas, proveniente da Bacia de Campos, possui um índice de acidez considerável (IA = 1,0), classificando-o como petróleo de acidez média para alta. Sabemos que as frações do petróleo, Querosene de Aviação (QAV) e Gasolina, são obtidas numa faixa de ebulição (250-300°C) semelhante à faixa de destilação dos ácidos naftênicos (200-370°C). Este fato nos motivou a estudar a fração ácida do Querosene de Aviação em uma confirmação de resultados anteriores, deste laboratório. A ...

  10. Models of neural networks for image analysis of cintillography from the urinary system; Modelos de redes neurais para analise de imagens cintilograficas do sistema urinario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Paulo Sergio de Souza; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: wagner@lmp.ufrj.br; schirru@lmp.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    From the several available diagnostic techniques, the non-invasive ones are the less aggressive to the human body. The use of radionuclides for renal function evaluation seems to be more secure than the other diagnostic procedures. However, the use of radioactive materials, makes it necessary to maximize the beneficial effects of this technique, conducing inevitably to the development of support tools for the analysis of their results. The objective of this work is to improve a system model for image analysis of scintillation. The detection and identification of renal anomalies is done by means of analysis of parts of the image, taking in account the spatial distribution of those anomalies. Geometric operations in conjunction with the segmentation technique enable the improvement of image analysis information processing. In this work, we look for the best artificial neural network architectures to introduce the knowledge of the medical expert into the diagnostic system. The search of the best neural network architectures, the geometric techniques and the image segmentation technique permitted a significant improvement of diagnostic analysis model by using scintillation. (author)

  11. Infiltration analysis for Abadia de Goias repository: numerical solution; Analise de infiltracao para o repositorio de Abadia de Goias: solucao numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Alves, Antonio S. de [NUCLEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Passos, Aline M.M. dos [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The safety analysis of a structure known as repository for medium activity wastes leads to investigating the physical phenomena connected to the water infiltration. This work shows succinctly an engineering approach to obtain numerical results for the model differential equations. One of these equations, related to the two-phase flow within the structure, is a nonlinear Riccati type, whose solution is only known for certain cases. For safety analysis and design purposes, the solution for the case of variable parameters is also advantageous when one aims some accident scenarios analysis. The utilization of numerical techniques allowed excellent results applied for the design of the Abadia de Goias repository. The case treated in this paper was one of those applied to the safety assessment of this repository. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Cabo rift structural analysis, Pernambuco State south coast land, Brazil; Analise estrutural do rifte do Cabo, litoral sul do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonia, Jorge Alexandre L. [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Cabo Rift, located at Pernambuco State South coast land and inserted in the Brazilian coastal basin set, was generated at Eocretaceous during the tectonic processes responsible by the South-American and African continents separation. In this study, the structural analysis of the Cabo Rift was based mainly in the Oliveira (1993) gravimetric surveys, in radar image analysis and in some works (Polonia, 1997) that distinguished the structures characterization and determination that originated the Cabo Basin. In this last stage, some data about kinematic indicators in faults plans, like secondary fractures, striations, etc., were collected and treated statistically with specific softwares 6 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor; Analise termo-hidraulica do reator TRIGA IPR-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fortini, Maria Auxiliadora [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The subchannel approach, normally employed for the analysis of power reactor cores that work under forced convection, have been used for the thermal hydraulic evaluation of a TRIGA Mark I reactor, named IPR-R1, at 250 kW power level. This was accomplished by using the PANTERA-1P subchannel code, which has been conveniently adapted to the characteristics of natural convection of TRIGA reactors. The analysis of results indicates that the steady state operation of IPR-R1 at 250 kW do not imply risks to installations, workers and public. (author)

  14. A new computer system for security analysis in power systems; Um novo sistema computacional para analise de seguranca em sistemas de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos; Gerhardt, Raul A.; Costa, Iverson F. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (PIPCA/UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Computacao Aplicada], E-mail: jvcanto@unisinos.br

    2009-07-01

    In the electrical energy systems area, the problem of security analysis have been intensively studied in the last years. The main objective of this work has been the developing of a new computational system for static security analysis. Moreover, the considered system incorporates elements that they look to increase its adequacy to the real use in electrical utilities. The ample literature review achieved by the authors has showed that no analogous proposal was found. To validate the proposed system, the results of tests made on several power systems were described, including a real life Brazilian system of large dimensions. (author)

  15. Descriptive analysis of data of winds aiming at applications in platforms; Analise descritiva de dados de ventos visando aplicacoes em plataformas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, G.M.C; Souza, F.A.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: graycimary@terra.com.br; fsouza@dme.ufcg.edu.br

    2003-07-01

    In the industry of exploration of Oil and Natural Gas, some phenomena generate information that can be characterized as directional data, among them we have directions of winds. Mardia and Jupp (2000) revise that these directions are responsible for supplying a natural source of directional data. For analysis this type of data, specific and different statistics of that one used for linear variables is needed, that is, we need another methodology. The objective of this work is to study the techniques of analysis of directional data of with sight to the application in the industry of Oil and Natural Gas. (author)

  16. Simulation, optimization and analysis of cost of biodiesel plant pot route enzymatic; Simulacao, otimizacao e analise de custo de planta de biodiesel via rota enzimatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Jocelia S.; Ferreira, Andrea L.O. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Silva, Giovanilton F. [Tecnologia Bioenergetica - Tecbio, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work ware simulation, optimization and to find the biodiesel production cost produced by enzymatic route. Consequently, it was carried out a methodology of economic calculations and sensitivity analyses for this process. It was used a computational software from balance equations for obtaining the biodiesel cost. The economical analysis was obtained by capital cost of biofuel. The whole process was developed according analysis of fixed capital cost, total manufacturing cost, raw material cost, and chemical cost. The results of economic calculations to biodiesel production showed efficient. The model was meant for use in assessing the effects on estimated biodiesel production cost of changes in different types of oils. (author)

  17. Retoriek, retoriese analise en prediking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. du Toit

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In characterising rhetoric, its persuasive intent should be highlighted because the persuasive element is true of all three rhetorical genera. Graeco-Roman pupils were well-trained in the rhetorical arts and it can be accepted that Paul also had a working knowledge of rhetoric. Rhetorical analysis of the New Testament attempts to study the texts of the New Testament in the light of rhetorical features, as developed by the classical theorists and refined by a modern scholar like Perelman. Since the 1970's rhetorical analysis of the New Testament has flourished, although approaches have varied considerably and not all efforts were convincing. Nevertheless, it has become clear that the rhetorical approach can enrich our understanding of the New Testament, and especially of its letters, considerably. Examples from Romans and Galatians are presented to underscore this point. Since preaching, like rhetoric, aims at convincing and persuading an audience, rhetoric can provide us with important stimuli for the praxis of preaching, as can be demonstrated from the five prescribed phases of preparing a public speech, as well as from the three modes of persuasion: logos, ethos and pathos.

  18. Model for analysis and definition of the governor constants in hydroelectric power; Modelo para analise e definicao das constantes do regulador em usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jose Geraldo Pena de; Koelle, Edmundo; Luvizotto Junior, Edevar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents a complete mathematical and computer model which allows simulating a generic hydroelectric power plant under steady state and transitory regimes, in the extensive time, and also the analysis of the oscillating flows resulting from excitation sources present in the installation, such as vortices in the suction pipe during partial load operation.

  19. Efficient energy applications in industry. Analysis of lighting and compression systems; Aplicacoes energeticamente eficientes na industria. Analises em sistemas de iluminacao e compressao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Marcio Zamboti; Cavalcanti, Evandro Sergio Camelo [Universidade Severino Sombra, Vassouras, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: mzamboti@uss.br; evandro.camelo@mail.com

    2006-07-01

    This article focuses the part of process of Energy Resources Integrated Planning (PIR) performed: the Complete Costs Evaluated (ACC) (Energy analysis at the economic, financial, social and political dimensions) and the evaluated offer energy resources, and a practical application trough of a dynamic performed with participants of the local energy question as well.

  20. "Reforma, autonomia universitaria e interes nacional: analisis de la catedra de economia politica en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota 1933-1938"/"Reforma, autonomia universitaria e interesse nacional: analise da catedra de economia politica na Universidade Nacional da Colombia, Bogota 1933-1938"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bravo, Jose Molina

    2014-01-01

    ... os processos de formacao academica, profissional e intelectual. Aborda o caso da Universidade Nacional da Colombia, na catedra de Economia Politica, da Faculdade de Direito e Ciencias Politicas (1933-1938...

  1. Analysis of monochromatic signals by using data from the detector of Allegro gravitational waves; Analise de sinais monocromaticos utilizando dados do detector de ondas gravitacionais Allegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernanda Gomes de

    2010-07-01

    The present work is developed in the searching for monochromatic gravitational waves signals in ALLEGRO's data. We have two procedures for data analysis based on the periodogram of Welch, which a method for the detection of monochromatic signals in the middle of noise which basically makes power spectrum estimates using averaged modified periodograms. By using this method it was possible to obtain a power spectrum for the data which reinforce peaks due to monochromatic signals. The two procedures of analysis for the years 1997 and 1999, were focused on monitoring a peak that appears in the spectral density of ALLEGRO's detector, so called 'mystery mode' (near 887 Hz). We look for variations in the frequency of the mystery mode that agree with the variation of the Doppler effect. In the rst analysis we have used by the variation of daily and annual Doppler shift. For the second one, we have only searched annual Doppler shift. We have applied the periodogram of Welch in both tests in the raw data of the detector in the search for a real signal and we found some peaks that can be candidates of gravitational radiation only the second analysis. In order to test the method we used in both analysis a simulated gravitational wave signal modulated by the Doppler effect injected in the data. We detected in both methods the artificial signal of GW simulated. Therefore we have reason to conclude that both methods are efficient in the search for monochromatic signals. (author)

  2. The RAM +L analysis methodology: the refinery plants case study; Analise RAM +L: um estudo integrado de varias unidades de producao de uma refinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Bretas, Rogerio [PETROBRAS S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Refinaria Gabriel Passos (REGAP)

    2008-07-01

    The RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) main objective is assess the system and equipment performance in order to identify the critical issues to implement system's improvements. The first step is define equipment failure modes and it's PDF as well as repair time for each failure mode. The second step is modeling system regarding diagram block logic dependency among equipment and its failures which cause system production losses. The third step is simulating model in defined period of time in order to identify critical equipment to propose system improvement. Despite being having been used constantly to assess system performances, those methodology do not consider the logistic complex assumptions in so many cases to huge systems and it RDB logic do not represent the real effect in production losses. Even if that good enough to perform system analysis it's not quite enough to complex system with logistic resources regarding system's products efficiency. By the other way round, in logistic complex system analysis methodologies, equipment failures details are not regarded in so many times, showing that there's a necessary improvement in those analysis. Therefore, the RAM + L analysis is a methodology which regards all equipment failures issues as well as logistic assumptions being a more realistic analysis. The refinery case study Will be propose to demonstrate a new vision of two recognized methodologies regarding a complex system with over than 200 equipment comprising two tanks, two pumps and five Unit Plants as Vacuum Distillation, Atmospheric Distillation, Hydrogen Generation, Diesel Hydrotreating Unit and DEA. (author)

  3. A neural networks based ``trip`` analysis system for PWR-type reactors; Um sistema de analise de ``trip`` em reatores PWR usando redes neuronais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    1993-12-31

    The analysis short after automatic shutdown (trip) of a PWR-type nuclear reactor takes a considerable amount of time, not only because of the great number of variables involved in transients, but also the various equipment that compose a reactor of this kind. On the other hand, the transients`inter-relationship, intended to the detection of the type of the accident is an arduous task, since some of these accidents (like loss of FEEDWATER and station BLACKOUT, for example), generate transients similar in behavior (as cold leg temperature and steam generators mixture levels, for example). Also, the sequence-of-events analysis is not always sufficient for correctly pin point the causes of the trip. (author) 11 refs., 39 figs.

  4. Tensometry technique for X-ray diffraction in applied analysis of welding; Tensometria por tecnica de difracao de raios X aplicada na analise de soldagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turibus, S.N.; Caldas, F.C.M.; Miranda, D.M.; Monine, V.I.; Assis, J.T., E-mail: snturibus@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of residual stress introduced in welding process. As the stress in a material can induce damages, it is necessary to have a method to identify this residual stress state. For this it was used the non-destructive X-ray diffraction technique to analyze two plates from A36 steel jointed by metal inert gas (MIG) welding. The stress measurements were made by the sin{sup 2{psi}} method in weld region of steel plates including analysis of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses in fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal. To determine the stress distribution along the depth of the welded material it was used removing of superficial layers made by electropolishing. (author)

  5. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method; Analise de extratos de plantas medicinais pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed 70 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs

  6. Rational analysis and index of plasticity of clays for extrusion evaluation; Analise racional e indices de plasticidade para avaliacao de extrusao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.R.; Guimaraes Filho, M.A.S.; Santos, C.V.P.; Fagury Neto, E.; Rabelo, A.A., E-mail: adilton25rs@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (FEMAT/UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos

    2011-07-01

    In the microregion Maraba, in the southeast paraense, there's a important industrial park in the area of red ceramic due to the quality of the extracted clays in the proximities of their rivers. With the intention of collaborating for the production of tiles and structural blocks of quality, in this work the rational analysis of clays was accomplished, through the relationship of the qualitative X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence results. Was possible to quantify the present phases in the collected clays and these results were correlated to the Atterberg's limits - plasticity and liquidity limitsand the respective plasticity indexes - making possible to classify the clays in areas of great and acceptable extrusion. The results of the rational analysis demonstrated that the analyzed clays are plastic kaolinites and don't present quantitative differences very accentuated among the present phases detected besides they possess an area of acceptable extrusion naturally. (author)

  7. Analysis of epiphytic lichen species for atmospheric pollutant biomonitoring use; Analise de especies de liquens epifiticos para uso na biomonitoracao de poluentes atmosfericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcelos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Honda, Neil K.; Siqueira, Onofre S. [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2002-07-01

    Lichens are recognized as potential indicators of air pollution and they have been widely studied to be used as biomonitor of heavy metals. In this work, neutron activation analysis method was applied in the analysis of epiphytic lichen species Usnea meridionalis, Parmotrema tinctorum and Parmotrema dilatatum, collected in Vila Piraputanga, MS, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, V and Zn were determined at the levels of {mu}g g{sup -1} and As, Cs, Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se, Th and lanthanide elements at ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained showed that these three lichen species could be used in the environmental biomonitoring purposes. The precision and the accuracy of the results were also evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials IAEA 336 Lichen and 1547 NIST Peach Leaves. (author)

  8. Availability analysis of high voltage substations considering its main equipment; Analise de disponibilidade de subestacoes de alta tensao considerando seus principais equipamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: ricardo.santos@ufabc.edu.br; Basseto, B.A.; Cugnasca, P.S.; Almeida Junior, J.R.; Camargo Junior, J.B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Emails: ricardo.santos@ufabc.edu.br, joao.camargo@poli.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the availability of electric power substations, based on Monte Carlo simulation and Fault Tree Analysis, which can be used in a larger way, considering various scenarios, usually founded. The main fallouts modes considered in the availability analysis of power systems, as well as the main methods applied to reach this goal are discussed. The availability indexes of the Monte Carlos simulation are sufficient to indicate the critical points of the power system, and to make comparisons between different substations, related to the performance levels. Through these indexes it is possible to evaluate the impact of a switching action in a determined substation. For this, the substation studied indexes are compared before and after the switching action be considered to the substation in reference.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of medullar and cortical bone tissues from animals; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de tecidos osseos medular e cortical de animais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Marcelo Kazuo; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    2000-07-01

    In this work, neutron activation analysis was applied in the determination of the elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr and Zn present in animal bone tissues. The obtained results indicated a significant difference between the elemental concentrations present in medullar and cortical tissues. The results obtained for bone tissues from distinct animal species were also different. (author)

  10. Appreciation of environmental risks analysis methodologies in the offshore well drilling activities; Analise de metodologias na avaliacao de riscos ambientais relacionados as atividades de perfuracao de pocos maritimos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampolli, Daniella M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the projects of products and processes are supposed to integrate environmental risks criteria, in addition to their inherent operation impacts. Industrial activities, in general, generate risks to the environment, and, in case of incidents occurrence, many of the possible consequences can be translated into serious impacts. The Risk Analysis is destined to act as a decision tool in the environmental area, and therefore, the use of one of these during the project phase of an enterprise becomes important, aiming the guarantee of the system reliability. The present article has the purpose of analyzing methodologies that are being employed for the environmental risk analysis, as well as usual procedures applied in the oil industry, specially for the offshore wells drilling, evaluating and discussing their peculiarities and possible improvement. It was intended to obtain a general overview of risk analysis methodologies, with the objective of verifying the existence of some characteristics that would positively contribute for the knowledge of the inherent risks in the activities of petroleum installations, where this kind of learning is something extremely technically necessary and legally mandatory. (author)

  11. Decomposition analysis of the variations in household electricity consumption in Brazil; Analise de decomposicao das variacoes no consumo de energia eletrica no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla da Costa Lopes

    2009-09-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this thesis, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The results obtained in a preliminary analysis point out, in a general way, that the observed variables in electricity consumption in the Brazilian residential sector are, mainly, the product of the increase in the number of consumers and the changes in the specific consumption of electricity in households. In a further analysis, carried out when the structure is given through consumers participation in consumption categories (Low Income and Conventional) taken from an overall point of view, although the intensity and activity effects may be considered the main explaining factors in consumption variation, the structure effect stands out in the period immediately after the 2001 rationing, as a reflect of the changes in the inclusion criteria in the Low Income category, specifically in the Northeast. (author)

  12. Thermoeconomic and exegetic analysis of a cogeneration proposal by using natural gas in breweries; Analise termoeconomica e exergetica de uma proposta de cogeracao usando gas natural em cervejarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara do Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica e de Producao]. E-mail: agallego@unimep.br; gmartins@unimep.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work the thermo economic method is used for analysis of the cost distribution in a cogeneration power plant proposed for a brewery in the Campinas - state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The thermal process energy demands were considered for beer production in 1997. The proposed cogeneration system consists of two gas turbines with recovering boiler and ammonium compression cooling system. The present power generation configuration and the cogeneration proposed performance were simulated in a monthly basis, considering the month steam and refrigeration requests. The gas turbines were simulated considering the nominal load and the energy surplus sold to the concessionaire.

  13. Biodiesel and employment and income generation: an analysis of input-output; Biodiesel e geracao de emprego e renda: uma analise de insumo-produto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Thomas Krisp de; Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Economia], e-mail: thomaskl@ig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This article analysis the National Program of Biodiesel Production, and presents a methodology to estimate the direct and indirect effects of employment and wages generation using the Input-Output Model developed by Leontief. Four different simulations are carried out, but even in the most optimistic case, the results presented by the Government exceed considerably the estimates obtained using data from the Brazilian national accounts. The main recommendation is that these estimates need to be redone, in order to present more realistic expectations for the job and income generation from the expansion of the bio diesel. (author)

  14. Amino acids analysis using grouping and parceling of neutrons cross sections techniques; Analise de aminoacidos atraves das tecnicas do agrupamento e parcelamento de secoes de choque para neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante Luiz Voi [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Helio Fenandes da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira

    2002-07-01

    Amino acids used in parenteral administration in hospital patients with special importance in nutritional applications were analyzed to compare with the manufactory data. Individual amino acid samples of phenylalanine, cysteine, methionine, tyrosine and threonine were measured with the neutron crystal spectrometer installed at the J-9 irradiation channel of the 1 kW Argonaut Reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN). Gold and D{sub 2}O high purity samples were used for the experimental system calibration. Neutron cross section values were calculated from chemical composition, conformation and molecular structure analysis of the materials. Literature data were manipulated by parceling and grouping neutron cross sections. (author)

  15. Development of a methodology for radionuclide impurity analysis in radiopharmaceuticals using gamma spectrometry; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para analise de impurezas radionuclidicas em radiofarmacos por espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Eduardo Bonfim de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Poledna, Roberto; Lins, Ronaldo; Leiras, Anderson; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: bonfim@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: miriamtaina@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The LNMRI has sought to develop a methodology for the identification and accurate detection of gamma radiation impurities stations in metrological level, aiming to meet the recommendations not only of international pharmacopoeia, as well as the CNEN and ANVISA regarding the quality control can ensure patients the doses received by the practices are as low as feasible. As an initial target, it was possible to obtain an efficiency curve with uncertainty around 1% necessary to initiate future measurements of interest applied to nuclear medicine and to start the development of impurities analysis technique. (author)

  16. Energetic intensity and exportation: an analysis of the period 1997-2004; Intensidade energetica e exportacao: uma analise do periodo 1997-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Munir Younes; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)]. E-mails: munir@iee.usp.br; muniryounes@yahoo.com.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br; Cavaliero, Karla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: cavaliero@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze the course of industrial energy intensity from 1997 to 2004. A historical retrospective was done in order to explain how the Brazilian industrial option has been influencing the profile of this index, demonstrating that Brazil is following a different trajectory in comparison to the developed countries. To achieve this, an analysis was conducted of the whole metallurgical industry, along with the paper, cellulose and mineral industries and the total Brazilian Industry. The energy intensity, the elasticity energy consume product and the export quantum indicators were calculated for the industry and for each sub sector. To conclude, the results will be discussed and commented. (author)

  17. Development of numerical methodology for stress analysis in fuel element nozzles; Desenvolvimento de metodologia numerica para analise de tensoes nos bocais de elementos combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrilho, Leo A.; Dotto, Rosvita M. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Resende, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Jayme P. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Calculations of stresses and deformations of the bottom end piece of fuel elements of Angra-2 were performed with finite element method for the load case handling, zero load cold and full power operation, considering the same load of the actual and well established methodology, but applying shell elements instead of solid. The obtained results show that the application of this element is conservative and shall be used in future mechanical analysis of design alterations of this component when performed by the INB engineering group. (author)

  18. Analysis of tables, murals, grids and chassis available for conventional diagnostic radiology; Analise de mesas, murais, grades e chassis disponiveis para radiologia diagnostica convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Wilson Otto; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica], e-mail: wilson@cefetnet.com.br, e-mail: mvtn@cefetba.br; Ferreira, Mario de Jesus [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: mario@cefetba.br

    2003-07-01

    Tables, bucky, grids, chassis and their combinations produced by several industries have been analysed, verifying and quantifying the attenuation in order to confront the results with the national and international recommendations. The results have shown that some of those tables do not satisfy the national requirements and for that reason increasing the patient dose. As the dose measurements are performed on the table or bucky, the analysis normally is not considered for quality control verifications and have to be considered, as those parts are positioned among the patient and the image receptor (radiological film) influenced the skin dose.

  19. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a cogeneration system burning municipal solid wastes; Analises energetica e exergetica de centrais de cogeracao a partir de residuos solidos municipais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia

    1999-07-01

    Nowadays, face to the potential lack of fossil fuels in a near future, the discussion on the use of biomass and municipal solid wastes is increasing. When differential costs are considered in comparison to the other electricity generation options in a new scenery of availability and prices it is possible to wonder the feasibility of municipal solid wastes cogeneration systems not necessarily because of its economic attractiveness but specially by the solution of environmental impacts. This article aims to present a thermodynamic analysis of first and second laws in a steam cycle cogeneration system proposed to supply electricity and saturated steam to an industrial park. (author)

  20. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos dieteticos pela tecnica de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siquelli, Murilo V.; Maihara, Vera A. Maihara [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: murilo_siquelli@hotmail.com; vmaihara@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  1. Identification of energy gain potential in industrial processes, through exergetic analysis; Identificacao de potenciais de ganho energetico em processos industriais via analise exergetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira; Bernardes, Lucas Lanza; Filgueiras, Pedro Freire [V e M do Brasil S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    V and M Brazil is an integrated steel mill for the production of steel tubes. The manufacturing process includes various processes and thermal equipment, such as industrial furnaces, boilers, and others. Due to its importance, it is essential that these devices operate with the best possible efficiency. Thus, it becomes necessary to use tools and methods for performance analysis of energy processes that occurs on these devices. One tool that has been widely used in industrial environment is the exergy analysis. It is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and therefore takes into account the entropy generation, indicating the maximum amount of useful energy (work) that can be drawn from a stream, with reference to environmental parameters. This paper aims to apply the exergetic methodology in industrial thermal processes that occurs at V and M Brazil, as a tool for identification of losses and potential performance improvement of energy systems to save on fuel and the reduction of environmental impacts and emissions of greenhouse gases. (author)

  2. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  3. Investment analysis in hydraulic energy generation by using the real options theory; Analise de investimentos em geracao hidraulica utilizando a teoria de opcoes reais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, J.C. Caminha; Lima, J.W. Marangon [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: juliaccn@unifei.edu.br; marangon@unifei.edu.br; Ferreira, T.G. Leite [Associacao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproducao de Energia Eletrica (ABIAPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: tiago@abiape.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology of investment analysis in power plants using the Real Option Theory. Particularly, the investment opportunity of a hydro plant is valued based on the energy that will be traded at the new energy auction using the Brazilian Development Bank - BNDES financing program for the Generation of electric energy (new energy). Since this kind of project involves a multistage investment consisting of design, construction and operation phases, it can be treated as a sequential compound option. A binomial approach was elaborated to model this investment opportunity analysis. This approach models the uncertainties in setting up the cash flow for the investments and incorporates some possible managerial flexibility associated with the decision taken along the investment forecast. The proposed methodology will be described in parallel with an example of a real hydro-plant in which we incorporated the flexibilities regarding the decision to invest in each step of the project and an build phase abandon option, representing the transfer of concession rights after the auction. (author)

  4. Pre-salt new regulatory mark and the economic order: constitutionality analysis; Novo marco regulatorio do pre-sal e a ordem economica: analise de constitucionalidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Marcela Brasil Pedrosa; Araujo, Mayara de Carvalho; Xavier, Yanko Marcius; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The discovery of vast reserves of hydrocarbons in the pre-salt layer that extends from Espirito Santo to Santa Catarina, added with the economic and strategic value of oil and natural gas, has brought discussion about the reasonableness of the regulatory model adopted so far. Would be prudent to explore these resources through the concession model? From detailed analysis of the doctrinal and bills that aim to inaugurate the new regulatory bills, we sought to answer this question, based majorly on the principles of economic activity applied in our constitutional system. Motivated by the analysis of these constitutional principles proposed, the State is seen as a regulating agent of the economic activities, fulfilling its role to supervise, encourage and plan the direction of national economic system. The sharing model gives greater state involvement and is able to convert the wealth of pre-salt in citizenship, but only if well implemented. Thus, based on constitutional principles and the notion of development as freedom, the conclusion of this paperwork is for the constitutionality of the new regulatory bills. (author)

  5. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students; Interpretacao de anomalias craniofaciais em TC. Analise comparativa por alunos de graduacao em Odontologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Perella, Andreia; Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT) and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT) of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students) with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an independent workstation associated with a specific computer graphics software for volumetric images. The analysis of inter-examiner agreement and of the agreement between observers and the gold standard was performed using the Kappa test. The accuracy evaluation presented a progressively higher value for examiners with progressively broader experience in 2D-CT and 3D-CT image interpretation. 3D-CT analyses allowed a higher inter-examiner agreement (1 - 0.896) than 2D-CT analyses (1 - 0.614). 3D-CT was considered more precise and accurate than 2D-CT for all students' evaluations. The reproducibility and accuracy varied according to the experience in CT interpretation, and the most experienced student achieved results closer to the gold standard. (author)

  6. Fault detection in bars axially loaded by the analysis of its longitudinal displacement; Deteccao de falhas em barras solicitadas axialmente pela analise do seu deslocamento longitudinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, J.L.; Irmao, M.A.S.; Araujo, A.L.; Silva, A.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    Structures and mechanical components, subjects to conditions of loading in operation, accumulate faults during your useful lives. The detection and condition monitoring of the faults is essential of the point of view of the efficiency and safety. Efforts have been accomplished, in the sense of constituting models and methodologies that indicate the most opportune moment for the shut down industrial plant, seeking your maintenance. In the present work, it intends an alternative method for the detection and the condition monitoring of faults in a cantilever bar by the analysis of your longitudinal displacement. The methodology is constituted basically in simulating the computational model of the bar for Finite Element Method (FEM), where the faults are characterized by one of the elements with reduced transverse section. The existence of two classes of angular coefficients is noticed, that will be the analysis parameters, where the first tells respect the intact element and the second the damaged element, both different ones for each position and depth of simulated faults. The same ones are thrown as input in a Artificial Neural Networks, that once trained is capable to identify the position and the depth efficiently in that meets the faults. (author)

  7. Comparative analysis of monetizing technologies for the use of offshore natural gas; Analise comparativa das tecnologias embarcadas de aproveitamento de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biruel Junior, Jose

    2008-09-15

    The growing world need for natural gas, the issue of offshore oil and associated gas exploration in regions constantly farther from the consumer market, and the law restrictions due to greenhouses gases emissions have stimulated the development of technologies intended to monetizing stranded gas reserves. In order to compare these technologies, a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis Methodology, based on fuzzy parameters, has been developed. The Methodology enables specialists to define analysis dimensions and criteria as well as to assign weight and ratings by means of linguistic variables, resulting in a general performance index for each technology. The Methodology has been applied in a case study to compare the floating technologies FCNG (Floating Compressed Natural Gas), FLNG (Floating Liquefied Natural Gas), FGTL (Floating Gas-to-Liquid) and FGTW (Floating Gas-to- Wire). The efficacy of the Methodology depends on the comprehensiveness and quality of the information provided. Therefore, this dissertation presents a study of these technologies, placing strong emphasis on the Technological Dimension. The Methodology allows for the identification of the drawbacks of each technology so as to especially conduct R and D efforts to improve their competitiveness. (author)

  8. Fault detection in bars axially loaded by the analysis of its longitudinal displacement; Deteccao de falhas em barras solicitadas axialmente pela analise do seu deslocamento longitudinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, J.L.; Irmao, M.A.S.; Araujo, A.L.; Silva, A.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    Structures and mechanical components, subjects to conditions of loading in operation, accumulate faults during your useful lives. The detection and condition monitoring of the faults is essential of the point of view of the efficiency and safety. Efforts have been accomplished, in the sense of constituting models and methodologies that indicate the most opportune moment for the shut down industrial plant, seeking your maintenance. In the present work, it intends an alternative method for the detection and the condition monitoring of faults in a cantilever bar by the analysis of your longitudinal displacement. The methodology is constituted basically in simulating the computational model of the bar for Finite Element Method (FEM), where the faults are characterized by one of the elements with reduced transverse section. The existence of two classes of angular coefficients is noticed, that will be the analysis parameters, where the first tells respect the intact element and the second the damaged element, both different ones for each position and depth of simulated faults. The same ones are thrown as input in a Artificial Neural Networks, that once trained is capable to identify the position and the depth efficiently in that meets the faults. (author)

  9. Would be the photon a composed particle? / Sobre a possibilidade da quantiza\\c{c}\\~ao dos fluxos de campo na radia\\c{c}\\~ao eletromagn\\'etica

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Celso de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Here it is made a comparative analysis between the classical and the quantum expressions for the energy of electromagnetic radiation (ER). The comparison points to the possibility of the quantization of the magnetic and the electric field fluxes in the ER. ----- Apresenta-se uma an\\'alise comparativa entre as express\\~oes cl\\'assica e qu\\^antica para a energia da radia\\c{c}\\~ao eletromagn\\'etica (RE). A compara\\c{c}\\~ao nos aponta para a possibilidade de haver uma quantiza\\c{c}\\~ao dos fluxos dos campos magn\\'etico e el\\'etrico na RE.

  10. Statistical analysis tool for radionuclide source evaluation in ground water; Analise estatistica como ferramenta para avaliar fontes de radionuclideos em aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Almeida, Rodrigo M.R. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2005-07-01

    Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and land use planning. This paper address a groundwater survey in an area where intensive agricultural activity takes place with the aim of evaluating factors affecting groundwater quality. For this study, 25 samples of groundwaters were collected from dug wells and major ion concentrations, radioactive isotopes and physico-chemical parameters were determined. As a result of the analysis around 73 % of the samples had levels of contaminants, as NO{sub 3}, Fe and radioactivity that exceed the maximum contaminant level for tap water. The groundwater clustering based on water chemistry pointed out the land fertilization as one of the factors that could be responsible for the water contamination. (author)

  11. Numerical analysis of the actual airflow in a solar chimney; Analise numerica do escoamento real de ar em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andre G.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Valle, Ramon M.; Brasil, Cristiana S. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ferreira@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; tite@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection of the airflow in a solar chimney, under actual solar radiation conditions. The solar chimneys are devices that consist of a transparent radial cover and of a tubular tower positioned in its center. The ground absorbs part of the incident solar radiation on the cover, heating the air in the greenhouse and inducing an upward airflow on the tower. It was developed a model that allows the evaluation of the ground temperature as a function of an energetic balance involving the incident solar radiation. The flow is described by the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model (k and e ). A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve these equations. Outlet dimensionless parameters are presented as functions of the radiation time and conditions, besides the unsteady behavior of the ground surface temperature. (author)

  12. Analysis of cogeneration system using fuel cell: cases study; Analise de sistema de cogeracao utilizando celula de combustivel: estudo de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Leal, Elisangela Martins [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: joseluz@feg.unesp.br; elisange@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the study of a molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration system associated to an absorption refrigeration system, for the electricity and cold water production, and applied to two establishments, is presented. This system permits the recovery of waste heat, available between 600 deg C e 700 deg C. Initially, some technical information about the most diffusing types of the fuel cell demonstration in the world are presented. In the next step, an energetic, exergetic and economic analysis are carry out, seeking the use of fuel cells, in conditions of prices and interest of Brazil. In conclusion, the fuel cell cogeneration system may have an excellent opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in the Brazilian energy scene. (author)

  13. Photovoltaic energy: environmental and economic analysis of axis solar trackers for photovoltaic installations; Energia fotovoltaica: analise economica ambiental de seguidores solares para instalacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Andrea Galvao; Bertolon, Expedito; Pacca, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EACH/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades. Curso de Gestao Ambiental

    2008-07-01

    In this work we present an economic assessment photovoltaic systems using single axis and dual axis solar trackers. The analysis was carried out for the city of Sao Paulo and the results show that in comparison with fixed installations, the single axis system and the dual axis system produce respectively 19.6% and 24.7% more power. The power output of the dual axis system is 4.3% greater than the power output of the single axis system. Considering an annual discount rate of 12% and the equipment cost, the cost of the surplus energy due to the use of the single axis and the dual axis trackers was R$0.25/kWh and R$0.18/kWh. Because the average cost of electricity produced by photovoltaic modules is R$3/kWh, we recommend the installation of solar trackers. (author)

  14. Multicriteria analysis of the hybrid systems with biogas: fuzzy set and rules; Analise multicriterio de sistemas hibridos com biogas: conjuntos e regras fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barin, A.; Canha, L.; Abaide, A.; Magnago, K. [Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)], E-mail: chbarin@gmail.com; Machado, R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], E-mail: rquadros@sel.eesc.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    A multicriteria analysis to manage de renewable sources of energy is presented, identifying the most appropriate hybrid system to be used as distributed generation of electric energy using biogas. In this methodology, fuzzy sets and rules are defined simulated in the software MATLAB, where the main characteristics of the operation and application of hybrid systems of electric power generation are considered. The main generation system, that can use the biogas, as micro turbines and fuel cells, are evaluated. Afterwards, the systems of energy storage are analyzed: flywheel, H{sub 2} storage and conventional and redox batteries. For the development of the proposed methodology, it was considered the following criteria: efficiency, costs, technological maturity, environmental impacts, the amplitude of the system action (power range), useful life, co-generation possibility and operation temperature. A classification, by priority order, for the use of the sources and storages associated to the environment and cost scenarios is also presented.

  15. Sensitivity analysis for heat diffusion in a fin on a nuclear fuel element; Analise de sensitividade na difusao de calor em uma aleta de um elemento combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tito, Max Werner de Carvalho

    2001-11-15

    The modern thermal systems generally present a growing complexity, as is in the case of nuclear power plants. It seems that is necessary the use of complex computation and mathematical tools in order to increase the efficiency of the operations, reduce costs and maximize profits while maintaining the integrity of its components. The use of sensitivity calculations plays an important role in this process providing relevant information regarding the resultant influence of variation or perturbation of its parameters as the system works. This technique is better known as sensitivity analysis and through its use makes possible the understanding of the effects of the parameters, which are fundamental for the project preparation, and for the development of preventive and corrective handling measurements of many pieces of equipment of modern engineering. The sensitivity calculation methodology is based generally on the response surface technique (graphic description of the functions of interest based in the results obtained from the system parameter variation). This method presents a lot of disadvantages and sometimes is even impracticable since many parameters can cause alterations or perturbations to the system and the model to analyse it can be very complex as well. The utilization of perturbative methods result appropriate as a practical solution to this problem especially in the presence of complex equations. Also it reduces the resultant computational calculus time considerably. The use of these methods becomes an essential tool to simplify the sensitivity analysis. In this dissertation, the differential perturbative method is applied in a heat conduction problem within a thermal system, made up of a one-dimensional circumferential fin on a nuclear fuel element. The fins are used to extend the thermal surfaces where convection occurs; thus increasing the heat transfer to many thermal pieces of equipment in order to obtain better results. The finned claddings are

  16. Analysis of the alcohols, esters and carbonyl compounds in fusel oil samples; Analise dos alcoois, esteres e compostos carbonilicos em amostras de oleo fusel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Eduardo R.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica Molecular. E-mail: douglas@iqsc.sc.usp.br

    2001-02-01

    Analysis of alcohols, esters and carbonyl compounds were performed using HRGC and HPLC techniques in samples of fusel oils from three different Brazilian alcohol distilleries. High content of isoamyl alcohol (390 deg c g.L{sup -1})., isobutyl alcohol (158 g.L{sup -1}), ethyl alcohol (28,4 g.L{sup -1}), methyl alcohol (16,6 g.L{sup -1}) and n-propyl alcohol (11,9 g.L{sub -}{sup 1}) were found. These compounds represent 77 {+-} 8% of the approximated weight of a liter of fusel oils. The obtained results show the feasibility of using fusel oils as low-cost raw material for the synthesis of chemicals. (author)

  17. Oil field decision analysis based on technical-economic indicators; Analise de decisao baseada em indicadores tecnico-economicos para um campo petrolifero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravagnani, Ana Teresa Gaspar; Munoz Mazo, Eduin; Schiozer, Denis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo. Lab. de Simulacao de Fluxo em Meios Porosos (UNISIM)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a case study consisting of a synthetic offshore field in deep water and 28 deg API oil representing a gas solution model with water injection without gas cap. Several alternatives of strategies are proposed, regarding different configurations and number of wells, besides different limits of injection and production rates, as well as, completion layers. The objective is to show that different strategies can be obtained according to the indicator chosen by the decision maker. Even when the Net Present Value (NPV) is a very used indicator in the investment analysis, with the utilization of other technical-economical indicators, other investment alternatives different from those proposed when just VPL is utilized, can become feasible. Additionally, other aspects are analyzed, such as the possibility of changes in the production capacity with other oil prices levels. It is also proposed the production strategy optimization in this work, changing the time of production and the injection/production rate limits. (author)

  18. An integrated framework for risk analysis and management applied to E and P; Modelo integrado de analise e gestao de riscos em E and P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repsold Junior, Hugo; Giamattey, Ricardo H.D.; Miranda, Thales R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current challenges associated with the Oil an Gas industry demand a great capacity in planning, executing and managing activities from the major players. Accordingly, this paper proposes an integrated framework for risk analysis and management in the E and P sector whose main objective is to ensure that the expected benefits from an efficient resource allocation will be achieved. Firstly, the methodology presents a framework designed to help implementing a risk management process. Besides that, it also addresses the organizational structure needed to enforce the process. Finally, it highlights the sub processes which should be inherently linked to the company's business process. To conclude, the paper discusses how to take advantage from this process to create corporate knowledge. (author)

  19. Probabilistic risk analysis of casing drilling operation for an onshore Brazilian well; Analise probabilistica de risco de uma operacao de casing drilling para um poco terrestre no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacinto, Carlos M.C.; Petersen, Flavia C.; Placido, Joao C.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Pauli A.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, one presents an approach to hazard identification and risks quantification concerning the use of retrievable BHA, of a casing drilling system, in 12 1/4 phase of an onshore well. The adopted approach can be subdivided as: execution of a hazard and operability study; prioritization of critical deviance; modeling of critical deviance by mean of event sequence diagram, fault tree and Bayesian network; modeling and simulation of a dynamic decision tree and experts' opinion analysis. As results, one has obtained: the time distribution to achieve the different ends modeled in the decision tree, i.e., sidetrack, or operation canceling, or success; the probabilities to achieve each modeled end and all recommendation to improve the success probability. The approach proved to be efficient in order that it presents significant results to support the decisions involving the casing drilling operations. (author)

  20. Thermal analysis of a solar collector consisting of V cavities for water heating; Analise termica de um coletor solar composto de cavidades V para aquecimento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Michel Fabio de Souza

    2009-03-15

    The solar water heating is carried through, in Brazil, by means of solar heaters compound for collectors flat plate of the type plate-and-pipes, devices that operate in stationary position and they do not require tracking of the sun. A compound collector for some formed V-trough concentrators can be an alternative to the conventional solar collectors flat plate. This compound collector for V-trough is considered, each one, for side-walls which are specularly reflecting surfaces associates in V (equivalent to a triangular gutter). Next to the vertex to each V-trough concentrators an absorber tube is fixed, for flow of the fluid to be heated. Interconnection of the absorbers tubes forms a similar tubular network existing in solar collectors of the type the plate and pipe. V-trough concentrators with the absorbers tubes are made use in series in the interior a prismatic box, which have one of its faces consisting by a glass covering and directed toward incidence of the solar radiation. An analysis of thermal performance of these devices operating stationary and without tracking of the sun is researched. A mathematical model for the computational simulation of the optical and thermal performance of these concentrative devices is elaborated, whose implementation was carried through software EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The efficiency optics of V-trough concentrators with cylindrical absorbers is calculated from the adaptation of the methodology used for Fraidenraich (1994), proposal for Hollands (1971) for V-trough cavities with plain absorbers. The thermal analysis of the considered collector was based on the applied methodology the CPC for Hsieh (1981) and Leao (1989). Relative results to the thermal performance of V-trough concentrators suggest that these configurations are not competitive, technique and economically, with the conventional plain collectors. Although some geometric configurations presented next thermal efficiencies to the conventional plain

  1. Determinação de nitrito/nitrato e amônio/fosfato em sistema de analise em fluxo, empregando o conceito da multicomutação e amostragem binária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. O. Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de análise em fluxo foram propostos visando a mecanização de procedimentos analíticos, permitindo realizar com eficiência tarefas previamente executadas pelo analista e aumentar a quantidade de amostras que poderiam ser processadas por unidade de tempo. Desde então a maioria das etapas envolvidas em procedimentos analíticos como amostragem, adições de reagentes, separações, diluições, pré-concentrações, etc em sido desenvolvidos. O presente trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de procedimentos analíticos em fluxo empregando o conceito de multicomutação e amostragem binária com detecção espectrofotométrica para a determinação de nitrito/nitrato, amônio/fosfato e, seu emprego na avaliação preliminar das águas do Rio Grande, que recebe uma grande quantidade de aporte antropico (esgoto in natura de vários bairros da cidade de Barreiras-BA. Os sistemas em fluxo proposto se mostraram robustos e flexível para a determinação dos analitos estudados, sendo possível a determinação de diferentes espécies.com o mesmo módulo de análise alterando-se apenas a estrutura lógica (programação ou gerenciamento do módulo de análise. Entre os resultados obtidos nas análises, foi possível se obter parâmetros preliminares de concentração das espécies do rio Grande.

  2. Analysis and simulation of water supply systems with photovoltaic pumping; Analise e simulacao de sistemas de abastecimento de agua com tecnologia fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Olga de Castro

    1996-09-01

    During the last two decades, a remarkable progress on the technology of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVP) has been observed. The decrease in the costs of the photovoltaic module and the increase in the efficiency of photovoltaic pumping systems (generator and motor-pump) make PVP systems a good option for rural communities. Most analysis and simulations of PVP systems, utility function, assume the existence of a linear relationship between the hydraulic power and the solar collected radiation. Usually, more general relations exist between those variables. This work presents a new procedure for the analysis and simulation of PVP systems, which uses the utility function to consider the fluctuations in solar radiation, and leads to analytical solutions for PVP systems whose behavior can be represented by general functions, including linear relations as a particular case. The system analyzed considers the energy source (solar radiation) and the components of the water supply system like water source, photovoltaic array, subsystem for conversion of electric into hydraulic energy and, finally, hydraulic network. An analytical procedure to calculate absorbed solar radiation in the optical layers of the photovoltaic module was developed, substituting the conventional ray tracing method. The volume of pumped water was obtained integrating the water flow rate through time, considering the fluctuations related to the behavior of solar radiation and the minimum level of radiation necessary to produce useful energy. The mathematical properties of the utility function allow to derive analytical solutions for the integrals of water flow and hydraulic power. At the same time, we developed a spreadsheet which allows tho visualize the behavior of all variables involved in the process and offers the possibility of simulating different situations in order to maximize the amount of pumped water for any given system. The results obtained through the new procedure were compared with

  3. Analysis of the impact of batteries behaviour on stand-alone photovoltaic systems; Analise do impacto do comportamento de baterias em sistemas fotovoltaicos autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Luis Horacio

    2009-08-15

    Stand-alone photovoltaic systems are a suitable alternative for rural electrification. However, there are still problems to be solved, mainly related to the system design and the technical quality of the equipment and facilities, which impacts the systems reliability. To determine the factors that affect the reliability of these systems it were studied the most common configurations and associated failures. The Laboratory experimental research, together with an extensive literature review, show the basic technical problems that occur to each of the elements of the installation and the dependence between them. These studies have shown that the storage the system, considering system reliability and economy, is the weakest element due to the decrease of their storage capacity. This led to consider the storage systems as the focus of this study and, through the analysis of their behavior, to develop a procedure to size systems with high reliability, lower cost and appropriate configuration. The impact of batteries on the technical reliability and economic viability of photovoltaic systems is determined. It was achieved through experimental testing and the development and adjustment of mathematical models. These models were implemented to preexisting software called PVSize. The improved software allows the calculation of different configurations of systems and to determine the loss of load probability and the figures of merit associated to the chosen economic-financial project. On this work was installed a photovoltaic system and was developed a battery testing system. The values measured in these systems allow to verify the mathematical models that describe the behavior of each device and characterize the components of the system. Experimental analysis of the behavior of a bank of batteries along a year showed that the connection of batteries in parallel accelerates the batteries degradation process, and this degradation has differentiated impact on the loss of

  4. Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil; Analise de perigos e pontos criticos de controle para alimentos irradiados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

    2004-07-01

    Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions

  5. Analysis of natural radionuclides and lead in foods and diets; Analise de radionuclideos naturais e chumbo em produtos alimenticios e dietas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Luciana

    1999-07-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to determine the lead-210, polonium-210 and lead concentrations in foods and diets. Consumption of food is generally the main route by which radionuclides can enter the human organism. Precision and accuracy of the methods developed were verifies by the analysis of reference materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The method for polonium-210 analysis consisted of sample dissolution by using a microwave digester (open system) employing concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, evaporation almost dryness, addition of hydrochloric acid, polonium deposition onto silver disc for six hours and counting by alpha spectrometry. Lead was analysed by atomic absorption technique. After sample dissolution in a microwave digester (using concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) and dilution to 50 ml, 20{mu}l of the sample was injected in a pyrolytic graphite furnace - atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with Zeeman background correction. The assessment of the contaminants in foods and diets allowed to estimate the intake of these elements and for the radionuclides were also evaluated the radiation doses that the individuals selected were exposed by the food consumption. The effective dose for lead-210 by diets intake ranged from 1.3 to 4.3 {mu}Sv/year, corresponding to 25% of the resulting from polonium-210 intake. The dose due to the both natural radionuclides varied from 6.8 to 23.0 {mu}Sv/year. These values are in good agreement with the literature data. The value estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1993) that is 60 {mu}Sv and lower than the dose of 0.02 Sv, limit established by ICRP, 1980. The lead levels found in the majority of the Brazilian foods are in good agreement with the values published by CONAT and FAO/WHO. However, some foods such as bean, potato, papaya, apple and rice present levels above of the recommended values by the

  6. Quantitative analysis of properties of petroleum mixtures by near infrared spectroscopy; Analise quantitativa de propriedades de misturas de petroleos via espectrofotometria no infravermelho proximo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leila M.; Silva, Elisangela B.; Fortuny, Montserrat; Dariva, Claudio; Santos, Alexandre F. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP); Araujo, Augusto M. [Siemens Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, Raquel C.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study is carried out aiming to develop a method of quantitative analysis of properties of petroleum mixtures, such as water and asphaltene contents, heavy oil concentration and viscosity based on the use of a NIR spectrophotometer. A strategy of generation of crude oil mixtures with known properties was developed to help calibrating the NIR spectrophotometer. Petroleum mixtures involving 2 or 3 oils under known ratios were prepared based on a set of different light and heavy Brazilian crude oil samples. Moreover, experimental data of 5 binary mixtures were also assembled into a data set named multi-compound. Results indicated that excellent calibration models can be obtained for binary mixtures with correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) greater than 99% for water and asphaltene contents, viscosity and heavy oil concentration. For ternary systems, excellent correlations (R{sup 2}>99%) can be attained for asphaltene and heavy oil contents. Finally for the multi-compound data set, the asphaltene content was the only property that resulted in R{sup 2}>99%, which demonstrates the adequacy of the NIR technique for assessing this property. (author)

  7. Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

    2009-04-15

    The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

  8. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em cogumelos comestiveis por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-07-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  9. An object-oriented computational model for combined cycle cogeneration analysis; Um modelo computacional para analise de ciclos combinados para projetos de sistemas de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre M. da; Balestieri, Jose A.P.; Magalhaes Filho, Paulo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: amarcial@uol.com.br; perella@feg.unesp.br; pfilho@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the use of computational resources in a simulation procedure to predict the performance of combined cycle cogeneration systems in which energetic analysis is used in the modeling. Thermal demand of a consuming process are used as the main entrance data and, associated to the performance characteristics of each component of the system, it is evaluated the influence of some parameters of the system such as thermal efficiency and global efficiency. The computational language is Visual Basic for Applications associated to an electronic sheet. Two combined cycle cogeneration schemes are pre-defined: one is composed of a gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine with one extraction, in which both are connected to the different pressure level process plant; the other scheme has a difference a two extraction-condensing steam turbine instead of the back pressure one. Some illustrative graphics are generated for allowing comparison of the appraised systems. The strategy of the system simulation is obtained by carefully linking the information of various components according to the flow diagrams. (author)

  10. Determination os essential elements in diet and light foods using neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos diet e light por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Gerson Hideo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: gehideo@gmail.com; Maihara, Vera Akiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The object of this study was to determine essential elements on the diet and light foods and their normal similar through the neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare their results. Samples of sweetning, cappuccino, gelatine and chocolate collected at the Sao Paulo commerce were irradiated by a period of 8 hours, under a 10{sup 12} n cm{sub -2} s{sub -1} thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 research reactor - IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil, together with reference materials and elementary standards, for the determination the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Co, K, Na, Fe, Se and Zn. The obtained results shown that the diet gelatine samples presented concentrations higher for determined elements related to the light and normal gelatines samples. Compared with cappucino samples there was not differences among the concentrations of the determined elements, excepted the element Cr for the cappuccino light. For the chocolate light they presents higher values related to the normal type. The sweetening did not present differences among the samples. (author)

  11. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition; Analise por ativacao neutronica por fontes alternativas de fosforo para a nutricao animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canella, Artur A.; Ferreira, Walter M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria]. E-mail: avelara@ufmg.br; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  12. Morphologic characterization and quantitative analysis on in vitro bacteria by nuclear techniques of measurement; Caracterizacao morfologica e analise quantitativa de bacterias in vitro por tecnicas nucleares de medidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joana D' Arc Ramos

    2001-10-01

    The great difficulty to identify microorganisms (bacteria) from infectious processes is related to the necessary time to obtain a reliable result, about 72 hours. The purpose of this work is to establish a faster method to characterize bacterial morphologies through the use of neutron radiography, which can take about 5 hours. The samples containing the microorganisms, bacteria with different morphologies, after the appropriate microbiologic procedures were incubated with B{sup 10} for 30 minutes and soon after deposited in a plate of a solid detector of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), denominated CR-39. To obtain the images relative to bacteria, the detector was submitted to the flow of thermal neutrons of the order of 2.2 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.s from the J-9 channel of the Reactor Argonauta (IEN/CNEN). To observe the images from bacteria in each sample under an optical microscope, the sheets were chemically developed. The analysis of the images revealed morphologic differences among the genera (Gram positive from Gram-negative and coccus from bacillus), in samples containing either isolated or mixed bacteria. We thus verified the viability of the technique to achieve morphological characterization of different microorganisms. A quantitative approach seemed also to be feasible with the technique. The whole process took about 2 hours. (author)

  13. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  14. Compartmental analysis and dosimetric aspects applied to cholesterol with {sup 3}H labeled; Analise compartimental e aspectos dosimetricos aplicados ao colesterol marcado com {sup 3}H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major reasons of death around the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It is well known that changes in levels of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the transport of cholesterol into the bloodstream, are associated with cardiovascular diseases. For this reason to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deep understanding about the diseases associated with these disorders. The main aim of this study is to provide a biokinetic model and estimate the radiometric doses for {sup 3}H-Cholesterol, a radioactive tracer widely used in physiological and metabolic studies. The model was based on [Schwartz et al. 2004] about the distribution of cholesterol by the lipoprotein and gastrointestinal model [ICRP 30, 1979]. The doses distribution in compartments of the model and other organs and tissues of a standard adult described in [ICRP 106, 2008] was calculated using MIRD method (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) and compartmental analysis using the computer program Matlab®. The dose coefficients were estimated for a standard phantom man (73 kg) described in [ICRP 60, 1991]. The estimated doses for both model and for other organs were low and did not exceed the highest dose obtained that was in the upper large intestine, as 44,8 μGy these parameters will assist in ethics committee's opinions on the use of works that use the {sup 3}H-cholesterol which radioactive tracer. (author)

  15. Determination of essential elements in edible seaweed by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em algas marinhas comestiveis por analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Cassio Bessa Lima; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: cassio_man@hotmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Comestible marine algae are gaining wider global trade, not only because of the taste but also the nutritional quality they present. They are rich in protein, fiber, vitamins and are excellent sources of essential elements due to their ability to absorb substances storing them in their bodies. its chemical composition varies according to the species, habitat, maturity and environmental conditions which are submitted. The method of Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the essential elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na present in marine algae from different countries, which are sold in the city of Sao Paulo. A total of 6 samples of marine algae were analyzed, 4 species of Nori (Porphyra umbilicates) from China, Korea, Japan and USA; 1 of Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme) species from Japan; and 1 species of Kombu (Laminaria sp.) of South Korea. To validate the methodology used was the reference material NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver. The concentrations range from 5265-1175 μg/g to CL; from 14413-90261 μg/g to K; from 3007-7091 μg/g to Mg; from 2,3-33,8 μg/g to Mn and from 5161-24973 μg/g to Na.

  16. Stress and thermal expansion numerical analysis of subsea buried pipelines; Analise numerica de tensoes e expansao termica de dutos submarinos enterrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Marcio de S.; Vaz, Murilo A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Solano, Rafael F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The design of Capixaba North Terminal pipelines (TNC) became very complex, once the pipelines are exposed to elevated temperature variations. As the pipelines are buried, the interaction with the seabed can become critical with the thermal expansion development, since an axial compressive force arise, reaching critical values and then leading the pipeline to the thermo mechanical instability phenomenon. To minimize these effects, the pipeline will cross the shore approach through a horizontal directional drilling, and expansion loops and intermediate tie-ins took place on his route in order to permit pipeline displacements, working thermally. The objective of this present work is to develop a numerical model, able to analyze the entire pipeline stress, strain and displacements, considering different kinds of soil along of his route. The influence of expansion loops is evaluated and a comparative analysis in order to discover the minimum curvature radius at the directional drilling region is carried out. This study defines a methodology based on the developed numerical model which will be extended to future applications in subsea buried pipeline design. (author)

  17. Thermo-fluid analysis of water cooled research reactors in natural convection; Analise termofluidodinamica de reatores nucleares de pesquisa refrigerados a agua em regime de conveccao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora Fortini

    2004-07-01

    The STHIRP-1 computer program, which fundamentals are described in this work, uses the principles of the subchannels analysis and has the capacity to simulate, under steady state and transient conditions, the thermal and hydraulic phenomena which occur inside the core of a water-refrigerated research reactor under a natural convection regime. The models and empirical correlations necessary to describe the flow phenomena which can not be described by theoretical relations were selected according to the characteristics of the reactor operation. Although the primary objective is the calculation of research reactors, the formulation used to describe the fluid flow and the thermal conduction in the heater elements is sufficiently generalized to extend the use of the program for applications in power reactors and other thermal systems with the same features represented by the program formulations. To demonstrate the analytical capacity of STHIRP-l, there were made comparisons between the results calculated and measured in the research reactor TRIGA IPR-R1 of CDTN/CNEN. The comparisons indicate that the program reproduces the experimental data with good precision. Nevertheless, in the future there must be used more consistent experimental data to corroborate the validation of the program. (author)

  18. Analysis of economic feasibility of sale of surplus electricity in cogeneration: case study; Analise de viabilidade economica de venda de energia eletrica excedente em cogeracao: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodra, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Universidade Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil)], email: marcelo.fodra@fca.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], email: maura@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The production of energy in large quantity and at competitive prices is crucial for economic development, which allied to the environmental question, has incentivated the use of renewable sources of energy. One of the most promising sources of renewable energy is the cogeneration from the residues of cane. Currently, the scenario for this kind of energy production is not consolidated, as production prices are not stable, inducing a risky situation for the environment. This work was aimed to study the economic viability of installing a main site for cogeneration of electricity, in a regional sugarcane factory located in the central region of Sao Paulo state that currently uses residues of sugar cane as fuel. The risk factor that was taken into consideration was the price paid for the MWh sold to the Chamber of Commerce of Electricity. The Monte Carlo Method was used to assess the risk factors for the analysis, by using of New Present Value (NPV), in a scenario that uses 20% of the initial investment made by the energy dealer. After the simulations were finished, considering the conditions used in this work, the project tends to be not feasible, as the behavior of the prices of cogenerated MWh are not sufficient for paying the initial investment and the operational costs. (author)

  19. Energy analysis of the poultry rising located at the Sertao do Pajeu, Pernambuco, Brazil; Analise energetica de aviarios localizados no Sertao do Pajeu pernambucano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini; Lopes, Tiago Pessoa de Melo Queiroz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias]. E-mail: naper@ufpe.br

    2006-07-01

    The activity of poultry raising is today an alternative for income generation in the backlands of Pajeu, State of Pernambuco. In the City of Sao Jose do Egito, distant 402 km from the State Capital Recife, there is a large poultry plant with 284 integrated poultry farms owned by small rural producers. Those poultry farms are built in masonry and lateral woven wire fencing within the standard size of 9 m X 125 m. Their capacity is 10,000 birds and they are equipped with drinking and feed boxes, silos, fans, nebuliser, motor-pumps, lights and heaters. In their first 18 days of the bird's life, called 'baby chick phase', it needs a warm environment temperature of about 34 deg C, which is fundamental for its survival. In that phase the energy consumption is mainly related to water pumping and lighting. From the 19th day up to the 45th day - the period called 'poultry phase' - the birds need lower temperatures. The feeders are automatic, fans and nebulizers are used to ease the air circulation and to improve the poultry comfort. This phase is the one, which requires more electric energy consumption. After 45 days the poultry is slaughtered with about 2.8 kg and the poultry farm comes into a time period of cleaning and resting called 'cleaning and resting phase', which takes from 15 to 28 days. This is the phase with the lowest energy consumption. Then the poultry farm cycle is completed, which takes about 70 days, that is, the time span of one year accounts for 5.5 cycles. In this work an energy consumption analysis for all phases of poultry raising is performed and alternative proposals for the energy conservation and energy consumption reduction is presented. (author)

  20. Analysis of agricultural soils by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence; Analise de solos agricolas por fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2000-03-01

    In this work, we describe an Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence System with a x-ray tube excitation for trace analysis of environmental samples (soil). The system was used to analyze the contamination of metals in treated soils with doses of 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha of compound organic of urban garbage of the type Fertilurb and 10 ton/ha of aviary bed (manure of birds). Samples of roots and foliages of plant radishes cultivated in these soils were also analyzed. The soil samples were collected in five different depths of 0,5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The experimental set-up is composed by an OXFORD X-ray (30 kV, 50 {mu}A and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray spectrum tube is quasi-monochromatic by using of Ti filter. Samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm{sup 2}. The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. It was possible to determine the concentrations of thirteen elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb in the treated soils with compounds organic. The results indicate that the values found for K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb are significantly above the upper confidence limits for the control soil ({alpha} = 0.05). There is a real different between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, ({alpha}=0,05). There is a real difference between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, confirming the influence of the organic compounds in the soil. (author)

  1. Determination of essential trace elements in wine by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em vinhos por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniele, Anna Paula

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been carried out for determining essential elements in foodstuffs, including wine, due to its important nutritional role in human body functions. It was shown that daily consumption of wine in moderation contributes significantly to the needs of essential elements in human body such as Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, V, among others, and has health benefits in the prevention of numerous diseases and longer life expectancy, related in particular to the intake of antioxidants such as polyphenolic compounds. Trace elements are good indicators of origin of wines and their concentrations can be used as criteria to ensure authenticity, quality and show that the tolerance limits established by law were respected throughout the production process. However, although Brazilian wine industry is among the 15 largest in the world, analytical studies for organic and inorganic compounds of wine content are still small when compared to other major producers. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate some procedures of wine sample preparation to determine essential elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and compare the results with those determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES). Three sample preparation procedures were studied: freeze-drying, evaporation and dry ashing. The parameters studied were precision, accuracy and detection limit. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were applied to verify the statistical differences between the mean values obtained by the three wine preparation procedures for INAA with those means obtained by ICP OES. It was noticed that about 60% of results obtained by freeze-drying agreed with those obtained by ICP OES. (author)

  2. Eco-efficiency analysis of techniques for disposal of urban solid waste; Analise de ecoeficiencia de tecnicas para tratamento e disposicao de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrijevas, Cibele

    2010-07-01

    Municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of modern society. In this sense it is necessary to discuss solutions to the fate of waste generated daily, increasingly in larger amounts, being imperative to advance the search for alternatives, not only in search of new technologies and solutions, as well as the improvement of methodologies currently employed to solve this relevant issue, especially in large urban centers. This paper presents the results of a comparative economic-environmental assessment performed by a method developed by BASF, two potential technologies: landfill and incineration with energy recovery. To facilitate the work, the information used were both real data - landfill and incinerator - Essencis Solucoes Ambientais S.A., (assuming some assumptions) and the use of secondary data, using the study of Arena et al., 2003. This ecoefficiency analysis tool covers the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which is a technique to evaluate the inputs and outputs of matter and energy and the potential environmental impacts associated with all stages of resource extraction and their transformations , and the use and final disposal of the product. The data in the environmental assessment are presented according to major categories, using a weighting method developed by BASF and understand the consumption of natural resources, consumption of energy resources, air emissions, water and soil, potential for human toxicity, accidents work, occupational diseases and land use. Economic evaluation in this work took into account the costs involved in operation and maintenance of disposal techniques or treatment of waste. The comparative study found the treatment or disposal of 7.324109 billion kilograms of waste. As a result, the array of eco-efficiency indicates that the incinerator is the alternative that stands out, considering the environmental and economic profile, within the assumptions made in this study and taking into account which is a

  3. Analyze the economic and environmental viability in distributed generation of electric power from renewable sources; Analise da viabilidade economica e socioambiental na geracao distribuida de energia eletrica a partir de fontes renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantim Neto, Humberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper brings a brief of economical and social environmental analysis about distributed electric's energy generation, based on a comparison to centralized generation. The motivation of the proposed analysis has its origin on a reflection about politics and scheming directed to Brazilian's energy sector. This study has renewable energy resources as setting, represented for Belo Monte generation's plant and undertaking registered on the Reservation's Energy Auction 2010. The study took into account economics and technical aspects, whereas the viability analysis was formed from benefits got from different forms of electric's generation. The conclusions of this shows that distributed electric's energy generation may have economics and socio environment benefits over centralized generation. (author)

  4. Metateks ('n Vakfilosofiese vergelyking van twee analises van ‘Droogte’ van Leon Strydom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel sal twee analises van Leon Strydom se gedig “Droogte” uit ’n vakfilosofiese hoek met mekaar vergelyk word. Die analises is uitgevoer deur dr. G.F.T. Kuschke en prof. Ina Grähe, albei opgeleide literatore, maar wetenskaplikes wal die literatuur uit verskillende denkraamwerke benader.

  5. Review of the sustainability of the forest sector to produce charcoal from planted forests; Analise da sustentabilidade do setor florestal para producao de carvao vegetal a partir de florestas plantadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Thiago Oliveira [Fundacao de Tecnologia Florestal e Geoprocessamento (NUPA/FUNTEC), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Projetos Ambientais

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is the world's greater producer of charcoal and most of this production takes care of to the siderurgical sector. Thus, one understands that the Brazilian steel is produced of sustainable form. However, such sustainability is not based only on a renewable energy source. The origin of the wood for the carbonization, if proceeding from planted forests or native bushes, is crucial factor in this analysis. Beyond the ambient dimension, the sustainability of the charcoal segment also is influenced by its social, economic and technological aspects. In this context, the present article searches, through the construction and the analysis of the diagnosis of the charcoal in Brazil, to evaluate the sustainability of the sector and to consider alternatives to reach it. The current model of production of charcoal in the country is unsustainable. The main adopted systems of carbonization in Brazil are low level technological with consequent decrease production. The activity is unhealthy, beyond having many cases of enslaved and infantile work. The coal of native forests is much cheaper and the fiscalization is poor, fact that discourages its production from planted forests. But if the vegetal coal will be understood as an energy solution for the siderurgical sector measures can be taken to search a model of sustainable production. (author)

  6. Microscopic analysis of the effect of fractionated radiation therapy on submandibular gland of rats; Analise microscopica do efeito da radioterapia fracionada em glandula submandibular de rato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Amenabar, Jose Miguel; Cherubini, Karen; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de; Yurgel, Liliane Soares [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Doutorado em Estomatologia Clinica]. E-mail: kebini.ez@terra.com.br

    2005-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the histological changes produced by radiation therapy both on the stroma and the parenchyma of submandibular gland in rats. Materials and methods: The sample size consisted of 30 Wistar rats, divided in two groups: test and control. The 15 animals of the test group were irradiated daily on the head and neck region with a dose of 2 Gy for six weeks using a rotational fractionated modality of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays. At the end of the experimental period the animals had received a total dose of 60 Gy. Sixty hours after the last radiation therapy session the submandibular glands of the animals from both groups were excised, processed using paraffin technique, stained with hematoxyline-eosin and analyzed by optical microscopy. Results: The mean proportional volume of the glandular parenchyma and stroma was obtained using a stereological method of manual point counting. The proportional volume of the acini on the irradiated group (60.67%{+-}6.43) was significantly lower than the control group (67.42%{+-}10.90) (p = 0.048), however there was no statistical difference between the groups for parenchyma, ducts and stroma (Student t test, p > 0.05). Conclusion: The radiation therapy produced acinar atrophy in submandibular glands. No total quantitative changes in the stroma or in the parenchyma were observed. (author)

  7. The result analysis by A-Frame technique in coating failure detection; Analise dos resultados do uso da tecnica A-Frame na localizacao de falhas no revestimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio Amarante; Leite, Daniele C.F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito L. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the method used to helps the on land pipeline integrity management, focusing on external corrosion control. The method is achieved by gathering together the data from an Over The Line Survey (OLS) and an In Line Inspection (ILI). As the corrosion occurs at a coating fault in a non-effective cathodic protection (cp) area, both coating and metal loss inspection data were employed in this method. The OLS is applied to pinpoint and graduate the coating faults in underground pipeline by using the Coating Attenuation / A-Frame (ACVG - Alternate Current Voltage Gradient) technic. The ILI is applied to measure the external metal loss (corrosion) by running a smart PIG tool. In some pipelines a huge number of coating fault can be found, but it doesn't mean that all of them must be repaired, so it is a need to identify the critical coating fault, so that the number of digging for coating repair can be drastically reduced. In the other way, as the smart PIG can provide data of corrosion in the pipe, the coating fault on a corroded area can be considered as a critical one. Together, those data may point the spot where the cathodic protection was not effective and the coating failure resulted in corrosion on the pipe. This method has been a helpful criterion to identify critical coating faults and reduce the overall repair cost, it can be also used to indirect evaluate the performance of cp system, since no corrosion indication on a coating fault area can be assumed that the CP is effective. (author)

  8. Analysis of the microturbine combustion chamber by using the CHEMKIN III computer code; Analise da camara de combustao de microturbinas empregando-se o codigo computacional CHEMKIN III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madela, Vinicius Zacarias; Pauliny, Luis F. de A.; Veras, Carlos A. Gurgel [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: gurgel@enm.unb.br; Costa, Fernando de S. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Combustao e Propulsao]. E-mail: fernando@cptec.inpe.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results obtained with the simulation of multi fuel micro turbines combustion chambers. In particular, the predictions for the methane and Diesel burning are presented. The appropriate routines of the CHEMKIN III computer code were used.

  9. Analysis of Angola as a new OPEC member (2007) for the world oil market; Analise da entrada de Angola na OPEC (2007) para o mercado mundial do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ana Paula Alves S.L.; Almeida, Gabriela Gomes de [Universidade Vila Velha, ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais; Samarco Mineracao S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: anapaula_aslg@hotmail.com, e-mail: gabiptu@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Angola is in the spot light lately as one of the major oil producers in the world, being the second largest oil producer in Africa. Therefore, in 2007, this country became a member of OPEC which brought to table several speculations concerning Angola's position facing the pressures and demands of an international organization. This article comes to analyse Angola's possible strategies when it comes to defending its economic interests and its participation in the price politics implemented by OPEC. All hypotheses considered in this article are analysed according to the Complex Interdependence Theory (Keohane and Nye). This International Affairs Theory is defined by a mutual and multilateral dependence between the nations. This way, we may conclude that even though Angola has a history of non fulfilling its agreements, the cooperation is made necessary because it is the most benefice alternative. The tendency is that when Angola starts fulfilling its quotas on the oil matter it will receive cooperation from OPEC and other nations in other areas where this country needs assistance. (author)

  10. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Analise estrutural e caracterizacao do magmatismo da zona de cisalhamento Major Gercino, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-12-31

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 {+-} 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 {+-} 15 Ma.) 220 refs., 107 figs., 18 tabs., 4 maps

  11. Analysis of electric power cogeneration using sugar cane bagasse; Uma analise da cogeracao de energia eletrica usando bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Anna Cristina Barbosa Dias de

    1997-07-01

    Brazil impels its economy again. A development expected in 80 and 90 years it is real. This growth demands new technologies, new researches and bases that bear that growth. Electric power is in these bases, but Brazil is not ready for that. Electric power cogeneration possibility appears, using sugar cane bagasse. Alcohol and sugar plants have already that practice working with a low generation volume. With some investment this volume can be increased, adding about 10% to national energetic matrix. The aim of this work is to present a short time alternative for national electric matrix. It shows the energetic situation of the country, some experiences already implanted in some countries around the world and some options for equipment improvement used in alcohol and sugar plants. It is shown alternatives sources of electric power generation studied on Brazil, as well as the planning of National Energetic Program of ELETROBRAS. It analyses, in details, sugar cane bagasse use, which is used in Sao Paulo plants to generate electric power. Possible systems and troubles for its implantation in sugar and alcohol plants are discussed. (author)

  12. Differential analysis Of Maximum Power Generated By A Photovoltaic Solar System; Analise diferencial da potencia maxima gerada por um sistema solar fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista (CE/UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental. Curso de Administracao], E-mail: gabrielfilho@tupa.unesp.br; Cremasco, Camila Pires [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Presidente Prudente (FATEC), SP (Brazil). Curso Tecnologia em Agronegocio], E-mail: camila@fatec.edu.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The Earth receives annually 1,5.1018 kWh of solar energy, which corresponds to 1000 times the world energy consumption in this period. This fact comes out that, besides being responsible for the maintenance of life on Earth, the solar radiation is in an inexhaustible energy source, with an enormous potential for use by systems capture and conversion into another form of energy. In many applications of low power systems that convert light directly into electricity, called photovoltaic advantageously replace other means of production processes, where its distribution is very significant. The determination of the power generated by such a system is of paramount importance for the design energy of its implementation and evaluation of the system itself. This study aims to determine a relationship between the maximum power generated by solar photovoltaic and characteristic parameters of the generator. This relationship allows to evaluate the performance of such a system. For simulations of the developed equations were used 3 photovoltaic modules with an output of 100 Wp each, and data collection was performed during one year by enrolling in addition to meteorological data, solar irradiance incident on the modules. (author)

  13. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas; Analise da materia organica presente em residues organicos solidos de origem urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos. E-mail: canellas@ufrrj.br; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-07-01

    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted.

  14. Economical analysis of the use of biogas in swine production for generation of electric energy; Analise economica da utilizacao do biogas na suinocultura para geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Franco Muller; Oliveira, Paulo Armando Victoria de [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], Emails: franco@cnpsa.embrapa.br, paolive@cnpsa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    The demand for alternative sources of energy has been growing in the last years in function of the variation on the prices of petroleum and the recent energy crisis. The anaerobic bio digestion can convert swine manure in biogas. In the present work it was studied the economic viability of the use of the biogas as alternative source for the generation of electric energy in different demand levels. The methodology utilized was the Net Present Value. The study showed that the utilization of biogas as electric energy source is economically feasible. The increase of the demand of electric energy, in the property, associated to the increase of the price of the electric energy, increases the economical profits and accelerates the time of return of the investments. (author)

  15. Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

  16. Experimental analysis of minimum shear stress to drag particles in a horizontal bed; Analise experimental da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails: bad@ucl.br, edson@ct.ufes.br; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails: joaoquirino@ucl.br, brunovl@ucl.br

    2009-12-15

    Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)

  17. Regulation of mature oil fields: a constitutional analysis; Regulacao de campos maduros de petroleo: uma analise a luz da Constituicao Federal de 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Mariana de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil activities in Brazil had been started in an intensive way by the years 30 and 40. During approximately 40 years only one agent had been executed the oil activities in this country: the PETROBRAS. Many of the fields explored in the past are nowadays in decline. These fields, not interesting for the majors, would be interesting for the small and medium enterprises. The present research analyses the mature oil fields and its regulation in Brazil, looking to the 'Constituicao Federal de 1988' and to the idea of social and economic development. (author)

  18. Methodology for the analysis and characterization of the demand side energy resources; Metodologia para analise e caracterizacao dos recursos energeticos do lado da demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Energia e Eletrotecnica

    2006-07-01

    This abstract aims at describing briefly a model for the assessment of demand side energy resources This model intends to comprehend every kind of action and measure related to demand side management and energy conservation, evaluating them in a holistic way, into four dimensions: technical-economical, environmental, social and political. Different aspects regarding the resources are also accounted, such as energetic potentials (theoretical, accomplishable and economic). At last, scenarios concerning the introduction of evaluated resources through a period of time are elaborated. (author)

  19. Integral analysis of the drill string dynamic behaviour to optimize drilling operation; Analise integrada do comportamento dinamico da coluna para otimizacao de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Araken [Smith International do Brasil, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Placido, Joao C.R.; Percy, Joseir G.; Falcao, Jose; Freire, Helena; Ono, Eduardo H.; Masculo, Miguel S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azuaga, Denise; Frenzel, Mark [Smith International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    For a performance preview of a drilling system is necessary a dynamic and integrated modeling for understanding all system forces resulting from the combination of the rock strength, cut structure action, drilling parameters, BHA and all others drilling components. This study must predict, for the drill string, vibrations and torsions, from bit to surface, its origins and its effects, and provides the best way to reduce these vibrations, determining the best bit, BHA and drilling parameters. Thereby, this study eliminates the trial and error approach and the operation risks. This paper aims to present studies of optimization for two drilling wells conducted in Brazil, one in Santos Basin and other in Campos Basin, and compares the numerical simulations results with the data from drilling operations. (author)

  20. The public sector on the PETROBRAS performance: analysis using ratings; A importancia do setor publico brasileiro na performance da PETROBRAS: analise usando ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Rosemarie Broeker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial]. E-mails: rosebone@ind.ufrj.br; rosebone@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    Rating agencies have strong influence on the international financial market for both public and private debt. Host countries also have due influence on local enterprises, by means of the macro economic policy. In the case of default of sovereign debt or capital controls, domestic firms may have serious difficulties in meeting their obligations in foreign currency. This explained the so called sovereign ceiling to the corporate ratings. This explicit ceiling has been abandoned by the main rating agencies, as some corporations may have more means to meet their debt than sovereigns. Oil companies are a good example. This paper aims to explain the variables that help explain the Brazilian sovereign ratings and PETROBRAS ratings, using the ordered logit method, with emphasis on the factors that influenced the piercing of the severing ceiling by PETROBRAS in 2001. (author)

  1. Consistency analysis of the natural gas and of the hydro energy considering all the costs; Analise de consistencia do gas natural e da hidroenergia considerando todos os custos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Boarati, Julio Henrique; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mails: udaeta@pea.usp.br; jboarati@votorantim-energia.com.br; lcgalvao@pea.usp.br; aquiles@iee.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology which evaluates the impacts caused by hydroelectric power plants and natural gas thermoelectric power plants allowing actions viewing minimization the impacts of the mentioned power plants relative to the technical and economical,environmental, social an political aspects. The evaluation is performed through the approach of the complete costs viewing the gathering parameters which allowed translate the incident costs on the mentioned aspects in a qualitative way for reaching the less cost solution.

  2. Numerical analysis of the fluid dynamics in a natural circulation loop; Analise numerica da dinamica do escoamento em circuitos de circulacao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelo, Gabriel

    2013-07-01

    Natural circulation loops apply to many engineering applications such as: water heating solar energy system (thermo-siphons), thermal management of electrical components (voltage converter), geothermal energy, nuclear reactors, etc. In pressurized water nuclear reactors, known as PWR's, the natural circulation loops are employed to ensure passive safety. In critical situations, the heat transfer will occur only by natural convection, without any external control or mechanical devices. This feature is desired and has been considered in modern nuclear reactor projects. This work consists of a numerical study of the natural circulation loop, located at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to establish the flow pattern in single phase conditions. The comparison of numerical results to experiments in transient condition revealed significant deviations for the Zero Equation turbulence model. Intermediate deviations for the Eddy Viscosity Turbulence Equation (EVTE), k - {omega}, SST e SSG models. And the best results are obtained by the k - {epsilon} e DES models (with better results for the k - {epsilon} model). (author)

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis potentialities in archaeological ceramics studies; Potencialidades da analise por ativacao com neutrons instrumental em estudos de ceramicas arqueologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Rosemeire P.; Munita, Casimirio S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Alves, Marcia A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    1999-11-01

    In this work, precision and sensitivity of the determination of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn in ceramic samples by INAA were evaluated. Two clay samples Brick Clay (NIST-SRM-697 reference material)and Ohio Red Clay (a well known clay sample) were analyzed for this purpose. Archaeological ceramic fragments from Agua Limpa Site, in Monte Alto city, SP were also analyzed. The archaeological ceramics were produced in the quotidian activities of non writing preterite societies, in sedentarization process. The ceramic chemical information are used to identify raw material sources and to study production and distribution models, which allow the reconstruction of the socio-cultural development and integration of extinguished societies. (author) 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Reliability analysis in construction priority methodology context of the transmission system; A analise de confiabilidade no contexto da metodologia de priorizacao de obras do sistema de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozowski Filho, M.; Silva, Edson L. da [ELETROSUL, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Pinto, Leontina M.V.G. [Rio de Janeiro Univ., RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Ramos, Dorel S. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.F. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    Due to financial constraints and increase in the energy demand in 1982, the necessity of insert, in the planning process, some methods and models which enabled the planner to better evaluate the benefits and costs of each investment decision making, was evident. This paper summarizes the conceptual and computational aspects of the `prioritizing` giving special attention to reliability aspects. Additionally, the application of the methodology proposed in the GTCP for the prioritization of transmission constructions in the 1987-1992 expansion planning of ELETROSUL is described. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Dosimetric analysis of daily use of IGRT in prostate treatment with intensity modulated; Analise dosimetrica da utilizacao diaria de IGRT no tratamento de prostata com intensidade modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrini, E.S.; Silveira, T.B.; Vieira, D.S.; Batista, D.V.S., E-mail: emmilyfisica@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer Jose de Alencar Gomes da Silva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    The main application of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in the cancer prostate treatment is to ensure the delivery of the prescribed dose to the tumor. With the modality cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder and rectum can be previewed before each treatment and the actual dose delivered to these organs can be controlled, through the alignment of patient isocenter. The aim of this study was to analyze the tumor coverage and dose to organs at risk effectively obtained during the patient's treatment. Three patients with prostate cancer were treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) techniques with 74 Gy and 2 Gy per fraction. It was performed daily isocenter location of the prostate with CBCT. A radioncologist drew the clinical target volume (CTV), rectum and bladder in CBCT's and treatment fields were applied retrospectively in each CBCT for dose calculation. For the CTV it was considered the D95 (dose that covers 95% of the volume), for the rectum V50 (volume receiving 50 Gy), V60, V65 and V70 and for bladder V65 and V70. The average D95 of the prostate after the offset was 202 cGy, the V50, V60 and V65 of the rectum for one patient was reduced by 9.6%, 16.6% and 31%, respectively, and V65 of the bladder to another patient was also reduced by 3.5% in IGRT. The results showed that the use of IGRT provided a reduction in the irradiated volume of healthy organs. Thus it is concluded that the use of daily CBCT allows reproducibility of treatment, reducing delayed toxicities and increasing the probability of tumor control. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis of the paleogeology along the Atlantic Brazilian and African shores; Analise comparativa da paleogeologia dos litorais atlanticos brasileiro e africano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesero, Pedro de; Ponte, Francisco Celso; Northfleet, Airton A. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia ]. E-mail: cesero@uerj.br (and others)

    1997-12-01

    Many professional geologists are not familiar with the origin of certain concepts. This is the reason that when making references, they do not give credit to the real authors. This paper recovers a paper which is essential to understand the evolution of the Brazilian sedimentary basins. This article was first published in 1972 and it was the first one based on plate tectonics which developed a more global vision on the evolution of the basins known up to that time. In some details it is outdated, many interpretations have changed, but the basic ideas about the evolution of the basins are accepted and used today. It should be remembered that the present data were not available and some features - e.g the Pendencia Graben - were unknown; it was the very beginning of basin exploration such as in the Campos and Santos basins. The interpretation premises of the work were developed by a team of geologists working at the SETUP (today CEN-NOR) in Bahia. In the following year, a summary of the original report was presented during the 26th Congress of the Brazilian Geological Society (SBG) held in Belem (Para State). Due to a fault of the organizing committee, the paper was not published in the Congress proceedings, it was only printed as internal reports produced by the DIDEP/SETUP/BA (1972) and the DEXPRO/Rio (1972). In order to publish this paper in the BGP, an attempt was made to maintain the original form, as it should had been printed in the Congress proceedings. Also, in order to make editing easier, figures 11 and 12, the stratigraphic tables for the main Brazilian basins and their African correlates are not being published. It is believed that the understanding of the work will not be affected. We hope that other important papers that are unknown to Brazilian geologists can be restored. The Brazilian and Western African coastlines were orientated by the ancient structural lines. In the Upper Jurassic, continental deposits were accumulated within the Afro-Brazilian trough, extending from the Alagoas-Cameroun to the Almada-Congo areas. The Wealden reactivation established the coastlines along the rift valleys. The first one, from south to north, along the underlying alignments, and the second, from west to east, cutting across and giving rise to a series of lakes. During the Aptian, the first marine transgressions took place, building up two proto-oceanic gulfs. One of them, bounded by the Walvis- Rio Grande and the Pernambuco-Cameroun proto chains, favored the deposition of thick evaporites deposits. To the north, the second gulf maintained an open connection with the ocean. From the Albian to the Turonian, the two continents remained linked. However, due to the progressive separation of the plates, pulsation transgressions took place until full marine conditions were attained. The rupture of the last link between the two plates was during the Turonian and the Santonian. Shearing stresses occurred along the Brazilian northeastern and the Gulf of Guinea coasts, caused by the trans current displacement of the two plates. However, to the south of Pernambuco-Cameroun, tension stresses were always registered while the continents were migrating. When both plates were completely free, the African plate was released from the tension stress, giving rise to the compression of the Benue trough. During the Cenozoic, the uplift of continental belts, adjacent to the coasts, supplied the continental margins and intracratonic basins with sediments. (author)

  7. Analysis of the electric shock incident relations to bad habits in consumption; Analise da ocorrencia de choques eletricos relacionados a maus habitos de consumo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkokebas Junior, B. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Nucleo de Seguranca e Higiene do Trabalho (NSHT)]|[Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: barkokebas@smartsat.com.br; Veras, J.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Producao (PPGEP)]. E-mail: julianansht@upe.poli.br.; Souza, S.S.B. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Nucleo de Seguranca e Higiene do Trabalho (NSHT)]. E-mail: julianansht@upe.poli.br; Moraes, W.L.; Coelho, F.G.L. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica (POLI)]. E-mail: wilkernsht@upe.poli.br; fabianonsht@upe.poli.br; Souza, L.A.

    2004-07-01

    This article analyzes the occurrence of electric shocks in houses and its relationship with the bad habits of energy consumption in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, identifying the factors that deflagrate them, and generating indicators that allow preventive actions for combating the accidents in homes.

  8. Nuclear option: analysis of the actual status and future perspectives for Brazilian case; Opcao nuclear: analise da situacao atual e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Wilma S.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a global view of actual status and future perspectives of Brazilian nuclear option. By diversity of subjects treated in it, the difficulties are appointed at each chapter, when necessary. The strategies are focused in details in chapters 7 and 8. In chapter 10 they are emphasized in its main aspects for Brazilian case. To give an overview of the state-of-the-art related to nuclear energy, many figures and references are presented in the Annex. 104 refs., 111 figs.

  9. Energy distribution and environment law: an analysis of the Brazilian situation; Distribuicao de energia e direito ambiental: uma analise da situacao brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Antomar Viegas de Carvalho e; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos (PSE)]. E-mails: a.viegas@uol.com.br; sguerra@fem.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This work discusses the evolution of the legal aspects involved in the environment questions in Brazil. Describes the evolution and improving of the laws, decrees, norms and other related instruments. The impact on the electric power distribution companies is evaluated, considering the last requests resulting from the privatization process in the country.

  10. Analysis of energy culture the Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst) produced in no tillage; Analise energetica da cultura do Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst) produzida em plantio direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Samir Paulo; Biaggioni, Marco Antonio Martin; Silva, Paulo Roberto Arbex; Seki, Andre Satoshi; Bueno, Osmar Carvalho de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: jasper@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the energy consumption in the deployment and conduct of the culture of Crambe abyssinica Hochst in no-tillage, at the Experimental Farm Farm belonging to the Faculty of Agronomic Sciences - UNESP, located in Botucatu - SP. Assessing the sustainability of the system were estimated, energy efficiency and culture of crambe. To survey the components of the structure of expenditures, we used coefficients Energetic in specialized literature. The structures of energy expenditure by type, source and form, demonstrated that the indirect energy participated with 65.03%, industrial sources, fossil and biological accounted for 68.80%, 23.67% and 11.30%, respectively. The forms have been introduced; chemical fertilizers contributed 44.31% and diesel to 23.04% to 67.35% of energy expenditure, showing the dependence of the system of energy sources and industrial fuels. The efficiency of the culture was found to be 9.98, indicating that for each calorie used in the production of crambe return was 8.98 units, the efficiency was above 38, demonstrating the high sustainability of the agricultural system to reach energy cultural exceeding 37 thousand MJ ha{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Economic analysis of the generation of electric energy from biogas in pig production; Analise economica da geracao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas na suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Franco M.; Oliveira, Paulo A.V. de [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], Emails: franco@cnpsa.embrapa.br, paolive@cnpsa.embrapa.br

    2011-06-15

    The demand for alternative sources of energy has grown in recent years in line with the variation of petroleum prices coupled with the recent energy crisis. Through anaerobic digestion swine manure can be converted into biogas. In the present study it was evaluated the economic viability of using biogas as an alternative source for the production of electricity, for different periods of generation. The method used for the economic evaluation was the net present value (NPV). The time of return on invested capital was also calculated taking into account the discount interest rate on cash flows. The study proved to be economically viable use of biogas from swine manure as a source for generating electricity. The increased demand for electricity in the property increases the net present value and decreases the time required for return of the investment. (author)

  12. Evaluation and analysis of the energetic efficiency of center pivot irrigation systems; Avaliacao e analise da eficiencia energetica na irrigacao em sistemas pivo central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Aureo C. de [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil). Unidade II], email: aureolima@ufgd.edu.br; Guimaraes Junior, Sebastiao C.; Camacho, Jose R. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia Rural e Fontes Alternativas de Energia], emails: scguimaes@ufu.br, jrcamacho@ufu.br; Fietz, Carlos R. [EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], email: fietz@cpao.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    With an irrigated area of approximately 710,500 ha in Brazil, it is possible to estimate an annual electricity consumption of 1,928 G Wh per year due to center pivot systems. Considering the need of optimization of the irrigated agricultural production, the energies that are dissipated in the suction pipes, water supply, lateral lines and sprinkler systems are analyzed in this study and an equation is proposed to determine the useful power of center pivot irrigation systems. Three center pivot systems located in Itamarati I (a Government settlement for the landless in the city of Ponta Pora, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil) were evaluated and measures of energetic efficiency were simulated in order to determine a viable economic configuration to meet the life span of the equipment. The systems were characterized by the energy use and results show that the average irrigation energetic efficiency may be raised from 14.9 to 25.9% leading to a possible reduction of R$ 118,800 per year over 7,200 ha, equivalent to 11% of the yearly expenses with electricity of the whole area. (author)

  13. Uncertainty analysis in the determination of absorbed dose in water by Fricke chemical dosimetry; Analise das incertezas na determinacao da dose absorvida na agua por dosimetria quimica Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Fabia; Aguirre, Eder Aguirre, E-mail: fabiavasco@hotmail.com, E-mail: ederuni01@gmail.com [Fundacao do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work studies the calculations of uncertainties and the level of confidence that involves the process for obtaining the dose absorbed in water using the method of Fricke dosimetry, developed at Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas (LCR). Measurements of absorbance of samples Fricke, irradiated and non-irradiated is going to use in order to calculate the respective sensitivity coefficients, along with the expressions of the calculation of Fricke dose and the absorbed dose in water. Those expressions are used for calculating the others sensitivity coefficients from the input variable. It is going to use the combined uncertainty and the expanded uncertainty, with a level of confidence of 95.45%, in order to report the uncertainties of the measurement. (author)

  14. Comparative analysis of quality control tests on computed tomography in accordance with national and international laws; Analise comparativa dos testes de controle de qualidade em tomografia computadorizada de acordo com as legislacoes nacional e internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Fernando S.; Vasconcelos, Rebeca S.; Goncalves, Marcel S.; Oliveira, Marcus V.L. de, E-mail: fernando_siramos@hotmail.com, E-mail: marcusradiology@gmail.com [Instituto Federal da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis between the Brazilian legislation and internationals protocols, with respect to the quality control tests for computerized tomography. We used 07 references, published from 1998-2012: the Protocolo Brasileiro - Portaria 453/98 SVS/MS and the Guia de Radiodiagnostico Medico da ANVISA; Quality Assurance Programme for Computed Tomography: Diagnostic and Therapy Applications of the IAEA; European Protocol - European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography of the EUR No. 16262 EN; Radiation Protection No. 162 - Criteria for Acceptability of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of the European Commission; the Protocols of Control de Calidad en Radiodiagnostico IAEA / ARCAL XLIX; and the Protocolo Espanol de Control de Calidad en Radiodignostico. The comparative analysis of these legislations was based on aspects of tolerance / limit, frequency and objectives of the recommended tests. Were found 18 tests in the Brazilian legislation. The tests were grouped according to their nature (dosimetric tests / exposure and geometric tests and image quality tests). Among the evaluated protocols was identified divergence between tests contained in the documents and the criteria of assessment set out in this work. It is clear, moreover, that for certain documents are not observed tolerances, well-defined methodologies and even frequency of testing. We conclude that the current legislation in Brazil differs in certain respects from international protocols analyzed, although this has a great numbers of quality control tests. However, it is necessary that the Brazilian legislation takes into account technological advances presented to time.

  15. Radioprotection in dentistry: Analysis of the Dentistry Faculties of the Rio de Janeiro State not referring at personnel and installations; Radioprotecao em Odontologia: analise das faculdades de Odontologia do Estado do Rio de Janeiro no tocante a pessoal e instalacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha F, L.G. [PEN-COPPE/UFRJ Fund. Tecnica Educacional Souza Marques. Av. Mirandela 786 c/15 26520-460, Nilopolis, RJ, (Brazil); Borges, J.C.; Raymundo Junior, R.; Koch, H.A

    1998-12-31

    The objective was to show the necessity and the importance of the training and formation of the dentist in radioprotection according to the recent proposal for technical regulations `Radiological protection directrixes in Medical and Dentistry radiodiagnostic` of the Secretaria do Vigilancia Sanitaria of Ministerio da Saude (SVSMS). This regulation establishes basic standards to radioprotection in the medical and dentistry areas, including principles, limits, obligations and basic controls for the man and environment protection, versus possible improper effects caused by the use of ionizing radiation sources. An analysis of the discipline programs of the Dentistry Schools of Rio de Janeiro state indicates that they show a little or none preoccupation by the radiological protection, which was confirmed through a survey applied toward responsible professors by department or radiology service to the dentistry Schools. This work suggests the creation or adaptation of the existing disciplines introducing radioprotection and images quality in radiodiagnostic, to improve, complement and to make uniform the formation of future dentists optimizing the solution of the identified problems. (Author)

  16. k{sub 0}-INAA application at IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory by using the k{sub 0}-IAEA program: biological sample analysis; Aplicacao do metodo k{sub 0}-INAA no Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons do IPEN utilizando o programa k{sub 0}-IAEA: analise de amostras biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Daniel Correa

    2013-07-01

    The results obtained in the application of the k{sub 0}-standardization method at LAN-IPEN for biological matrices analysis, by using the k{sub 0}-IAEA software, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are presented. The flux parameters f and a of the IEA-R1 reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and for one selected irradiation position, 24B/shelf2, for short and long irradiations, respectively. In order to obtain these parameters, the bare triple-monitor method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr was used. In order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the methodology, the biological reference materials Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547), Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) e Tomato Leaves (NIST SRM 1573a) were analyzed. The statistical criteria Relative Errors (bias, %), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and U-score were applied to the obtained results (mean of six replicates). The relative errors (bias, %) in relation to certified values, were, for most elements, in the range of 0 e 30. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The U-score test showed that all results, except Na in Peach Leaves and in Tomato Leaves, were within 95% confidence interval. These results point out to a promising use of the k{sub 0}-INAA method at LAN-IPEN for biological sample analysis. (author)

  17. Inclusão do aluno com dismotria cerebral ontogenética: analise das práticas pedagógicas Inclusion of students with cerebral palsy: analysis of pedagogical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Marques de Castro Leão

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Há poucas investigações quanto às práticas educativas escolas, ou seja, os procedimentos que são utilizados pelo educador para promover a aprendizagem de seus alunos. Deste modo, o objetivo deste trabalho é analisar as práticas educativas escolares, e verificar em que medida essas práticas contribuem para a inclusão do aluno com Necessidades Educacionais Especiais. O presente estudo optou pelo estudo exploratório contemplando observações em sala de aula, bem como, no ambiente escolar. As observações ocorriam semanalmente sem datas fixas, e em horários diferentes, a fim de que fosse possível observação num ambiente típico. Utilizou-se também a entrevista e a análise de documentos do aluno (redação, provas, atividades acadêmicas e da escola. Participaram do presente estudo um aluno que apresenta dismotria cerebral ontogenética, sua mãe, bem como, as professoras que lecionaram à ele durante os anos de 2000 e 2001. Os dados coletados auxiliaram para definir a categoria que foi foco da presente pesquisa: desempenho e rendimento escolar e percepção do aluno sobre seu processo de aprendizagem. Como conclusão o presente estudo constatou que o processo de inclusão do aluno, no tocante à inclusão física social, responde até certo grau às suas necessidades. No entanto, do ponto de vista de aprendizagem, não houve inclusão educacional, as práticas educativas observadas não contemplavam a especificidade curricular e de aprendizagem a fim de atender às necessidades do aluno.There are few studies of educational practices in schools, that is, of the procedures used by educators to promote learning in their students. Thus, the aim of this paper is to analyze educational practices in schools so as to uncover to what extent these practices contribute to the inclusion of students with special educational needs. The present exploratory study used weekly observations in the classroom as well as in the general school

  18. Comparative analysis of the use of biomass with conventional generation technologies by applying eco-efficiency; Analise comparativa da utilizacao da biomassa com tecnologias convencionais de geracao aplicando eficiencia ecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: electo@unifei.eu.br; Salomon, Karina Ribeiro [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: karinas@unifei.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    The world's concern regarding the reduction atmospheric emissions, due to the global warming, it is a subject that is being quite discussed. A parameter that evaluates the environmental impact considering the emissions of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and PM in an integral way and comparing to the international air quality standards that are in force is called ecological efficiency ({epsilon}). This paper intends to compare environmental impacts of the atmospheric pollution due to technologies that use the biomass as fuel with conventional and advanced technologies of electricity generation. It is also evaluated the advantages of the use of the cogeneration starting from the biomass. The most important results that were obtained are comparative graphs confirming that the use of the biomass as energy source is a good option from the ecological point of view, when pollution control methods are used. (author)

  19. Analysis of the influence of the expansion of the South American electric system in emissions of greenhouse gases; Analise da influencia da expansao do sistema eletrico Sul-Americano nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, Annemarlen Gehrke [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Blesl, Markus [Institute of Economics and the Rational Use of Energie (IER), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    South America combines economic and population growth with a consequent rapid increase in electricity demand. This can only be covered by building new power plants, use of the remaining renewable potential and expansion of transmission lines. The expansion of supply in all regions, with reliable generation and transmission systems is the greatest challenge for the continent in order to reduce social differences and not to curb economic development. To support the energy planning the application of system models represents useful method. This paper intends to analyze the expansion effect of power plant parks in regard of greenhouse gases emissions using a regionalized model system 'TIMES (The Integrated Markal - EFOM System)'. The model includes 10 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) with their respective power parks and transmission lines, demand divided in sectors, potential use of renewable energy sources, gas pipelines and possibilities of new interconnections within and between countries. As results are obtained the future installed capacity and generation according the energy use, greenhouse gases emissions, as well as the investments needed to expand the electric system in different scenarios. (author)

  20. Quality image analysis and radiation protection in dental radiodiagnosis in Sobral city, BA, Brazil; Analise da qualidade de imagem e da radioprotecao em radiodiagnostico odontologico na cidade de Sobral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Francisca L. [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau (UVA), Sobral, CE (Brazil); Ferreira, Fernanda C.L. [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para, Maraba, PA (Brazil); Paschoal, Cinthia M.M. [Universidade da Integracao Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira, Redencao, CE (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    The radiographic processing is one of the steps to acquire radiographic images and requires appropriate quality control. The image should allow an accurate diagnosis and avoid repetition of examinations, which is consistent with the principles of radiation protection. This study aimed to verify the quality of periapical radiographic imaging and to investigate the suitability of dental X-ray equipment on the principles of radiation protection established by the Health Ministry Decree 453/98, by applying radiation field test and application questionnaires to dentists professionals. The result showed that it takes greater care professionals about the treatment radiographic and radiation protection, requiring that inspection agencies require compliance with the rules so that there is maintaining the quality of dental diagnostic radiology services. (author)

  1. Prediction of petrophysical properties by 3D reconstruction of porous media from image analysis; Estimativa de propriedades petrofisicas atraves da reconstrucao 3D do meio poroso a partir da analise de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperi, Patricia Martins Silva de

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and apply a method for predicting petrophysical properties from bidimensional petrographic image data. Based on the assumption of statistical homogeneity, the method uses stochastic simulation to reconstruct the porous media tridimensional structure. The geometrical characterization of the simulated media allows the construction of a network model to simulate fluid flow and estimate permeability, formation factor, mercury capillary pressure curves and resistivity index as function of water saturation. This method is applied to four porous systems with different heterogeneity levels. The results demonstrate that good predictions depend on the appropriate image acquisition resolution, which identifies pores and throats that effectively control the flow properties of the system. The capillary pressure curves suggest the necessity of scale composition. The electrical properties are affected by samples porosity, with reliable estimates being restricted to water-wet systems. (author)

  2. Analysis of the economic-financial viability of the aeolian energy faced to the new context of the power sector; Analise da viabilidade economico-financeira da energia eolica diante do novo contexto do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Virginia Brasil [Companhia Hidro-Eletrica de Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: virginia@chesf.gov.br; Oliveira, Marcos Roberto Gois de [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: mrgois@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the economical-financial viability of a hypothetic aeolian project at the Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil. Brazil presents a great aeolian potential, particularly at the Northeastern region, where various aeolian enterprises had been implanted due to favorable conditions of the wind in that region. However, for the increasing the aeolian generation it is necessary that studies have to be done concerning to the technical viability and, specially the economical-financial viability, because the investors need reliable subsides for the decision making.

  3. High-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer: acute toxicity and biochemical behavior analysis; Braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose no tratamento do carcinoma da prostata: analise da toxicidade aguda e do comportamento bioquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros; Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Zuliani de; Cardoso, Herbeni; Tagawa, Eduardo Komai; Castelo, Roberto [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Sao Joaquim. Servico de Radioterapia]. E-mail: estevesrt@uol.com.br; D' Imperio, Marcio [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Sao Joaquim. Servico de Urologia

    2006-03-15

    Objective: this study focuses on the biochemical response of the following variables: prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value, Gleason scores, staging, the risk of the disease, and hormone therapy. Objective: in the period between February of 1998 and July of 2001, 46 patients with prostate cancer were treated with radiotherapy, in a combination of teletherapy and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The age ranged from 51 to 79 years (averaging 66.4 years). T1c stage was the most frequent one: 30 (65%). The Gleason score was below 7 in 78% of the patients. PSA ranged from 3.4 to 33.3, being below 10 in 39% of the cases. The average prostatic volume was 32.3 cc. Twenty-eight percent of the patients received hormone therapy. Teletherapy dose ranged from 45 to 50.4 Gy, associated to four fractions of 4 Gy of HDR brachytherapy. Results: the follow-up period varied from 6 to 43 months. Four patients missed the follow-up and four died (one due to the disease). Out of the 39 patients that were analyzed, 76% presented a less than 1.5 PSA. None of the analyzed variables were found to be of statistical significance (p > 0.05) regarding biochemical control. Conclusion: the use of HDR brachytherapy was found to be effective in the treatment of prostate cancer and, in this study, the variables considered as prognostic factors did not interfere in the biochemical control. (author)

  4. Influence of the distance of the chromatographic analysis point on the energy flow calculation in the GASBOL; Influencia da distancia do ponto de analise cromatografica no calculo da energia entregue no GASBOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durao, Marcelo C.; Longa Junior, Mario V.; Palhares, Julio C.C.M.; Nunes, Ildemar P. [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline the gas samples are only taken in two points along in its all extension, the first is located just at the entrance of the gas pipeline in Rio Grande, Bolivia, and the second sampling point is 550 km far from the first, exactly on Brazil's border, where the pipeline comes to the TBG's property. After this point in the border, no more any additional samples are taken. To make things easier, the gas analyzed in the day of the sampling is exactly the same gas that is filling out the whole gas pipeline on that moment. This simplification creates a mistake that is waited, but until then it had not been calculated. Considering the difference among the energy used in the revenue and the energy calculated by the new gross heating value adjusted by the residence time of the gas, this paper concluded that the influence of the sampling point in the calculation of the delivered energy is small because the variation of the gross heating value along the period has also been low. (author)

  5. Analysis of the influence of the Colatina Belt in the Campos and Espirito Santo Basins-Brazil; Analise da influencia da Faixa Colatina nas Bacias de Campos e Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gustavo Henrique Teixeira da; Simoes, Luiz Sergio Amarante; Souza, Iata Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    Recent discoveries in the Espirito Santo Basin confirm the importance of it in the national exploratory scenery (oil and gas production). The new fields like Carapo and Camarupim, beyond others, next to already known Golfinho and Canapu, totalize an addition of 560 million barrels. In this way, studies in the area add importance, as the case of the present research, where if it looked to analyze the influence of Colatina Belt in Espirito Santo Basin and secondarily in Campos Basin. The results had been gotten through the integration of diverse data, such as lineaments extracted from images SRTM, potential maps and analyze of seismic lines. It was concluded that the Colatina Belt if projects for the interior of the basins, but that the same one seems to be dislocated in relation to the direct projection of the continental features, being that its influence can be felt with bigger emphasis in the Campos Basin, while in the Espirito Santo it look like to have low importance with regard to the exploration aspects. Also it was verified the presence of numerous halo kinetic structures that affect all the mapped horizons, this element determine great importance in the generation of structural traps. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis between horizontal and vertical heater treaters: identification and analysis of efficiency variables for oil treatment; Analise comparativa entre tratadores termicos horizontais e verticais: levantamento de variaveis criticas a eficiencia do processamento primario do oleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, Fabricio de Queiroz; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Brazilian onshore oil and gas production scenario has undergone changes with the maturity of fields and the prioritization of investments towards offshore projects. Added to the issue of lack of investment issue, the increasing production of formation water, which has already exceeded the production of the oil itself. With that comes the need to study the efficiency of process stages. It is common to find oil treatment plants (ETOS) limiting production operations due to lack of capacity to deal with increasing volumes of produced water. The critical moment of an ETO in onshore operations is the 'breaking' of emulsion (water in oil) usually performed by heater treaters. This article offers a comparative analysis between horizontal (TTH) and vertical (TTV) heater treaters, indicating the main variables and demonstrating opportunities for internalization of traditional and innovative technologies in horizontal systems that result in energy efficiency, optimization of the specification of oil (for marketing) and reduced operating costs. (author)

  7. Use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and analysis of demand: an analysis for predictions in the energy segment; O emprego do SIG (Sistema de Informacoes Geograficas) e a analise de demanda: um ensaio para previsoes no segmento de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de [Petroleo Brasileiro SA. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Gas e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The energy assumed a preponderant paper to the current societies because it became the number spine of both economic and social activities developed. Technological advances and the economic and social development of the nations, was based on the transformation and use of natural resources in products and services. Such transformation if gave more of accented form from the Industrial Revolution where the substitution of activities until then carried through by the man, for the job of machines, transformed the way of life and the behavior of the society. Particularly the projection of demand of energy send to the following duality: the problem should be evaluated in a wide way, in other words, considering the whole range of component variables of the decision process for generation and allocation of the energy supply; however, in a local way regarding with the search of models that optimize of the energy potentials and the consequent search of value added market. Historically the forecast of the energy demand uses the GDP mainly. It is presupposed that the association of such variables to the areas that these act, or polygons that delimit them, it happens in a homogeneous way and that the limits of such areas constitute an identified change of behavior. However, this premise is false, because such polygons are defined for operational and / or politician criteria not having warranty that such distributions are really homogeneous. As solution, the development and use of decision support systems based on GIS (Geographic Information System) technology has been along the last years a powerful modeling and simulation tool. The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of techniques of spatial analysis in the activity of projection, activity that is inherent to the forecast energy demand, to mitigate the future developments of scientific models and applications associates. (author)

  8. Hydrogeological analysis in a well`s battery in Juazeiro do Norte, Ceara State, Brazil; Analise hidrologica de uma bateria de pocos na cidade de Juazeiro do Norte, Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Luiz Alberto Ribeiro; Frischkorn, Horst; Silva Pitombeira, Ernesto da; Santiago, Marlucia Freitas [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    1996-08-01

    For wells which are part of a battery for public water supply in Juazeiro do Norte, in the south of Ceara State we made mathematical simulation, using MODFLOW, of the pumping tests performed during the period of drilling. These wells supposedly explore the Rio da Batateira aquifer. However, satisfactory modeling is possible only when admitting a strong contribution of the inferior aquifer, which is Missao Velha. The existence of leaks between the aquifers and their location could be also proved through the geologic profiles, measurements of C-14, O-18 and electric conductivity. This way, we proved that the battery Riacho dos Macacos in Juazeiro do Norte produces a mixture of two components; an old one, with low pMc and {delta}{sup 18} O and high electric conductivity, originating from the Missao Velha aquifer and a young component from the Rio da Batateira aquifer, characterized by high pMC and {delta}{sup 18} O and low electric conductivity. (author) 4 refs., 10 figs.

  9. APLICAÇÃO DO METODO DE ANÁLISE HIERARQUICA (MAH NA ANALISE E AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS DOS SISTEMAS DE TRANSPORTES URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mouette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo de impacto ambiental envolve uma grande quantidade de critérios e parâmetros, sendo necessário o trabalho conjunto de uma equipe multidisciplinar. A complexidade dos impactos decorrentes dos sistemas de transporte urbanos que possuem características e magnitudes muito diferentes, somada a não obrigatoriedade do estudo, fizeram com que poucos estudos fossem efetuados e tornou evidente a necessidade de metodologias de avaliação dos mesmos. Este estudo aborda a utilização do Método de Analise Hierárquica, um procedimento multicriterial na analise e avaliação dos impactos ambientais dos sistemas de transportes urbanos.

    ABSTRACT

    The study of environmental impacts involves a large amount of criteria and parameters being necessary to work with a multisciplinary team. The impacts due to urban transportation are very complex having different characteristics and magnitude, besides that, in Brazil, these studies are not obliged by law. These facts leads to few studies of the environmental impacts and evidences the necessity of developing methodologies which makes possible the impact's evaluation. This study refers to the utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a multicriteria procedure in the evaluation and analysis of environmental impacts in urban transportation.

  10. Mathematical modeling of fluid flow and thermal analysis in ladle of R H degasser process; Modelamento matematico do escoamento e analise termica na panela do processo de desgaseificacao a vacuo do tipo RH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Osvane L.; Silva, Alexandre J. da; Costa e Silva, Andre L.V. da [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a numerical analysis of the fluid flow and thermal analysis in the ladle of R H vacuum degassing process. As a result of this analysis, a better understanding of the fluid flow patterns and of the turbulence regions inside the ladle. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Analise botânica de um campo de pastagem no estado do Rio de Janeiro Botanical analysis of a pasture field in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Peixoto

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo trata da análise fitossociológica de uma área de pastagem localizada no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, e é parte de um projeto que vem sendo desenvolvido por docentes do Instituto de Biologia da UFRRJ sobre Biologia e Ecologia de Hemípteros do gênero Dysdercus. Na área foram estabelecidos quadrados de 1 m2, dos quais se obtiveram dados de freqüência, densidade e dominância. A somatória dos valores relativos destes dados fornece o IVI (índice de Valor de Importância. As gramíneas que formam a pastagem quando somadas atingem 114,90 IVI. Todas as gramíneas atingem 161,18 IVI. As espécies de gramíneas que são biologicamente infestantes do pasto podem ser consideradas como forrageiras associadas. Wedelia paludosa DC. é a espécie de dicotiledonea de mais alto IVI = 22,65. Esta espécie, nos meses de elevadas pluviosidade e temperatura, associadas a um pastoreio intenso das forrageiras, desenvolve-se cobrindo parcialmente o pasto. Embora na área tenham sido encontradas 27 famílias com 67 espécies, apenas 37 estão representadas nos quadrados, as outras podendo ser consideradas esporádicas na comunidade.A pasture field in Vassouras, State of Rio de Janeiro, was analysed from the viewpoint of plant sociology. This study is partt of a project being developed by several professors from the Institute of Biology of UFRRJ on the Biology and Ecology of Hemiptera of the genus Dysdercus. Quadrats of one square meter were located in the fie ld and for each one, data of frequency, density and dominance were collected. The sum of the relative value of this data produces the IVI (Importance Value Index. The grasses making up the pasture added up to 114,9 IVI. All grasses summed up gave an IVI of 161,18, grass species infesting the pasture were considered associated forage plants. Wedelia paludosa DC. is the species of Dicotyledoneae with the highest IVI = 22,65. During the high temperatures and rainfall

  12. Suicide in young people: risk factors and quantitaive space-time analysis Suicídio em jovens: fatores de risco e analise quantitativa espaço-temporal (Brasil, 1991-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Rodrigues

    2010-11-01

    cinco regiões do Brasil, comparativamente, no período de 1991 a 2001, revendo também os principais fatores de risco (FR descritos na literatura. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico, com enfoque sobre a Saúde Mental Juvenil. Foram utilizados os dados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Realizou-se a revisão da literatura por meio dos Sistemas Lilacs e Medline, além de livros temáticos. A discussão, de forma contextualizada, teve por base o Pensamento da Complexidade proposto por Edgar Morin. Resultados: foram registrados 69.811 óbitos por suicídio no período estudado, sendo 6.985 casos no grupo dos adolescentes. Os maiores Coeficientes de Mortalidade/100 mil habitantes ocorreram preponderantemente na região sul (1992 a 1994; 1996 a 1998; 2001, seguida pela região centro-oeste. Os principais FR descritos foram história de tentativas anteriores, ideação suicida, maus tratos, condições socioeconômicas precárias, doenças crônicas severas, impulsividade, depressão e esquizofrenia. O suicídio reflete características e valores relevantes de uma sociedade. Representa um sistema complexo e deve ser sempre analisado no contexto individual, social e coletivo. A atuação do profissional de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS é fundamental para a prevenção, por meio da identificação dos fatores e situações de risco, no contexto individual, familiar e comunitário.

  13. Analysis of static safety of power systems: a study about contingencies selection criteria in the reactive subproblem; Analise de seguranca estatica de sistemas de potencia: um estudo sobre criterios de selecao de contingencias no subproblema reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos

    1993-12-01

    The main objective of static safety's analysis in power systems is the determination of the level of gravity of the different contingencies that can occur in a system. Habitually, static safety's analysis is divided in two parts: selection and analysis of contingencies. In this work, they are studied several criteria of selection of applicable contingencies to the sub-problem reactive and are introduced comparisons among results provided by different criteria. They are also studied several forms of evaluation of the impact caused by contingencies on the power systems reactive profile.

  14. NEPHRUS: model of intelligent multilayers expert system for evaluation of the renal system based on scintigraphic images analysis; NEPRUS: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose W.E. da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Boasquevisque, Edson M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1997-10-01

    This work develops a prototype for the system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to scintigraphic image analysis of the urinary system. Criteria used by medical experts for analysis images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and/or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a multi resolution diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given to the programs user interface design. Human Factor Engineering techniques were considered so as to ally friendliness and robustness. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for the qualitative image analysis and the knowledge model constructed shows the feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that use `inherent` abilities of each technique in the resolution of diagnosis image analysis problems. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Small disturbances stability analysis applied in a radial distribution system with distributed generation units; Analise de estabilidade a pequenos disturbios aplicada em um sistema de distribuicao radial com unidades de geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca, Daniel Azevedo; Camacho, Jose Roberto [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Eletrica

    2008-07-01

    This work investigates the small-disturbance stability of a 30 bus radial distribution system with distributed generation units. This work is realized through the time domain simulations and through the eigenvalue analysis and participation factors. The eigenvalue analysis show that is possible to predict a possible system instability face to a disturbance. The development of this work was stimulated by the increasing of the distributed generation units in the distribution networks. (author)

  16. Nephrus: expert system model in intelligent multilayers for evaluation of urinary system based on scintigraphic image analysis; Nephrus: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Renal function can be measured noninvasively with radionuclides in a extremely safe way compared to other diagnosis techniques. Nevertheless, due to the fact that radioactive materials are used in this procedure, it is necessary to maximize its benefits, therefore all efforts are justifiable in the development of data analysis support tools for this diagnosis modality. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype for a system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to cintilographic image analysis of the urinary system. Rules used by medical experts in the analysis of images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and /or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a Neural Network diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given for designing programs user-interface. Human Factor Engineering techniques were taking in account allowing friendliness and robustness. The image segmentation adopts a model based on Ideal ROIs, which represent the normal anatomic concept for urinary system organs. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that uses inherent abilities of each technique in the medical diagnosis image analysis. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Analise do conhecimento sobre bioética e psicologia médica dos alunos de 1° a 6° ano do curso de medicina da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Souza Barreto Neto; Loran Robillard de Maringy Robillard de Maringy; Maíra Stathourakis Sampaio Amaral; Thiago da Silva Cornelio; Ana Laura Schliemann

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Compreender e praticar a psicologia médica e a bioética é fundamental para o exercício da medicina. A psicologia médica enfoca as condições emocionais do paciente e como o médico pode lidar com paciente e sua família auxiliando no entendimento e na melhora da relação médico paciente. Já a bioética favorece o profissional na tomada de decisões frente ao tratamento Objetivos: Identificar o conhecimento dos alunos de 1° a 6° ano do curso de medicina da PUC-SP sobre os temas abordados...

  18. Análise do cuidado ao bebê hospitalizado segundo a perspectiva Winnicottiana Analise del cuidado al bebe hospitalisado según la perspectiva Winnicottiana Analysis of delivered care to hospitalized babies according to Winnicottian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Carvalhais Regis

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o holding proporcionado pelas auxiliares de enfermagem, enfermeiras, mães e pais aos bebês internados em uma unidade neonatal de médio risco de um hospital escola do Município de São Paulo. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo descritivo que utilizou o referencial teórico de Winnicott. Os dados foram coletados por meio de filmagens. Os resultados revelaram que há profissionais que falham no fornecimento do holding, enquanto outras, proporcionam um holding satisfatório. Embora pais e mães proporcionem holding adequado, por vezes também falham nesta provisão. Acreditamos ser necessário rever a prática assistencial de enfermagem de modo que todos os componentes da equipe, mães e pais sejam capazes de fornecer o holding adequado, visando o desenvolvimento do bebê.El objetivo de este trabajo fue verificar el holding proporcionado por auxiliares de enfermería, enfermeras, madres y padres a bebes internados en unidad neonatal de medio riesgo de hospital escuela del Municipio de São Paulo. Es un estudio cualitativo descriptivo que utilizo el referencial teórico de Winnicott.. Los datos fueron colectados por medio de filmagen. Los resultados relevaron que hay profesionales que fallan en suministro del holding, mientras que otros, proporcionan un holding satisfactorio. A pesar de que padres proporcionan holding adecuado, algunas veces también fallan en esta provisión. Creemos que es necesario rever la práctica asistencial de enfermería de forma que todos componentes del equipo, madres y padres sean capaces de fornecer holding adecuado, visando desenvolvimiento del bebé.This work aimed to analyze the holding provided by nurse aides, nurses, mothers, and fathers to infants newborn hospitalized at the middle risk neonatal unit of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo. This is a qualitative descriptive study based on Winnicott's theoretical framework. Data were collected by means of

  19. Analise do conhecimento sobre bioética e psicologia médica dos alunos de 1° a 6° ano do curso de medicina da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Souza Barreto Neto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Compreender e praticar a psicologia médica e a bioética é fundamental para o exercício da medicina. A psicologia médica enfoca as condições emocionais do paciente e como o médico pode lidar com paciente e sua família auxiliando no entendimento e na melhora da relação médico paciente. Já a bioética favorece o profissional na tomada de decisões frente ao tratamento Objetivos: Identificar o conhecimento dos alunos de 1° a 6° ano do curso de medicina da PUC-SP sobre os temas abordados nas disciplinas de Psicologia Médica e Bioética através do questionário elaborado. Metodologia: Pesquisa quantitativa realizada pela aplicação de questionários fechados nos alunos de 1° a 6° ano do curso de medicina da PUC-SP sobre os temas da bioética e da psicologia. O tratamento dos dados foi realizado através da análise estatística com o teste de partição do qui-quadrado (COCHRAN, W.G., 1954 para a avaliação da quantidade e qualidade de conhecimento. Resultados: Participaram 220 alunos, sendo que a maior participação foi do sexto ano (12,65% Os dados demonstram que há um aumento de conhecimento dos tópicos avaliados no decorrer do curso e que as situações avaliadas indicam que os alunos têm condições de atuar na prática. Conclusões: O PBL inclui alguns dos temas propostos, mas observa-se que há necessidade de um incremento dos tópicos no estudo desenvolvidos para que haja um aumento significativo no conhecimento de bioética e psicologia médica.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of mechanical behaviour in the elastic region of blends of recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) and recycled polyolefins; Analise termodinamica do comportamento mecanico na regiao elastica de blendas de poli (tereftalato de etileno) reciclado e poliolefinas recicladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, Jose M. [Universidade Federal do Parana Univ. (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento; Ruvolo Filho, Adhemar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: adhemar@power.ufscar.br

    2006-10-15

    This work describes the study using mechanical tests with the blend of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and recycled polyolefin with and without the addition of polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride and poly(ethylene-co-octene-1). A thermodynamic approach based on the Helmholtz work function was applied in the analysis of mechanical tests, correlating the effects of energy storage and from the compatibilizer on the elastic region of the materials. For the system studied, the polyolefin-rich region shows higher storage of elastic energy corroborating the morphology images obtained from SEM analysis. The thermodynamic analysis seems a useful tool to evaluate the compatibilizer effect in polymeric immiscible blends. In this work, more specifically, this method was used to analyze the mechanical behavior of different compositions of recycled polymeric commodity materials. (author)

  1. Methodology of analysis of economic evidence of cartel in the resale retail of the fuel sector; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at deconstitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  2. Methodology of analysis of economic indicia of cartel in the resale retail of the fuel sector; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at deconstitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  3. Methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel in the resale market of fuels; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e BiocombustIveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at the constitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  4. Cogeneration with gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system: a computer program for exergy economics analysis; Cogeracao com turbina a gas associada ao sistema de refrigeracao por absorcao: um programa computacional para analise exergoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Julio Santana [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Matematica] E-mail: santana@feg.unesp.br; Silveira, Jose Luz; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer program for exergy and economic analysis of cogeneration systems applying gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system. The computer program selects gas turbine systems viewing the operation under thermal parity through a data base composed by gas turbines commercially available in the market, under the ISO (International Standard Organization). The computer program corrects the system performance parameters selected for the installation local conditions. The exergy and economic analysis are made based on the lowest exergy manufacturing cost where the best system is considered. A case study of the computer program application is presented.

  5. Evaluation of thermomechanical behavior of refractories for steel pouring through non-linear finite elements analysis; Avaliacao do comportamento termomecanico de refratarios para lingotamento indireto de acos atraves de simulacao por analise nao-linear de elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R.; Noronha, R.T.T.; Mattos, U. [Ceramica Safran, Betim, MG (Brazil); Pandolfelli, Victor Carlos [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    1995-12-31

    The conditions that should be input in a Finite Element Analysis for a suitable characterization of refractory bricks used for Bottom Pouring of Steel were investigated. The stiffness and thermal conductivity of the outside brick media (silica sand) were considered for the development of the model (which included silica sand properties). The stress components (shear, tensile or compressive stress) responsible for the spalling of the refractory bricks were identified through a transient nonlinear analysis. The thermomechanical spalling of the bricks is caused due to an increase in the shear stress inside the brick, in agreement with the observations at Steel Plants along steel leaks. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Uncertainties combined in algae and water in chemical analysis in determinations with ICP-OES; Incertezas combinadas em algas e agua nas determinacoes quimicas na analise com ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Poliana Santos de, E-mail: poliana@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    One way to determine if some trace elements in algae and water is through uncertainty calculations. Spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) is widely used in this procedure, because it allows the analysis in waters and areas of solid samples. Thus, some elements (Fe, Ca and Mg) were used to calculate the uncertainty. (author)

  7. Real time stagger of electric network advanced analysis functions of a modern control center; Escalonamento em tempo real das funcoes avancadas de analise de rede eletrica de um moderno centro de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagari, Eduardo Nicola Ferraz

    1996-02-01

    This work presents two models for implementation of staggers for network analysis functions in real time for a control center. The methodology is described. Tests were performed in a electric power system of Campinas region, Sao Paulo sate - Southeast Brazil. Results are presented.

  8. Analysis of the feasibility of applying the theory of the supply chain nanagement for the electric energy chain services of the Bahia state, Brazil; Analise da viabilidade de aplicacao da teoria da gestao da cadeia de suprimentos para a cadeia de servicos de energia eletrica do estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Lydiane Abdon [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: lydianeleal@yahoo.com.br; Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Petroleo e Gas], e-mail: claudiobcarvalho@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This article aims to analyze the potential application of integrated management, through concepts of SCM (Supply Chain Management), in the chain of the energy industry, which is characterized by a chain of services. The prospect of incorporating new integrated management practices, through the selection of concepts and tools for supply chain management took the possibility of promoting systemic approach that includes the major components (physical, regulatory and commercial) the market of electric energy, investigating possibilities of reorganization of this important segment of the industry production chain. The proposal aims to provide a tool for planning indicative of great potential, to identify a theoretical reference in this important productive sector. The work includes qualitative analyses, which aim to map, understand and systematize the changes undertaken, with emphasis on Brazilian electric sector. It is described, in general, the characterization of the energy industry in Bahia state as a possible case study in implementing the proposed methodology. Thus, the work seeks to help the staff decision to purchase a minimum of integrated vision of possible decisions, including the dynamic interactions between market supply and demand. (author)

  9. Assimilation of the QuikScat satellite data into models of oil spill path analysis; Assimilacao dos dados do satelite QuikScat em modelos de analise de trajetoria de derrames de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Marlos Carneiro; Cabral, Alexandre Pereira; Silva Junior, Carlos Leandro [OCEANSAT - Tecnologia Espacial para Monitoramento Ambiental S/C Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: oceansat@inc.coppe.ufrj.br; Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail: landau@lamce.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    This work analyses the performance and reliability of the wind data measured by the QuikScat satellite. The Scatterometer data was compared with previously published results, based on data from ERS-1/2 Wind Scatterometer, meteo-ocean buoys and from re-analysis of NCEP model. To validate and applied the QuikScat data a case study was performed, on which those data was used to improve the performance of an oil trajectory analysis model, simulating and oil spill in the Campos Basin region. It was observed that the results of the modelling reached better results when wind data collected by the QuikScat satellite was used as a forcing mechanism. Together with other applications, the assimilation of these data into models can be seen as an essential tool in environmental monitoring. (author)

  10. Analysis methodology of power generation/cogeneration designs in VNG (Vehicular Natural Gas) stations; Metodologia de analise de projetos de geracao/cogeracao em postos GNV (Gas Natural Veicular)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Rafael Reami [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the methodology for analysis of generation/cogeneration projects in NGV filling stations, determining the influence of critical parameters in its technical-economic viability. To achieve this methodology, it was necessary to define parameters that influence directly or indirectly the size of a generating system, as the total electric demand of the filling station, ratio (power of the compressor) / (total installed power), load factor, factor of simultaneity, technical data of major equipment, among others. The methodology has been validated by comparing with data measured in a NGV filling station and allows screening and identifying customers with technical feasibility to evolve in a generation or cogeneration project. The cogeneration with NG generators was highlighted during the analysis of the NGV filling stations and was feasible for establishments which have large thermal demand, as filling stations along the road with large amounts of electric showers in changing rooms. (author)

  11. Structural characterization and photocatalytic analysis of BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtained at low temperatures; Caracterizacao estrutural e analise fotocatalitica de BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtido via sintese por combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Dalt, S.; Sousa, B.B.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: silvana.da.dalt@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2010-07-01

    Barium monoferrite BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} classified as permanent magnet stands out among other ceramic magnets due to its high chemical stability, corrosion resistance and low production cost. In addition, experiments conducted on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and UV transmittance by spectrophotometry showed that this material has photocatalytic properties. The spinel ferrite has importance in many technological areas as computing, communication and security. Many techniques for synthesis were studied to optimize the properties of this material. The synthesis of BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by conventional processes often occurs at temperatures above 1000 deg C. In this work we obtained the phase BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at low temperatures (600 deg C) from the combustion reaction using nitrates and maleic anhydride as metal complexing agent. Techniques of X-ray diffraction, specific surface area, thermogravimetry analysis and analysis photocatalytic were employed to characterize the products obtained. (author)

  12. Comparison among chemical, mineralogical and physical analysis from alluvial clays from counties of Southwest of Minas Gerais state (Brazil); Comparacao entre as analises quimicas, mineralogicas e tecnologicas das argilas aluvionares de alguns municipios do sudoeste de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar Junior, L.A., E-mail: lineo.gaspar@unifal-mg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIALFENAS), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias da Natureza; Varajao, A.F.D.C. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas; Souza, M.H.O. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Departamento de Geografia; Moreno, M.M.T. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2011-07-01

    The studied area is located in the southwestern portion of Minas Gerais State, encompassing the counties of Alfenas, Areado, Machado, Poco Fundo, Campestre, Serrania, Monte Belo, Bandeira do Sul, Botelhos and Cabo Verde. This region is dominated by strongly weathered pre-cambrian rocks in association with colluvial-alluvial sediments. The present work consisted in a comparison among the mineralogical (X-Ray Diffraction), textural (Laser Granulometry), chemical (X-Ray Fluorescence) and technological (mechanical resistance, water absorption, etc, made in specimen tests) properties of the clays collected on potteries located in these counties. The mineralogical and chemical analysis displayed the kaolinitic nature of the clays from this region, showing also small amount of interlayered clays and large amount of quartz. The best results of physical analysis were obtained for clays from the counties of Cabo Verde and Monte Belo due to the presence of lower values of SiO{sub 2} (quartz) associated with a finer particle size distribution. (author)

  13. Semiquantitative analysis of corrosion products in iron channel by the X-ray diffraction technique; Analise semi quantitativa de produtos de corrosao em canal de corrida por difracao de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, C.R.E.; Varela, J.A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Olivi, P.; Paskocimas, C.; Longo, E. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Silva, S.N.; Marques, O.R. [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The corrosion in the us very important in the slag line region, but in others regions over and above this line there is a corrosion process still important. We have made a detailed mapping of phases present in seven different regions in the iron channel in three distinct positions. After the phases identifications, it was made a deconvolution of the diffractograms using Gaussian functions. The analysis of the relative intensity of each phase gave an idea for a semi-quantitative analysis and we have proposed a mechanism of the refractory corrosion. It was observed that the calcium oxide migrates by diffusion to different regions originating low melting point products like pseudo-wolastonite, anorthite and guelenite. (author) 2 figs.

  14. Mineralogical analysis of metallurgical slags - an approach about its application in electric arc furnace slags; Analise mineral de escorias siderurgicas - uma abordagem sobre sua aplicabilidade em escorias de aciaria eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzi, Joao Cassio Romero; Vilela, Antonio Cezar Faria; Strohaecker, Telmo Roberto [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais

    1996-12-31

    There are many factors to be considered for the consolidation of the study about slags by structural and microstructural analysis techniques of theirs mineral components. Besides the lack of some basic understanding of slags, factors as the cooling rate, the chemical composition, the crystallinity and porosity degrees, taking samples and preparing specimens procedures, among others can be listed. This work presents the development of a procedure for taking samples and preparing specimens of electric arc furnace slags for optical microscopy, and some results obtained by X-ray powder diffraction and electron probe micro analyzer (WDS and EDS) analysis techniques. among the obtained results, are the identification of the superiority of the dry grinding technique used in this study over the wet grinding procedures as well as that the sequence optical microscopy -> X-ray powder diffraction -> electron probe micro analyzer presents good results on the mineral identification of electric arc furnace slags. (author) 11 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Correlation between image analysis and microstructure of the high-strength low-alloy steels; Correlacao entre analise de imagem e microestruturas de acos de alta resistencia e baixa liga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.C. da; Rollo, J.M.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Lorenzo, P.L. di [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1995-12-31

    Image analysis were carried out in 13 samples of HSLA steel in annealed state, cold and hot rolled conditions. The samples of carbon content ranged from 0.05 up to 0.14%. Volumetric percentage parameters of pearlite and ferrite were determined. A technique base on the difference of tonality was used for parameters determination. For this purpose a scale 256 gray levels from zero (black) up to 255 (white) for each pixel was used. As a result an equation which relates carbon and micro constituents percentages were obtained. The present correlation includes quick and accurate techniques for microstructural analysis of high strength low-alloy steels 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces surplus bagasse for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de bagaco para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchoa, Thales Brandao; Beneduzzi, Anderson Henrique; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of a cogeneration plant of a sugarcane industry of Sao Paulo State (Iracema) that privileges the commercialization of the bagasse surplus because it is located in a region where the consume of bagasse by the local industries is intense. Th e plant is composed by five boilers that produce 470 ton/h of steam at pressure of 2,2 MPa and temperature of 300 deg C and back-pressure turbines of simple stage for energy generation and for driving the millings, cutters, shredders, pumps and exhaust fans. Part of the steam generated is also utilized to supply consume of an associated company (OMTEK) that it produces acid ribonucleic and the bagasse excess is commercialized. For this, a thermodynamic study is made, as well as a detailed analysis of the technical and economical viability, determining some performance indexes, the global efficiencies, as well as the costs of production of electric and thermal energy. (author)

  17. Arsenic monitoring in intensive systems of production of bovine for analyzes by neutron activation analysis; Monitoracao do arsenio em sistemas intensivos de producao de bovino pela analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Piasentin, R.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radioquimica; Primavesi, O. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste

    2000-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to determine Arsenic in samples of several kinds of soils collected at two depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and roots and leaves of grasses cultivated on them, to check the end level of Arsenic in leaves that are used in animal feeding. The results showed that Arsenic from limestones, fertilizers and agrochemicals applied to soil, to increase soil fertility, presents remote potential to injure cattle health. (author)

  18. A new power supply regulated PWM-ZCS supplied in current: analysis, project and experiments; Uma nova fonte chaveada PWM-ZCS alimentada em corrente: analise, projeto e experimentacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Peter Mantovanelli

    1993-10-01

    This work introduces a new power supply by PWM, operating at constant frequency, with soft communication. The new topology uses only two active switches and absorbs the transformer leakage inductance. Besides, the soft communication takes place with no conduction loss penalty, in comparison with conventional hard switch PWM converters. Principle of operation, analysis, design and experimentation results taken from laboratory prototype rated at 400 W/48 v, 40 Khz, using IGBT are presented. (author) 10 refs., 71 figs.

  19. Fuel performance analysis during an Large Break LOCA in the Angra-1 NPP; Analise do desempenho do combustivel durante um acidente postulado de Perda de Refrigerante Primario por Grande Ruptura (APRPGR) na usina nuclear de Angra-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabundjian, Gaiane; Neves Conti, Thadeu das; Morandini, Claudio J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The present work shows a comparison between the models and correlation sets used by FURNAS S/A and IPEN/CNEN-SP in the thermal-mechanical analysis of the Angra-1 fuel during a large LOCA. Furnas has adopted the rules of Appendix K of the 10 CFR 50 while IPEN has adopted the FRAP-T6 computer code. (author). 7 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Environmental licensing for the implantation of small hydroelectric power plants. Analysis and proposals of optimization for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Licenciamento ambiental para implantacao de pequenas centrais hidreletricas. Analise e propostas de otimizacao para Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia da Energia]. E-mail: adriana@unifei.edu.br; Dupas, Francisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais]. E-mail: dupas@unifei.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the legal and institutional aspects of the process for the Environmental Licensing of Small Hydro electrical Power Plants (SHPP) implantation. Legislation and doctrines relative to the theme were researched and diagnosed for the state of Minas Gerais, B R, through questionnaires, close to entrepreneurs and organism involved in the process on what obstacles which that contributed for the delay on the analysis enterprises.

  1. Development of a gamma ray spectrometry software for neutron activation analysis using the open source concept; Desenvolvimento de um software de espectrometria gama para analise por ativacao com neutrons utilizando o conceito de codigo livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Silvio Rogerio de

    2008-07-01

    This study developed a specific software for gamma ray spectra analysis for researchers of the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN), which was named SAANI (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Software). The LAN laboratory of the Institute for Research and Nuclear Energy (IPEN-CNEN/SP), uses a multielemental analytical technique, based on irradiation of a sample by a flux of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, which induces radioactivity. The sample is then placed in a gamma-ray spectrometer, to obtain the spectrum. With free software philosophy in mind, this software will replace the existing software VISPECT / VERSION 2. The new software's main features are: a friendlier interface; easier standardization procedure carried out by LAN staff and researchers; adapted to the use of plug technology; multi platform and code free. The software was developed using the programming Python language, the library Trolltech Qt graphics and some of their scientific extensions. Preliminary results using the SANNI software were compared to those obtained with the existing software and were considered good. There were some errors in accuracy during the implementation of the software. The SAANI software has been installed in selected computers to be used for routine analysis in order to verify its strength, accuracy and usability. (author)

  2. Determination of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry: study of packaging vial of sample for analysis; Determinacao de {sup 226}Ra por espectrometria gama: estudo do recipiente de acondicionamento de amostra para analise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti

    2015-07-01

    Determination of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry in a sample is based on measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, daughters of {sup 222}Rn. Because radon is a gas, it can leak from the sample vial or accumulate on the upper empty it. If the vial has any crack, there will be loss of gas, which will cause error in determining the {sup 226}Ra concentration. One possible cause of cracks in the vials, that houses standards and samples, is the radiolysis action in the vial material, usually a polymer. As the demand {sup 226}Ra analysis in different matrices (geological samples, food, plants, etc.) is increasing, it was decided to study some polymer vials available on the market, to verify the feasibility to be used when is applied the analysis method using gamma spectrometry. Four types of polymer vials have been studied. The radiation doses in walls of the vials caused by natural radionuclides present in the sample were simulated using gamma irradiation. Tests, such as compressive strength test and tightness, were applied to the irradiated and non-irradiated vials. First, to verify the effect of radiolysis on the vial material and also if there was {sup 222}Rn diffusion in their walls. These preliminary results pointed out that the acrylic vials are the best option of packaging samples for analysis. This study should be repeated in a larger number of samples for a better evaluation. (author)

  3. Interacao da torra e moagem do cafe na preferencia do consumidor do oeste paranaense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pizarro Schmidt, Carla Adriana; Miglioranza, Edison; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

    2008-01-01

    .... Foram realizadas analises sensoriais de preferencia e fisicoquimicas. As analises fisico-quimicas foram utilizadas para monitorar as mudancas ocorridas nos produtos ao longo do processo de torra...

  4. Multi thematic geoprocessing and structural analysis on Irati - Rio Bonito Petroleum System, Parana Basin, Brazil; Geoprocessamento multitematico e analise estrutural no Sistema Petrolifero Irati - Rio Bonito, Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rafael Correia de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Analise de Bacias e Petrofisica], E-mail: rcdfreitas@click21.com.br; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca

    2005-11-15

    Structural features associated with aspects like migration routes, fluid convergence and/or barriers and seal integrity, among others, may be evaluated with the aid of information obtained by remote sensing and field data. This work is focused on the analysis of the geometry of tectonic structures and their relationship with essential elements of the Irati-Rio Bonito Petroleum System, inserted in the Parana Basin. The structural framework was outlined with satellite imagery, digital elevation models and geophysical maps. Several techniques relative to lineament analysis were reviewed and implemented by software programming. The description of structural styles, and kinematic and dynamic analysis were performed using field data obtained in key-areas. Another software was developed in order to calculate paleostress components. It computes maximum, intermediary and minor principal stress position based on Mohr-Coulomb criteria, for each fault individually. That aspect showed to be particularly important in this study due the several tectonic episodes that occurred in the Parana Basin. The relationships among features of different magnitudes and structural levels, interpreted by integrating several remote sensors, provided the understanding of the structural envelopment in the studied area. Based on the mapped structural elements, some accumulation controls were pointed out, such as the observed potential for the development of structural traps near regional structures, and the possibility of greater seals integrity associated with NE-SW oriented structural trends. Furthermore, N-S trending elements, generated in an extensional regime, could be associated with the rupture of the upper section, thus allowing leakage of hydrocarbon accumulations. (author)

  5. Radiation protection performance analysis of industrial radiography facilities at Brazil covering the period from 1995 to 1997; Analise do desempenho em radioprotecao das instalacoes de radiografia industrial no Brasil no periodo de 1995 a 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de; Teixeira, Pedro Barbosa; Souza, Luiz Antonio C. de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Accomplishment of analysis of the irregularities verified in the facilities of Industrial Radiography in the period of 1995 until 1995 until 1997, contents the following information: number of facilities, irregularities, classification, occurrence frequency and the number of accomplished inspections. This work discusses some items of radiation protection sets in practice in the period in study, as well as some suggestions that radiation protection could be implemented, with the objective of improving Radioprotection of the facilities and the control accomplished by CNEN. (author) 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Comparative study between the PIXE technique and neutron activation analysis for Zinc determination; Estudo comparativo entre a tecnica de inducao de raios X por particulas e analise por ativacao com neutrons na determinacao do metal pesado zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). CNPDIA. E-mail: cruvinel@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study between the PIXE, proton beams and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques, for determination of total zinc concentration. Particularly, soil samples from the Pindorama, Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, experimental station have been analysed and measuring the zinc contents in {mu}g/g. The results presented good correlation between the mentioned techniques. The PIXE and NAA analyses have been carried out by using the series S, 2.4 MeV proton beams Pelletron accelerator and the IPEN/CNEN-IEA-R1 reactor, both installed at the Sao Paulo - Brazil university.

  7. Quantitative chemical analysis for the standardization of copaiba oil by high resolution gas chromatography; Analise quimica quantitativa para a padronizacao do oleo de copaiba por cromatografia em fase gasosa de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappin, Marcelo R.R.; Pereira, Jislaine F.G.; Lima, Lucilene A.; Siani, Antonio C. [Farmanguinhos - Inst. de Tecnologia em Farmacos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: siani@far.fiocruz.br; Mazzei, Jose L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Ramos, Monica F.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Medicamentos

    2004-04-01

    Quantitative GC-FID was evaluated for analysis of methylated copaiba oils, using trans-(-)-caryophyllene or methyl copalate as external standards. Analytical curves showed good linearity and reproducibility in terms of correlation coefficients (0.9992 and 0.996, respectively) and relative standard deviation (< 3%). Quantification of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic acids were performed with each standard, separately. When compared with the integrator response normalization, the standardization was statistically similar for the case of methyl copalate, but the response of trans-(-)-caryophyllene was statistically (P < 0.05) different. This method showed to be suitable for classification and quality control of commercial samples of the oils. (author)

  8. Analysis of toxic elements in two pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) cultivars, in fertilized soils, by neutron activation; Analise de elementos toxicos em duas variedades de guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), cultivadas em solos tratados, por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasentin, Ricardo M.; Armelin, Maria Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Radioquimica; Primavesi, Odo [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste

    2000-07-01

    Samples of whole leaves, from thirty-six plants belonging to two pigeonpea cultivars were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Each plant was cultivated under either single dose or double one of some mineral fertilizers, such as, B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, V and Zn, individually, to the soil; besides limestone and phosphorus. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of these treatments to the increase in the concentrations of As, Sb, Th and U, since these elements can be toxic to plants and animals. (author)

  9. Contents evaluation of some essential and toxic elements in children and elders diet by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao do conteudo de alguns elementos essenciais e toxicos em dietas de criancas e idosos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko

    1996-12-31

    Essential and toxic elements in the 19 diet samples from pre-school children and 23 diet samples from elderly people, have been determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. A radiochemical separation procedure was developed and applied for determining Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, U, Th, W and Zn, based on retention of these elements in a Chelex-100 resin. In the case of As and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TDO (tin dioxide). The contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates were also analysed. The results have been presented and discussed 135 refs., 29 figs., 36 tabs.

  10. Thermodynamics analysis of an autonomous distillery operating with high steam parameters and two different distillation technologies; Analise termodinamica de uma destilaria autonoma operando com altos parametros de vapor e duas tecnologias diferentes de destilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio, Jose Carlos Escobar; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Santos, Jose Joaquim [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida; Moura, Adler [DEDINI Industrias de Base S.A., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to carry-out an integrated thermodynamic analysis for an ethanol distillery and the mill cogeneration plant. In previous works the cogeneration system has been analyzed separately using thermoeconomic tools to calculate the products cost and to define the best scheme and parametric alternative. Similar researches were carried-out aiming to reduce the energy consumption in the distillation process. This paper proposes a simultaneous evaluation of both systems using an exergoeconomic tools to improve the energy integration of process. (author)

  11. An environment integrated for identification, modeling, analysis, and control associated systems project to the power electric systems; Um ambiente integrado para identificacao, modelagem, analise e projeto de sistemas de controle associados a sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Lucas Thadeu Orihuela da

    1990-12-01

    An integrated environment which was developed to give support to the activities of identification, modeling, analysis and simulation of control systems of Electric Power Systems - EPS is presented. It is a computer program to be used in compatible IBM P C microcomputers. The program has two algorithms for systems identification: one for identification in the frequency domain and other to be used in the time domain. For the analysis, were implemented the algorithms of the frequency response and the root locus. One can simulate multivariable and nonlinear models. A set of auxiliary transformations is available to obtain the dynamic equation of the model declared for the simulation and to transform it in a transfer matrix. The hierarchical menus used for the selection of the program functions are presented and the dialogues and the others communication mechanisms with the user are described. The program in EPS's is demonstrated through the design of a Power System Stabilizer. The results obtained with the program are compared with the ones that were obtained in field tests. (author)

  12. Development of an open source software of quantitative analysis for radionuclide determination by gamma-ray spectrometry using semiconductor detectors; Desenvolvimento de um codigo computacional aberto de analise quantitativa para determinacao de radionuclideos por espectrometria gama com detectores semicondutores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis

    2010-07-01

    Radioactivity quantification of gamma-ray emitter radionuclides in samples measured by HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry relies on the analysis of the photopeaks present in the spectra, especially on the accurate determination of their net areas. Such a task is usually performed with the aid of proprietary software tools. This work presents a methodology, algorithm descriptions and an open source application, called OpenGamma, for the peak search and analysis in order to obtain the relevant peaks parameters and radionuclides activities. The computational implementation is released entirely in open-source license for the main code and with the use of open software packages for interface design and mathematical libraries. The procedure for the peak search is performed on a three step approach. Firstly a preliminary search is done by using the second-difference method, consisting in the generation of a derived spectrum in order to find candidate peaks. In the second step, the experimental peaks widths are assessed and well formed and isolated ones are chosen to obtain a FWHM vs. channel relationship, by application of the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization method for non-linear fitting. Lastly, regions of the spectrum with grouped peaks are marked and a non-linear fit is again applied to each region to obtain baseline and photopeaks terms; from these terms, peaks net areas are then assessed. (author)

  13. Analysis and development of an ethanol compact reformer for hydrogen production for fuel cell; Analise e modelagem de reformador compacto de etanol para obtencao de hidrodenio para celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, P.R.F.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: renzo@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production in a compact and modular reforming unit designed for the generation of 1 kw of electrical power. For this, initially the thermodynamic limits for the steam reforming of ethanol are calculated in order to assess the limits in the production of hydrogen and other by-products and to select the best values of process stoichiometry, temperature and pressure for maximum hydrogen selectivity and minimum coke formation. In the following, a First and second Laws analysis is performed to analyze the equilibrium conditions of the main chemical reactions and to estimate the magnitude of the heat transfer required by the heating, evaporation, superheating and reforming of ethanol. Then, the catalytic reformer reactor is analyzed and sized, basing the analysis into the application of the equation for the conservation of mass of the chemical species and a model for the chemical kinetics. A basic reactor design is then proposed accompanied by the corresponding sizes and operating conditions. (author)

  14. Peru and Brazil: a comparative analysis of E and P licensing models adopted by these countries; Peru e Brasil: um analise comparativa dos modelos de licitacao de E and P adotados por esses paises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Luciana P.; Ferreira, Sabrina S. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a comparative analysis of the concession process of Oil and Gas Exploratory Blocks adopted in two countries of Latin America: Peru and Brazil, according to the rules of the Bidding Rounds occurred in 2007 (Peru's Bidding Round and 9th Bidding Round, respectively). In order to analyze the two models chosen, we considered, among others, the rules and proceedings adopted, the legal framework, the criteria used to qualify the companies, the number of blocks offered, the number of participating companies, the infra-structure of the event and the offer selection system. Through this analysis it was possible to verify the points which could be improved in each concession process model and it showed significant differences between them, despite the fact of each one is suitable to the reality of each country. It is important to highlight that the exchange of experience between agents of oil and gas sector, in this specific case Perupetro and ANP, contributes a lot to the continued improvement of bidding processes and other practices adopted. (author)

  15. Quantitative analysis of results of quality control tests in linear accelerators used in radiotherapy; Analise quantitativa dos resultados de testes de controle de qualidade em aceleradores lineares usados em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passaro, Bruno M.; Rodrigues, Laura N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: bruno.passaro@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess and analyze the stability of the calibration factor of three linear accelerators, as well as the other dosimetric parameters normally included in a program of quality control in radiotherapy. The average calibration factors of the accelerators for the period of approximately four years for the Clinac 600C and Clinac 6EX were (0.998±0.012) and (0.996±0.014), respectively. For the Clinac 2100CD 6 MV and 15 MV was (1.008±0.009) and (1.006±0.010), respectively, in a period of approximately four years. The data of the calibration factors were divided into four subgroups for a more detailed analysis of behavior over the years. Through statistical analysis of calibration factors, we found that for the 600C and Clinacs 2100CD, is an expected probability that more than 90% of cases the values are within acceptable ranges according to TG-142, while for the Clinac 6EX is expected around 85% since this had several exchanges of accelerator components. The values of TPR20,10 of three accelerators are practically constant and within acceptable limits according to the TG-142. It can be concluded that a detailed study of data from the calibration factor of the accelerators and TPR{sub 20},{sub 10} from a quantitative point of view, is extremely useful in a quality assurance program. (author)

  16. Effects of holmium laser on dental structure in vivo: thermal evaluation and histological analysis on pulpal tissue; Efeitos in vivo do laser de holmio em estrutura dental: monitoracao termica e analise histologica do tecido pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strefezza, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ho:YLF laser is capable of inducing physical and chemical changes on dental surfaces treated for caries prevention. The temperature in the pulp chamber was in vitro evaluated to as a function of the power and frequency of the laser irradiation. The purpose of this work is to verify the occurrence of pulp inflammation after Ho:YLF laser irradiation using different parameters in rabbits' teeth. The premolars and molars of ten rabbits (NZB) were divided in two groups according to the irradiation energy values of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at 2.065{mu}m wave length, frequency of O,5Hz and pulse length of 250{mu}s. An group A teeth were irradiated with using ten pulses of 334mJ/pulse of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at O.5Hz, and group B, with 512mJ/pulse. Animals were killed by transcardiac perfusion and the samples were prepared for histopathological analysis. The in vitro temperature monitoring revealed an increase of 1 deg C for the 334mJ/pulse energy and 4.5 deg C for the 512mJ/pulse energy. SEM observations showed the occurrence of melting and resolidification in dental surface. From the in vivo analysis it can be concluded that both employed laser parameters did not induce to any inflammatory response from the pulp. (author)

  17. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  18. Quality in the chemical analysis of biological matrices by fluorescence X-ray by energy dispersive; Qualidade nas analises quimicas de matrizes biologicas pela fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Evely E. de; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Almeida, Macio E.S.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: evelysousa_182@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain multielement analytical curves of high analytical rigor to the analysis of biological matrices by the technique of fluorescence x-ray energy dispersive - EDXRF. Calibration curves were constructed from the reference materials IAEA 140, IAEA 155, IAEA V8, V10 to the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, and SRM1515, SRM 1547, SRM 1570a, SRM 1573a, SEM 1567a, to the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST. After energy calibration, all samples were subjected to vacuum to the analyzes by 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltages used were respectively 15 keV for chemical elements with less than atomic number 22 and 50 keV for the others. After the construction of the curves, the analytical quality was assessed by the analysis of a portion-test of the reference material SRM 2976, also produced by NIST. Based on the number of certified reference materials used for construction of calibration curves in this work, quality analytical protocol was originated with considerable reliability for quantification of chemical elements in biological samples by EDXR.

  19. Cytogenetic analysis of {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone cancer metastasis; Analise citogenetica do {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP em linfocitos perifericos de pacientes com cancer osseo matastatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.A. da; Suzuki, M.F.; Rogero, J.R.; Okazaki, K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, M.I.C.C.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine with promising results for the relief of metastatic pain. Therefore, there are few knowledge about the effects of {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP at cellular level. The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the cytogenetic effects of {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone metastasis (with and without previous radio and/or chemotherapy) by the chromosome aberration technique. For that, the blood samples were collected before and one hour after the endovenous administrations of {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP (mean activity of 42.53 {+-} 5.31 MBq/kg body weight), taking into account the rapid blood clearance. The principal types of structural chromosome aberrations found gaps and breaks, acentric fragments centric rings, double minutes and dicentrics. The statistical analysis showed that the group submitted to previous radio and chemotherapy before{sup 153} Sm-EDTMP administration showed significant difference in chromosome aberrations frequency one hour after the treatment. The analysis of the chromosome modal number and the kinetics of cellular cycle showed no statistical difference among the groups, suggesting that the treatment with {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP, did not influence these parameters. The obtained data showed that the therapy with {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP induced a few quantity of cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes one hour after its administration in patients, although, theoretically, a long term stochastic effect cannot be disregarded. (author)

  20. Analysis of the profile of displacement of fluids in an industrial tank with detectors submerged; Analise do perfil de deslocamento de fluidos em tanques industriais com uma unidade estanque submersa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candeiro, Ricardo E. de Miranda; Crispim, Verginia R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@con.ufrj.br; verginia@con.ufrj.br; Brandao, Luis E. Barreira [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: luisbrandao77@hotmail.com

    2005-07-01

    This work presents the study of the analysis of the profile of displacement of fluids in an industrial tank using two detectors scintillator of NaI 2{sup '} x 2{sup '} submerged. The purpose of submerging the detector is to increase the detection efficiency to the passage of the radiotracer cloud and to reduce the amount of tracer radioactive inserted in the middle, causing less contaminations. The watertight unit was used to study the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluid, in an industrial tank, divided in four quadrants, with constant volume of 750 l and constant flow rate of 6 l/min. The used radiotracer was {sup 123}I in the liquid form of iodide of sodium and it was inserted in the entrance of feeding of the system. The analysis of the movement of the tracer was accomplished through the function E(t) that is a function of density of probability and that belongs to the group of functions of distribution of time of residence (DTR) whose use allowed to calculate the medium time of residence theoretical was (7500 {+-} 90) s, and the medium time of experimental residence calculated was (3884 {+-} 51) s. Also through the function it was possible to identify problems of the type: canalizations, internal circulations and retention zones. (author)

  1. Synthesis by the Pechini method and reaction combustion for the preparation of TiO{sub 2}: a comparative analysis; Sintese pelo metodo Pechini e reacao de combustao para preparacao de TiO{sub 2}: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E.P.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Freitas, N.L.; Lira, H.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare TiO{sub 2} powder by Pechini and combustion reaction methods. A comparative analysis between the structural and morphological results obtained by the two methods was investigated. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffractions (XRD), infrared analysis, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and particle size distribution. The results from XRD show that the powders prepared by Pechini method and by combustion reaction using aniline as fuel, present anatase as major phase and traces of rutile phase. The values of crystallite size and surface area from BET were: 30 e 44 nm; 6.2 e 4.4 m{sup 2}/g, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The values of particle size were: 21.9 e 5.3 {mu}m, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The Pechini method was more suitable to obtain powders with irregular agglomerates, in the block shape with particles bonded softly and small crystallite size. (author)

  2. Comparative analysis of three atmospheric dispersion coefficient systems at the Angra dos Reis, RJ, region; Analise comparativa de tres sistemas de coeficientes de dispersao atmosferica na regiao de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagio, Rosa Maria de Souza

    1982-07-01

    A comparative analysis was made in this work among Pasquill-Gifford (PG) atmospheric dispersion coefficients and those determined at the Juelich and Karlsruhe sites with the purpose of suggesting which one would be the most applicable to the Angra site. Each one of the three systems was determined by different experiments, carried out over sites with diversified features. The systems of Juelich and Karlsruhe were obtained over sites with high surface roughness and from stacks (elevated releases), while the PG system was obtained over sites with a small surface roughness and from ground level releases. The results of the application of these systems at a complex site like Angra,which has a highly diversified structure encompassing sea, vegetation, predominance of light winds and stable stability classes, show that the PG system, the most used in the world, is still the best choice. (author)

  3. Analysis of mechanical properties of steel 1045 plasma nitriding: with and without tempering; Analise das propriedades mecanicas do aco 1045 nitretado a plasma: com e sem tratamento de revenimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, N.T.B.; Passos, M.L.M. dos; Riani, J.C., E-mail: nayarabrumana@hotmail.com [Universidade da Regiao de Joinville (UNIVILLE), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Recco, A.A.C. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of tempering during the nitriding of AISI 1045 steel. The objective was to evaluate the possibility of eliminating this phase, with the nitriding properties remaining unaltered. For this, three parameter samples were compared: quenched, tempered and nitrided for 2h; quenching and nitrided for 2h and quenching and nitrided for 4h. The analysis techniques used for characterizing the samples before and after nitriding were optical microscopy, hardness Rockwell C (HRC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that phase γ is the most favorable of all parameters tested. The hardness assays showed that samples with different initial hardness (with and without tempering) and even nitriding time showed similar mechanical properties. This fact suggests that the tempering process occurred parallel to the nitriding process. (author)

  4. Relevant aspects in the analysis and accompaniment of projects with focus in maintenance of great machines; Aspectos relevantes na analise e acompanhamento de projetos com foco em manutencao de grandes maquinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Alexandre Francisco da; Santos, Daniel Borges dos; Caleiras, Robson Santos; Souza, Derlan Santos de; Freitas, Fernando de; Silva, Alisson Cardoso Gomes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work approaches the excellent aspects for analysis and monitoring of the execution of projects of great machines, in function of the characteristics of these equipment and portrays the actions taken in this process in the scope of the UNBS for the team of Engineering of Production (ENGP). Of this form, the analyses of the dimensional aspects, of leaves of verification and inspection, of Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) and of the preparations for commissioning and departure are distinguished, in order to guarantee the availability and efficiency of the equipment. In its conclusion, the work evaluates the benefits waited with the adjusted accompaniment of the project and suggests action to improve the process of accompaniment of future projects, assuring the good detailing of the project and the success in its implementation. (author)

  5. Investment decisions in environment of uncertainties integrated to the viability analysis of the distribution and transmission projects; Decisao de investimentos em ambiente de incertezas integrada a analise de viabilidade de projetos de transmissao e distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzi, L.M.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica; Ramos, D.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work intends to support the necessary investment decisions to the expansion of the network of 138/88 kV, belonging to the electric energy distribution companies. In the economic and financial analysis, are considered the needs of the Regulator for the tariff recognition of an investment, using economic engineering techniques to evaluate the feedback of the invested capital but considering an uncertainty environment, where the best decision depends on exogenous variables to the traditional planning process. In order to make viable the inclusion of the main variables of random behavior that condition the economic and financial performances of the analyzed alternatives for decision making, it was chosen the utilization of the methodology based on 'Real Options', which is an used technique in the financial market for some time.

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis with Compton suppression for the evaluation of foodstuff composition;Supressao Compton na analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental de produtos agricolas destinados a alimentacao humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Luis Gustavo Cofani dos

    2004-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a good option for studying chemical composition of food, allowing the simultaneous determination of several elements. However, the incomplete deposition of gamma-ray energies in the detector crystal due to Compton scatter can elevate the spectrum baseline making difficult the determination of some elements. The problem is particularly important for samples having high activities of radionuclides emitting gamma-rays with energies higher than those to be measured. For such cases, the use of a Compton suppression system can improve the detection limits. Here, the application of a suppression system for the analysis of foodstuff is evaluated. Measurements were carried out with a hyper pure germanium detector with 55 % relative efficiency for the photopeak 1332 keV of {sup 60}Co, working in anti-coincidence with two sodium iodine guard detectors (annulus and plug). Suppressed and unsuppressed spectra were simultaneously acquired. Initially, the overall system performance on the reduction of the Compton region was tested using {sup 137}Cs. Measuring between 358 and 382 keV, the higher suppression factor was 5.97, being observed a large variation according to the energy region selected for the determination. Reductions were noticed for the suppression factor resulting from increases on counting rate and source-detector distance. The suppression system showed to be stable during twenty weeks of periodic verifications. To evaluate the system performance on real sample analysis, several types and commercial brands of rice, potatoes, beans, peas, chickpeas and lentil were taken. After drying and grinding, samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 1x10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 8 hours, in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN/CNEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). Each sample was measured after decay periods of about 3, 7, 15 and 40 days. Analysis was conducted by the k{sub 0} method

  7. Petroleum reservoir fault reactivation problem analysis through finite element viscodamage model; Analise de problema de reativacao de falha em reservatorio de petroleo por modelo de viscodano via metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Julliana de P.V.; Guimaraes, Leonardo J. do N.; Gomes, Igor F.; Pontes Filho, Ivaldo Dario da S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, many new constitutive models for geomechanical materials were developed taking into account its complex behavior. The continuum damage mechanics, formulated according to irreversible thermodynamics principles, can be used to model materials subjected to degradation of its mechanical properties. Reservoir depletion may result in compaction and subsidence that induces fault reactivation, among others consequences. The fault reactivation problem in petroleum reservoirs has been widely studied as its changes completely the flow regime in subsurface. Isotropic damage model can be used to model the fault reactivation process, where its hydro-mechanical properties (stiffness and permeability) are affected during the reservoir production. In this paper, a fault reactivation case in a synthetic reservoir is presented and a sensibility analysis is carried out to identify the main variables that influence this process. (author)

  8. Petroleum reservoir fault reactivation problem analysis through finite element viscodamage model; Analise de problema de reativacao de falha em reservatorio de petroleo por modelo de viscodano via metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Julliana de P.V.; Guimaraes, Leonardo J. do N.; Gomes, Igor F.; Pontes Filho, Ivaldo Dario da S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, many new constitutive models for geomechanical materials were developed taking into account its complex behavior. The continuum damage mechanics, formulated according to irreversible thermodynamics principles, can be used to model materials subjected to degradation of its mechanical properties. Reservoir depletion may result in compaction and subsidence that induces fault reactivation, among others consequences. The fault reactivation problem in petroleum reservoirs has been widely studied as its changes completely the flow regime in subsurface. Isotropic damage model can be used to model the fault reactivation process, where its hydro-mechanical properties (stiffness and permeability) are affected during the reservoir production. In this paper, a fault reactivation case in a synthetic reservoir is presented and a sensibility analysis is carried out to identify the main variables that influence this process. (author)

  9. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces energy surplus for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de energia para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiomari, Marcelo Caldato; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Lima, Rodrigo dos Santos; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work, thermodynamic and thermo economic analyses of a plant resulted from an expansion of the Pioneiros Distillery's cogeneration system are carried out, which is constituted basically by a boiler that produces 140 ton/h of steam at high pressure and temperature (6,6 MPa and 530 deg C, respectively), by a condensation-extraction turbine that drives a electrical generator producing 32 MW, being the mechanical drivers realized by electrical engines. By means of thermodynamic analyses it's possible to define some plant's performance indexes as well as evaluate the global use of energy in each component. The thermo economic analysis allows evaluating the costs of capital and fuel reflexes in the composition of the products (steam and electricity) costs. (author)

  10. Analysis of the procedures and criteria for implantation of X-ray beams for ISO 4037 reference at low energies; Analise dos procedimentos e criterios de implantacao de feixes de raios X de referencia ISO 4037 em baixas energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Marcus Tadeu Tanuri de

    2012-07-01

    According to the radiological protection principles, practices involving ionizing radiation must be planned and carried out under the guarantee that the values of individual doses, the number of people exposed to radiation and the probability of accidental exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Therefore, radiation dosimetry is required to be done with reliable instruments designed for measuring dosimetric quantities. The reliability of the dosimetry depends on both the calibration of the dosimeter and its proper performance under certain test conditions. The International Standardization Organization (ISO), in order to promote international standardization and metrological coherency, established sets of reference X-ray beams for dosimeter calibration and typing-test; they are expected to be implemented in metrology laboratories in compliance with specific technical requirements. At low energies there are specific requirements that need to be considered in both the implementation of the reference beams and their use in calibration and testing. The present study is an analysis of the procedures and criteria for ISO 4037 reference radiation implementation, at low energies. In the Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center of Nuclear Technology (LCD / CDTN), experiments were performed for determining the X-ray reference radiation parameters. Alternatives to the usual methods for half-value layer determination were studied. Spectra of reference beams were simulated with software and compared with experimental measurements. Different climatic conditions were reproduced in the Laboratory for analysis of its influence on the determination of the beam parameters. Uncertainties in the measurements of studied parameters were evaluated. According to the ISO 4037 criteria, the low energy X-ray beams were considered to be implemented; they allowed the determination of the conversion coefficients from air kerma to the operational radiation protection

  11. Performance analysis of progressive cavity pumps in oil wells with high BSW (Basic Sediment Water); Analise do desempenho de elastometros do bombeio de cavidades progressivas em pocos de petroleo com elavado BSW (Basic Sediment Water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cindi Alves; Santos, Joao Paulo Lobo dos; Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Santos, Luiz Carlos Lobato dos [Universidade Federal da Bahia, BA (Brazil); Duarte, Lindemberg de Jesus Nogueira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the most important equipment in the progressing cavity pump (PCP) is the subsurface pump, which comprises a rotor and a stator covered internally by an elastomer. This is responsible for sealing the pump and, consequently, for elevating the fluids. In fact, this polymer is used because of the ability to generate pressure in the pump by the seals formed between the cavities. In order to guarantee that the elastomer will have a good performance in the PCP system certain requirements need to be checked, such as: stress, elongation, hardness, resilience, permeability and adhesion. The fluids and solids handled by the PCP system, allied to high temperatures can cause premature wear in the elastomers. The most common reactions which are also observed in most of the wells are swelling, shrinkage, softening, hardening and explosive decompression. In this sense, the aim of this work is to study some elastomers which were chosen based on compatibility tests conducted by a major oil company. The problems that occurred in the wells will be analyzed in order to verify whether the choice of the elastomer had some influence on system failure. For this purpose, the intervention reports, efficiency tests and failure analysis reports will be used. At the end of this work, it was possible to diagnose the causes, consequences and solutions to inherent problems at various oil wells in a field that is in an advanced stage of recovery. Finally, it was concluded that simple changes in the process of compatibility analysis would help to increase the reliability level of the tests, especially the problems observed during the PCP operation in hostile environments. (author)

  12. Construction of scientific production indicators based on scientometrics analysis of IPEN dissertations and theses; Elaboracao de indicadores de producao cientifica com base na analise cientometrica das dissertacoes e teses do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igami, Mery Piedad Zamudio

    2011-07-01

    Construction of Indicators plays an important role in the contemporaneous society. It could be observed their ordinary use by all the activities segments. In scientific area it is not different; such practice has already been consolidated; this statement could be corroborated by the innumerous papers published about this matter in the main databases; however, there is a prevalence of quantitative studies, which obtain data from the international databases, analyzing journal articles. Concerning this finding, the main objective of this study was to elaborate scientific indicators from a local institutional data base, using as a corpus of the study the dissertations and theses, produced by a graduate program in the period of 1977 to 2009.Three types of two-dimensional indicators were obtained by using bibliometric techniques: numerical, thematic and productivity. For dissertations and theses thematic characterization it was used the Subject categories and scope descriptions and the International Nuclear Information System Thesaurus (INIS). Through the statistical technique of clustering analysis, it was possible to classify them in five main groups, showing former performance and growth future trends of each group; for data extraction about theses productivity, regarding articles published; the Curriculo Lattes, and the local institutional database were used. Co-word analysis technique was used to establish a more precise correlation, between articles and theses, and for this purpose it was used the keywords from a controlled vocabulary. In order to validate the results, it was performed a survey, with the theses authors. Results obtained indicated that 55.9% of the articles published, between 5 years, before and after the thesis presentation, are strongly correlated to it. It was also observed that, correlated articles have been published, in an average of, 1, 63 year before the thesis presentation. Concerning databases, it was shown that they are valuable tools and

  13. The energetic analysis of ethanol systems production from the manioc, the sugar cane and the corn crops; Analise energetica de sistemas de producao de etanol de mandioca, cana-de-acucar e milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salla, Diones Assis [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: diones.salla@gmail.com; Cabello, Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (CERAT/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Raizes e Amidos Tropicais], E-mail: dircerat@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was the analysis of the energetic ethanol production systems using as source of carbohydrates, manioc, sugar cane and maize crops. The searches were carried from the field in the Paranapanema River Valley, state of Sao Paulo in the operations of cultivation and industrial processing of raw materials for analysis. The expenditure of energy concerning the agricultural part was made by the energy consumption of stage production of one hectare of sugar cane, cassava and corn, tillage and planting procedure, inputs, driving the crop, harvest, transport industry and energy draining. The expenditure of energy referring to the part was made by the industry energy consumption of stage processing of one tonne of sugar cane, cassava and corn, in the operations of disintegration / milling, hydrolysis / treatment of the broth, fermentation, distillation and maintenance of equipment. Under the system of agronomic production of raw materials, manioc presented an energy expenditure below that of sugar cane and maize (9,528.33 MJ ha{sup -1}; 14,370.90 MJ ha{sup -1} and 15,633.83 MJ ha{sup -1}, respectively). For the ethanol produced, the operations of cultivation has consumed 1.54 MJ l{sup -1} with manioc; MJ 1.99 l{sup -1} with sugar cane, and 7.9 MJ l{sup -1} with the corn. In the industrial processing of a ton of raw material, sugar cane presented an energy cost less than the cassava and maize (1,641.56 MJ t{sup -1}; 2,208.28 MJ t{sup -1} and MJ 3,882.39 t{sup -1}, respectively), however, showed a higher cost than when they related to ethanol produced (19.38 MJ l{sup -1}; 11.76 MJ l{sup -1} and 11.76 MJ l{sup -1}, respectively). In the final energy balance for each mega joules of energy invested in sugar cane were required 1.09 MJ (9%), for each mega joules of energy invested in manioc were required 1.76 MJ (76%) and for each mega joules energy invested in maize were required 1.19 MJ (19%). Overall, it appears that the manioc consumes less energy than

  14. Production of muscovite-feldspathic glass composite: scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis; Producao de composito moscovita-vidro feldspatico: microscopia eletronica de varredura e analise de difracao de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.P.F.; Ogasawara, T.; Santos, S.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Franca, S.C.A.; Barbato, C.N [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral(CETEM/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to find the sintering conditions for the feldspathic glass + muscovite mixture to produce a dense composite block for manufacturing dental prosthesis by using CAD-CAM. Each 20g of the glass-frit had : 15.55g of Armil-feldspar; 0.53g of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 1.56g of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}; 0.5g of borax; 1.74g of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}; 0.13g of CeO{sub 2}. Frit's powder finer than 350 Tyler mesh was mixed with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt% and 100 wt% of muscovite pressed cylinders (5600 pounds force) 16mm in diameter and sintered under vacuum Vacumat (VITA) furnace at 850 deg C, 900 deg C, 950 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1050 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1150 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy were carried out. The necessary temperature for high densification depended on the composition of the mixture: 850 deg C (for pure frit); 1050 deg C (for 10 wt% mica) and 1150 deg C (for 20 wt% mica); pure mica degraded during sintering. (author)

  15. Biokinetics analysis of I-131 and cytogenetic dosimetry in patients, after radionuclide administration for thyroid; Analise biocinetica do iodo-131 e dosimetria citogenetica em pacientes, apos administracao do radionuclideo para o tratamento de cancer de tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ana Cristina de Holanda

    1996-07-01

    Thyroid cancer patients are submitted to an oral administration of {sup 131} I in order to eliminate remanescent thyroid tissue, after subtotal thyroidectomy. The average activity administered in this treatment is 3.7 GBq (ablation dose), with significant irradiation of body tissues. However, there are no conclusive results on the literature about the radiation absorbed dose of these patients. The metabolic behaviour of radioiodine in 4 patients submitted to {sup 131} I ablation therapy doses was studied, through measurements of {sup 131} I in total body, thyroid and urine samples. Cytogenetic estimates of the radiation doses of these patients were obtained through chromosomal aberration analysis in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Our results suggest that ten days after ablation dose, almost all remanescent thyroid tissue will be eliminated and {sup 131} I will be homogeneously distributed through the patient's body. The retention of {sup 131} I in the body after the first ten days following the ablation dose may be mathematically represented by the sum of two exponential terms: the first and shorter one with a biological half-life approximately 3.2 days (effective half-life = 2.3 days) and the second one, with a biological half-life of approximately 26 days (effective half-life = 6.2 days). The absorbed dose using the average of the observed chromosomal aberrations yields in blood samples of all patients was estimated in the range of 0,3 to 0,4 Gy. (author)

  16. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercial baby foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry; Determinacao dos elementos essenciais e toxicos em alimentos comerciais infantis por analise por ativacao com neutrons e espectrometria de absorcao atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be breast fed exclusively for at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods, in order to meet the child's nutritional, mineral and energy needs. Commercial food products for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies. Thus, it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of infant malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn and toxic elements: As, Cd, Hg levels were determined in twenty seven different commercial infant food product samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In order to validate both methodologies the reference material: INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST - SRM 1577b Bovine Liver by INAA and NIST - SRM 1548th Typical Diet and NIST - SRM 1547 Peach Leaves by AAS were analyzed. The twenty seven baby food samples were acquired from Sao Paulo city supermarkets and stores. Essential and toxic elements were determined. Most of the essential element concentrations obtained were lower than the World Health Organization requirements, while concentrations of toxic elements were below the tolerable upper limit. These low essential element concentrations in these samples indicate that infants should not be fed only with commercial complementary foods. (author)

  17. Experimental energetic analysis of gas natural-powered fuel cell cogeneration plant; Analise energetica experimental de uma planta de co-geracao com celulas a combustivel e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose G.M.; Lopes, Francisco C.; Silva Junior, Fernando R.; Soares, Guilherme F.W.; Serra, Eduardo T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economy of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  18. Radiation protection in dentistry: analysis of Faculties of Dentistry from State of Rio de Janeiro in relation to personnel; Radioprotecao em odontologia: analise das faculdades de odontologia do Estado do Rio de Janeiro no tocante a pessoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha Filho, L.G. [Fundacao Tecnica Educacional Souza Marques, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil); Borges, J.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Raymundo Junior, R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Koch, H.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this work is to show the need and the importance of the training and formation of the dentist in radioprotection, in accordance with the recent proposal of Technical Regulation Guidelines of Radiation Protection in radiodiagnostic in Medicine and Odontology, from the ministry of Health, which established basic for radioprotection in medicine and odontology, including the principles, limits, obligations and basic controls for protection of man and the environment, against possible improper effects caused by the use of ionizing radiation sources. Departing from results obtained previously by a research about training and Formation of the dentist in Radioprotection, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a questionnaire was applied to know better the abilities of our dentist. Analysis of programs of disciplines in schools of dentist, in the sate of Rio de Janeiro indicate that they show little or no concern with radiological protection. This was confirmed through a first questionnaire applied to students, dentist teachers, which corroborates with results of the last questionnaire. This work suggests creation or adaptation of existent disciplines, involving radioprotection and quality of images in radiodiagnostic, to improve, complement, and make uniform the formation future dentists. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs.; e-mail: padilha e borges at lmn.con.ufrj.br

  19. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis; Sintese e caracterizacao de pastas de cimento aditivadas com resinas epoxi - analises cineticas, termodinamicas e calorimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S., E-mail: macleybiane@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  20. Simulation of a gas thermal plant in the new environment of the Brazilian electricity sector: a risk versus return analysis; Simulacao de uma usina termica a gas no novo contexto do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise risco versus retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhel, Antonio Carlos da Costa

    2000-12-15

    This work has as its main objective the evaluation of the financial impact in respect to the investment in a thermal gas plant, taking into consideration the complementary role of thermal electricity generation within the interconnected system. A risk x return analysis is performed, by means of computer simulations based on different assumptions, among which the following: costs involved; electric system expansion scenarios; flexible plant operation; long and short term contracting of generation capacity. The combination between flexibility in operation (the level of take/ship or pay in gas contracts) - which in favorable hydraulic periods allows for the use of water which would otherwise overflow through spillways or stored at low value - and a trading strategy - which reduces the risk exposure to electricity spot prices - makes it possible to have a significant increase in the cost effectiveness of the project. Among the main conclusions of the study, the following should be highlighted: the electricity price gap occurring between the prices practiced in present contracts between suppliers and distributors and those of the 'new energy', resulting from the system expansion; the relevance the flexibility in fuel purchase, in order to allow for the cost reduction of the energy generated, through the elimination of unnecessary gas consumption; the high risk associated to strategies in which investors come up with no signed long term power purchase agreements; and the risks for the system expansion, considering the consumer point of view. (author)

  1. Social-environmental fragility analysis for diagnosis of watershed in study of hydroelectric projects; Analise de fragilidade socioambiental para o diagnostico de bacias hidrograficas no estudo de empreendimentos hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Dzedzej, Maira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Samuel Torres de; Flauzino, Barbara [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba, (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the social-environmental fragility of a watershed where there is potential for installation of hydropower projects. The method includes dividing the watershed into sub areas (by analysis of similar characteristics) and, subsequently, the use of 23 indicators grouped into six social-environmental components (Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems, Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Physical Environment, Territorial Organization, Way of Life, Economic Base and Indigenous Communities and Traditional Populations), which together seek to portray all aspects involved in the fragility of the area. The technique was applied in the basin of the Coxim river in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, assuming that there is interest or the possibility of installing hydropower plants within its boundaries. The basin was divided into three sub areas, considering physical parameters (such as topography, rainfall and hydrology), which were ranked by calculating the fragility of each one of the social-environmental indicators. As a result, a map was created to indicate the sub areas more susceptible to damage and those which should be more resistant to the installation of impacting activities, such as hydropower plants. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the work of a multidisciplinary team can reduce the degree of subjectivity of the methodology and allow, (by modifying some considerations inherent in the partial calculations,) its application in other situations where the possibility of installing hydropower projects is not considered. (author)

  2. Selection of production strategy in heterogeneous reservoirs under uncertainty with emphasis on analysis of wells; Selecao de estrategia de producao em campos com fortes heterogeneidades sob incertezas com enfase na analise de pocos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botechia, Vinicius E.; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The selection of a good production strategy for an oil field is a very important task, because it should enable the field to produce a quantity of hydrocarbons efficiently, in order to maximize the performance of the reservoir. This task, however, is extremely complex due to the large number of variables involved and possible alternatives. In scenarios under uncertainty, this complexity is even greater, since risks increase. The studies that focus on methodologies to select production strategies take into account, in most cases, only field indicators in the process. However, in heterogeneous fields and in scenarios under uncertainty, the behavior of the wells may have a very large range between the scenarios, due mainly to differences in simulation models in these cases. Thus, this paper proposes an approach to analyze the behavior of wells in the selection of production strategy in order to make the optimization process more efficient, increasing the average economic return on the considered scenarios or decreasing the risk involved in the process. The results showed that this type of analysis can provide new alternatives of strategies or can give greater robustness to the chosen strategy. (author)

  3. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional radiotherapy planning system for esophageal tumors: comparison of treatment techniques and analysis of probability of complications; Planejamento tridimensional para radioterapia de tumores de esofago: comparacao de tecnicas de tratamento e analise de probabilidade de complicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justino, Pitagoras Baskara; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Ferauche, Debora; Ros, Renato [Sao Paulo Uni., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Radioterapia (InRad)]. E-mail: pitagorasb@hotmail.com

    2003-06-01

    Radiotherapy techniques for esophageal cancer were compared using a three-dimensional planning system. We studied the following treatment techniques used for a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the middle third of the esophagus: two antero-posterior and two latero-lateral parallel opposed fields, three fields ('Y' and 'T'), and four fields ('X'). Dose-volume histograms were obtained considering spinal cord and lungs as organs at risk. Analysis was performed comparing doses in these organs as recommended by the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and Tumor Control Probability (TCP). When only the lungs were considered the best technique was two antero-posterior parallel opposed fields. The spinal cord was best protected using latero-lateral fields. We suggest the combination of at least two treatment techniques: antero-posterior fields with 'Y' or 'T' techniques, or latero-lateral fields in order to balance the doses in the lungs and the spinal cord. Another option may be the use of any of the three-field techniques during the whole treatment. (author)

  5. Thermographic and spectrophotometric analysis of the extrinsic tooth bleaching using a diode laser and a LED system. In vitro; Analise termografica e espectrofotometrica do clareamento dental extrinsico utilizando laser de diodo e sistema de LED. Estudio In vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheli, Paola Racy de

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-pulpal temperature change, as well as to compare the bleaching power of a 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Xtra Boost- Ultradent. Inc), when activated with a diode laser, with a LED system and without activation, in the extrinsic tooth bleaching in vitro. Ten mandibular human incisors, a thermocouple, 45 bovine incisors and a spectrophotometer (Shade Eye- Shofu) for the color analysis. The samples were divided into 3 groups: 38% hydrogen peroxide activated by a diode laser (ZAP lasers, wavelength 808 nm {+-} 5, power of 1,4 W); 38% hydrogen peroxide activated by LED (Bright LEC-Mmoptics, wavelength 470 nm {+-} 25, power of 380 mW); 38% hydrogen peroxide without activation. After the artificial pigmentation, the bleaching agent acted for the same time in the 3 groups, differing only by the type of activation. The results of temperature showed that the LED activation was safer than the diode laser, which, in some measures exceeded the limit of 5.6 deg C. The luminosity of the samples did not show significantly statistics differences in none of the groups and moments of this study. The diode laser and LED activation did not influenced at the bleaching power of the peroxide, which showed effective for removing stains, with great capacity of bleaching bovine tooth artificially darkened. (author)

  6. Analysis of electrical and microstructural characteristics of a ZnO-based varistor doped with rare earth oxide; Analise das caracteristicas microestruturais e eletricas de um varistor a base de ZnO dopado com oxidos de terras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.M. de; Dias, R.; Furtado, J.G. de M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assuncao, F.C.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Varistor is a semiconductor device, used in the protection of electrical systems, characterized to have a high no-linear electric resistance. Its properties are directly dependents of its chemical composition and microstructural characteristics. In this work were analyzed microstructural and electrical characteristics of a ZnO-based varistor doped with rare earth oxide, with chemical composition (mol%) 98,5.ZnO - 0,3.Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} - 0,2.Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 0,9.Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 0,1.Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. X-ray diffraction for phase characterization, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for microstructural analysis. Measurement of average grain size and electrical and dielectric characteristics complete the characterization. The results show the formation of biphasic microstructure and with high densification, presenting relevant varistors characteristics but that would need improvements.(author)

  7. Environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants: analysis and optimization proposals for Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Licenciamento ambiental para implantacao de pequenas centrais hidreletricas: analise e propostas de otimizacao para Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia], e-mail: adriana@unifei.edu.br; Dupas, Francisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: dupas@unifei.edu.brT

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the legal and institutional aspects of the environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants (SHPP). Laws and doctrine related to the topic were researched and concluded for Minas Gerais State with the help of a survey with the enterprises and institutions involved in the process to find out the difficulties that influence the delay of the analysis of the SHPP. It also highlights the importance of environmental zoning as a tool of environmental management for the procedure to obtain these licenses. The results show that 80% of the cases, the institutions do not respect the deadlines, 40% of the studies presented by the enterprises are insufficient, 60% there is lack of human resource and technical capacities of the environment institutions, and 80% non-fulfilment of the laws and non-integration of the institutions. Finally, the study concludes that the difficulties to obtain these licenses are based on the facts mentioned which are, the non-integration of the institutions and also, being recent, on the inexperience of the actors involved. Therefore, it is suggested that deadlines should be imposed for the institutions and the enterprises. There should be training, fund raising for the hiring of technicians, fulfillment of the law and above all, transparency in order to supply the electrical energy demand and guarantee the sustainable development. (author)

  8. Shapley value applied to the economic analysis of upstream projects for an integrated energy company; Valor de Sharpley aplicado a analise economica de projetos de E e P em uma empresa integrada de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinciara Junior, Ewerton Ribeiro Walter; Vieira, Roberta Chasse; Soares, Fabio Maia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    For integrated energy companies, the determination of opportunity costs is of major importance for the appraisal of project revenues. The key feature to be taken into account is not the actual price forecast for the oil, but which value that oil production aggregates to the Company - the cumulative gains of both upstream and downstream segments. When a project portfolio is analyzed, special care must be taken to the synergies among projects, whether those are positive or negative. An inadequate approach could simply disregard such relationships or oversize their impact, what would lead to incorrect determination of project revenues. Shapley values is a concept withdrawn from games' theory which can be used as a normalization technique, aiming to distribute the income of a portfolio among its players in an unbiased way, through the analysis of the several marginal contributions of each project for each possible subset of the portfolio. In this contribution the utilization of such technique for the valuation of oil production projects is discussed and illustrated. Topics such as advantages and drawbacks of the proposed approach are addressed, as well as computational effort issues. (author)

  9. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method; Estabelecimento de procedimento para determinacao de vanadio em mexilhoes pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele, E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S., E-mail: edvinett@usp.b, E-mail: camilo.pereira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha

    2009-07-01

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the {sup 52}V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  10. Model of spatial analysis of electric power market using the Fuzzy C-Means technical classification; Modelo de analise espacial de mercado de energia eletrica utilizando a tecnica de classificacao Fuzzy C-Means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, J.C. [Companhia Energetica de Goias (CELG-D), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: joao.cn@celg.com.br; Lima, W.S. [Votorantim Siderurgia, Resende, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia Geral de Tecnologia], E-mail: wagner.lima@vmetais.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The power distribution companies live with an antagonistic reality: an increasing energy demand, due to steady economic and population growth, and a limitation on their financial resources to expand its network. Therefore, it is essential an improvement in activity of planning of the power distribution system trying to improve the application of available resources. In this context fits the application of Geographic Information System combined with clustering techniques and classification in order to enhance the planning process, giving the planner a more complete picture of the consumer market by the distributor. This paper presents a system that makes use of Geographic Information System combined with the technique of clustering and classification Fuzzy C-Means, with the aim of analyzing the distribution of network load and the performance of the technique. Each group performed leads to a spatial representation (scenario). This, together with an index measuring the performance of the group (intra-group and inter-group) implemented in this work, provides a favorable environment for spatial analysis of the electric power market.

  11. Analysis of the technical potential for carbon capture and geological sequestration in the oil sector of Brazil; Analise do potencial tecnico do sequestro geologico de CO{sub 2} no setor petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Isabella Vaz Leal da

    2009-02-15

    This thesis focuses on the technologies related to CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage. The main objective of this study is to perform an analysis of the technical potential of geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the oil and gas sector in Brazil. Climate changes are directly related to emissions of greenhouse gases. Mainly, are related to increased carbon dioxide emissions due to the use of fossil fuels. To mitigate climate changes there are technologies that have the purpose of promoting the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases such as the Geological Sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Thus, the study presents a description of the stages of the geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} and the state of the art of the technology in Brazil and worldwide. In addition, is presented the capacity for storage of the Brazilian sedimentary basins. Finally, this thesis analyzes the application of the described technologies in two stationary sources of great importance: refineries and oil and gas production fields. (author)

  12. Methodology to characterize an unsampled oil interval, integrating PVT (Pressure/Volumen/Temperature) analysis and production log; Metodologia para caracterizacao de oleo de intervalo nao-amostrado, integrando analise PVT e perfil de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Diogo Reato; Souza, Ana Paula Martins de; Vieira, Alexandre J.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a new methodology for characterizing an unsampled oil interval, using basically production log data and PVT analyses available in the well. The methodology was applied to a real case, where the live oil samples were collected during a well test run in three different depths, revealing some evidence of a compositional grading due to gravity. Each individual sample was a mixture of the fluid produced from the reservoir bottom to the sampling point, since the whole interval was perforated and the isolation had to be made with a packer. The first sample was corresponding to the mixture of lower and all upper oils. The other two samples are only the heavier and that oil with part of the one from the upper interval. In order to identify the fluid properties from the upper interval, needed for production development studies, the following procedure was devised: equation-of-state tuning, reproducing the sampled fluid properties; conversion of volumetric flowrates from production log into mass and molar flowrates; flowrate ratio calculation, between the upper and lower intervals; upper interval fluid composition estimative; upper interval fluid properties simulation, using the previously tuned equation-of-state, thus generating what was considered a representative, synthetic PVT analysis. (author)

  13. Energetic-economical analysis of a stationary for energy generation with fuel cells and natural gas reforming; Analise energetico-economica de um sistema estacionario de geracao de energia com celulas a combustivel e reforma de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo; Silva Junior, Fernando Rodrigues; Silva, Cristiane Abrantes da; Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Lopes, Francisco da Costa; Serra, Eduardo Torres [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: furtado@cepel.br; Codeceira Neto, Alcides [Companhia HidroEletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economicity of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  14. Modelos de espiritualidade e contexto cristão brasileiro: uma analise e projeção a partir da distinção kierkegaardiana entre “estética, ética e religião”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta diversos modelos da espiritualidade cristã, distinguindo neles formas de um conceito central ou de modelos binários ou tríplices. Apresenta-se a hipótese de que o último tipo seja uma forma interessante para descrever e analisar o campo da espiritualidade cristã no Brasil. Na base de uma releitura de Kierkegaard, favorece-se a distinção entre os aspectos místico, ético e estético da espiritualidade cristã; analisa-se a tendência dos adeptos de cada acento de transformá-lo em um sistema fechado e defende-se a necessidade de uma visão complementar dos mesmos.Palavras-chave: Søren Kierkegaard; ética; estética; mística; teologia da espiritualidade; espiritualidade cristã brasileira.AbstractThe paper presents various models of Christian spirituality, distinguishes between them singular, binarian and triple concepts and argues that the latter type would be better able to understand the current tensions and dynamics in the field of Christian spirituality in Brazil. On the basis of a rereading of Kierkegaard, favors a distinction between the mystical, ethical and aesthetic aspects of Christian spirituality, analyzes the trend of the supporters of each accent to transform it into a closed system and defends the need for a complementary view thereof.ResumenEl artículo presenta varios modelos de espiritualidad cristiana, distingue entre formas que derivan de un concepto central o de modelos binarios o triples. Se presenta la hipótesis de que el último tipo sea una forma capaz de describir y analizar el terreno de la espiritualidad cristiana en el Brasil. La base de una relectura de Kierkegaard, hace propicia la distinción entre los aspectos místico, ético y estético de la espi-ritualidad cristiana; se analiza la tendencia de los partidarios de cada acento de convertirlos, respecti-vamente, en sistemas herméticos y defiende la ne-cesidad de una visión complementaria de los mismos.Palabras clave: S

  15. Energy evaluation of soil preparation for deployment of the eucalyptus culture: a subsidy for sustainable analysis; Avaliacao energetica do preparo do solo para implantacao da cultura de eucalipto: subsidio para uma analise de sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Quintana, Nuria Rosa Gagliardi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura

    2004-07-01

    The knowledge of the production and expenditure of energy for the agriculture are fundamental due, among other factors, to the strategic importance that occupies as producing of energy input for other economic sections. With the objective of presenting the participation of the several energy types employees in the soil prepare for implantation of the eucalyptus culture, this work is constituted in a contribution regarding the subject of the sustain grow. It was determined that the field hypothetical to be prepared possesses soil with sandy texture and raise plan or soft-wavy, where the minimum cultivation of the soil allows without problems, the use of 'subsolador florestal multifuncional'. The silviculture practical, linked to the minimum cultivation of the soil in the implantation of the culture was: liming, court of the residues and roots, subsoil, basic fertilizing, control chemical of undesirable plants and control chemical of ants. The technical coefficients, the work day, the revenue, the identification of the tractors, implements and equipment; its specifications and respective consumption of fuel, lubricants and greases, besides the quantification of the labor used by silviculture practical, were certain starting from collected secondary data. The adopted methodological procedures were based in literature revision. In agreement with the obtained results, it was ended that of the total of energy maid's 3.309,62 MJ for hectare in the soil prepare, it is had the participation of 83,30% of industrial energy, 16,52% of fossil energy and 0,18% of biological energy. It was verified like this that the dependence of the industrial energy and of the fossil energy in the soil prepare. In that way, we suggest himself the search of the use of another types of energy that they allow the energy sustainability of this agro-ecosystems. (author)

  16. Analysis of water flow, power and electrical current of a motor pump powered by photovoltaic panels; Analise da vazao, potencia e corrente em uma motobomba acionada por paines fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Paulo Takashi; Santos, Jose Airton Azevedo dos; Michels, Roger Nabeyama [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR-MD), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: airton@utfpr.edu.br; Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini [Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: ricieri@unioeste.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR-CM), Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Because of the high cost of electricity connection to distant places, far away from conventional nets, photovoltaic solar energy is widely used in public illumination, water pumping, medical care centers, etc. With the purpose to contribute to a better utilization in this type of energy, the object of the project is to analyze the water flow, power and electrical current of a motor pump to be used for water lift, driven by photovoltaic panels, the data will be collected at every 2 meters in height from 2.2 to 18.2 meters. The analyses show the outflow linear dependence in relation to the height of the water lift, a second order dependence of the electrical power provided by the photovoltaic panels in relation to the solar irradiance on the panels and a linear dependence of the electrical current in relation to the solar irradiance. This study is a part of a project developed at the 'Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana' (UTFPR) - Campus Medianeira - PR. Two photovoltaic panels were used from Solarex Brand, model MSX 56, a motor pump made by Shurflo Ltd, model 2088-732, two pyranometers from KIPP and ZONEN CM3, a type K thermocouple, a pressure transducer model HUBA-510 and a water flow transducer. (author)

  17. Isolation and partial chemical analysis of exopolysaccharides from cultivated marine diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii (Coscinodiscales, Bacillariophyta); Isolamento e analise quimica parcial de exopolissacarideos da diatomacea marinha cultivada Coscinodiscus wailesii (Coscinodiscales, Bacillariophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marson-Ascencio, Poliana G.; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti [Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Palmas, TO (Brazil); Baggio, Selma Faria Zawadzki, E-mail: polianamarson@uft.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular

    2012-07-01

    The marine diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii has attracted ecological interest because their blooms affect fishing areas. The aim of this work was the isolation, extraction and partial chemical characterization of soluble exopolysaccharide and bound exopolysaccharide from C. wailesii. Cultures were grown in Guillards f/2 medium under controlled conditions of temperature, aeration, photo period and light intensity. Percentage of carbohydrate, uronic acids, sulfates groups and cellular lipids was determined. Ion exchange chromatography of exopolysaccharides produced three fractions whose partial chemical structures were disclosed using {sup 13}C NMR and methylation techniques. (author)

  18. Model applied to wistar rats for analysis of atrial alteration radioinduced: role of the TGFBeta1 cytokine on the lesions development; Modelo em ratos Wistar para analise de alteracoes atriais radioinduzidas: papel da citocina TGFBeta1 no desenvolvimento das lesoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane Fernandes da; Andrade, Cherley Borba V. de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia Rosa do; Silva, Claudia Marcello da; Ribeiro, Andreia Fortes; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: vivifis@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes

    2009-07-01

    This paper develops a radiobiological model on Wistar rats for evaluation of atrium radioinduced alterations. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetised, immobilized and irradiated with 500, 1000 and 1500 cGy irradiated doses in the cardiac volume, pre-define through tomography. The animals were sacrificed after 15 days irradiation. The atriums were collected, fixed in formaldehyde and soaked into paraffin. A part of samples were dyed with hematoxyline-eosin (HE) and another submitted to immunohistochemistry for visualization of the cytokine TGFbeta1 expression. The observation of samples with HE indicated lesions om blood vessels and discrete inflamed infiltrated on some samples. The immunohistochemistry shown an intense expression of the TGFbeta1 cytokine, mainly on the only intine of the blood vessels. The data indicate that the atria develop alterations compatible to inflammatory answer as reaction to the damage caused by the tissue irradiation, and this answer is responsible by the production of TGFbeta1 cytokine, considered a cytokine pro-fibrotic on various models of cardiac disease. The lesions at atrium level can reflect on the correct functioning of the system generator of cardiac impulse, and can induce arrythmias and to prejudice the production of natriuretic peptides, molecules involved on the cardiac homeostasis

  19. Comparative analysis between the cost of energy for irrigation the production of Zoysia grass (Zoysia japonica Steud.); Analise comparativa entre os custos de energia na irrigacao para a producao da grama-esmeralda (Zoysia japonica Steud.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaroni, Bruno Henrique Silveira; Turco, Jose Eduardo Piteli; Coan, Ruchele Marchiori; Gerolineto, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzed the cost of energy (electrical and diesel) in the irrigated cultivation of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) The research was conducted at Green-Park Farm, located in Pitangueiras, SP. It measured the consumption of diesel oil from a diesel engine, brand MWM, turbinate, 6 cylinder, and model D-229. The price of diesel oil was obtained from the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo (ANP). We studied the economic subtracting the result from the sale of zoysiagrass, the cost of consumption of diesel oil. It estimated the consumption of electric energy of a three-phase induction motor of 175 CV, WEG brand, coupled to a centrifugal pump Mark Peerless brand, model XHE-5A. To determine the energy expenditure was obtained the value of the rate with the Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL). A comparison of costs was performed by subtracting the economic result from the sale of grass in the cost of energy consumption. The 'Sistema Tarifario Grupo A Horo-Sazonal Verde e/ ou Azul', with special discount for irrigating at night was the lowest cost of electricity and by comparing the result of the economic costs of energy, the electrical system was more efficient in the use of fuel (diesel). (author)

  20. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences; Analise estrutural, petrologica e geocronologica dos litotipos da Regiao de Pien (PR) e adjacencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1996-12-31

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle 201 refs., 130 figs., 6 tabs., 2 maps

  1. Analysis of the irradiation and thermal treatment combined effect in the quality of mangoes for exportation; Analise do efeito combinado da irradiacao e do tratamento hidrotermico nas caracteristicas de qualidade de mangas para exportacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Marcel Wilke

    2009-07-01

    In this research the effect of the hydrothermal treatment and irradiation as a combined method of food conservation and disinfestation was studied, searching to optimize the impact over the final product desired characteristics. Tommy Atkins mangoes from Brazil were submitted to a combined treatment: thermal treatment (46 deg C, 70 min and 52 deg C, 5 min) and gamma irradiation treatment (doses 0,3 and 0,75 kGy). The fruits were stored at 11 deg C during 14 days and kept at an environmental condition for more 12 days, where their physical chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. As predicted by Oliveira (1998) the combined method of irradiation and thermal treatment showed better results then the individual methods in increasing the shelf-life. (author)

  2. Legal analysis of assignments of law in the industry of oil and natural gas; Analise juridica das cessoes de direito nos contratos de concessao da industria do petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rayssa Cunha; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This study has the objective to examine, even briefly, some issues related to the Assignments carried out by the Industry of Oil and Natural Gas (IONG). To that end, it was made a brief explanation about the oil market after its flexibility and entry of new private agents in the market, as well as about the main tasks of the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP in the conclusion of the concession contracts for the IONG, making a parallel between the species, as well as discussions about the legal nature of the latter, presenting some doctrinal positions that reflects these differences. Then, shows the institute of Assignment of rights of the concession contracts for the IONG, bringing its concept and characteristics, its legal and constitutional forecast, their legal treatment and established procedure in the contracts, highlighting its importance for the market dynamics of oil and natural gas. (author)

  3. State variables applied in the analysis of transmission lines considering the influence of frequency on the longitudinal parameters; Variaveis de estado aplicadas na analise de linhas de transmissao considerando a influencia da frequencia nos parametros longitudinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzani, R.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Urbanismo. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Prado, A.J.; Kurokawa, S.; Bovolato, L.F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Pissolato Filho, J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao. Dept. de Sistemas e Controle de Energia

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to simulate and analyze time-domain electromagnetic transients in a transmission line using a single-phase representation of these lines with and without the influence of frequency on the longitudinal parameters. For this {pi} circuits and state variables are used to compose a linear system which is solved by a numerical routine. This routine is applied to the mathematical tool MatLab {sup TM} The aim of this paper is to demonstrate quickly and efficiently the study of electromagnetic waves to graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Computing and Mathematics courses, because EMTP (Electromagnetic Transient Program ) involve a greater complexity in handling which and can often lead disinterest in these individuals.

  4. Analysis of the chemical elements behavior in leaves infected with fumagina employing X-ray fluorescence technique; Analise do comportamento de elementos quimicos em folhas infectadas com fumagina atraves da tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2002-02-01

    Fumagina is produced by the Capnodium fungi, a mushroom from Dothideales order, that lives associated with the yellow aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis), excreting a heavy load of a sugared substance that provides the sooty fungus development, covering, in some cases the totality, of leaves, fruits and branches surfaces. One of the big problems caused by this disease is the physic photosynthesis stuckness, reducing in 98% the active photosynthesis radiation and in 70% the net photosynthesis. This photosynthesis reduction affects the plants carbohydrate reservoirs, resulting in reduced and bad qualified crops. It was employed the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF) to study the fumagina disease. The measurements were realized with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants (orange and lemon trees), collected at the Farm School of the State University of Londrina, and also leaves of icsora plant from Piracicaba-SP. Through this technique it was observed a metabolic disorder related to Fe and Ca elements. By comparing the EDXRF spectra of the healthy plant leaves with the infected ones, it was verified that the concentration of Ca is higher than the concentration Fe in leaves of healthy plants, while for the leaves of plants infected with fumagina, it was observed a higher concentration of Fe. Employing EDXRF and the emission/transmission method for the matrix effect correction, samples of the citric plants were also analysed in pellet. The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn , Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. It was verified a higher Fe concentration in fumagina samples compared to the samples without fumagina. For all the elements of interest the minimum level of detection found was at the order of {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  5. Experimental analysis of segregation and porosity during the transient unidirectional solidification of an Al-9%Si-3%Cu ternary; Analise experimental da macrossegregacao e porosidade durante a solidificacao unidirecional transitoria de uma liga ternaria Al-9%Si-3%Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, L.G.; Moutinho, D.J.; Rocha, O.L., E-mail: lgouvea@fem.unicamp.b [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Ferreira, I.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (DEM/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Garcia, A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMa/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The solute macro segregation and formation of micro porosity were experimental y investigated in the transient unidirectional solidification of a ternary league. The solute macro segregation profile, the specific theoretical mass and the apparent specific mass are presented alongside of ingot length. The experimental segregation profile of the solute were obtained through the X ray fluorescence spectrometry technique. The micro porosity measurements were performed by using the technique of picnometry. The presence of silicon on the league acted as inhibitor of inverse segregation of the copper, which is a typically observed in the transient unidirectional solidified of Al-Cu leagues. The volumetric fractions of porous has shown a ascendent tendency from the base to the top of ingot

  6. Analysis of the effects of the optimal shut-in point of injector wells on water management strategy; Analise do efeito da determinacao do ponto de fechamento dos pocos injetores na estrategia de gerenciamenro de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazo, Eduin Orlando Munoz; Barreto, Carlos Eduardo Andrade Gomes; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Centro de Estudos de Petroleo (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Teixeira, Lucas Breda [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The use of water cut as a parameter for determining the shut-in point of production wells is very frequent. However, in most cases, the value of this parameter that is used in the process is not optimized, which can lead to suboptimal performance, as shown in this work. An additional way to improve the water management strategy of the field is set by controlling the injection rate by determining the optimal shut-in point of an injection well, which should be closed when its interaction with the producing wells is negative for their financial performance. To know the interaction between the injector and the producer wells becomes important in order to determine the most appropriate time for the closure of the injector wells. The objective of this study is to illustrate a methodology that allows the optimization of the development and water management strategy of oil fields by using the shut-in control of injection wells, in addition to managing production wells, using numerical reservoir simulation. For this study three case studies are proposed: (1) simulation of a homogeneous and isotropic reservoir model, with the purpose of determining the injection shut-in point by the water cut value obtained from the economic scenario, (2) simulation of the process in simplified cases of heterogeneous reservoirs and (3) application of the methodology to a case of more complex reservoir geology and well configuration in different economic scenarios. The results show that for reservoirs with expected production of large volumes of water and flow high injection rates, the isolated use of water cut for producing wells control as the only procedure to manage the flow of