Sample records for analysing pb isotopes

  1. An ultra-clean technique for accurately analysing Pb isotopes and heavy metals at high spatial resolution in ice cores with sub-pg g(-1) Pb concentrations. (United States)

    Burn, Laurie J; Rosman, Kevin J R; Candelone, Jean-Pierre; Vallelonga, Paul; Burton, Graeme R; Smith, Andrew M; Morgan, Vin I; Barbante, Carlo; Hong, Sungmin; Boutron, Claude F


    Measurements of Pb isotope ratios in ice containing sub-pg g(-1) concentrations are easily compromised by contamination, particularly where limited sample is available. Improved techniques are essential if Antarctic ice cores are to be analysed with sufficient spatial resolution to reveal seasonal variations due to climate. This was achieved here by using stainless steel chisels and saws and strict protocols in an ultra-clean cold room to decontaminate and section ice cores. Artificial ice cores, prepared from high purity water were used to develop and refine the procedures and quantify blanks. Ba and In, two other important elements present at pg g(-1) and fg g(-1) concentrations in Polar ice, were also measured. The final blank amounted to 0.2+/-0.2 pg of Pb with (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of 1.16+/-0.12 and 2.35+/-0.16, respectively, 1.5+/-0.4 pg of Ba and 0.6+/-2.0 fg of In, most of which probably originates from abrasion of the steel saws by the ice. The procedure was demonstrated on a Holocene Antarctic ice core section and was shown to contribute blanks of only approximately 5%, approximately 14% and approximately 0.8% to monthly resolved samples with respective Pb, Ba and In concentrations of 0.12 pg g(-1), 0.3 pg g(-1) and 2.3 fg g(-1). Uncertainties in the Pb isotopic ratio measurements were degraded by only approximately 0.2%.

  2. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: methodology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, Massimo; Dantas, Elton L.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Bühn, Bernhard, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias


    The Lutetium-Hafnium isotopic system represents one of the most innovative and powerful tools for geochronology and isotopic studies. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf in situ analyses on zircon by LA-MC-ICP-MS permit to characterize isotopically the host magma from which it crystallized furnishing significant information for sediment provenance and crustal evolution studies. In this paper e describe the Lu-Hf systematic by LA-MC-ICP-MS developed in the laboratory of Geochronology of the University of Brasilia and report the results obtained by repeated analyses of {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf isotopic ratio of three zircon standards: GJ-1 = 0.282022 ± 11 (n=56), Temora 2 = 0.282693 ± 14 (n=25) and UQZ = 0.282127 ± 33 (n=11). The {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf ratio (0.282352 ± 22, n=14) of gem quality zircon used as in-house standard have been also characterized. As a geological application, we analyzed two complex zircons selected from a migmatitic rocks from the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. On the basis of U-Pb and Lu-Hf data, two main crystallization events have been identified in both studied zircons. An older event at ca. 2.05 Ga recognized in the inherited cores represents a well-characterized paleoproterozoic magmatic event that affected the whole Borborema Province. A second crystallization event at ∼ 575 Ma, recognized at the rims, represents a Neoproterozoic (Brazilian) high grade metamorphic-magmatic event. (author)

  3. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: methodology and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Matteini


    Full Text Available The Lutetium-Hafnium isotopic system represents one of the most innovative and powerful tools for geochronology and isotopic studies. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf in situ analyses on zircon by LA-MC-ICP-MS permit to characterize isotopically the host magma from which it crystallized furnishing significant information for sediment provenance and crustal evolution studies. In this paper e describe the Lu-Hf systematic by LA-MC-ICP-MS developed in the laboratory of Geochronology of the University of Brasilia and report the results obtained by repeated analyses of 176Hf/177Hf isotopic ratio of three zircon standards: GJ-1 = 0.282022 ± 11 (n=56, Temora 2 = 0.282693 ± 14 (n=25 and UQZ = 0.282127 ± 33 (n=11. The 176Hf/177Hf ratio (0.282352 ± 22, n=14 of gem quality zircon used as in-house standard have been also characterized. As a geological application, we analyzed two complex zircons selected from a migmatitic rocks from the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. On the basis of U-Pb and Lu-Hf data, two main crystallization events have been identified in both studied zircons. An older event at ca. 2.05 Ga recognized in the inherited cores represents a well-characterized paleoproterozoic magmatic event that affected the whole Borborema Province. A second crystallization event at ~ 575 Ma, recognized at the rims, represents a Neoproterozoic (Brazilian high grade metamorphic-magmatic event.O sistema isotópico Lutécio-Hafnio representa uma das ferramentas mais recentes e poderosas para estudos isotópicos e geocronológicos. Análises combinadas in situ de U-Pb e Lu-Hf sobre zircão pelo LA-MC-ICP-MS permitem caracterizar iso-topicamente o magma onde ele cristalizou, fornecendo valiosas informações para estudos de proveniência de sedimento e de evolução crustal. Nesse trabalho descrevemos a sistemática de Lu-Hf pelo LA-MC-ICP-MS implantada no laboratório de Geocronologia da Universidade de Brasília e reportamos os resultados obtidos de repetidas an

  4. Redistribution of REE, Pb and U by supergene weathering studied from in-situ isotopic analyses of the Bangombé natural reactor, Gabon (United States)

    Kikuchi, M.; Hidaka, H.; Horie, K.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.


    The isotopic analyses of rare earth elements (REE), Pb and U in several kinds of minerals from the clay and black shale layers above the Bangombé natural reactor, Gabon, were performed using a sensitive high-resolution microprobe (SHRIMP) to investigate the migration and retardation processes of fission products released from the reactor. REE isotopic data of the secondary minerals found in clays and black shales show that most of fission products were effectively trapped in the clays and not distributed into the black shales over the clays, which reveals that the clays play an important role in preventing fission products from spreading. Zircon crystals in the clays heterogeneously contain high-U regions (up to 28.3 wt%) with normal 235U/ 238U ratios (=0.00725) and significant amounts of fissiogenic REE, which suggest the occurrence of significant chemical fractionation between REE and U during the dissolution of reactor uraninite and the recrystallization of secondary U minerals. The Pb data suggest that galena grains in the clays were also formed by the mixing of the two components during a recent alteration event, and that a significant amount of Pb was derived from 2.05-Ga-old original uraninite rather than reactor uraninite. The U-Pb systematics of zircon provide chronological information on the old igneous activity associated with the basement rock formation at 2.8 Ga and geochemical evidence of the incomplete mixing of independent Pb and U sources. This result is consistent with previous chronological results in this area.

  5. Coupled zircon Lu-Hf and U-Pb isotopic analyses of the oldest terrestrial crust, the >4.03 Ga Acasta Gneiss Complex (United States)

    Bauer, Ann M.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Bowring, Samuel A.


    The Acasta Gneiss Complex of the Northwest Territories, Canada, contains some of the earliest terrestrial continental crust and thus provides a critical sample set for characterization of crust-forming processes on the early Earth. Here we report the results of a combined Lu-Hf and U-Pb isotopic study of zircons from predominantly felsic orthogneisses from the Acasta Gneiss Complex that crystallized between ∼4.0 and 2.9 Ga, many of which contain complex zoning and therefore require an analytical treatment suited to distinguish amongst compositionally distinct age and Hf isotopic domains. To ensure the reliability of the analyses and of subsequent geologic interpretations, we employed the laser ablation split-stream (LASS) technique to concurrently measure the Lu-Hf and U-Pb isotopic systems in zircon. Our results confirm prior findings of precursor Hadean crust (>4.0 Ga) in the source of these rocks and the continued involvement of this reservoir until ∼3.6 Ga. We present evidence for the input of relatively more juvenile material at ∼3.6 Ga, which we suggest corresponds to a fundamental change in the source of the magmas. This study extends the lower bound of the published Acasta Hf isotopic record from 3.6 Ga to 2.9 Ga and demonstrates that the ∼3.6 Ga-2.9 Ga interval is largely represented by reworking of relatively juvenile ∼3.6 Ga crust and the diminution of the >4.0 Ga crustal signal. Significantly, there is no evidence that rocks within the Acasta Gneiss Complex were derived from a strongly depleted mantle.

  6. Pb isotopes during mingling and melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles E.


    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  7. Archean crustal evolution in the Southern São Francisco craton, Brazil: Constraints from U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotope analyses (United States)

    Albert, Capucine; Farina, Federico; Lana, Cristiano; Stevens, Gary; Storey, Craig; Gerdes, Axel; Dopico, Carmen Martínez


    In this study we present U-Pb and Hf isotope data combined with O isotopes in zircon from Neoarchean granitoids and gneisses of the southern São Francisco craton in Brazil. The basement rocks record three distinct magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2750-2680 Ma). The three sampled metamorphic complexes (Bação, Bonfim and Belo Horizonte) have distinct εHf vs. time arrays, indicating that they grew as separate terranes. Paleoarchean crust is identified as a source which has been incorporated into younger magmatic rocks via melting and mixing with younger juvenile material, assimilation and/or source contamination processes. The continental crust in the southern São Francisco craton underwent a change in magmatic composition from medium- to high-K granitoids in the latest stages, indicating a progressive HFSE enrichment of the sources that underwent anatexis in the different stages and possibly shallowing of the melting depth. Oxygen isotope data shows a secular trend towards high δ18O (up to 7.79‰) indicating the involvement of metasediments in the petrogenesis of the high potassium granitoids during the Mamona event. In addition, low δ18O values (down to 2.50‰) throughout the Meso- and Neoarchean emphasize the importance of meteoritic fluids in intra-crustal magmatism. We used hafnium isotope modelling from a compilation of detrital zircon compositions to constrain crustal growth rates and geodynamics from 3.50 to 2.65 Ga. The modelling points to a change in geodynamic process in the southern São Francisco craton at 2.9 Ga, from a regime dominated by net crustal growth in the Paleoarchean to a Neoarchean regime marked by crustal reworking. The reworking processes account for the wide variety of granitoid magmatism and are attributed to the onset of continental collision.

  8. Evaluating the provenance of Permian-Triassic and Palaeocene-Eocene ash beds by high precision U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of zircons: linking local sedimentary records to global events (United States)

    Eivind Augland, Lars; Jones, Morgan; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik; Tegner, Christian


    Zircons are a powerful tool in geochronology and isotope geochemistry, as their affinity for U and Hf in the crystal structure and the low initial Pb and Lu allow for precise and accurate dating by U-Pb ID-TIMS and precise and accurate determination of initial Hf isotopic composition by solution MC-ICP-MS analysis. The U-Pb analyses provide accurate chronostratigraphic controls on the sedimentary successions and absolute age frames for the biotic evolution across geological boundaries. Moreover, the analyses of Lu-Hf by solution MC-ICP-MS after Hf-purification column chemistry provide a powerful and robust fingerprinting tool to test the provenance of individual ash beds. Here we focus on ash beds from Permian-Triassic and Palaeocene successions in Svalbard and from the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in Fur, Denmark. Used in combination with whole rock geochemistry from the ash layers and the available geochemical and isotopic data from potential source volcanoes, these data are used to evaluate the provenance of the Permian-Triassic and Palaeocene ashes preserved in Svalbard and PETM ashes in Denmark. If explosive eruptions from volcanic centres such as the Siberian Traps and the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) can be traced to distal basins as ash layers, they provide robust tests of hypotheses of global synchronicity of environmental changes and biotic crises. In addition, the potential correlation of ash layers with source volcanoes will aid in constraining the extent of explosive volcanism in the respective volcanic centres. The new integrated data sets will also contribute to establish new reference sections for the study of these boundary events when combined with stable isotope data and biostratigraphy.

  9. Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z.


    Three short marine sediment cores from the Cascais Submarine Canyon (CSC; cores 252-32 and 252-35) and the Estremadura Spur (core 252-16) on the central Portuguese Margin were analysed for Hg, Pb, Al, and Mn concentrations, and both Pb and Hg stable isotope compositions, in order to reconstruct tren

  10. Analytical procedures for determining Pb and Sr isotopic compositions in water samples by ID-TIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Martins


    Full Text Available Few articles deal with lead and strontium isotopic analysis of water samples. The aim of this study was to define the chemical procedures for Pb and Sr isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from an urban sedimentary aquifer. Thirty lead and fourteen strontium isotopic analyses were performed to test different analytical procedures. Pb and Sr isotopic ratios as well as Sr concentration did not vary using different chemical procedures. However, the Pb concentrations were very dependent on the different procedures. Therefore, the choice of the best analytical procedure was based on the Pb results, which indicated a higher reproducibility from samples that had been filtered and acidified before the evaporation, had their residues totally dissolved, and were purified by ion chromatography using the Biorad® column. Our results showed no changes in Pb ratios with the storage time.

  11. Tree rings as Pb pollution archives? A comparison of 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in pine and other environmental media. (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Klaminder, Jonatan; Emteryd, Ove


    Tree rings, if validated as an environmental archive for pollution, would provide a convenient, geographically widespread archive for studying the temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants. We collected tree-ring records from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), ranging in age from 100 to 300 years and from one spruce (Picea abies), from sites in southern and northern Sweden and analyzed their stable lead isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb). These results are compared to the Pb isotopic composition in soil profiles from each of the sites and temporal changes in the 206Pb/207Pb ratio in peat and lake sediment deposits in Sweden. The mineral soils at each site are characterized by high 206Pb/207Pb ratios (> 1.35), while the ratios in the mor layer are low (1.14-1.16) and characterized by atmospheric lead pollution. The 206Pb/207Pb ratios of the tree rings, typically approximately 1.18-1.20, indicate a significant (10-30%) contribution of Pb derived from the underlying mineral soil. While peat and lake sediment records show that the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of atmospheric deposition has varied over time, with a pronounced trough between approximately 1930 and 1990, the tree rings show no similar trend. Further comparison of published Pb isotope data from other tree-ring records with time series from peat bogs and herbarium samples also shows poor agreement, and indicates that tree rings always contain a mixture of pollution Pb and Pb from the underlying mineral soil. The majority of Pb in the wood is derived from atmospheric pollution either directly, through aerial interception, or indirectly, through uptake from the large pool of accumulated pollution Pb in the soil. Since the Pb isotope ratios of the wood indicate that some natural Pb is taken up into the tree, then it must also be concluded that some fraction of the pollution Pb in the wood is likewise taken up from the forest soil. Based on the Pb isotope analyses, we can only conclude that dendrochemical

  12. Isotopic composition of Pb and Th in interplinian volcanics from Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy (United States)

    Cortini, M.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Holden, P.; Somma, R.


    We present a detailed isotopic study of volcanic rocks emitted from Somma-Vesuvius volcano during three periods of interplinian activity: "Protohistoric" (3550 y B.P. to 79 A.D.), "Ancient Historic" (79 to 472 A.D.) and "Medieval" (472 to 1631 A.D.). Pb isotopic compositions of two acid leached fractions and whole rock residues of 37 whole rock samples (determined by Somma et al., 2001) show that each of the three interplinian periods is distinguished by small, systematic, and unique uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotopic trends. This key and novel feature is compatible with the notion that the Pb isotopic data reflect small-scale source heterogeneity operating over relatively short periods of time. From this representative group of samples, a selected set of nine whole rocks were analysed for Th isotopes. 232Th/238U ratios in the source can be obtained independently from Pb and from Th isotopes. Those obtained from Pb isotopes represent source ratios, time-integrated over the whole age of the Earth; they range from 3.9 to 4.1. 232Th/238U obtained from Th isotopes are those of the present source. They are lower, and cluster around 3.5; this difference probably indicates recent U enrichment of the present source. The behaviour of Pb, as inferred by its isotopic ratios, is quite distinct from that of Sr and Nd isotopes: Pb isotope variations are not correlated to Sr or Nd isotope variations. The isotopic contrast is compatible with the idea that the isotopes were decoupled during magmatic production, evolution, and ascent through the crust. Thus, the Pb isotopes do not reflect the effects of the same processes as in the case of the Sr and Nd isotopes, or, as we also favor, they do not necessarily reflect the same source contributions into the magmas. Moreover, the Pb isotopic evolution of the interplinian rocks chiefly reflects mixing, driven by processes that are superimposed on, and independent of, other source contributions that determine the isotopic compositions

  13. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. China, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  14. Anthropogenic Pb input into Bohai Bay, China: Evidence from stable Pb isotopic compositions in sediments (United States)

    Hu, Ningjing; Huang, Peng


    Anthropogenic Pb input into Bohai Bay, China: Evidence from stable Pb isotopic compositions in sediments Hu Ning-jinga, Huang Pengb,, Liu Ji-huaa, a First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China b Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China To investigate the source of Pb within Bohai Bay, Pb concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) of surface sediments in this area were determined. The Pb concentration in this bay varied widely from 6.9 to 39.2 μg/g (average: 21.8 ± 7.8 μg/g), and the Pb isotopic compositions ranged from 0.8338 to 0.8864 (average: 2.0997 ± 0.0180) for 208Pb/206Pb and from 2.0797 to 2.1531 (average: 0.8477 ± 0.0135) for 207Pb/206Pb, presenting in three distinct clusters. The Pb isotopic ratios of sediments from the northeastern (NE zone) and northwestern (NW zone) coastal areas were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and automobile emission. In sediments from the central and southern Bohai Bay (C-S zone); however, Pb mainly originated from the Yellow River catchment, as a result of lithogenic sediment (from rock weathering) accumulation. The Pb isotopic ratios further indicate that, apart from riverine inputs, the neighboring large-scale ports and aerosols significantly contributed to the anthropogenic Pb contained in these sediments. Pb contamination in the Haihe and Luanhe river mouths as well as in the regions near ports is also suggested from anthropogenic enrichment factors. As cities and ports continue to develop around Bohai Bay, a long-term extensive sewage monitoring program is highly recommended.

  15. Combined U Pb and Hf isotope LA-(MC-)ICP-MS analyses of detrital zircons: Comparison with SHRIMP and new constraints for the provenance and age of an Armorican metasediment in Central Germany (United States)

    Gerdes, Axel; Zeh, Armin


    Uranium-lead ages obtained by LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircon cores from a high-grade Armorican metasediment from the Mid-German Crystalline Rise, Central Germany, yield results which are identical to, but more precise than those previously obtained by SHRIMP dating. This is mainly due to the fact that SHRIMP analyses are more sensitive than LA-ICP-MS analyses to common Pb contamination on the surface of the grain mount. The new U-Pb ages, in combination with in-situ Hf isotope analyses of zircon, provide the first evidence that detrital zircons within Armorican sediments crystallized in both juvenile and evolved magmatic rocks during the Archaean at 2.7-2.9 Ga, the Palaeoproterozoic at 1.8-2.1 Ga, and the Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic at 500-720 Ma. In addition, zircons were formed at ca. 1.0 Ga by remelting of Palaeoproterozoic crust during the Grenville orogeny. The U-Pb dataset shows an age gap between 1.8 and 1.0 Ga, which is characteristic of Armorican sediments, and indicates that the metasediment protolith is younger than Late Cambrian. In addition, the data support previous conclusions that sediments constituting the Armorican terrane assemblage were derived from three crustal sources. Dominant sources were the Avalonian-Cadomian belt (ca. 45%), situated at the northern margin of Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic, and the West-African and/or eastern Amazonian cratons (ca. 50%). The Grenville belt was a minor source (< 5%). Variation of ɛHf( t) values of the Neoproterozoic/Early Paleozoic zircons indicates two periods of increased juvenile magma formation, one at 595-575 Ma and a second at 515-500 Ma. The older event is coeval with the formation of the Avalonian-Cadomian magmatic arc, whereas the younger event can be related to the break-up of the northern Gondwana margin in Cambrian/Ordovician times. In between, at around 545 Ma, only recycling of older crustal material took place.

  16. In-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses of the Xiangshan Ni-Cu-Co deposit in Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang), Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Constraints on the timing and genesis of the mineralization (United States)

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Jien; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao


    The timing and genesis of the major Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit in the Xiangshan intrusion have been studied based on newly obtained in-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses. The SIMS U-Pb zircon ages of the gabbro hosting the Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit indicate that the Xiangshan intrusion was emplaced at 279.6 ± 1.1 Ma (95% confidence level, MSWD = 1.30, n = 15). On the basis of combined geological and geochronological evidence, we suggest that the Xiangshan and other adjacent Ni-Cu deposits were formed in the same period. Sulphides have low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios, similar to sulphide ores from the Duluth, Sally Malay and Voisey Bay complexes. The Re-Os isotopic data from the disseminated and massive ores from the Xiangshan intrusion do not form a single isochron, as they have different initial Os ratios. The Hf and Os isotopic data suggest that the Xiangshan intrusion and associated Ni-Cu-Co mineralization were derived from crustally contaminated mantle melts. The geochemical data show a tholeiitic affinity and a strong suprasubduction zone signature with negative Nb, Sr, and Ti anomalies similar to N-MORB and E-MORB. We suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks and associated Ni-Cu mineralization of the Eastern Tianshan orogen formed in an Alaska-type subduction zone-arc setting. Some diagnostic features of ridge-trench interaction are present in the Chinese East Tianshan orogen (e.g. granites, adakites, high-Mg andesites, near-trench magmatism, Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes, high-temperature metamorphic belts that prograde rapidly from low-grade belts, and orogenic gold deposits). The above distinctive rock groups are probably related to the same thermal event, ridge subduction, as in the Cenozoic orogen of Alaska. We suggest that ridge subduction is the most plausible mechanism to provide the necessary heat. Ridge subduction provides an important promising model for understanding many aspects of the evolution of the Chinese

  17. SHRIMP U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic analyses of Middle Ordovician meta-cumulate gabbro in central Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Metabasites consisting of metamorphic ultra-mafic rocks, cumulate gabbro, gabbro (diabase), basalt, and plagiogranite are exposed at the Taoxinghu area in central Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating for the cumulate gabbro yields a weighted mean age of 467±4 Ma, which is the oldest and most reliable magmatic age in this area. Zircon 176Hf/177Hf ratios range from 0.282615 to 0.282657, with εHf(t) values of 5.02±0.28, indicating that the cumulate gabbro was mainly derived from the depleted mantle. In addition, geochemical data of metabasites suggest that they have similar characteristics to those in the mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The Taoxinghu metabasites may represent the fragment of Early Paleozoic ophiolite in the "Central Uplift" of the Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.


    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of anthropog

  19. Monazite RW-1: a homogenous natural reference material for SIMS U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic analysis (United States)

    Ling, Xiao-Xiao; Huyskens, Magdalena H.; Li, Qiu-Li; Yin, Qin-Zhu; Werner, Ronald; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Yang, Ya-Nan; Li, Xian-Hua


    Well-characterized matrix-matched natural mineral references of known age are an important prerequisite for SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) U-Th-Pb dating. We have characterized RW-1, a 44 g yellowish-brown single monazite specimen from a Norwegian pegmatite as an excellent hi-Th reference material for secondary ion mass spectrometric U-Th-Pb dating. A total of 206 secondary ion mass spectrometric analyses over six analytical sessions were performed on different monazite fragments of RW-1. The analyses resulted in 207Pb-based common lead corrected 206Pb/238U ages and Th-Pb ages with overall 2 % (2 SD = standard deviation) variations, indicating the good U-Th-Pb system homogeneity. The homogeneity of Th content of 11.8 ± 1.0 wt% (2 SD) and Th/U of 42 ± 3 (2 SD) make this crystal also a good compositional reference material. We used the combined ID-TIMS(Pb)/ID-MC-ICP-MS(U) technique (i.e. isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry for Pb, and isotope dilution multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for U) to determine U-Pb ages of the monazite samples studied. The mean 207Pb/235U age of 904.15 ± 0.26 Ma (95 % confidence level) is recommended as the best estimate crystallization age for RW-1 monazite. Considering that the most commonly distributed U-Pb monazite reference materials have rather low ThO2, we suggest that this RW-1 monazite with its ThO2 of 13.5 wt% is a suitable reference material providing investigators more confidence when dating high-Th monazite unknowns.

  20. Properties of Light Hg, Pb and Po Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Muntian, I


    Quality of mass description for three different theoretical mass models is studied. Masses and deformations for Po, Pb and Hg isotopes are compared with experimental data. Gap in the proton single particle energy spectrum is discussed.

  1. Pb isotope geochemistry of lead, zinc, gold and silver deposit clustered region, Liaodong rift zone,northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Jiangfeng; YU; Gang; XUE; Chunji; QIAN; Hui; HE; Jian


    33 Pb isotopic analyses were reported for sulfide and hydrothermal carbonate minerals and marble of the Xiquegou lead-zinc, the Zhenzigou zinc-lead and the Gaojiapuzi silver deposits from the Qingchengzi ore field and the Beiwagou zinc-lead deposit in the west, Proterozoic Liaodong rift zone. Pb isotopic ratios of the marble from the Qingchengzi ore field range from 18.24 to 30.63 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.59 to 17.05 for 207Pb/204Pb and 37.43 to 38.63 for 208Pb/204Pb. The marble gives a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1822±92 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of the metamorphism of the marble. Ore Pb, including Pb of sulfide and hydrothermal carbonate minerals, from the Qingchengzi ore field shows limited variation with 206Pb/204Pb=17.66-17.96, 207Pb/204Pb=15.60-15.74 and 208Pb/204Pb=37.94-38.60. In contrast, ore Pb from the Beiwagou deposit gives different Pb isotopic ratios with 206Pb/204Pb=15.68-15.81, 207Pb/204Pb= 15.34-15.45 and 208Pb/204Pb=35.30-35.68. Pb of all deposits from the Liaodong rift zone is derived from the upper crust. Ore Pb of the Qingchengzi deposits is derived from a young upper crust. The model Th/U ratios of 4.40 to 4.74 for ore Pb are significantly different from that of 1.7 to 4.4 given by the marble of the Qingchengzi ore field, suggesting that marble is not the source of the ore Pb. Ore Pb of the Beiwagou deposit is extracted from its source and the deposit is formed at the Paleoproterozoic era. Different Pb isotopic ratios of the Qingchengzi ore field and the Beiwagou deposit are due to different ages of the deposits and suggest that the two types of deposits are derived from different sources and are possibly formed by different ore-forming processes.

  2. Metallic elements and isotope of Pb in wet precipitation in urban area, South America (United States)

    Migliavacca, Daniela Montanari; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Gervasoni, Fernanda; Conceição, Rommulo Vieira; Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa


    The atmosphere of urban areas has been the subject of many studies to show the atmospheric pollution in large urban centers. By quantifying wet precipitation through the analysis of metallic elements (ICP/AES) and Pb isotopes, the wet precipitation of the Metropolitan Area of the Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, was characterized. The samples were collected between July 2005 and December 2007. Zn, Fe and Mn showed the highest concentration in studied sites. Sapucaia do Sul showed the highest average for Zn, due to influence by the steel plant located near the sampling site. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions from vehicular activity and steel plants in wet precipitation and suspended particulate matter in the MAPA was identified by the isotopic signatures of 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb. Moreover the analyses of the metallic elements allowed also to identify the contribution of other anthropic sources, such as steel plants and oil refinery.

  3. Isotopic equilibration between dissolved and suspended particulate lead in the Atlantic Ocean - Evidence from Pb-210 and stable Pb isotopes (United States)

    Sherrell, Robert M.; Boyle, Edward A.; Hamelin, Bruno


    Vertical profiles of, on one hand, the stable Pb isotopic composition, and on the other, the ratio of total Pb to Pb-210 in suspended particles, are noted to closely track contemporaneous depth variations in these ratios for dissolved Pb throughout the upper 2 km of the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. A simple flux model suggests that the effect of deep ocean scavenging processes on the flux and isotopic composition of Pb sinking on large particles was minor throughout the preanthropogenic, and most of the anthropogenic era: but it has become more important as surface inputs decrease to preleaded gasoline levels, perhaps exceeding the contribution of surface-derived Pb flux in the next decade.

  4. Hercynian Pb-Zn mineralization types in the Alcudia Valley mining district (Spain) and their reflect in Pb isotopic signatures (United States)

    García de Madinabeitia, S.; Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Palero, F.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.; Carracedo, M.


    More than 450 ore deposits indexed within the Alcudia Valley of the Central-Iberian Zone (Spain) may be grouped by their tectonic and lithologic characteristics (1,2) as follows: type A of rare stratabound mineralizations, and types B, C, D and E represented by abundant Hercynian veins (post-Namurian). 86 new Pb isotope analyses of galenas from the four vein types reveal that types B and C have similar isotopic ratios with values of μ_2 = 10.07, ω_2 = 40.6 and a mean model age of 564 Ma. Types D and E have μ_2 and ω_2 values of 9.79 and 38.5, respectively, but differ each other with respect to their model ages, 600 Ma (type D) and 335 Ma (type E). The observed variations appear to be related to the geochemical features of the metasedimentary host-rocks of the mineralizations where two distinct types of Pb isotopic ratios have been reported (3): one with μ_2 and ω_2 comparable to those of the D and E types and another with a more radiogenic composition, close to those of the B and C types of galenas. Nägler et al. have suggested partial rehomogeneization of Pb isotopic composition within the metasediments at ca. 330 Ma, that is, prior to the mineralization events, but the extent of this process and its effects on the ore bodies isotopic features is not evident. The origin of the more abundant E type ore bodies has been related to the Hercynian granitic rocks in the area (2, and references therein). Other plutons within this sector of the Central Iberian Zone (e.g., Linares, etc.; cf. accompanying Abstract) associate ore bodies whose Pb isotopic composition is very similar to that of the E type galenas from the Alcudia Valley. The isotopic data obtained thus point to a related or common source material for the various types of granites within the area studied. Yet, the Pb isotopic composition of other mineralizations (B, C, D), likewise located in Hercynian veins, allow to consider different types of Pb-Zn ore bodies and point therefore to different sources of

  5. Alpha radioactivity for proton-rich even Pb isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arati Devi; S Prakash; I Mehrotra


    Half-lives for alpha radioactivity from proton-rich even Pb isotopes in the range = 182–202 have been calculated using the unified fission-like approach. The geometrical shape of the potential barrier is parametrized in terms of a highly versatile, asymmetric and analytically solvable form of potential based on Ginnochio’s potential. Good agreement with the experimental data has been obtained with the variation of just one parameter. Half-lives of three unknown alpha emitters in the neutron-deficient Pb chain (198Pb, 200Pb and 204Pb) have been predicted. The exact expression for the transmission coefficient has been compared with those obtained from WKB approximation method for symmetric Eckart potential.

  6. Pb - Isotopes and Pulses of the Deccan Plume (United States)

    Basu, A. R.; Yannopoulos, A. S.


    Mantle plumes are generally implicated for flood basalt generation in both continental and oceanic environments by impact of large plume heads beneath or within the lithosphere. The Deccan and Siberian flood basalt eruptions, synchronous with the Cretaceous-Paleogene and end-Permian extinctions, respectively, continue to fascinate geoscientists in search for the "kill-mechanisms" by impacts, volcanisms or both. Recently, Richards et al. (2015) proposed that bulk of the Deccan eruption was triggered by the Chicxulub impact. We showed (Basu et al., 1993) that early (68.5 Ma) and late (65 Ma) alkalic pulses of the Deccan were before and after the impact event at 66 Ma. Here, we focus on an extensive volcano-stratigraphic study of Pb isotopic systematics of 69 basaltic samples from 3 subgroups and 12 formations of the Deccan, each sampled from bottom to top along the stratigraphic section, covering the 3km thick 12 Deccan formations. Pb is sensitive to crustal contamination of mantle plume-derived magmas as both the upper and lower mantle are low in Pb (0.02 - 0.15 ppm) compared to ~ 4 ppm in continental crust. The lower Deccan formations of Kalsubai and Lonavala have initial 206Pb/204Pb with a widely varying range (16.543 - 22.823) indicating continental crustal contamination. In contrast, the upper formations of the Wai subgroup show a narrow range of 16.883 to 18.956, reflecting the plume signature. In addition, the 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb data of the Kalsubai subgroup lavas give an isochron age of 2603±140 Ma (single-stage, µ = 8). The Wai subgroup shows a narrow and restricted Pb isotopic range plotting closer to the Geochron. We interpret these data to infer that the basement rocks of the Deccan, the Archean Indian craton, were assimilated by the upwelling melt, ultimately clearing the conduit passages for the lavas sourced from direct melting of the plume head.

  7. Pb isotopic geochemical study on the crustal structure of Tongbaishan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pb isotopic composition of the Tongbai complex, distributed in the Tongbaishan to the west of the Dabieshan, ranges between the Dabie core complex and the Dabie ultral-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic complex, the latter having more radiogenic Pb isotopic composition than the former. Granites from the Jigongshan pluton, which intruded mainly into the Tongbai complex, are distinct from the Tongbai complex but similar to the Dabie core complex in Pb isotopic composition, showing that the magma of the Jigongshan granites was derived from the partial melting of the Dabie core complex. According to Pb isotopic compositional variation model in the vertical crustal section and magma source from the Jigongshan pluton, it is suggested that the Tongbai complex was an upper rock serial of the Dabie core complex, which is beneath the Dabie UHP metamorphic complex in the crustal structure of the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. The Tongbai complex was not well preserved in the Dabie area due to the high exhumed crustal section. However, the crustal section in the Tongbai area was exhumed less than that in the Dabie area, and the deep crust in the Tongbai area still contains the basement composition similar to the Dabie core complex. Therefore, the crustal basements from the Dabie to Tongbai areas are united. The present distribution of the basement blocks in different locations of the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt reflects different exposure of the crustal section.

  8. Archaeological reconstruction of medieval lead production: Implications for ancient metal provenance studies and paleopollution tracing by Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Sandrine, E-mail: [Laboratoire des Travaux et Recherches Archeologiques sur les Cultures, les Espaces et les Societes, Universite Toulouse 2 Le Mirail, CNRS UMR 5608, Maison de la Recherche, 5 allee Antonio-Machado, 31 058 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Nancy Universite, CNRS UPR 2300, BP 20, 15 rue Notre Dame des Pauvres, 54 501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Le-Carlier, Cecile [Centre de Recherche en Archeologie, Archeosciences, Histoire, Universite Rennes 1, CNRS UMR 6566, Bat 24-25, Campus de Beaulieu 35042 Rennes, Cedex (France); Carignan, Jean; Ploquin, Alain [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Nancy Universite, CNRS UPR 2300, BP 20, 15 rue Notre Dame des Pauvres, 54 501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)


    The identification of metal provenance is often based on chemical and Pb isotope analyses of materials from the operating chain, mainly ores and metallic artefacts. Such analyses, however, have their limits. Some studies are unable to trace metallic artefacts or ingots to their ore sources, even in well-constrained archaeological contexts. Possible reasons for this difficulty are to be found among a variety of limiting factors: (i) problems of ore signatures, (ii) mixing of different ores (alloys), (iii) the use of additives during the metallurgical process, (iv) metal recycling and (v) possible Pb isotopic fractionation during metal production. This paper focuses on the issue of Pb isotope fractionation during smelting to address the issue of metal provenance. Through an experimental reconstruction of argentiferous Pb production in the medieval period, an attempt was made to better understand and interpret the Pb isotopic composition of ore smelting products. It is shown that the measured differences (outside the total external uncertainties of 0.005 (2*sd) for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios) in Pb signatures measured between ores, slag and smoke are not due to Pb mass fractionation processes, but to (1) ore heterogeneity ({Delta}{sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb{sub slag-ores} = 0.066) and (2) the use of additives during the metallurgical process ({Delta}{sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb{sub slag-ores} = 0.083). Even if these differences are due to causes (1) and/or (2), smoke from the ore reduction appears to reflect the ore mining area without a significant disturbance of its Pb signature for all the isotopic ratios ({Delta}{sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb{sub smokes-ores} = 0.026). Thus, because the isotopic heterogeneity of the mining district and additives is averaged in slags, slag appears as the most relevant product to identify ancient metal provenance. Whereas aiming at identifying a given mine seems beyond the possibilities provided by the method, searching for the mining district

  9. Preliminary Report on U-Th-Pb Isotope Systematics of the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.


    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions, and trace element abundances.. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible-element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible-element-rich reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there has been a long debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former clearly requires the ancient martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and U-Th-Pb concentration analyses of the olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint because U-Th-Pb isotope systematics have been intensively used as a powerful radiogenic tracer to characterize old crust/sediment components in mantle- derived, terrestrial oceanic island basalts. The U-Th-Pb analyses are applied to sequential acid leaching fractions obtained from Tissint whole-rock powder in order to search for Pb isotopic source components in Tissint magma. Here we report preliminary results of the U-Th-Pb analyses of acid leachates and a residue, and propose the possibility that Tissint would have experienced minor assimilation of old martian crust.

  10. Lead isotope study of Zn-Pb ore deposits associated with the Basque-Cantabrian basin and Paleozoic basement, Northern Spain (United States)

    Velasco, F.; Pesquera, A.; Herrero, J. M.


    A total of forty-three galena samples from syngenetic and epigenetic Pb-Zn mineralizations emplaced in the Lower Cretaceous Basque-Cantabrian basin and Paleozoic basement of the Cinco Villas massif in the western Pyrenees, have been analyzed for Pb-isotopic composition. Galena from sedex mineralizations hosted in Carboniferous clastic rocks in the Cinco Villas massif display an homogeneous lead isotopic signature (206Pb/2044Pb ≈ 18.43, 207Pb/204Pb ≈ 15.66, 208Pb/ 204Pb ≈ 38.69) suggesting a single lead reservoir. These values are slightly more radiogenic than lead from other European Hercynian deposits, possibly reflecting the influence of a more evolved upper crustal source. Underlying Paleozoic sediments are proposed as lead source for the Cinco Villas massif ores. Analyses from twenty-six galena samples from the four strata-bound ore districts hosted in Mesozoic rocks reveal the existence of two populations regarding their lead isotopic composition. Galena from the western Santander districts (e.g., Reocin) is characterized by more radiogenic isotope values (206Pb/204Pb ≈ 18.74, 207Pb/204Pb ≈ 15.67, 208Pb/ 204Pb ≈ 38.73) than those from the central and eastern districts (Troya-Legorreta, Central and Western Vizcaya, 206Pb/204Pb ≈ 18.59, 207Pb/204Pb ≈ 15.66, 208Pb/ 204Pb ≈ 38.73). In all districts, the most likely source for these mineralizations was the thick sequence of Lower Cretaceous clastic sediments. The existence of two separate lead isotopic populations could be the result of regional difference in the composition of the basement rocks and the clastic sediments derived of it or different evolution histories. In both sub-basins, isotopic ratios indicate an increase in crustal influence as the age of the ores decreases.

  11. Stable isotopic analyses in paleoclimatic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigand, P.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Most traditional paleoclimatic proxy data have inherent time lags between climatic input and system response that constrain their use in accurate reconstruction of paleoclimate chronology, scaling of its variability, and the elucidation of the processes that determine its impact on the biotic and abiotic environment. With the exception of dendroclimatology, and studies of short-lived organisms and pollen recovered from annually varved lacustrine sediments, significant periods of time ranging from years, to centuries, to millennia may intervene between climate change and its first manifestation in paleoclimatic proxy data records. Reconstruction of past climate through changes in plant community composition derived from pollen sequences and plant remains from ancient woodrat middens, wet environments and dry caves all suffer from these lags. However, stable isotopic analyses can provide more immediate indication of biotic response to climate change. Evidence of past physiological response of organisms to changes in effective precipitation as climate varies can be provided by analyses of the stable isotopic content of plant macrofossils from various contexts. These analyses consider variation in the stable isotopic (hydrogen, oxygen and carbon) content of plant tissues as it reflects (1) past global or local temperature through changes in meteoric (rainfall) water chemistry in the case of the first two isotopes, and (2) plant stress through changes in plant respiration/transpiration processes under differing water availability, and varying atmospheric CO, composition (which itself may actually be a net result of biotic response to climate change). Studies currently being conducted in the Intermountain West indicate both long- and short-term responses that when calibrated with modem analogue studies have the potential of revealing not only the timing of climate events, but their direction, magnitude and rapidity.

  12. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Laboratory for Isotope Geology; Fayek, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences


    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite.

  13. Geochemistry: how well can Pb isotopes date core formation? (United States)

    Kamber, Balz S; Kramers, Jan D


    Timescale and the physics of planetary core formation are essential constraints for models of Earth's accretion and early differentiation. Wood and Halliday use the apparent mismatch in core-formation dates determined from tungsten (W) and lead (Pb) chrono-meters to argue for a two-stage core formation, involving an early phase of metal segregation followed by a protracted episode of sulphide melt addition. However, we show here that crust-;mantle Pb isotope systematics do not require diachronous core formation. Our observations indicate that very early (< or = 35 Myr) core formation and planet accretion remain the most plausible scenario.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The a-branching ratios (b)alpha)) of Pb-192, Pb-190, Pb-188 are measured using mass-separated sources. Different experimental set-ups are used - one detector as well as two detector set-ups - thereby detecting the alpha-particles from the parent and/or via alpha-decay formed daughter nuclei, the bet

  15. Coupled Pb isotopic and trace element systematics of the Tissint meteorite: Geochemical signatures of the depleted shergottite source mantle (United States)

    Moriwaki, Ryota; Usui, Tomohiro; Simon, Justin I.; Jones, John H.; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Tobita, Minato


    The application of Martian meteorite U-Th-Pb isotope systematics to track the geochemical evolution of the Martian mantle has had limited success because of the difficulty in discriminating an indigenous magmatic Pb component from secondary near-surface components that have additionally been overprinted by terrestrial contamination. To mitigate this challenge, a successive acid-leaching experiment was conducted on the Tissint meteorite, the freshest, witnessed fall of a primitive, olivine-bearing Martian basalt. Trace element concentration analyses of acid leachates and residues indicate that secondary terrestrial contaminants were effectively removed by the early steps in the leaching experiments and that the acid residues contain pristine Pb from Tissint. The acid residue, which shows the most depleted REE signature, also has the least radiogenic Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 10.948, 207Pb/204Pb = 11.187, 208Pb/204Pb = 30.228). A two-stage mantle evolution model based on this composition indicates that the Tissint mantle has the lowest μ-value (238U/204Pb = 1.62 ± 0.09) among the shergottite sources.

  16. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole


    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...

  17. Whole-rock Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on the growth of southeastern Laurentia during Grenvillian orogenesis (United States)

    Fisher, C.M.; Loewy, S.L.; Miller, C.F.; Berquist, P.; Van Schmus, W. R.; Hatcher, R.D.; Wooden, J.L.; Fullagar, P.D.


    The conventional view that the basement of the southern and central Appalachians represents juvenile Mesoproterozoic crust, the final stage of growth of Laurentia prior to Grenville collision, has recently been challenged. New whole-rock Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic data are presented from Meso protero zoic basement in the southern and central Appalachians and the Granite-Rhyolite province, as well as one new U-Pb zircon age from the Granite-Rhyolite province. These data, combined with existing data from Mesoproterozoic terranes throughout southeastern Laurentia, further substantiate recent suggestions that the southern and central Appalachian basement is exotic with respect to Laurentia. Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of most rocks from the southern and central Appalachian basement are consistent with progressive growth through reworking of the adjacent Granite-Rhyolite province. However, Pb isotopic data, including new analyses from important regions not sampled in previous studies, do not correspond with Pb isotopic compositions of any adjacent crust. The most distinct ages and isotopic compositions in the southern and central Appalachian basement come from the Roan Mountain area, eastern Tennessee-western North Carolina. The data set indicates U-Pb zircon ages up to 1.8 Ga for igneous rocks, inherited and detrital zircon ages >2.0 Ga, Sm-Nd depleted mantle model (TDM) ages >2.0 Ga, and the most elevated 207Pb/204Pb observed in southeastern Laurentia. The combined U-Pb geochronologic and Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic data preclude derivation of southern and central Appalachian basement from any nearby crustal material and demonstrate that Grenville age crust in southeastern Laurentia is exotic and probably was transferred during collision and assembly of Rodinia. These new data better define the boundary between the exotic southern and central Appalachian basement and adjacent Laurentian Granite-Rhyolite province. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  18. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul


    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned ‘Black Angel Mine’ in West Greenland in the period 1988......–2008. Stable Pb isotope ratios and total Pb concentrations were determined in lichens, seaweed and mussels as well as in marine sediments. The results show that natural background Pb (207Pb/206Pb: 0.704–0.767) and Pb originating from the mine ore (207Pb/206Pb: 0.955) have distinct isotopic fingerprints. Total...... Pb in lichens, seaweed, and mussels was measured at values up to 633, 19 and 1536 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively, and is shown to be a mixture of natural Pb and ore-Pb. This enables quantification of mining-related Pb and shows that application of Pb isotope data is a valuable tool for monitoring...

  19. Testing alternative tectonic models of Palaeotethys in the E Mediterranean region: new U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of detrital zircons from Late Carboniferous and Late Triassic sandstones associated with the Anatolide and Tauride blocks (S Turkey) (United States)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair; Gerdes, Axel


    Alternative tectonic models of Palaeotethys during Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic time infer: 1. southward subduction beneath the north margin of Gondwana; 2. northward subduction beneath the south margin of Eurasia, or 3. double subduction (northwards and southwards), at least during Late Carboniferous. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons, extracted from sandstones, can provide strong indications of age and identity of source terranes. Here, we consider the provenance of both Late Carboniferous and Late Triassic sandstones from both relatively allochthonous and relatively autochthonous units that are all spatially associated with the Anatolide and Tauride continental blocks. The relatively allochthonous units are sandstones (3 samples) from the Late Carboniferous Aladaǧ Nappe (Tauride; in the east), the Konya Complex (Anatolide; central area) and the Karaburun Mélange (Tauride-related; in the west). The relatively autochthonous units are Late Triassic sandstones (4 samples) from the Üzümdere Formation, the Kasımlar Formation (both western Taurides) and the Güvercinlik Formation (Karaburun Peninsula-Tauride related; far west). The Late Carboniferous sandstones from the three relatively allochthonous units are dominated by Precambrian zircon populations, the age distribution of which suggests derivation from two contrasting source regions: First, a NE African-type source (i.e. Saharan craton) for the sandstones of the Konya Mélange and the Aladaǧ Nappe because these sediments have prominent zircon populations dated at 0.5-0.7, 0.8 and 0.9-1.1 Ga. Palaeozoic zircons are minimal in the sandstones of the Aladaǧ Nappe and the Konya Complex (3 and 5% of the whole data, respectively) and are confined to Cambrian to Ordovician. Secondly, a contrasting NW African-type source is inferred for sandstone from the Karaburun Mélange because of the marked absence of Tonian-Stenian zircons and the predominance of ~2 Ga zircons over ~2.5 Ga zircons. In

  20. Lithologically inherited variation in Pb isotope ratios in sedimentary soils in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.


    Knowledge on the lithologically inherited variation in present day Pb isotope ratios in soils is remarkably limited. Such information is essential to determine the anthropogenic Pb fraction and anthropogenic Pb sources in Pb-polluted soils. This study presents results of a survey of subsoil samples

  1. Pb Isotope Compositions of Shibaqinghao Gold Deposit in Central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongying; LIANG Yibo


    There are two types of gold ore in Shibaqinghao gold deposit, a mylonite ore and a quartz - vein ore. Pb isotope compositions for mylonite ore are characterized by lower Pb isotope ratios ranging from 16.63 to 17.45 (206Pb/204Pb), 15.31 to15.48 (207Pb/204pb), 36.52 to 38.85 (208Pb/204Pb). They are scattered very close to a model curve of the mantle evolution. These ratios suggest that gold in the mylonite ore might be derived from the country rocks, which originated directly in the upper mantle. Pb isotope compositions for quartz - vein ore are characterized by higher Pb isotope ratios ranging from 18.23 to 19.74 (206Pb/204Pb), 15.69 to 15.89 (207Pb/204Pb), 38.64 to 40. 13 (208Pb/204Pb). They are scattered very close to a model curve of the upper crustal evolution. These facts indicate that the gold in the quartz - vein ore might be related to some granitic magma generated in the crust.

  2. Pb Isotope Study of Some Nonferrous Metallic Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on Pb-Pb isochron data of more than 40 Precambrian polymetallic deposits, the authors consider that there are four mineralization periods for the Precambrian copper deposits in China, and the major copper deposits were formed at about 1800 Ma; there are three mineralization periods for gold deposits formed from Archaean to Proterozoic. By studying hundreds of lead isotope data from some Mesozoic continental subvolcanic Cu and Ag polymetallic deposits and fine-disseminated gold deposits, the authors found that the calculation based on the lead single-stage evolution model or two-stage evolution model cannot give the true ore-forming ages but can provide more information about mineralization and material sources of the deposits.

  3. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B.; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi


    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed. PMID:28075384

  4. Monitoring Lead (Pb Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokuto Nakata


    Full Text Available Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43 and black (R. rattus, n = 98 rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight, Aichi (10.83, Niigata (10.62, Fukuoka (8.09, Ibaraki (5.06, Kyoto (4.58, Osaka (4.57, Kanagawa (3.42, and Tokyo (3.40 were above the threshold (2.50 for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  5. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats. (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi


    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  6. Stable lead isotopic analyses of historic and contemporary lead contamination of San Francisco Bay estuary (United States)

    Ritson, P.I.; Bouse, R.M.; Flegal, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.


    Variations in stable lead isotopic composition (240Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in three sediment cores from the San Francisco Bay estuary document temporal changes in sources of lead during the past two centuries. Sediment, with lead from natural geologic sources, and relatively homogeneous lead isotopic compositions are overlain by sediments whose isotopic compositions indicate change in the sources of lead associated with anthropogenic modification of the estuary. The first perturbations of lead isotopic composition in the cores occur in the late 1800s concordant with the beginning of industrialization around the estuary. Large isotopic shifts, toward lower 206Pb/207Pb, occur after the turn of the century in both Richardson and San Pablo Bays. A similar relationship among lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations in both Bays suggest contamination from the same source (a lead smelter). The uppermost sediments (post 1980) of all cores also have a relatively homogenous lead isotopic composition distinct from pre-anthropogenic and recent aerosol signatures. Lead isotopic compositions of leachates from fourteen surface sediments and five marsh samples from the estuary were also analyzed. These analyses suggest that the lead isotopic signature identified in the upper horizons of the cores is spatially homogeneous among recently deposited sediments throughout the estuary. Current aerosol lead isotopic compositions [Smith, D.R., Niemeyer, S., Flegal, A.R., 1992. Lead sources to California sea otters: industrial inputs circumvent natural lead biodepletion mechanisms. Environmental Research 57, 163-175] are distinct from the isotopic compositions of the surface sediments, suggesting that the major source of lead is cycling of historically contaminated sediments back through the water column. Both the upper core sediments and surface sediments apparently derive their lead predominantly from sources internal to the estuary. These results support the idea that

  7. Heavy metal input to agricultural soils from irrigation with treated wastewater: Insight from Pb isotopes (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Cary, Lise; Psarras, Georgios; Surdyk, Nicolas; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Pettenati, Marie; Maton, Laure


    A major objective of the EU FP6 project SAFIR was to overcome certain drawbacks of wastewater reuse through the development of a new irrigation technology combining small-scale modular water treatment plants on farm level and improved irrigation hardware, in the aim to lower the risks related to low quality water and to increase water use efficiency. This innovative technology was tested in several hydro-climatic contexts (Crete, Italy, Serbia, China) on experimental irrigated tomato and potato fields. Here we present the heavy metal variations in soil after medium-term (3 irrigation seasons from 2006-2008) use of treated municipal wastewater with a special focus on lead and lead isotope signatures. The experimental site is located in Chania, Crete. A matrix of plots were irrigated, combining different water qualities (secondary, primary treated wastewater, tap water, partially spiked with heavy metals, going through newly developed tertiary treatment systems) with different irrigation strategies (surface and subsurface drip irrigation combined with full irrigation and partial root drying). In order to assess small scale heavy metal distribution around a drip emitter, Pb isotope tracing was used, combined with selective extraction. The sampling for Pb isotope fingerprinting was performed after the 3rd season of ww-irrigation on a lateral profile from a drip irrigator (half distance between drip lines, i.e. 50cm) and three depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm). These samples were lixiviated through a 3 step selective extraction procedure giving rise to the bio-accessible, mobile and residual fraction: CaCl2/NaNO3 (bio-accessible fraction), DPTA (mobile fraction), total acid attack (residual fraction). Those samples were analysed for trace elements (including heavy metals) and major inorganic compounds by ICP-MS. The extracted fractions were then analysed by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for their lead isotope fingerprints (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb

  8. A century long sedimentary record of anthropogenic lead (Pb), Pb isotopes and other trace metals in Singapore. (United States)

    Chen, Mengli; Boyle, Edward A; Switzer, Adam D; Gouramanis, Chris


    Reconstructing the history of metal deposition in Singapore lake sediments contributes to understanding the anthropogenic and natural metal deposition in the data-sparse Southeast Asia. To this end, we present a sedimentary record of Pb, Pb isotopes and eleven other metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Tl, U and Zn) from a well-dated sediment core collected near the depocenter of MacRitchie Reservoir in central Singapore. Before the 1900s, the sedimentary Pb concentration was less than 2 mg/kg for both soil and sediment, with a corresponding (206)Pb/(207)Pb of ∼1.20. The Pb concentration increased to 55 mg/kg in the 1990s, and correspondingly the (206)Pb/(207)Pb decreased to less than 1.14. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb in the core top sediment is concordant with the (206)Pb/(207)Pb signal of aerosols in Singapore and other Southeast Asian cities, suggesting that Pb in the reservoir sediment was mainly from atmospheric deposition. Using the Pb concentration in the topmost layer of sediment, the estimated atmospheric Pb flux in Singapore today is ∼1.6 × 10(-2) g/m(2) yr. The concentrations of eleven other metals preserved in the sediment were also determined. A principal component analysis showed that most of the metals exhibit an increasing trend towards 1990s with a local concentration peak in the mid-20(th) century.

  9. Comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic, trace element, and mineralogical characterization of mafic to ultramafic rock reference materials (United States)

    Fourny, Anaïs.; Weis, Dominique; Scoates, James S.


    Controlling the accuracy and precision of geochemical analyses requires the use of characterized reference materials with matrices similar to those of the unknown samples being analyzed. We report a comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and trace element concentration data set, combined with quantitative phase analysis by XRD Rietveld refinement, for a wide range of mafic to ultramafic rock reference materials analyzed at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research, University of British Columbia. The samples include a pyroxenite (NIM-P), five basalts (BHVO-2, BIR-1a, JB-3, BE-N, GSR-3), a diabase (W-2), a dolerite (DNC-1), a norite (NIM-N), and an anorthosite (AN-G); results from a leucogabbro (Stillwater) are also reported. Individual isotopic ratios determined by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS, and multielement analyses by HR-ICP-MS are reported with 4-12 complete analytical duplicates for each sample. The basaltic reference materials have coherent Sr and Nd isotopic ratios with external precision below 50 ppm (2SD) and below 100 ppm for Hf isotopes (except BIR-1a). For Pb isotopic reproducibility, several of the basalts (JB-3, BHVO-2) require acid leaching prior to dissolution. The plutonic reference materials also have coherent Sr and Nd isotopic ratios (<50 ppm), however, obtaining good reproducibility for Pb and Hf isotopic ratios is more challenging for NIM-P, NIM-N, and AN-G due to a variety of factors, including postcrystallization Pb mobility and the presence of accessory zircon. Collectively, these results form a comprehensive new database that can be used by the geochemical community for evaluating the radiogenic isotope and trace element compositions of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic rocks.

  10. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France) (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.


    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  11. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastagner, P.


    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  12. Analysing Groundwater Using the 13C Isotope (United States)

    Awad, Sadek

    The stable isotope of the carbon atom (13C) give information about the type of the mineralisation of the groundwater existing during the water seepage and about the recharge conditions of the groundwater. The concentration of the CO2(aq.) dissolved during the infiltration of the water through the soil's layers has an effect on the mineralisation of this water. The type of the photosynthesis's cycle (C-3 or C-4 carbon cycle) can have a very important role to determine the conditions (closed or open system) of the mineralisation of groundwater. The isotope 13C of the dissolved CO2 in water give us a certain information about the origin and the area of pollution of water. The proportion of the biogenic carbon and its percentage in the mineralisation of groundwater is determined by using the isotope 13C.

  13. Isotope exchange between natural and anthropogenic Pb in the coastal waters of Singapore: exchange experiment, Kd model, and implications for the interpretation of coastal 210Pb data (United States)

    Boyle, E. A.; Chen, M.; Zurbrick, C.; Carrasco, G. G.


    Observations from annually-banded corals and seawater samples show that marine lead (Pb) in the coastal waters of Singapore has an isotopic composition that does not match that of the anthropogenic aerosols in this region, unlike what is seen in most parts of the open ocean. The 206Pb/207Pb composition of Singaporean marine Pb is 1.18-1.20 whereas the local aerosols are 1.14-1.16. In order to explore this discrepancy further, we collected a large volume water from the Johor River estuary (flowing from Malaysia to the northern border of Singapore), added a distinct isotope spike (NBS981, 206Pb/207Pb =1.093) to an unfiltered sample, and followed the dissolved isotope composition of the mixture during the following two months. The initial dissolved Pb concentration was 18.3 pmol/kg with 206Pb/207Pb of 1.200. "Total dissolvable" Pb released after acidification of the in the unfiltered sample was 373 pmol/kg with 206Pb/207Pb of 1.199, indicating that there is a large particulate Pb reservoir with an isotopic composition comparable to regional crustal natural Pb. The isotope spike should have brought the dissolved 206Pb/207Pb to 1.162, but less than a day after isotope spiking, the dissolved Pb had risen to 1.181 and continued a slow increase to 1.197 over the next two months. This experiment demonstrates that Johor estuary particulate matter contains a large reservoir of exchangeable Pb that will modify the isotopic composition of deposited aeolian aerosol anthropogenic Pb. We have modeled the evolution of Pb and Pb isotopes in this experiment with a single Kd -type model that assumes that there are two or three different Pb reservoirs with different exchange time constants. This observation has implications for isotope equilibrium between high Pb/210Pb continental particles and low Pb/210Pb ocean waters - what is merely isotope equilibration may appear to be 210Pb scavenging.

  14. Large-scale tectonic cycles in Europe revealed by distinct Pb isotope provinces (United States)

    Blichert-Toft, Janne; Delile, Hugo; Lee, Cin-Ty; Stos-Gale, Zofia; Billström, Kjell; Andersen, Tom; Hannu, Huhma; Albarède, Francis


    Lead isotopic systematics of U-poor minerals, such as sulfides and feldspars, can provide unique insights into the origin and evolution of continents because these minerals "freeze in" the Pb isotopic composition of the crust during major tectonothermal events, allowing the history of a continent to be told through Pb isotopes. Lead model ages constrain the timing of crust formation while time-integrated U/Pb, Th/Pb, and Th/U ratios shed light onto key geochemical processes associated with continent formation. Using ˜6800 Pb isotope measurements of primarily lead ores and minor K-feldspar, we mapped out the Pb isotope systematics across Europe and the Mediterranean. Lead model ages define spatially distinct age provinces, consistent with major tectonic events ranging from the Paleozoic to the Proterozoic and latest Archean. However, the regions defined by time-integrated U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios cut across the boundaries of age provinces, with high U/Pb systematics characterizing most of southern Europe. Magmatic influx, followed by segregation of dense sulfide-rich mafic cumulates, resulted in foundering of U- and Th-poor lower crust, thereby changing the bulk composition of the continental crust and leading to distinct time-integrated U-Th/Pb provinces. We show that the tectonic assembly of small crustal fragments leaves the crust largely undifferentiated, whereas the formation of supercontinents results in fundamental changes in the composition of the crust, identifiable in time and space by means of Pb isotope systematics. Observations based on Pb isotopes open up a new perspective on possible relationships between crustal thickness and geodynamic processes, in particular the role of crustal foundering into the mantle and the mechanisms responsible for the existence of cratons.

  15. A "Tail" Of Two Mines: Determining The Sources Of Lead In Mine Waters Using Pb Isotopes (United States)

    Cousens, B. L.; Allen, D. M.; Lepitre, M. E.; Mortensen, J. K.; Gabites, J. E.; Nugent, M.; Fortin, D.


    Acid mine drainage can be a significant environmental problem in regions where mine tailings are exposed to surface water and shallow groundwater flow. Whereas high metal concentrations in surface waters and groundwaters indicate that metals are being mobilized, these data do not uniquely identify the source of the contamination. The isotopic composition of Pb in mine waters is a superb tracer of Pb sources, because the isotopic composition of ore Pb is usually significantly different from that of host rocks, other surficial deposits, and aerosols. We have investigated metal mobility at two abandoned Pb-Zn mines in different geological settings: the sediment-hosted Sullivan Mine in southeastern British Columbia, and the New Calumet Mine of western Quebec that is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Province. Ores from both mines have homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions that are much less radiogenic than surrounding host rocks. At Sullivan, the Pb isotopic compositions of water samples define a mixing line between Sullivan ore and at least one other more radiogenic end-member. Water samples with high Pb concentrations (0.002 to 0.3 mg/L) generally are acidic and have Pb isotope ratios equal to Sullivan ore, whereas waters with low Pb contents have near-neutral pH and have variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Thus not all the waters collected in the study area originate from Sullivan ore or mining operations, as previously thought. The dominant source of ore Pb in mine waters are the waste rock dumps. Based on their isotopic compositions, host shales or aerosols from the local Pb smelter are potential sources of non-Sullivan ore Pb; local glacial tills are an unlikely source due to their heterogeneous Pb isotopic composition. Similarly, at the New Calumet mine, water samples collected in direct contact with either ore at the surface or tailings have high Pb concentrations (up to 0.02 mg/L) and Pb isotope ratios equal to New Calumet Pb-Zn ore. However

  16. Coupling meteorology, metal concentrations, and Pb isotopes for source attribution in archived precipitation samples. (United States)

    Graney, Joseph R; Landis, Matthew S


    A technique that couples lead (Pb) isotopes and multi-element concentrations with meteorological analysis was used to assess source contributions to precipitation samples at the Bondville, Illinois USA National Trends Network (NTN) site. Precipitation samples collected over a 16month period (July 1994-October 1995) at Bondville were parsed into six unique meteorological flow regimes using a minimum variance clustering technique on back trajectory endpoints. Pb isotope ratios and multi-element concentrations were measured using high resolution inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) on the archived precipitation samples. Bondville is located in central Illinois, ~250km downwind from smelters in southeast Missouri. The Mississippi Valley Type ore deposits in Missouri provided a unique multi-element and Pb isotope fingerprint for smelter emissions which could be contrasted to industrial emissions from the Chicago and Indianapolis urban areas (~125km north and east, of Bondville respectively) and regional emissions from electric utility facilities. Differences in Pb isotopes and element concentrations in precipitation corresponded to flow regime. Industrial sources from urban areas, and thorogenic Pb from coal use, could be differentiated from smelter emissions from Missouri by coupling Pb isotopes with variations in element ratios and relative mass factors. Using a three endmember mixing model based on Pb isotope ratio differences, industrial processes in urban airsheds contributed 56±19%, smelters in southeast Missouri 26±13%, and coal combustion 18±7%, of the Pb in precipitation collected in Bondville in the mid-1990s.

  17. Assessment of dissolved Pb concentration and isotopic composition in surface waters of the modern global ocean (United States)

    Pinedo-Gonzalez, P.; West, A. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.


    Lead (Pb) produced by human activities, mainly from leaded gasoline combustion and high-temperature industries, dominates Pb in our present-day oceans. Previous studies have shown that surface ocean Pb concentrations and isotope ratios have varied in time and space, reflecting the changes in the amount of inputs and sources of anthropogenic Pb. However, data on surface ocean Pb is quite limited, especially for some basins like the Indian Ocean. In the present study, Pb concentrations and stable isotopes (208, 207, and 206) have been analyzed in surface water samples (3m depth) collected during the Malaspina Circumnavigation Expedition, 2010. Our results are compared with data from the literature to i) evaluate the changing status of metal contamination in surface waters of the global ocean over the last 30 years, and ii) propose potential sources of modern Pb to the oceans. Our results show that Pb concentrations in surface waters of the North Atlantic Ocean have decreased ~ 40% since 1975, attributable to the phase-out of leaded gasoline in North America. This result is corroborated by stable Pb isotope measurements. Furthermore, the isotopic gradient observed in surface waters of the studied transects in the north tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean can be attributed to simple mixing of European and African aerosols and Saharan Holocene loess. Results from an understudied transect in the Southern Indian Ocean give an indication of the source region of Pb delivered to this region. Although comparison with literature data is limited, mixing of Australian ores and African and Australian coals could potentially explain the measured Pb isotope composition. This study provides an opportunity to build on the work of previous oceanographic campaigns, enabling us to assess the impact of anthropogenic Pb inputs to the ocean and the relative importance of various Pb sources, providing new insights into the transport and fate of Pb in the oceans.

  18. Hf isotopic compositions of the standard zircons for U-Pb dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ping; WU Fuyuan; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng


    Using the newly published Yb isotopic abundances and the mass bias relationship between Yb and Hf, we carried out an analysis of Hf isotopes in the standard zircon 91500 by means of 193 nm laser attached to Neptune multi-collector ICP-MS (LA-MC-ICPMS). The obtained Hf isotopic data, in either in situ or line scan modes, are not only identical for different spot sizes, but also are consistent with previously published results obtained on TIMS or other MC-ICPMS machines within errors. This indicates that it is possible to obtain reliable 176Hf/177Hf isotopic ratios for zircon in either in situ or line scan conditions on LA-MC-ICPMS machine, and the applied procedures in our study for elemental interfering correction are appropriate for the purpose of acquiring satisfactory accuracy for Hf isotope analyses. The Hf isotopic compositions of four zircon standards in high spatial resolution U-Pb dating, 91500, CZ3,CN92-1 and TEMORA, are measured, respectively. The obtained 176Hf/177Hf ratios are 0.282316+4 (n = 34, 2σ) for 91500, 0.281704±6 (n = 16, 2σ) for CZ3, 0.282200±6 (n = 20,2σ-) for CN92-1 and 0.282684±14 (n = 24, 2σ) for TEMORA,respectively, with 176Lu/177Hf ratios of ~0.00031, 0.000036,0.00083 and 0.00127. Zircons 91500 and CZ3 show narrower variations in 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf ratios than those of zircons CN92-1 and TEMORA, and thus are appropriate standards for the Hf isotope analysis.

  19. Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on mantle sources and crustal contaminants in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Thirlwall, Matthew F.


    The presented Sr, Nd, Hf and double-spike Pb-isotopic analyses of Quaternary basalts from the Payenia volcanic province in southern Mendoza, Argentina, confirm the presence of two distinct mantle types feeding the Payenia volcanism. The southern Payenia mantle source feeding the intraplate-type Río...... is suggested to be caused by step-wise melt extraction due to repeated injections of subduction zone fluids and melts. The lower crustal contamination trends found in the trace element variations of basalt groups from all parts of the Payenia province are also recognized in isotopic space and the dominant...... isotope assimilation trends indicate lower crustal contaminants with more unradiogenic Pb, lower 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf and higher or similar 87Sr/86Sr as the mantle melts. These characteristics are similar to those found in lower crustal xenoliths from the northern Proterozoic Cuyania terrane...

  20. Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Huiqiang, E-mail: [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Huaiyang, E-mail: [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Peng Xiaotong [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Bao Shenxu [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Zijun; Li Jiangtao [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Zhilei; Chen Zhiqiang; Li Jiwei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Guangqian [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)


    Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.658-18.769; {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 15.457-15.566; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.90; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (<1.5%) or no Pb derivation from sedimentary sources. However, the high NH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 4} and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

  1. Multi-element and isotopic analyses of iron meteorites using a glow discharge mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Tadashi (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences); Takahashi, Takako (Marubun Corp., Kotoku, Tokyo (Japan). Analytical Research Lab.); Honda, Masatake; Nagai, Hisao (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Humanities and Sciences)


    Multi-element and isotopic analyses were performed of eight iron meteorites using a glow discharge mass spectrometer. Virtually all the elements can be determined. Major components (Fe, Co and Ni) through to ultra-trace constituents at the sub ng g[sup -1] level (Sc etc.) are measured directly with minimum chemical treatment within the same analytical cycle. Extremely high relative concentrations of Ni, Cu, Pd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Pb and Bi were found in the meteorite Yamato 791694; the concentration of C was also very high. The isotopic composition of Pb in this meteorite was close to primordial. Low concentrations of C, N and O were found in the meteorite Gibeon. Very low S and Zn and high Cr and V were found in a third meteorite, Chinga. An excess of [sup 53]Cr was observed in Yamato 75031, which was consistent with the cosmic ray production level expected from the concentration of [sup 45]Sc. (Author).

  2. Variations of Pb in a mine-impacted tropical river, Taxco, Mexico: Use of geochemical, isotopic and statistical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F. [Unidad de Quimica en Sisal, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Sisal 97355 (Mexico)], E-mail:; Armienta, M.A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Daessle, L.W. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Ensenada 22870 (Mexico); Castillo-Blum, S.E. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Talavera, O. [Escuela de Ciencias de la Tierra, UAG, Taxco Viejo 40201 (Mexico); Dotor, A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico)


    The potential environmental threat from Pb in Mexican rivers impacted by historic mining activities was studied using geochemical, isotopic and statistical methods. Lead geochemical fractionation and factor analysis of fractionated and total Pb indicate that anthropogenic sources have contributed significantly to Pb concentrations, while natural sources have contributed only small amounts. The analyses also indicate that two main processes are controlling the total Pb variation throughout the year in both rivers: erosion with discharge processes, and proportional dilution related to differences in grain-size distribution processes. Bio-available Pb in riverbed sediments was greater than 50% in 80% of the sampling stations indicating a high potential environmental risk, according to the risk assessment criteria (RAC). Nevertheless, based on the environmental chemistry of Pb and on multivariate statistical analysis, these criteria did not apply in this particular case. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in total Pb concentrations (from 50 to 5820 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the geochemical fractionation were observed as a function of seasonality and location along the river flow path. In the Cacalotenango and Taxco rivers, the highest concentrations of total Pb were found at stations close to tailings during the rainy and post-rainy seasons. The geochemistry of Pb was mainly controlled, during the dry and post-rainy seasons by the organic matter and carbonate content, and in the rainy season by hydrological conditions (e.g., the increase in river flux), hydrological basin erosion, and the suspended solids concentration. Isotopic analyses of the {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Pb ratio showed three processes in the Cacalotenango and Taxco rivers. First, the accumulation of atmospheric excess {sup 210}Pb, favoured during calmer hydrodynamic conditions in the river basin commonly during dry periods, is recorded by a {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Pb ratio of >1. In the case of the Cacalotenango

  3. Basalt Pb isotope analysis and the prehistoric settlement of Polynesia. (United States)

    Weisler, M I; Woodhead, J D


    The prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Ocean has intrigued scholars and stimulated anthropological debate for the past two centuries. Colonized over a few millennia during the mid to late Holocene, the islands of the Pacific--displaying a wide diversity of geological and biotic variability--provided the stage for endless "natural experiments" in human adaptation. Crucial to understanding the evolution and transformation of island societies is documenting the relative degree of interisland contacts after island colonization. In the western Pacific, ideal materials for archaeologically documenting interisland contact--obsidian, pottery, and shell ornaments--are absent or of limited geographic distribution in Polynesia. Consequently, archaeologists have relied increasingly on fine-grained basalt artifacts as a means for documenting colonization routes and subsequent interisland contacts. Routinely used x-ray fluorescence characterization of oceanic island basalt has some problems for discriminating source rocks and artifacts in provenance studies. The variation in trace and major element abundances is largely controlled by near-surface magma-chamber processes and is broadly similar between most oceanic islands. We demonstrate that Pb isotope analysis accurately discriminates rock source and is an excellent technique for charting the scale, frequency, and temporal span of imported fine-grained basalt artifacts found throughout Polynesia. The technique adds another tool for addressing evolutionary models of interaction, isolation, and cultural divergence in the eastern Pacific.

  4. Pb Isotope Mapping in the Tongbai-Dabie Orogenic Belt, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; ZHONG Zengqiu; WANG Linsen; Zhang Benren


    Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt in Central China is a part of the collisional belt between the Yangtze and North China cratons. It represents one of the most extensive ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks in the world. The Pb isotope mapping in this area is a significant method to constrain the crustal structure and tectonic evolution and to identify the tectonic boundaries within the vertical tectonic stack. Based on the Pb isotope compositions of the Dabie complex (DBC), the Tongbai complex (TBC), UHP and HP metamorphic rocks and associated foliated granites, the lower metamorphosed rocks from North Huaiyang (NHY) tectonic belt, and Cretaceous granites in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt, we determined the Pb isotope geochemical map of the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. The Pb isotope map shows that the Pb isotope compositions are similar within each geological body or lithotectonic unit, but the Pb isotope compositions of different lithotectonic units show systematic variations in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. The NHY tectonic belt contrasts strongly with the Tongbal-Dabie UHP-HP metamorphic belt in Pb isotope compositions.It is suggested that the line along the Xiaotian-Mozitan fault, the north limit of the Tongbai-Dabie UHP and HP metamorphic rocks, represents an important tectonic boundary. Within the Tongbai-Dabie HP -UHP metamorphic belt, to the south of Xiaotian-Mozitan fault, the vertical variations of Pb isotope compositions in different lithotectonic units and the spatial relationship among different major lithotectonic units have been constrained.

  5. Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of isotopes in Ni and Pb chelate complex formation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Masao; Kudo, Takashi; Adachi, Atsuhiko; Aida, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama Meguroku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan)


    Mass independent fractionation (MIF) has been a very interesting topic in the field of inorganic isotope chemistry, in particular, geo- and cosmo- chemistry. In the present work, we studied the isotope fractionation of Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in complex formation with chelating reagent EDTA. To obtain clear results on the mass dependence of the isotope fractionation, we have conducted long-distance ion exchange chromatography of Ni(II) and Pb(II), using chelate complex reagent EDTA. The results apparently show that the isotope fractionation in Ni complex formation system is governed by the mass dependent rule. On the other hand the isotope fractionation in the Pb complex system is governed by the mass independent rule or the nuclear volume effect.

  6. Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of isotopes in Ni and Pb chelate complex formation reactions (United States)

    Nomura, Masao; Kudo, Takashi; Adachi, Atsuhiko; Aida, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko


    Mass independent fractionation (MIF) has been a very interesting topic in the field of inorganic isotope chemistry, in particular, geo- and cosmo- chemistry. In the present work, we studied the isotope fractionation of Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in complex formation with chelating reagent EDTA. To obtain clear results on the mass dependence of the isotope fractionation, we have conducted long-distance ion exchange chromatography of Ni(II) and Pb(II), using chelate complex reagent EDTA. The results apparently show that the isotope fractionation in Ni complex formation system is governed by the mass dependent rule. On the other hand the isotope fractionation in the Pb complex system is governed by the mass independent rule or the nuclear volume effect.

  7. Tracing of industrial aerosol sources in an urban environment using Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes. (United States)

    Geagea, Majdi Lahd; Stille, Peter; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Millet, Maurice


    A comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd isotope tracer study of atmospheric trace metal pollution has been performed in the urban environment of Strasbourg-Kehl. Filter dust of the principal pollutant sources (waste incinerators, thermal power plant and steel plant) and soot of car and ship exhausts have been analyzed. In addition tree barks (as biomonitors) and PM10 have been analyzed to trace and determine the distribution of the pollution in the environment. The industrial sources have highly variable epsilonNd values (-9.7 and -12.5 for incinerators and -17.5 for steel plant). Much higher epsilonNd values have been found for soot of car exhausts (-6 and -6.9). These high values make the Nd isotope system a powerful tool for the discrimination of traffic emissions but especially for the identification of diesel derived particles in the urban environment. The 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios of gasoline are low (1.089) compared to diesel soot (1.159). The 26Pb/207Pb ratios of 1.151-1.152 for the steel plant and 1.152 for the solid waste incinerator are close to the Pb isotope ratio of diesel. The 87Sr/ 8Sr isotope ratios of the principal industrial sources vary significantly: 0.7095 for the domestic solid waste incinerator, 0.709 for the steel plant, and 0.7087 for car exhaust soot. PM10 aerosols collected in the urban center of Strasbourg show the influence of the pollutant sources at 3-7 km distance from the center. Most of the aerosols Pb isotopic compositions suggest Pb admixtures from at least three sources: a natural background and in function of the wind direction the domestic waste incinerator (S-wind) or the steel plant and the chemical waste incinerator (NE-wind). The traffic contribution can only be estimated with help of Nd isotopes. Therefore the clear identification of different pollutant sources in the urban environment is only possible by combining the three different isotope systems and is based on the fact that significant differences exist between the Pb, Sr, and

  8. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years. (United States)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Burn-Nunes, Laurie J; Hong, Sungmin; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F; Rosman, Kevin J R


    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature (~1.20 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and ~2.50 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last ~750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and 2.471 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb in the period 1990-1996. The depression of the (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  9. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands. (United States)

    Walraven, N; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R


    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The Netherlands. The Pb isotope composition of the litter layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.12-1.14) differs from the deeper soil samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.20-1.21). Based on a mixing model it is concluded that the samples contain two Pb sources: natural Pb and anthropogenic Pb, the latter mainly derived from gasoline. (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios demonstrate that the roadside soils were polluted to a depth of ~15 cm. Within this depth interval, anthropogenic Pb content is associated with organic matter. Although Pb pollution only reached a depth of ~15 cm, this does not mean that the topsoils retain all anthropogenic Pb. Due to the low pH and negligible binding capacity of soils at depths >15 cm, anthropogenic Pb migrated towards groundwater after reaching depths of >15 cm. The Pb isotope composition of the groundwater ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.135-1.185) establishes that groundwater is polluted with anthropogenic Pb. The contribution of anthropogenic Pb to the groundwater varies between ~30 and 100%. Based on the difference in soil Pb content and Pb isotope compositions over a period of 12 years, downward Pb migration is calculated to vary from 72 ± 95 to 324 ± 279 mg m(-2)y(-1). Assuming that the downward Pb flux is constant over time, it is calculated that 35-90% of the atmospherically delivered Pb has migrated to the groundwater.

  10. Isotopic evidence for trapped fissiogenic REE and nucleogenic Pu in apatite and Pb evolution at the Oklo natural reactor (United States)

    Horie, Kenji; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François


    A part of the boundary layer of reactor zone 10 at the Oklo natural reactor shows a unique petrologic texture, which contains high-grade uraninite and massive apatite concretions. In order to study distribution behavior of fission products around the boundary between the reactor zone and the wall rock and to clarify the relation of migration mechanisms of fission products with geochemical factors, in-situ isotopic analyses of Nd, Sm, Gd, Pb and U in uraninite and apatite from the sample were performed by Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP). Sm and Gd isotopic ratios of uraninite and apatite show evidence of neutron irradiation with fluence between 4.4-6.8×10 19 n/cm 2. Judging from the isotopic anomalies of Nd and U, the apatite coexisting with the uraninite plays an important role in trapping fissiogenic LREE and nucleogenic 239Pu into the structure. Systematic Pb isotopic data from apatite, uraninite, galena and minium suggest the following chronological interpretations. The apatite formed 1.92±0.01 Ga ago and trapped fissiogenic light REE and nucleogenic 239Pu that migrated from the reactor during the criticality. The uraninite around the boundary between reactor and sandstone dissolved once 1.1˜1.2 Ga ago. Galena grains were formed by U-Pb mobilization in association with the intrusion of dolerite dyke 0.45˜0.83 Ga ago. Minium was derived from recent dissolution of galena under locally oxidizing conditions.

  11. Final report of the key comparison CCQM-K98: Pb isotope amount ratios in bronze (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Malinowskiy, Dmitriy; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Jun; Vocke, Robert D., Jr.; Murphy, Karen; Nonose, Naoko; Rienitz, Olaf; Noordmann, Janine; Näykki, Teemu; Sara-Aho, Timo; Ari, Betül; Cankur, Oktay


    Isotope amount ratios are proving useful in an ever increasing array of applications that range from studies unravelling transport processes, to pinpointing the provenance of specific samples as well as trace element quantification by using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). These expanding applications encompass fields as diverse as archaeology, food chemistry, forensic science, geochemistry, medicine and metrology. However, to be effective tools, the isotope ratio data must be reliable and traceable to enable the comparability of measurement results. The importance of traceability and comparability in isotope ratio analysis has already been recognized by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) within the CCQM. While the requirements for isotope ratio accuracy and precision in the case of IDMS are generally quite modest, 'absolute' Pb isotope ratio measurements for geochemical applications as well as forensic provenance studies require Pb isotope ratio measurements of the highest quality. To support present and future CMCs on isotope ratio determinations, a key comparison was urgently needed and therefore initiated at the IAWG meeting in Paris in April 2011. The analytical task within such a comparison was decided to be the measurement of Pb isotope amount ratios in water and bronze. Measuring Pb isotope amount ratios in an aqueous Pb solution tested the ability of analysts to correct for any instrumental effects on the measured ratios, while the measurement of Pb isotope amount ratios in a metal matrix sample provided a real world test of the whole chemical and instrumental procedure. A suitable bronze material with a Pb mass fraction between 10 and 100 mg•kg-1 and a high purity solution of Pb with a mass fraction of approximately 100 mg•kg-1 was available at the pilot laboratory (BAM), both offering a natural-like Pb isotopic composition. The mandatory measurands, the isotope amount ratios n(206Pb)/n(204Pb), n(207Pb)/n(204Pb) and n(208Pb)/n(204Pb

  12. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  13. Nd Isotope and U-Th-Pb Age Mapping of Single Monazite Grains by Laser Ablation Split Stream Analysis (United States)

    Fisher, C. M.; Hanchar, J. M.; Miller, C. F.; Phillips, S.; Vervoort, J. D.; Martin, W.


    Monazite is a common accessory mineral that occurs in medium to high grade metamorphic and Ca-poor felsic igneous rocks, and often controls the LREE budget (including Sm and Nd) of the host rock in which it crystallizes. Moreover, it contains appreciable U and Th, making it an ideal mineral for determining U-Th-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions, both of which are readily determined using in situ techniques with very high spatial resolution like LA-MC-ICPMS. Here, we present the results of laser ablation split stream analyses (LASS), which allows for simultaneous determination of the age and initial Nd isotopic composition in a single analysis. Analyses were done using a 20mm laser spot that allowed for detailed Nd isotope mapping of monazite grains (~30 analyses per ~250mm sized grain). Combined with LREE ratios (e.g., Sm/Nd, Ce/Gd, and Eu anomalies) these results yield important petrogenetic constraints on the evolution of peraluminous granites from the Old Woman-Piute batholith in southeastern California. Our findings also allow an improved understanding of the causes of isotope heterogeneity in granitic rocks. U-Th-Pb age mapping across the crystals reveals a single Cretaceous age for all grains with precision and accuracy typical of laser ablation analyses (~2%). In contrast, the concurrent Nd isotope mapping yields homogeneous initial Nd isotope compositions for some grains and large initial intra-grain variations of up to 8 epsilon units in others. The grains that yield homogeneous Nd isotope compositions have REE ratios suggesting that they crystallized in a fractionally crystallizing magma. Conversely, other grains, which also record fractional crystallization of both feldspar and LREE rich minerals, demonstrate a change in the Nd isotope composition of the magma during crystallization of monazite. Comparison of inter- and intra-grain Nd isotope compositions reveals further details on the potential mechanisms responsible for isotope heterogeneity

  14. The Pb pollution fingerprint at Lochnagar: The historical record and current status of Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Handong [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, Pearson Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Linge, Kathryn [NERC ICP Facility, School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, KT1 2EE (United Kingdom); Rose, Neil [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, Pearson Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BP (United Kingdom)


    Ratios of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in a Lochnagar sediment core slowly decline from c. 1.32 at 140 cm to c. 1.23 at 9 cm, and then rapidly decline to c. 1.15 at the surface. Ninety percent of the Pb in the surface sediments can be attributed to anthropogenic sources. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio data imply that catchment peat surface contains a higher fraction of anthropogenic Pb than the sediment surface. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the surface of the sediment core are consistent with ratios in trapped sediments collected annually between 1998 and 2003. However, there is no significant decline in these recent samples suggesting that the reduction in atmospheric Pb emissions has not yet been recorded by the sediments due to Pb inputs from the catchment. As catchment peats store about 840 kg previously deposited anthropogenic Pb since 1860, it is likely that catchment inputs will continue to affect future {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios. - Pb previously deposited and stored in Lochnagar catchment has a major affect on contemporary Pb in the lake system.

  15. A study of REE and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes in garnet-lherzolite xenoliths from Mingxi, Fujian Province (United States)

    Wankang, H.; Junwen, W.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.


    The REE and Pb, Sr, Nd isotopes in three xenoliths from limburgite and scoria-breccias, including spinel-lherzolite, spinel-garnet-lherzolite and phlogopite-gamet-lherzolite, were analysed. The REE contents of the xenoliths are 1.3 to 3.3 times those of the chondrites with their REE patterns characterized by weak LREE depletion. The143Nd/144Nd values of whole rocks and minerals range from 0.51306 to 0.51345 with ??Nd=+ 8.2- +15.8,206Pb/204 Pb < 18.673, and207Pb/204Pb < 15.574. All this goes to show that the upper mantle in Mingxi at the depth of 67-82 km is a depleted mantle of MORB type, with87Sr/86 Sr ratios 0.70237-0.70390. In Nd-Sr diagram the data points of whole rocks are all out of the mantle array, implying that the xenoliths from Mingxi have more radiogenic Sr isotopes than those of the mantle array. ?? 1993 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Trace elements and Pb isotopes in soils and sediments impacted by uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuvier, A., E-mail: [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d' études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Pourcelot, L. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d' études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Probst, A. [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Prunier, J. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, laboratoire Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/IRD/Université Paul Sabatier, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Le Roux, G., E-mail: [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France)


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contamination in As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and REE, in a high uranium activity (up to 21,000 Bq ∙ kg{sup −1}) area, downstream of a former uranium mine. Different geochemical proxies like enrichment factor and fractions from a sequential extraction procedure are used to evaluate the level of contamination, the mobility and the availability of the potential contaminants. Pb isotope ratios are determined in the total samples and in the sequential leachates to identify the sources of the contaminants and to determine the mobility of radiogenic Pb in the context of uranium mining. In spite of the large uranium contamination measured in the soils and the sediments (EF ≫ 40), trace element contamination is low to moderate (2 < EF < 5), except for Ba (5 < EF < 15), due to the precipitation of barium sulfate resulting from mining activities. Most of the trace elements are associated with the most mobile fractions of the sediments/soils, implying an enhanced potential availability. Even if no Pb enrichment is highlighted, the Pb isotopic signature of the contaminated soils is strongly radiogenic. Measurements performed on the sequential leachates reveal inputs of radiogenic Pb in the most mobile fractions of the contaminated soil. Inputs of low-mobile radiogenic Pb from mining activities may also contribute to the Pb signature recorded in the residual phase of the contaminated samples. We demonstrate that Pb isotopes are efficient tools to trace the origin and the mobility of the contaminants in environments affected by uranium mining. - Highlights: • Contamination of soils is evidenced by a multiproxy approach. • Enrichment factors highlight a low contamination except for U, S and Ba. • Pb isotope ratios point out inputs of radiogenic Pb from the mine. • Radiogenic Pb is mainly in the acid-soluble and the reducible fractions.

  17. Tracing lead pollution sources in abandoned mine areas using stable Pb isotope ratios. (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Seon; Lee, Khanghyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo


    This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the (203)Tl/(205)Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60%. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines.

  18. Isotope abundance ratios of sr in wine provenance determinations, in a tree-root activity study, and of pb in a pollution study on tree-rings. (United States)

    Horn, P; Hölzl, S; Todt, W; Matthies, D


    Abstract In this contribution, the various and fundamentally different uses and applications of isotope signatures (of both heavy and light elements) are discussed. Examples are given for the successful use of (87)Sr/(86)Sr in uncovering fraud in wine trade. Also, in an experiment related to "Waldsterben", (87)Sr/(86)Sr analyses reveal rather unexpected responses of spruces and maple-trees to mechanical damage of their roots. In another study, from (206)Pb/(207)Pb (and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) analyses of tree growth-rings it is demonstrated that they do not accurately record lead burdens in the environment. This is contrary to current views on the subject of tree-rings as reliable banks of past heavy metal pollutions of the biosphere. Furthermore, new perspectives of applications of isotopes in biological tissues, including those of cosmogenic and nucleogenic origin will be shortly outlined.

  19. Pb isotopes during crustal melting and magma mingling - A cautionary tale from the Miki Fjord macrodike, central east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles


    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  20. Pb isotopes during crustal melting and magma mingling - A cautionary tale from the Miki Fjord macrodike, central east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles


    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  1. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region. (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John


    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  2. Signatures of the source for the Emeishan flood basalts in the Ertan area: Pb isotope evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Emeishan flood basalts can be divided into high-Ti (HT) basalt (Ti/Y>500) and low-Ti (LT) basalt (Ti/Y<500). Sr, Nd isotopic characteristics of the lavas indicate that the LT- and the HT-type magmas originated from distinct mantle sources and parental magmas. The LT-type magma was derived from a shallower lithospheric mantle, whereas the HT-type magma was derived from a deeper mantle source that may be possibly a mantle plume. However, few studies on the Emeishan flood basalts involved their Pb isotopes, especially the Ertan basalts. In this paper, the authors investigated basalt samples from the Ertan area in terms of Pb isotopes, in order to constrain the source of the Emeishan flood basalts. The ratios of 206Pb/204Pb (18.31-18.41), 207Pb/204Pb (15.55-15.56) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.81-38.94) are significantly higher than those of the depleted mantle, just lying between EM I and EM II. This indicates that the Emeishan HT basalts (in the Ertan area) are the result of mixing of EMI end-member and EMII end-member.

  3. Sr and Pb isotopic geochemistry of feldspars and implications for the growth of megacrysts in plutonic settings. (United States)

    Munnikhuis, J.; Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.; Mills, R. D.


    Why megacrystic textures develop in silicic igneous rocks is still unknown. One hypothesis is that these crystals nucleate early in a magma chamber with a high liquid content. A supportive observation of this hypothesis is areas in plutons with high concentrations of megacrysts suggesting flow sorting. Another group of hypotheses suggest megacrystic textures form during protracted late-stage coarsening in a low-melt, interlocked matrix due to either thermal oscillations from incremental pluton emplacement, or Ostwald ripening. Isotopic analyses of large, euhedral K-feldspar megacrysts from the Cretaceous intrusive suites of the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB) provide new insight into their origin. Megacrysts from the SNB reach the decimeter scale, are Or rich (85-90%), are perthitic, and host mineral inclusions of nearly all phases in the host rock. In-situ micro-drilling of transects, from core to rim, of the alkali feldspars provides material for Sr and Pb isotopic analyses by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Preliminary 87Sr/86Sr(i) isotopic data from samples from the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite range from 0.706337 to 0.706452 (~1.6ɛSr) near the cores, whereas a sawtooth pattern with larger variability, 0.706179 to 0.706533 (~5ɛSr), occurs nears the rims. We interpret these preliminary data to indicate that the late portion of growth (i.e. crystal rim) was dominated by either cannibalism of small K-feldspar crystals with isotopic variability, or by addition of isotopically diverse late components to the magma. By comparing the Sr and Pb isotopic stratigraphy of megacrysts from a variety of rock matrices and different granitoids in the SNB isotopic trends can be evaluated to determine if crystals sizes are dependent on disequilibrium processes or grow at a steady state.

  4. Isotopic (Pb, Sr, Nd, C, O) evidence for plume-related sampling of an ancient, depleted mantle reservoir (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Simonetti, Antonio


    The exact mantle source for carbonatite melts remains highly controversial. Despite their predominant occurrence within continental (lithospheric) domains, the radiogenic isotope data from young (oceanic island basalts (OIBs). This feature suggests an intimate petrogenetic relationship with asthenospheric mantle. New Pb, Sr, C, and O isotopic data are reported here for constituent minerals from the Oka carbonatite complex, which is associated with the Cretaceous Monteregian Igneous Province (MIP), northeastern North America. The Pb isotope data define linear arrays in Pb-Pb isotope diagrams, with the corresponding Sr isotope ratios being highly variable (0.70314-0.70343); both these features are consistent with open system behavior involving at least three distinct mantle reservoirs. Compared to the isotope composition of known mantle sources for OIBs and carbonatite occurrences worldwide, the least radiogenic 207Pb/204Pb (14.96 ± 0.07) and 208Pb/204Pb (37.29 ± 0.15) isotopic compositions relative to their corresponding 206Pb/204Pb ratios (18.86 ± 0.08) reported here are distinct, and indicate the involvement of an ancient depleted mantle (ADM) source. The extremely unradiogenic Pb isotope compositions necessitate U/Pb fractionation early in Earth's history (prior to 4.0 Ga ago) and growth via a multi-stage Pb evolution model. The combined stable (C and O) and radiogenic isotopic compositions effectively rule out crustal/lithosphere contamination during the petrogenetic history of the Oka complex. Instead, the isotopic variations reported here most likely result from the mixing of discrete, small volume partial melts derived from a heterogeneous plume source characterized by a mixed HIMU-EM1-ADM signature.

  5. Genesis of the Bangbule Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic deposit in Tibet, western China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and S-Pb isotopes (United States)

    Kan, Tian; Zheng, Youye; Gao, Shunbao


    The Banbule Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposit is located in the Longger-Gongbujiangda volcanic magma arc in the Gangdese-Nyainqentanglha Plate. It is the only lead-zinc polymetallic deposit discovered in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha metallogenic belt. The measured and indicated resources include 0.9 Mt of Pb+Zn (4.77% Pb and 4.74% Zn, respectively), 6499 t of Cu, and 178 t of Ag (18.75g/t Ag). The orebodies mainly occur as lenses, veins and irregular shapes in the contact zone between the quartz-porphyry and limestone of the Upper Permian Xiala Formation, or in the boundaries between limestone and sandstone. Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in the Banbule deposit is closely associated with skarns. The ore minerals are dominated by galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and magnetite, with subordinate pyrite, malachite, and azurite. The gangue minerals are mainly garnet, actinolite, diopside, quartz, and calcite. The ore-related quartz-porphyry displays LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 77.31±0.74 Ma. The δ34S values of sulfides define a narrow range of -0.8 to 4.7‰ indicating a magmatic source for the ore-forming materials. Lead isotopic systematics yield 206Pb/204Pb of 18.698 to 18.752, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.696 to 15.760, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.097 to 39.320. The data points are constrained around the growth curves of upper crust and orogenic belt according to the tectonic discrimination diagrams. The calculated Δβ - Δγ values plot within the magmatic field according to the discrimination diagram of Zhu et al. (1995). The S-Pb isotopic data suggest that Bangbule is a typical skarn deposit, and the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization is genetically related to the quartz-porphyry in the mining district. The discovery of the Bangbule deposit indicates that there is metallogenic potential in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha belt, which is of great importance for the exploration work in this area.

  6. Lead fluxes and 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in rime and snow collected at remote mountain-top locations (Czech Republic, Central Europe): Patterns and sources (United States)

    Cimova, Nikoleta; Novak, Martin; Chrastny, Vladislav; Curik, Jan; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Blaha, Vladimir; Prechova, Eva; Pasava, Jan; Houskova, Marie; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Mikova, Jitka; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost


    During three winter seasons (2009-2011), Pb concentrations were measured in precipitation at 10 high-elevation sites in the Czech Republic, close to the borders with Austria, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia. Soluble and insoluble Pb forms were quantified in snow (vertical deposition), and rime (horizontal deposition). The objective was to compare Pb input fluxes into ecosystems via vertical and horizontal deposition, and to identify the residual Pb pollution sources in an era of rapidly decreasing industrial pollution. Lead soluble in diluted HNO3 made up 96% of total Pb deposition, with the remaining 4% Pb bound mainly in silicates. Three times higher concentrations of soluble Pb in rime than in snow, and 2.5 times higher concentrations of insoluble Pb in rime than in snow were associated with slightly different Pb isotope ratios. On average, the 206Pb/207Pb ratios in rime were higher than those in snow. Higher mean 206Pb/207Pb ratios of insoluble Pb (1.175) than in soluble Pb (1.165) may indicate an increasing role of geogenic Pb in recent atmospheric deposition. A distinct reversal to more radiogenic 206Pb/207Pb ratios in snow and rime in 2010, compared to literature data from rain-fed Sphagnum peatlands (1800-2000 A.D.), documented a recent decrease in anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere of Central Europe. Since the early 1980s, Pb concentrations in snow decreased 18 times in the rural south of the Czech Republic, but only twice in the industrial north of the Czech Republic. Isotope signatures indicated that Pb in today's atmospheric deposition is mainly derived from Mesozoic ores mined/processed in Poland and coal combustion in the Czech Republic and Poland.

  7. Diamond growth history from in situ measurement of Pb and S isotopic compositions of sulfide inclusions (United States)

    Rudnick, Roberta L.; Eldridge, C. Stewart; Bulanova, Galina P.


    In a continuing effort to understand crust-mantle dynamics, we have determined the S and Pb isotopic compositions of mantle sulfides encapsulated within diamonds from under the Siberian craton and compared these results to those of previously investigated African counterparts. Because diamond inclusions are isolated from exchange with surrounding mantle, they may preserve the history of diamond growth and act as direct tracers of the origins of mantle materials. Study of these inclusions may thus offer the best chance of recognizing global-scale interaction between Earth's crust and mantle. Although δ34S values of the Siberian sulfides do not deviate significantly from the mantle value of 0‰ ± 3‰, Pb isotopic compositions are highly variable. Pb isotopic compositions of sulfides from peridotitic suite diamonds generally plot near the terrestrial Pb growth curve, with model ages ranging between 0 and 2 Ga, whereas sulfides from eclogitic suite diamonds have radiogenic compositions, plotting beyond the growth curve. These results, which are similar to those for sulfides in African diamonds, suggest that the sulfides from eclogitic suite diamonds were derived from a source with an unusually high U/Pb ratio and may indicate a common process (such as subduction of crystal materials into the mantle) operating beneath Africa and Siberia. The absence of extremely radiogenic Pb in sulfides from eclogite xenoliths suggests that the radiogenic material from which eclogitic suite diamonds grew was a transient feature of the mantle, associated with diamond growth. The ultimate origin of this high U/Pb signature, however, remains enigmatic. Large variations in Pb isotopic composition of sulfides from different zones in a single peridotitic suite diamond document (1) crystallization of the diamond's core near 2.0 Ga, (2) growth of its outer zone in an environment with a high U/Pb ratio similar to the growth environment of eclogitic suite diamonds, and (3) growth of the

  8. Chemical and isotopical characterisation of atmospheric pollution from urban and rural environments of the Rhine Valley (PCBs, trace elements and Sr-, Nd- and Pb- isotope determinations) (United States)

    Guéguen, F.; Stille, P.; Millet, M.; Dietze, V.; Gieré, R.


    Atmosheric samples (gas and particulate matter (PM)) have been collected in the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl and in the rural environment of the Vosges mountains. For sampling of gas phase pollutants and particles two different passive sampler devices have been applied (PAS and Sigma-2, respectively). The PAS has been used for gas phase Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) sampling and is based on the passive adsorption of gas phase pollutants onto XAD-2 resin. The Sigma-2 sampler is based on the sedimentation principle (Stoke's law), collects particles in the size range 2.5-100 μm and allows the calculation of ambient air concentration. The sampler is mainly used for routine air quality measurements in German health and recreation resorts and in this field study the first time for collection of samples for subsequent trace element and isotope analysis. The collection time for the Sigma-2 and PAS are four and two weeks, respectively. Major and trace elements have been analyzed by ICP-MS and the Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios by a sector field MC-ICP-MS (Neptune) while PCBs were ASE extracted and analysed by GC-ECD. The aerosol data are compared with those from tree barks which have previously been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution (Lahd Geagea et al. 2008)1. The outer 1 mm thick part of the bark has been analyzed corresponding to about 2 to 8 years of accumulation. Some of the trace elements (Cr, Ni and Mo) of the aerosol samples are strongly (up to 1000 times) enriched compared to average 'upper continental crust (UCC)'. Normalization to a « natural » sample with an atmospheric baseline composition allows to identify industrial contributions: transition metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd), Ba and Pb appear to be important elements in steel plant and incinerator (chemical waste) emissions. Similarly enrichment in light rare earth elements (La, Pr, Nd) is observable. The enrichments increase with decreasing distance

  9. Quaternary climate modulation of Pb isotopes in the deep Indian Ocean linked to the Himalayan chemical weathering

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilson, D.J.; Galy, A.; Piotrowski, A.M.; Banakar, V.K.

    ) proposed a link between Himalayan weathering changes during the Neogene and the Pb isotopic composition of the deep central Indian Ocean recorded by ferromanganese crust SS663 (Fig. 1). However, with the exception of a further study on crust DODO-232D..., the blank contribution represents only 2–1.0% of the total Pb, which in the worst case would generate an ror of ∼100 ppm for 207Pb/204Pb and ∼400 ppm for 206Pb/204Pb d 208Pb/204Pb. Since such errors are comparable to the external alytical reproducibility...

  10. Deciphering petrogenic processes using Pb isotope ratios from time-series samples at Bezymianny and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes, Central Kamchatka Depression (United States)

    Kayzar, Theresa M.; Nelson, Bruce K.; Bachmann, Olivier; Bauer, Ann M.; Izbekov, Pavel E.


    The Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes in the Kamchatka arc erupts compositionally diverse magmas (high-Mg basalts to dacites) over small spatial scales. New high-precision Pb isotope data from modern juvenile (1956-present) erupted products and hosted enclaves and xenoliths from Bezymianny volcano reveal that Bezymianny and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes, separated by only 9 km, undergo varying degrees of crustal processing through independent crustal columns. Lead isotope compositions of Klyuchevskoy basalts-basaltic andesites are more radiogenic than Bezymianny andesites (208Pb/204Pb = 37.850-37.903, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.468-15.480, and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.249-18.278 at Bezymianny; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.907-37.949, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.478-15.487, and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.289-18.305 at Klyuchevskoy). A mid-crustal xenolith with a crystallization pressure of 5.2 ± 0.6 kbars inferred from two-pyroxene geobarometry and basaltic andesite enclaves from Bezymianny record less radiogenic Pb isotope compositions than their host magmas. Hence, assimilation of such lithologies in the middle or lower crust can explain the Pb isotope data in Bezymianny andesites, although a component of magma mixing with less radiogenic mafic recharge magmas and possible mantle heterogeneity cannot be excluded. Lead isotope compositions for the Klyuchevskoy Group are less radiogenic than other arc segments (Karymsky—Eastern Volcanic Zone; Shiveluch—Northern Central Kamchatka Depression), which indicate increased lower-crustal assimilation beneath the Klyuchevskoy Group. Decadal timescale Pb isotope variations at Klyuchevskoy demonstrate rapid changes in the magnitude of assimilation at a volcanic center. Lead isotope data coupled with trace element data reflect the influence of crustal processes on magma compositions even in thin mafic volcanic arcs.

  11. Cretaceous seamounts along the continent ocean transition of the Iberian margin: U Pb ages and Pb Sr Hf isotopes (United States)

    Merle, Renaud; Schärer, Urs; Girardeau, Jacques; Cornen, Guy


    To elucidate the age and origin of seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic, 54 titanite and 10 zircon fractions were dated by the U-Pb chronometer, and initial Pb, Sr, and Hf isotope ratios were measured in feldspars and zircon, respectively. Rocks analyzed are essentially trachy-andesites and trachytes dredged during the "Tore Madeira" cruise of the Atalante in 2001. The ages reveal different pulses of alkaline magmatism occurring at 104.4 ± 1.4 (2 σ) Ma and 102.8 ± 0.7 Ma on the Sponge Bob seamount, at 96.3 ± 1.0 Ma on Ashton seamount, at 92.3 ± 3.8 Ma on the Gago Coutinho seamount, at 89.3 ± 2.3 Ma and 86.5 ± 3.4 Ma on the Jo Sister volcanic complex, and at 88.3 ± 3.3 Ma, 88.2 ± 3.9, and 80.5 ± 0.9 Ma on the Tore locality. No space-time correlation is observed for alkaline volcanism in the northern section of the Tore-Madeira Rise, which occurred 20-30 m.y. after opening of the eastern North Atlantic. Initial isotope signatures are: 19.139-19.620 for 206Pb/ 204Pb, 15.544-15.828 for 207Pb/ 204Pb, 38.750-39.936 for 208Pb/ 204Pb, 0.70231-0.70340 for 87Sr/ 86Sr, and +6.9 to +12.9 for initial epsilon Hf. These signatures are different from Atlantic MORB, the Madeira Archipelago and the Azores, but they lie in the field of worldwide OIB. The Cretaceous seamounts therefore seem to be generated by melts from a OIB-type source that interact with continental lithospheric mantle lying formerly beneath Iberia and presently within the ocean-continent transition zone. Inheritance in zircon and high 207Pb of initial Pb substantiate the presence of very minor amounts of continental material in the lithospheric mantle. A long-lived thermal anomaly is the most plausible explanation for alkaline magmatism since 104 Ma and it could well be that the same anomaly is still the driving force for tertiary and quaternary alkaline magmatism in the eastern North Atlantic region. This hypothesis is agreement with the plate-tectonic position of the region since Cretaceous time

  12. Pb-, Sr- and Nd-Isotopic systematics and chemical characteristics of cenozoic basalts, Eastern China (United States)

    Peng, Z.C.; Zartman, R.E.; Futa, K.; Chen, D.G.


    Forty-eight Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary basaltic rocks from northeastern and east-central China have been analyzed for major-element composition, selected trace-element contents, and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic systematics. The study area lies entirely within the marginal Pacific tectonic domain. Proceeding east to west from the continental margin to the interior, the basalts reveal an isotopic transition in mantle source material and/or degree of crustal interaction. In the east, many of the rocks are found to merge both chemically and isotopically with those previously reported from the Japanese and Taiwan island-arc terrains. In the west, clear evidence exists for component(s) of Late Archean continental lithosphere to be present in some samples. A major crustal structure, the Tan-Lu fault, marks the approximate boundary between continental margin and interior isotopic behaviors. Although the isotopic signature of the western basalts has characteristics of lower-crustal contamination, a subcrustal lithosphere, i.e. an attached mantle keel, is probably more likely to be the major contributor of their continental "flavor". The transition from continental margin to interior is very pronounced for Pb isotopes, although Sr and Nd isotopes also combine to yield correlated patterns that deviate strikingly from the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and oceanic-island trends. The most distinctive chemical attribute of this continental lithosphere component is its diminished U Pb as reflected in the Pb isotopic composition when compared to sources of MORB, oceanic-island and island-arc volcanic rocks. Somewhat diminished Sm Nd and elevated Rb Sr, especially in comparison to the depleted asthenospheric mantle, are also apparent from the Nd- and Sr-isotopic ratios. ?? 1986.

  13. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.


    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  14. REE characteristics and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of steel plant emissions. (United States)

    Geagea, M Lahd; Stille, P; Millet, M; Perrone, Th


    A comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd isotope and REE tracer study of atmospheric trace metal pollution by a steel plant situated to the north of the urban communities of Strasbourg (France) and Kehl (Germany) has been performed using tree barks as biomonitors. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotopic ratios of the steel plant's filter dust are similar to values found in dust of waste incinerators. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio is similar to present-day ratios of Phanerozoic or Precambrian granitic rocks. The 143Nd/144Nd isotopic composition is very low and corresponds to an (Nd) value of -17.5. Such a low value is characteristic of old Precambrian granitic rocks and banded iron formations. Thus, this low (Nd) value might point to the origin of the iron necessary for the steel production. The fact, that this isotopic composition does not occur in crustal rocks of Western Central Europe makes the Nd isotope ratio a powerful tool to trace steel plants atmospheric emissions. The rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern of the steel plant's filter dust shows very specific fractionations like La and Nd enrichments which are traceable in tree barks over a distance of 4 km. The Pb, Sr and Nd isotope ratios not only enable the steel plant's emissions to be traced in a north-easterly direction, along the principal wind pathway but also enables the interference of this emission at 4 km NE from the steel plant with another atmospheric component originating from the Strasbourg Rhine harbour to be identified.

  15. The use of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in Great Lakes precipitation as a tool for pollution source attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Laura S., E-mail: [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dvonch, J. Timothy [University of Michigan, Air Quality Laboratory, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gratz, Lynne E. [University of Washington-Bothell, 18115 Campus Way NE, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States); Landis, Matthew S. [U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)


    The anthropogenic emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals including mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) present human health and environmental concerns. Although it is known that local and regional sources of these metals contribute to deposition in the Great Lakes region, it is difficult to trace emissions from point sources to impacted sites. Recent studies suggest that metal isotope ratios may be useful for distinguishing between and tracing source emissions. We measured Pb, strontium (Sr), and Hg isotope ratios in daily precipitation samples that were collected at seven sites across the Great Lakes region between 2003 and 2007. Lead isotope ratios ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8062 to 0.8554) suggest that Pb deposition was influenced by coal combustion and processing of Mississippi Valley-Type Pb ore deposits. Regional differences in Sr isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.70859 to 0.71155) are likely related to coal fly ash and soil dust. Mercury isotope ratios (δ{sup 202}Hg = − 1.13 to 0.13‰) also varied among the sites, likely due to regional differences in coal isotopic composition, and fractionation occurring within industrial facilities and in the atmosphere. These data represent the first combined characterization of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotope ratios in precipitation collected across the Great Lakes region. We demonstrate the utility of multiple metal isotope ratios in parallel with traditional trace element multivariate statistical modeling to enable more complete pollution source attribution. - Highlights: • We measured Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in precipitation from the Great Lakes region. • Pb isotopes suggest that deposition was impacted by coal combustion and metal production. • Sr isotope ratios vary regionally, likely due to soil dust and coal fly ash. • Hg isotopes vary due to fractionation occurring within facilities and the atmosphere. • Isotope results support conclusions of previous trace element receptor modeling.

  16. Heat Capacity of PbS: Isotope Effects


    Cardona, M.; Kremer, R. K.; Lauck, R.; Siegle, G.; Serrano, J.; Romero, A. H.


    In recent years, the availability of highly pure stable isotopes has made possible the investigation of the dependence of the physical properties of crystals, in particular semiconductors, on their isotopic composition. Following the investigation of the specific heat ($C_p$, $C_v$) of monatomic crystals such as diamond, silicon, and germanium, similar investigations have been undertaken for the tetrahedral diatomic systems ZnO and GaN (wurtzite structure), for which the effect of the mass of...

  17. Lead isotopes and trace metal ratios of aerosols as tracers of Pb pollution sources in Kanpur, India (United States)

    Sen, Indra; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida; Paul, Debajyoti; Tyagi, Swati; Sengupta, Deep


    The anthropogenic flux of Pb in the Earth's surface is almost an order of magnitude higher than its corresponding natural flux [1]. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb- isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, an industrial city in northern India. The Pb concentration in the airborne particulate matter varies between 14-216 ng/m3, while the other heavy metals vary by factor of 10 or less, e.g. Cd=0.3-3 ng/m3, As=0.4-3.5 ng/m3, Zn=36-161 ng/m3, and Cu=3-22 ng/m3. The 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/207Pb vary between 1.112 - 1.129, 2.123-2.141, and 2.409-2.424 respectively, and are highly correlated with each other (R2>0.9). Pb isotopes and trace metal data reveals that coal combustion is the major source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere, with limited contribution from mining and smelting processes. We further conclude that combination of Pb isotope ratios and V/Pb ratios are powerful tracers for Pb source apportionment studies, which is otherwise difficult to differentiate based only on Pb systematics [1] Sen and Peucker-Ehrenbrink (2012), Environ. Sci. Technol.(46), 8601-8609

  18. Trace elements and Pb isotopes in soils and sediments impacted by uranium mining. (United States)

    Cuvier, A; Pourcelot, L; Probst, A; Prunier, J; Le Roux, G


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contamination in As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and REE, in a high uranium activity (up to 21,000Bq∙kg(-1)) area, downstream of a former uranium mine. Different geochemical proxies like enrichment factor and fractions from a sequential extraction procedure are used to evaluate the level of contamination, the mobility and the availability of the potential contaminants. Pb isotope ratios are determined in the total samples and in the sequential leachates to identify the sources of the contaminants and to determine the mobility of radiogenic Pb in the context of uranium mining. In spite of the large uranium contamination measured in the soils and the sediments (EF≫40), trace element contamination is low to moderate (2Pb enrichment is highlighted, the Pb isotopic signature of the contaminated soils is strongly radiogenic. Measurements performed on the sequential leachates reveal inputs of radiogenic Pb in the most mobile fractions of the contaminated soil. Inputs of low-mobile radiogenic Pb from mining activities may also contribute to the Pb signature recorded in the residual phase of the contaminated samples. We demonstrate that Pb isotopes are efficient tools to trace the origin and the mobility of the contaminants in environments affected by uranium mining.

  19. Insights of Pb isotopic signature into the historical evolution and sources of Pb contamination in a sediment core of the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf. (United States)

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vale, Carlos; Brito, Pedro; Naughton, Filipa; Drago, Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Anes, Bárbara; Schmidt, Sabine; Caetano, Miguel


    Stable Pb isotopic ratios and concentrations of Al, Cu and Pb were measured in a 5m long sediment core (VC2B) retrieved at 96m water depth in the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf. Five phases during the last 9.5kyrs were identified, two of them (Roman Period and modern mining) marked by a decrease of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios reflecting additional inputs of Pb derived from mining activities. The Roman Period was also characterized by high (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios suggesting the exploitation of the outcropping portion of the orebody intensely weathered when compared with the other formations later mined. The shift of (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios towards linearity took approximately 1.0kyrs, which may mirror the time of environmental recovery from the impact of Roman mining activities. The application of a mixing model allowed the quantification of the contribution associated with anthropogenic mining activities to the shelf sediments. The maximum values of Pb contamination occurred in the 20(th) century. This study gives direct evidence of Pb and Cu exploitation over the last 2000years. The stable Pb isotopic signatures point to legacy of mining activities that are still the prevailing metal source recorded in the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sr, Nd, Pb Isotope geochemistry and magma evolution of the potassic volcanic rocks, Wudalianchi, Northeast China (United States)

    Junwen, W.; Guanghong, X.; Tatsumoto, M.; Basu, A.R.


    Wudalianchi volcanic rocks are the most typical Cenozoic potassic volcanic rocks in eastern China. Compositional comparisons between whole rocks and glasses of various occurrences indicate that the magma tends to become rich in silica and alkalis as a result of crystal differentiation in the course of evolution. They are unique in isotopic composition with more radiogenic Sr but less radiogenic Pb.87Sr /86 Sr is higher and143Nd/144Nd is lower than the undifferentiated global values. In comparison to continental potash volcanic rocks, Pb isotopes are apparently lower. These various threads of evidence indicate that the rocks were derived from a primary enriched mantle which had not been subjected to reworking and shows no sign of incorporation of crustal material. The correlation between Pb and Sr suggests the regional heterogeneity in the upper mantle in terms of chemical composition. ?? 1989 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.


    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  2. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do [Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Hou, Shugui [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Burn-Nunes, Laurie J. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Hong, Sungmin, E-mail: [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Barbante, Carlo [Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (UMR Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS 5183 ), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Unite de Formation et de Recherche ' Physique, Ingenierie, Terre, Environnement, Mecanique' , Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble ( Institut Universitaire de France ), 715 rue de la Houille Blanche, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rosman, Kevin J.R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)


    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature ({approx} 1.20 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {approx} 2.50 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last {approx} 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and 2.471 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in the period 1990-1996. The depression of the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  3. Geochronology and Nd and Pb isotope characteristics of gabbro dikes in the Luobusha ophiolite, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We report a combined internal and whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron age, and Nd and Pb isotopic data for gabbro dikes of the Luobusha ophiolite in Tibet. The Sm-Nd isochron of data for two whole rocks and plagioclase and clinopyroxene separates from one of the rocks yields a Middle Jurassic age of (177±31) Ma (with an initial εNd(t) = +8),which provides a significant bound on the time of formation of the Luobusha ophiolite. The Nd and Pb isotopic characteristics of the dike indicate an Indian-Ocean-type isotopic affinity, and we conclude that the Luobusha ophiolite formed in an oceanic setting during the Middle Jurassic.``

  4. Tracing Cd, Zn and Pb pollution sources in bivalves using isotopes (United States)

    Shiel, A. E.; Weis, D. A.; Orians, K. J.


    In a multi-tracer study, Cd, Zn and Pb isotopes (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations (HR-ICP-MS) are evaluated as tools to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in bivalves from western Canada (British Columbia), the eastern USA, Hawaii and France. High Cd concentrations found in BC oysters have elicited economic and health concerns. The source of these high Cd levels is unknown but thought to be largely natural. High Cd levels in BC oysters are largely attributed to the natural upwelling of Cd-rich intermediate waters in the North Pacific as the δ114/110Cd (-0.69 to -0.09‰) and δ66/64Zn (0.28 to 0.36‰) values of BC oysters fall within the range reported for North Pacific seawater. Different contributions from anthropogenic sources account for the variability of Cd isotopic compositions of BC oysters; the lightest of these oysters are from the BC mainland. These oysters also have Pb isotopic compositions that reflect primarily anthropogenic sources (e.g., leaded and unleaded automotive gasoline and smelting of Pb ores, potentially historical). On the contrary, USA East Coast bivalves exhibit relatively light Cd isotopic compositions (δ114/110Cd = -1.20 to -0.54‰; lighter than reported for North Atlantic seawater) due to the high prevalence of industry on this coast. The Pb isotopic compositions of these bivalves indicate contributions from the combustion of coal. The large variability of environmental health among coastal areas in France is reflected in the broad range of Cd isotopic compositions exhibited by French bivalves (δ114/110Cd = -1.08 to -0.20‰). Oysters and mussels from the Marennes-Oléron basin and Gironde estuary have the lightest Cd isotopic compositions of the French oysters consistent with significant historical Cd emissions from the now-closed proximal Zn smelter. In these bivalves, significant declines in the Cd levels between 1984/7 and 2004/5 are not accompanied by a significant shift in the Cd

  5. Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Water Extracted from Lunar Samples (United States)

    Nunn Martinez, M.; Thiemens, M. H.


    Oxygen exists in lunar materials in distinct phases having unique sources and equilibration histories. The oxygen isotopic composition (δ17O, δ18O) of various components of lunar materials has been studied extensively, but analyses of water in these samples are relatively sparse [1-3]. Samples collected on the lunar surface reflect not only the composition of their source reservoirs but also contributions from asteroidal and cometary impacts, interactions with solar wind and cosmic radiation, among other surface processes. Isotopic characterization of oxygen in lunar water could help resolve the major source of water in the Earth-Moon system by revealing if lunar water is primordial, asteroidal, or cometary in origin [1]. Methods: A lunar rock/soil sample is pumped to high vacuum to remove physisorbed water before heating step-wise to 50, 150, and 1000°C to extract extraterrestrial water without terrestrial contamination. The temperature at which water is evolved is proportional to the strength with which the water is bound in the sample and the relative difficulty of exchanging oxygen atoms in that water. This allows for the isolated extraction of water bound in different phases, which could have different source reservoirs and/or histories, as evidenced by the mass (in)dependence of oxygen compositions. A low blank procedure was developed to accommodate the low water content of lunar material [4]. Results: Oxygen isotopic analyses of lunar water extracted by stepwise heating lunar basalts and breccias with a range of compositions, petrologic types, and surface exposure ages will be presented. The cosmic ray exposure age of these samples varies by two orders of magnitude, and we will consider this in discussing the effects of solar wind and cosmic radiation on the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O). I will examine the implications of our water analyses for the composition of the oxygen-bearing reservoir from which that water formed, the effects of surface

  6. Pb, Nd, Sr and Os isotopic systematics of Brazilian cretaceous potassic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ana Lucia Novaes; Sichel, Susanna Eleonora [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Laboratorio de Geologia Marinha (LAGEMAR)]. E-mail:; Gaspar, Jose Carlos; Costa, Vicente Sergio [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Carlson, Richard Walter [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC (United States). DTM; Teixeira, Noevaldo Araujo [NTX Consultoria, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    Mafic potassic rocks of the Alto Paranaiba (Minas Gerais), Juina (Mato Grosso), and Pimenta BUeno (Mato Grosso) belong to a large lineament of rocks that crosses from western to southeastern Brazil and have been associated to a hot spot track by several authors. These provinces intruded the Neoproterozoic Brasilia and Paraguay fold belts (Alto Paranaiba, Paranatinga), and the Mesoproterozoic Rio Negro-Jurema belt (Juina, Pimenta Vueno). Pb isotopic compositions of the studied provinces show a wide variation. {sup 206} Pb/{sup 204} Pb of kimberlites (18.47-19.23) and kamafugities (17.79-18.71) from the Alto Paranaiba Province are close to the Tristaan/Walvis Ridge composition. The {sup 206} Pb/{sup 204} Pb of the paranatinga (19.38-19.87) and Pimenta Bueno (19.78-21.00) provinces are similar to the South African Group I Kimberlite compositional fields, while Juina is displaced to higher Pb isotopic ratios (, close to those shown ny HIMU ocean island +(OIB).Although the Pb isotopic composition of the more northern alkalic provinces ranges towards the values seen for HIMU OIB, the Sr andNd isotopic composition of these samples is not like HIMU, nor in combination with Pb, like any other ocean island basalt. With the exception of the limberlites from the Alto Paranaiba, which range to quite unradiogenic compositions, most of the samples have {sup 187} Os/{sup 188} Os between 0.13 and 0.15. The Nd model ages of Juina kimberlites vary from 1.70-1.73 Ga, and could be indicating a prior accretion period into the mobile belt. Nd model ages for paranatinga kimberlites vary between 0.56 and 0.64 Ga and Pimenta Bueno kimberlites from 0.72 to 1.05 Ga. Minimum Re depletion model ages for Paranatinga kimberlites vary between 0.74 and 0.93 and Pimenta Bueno kimberlites from 0.9 to 1.3 Ga, indicating that the Nd isotopic signartures could have been affected by metasomatic overprint in Neoroterozoic. (author)

  7. Resolving the stellar sources of isotopically rare presolar silicate grains through Mg and Fe isotopic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ann N.; Messenger, Scott, E-mail: [Robert M. Walker Laboratory for Space Science, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States)


    We conducted multi-element isotopic analyses of 11 presolar silicate grains from the Acfer 094 meteorite having unusual O isotopic compositions. Eight grains are {sup 18}O-rich, one is {sup 16}O-rich, and two are extremely {sup 17}O-rich. We constrained the grains' stellar sources by measuring their Si and Mg isotopic ratios, and also the {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios for five grains. The Mg and Fe isotopic measurements were conducted after surrounding matrix grains were removed for more accurate ratios. Most of the {sup 18}O-rich silicates had anomalous Mg isotopic ratios, and their combined isotopic constraints are consistent with origins in low-mass Type II supernovae (SNe II) rather than high-metallicity stars. The isotopic ratios of the {sup 16}O-rich silicate are also consistent with an SN origin. Mixing small amounts of interior stellar material with the stellar envelope replicated all measured isotopic ratios except for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si and {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe in some grains. The {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si ratios of all SN-derived grains are matched by doubling the {sup 29}Si yield in the Ne- and Si-burning zones. The {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios of the grains imply elemental fractionation in the Si/S zone, or introduction of isotopically solar Fe by secondary processing. The two highly {sup 17}O-rich silicates exhibited significant {sup 25}Mg and/or {sup 26}Mg enrichments and their isotopic ratios are best explained by strong dilution of 1.15 M {sub ☉} CO nova matter. We estimate that ∼12% and 1% of presolar silicates have SN and nova origins, respectively, similar to presolar SiC and oxides. This implies that asymptotic giant branch stars are the dominant dust producers in the galaxy.

  8. Distribution of trace metals and Pb isotopes in bottom sediments of the Murucupi River, North Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diomar Cavalcante Oliveira; Jean Michel Lafon; Marcelo de Oliveira Lima


    The Murucupi River belongs to the hydrographic network of the Pará River estuary, at the southern portion of the Amazon River mouth, which consists of a fluvial-marine transitional zone under strong impact of both tidal and fluvial currents. The geochemical results obtained for bottom sediments from the Murucupi River, the Arrozal Channel, and the Pará River indicate a natural variation of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni content among these water ways with no significant anthropogenic influence. According to the threshold effects level (TEL), the contents of trace metals do not offer risk to the local biota. By contrast, the differences in the Pb isotopic composition of sediments in the Murucupi River, the Arrozal Channel, and the Pará River are significant. These isotopic signatures indicate an anthropogenic contribution of Pb in the Murucupi River originating from the domestic effluents of urban centers; industrial waste represented by red mud is not included. These results demonstrate that the Pb isotopic signature is a prospective indicator for future contamination of bottom sediments by trace metals and is useful for identifying contaminants among the possible anthropogenic sources.

  9. Microscopic Study of the Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance in Cd, Sn and Pb Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Li-Gang; Colo, G


    The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) in Cd, Sn and Pb isotopes has been studied within the self-consistent Skyrme Hartree-Fock+BCS and quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA). Three Skyrme parameter sets are used in the calculations, i.e., SLy5, SkM* and SkP, since they are characterized by different values of the compression modulus in symmetric nuclear matter, namely K=230, 217, and 202 MeV, respectively. We also investigate the effect of different types of pairing forces on the ISGMR in Cd, Sn and Pb isotopes. The calculated peak energies and the strength distributions of ISGMR are compared with available experimental data. We find that SkP fails completely to describe the ISGMR strength distribution for all isotopes due to its low value of the nuclear matter incompressibility, namely K=202 MeV. On the other hand, the SLy5 parameter set, supplemented by an appropriate pairing interaction, gives a reasonable description of the ISGMR in Cd and Pb isotopes. A better description of ISGMR in ...

  10. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy). (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto


    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  11. Geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) and geochronological (Ar-Ar and U-Pb) constraints on Quaternary bimodal volcanism of the Nigde Volcanic Complex (Central Anatolia, Turkey) (United States)

    Aydin, F.; Siebel, W.; Uysal, I.; Ersoy, E. Y.; Schmitt, A. K.; Sönmez, M.; Duncan, R.


    The Nigde Volcanic Complex (NVC) is a major Late Neogene-Quaternary volcanic centre within the Cappadocian Volcanic Province of Central Anatolia. The Late Neogene evolution of the NVC generally initiated with the eruption of extensive andesitic-dacitic lavas and pyroclastic flow deposits, and minor basaltic lavas. This stage was followed by a Quaternary bimodal magma suite which forms Na-alkaline/transitional basaltic and high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline silicic volcanic rocks. In this study, we present new geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) and geochronological (Ar-Ar and U-Pb) data for the bimodal volcanic suite within the NVC. Recent data suggest that the eruption of this suite took place ranges between ~650 and ~220 ka (Middle-Late Pleistocene). Silicic rocks consisting of rhyolite and associated pumice-rich pyroclastic fall out and surge deposits define a narrow range of 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios (0.5126-0.5127), and show virtually no difference in Pb isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.84-18.87, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64-15.67 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93-38.99). 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions of the silicic (0.704-0.705) and basaltic rocks (0.703-0.705) are rather similar reflecting a common source. The most mafic sample from basaltic rocks related to monogenetic cones is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr = 0.704, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5127, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.80, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.60 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.68. These values suggest a moderately depleted signature of the mantle source. The geochronological and geochemical data suggest that NVC silicic and basaltic rocks are genetically closely related to each other. Mantle derived differentiated basaltic melts which experienced low degree of crustal assimilation are suggested to be the parent melt of the rhyolites. Further investigations will focus on the spatial and temporal evolution of Quaternary bimodal magma suite in the NVC and the genetic relation between silicic and basaltic rocks through detailed oxygen isotope analysis and (U

  12. High spatial resolution U-Pb geochronology and Pb isotope geochemistry of magnetite-apatite ore from the Pea Ridge iron oxide-apatite deposit, St. Francois Mountains, southeast Missouri, USA (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Pietruszka, Aaron; Aleinikoff, John N.; Fanning, C. Mark; Pillers, Renee M.; Moscati, Richard J.


    The Pea Ridge iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit is one of the major rhyolite-hosted magnetite deposits of the St. Francois Mountains terrane, which is located within the Mesoproterozoic (1.5–1.3 Ga) Granite-Rhyolite province in the U.S. Midcontinent. Precise and accurate determination of the timing and duration of oreforming processes in this deposit is crucial for understanding its origin and placing it within a deposit-scale and regional geologic context. Apatite and monazite, well-established U-Pb mineral geochronometers, are abundant in the Pea Ridge orebody. However, the potential presence of multiple generations of dateable minerals, processes of dissolution-reprecipitation, and occurrence of micrometer-sized intergrowths and inclusions complicate measurements and interpretations of the geochronological results. Here, we employ a combination of several techniques, including ID-TIMS and high spatial resolution geochronology of apatite and monazite using LA-SC-ICPMS and SHRIMP, and Pb isotope geochemistry of pyrite and magnetite to obtain the first direct age constraints on the formation and alteration history of the Pea Ridge IOA deposit. The oldest apatite TIMS 207Pb*/206Pb* dates are 1471 ± 1 and 1468 ± 1 Ma, slightly younger than (but within error of) the ~1474 to ~1473 Ma U-Pb zircon ages of the host rhyolites. Dating of apatite and monazite inclusions within apatite provides evidence for at least one younger metasomatic event at ~1.44 Ga, and possibly multiple superimposed metasomatic events between 1.47 and 1.44 Ga. Lead isotop analyses of pyrite show extremely radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb ratios up to ~80 unsupported by in situ U decay. This excess radiogenic Pb in pyrite may have been derived from the spatially associated apatite as apatite recrystallized several tens of million years after its formation. The low initial 206Pb/204Pb ratio of ~16.5 and 207Pb/204Pb ratio of ~15.4 for individual magnetite grains indicate closed U-Pb system behavior in

  13. Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Flem, Belinda


    Analytical results for Pb-concentrations and isotopic ratios from ca. 150 samples of soil A horizon and ca. 145 samples of soil C horizon collected along a 4000-km east–west transect across the USA are presented. Lead concentrations along the transect show: (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for central to eastern USA (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western USA (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern USA (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the USA, with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g., California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon: 1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total feldspar content for the same 2500-km portion of the transect from east-central Colorado to the Atlantic coast that shows steadily increasing precipitation. No such correlation exists in the soil C horizon. The data demonstrate the importance of climate and weathering on both Pb-concentration and 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in soil samples and natural shifts thereof in the soil profile during soil-forming processes.

  14. Stable (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) and radioactive (210Pb) lead isotopes in 1 year of growth of Sphagnum moss from four ombrotrophic bogs in southern Germany: Geochemical significance and environmental implications (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Zaccone, Claudio


    The surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and 1 year later the production of plant matter was harvested in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Radioactive, 210Pb was determined in solid samples using ultralow background gamma spectrometry while total Pb concentrations and stable isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) were determined in acid digests using ICP-SMS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. The greatest variations within a given sampling site were in the range 212-532 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb activity, whereas 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb varied less than 1%. The median values of all parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were not significantly different. The median activities of 210Pb (Bq kg-1) in the mosses collected from the bogs in NBF (HO = 372 ± 56, n = 55; WI = 342 ± 58, n = 93) were slightly less from those in OB (GS = 394 ± 50, n = 55; KL = 425 ± 58, n = 24). However, the mosses in the NBF bogs exhibited much greater productivity (187-202 g m-2 a-1) compared to those of OB (71-91 g m-2 a-1), and this has a profound impact on the accumulation rates of 210Pb (Bq m-2 a-1), with the bogs in the NBF yielding fluxes (HO = 73 ± 30; WI = 65 ± 20) which are twice those of OB (GS = 29 ± 11; KL = 40 ± 13). Using the air concentrations of 210Pb measured at Schauinsland (SIL) in the southern Black Forest and average annual precipitation, the atmospheric fluxes of 210Pb at SIL (340 Bq m-2 a-1) exceeds the corresponding values obtained from the mosses by a factor of five, providing the first quantitative estimate of the net retention efficiency of 210Pb by Sphagnum. When the 210Pb activities of all moss samples are combined (n = 227), a significant decrease with increasing plant production rate is observed; in contrast, total Pb concentrations show the opposite trend. The contrasting

  15. Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico (United States)

    Jimenez, A.


    Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico Abigail Jimenez-Franco1*, Pura Alfonso Abella2, Carles Canet3, Eduardo González-Partida4 1 Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 2 Departament d'Enginyeria Minera i Recursos Naturals, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av de Les Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa. 3Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Qro., Mexico The Velardeña mining district is located in north-eastern part of the state of Durango, in northern of Mexico. The ore deposit is a lead-zinc, garnet-rich skarn developed at the contact between granite porphyry dikes (Eocene) and well-laminated limestones with interbedded chert (Albian-Cenomanian). A study of sulfur isotopes has been carried out in various sulfide minerals of the ores of Velardeña, in order to: (a) constrain the possible sources of sulfur and, therefore, better understand the sulfide mineralizing processes, and (b) to estimate the temperature of the ore-forming stage of the skarn. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed in 21 pure fractions of sulfide minerals of the ore mineralization (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena). The mineral separation was performed using a series of sieves, and the purity of the samples was verified under a binocular microscope. Isotopic analyses were done on a Finnigan MAT Delta C flow elemental analyzer coupled to a TC-EA, according with the method of Giesemann et al. (1974). The δ34S values of the analyzed sulfides range mostly between -0.6 and +2.6 ‰ (relative to the CDT standard). These values are indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. A single analysis falls

  16. Petrogenesis of synorogenic diorite-granodiorite-granite complexes in the Damara Belt, Namibia: Constraints from U-Pb zircon ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes (United States)

    Jung, S.; Kröner, A.; Hauff, F.; Masberg, P.


    The synorogenic Palmental complex (central Damara Belt, Nambia) consists of ca. 545 Ma old quartz diorites and rare granodiorites and ca. 520 Ma-old leucogranites, representing one of the earliest and most primitive phase of crustal plutonism predating the main high-T regional metamorphism. Most quartz diorites and one granodiorite evolved through multistage, polybaric evolutionary processes involving fractionation from a lithospheric mantle-derived melt, followed by fractional crystallization of mainly hornblende, plagioclase and apatite which is shown by decreasing MgO, FeO, CaO, TiO2 and P2O5 with increasing SiO2. Assimilation of felsic basement gneisses was also important during formation of these granitoids. Although their chemical characteristics (high LILE, low HFSE) resemble those of quartz diorites and granodiorites with calc-alkaline affinity, they differ in their enriched Sr (initial 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7061-0.7098) and Nd (initial εNd: -2.7 to -9.9) isotopic composition. Neodymium depleted mantle mean crustal residence ages range from 1.3 to 1.9 Ga for the quartz diorites including the granodiorite. These model ages correlate with major and trace element abundances, further substantiating that AFC processes modified the initial isotopic systematics. Lead (206Pb/204Pb: 17.43-17.68, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.61-15.66, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.19-38.49) isotopic composition are unradiogenic relative to other Damaran intrusive rocks but plot above the Stacey and Kramers (1975) reference line, indicating that the source underwent an ancient (pre Pan-African) increase in U/Pb and Th/U, followed by more recent U-depletion. Some variation in 206Pb/204Pb at high 207Pb/204Pb further indicates involvement of ancient crustal material, most likely through AFC processes. A cross-cutting leucogranite dyke has also evolved isotopic compositions (initial 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7326; initial εNd: -15.6; 206Pb/204Pb: 17.42, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.62, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.16) but in view of the apparent younger age of

  17. Disturbed Sr and Nd Isotope Systematics in Zircons With Concordant SHRIMP U-Pb Ages (United States)

    Weaver, K. L.; Bennett, V. C.; Depaolo, D. J.; Mundil, R.


    Little is known about the Sr- and Nd-isotopic systematics of zircon. With slow diffusion rates and a high resistance to weathering, zircon should preserve accurate age information and initial Sr and Nd isotopic ratios. As a common accessory mineral, it could provide petrogenetic information for rocks that have been altered, weathered, or metamorphosed. We have investigated the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics of zircons from unmetamorphosed granitic rocks that have yielded concordant U-Pb SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) ages and have depleted mantle signatures for Nd and Sr isotopes. Zircon populations from mantle-derived igneous rocks with ages of 0.1, 1.7, and 3.8 Ga were chosen for Sr and Nd isotopic analysis. Low concentrations (Sr, 4 to 8 ppm and Nd, 6 to 12 ppm) and small grain size necessitate the use of multigrain aliquots. Meaningful results can be obtained only if all of the zircons in the rock are a coherent population with homogeneous ages throughout and among grains. Zircon U-Pb ages were characterized using the SHRIMP RG, and trace element concentrations were measured by LA-ICPMS. The populations are homogeneous and the material ablated by the ion beam ( ˜~20 μ m spot size) shows little evidence of lead loss. Results on zircons of 100 Ma and 1700 Ma indicate that both the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems have been severely disturbed. For the 1700 Ma granitic rocks from the Yavapai sequence of Arizona, zircon Sm-Nd apparent ages are ca. 1000 Ma! Leaching was used to remove contributions from adhering or included minerals, but leached residues that presumably most closely approximate the composition of the pure zircon (e.g. have high Sm/Nd) are no less disturbed than unleached samples. Despite the U-Pb SHRIMP ages indicating a closed system, the zircons have failed to preserve a reasonable age or initial isotopic composition for Sr and Nd, indicating that parts of the crystal might be severely affected by radiation damage resulting in disturbed

  18. Characteristics of Heavy Metals and Pb Isotopic Composition in Sediments Collected from the Tributaries in Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao


    Full Text Available The concentrations, distribution, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg in sediments from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR tributaries were determined and studied. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals in sediment of TGR tributaries were higher than the local background values of soils and sediments in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cu, Ni, and Hg were at the “slightly polluted” level and Cd was ranked as the “moderately polluted” level in tributary sediments of TGR. The assessment by Potential Ecological Risk Index showed that Hg and Cd were the predominant elements in tributary sediments in TGR. The Pb isotopic ratios in sediments varied from 1.171 to 1.202 for 206Pb/207Pb and from 2.459 to 2.482 for 208Pb/207Pb in TGR. All Pb isotopic ratios in sediments were similar to those from coal combustion, lead ores (the mining activities and smelting process, and cement material, indicating that these anthropogenic inputs may be the main sources for Pb pollution in sediments of TGR tributaries.

  19. Assessing of distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in agricultural soils using isotopic labeling method coupled with BCR approach. (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Hong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhi


    The contamination of Pb in agricultural soils is one of the most important ecological problems, which potentially results in serious health risk on human health through food chain. Hence, the fate of exogenous Pb contaminated in agricultural soils is needed to be deeply explored. By spiking soils with the stable enriched isotopes of (206)Pb, the contamination of exogenous Pb(2+) ions in three agricultural soils sampled from the estuary areas of Jiulong River, China was simulated in the present study, and the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in the soils were investigated using the isotopic labeling method coupled with a four-stage BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. Results showed that about 60-85% of exogenous Pb was found to distribute in reducible fractions, while the exogenous Pb in acid-extractable fractions was less than 1.0%. After planting, the amounts of exogenous Pb presenting in acid-extractable, reducible and oxidizable fractions in rhizospheric soils decreased by 60-66%, in which partial exogenous Pb was assimilated by plants while most of the metal might transfer downward due to daily watering and applying fertilizer. The results show that the isotopic labeling technique coupled with sequential extraction procedures enables us to explore the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb contaminated in soils, which may be useful for the further soil remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plume-Lithosphere Interaction beneath the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Constraints from Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf Isotopes (United States)

    Jean, M. M.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.


    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province links 17 million years of volcanic activity that extends from the Owyhee Plateau in western Idaho/eastern Oregon to its current terminus underlying the Yellowstone Plateau. This investigation presents new Strontium, Neodymium, Lead, and Hafnium isotopic compositions of 25 basalts that represent four distinct areas of the YSRP (i.e., eastern province, central province, western province, Owyhee Plateau), which transect the ancient cratonic boundary of North America. The purpose of this study is to test and refine models for plume-lithosphere interaction and determines the mantle origin for YSRP basalts. New results shows: (1) low-K tholeiites from the eastern, central, and western SRP have ɛNd (-2 to -5.5), 87Sr/86Sr (0.7060-0.7071) and similar Pb-isotopes [206Pb/204Pb (17.8-18.6), 207Pb/204Pb (15.5-15.66), 208Pb/204Pb (38.4-39.1)]; (2) central SRP tholeiites are enriched in 208Pb/204Pb (~38.5-38.9), relative to eastern SRP basalts and define a 208Pb/204Pb trend, intermediate between the eastern SRP and Craters of the Moon lavas; (3) western SRP high-K basalts are depleted in ɛNd (> -1) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7050-0.7057), relative to low-K tholeiites, and plot closer to "bulk silicate earth," but are enriched in 206Pb/204Pb (18.66-18.71), and have 207Pb/204Pb (15.62-15.65) and 208Pb/204Pb (39.1-39.2) isotope ratios similar to high-K basalts of Smith Prairie (Boise River Group 2); (4) Silver City basalt (>16.6 Ma) overlaps in Pb-isotope space with Imnaha basalt compositions (Columbia River Basalt Group); (5) new 177Hf/176Hf isotopic data lie above and parallel to the Mantle array in Nd and Hf isotope space and define a linear trend between Leucite Hills lavas and OIB basalts (i.e., Steens and Hawaii); (6) these basalts follow a systematic geographic pattern: eastern and central plain low-K tholeiites have low ɛNd (-3 to -5) and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb (~17.7-18.5), while western plain low-K tholeiites are

  1. Isotope systematics of a juvenile intraplate volcano: Pb, Nd, and srisotope ratios of basalts from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudigel, H. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (USA). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Zindler, A.; Leslie, T. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (USA). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Hart, S.R.; Chen, C.Y. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences); Clague, D. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))


    Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for a representative suite of 15 basanites, alkali basalts, transitional basalts and tholeiites from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, display unusually large variations for a single volcano, but lie within known ranges for Hawaiian basalts. Nd isotope ratios in alkali basalts show the largest relative variation (0.51291 - 0.51305), and include the nearly constant tholeiite value (approx.= 0.51297). Pb isotope ratios show similarly large ranges for tholeiites and alkali basalts and continue Tatsumoto's (31) 'Loa' trend towards higher /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb, ratios, resulting in a substantial overlap with the 'Kea' trend. /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios for Loihi and other volcanoes along the Loa and Kea trends (31) are observed to correlate with the age of the underlying lithosphere suggesting lithosphere involvement in the formation of Hawaiian tholeiites. Loihi lavas display no correlation of Nd, Sr, or Pb isotope ratios with major element compositions or eruptive age, in contrast with observations of some other Hawaiian volcanoes. Isotope data for Loihi, as well as average values for Hawaiian volcanoes, are not adequately explained by previously proposed two-end-member models; new models for the origin and the development of Hawaiian volcanoes must include mixing of at least three geochemically distinct source regions and allow for the involvement of heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere.

  2. Characteristics of lead geochemistry and the mobility of Pb isotopes in the system of pedogenic rock-pedosphere-irrigated riverwater-cereal-atmosphere from the Yangtze River delta region, China. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Zhongfang; Mao, Changping; Ji, Junfeng


    Knowledge of the characteristics of Pb and its isotopic transfer in different compartments is scant, especially for the mobility of Pb isotopes in the geochemical cycle. The present study characterizes differential Pb transport mechanism and the mobility of Pb isotopes in the pedogenic parent rock-pedosphere-irrigated riverwater-cereal-atmosphere system in the Yangtze River delta region, by determining Pb concentration and Pb isotopic ratios of pedogenic parent rocks, fluvial suspended particle matter, tillage soils, soil profiles, irrigated riverwater, fertilizer, Pb ore, cereal roots and grains. The results show that Pb isotopes in the geochemical cycle generally follow the equation of (208)Pb/(206)Pb=-1.157×(206)Pb/(207)Pb+3.46 (r(2)=0.941). However, Pb isotopes have different mobility in different environmental matrixes. Whereas in the pedosphere, the heavier Pb ((208)Pb) usually shows stronger mobility relative to the lighter Pb, and is more likely to transfer into soil exchangeable Pb fraction and carbonates phase. The lighter Pb shows stronger transfer ability from soil to cereal grain via root compared to the heavier Pb. However, the cereal grains have lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios than root and tillage soil, similar to the airborne Pb and anthropogenic Pb, implying that a considerable amount of Pb in cereal grains comes from the atmosphere. The estimate model shows that 16.7-52.6% (average: 33.5%) of Pb in rice grain is the airborne Pb.

  3. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; van Os, B.J.H.; Klaver, G.Th.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.


    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The

  4. β-decay properties of neutron-deficient Pt, Hg, and Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P., E-mail: [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Boillos, J. M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Moreno, O. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Moya de Guerra, E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Neutron-deficient isotopes in the lead region are well established examples of the shape coexistence phenomenon in nuclei. In this work, bulk and decay properties, including deformation energy curves, charge mean square radii, Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distributions, and β-decay half-lives, are studied in neutron-deficient Pt, Hg, and Pb isotopes. The nuclear structure involved is described microscopically from deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculations with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels, performed on top of a self-consistent deformed quasiparticle Skyrme Hartree-Fock basis. The sensitivity to deformation of the GT strength distributions in those isotopes is proposed as an additional complementary signature of the nuclear shape. The β-decay half-lives resulting from the GT strength distributions are compared to experiment to demonstrate the ability of the method.

  5. In situ isotopic analyses of U and Pb in zircon by remotely operated SHRIMP II, and Hf by LA-ICP-MS: an example of dating and genetic evolution of zircon by {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf from the Ita Quarry in the Atuba Complex, SE, Brazil; Analises in situ de U e Pb em zircao por SRIMP II por controle remoto e de Hf por LA-ICP-MS: um exemplo de datacao e da evolucao genetica de zircao atraves da razao {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177} em amostra da Pedreira Ita no Complexo Atuba, SE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; McReath, Ian; Sproesser, Walter; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:; Silva, Josiane Aline da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica; Dunyi, Liu [Institute of Geology, Beijing (China); Iizuka, Takafumi; Rino, Shuji; Hirata, Takafumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Remotely-operated SHRIMP dating of zircon is an interesting alternative for dating of zircon crystals. Although it does not represent any technical progress of the geochronological method using the U-Pb system in zircon it is a very useful and cheap facility. The procedure was first used for mass spectrometric analyses involving two international laboratories in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Beijing, China. It was applied to samples of three gneiss-migmatitic rocks from the Ita quarry in the Atuba Complex (located between the Luis Alves and the Apiai Domain) to test previous controversial hypotheses about its evolution. The presence of important archaean and paleo proterozoic components in the complex is confirmed by analyses of zircon found in probably neo proterozoic leucosomes. Diorite intrusion also occurred during the neo proterozoic, associated with the 0.6Ga continental collisions involved in the assembly of Gondwana. The determination of Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP/MS represents a new option for checking the relative importance of mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} > 0) and crustal contributions (({epsilon}{sub Hf} < 0) during the growth of the zircon crystals. While the archaean component in the complex was derived from the mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} + 1.5 to + 8.7) the paleo proterozoic component had a crustal contribution ({epsilon}{sub Hf} - 9.1 to -10.1). (author)

  6. Investigation on primary and secondary processes in Nasirabad manganese deposit, south of Neyriz: using mineralogy and Pb isotope geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Zarasvandi


    Full Text Available The Nasirabad manganese deposit is located 5 km south of Nasirabad, 8 km SW of Neyriz in the Fars province. Structurally, the area is placed in the southeastern part of Zagros thrust belt. In this area, the manganese mineralization occurred as ore layers and nodules, interlayered with Pichakun radiolarite chert deposits. In this study, mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium, thorium and lead isotopes were used to investigate the primary and secondary processes. In this way, in addition to petrographic and XRD studies, ICP-MS analysis was carried out in order to measure the U, Th and Pb isotopes. The strong fractionation of Fe and Mn phases and also the absence of Fe-bearing minerals in the XRD results, presence of syngenetic todorokite and quartz crystals, high U/Th ratios in some samples and Th versus U diagrams, all indicate entrance of Mn-bearing hydrothermal fluids into the sedimentary basin of the Nasirabad manganese deposit. The pyrolusites in radiolarites tests as replacement textures, host rock space filling and fracture filling pyrolusites, indicates the influence of secondary exogenic processes on primary hydrothermal mineralization. Non-homogenous 206Pb/Pb204, 207Pb/Pb204 and 208Pb/Pb204 values show non-steady hydrothermal processes in the sedimentary basin and indicate mixing of hydrothermal lead isotopes with another secondary source. Strong positive correlation between absolute values of radiogenic lead isotopes and insoluble High Field Strength Elements (HFSE such as 207Pb vs Nb (r=0.81, 207Pb vs TiO2 (r=0.93, 207Pb vs Th (r=0.79 and strong correlation between these elements and some mafic components like 208Pb vs Fe2O3 (r=0.94 and Th vs MgO (r=0.86 represent entrance of radiogenic lead with mafic detrital materials into the sedimentary basin. Similar linear trend among 206Pb/Pb204 vs 208Pb/Pb204 and 207Pb/Pb204 ratios in nodules and manganese layers show the same geochemical condition in Mn-nodules and layers formation and

  7. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)


    (PF) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) firing technology. These samples were analyzed to determine macro and trace elements by the ICP-MS method. The same samples were also measured with a high-purity germanium detector (planar BSI GPD-50400) to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. The lead concentrations and Pb-210 activity concentrations were determined, and the correlation between the corresponding values was analyzed. Initial results demonstrate a strong positive linear relationship between these values, with the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) over 94. The correlation coefficient (Pearson's, 'r') had a value over 0.95. Both Pb and Pb-210 values had an increasing trend from the bottom ash towards electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ashes. The strong linear correlation between Pb concentrations and Pb-210 activity concentrations gives a credible indication that lead can be measured in ash samples using its radioactive isotope Pb-210. Especially in situations where there are higher concentrations of Pb, for example in the case of wastes from the metallurgic and energy industries, this method could be used to detect the lead concentration quickly and with no chemical processing of the sample. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  8. Pb-Isotopic Study of Galena by LA-Q-ICP-MS: Testing a New Methodology with Applications to Base-Metal Sulphide Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. M. McFarlane


    Full Text Available In situ laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure Pb isotopes in galena. Data acquisition was optimized by adjusting spot size, energy density, and ablation time to obtain near steady-state low relative standard deviation (%RSD signals. Standard-sample bracketing using in-house Broken Hill galena as external reference standard was used and offline data reduction was carried out using VizualAge for Iolite3. Using this methodology, galena grain in polished thin sections from selected massive sulphide deposits of the Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada, were tested and compared to previously published data. Absolute values and errors on the weighted mean of ~20 individual analyses from each sample compared favourably with whole-rock Pb-Pb isotope data. This approach provides a mean to obtain rapid, accurate, and moderately (0.1% 2σ precise Pb isotope measurements in galena and is particularly well suited for exploratory or reconnaissance studies. Further refinement of this approach may be useful in exploration for volcanogenic massive sulphides deposits and might be a useful vectoring tool when complemented with other conventional exploration techniques.

  9. Anthropogenic influences on Pb/Al and lead isotope signature in annually layered Holocene Maar lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettler, G.; Romer, R.L. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany)


    Annually laminated sediments from two Maar lakes in the West Eifel volcanic field (Germany) show anomalously high Pb within sections deposited during the first centuries A.D. exceeding the local geological background 8.5-fold in Lake Meerfelder Maar (MFM) and 4-fold in Lake Schalkenmehrener Maar (SMM). These Pb anomalies are associated with a distinct shift in the Pb isotope signature to less radiogenic compositions. The excess Pb causing the anomaly has the same isotopic composition as galena deposits 60 km to the NW of the Maar lakes. It is suggested that this component was transported airborne into the Maar lakes and originates from regional Roman Pb refinement and cupellation of argentiferous Pb. Varve chronostratigraphy of correlated cores indicates that significant Roman Pb input lasted for about 230 a. SMM does not get fluviatile input. Its sedimentary record is more sensitive to variations in airborne input than that of MFM, which had an inflow. SMM sediment sections deposited during periods of low soil erosion (early Holocene, Dark Ages) with comparably high Pb/Al values also show little radiogenic Pb. This is caused by airborne minerogenic matter from a geochemically and isotopically distinct remote source that becomes apparent only in sedimentation periods of very restricted local allochthonous input. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. A Study of REE and Pb,Sr and Nd Isotopes in Garnet—Lherzolite Xenoliths from Mingxi,Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婉康; BASU,A.R.; 等


    The REE and Pb ,Sr,Nd isotopes in three xenoliths from limburgite and scoria-breccias,including spinel-lherzolite,spinel-gamet-1herzolite and phlogopite-gamet-1herzolite,were analysed.The REE contentso of the xenoliths are 1.3 to 3.3 times those of the chondrites with their REE pattems characterized by weak LREE depletion.The 143Nd/144Nd values of whole rocks and minerals range from 0.51306 to 0.51345 with εNd=+8.2-+15.8,206Pb/204Pb<18.673,and 207Pb/204Pb<15.574,All this goes to show that the upper mantle in Mingxi at the depth of 67-82km is a depleted mantle of MORB type,with 87Sr/86Sr ratios 0.70237-0.70390.In Nd-Sr diagram the data points of whole rocks are all out of the mantle array,implying that the xenoliths from Mingxi have more radiogenic Sr isotopes than those of the mantle array.

  11. Origin of the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Evidence from regional Pb and Sr isotope sources (United States)

    Ayuso, R.A.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Young, L.E.; Slack, J.F.; Wandless, G.; Lyon, A.M.; Dillingham, J.L.


    Pb and Sr isotope data were obtained on the shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag Red Dog deposits (Qanaiyaq, Main, Aqqaluk, and Paalaaq), other shale-hosted deposits near Red Dog, and Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide and barite deposits in the western and central Brooks Range. The Red Dog deposits and other shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposits near Red Dog are hosted in the Mississippian Kuna Formation, which is underlain by a sequence of marine-deltaic clastic rocks of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Endicott Group. Ag-Pb-Zn vein-breccias are found in the Endicott Group. Galena formed during the main mineralization stages in the Red Dog deposits and from the Anarraaq and Wulik deposits have overlapping Pb isotope compositions in the range 206Pb/204Pb = 18.364 to 18.428, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.553 to 15.621, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.083 to 38.323. Galena and sphalerite formed during the main ore-forming stages in the Red Dog deposits define a narrow field on standard uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotope diagrams. Lead in sulfides of the Red Dog district is less radiogenic (238U/204Pb: ?? = 9.51-9.77) than is indicated by the average crustal lead evolution model (?? = 9.74), a difference consistent with a long history of evolution at low ratios of ?? before the Carboniferous. The homogeneous regional isotopic reservoir of Pb may indicate large-scale transport and leaching of minerals with various ?? ratios and Th/Pb ratios. Younger and genetically unrelated fluids did not significantly disturb the isotopic compositions of galena and sphalerite after the main mineralization event in the Red Dog district. Some pyrite shows evidence of minor Pb remobilization. The overall lead isotope homogeneity in the shale-hosted massive sulfide deposits is consistent with three types of control: a homogeneous regional source, mixing of lead during leaching of a thick sedimentary section and fluid transport, or mixing at the site of deposition. Isotopic variability of the hydrothermal fluids, as represented by galena

  12. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.


    The Mesozoic magmatic history of the North American margin records the evolution from a more segmented assemblage of parautochthonous and allochthonous terranes to the more cohesive northern Cordilleran orogenic belt. We characterize the setting of magmatism, tectonism, and epigenetic mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska, where parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic tectonic assemblages are juxtaposed, using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and feldspar Pb isotopes of Mesozoic intrusions and spatially associated mineral prospects. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages and published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate four episodes of plutonism in the western Fortymile district: Late Triassic (216-208 Ma), Early Jurassic (199-181 Ma), mid-Cretaceous (112-94 Ma), and Late Cretaceous (70-66 Ma). All age groups have calc-alkalic arc compositions that became more evolved through time. Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous igneous rocks similarly became more radiogenic with time and are consistent with the magmas being mantle derived but extensively contaminated by upper crustal components with evolving Pb isotopic compositions. Feldspar Pb isotopes from mid-Cretaceous rocks have isotopic ratios that indicate magma derivation from upper crustal sources, probably thickened mid-Paleozoic basement. The origin of the mantle component in Late Cretaceous granitoids suggested by Pb isotopic ratios is uncertain, but we propose that it reflects asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff and sinking of an inactive inner subduction zone that delivered the previously accreted Wrangellia composite terrane to the North American continental margin, after the outer Farallon subduction zone was established.

  13. Large-scale shell-model calculations on the spectroscopy of $N<126$ Pb isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Chong; Fu, G J


    Large-scale shell-model calculations are carried out in the model space including neutron-hole orbitals $2p_{1/2}$, $1f_{5/2}$, $2p_{3/2}$, $0i_{13/2}$, $1f_{7/2}$ and $0h_{9/2}$ to study the structure and electromagnetic properties of neutron deficient Pb isotopes. An optimized effective interaction is used. Good agreement between full shell-model calculations and experimental data is obtained for the spherical states in isotopes $^{194-206}$Pb. The lighter isotopes are calculated with an importance-truncation approach constructed based on the monopole Hamiltonian. The full shell-model results also agree well with our generalized seniority and nucleon-pair-approximation truncation calculations. The deviations between theory and experiment concerning the excitation energies and electromagnetic properties of low-lying $0^+$ and $2^+$ excited states and isomeric states may provide a constraint on our understanding of nuclear deformation and intruder configuration in this region.

  14. Lead Isotopic Composition and Lead Source of the Huogeqi Cu-Pb-Zn Deposit, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Qian; HE Yuliang; ZHU Chaohui


    The Huogeqi orefield located on the northern side of Mt. Langshan, Inner Mongolia occurs in the Middle Proterozoic Langshan Group metamorphic rocks, and the orebodies are stratiform. In the past twenty years, many Chinese geologists have conducted researches on the Huogeqi Cu-Pb-Zn deposit, but there has been still a controversy on its origin. Some advocate that the deposit is of sedimentary-metamorphic reworking origin, some hold that it is of sea-floor SEDEX origin, and others have a preference for magmatic superimposition origin. The crux of the controversy is that there is no common understanding about the source of ore-forming materials. In this paper, the Pb isotopic compositions of regional Achaean-Early Proterozoic basement rocks, various types of sedimentarymetamorphic rocks and volcanic rocks in the mining district, Late Proterozoic and Hercynian magmatic rocks are introduced and compared with the ore-lead composition, so as to constrain the source of the ore lead. The result indicates that (1) sulfides in the ores have homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions, showing a narrow variation range. Their 206Pb/204Pb ratios are within a range of 17.027-17.317; 207pb/204pb ratios, 15.451-15.786 and 208Pb/204pb ratios, 36.747-37.669; (2) the Pb isotopic compositions of the regional Achaean-Early Proterozoic basement rocks are characteristic of the old Pb isotopic composition at the early-stage evolution of the Earth, which varies over a wider range,reflecting significant differences in Pb isotopic compositions of the ores. All this indicates that the source of ore lead has no bearing on the basement rocks; (3) the sedimentary-metamorphic rocks in the mining district are characterized by highly variable and more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions and their Pb isotopic ratios are obviously higher than those of ores, demonstrating that ore lead did not result from metamorphic reworking of these rocks; (4) Pb isotopic compositions of Late Proterozoic diorite-gabbro and

  15. Siderophile and chalcophile element abundances in oceanic basalts, Pb isotope evolution and growth of the earth's core (United States)

    Newsom, H. E.; White, W. M.; Jochum, K. P.; Hofmann, A. W.


    The hypothesis that the mantle Pb isotope ratios reflect continued extraction of Pb into the earth's core over geologic time is evaluated by studying the depeletion of chalcophile and siderophile elements in the mantle. Oceanic basalt samples are analyzed in order to determine the Pb, Sr, and Nd isotropic compositions and the abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements and incompatible lithophile elements. The data reveal that there is no systematic variation of siderophile or chalcophile element abundances relative to abundances of lithophile elements and the Pb/Ce ratio of the mantle is constant. It is suggested that the crust formation involves nonmagmatic and magmatic processes.

  16. Study of the Neutron Deficient Pb and Bi Isotopes by Simultaneous Atomic- and Nuclear-Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Kessler, T


    We propose to study systematically nuclear properties of the neutron deficient lead $^{183-189}$Pb, $^{191g}$Pb, $^{193g}$Pb and bismuth isotopes $^{188-200}$Bi by atomic spectroscopy with the ISOLDE resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) combined with simultaneous nuclear spectroscopy at the detection set-up. The main focus is the determination of the mean square charge radii of $^{183-190}$Pb and $^{188-193}$Bi from which the influence of low-lying intruder states should become obvious. Also the nuclear spin and magnetic moments of ground-states and long-lived isomers will be determined unambiguously through evaluation of the hyperfine structure, and new isomers could be discovered. The decay properties of these nuclei can be measured by $\\alpha$-$\\gamma$ and $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ spectroscopy. With this data at hand, possible shape transitions around mid-shell at N$\\sim$104 will be studied. This data is crucial for the direct test of nuclear theory in the context of intruder state influence (e.g. energy ...

  17. Unraveling the sources of ground level ozone in the Intermountain Western United States using Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, John N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Weiss-Penzias, Peter [University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fine, Rebekka [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); McDade, Charles E.; Trzepla, Krystyna [University of California at Davis, Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, Davis, CA (United States); Brown, Shaun T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Ozone as an atmospheric pollutant is largely produced by anthropogenic precursors and can significantly impact human and ecosystem health, and climate. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed lowering the ozone standard from 75 ppbv (MDA8 = Maximum Daily 8-Hour Average) to between 65 and 70 ppbv. This will result in remote areas of the Intermountain West that includes many U.S. National Parks being out of compliance, despite a lack of significant local sources. We used Pb isotope fingerprinting and back-trajectory analysis to distinguish sources of imported ozone to Great Basin National Park in eastern Nevada. During discrete Chinese Pb events (> 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} & > 80% Asian Pb) trans-Pacific transported ozone was 5 ± 5.5 ppbv above 19 year averages for those dates. In contrast, concentrations during regional transport from the Los Angeles and Las Vegas areas were 15 ± 2 ppbv above the long-term averages, and those characterized by high-altitude transport 3 days prior to sampling were 19 ± 4 ppbv above. However, over the study period the contribution of trans-Pacific transported ozone increased at a rate of 0.8 ± 0.3 ppbv/year, suggesting that Asian inputs will exceed regional and high altitude sources by 2015–2020. All of these sources will impact regulatory compliance with a new ozone standard, given increasing global background. - Highlights: • Ozone can significantly impact human and ecosystem health and climate. • Pb isotopes and back-trajectory analysis were used to distinguish sources of O{sub 3}. • Baseline concentrations in the Western US are ~ 54 ppbv. • During discrete Asia events O{sub 3} increased by 5 ± 5.5 ppbv and during S CA events by 15 ± 2 ppbv. • Data indicate that Asian ozone inputs will exceed other sources by 2015–2020.

  18. Nd-Sr-Pb Isotopic Link Between Panarea And Sardinia Predating The Opening Of The Tyrrhenian Sea (United States)

    Raia, F.; Ayuso, R. A.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.


    Plio-Quaternary Tyrrhenian magmatism in the Italian peninsula and Aeolian volcanic rocks is characterized by systematic trends in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space, implicating different mantle end-member source contributions [1 and reference therein]. The isotopic trends also support the notion of mantle-crust interaction during magma genesis. New isotopic data on lava and tephra from Panarea island represent its entire eruptive history, and together with the GEOROC database, allow for a regional evaluation of the isotopic trends in the Tyrrhenian region. Panarea rocks vary from andesite to rhyolite, show a systematic depletion of CaO, FeOT, MnO, MgO, TiO2 wt.% and enrichment in alkalis consistent with crystal fractionation. Most Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions (86Sr/87Sr:0.70464-0.70604; 143Nd/144Nd:0.512473-0.512578; 206Pb/204Pb:19.162-19.241; 207Pb/204Pb:15.628-15.709; 208Pb/204Pb:39.270-39.016) fall midway between the compositions of the calc- alkaline western sector and Stromboli and Campanian volcanic rocks (located in the Aeolian eastern sector and Southern Italian Peninsula respectively). Notably, some rocks in Panarea display comparable Pb-Sr isotope compositions but much lower Nd-isotope ratios (143Nd/144Nd:0.512235-0.512415) than previously found in the Aeolian archipelago. Nd and Sr isotopic compositions plot close to the fields of the northern and central Plio- Quaternary volcanic rocks (e.g.Mt Arci) and Oligo-Miocene rocks (143Nd/144Nd:0.51218-0.51270) from Sardinia and trend toward a mantle end-member (EM1). This newly observed isotopic similarity between Panarea and Sardinia could represent an ancient source link predating the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea that can be explained by 1) delamination of the Sardinian lower crust during Hercynian continental collision, or 2) modification of the lithospheric mantle during Oligo-Miocene arc-type volcanism, coeval back arc extension, and counter- clockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block. [1] Peccerillo, A

  19. The genesis of the Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: constraints from mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and multiple isotope (H, O, S, Mo, Pb) studies (United States)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Tombros, Stylianos; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.


    The Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Great Hinggan Range Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic metallogenic province of NE China, in which the Mo-bearing quartz veins are hosted in approximately coeval granites and porphyries. The deposit contains more than 100 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.13 wt.% Mo. This well-preserved magmatic-hydrothermal system provides an excellent opportunity to determine the source of the molybdenum, the evolution of the hydrothermal fluids and the controls on molybdenite precipitation in a potentially important but poorly understood metallogenic province. Studies of fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins demonstrate that the Hashitu hydrothermal system evolved to progressively lower pressure and temperature. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion analyses and physicochemical calculations suggest that molybdenite deposition occurred at a temperature of 285 to 325 °C, a pressure from 80 to 230 bars, a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, and a ∆log fO2 (HM) of -3.0, respectively. Results of multiple isotope (O, H, S, Mo, and Pb) analyses are consistent in indicating a genetic relationship between the ore-forming fluids, metals, and the Mesozoic granitic magmatism (i.e., δ 18OH2O from +1.9 to +9.7‰, δDH2O from -106 to -87‰, δ 34SH2S from +0.3 to +3.9‰, δ 98/95Mo from 0 to +0.37‰, 206Pb/204Pb from 18.2579 to 18.8958, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.5384 to 15.5783, and 208Pb/204Pb from 38.0984 to 42.9744). Molybdenite deposition is interpreted to have occurred from a low-density magmatic-hydrothermal fluid in response to decreases in temperature, pressure, and fO2.

  20. Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Borrok, David M.; Thapalia, Anita


    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were measured in a sediment core collected from Lake Ballinger, near Seattle, Washington, USA. Lake Ballinger has been affected by input of metal contaminants emitted from the Tacoma smelter, which operated from 1887 to 1986 and was located about 53 km south of the lake. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb in Lake Ballinger increased by as much as three orders of magnitude during the period of smelting as compared to the pre-smelting period. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb then decreased by about 55% and 75%, respectively, after smelting ended. Isotopic compositions of Hg changed considerably during the period of smelting (δ202Hg = −2.29‰ to −0.38‰, mean −1.23‰, n = 9) compared to the pre-smelting period (δ202Hg = −2.91‰ to −2.50‰, mean −2.75‰, n = 4). Variations were also observed in 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotopic compositions during these periods. Data for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg indicate mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in Lake Ballinger sediment during the smelting and post-smelting period and suggest MIF in the ore smelted, during the smelting process, or chemical modification at some point in the past. Negative values for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg for the pre-smelting period are similar to those previously reported for soil, peat, and lichen, likely suggesting some component of atmospheric Hg. Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were useful in tracing contaminant sources and the understanding of the depositional history of sedimentation in Lake Ballinger.

  1. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics of the Hugo Dummett Cu-Au porphyry deposit (Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia) (United States)

    Dolgopolova, A.; Seltmann, R.; Armstrong, R.; Belousova, E.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Kavalieris, I.


    Major and trace element geochemistry including Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data are presented for a representative sample suite of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the Hugo Dummett deposit of the giant Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district in South Gobi, Mongolia. Sr and Nd isotopes (whole-rock) show restricted ranges of initial compositions, with positive ɛNdt mainly between + 3.4 and + 7.4 and (87Sr/86Sr)t predominantly between 0.7037 and 0.7045 reflecting magma generation from a relatively uniform juvenile lithophile-element depleted source. Previously dated zircons from the plutonic rocks exhibit a sample-averaged range of ɛHft values of + 11.6 to + 14.5. Depleted-mantle model ages of 420-830 (Nd) and 320-730 Ma (zircon Hf) limit the involvement of pre-Neoproterozoic crust in the petrogenesis of the intermediate to felsic calc-alkaline magmas to, at most, a minor role. Pb isotopes (whole-rock) show a narrow range of unradiogenic initial compositions: 206Pb/204Pb 17.40-17.94, 207Pb/204Pb 15.43-15.49 and 208Pb/204Pb 37.25-37.64, in agreement with Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes indicating the dominance of a mantle component. All four isotopic systems suggest that the magmas from which the large Oyu Tolgoi porphyry system was generated originated predominantly from juvenile material within the subduction-related setting of the Gurvansayhan terrane.

  2. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Albogami


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of soil lead (Pb with different isotope compositions at a range of Pb concentrations. Earthworms (Eiseniafetida were exposed to different lead concentrations through the addition of 500 mg/kg lead oxide (Pb3O4 to soil and 500 mg/kg lead nitrate to food (manure, with distinctly different isotopic compositions. Earthworms were also exposed to combinations of soil only and soil plus food in order to quantify the proportions of Pb taken up from each component. After acid digestion of the earthworm tissues, the Pb isotope composition of the accumulated lead in the earthworms was measured using a Thermo-fisher, iCAPQ, ICP-MS for 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured relative to NIST SRM 981, allowing us to determine the pathway of lead uptake. Mixing calculations have been used to deconvolute the lead isotope signatures and identify the amount of lead taken up by the earthworms from the different soil pools. Differences in bioaccumulation factors and the relative amounts of lead accumulated from different pools changes as a function of concentration in the different pools. Earthworms were shown to uptake lead from bothsoil and food sources through ingestion route. Our findings suggest that a major pathway of lead uptake in earthworm species is heavily influenced by their ecology.

  3. Age and genesis of the Myanmar jadeite: Constraints from U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU ZhiLi; WU FuYuan; YANG ShuFeng; ZHU Min; SUN JinFeng; YANG Ping


    Myanmar jadeite (jadeitite) is well known for its economical value and distinctive tectonic locality within the collisional belt between India and Eurasian plates. However, it is less studied for its genesis and geodynamic implications due to precipitous topography, adverse weather and local military conflicts in the area. By means of combined ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICPMS techniques, we have carried out in-situ trace elements, U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes for zircon inclusions in a piece of jadeite gem sample. CL imaging suggests that the zircons are metasomatic in origin, and contain mineral inclusions of jadeite and omphacite. Seventy-five analyses on 16 grains of the zircons yield a U-Pb age of 158±2 Ma. The Myanmar zircons differ from other types in that they have no significant Eu anomalies despite high HREE concentrations. Measured 176Hf/177Hf ratios range from 0.282976 to 0.283122, with an average value of 0.283066±7;εHf(t) value of 13.8±0.3 (n=75). These results indicate that the Myanmar jadeite was formed in the Late Jurassic, probably by interaction of fluid released from subducted oceanic slab with mantle wedge. Therefore, its formation has no genetic relationship to the continental collision between Indian and Euroasian plates.

  4. Analysis and separation of boron isotopes; Analyse et separation des isotopes du bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    . Ces resultats ont permis d'etablir un mode operatoire pour l'analyse de traces de-bore,par dilution isotopique. Par ailleurs, les besoins en bore-10 de l'industrie nucleaire justifient la mise au point de procedes de separation des isotopes du bore. Un effet isotopique notable a ete mis en evidence dans la reaction d'echange chimique entre le borate de methyle et un sel borique en solution. Dans le cas de l'echange borate de methyle - borate de sodium, le facteur de separation elementaire {alpha}: {alpha}=(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)vap.)/(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)liq.)=1.03{sub 3}. Cet effet elementaire eleve a ete multiplie dans une colonne de distillation dans laquelle le probleme de la regeneration des reactifs a ete resolu. Une variante de ce procede a ete etudiee, en remplacant le borate alcalin par un borate de base volatile; ici la diethylamine ({alpha}=1,02{sub 5} en milieu hydromethanolique a 2,2 pour cent d'eau). (auteur)

  5. Geological, rare earth elemental and isotopic constraints on the origin of the Banbanqiao Zn-Pb deposit, southwest China (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhou, Jia-Xi; Huang, Zhi-Long; Yan, Zai-Fei; Bao, Guang-Ping; Sun, Hai-Rui


    The newly discovered Banbanqiao Zn-Pb deposit in the southeastern part of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou (SYG) Pb-Zn metallogenic province is located on the western Yangtze Block, southwest China. Ore bodies of the Banbanqiao deposit are stratiform type, host in dolomitic limestone and dolostone of the Lower Carboniferous Dapu Formation and occur within the NNE-trending Banbanqiao anticline. More than 1.5 million tones (Mt) Zn-Pb ores at grades of 0.26-10.32 wt.% Pb and 0.81-28.8 wt.% Zn have been controlled until now. δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of calcite separates range from -2.8‰ to -0.7‰ (average -1.1‰) and +14.1‰ to +17.0‰ (average +15.5‰), respectively. The δ13CPDB values are similar to those of marine carbonate rocks, but higher than those of mantle and significantly different from those of sedimentary organic matter. However, the δ18OSMOW values are among those of mantle, marine carbonate rocks and sedimentary organic matter. δ34SCDT values of sulfide separates range from +3.2‰ to +9.9‰ (average +6.5‰), unlike mantle-derived sulfur (0 ± 3‰), whilst lower than evaporites (+22‰ to +28‰) within host strata. 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb values of country shale and dolostone whole-rock samples are 18.47, 15.66 and 38.70, and 18.44-18.60, 15.66-15.85 and 38.70-39.14, respectively. Sulfide separates have 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb values ranging from 18.03 to 18.73, 15.65 to 15.78 and 38.15 to 39.14, respectively. These Pb isotopic data indicate a clearly crustal source of Pb in the plot of 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb. Total REE (ΣREE) contents of country shale and dolostone whole-rock samples are 2.63 ppm and 0.72-86.2 ppm with δEu values are 2.79 and 0.34-0.70, respectively. Pyrite, sphalerite, galena and calcite samples have ΣREE contents of 5.3-36.4 ppm, 0.29-3.39 ppm, 0.52 ppm and 22.0-41.1 ppm, respectively, and δEu values of 0.64-0.86, 0.94-2.86, 0.32 and 0.21-0.45, respectively. These rare earth

  6. The origin of Cenozoic continental basalts in east-central China: Constrained by linking Pb isotopes to other geochemical variables (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu


    Cenozoic continental basalts in east-central China are characterized by OIB-like trace element patterns with more depleted to less enriched Sr-Nd isotope compositions. Such geochemical signatures are attributable to variable contributions to their mantle sources from crustal components in the oceanic subduction zone. A combined study of basalt Pb isotope variations with other geochemical variables indicates that four mantle and crustal components were involved in the basalt petrogenesis. Model calculations verify the geochemical transfer from the subducted crustal components to the mantle sources. The depleted MORB mantle component is indicated by the depleted Sr-Nd isotope compositions of basalts. Relatively high 206Pb/204Pb and low Δ8/4 ratios are ascribed to contributions from the igneous oceanic crust with high U/Pb and low Th/U ratios, low 206Pb/204Pb and high Δ8/4 ratios are ascribed to the lower continental crust, and high 206Pb/204Pb and high Δ8/4 ratios are linked to the seafloor sediment. This generates different compositions of mantle sources for these OIB-like continental basalts. The basalts with the most depleted Sr-Nd isotope compositions show Pb isotope compositions distinct from Pacific MORB but similar to Indian MORB, suggesting the occurrence of Indian type asthenospheric mantle beneath the continental lithosphere of eastern China. The depleted MORB mantle would be metasomatized by the three crustal components at the slab-mantle interface in oceanic subduction channel, generating the mantle sources that are enriched in melt-mobile incompatible trace elements and their pertinent radiogenic isotopes. Nevertheless, the crustal components were not directly incorporated in the forms of crustal rocks into the mantle sources, but underwent partial melting to produce the felsic melts that predominate the composition of those trace elements and their pertinent radiogenic isotopes in the basalts. As such, the depleted MORB mantle component was

  7. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in northeastern France (United States)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas; Carignan, Jean


    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal change and trend in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Pb isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  8. Feldspar palaeo-isochrons from early Archaean TTGs: Pb-isotope evidence for a high U/Pb terrestrial Hadean crust (United States)

    Kamber, B. S.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Moorbath, S.; Collerson, K. D.


    Feldspar lead-isotope data for 22 early Archaean (3.80-3.82 Ga) tonalitic gneisses from an area south of the Isua greenstone belt (IGB),West Greenland, define a steep linear trend in common Pb-isotope space with an apparent age of 4480+/-77 Ma. Feldspars from interleaved amphibolites yield a similar array corresponding to a date of 4455+/-540 Ma. These regression lines are palaeo-isochrons that formed during feldspar-whole rock Pb-isotope homogenisation a long time (1.8 Ga) after rock formation but confirm the extreme antiquity (3.81 Ga) of the gneissic protoliths [1; this study]. Unlike their whole-rock counterparts, feldspar palaeo-isochrons are immune to rotational effects caused by the vagaries of U/Pb fractionation. Hence, comparison of their intercept with mantle Pb-isotope evolution models yields meaningful information regarding the source history of the magmatic precursors. The locus of intersection between the palaeo-isochrons and terrestrial mantle Pb-isotope evolution lines shows that the gneissic precursors of these 3.81 Ga gneisses were derived from a source with a substantially higher time-integrated U/Pb ratio than the mantle. Similar requirements for a high U/Pb source have been found for IGB BIF [2], IGB carbonate [3], and particularly IGB galenas [4]. Significantly, a single high U/Pb source that separated from the MORB-source mantle at ca. 4.3 Ga with a 238U/204Pb of ca. 10.5 provides a good fit to all these observations. In contrast to many previous models based on Nd and Hf-isotope evidence we propose that this reservoir was not a mantle source but the Hadean basaltic crust which, in the absence of an operating subduction process, encased the early Earth. Differentiation of the early high U/Pb basaltic crust could have occurred in response to gravitational sinking of cold mantle material or meteorite impact, and produced zircon-bearing magmatic rocks. The subchondritic Hf-isotope ratios of ca. 3.8 Ga zircons support this model [5] provided that

  9. Labile pools of Pb in vegetable-growing soils investigated by an isotope dilution method and its influence on soil pH. (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zeng, Xiang-Cheng; Li, Jian


    Pollution of Pb in the surface of agricultural soils is of increasing concern due to its serious impact on the plant growth and the human health through the food chain. However, the mobility, activity and bioavailability of Pb rely mainly on its various chemical species in soils. In the present study, E and L values, the labile pools of isotopically exchangeable Pb, were estimated using the method of isotope dilution in three vegetable-growing soils. The experiments involved adding a stable enriched isotope ((206)Pb > 96%) to a soil suspension and to soils in which plants are subsequently grown, the labile pools of Pb were then estimated by measuring the isotopic composition of Pb in soil solutions and in the plant tissues, respectively. In addition, the correlation of E values and soil pH was investigated at the ranges of pH 4.5-7.0. The amount of labile Pb in soils was also estimated using different single chemical extractants and a modified BCR approach. The results showed that after spiking the enriched isotopes of (206)Pb (>96%) for 24 hours an equilibration of isotopic exchanges in soil suspensions was achieved, and the isotope ratios of (208)Pb/(206)Pb measured at that time was used for calculating the E(24 h) values. The labile pools of Pb by %E(24 h) values, ranging from 53.2% to 61.7% with an average 57%, were found to be significantly higher (p EDTA and the Σ(BCR) values extracted with the modified BCR approach are helpful to detect the labile pools of Pb in soils. In addition, the negative correlation between soil pH and the labile pools of Pb in soils may be useful for further remediation to reduce the bioavailability of Pb in contaminated soils.

  10. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of feldspar, apatite and sphene as a guide to the nature of the sub-Andean mantle and crust-mantle interaction in the coastal batholith, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukasa, S.B.; Barreiro, B.A.


    Common Pb isotopic compositions for 65 feldspar samples from the 188-37 Ma gabbroic to monzogranitic plutons of the Peruvian Coastal batholith (PCB) show changes along strike that can be related to variable contamination of mantle-derived magmas by Precambrian basement (PB). The dominant Pb component in mafic plutons of the Lima segment (LS) is similar to the isotopically homogeneous reservoir (IHR) identified by others for rocks in central and southern Chile. It has been suggested that the IHR is enriched subcontinental mantle. More siliceous rocks in the LS have considerably higher Pb ratios, suggesting that they have a component of supracrustal materials. Feldspars from plutons in the Arequipa and Toquepala segments (ATS) of the PCB have low PB ratios. The data plot between the PB and IHR fields on Pb correlation diagrams, indicating that these end members were the principal magma sources in southern Peru. /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr compositions for a small group of apatite and sphene samples selected on the basis of extreme PB ratios in coexisting feldspars are negatively correlated and support the magmagenetic models proposed using the more thorough Pb analyses. Also, mass balance considerations using Nd and Sr concentrations suggest that contamination of IHR magmas by PB was magmatic and not the result of subsolidus diffusion. Contamination of plutons in the ATS by PB and lack of it in the LS supports crustal models by Couch et al. (1981) and Jones (1981) which show a thick PB layer in southern Peru and an extremely thin layer beneath the LS.

  11. 西昆仑赞坎铁矿区英安班岩锆石U-Pb年代学研究%IN-Situ U-Pb Ages and Hf Isotopic Analyses of Zircons from Rhyodacite in Zankan,West Kunlun Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林尚康; 汤好书; 任涛


    Rhyodacite developed in Zankan,West Kunlun area. Zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating gives the eruption age of two rhyodacite samples as 533 ± 10 Ma and 527.4 ± 9.0 Ma,indicating that the rhyodacite in Zankan formed during the Early Paleozoic,rather than the Bulunkuoke Group of Precambrian as previously thought. In-situ zircon Hf analyses shows that zircons from one of the two sanples haveεHf(t)values of-3.31 to-9.02(average of-5.40), with significant heterogeneity. Hf crustal model ages of 1.70 Ga to 2.06 Ga(removal of two U-Pb age of abnormally high values),the peak at about 1.7 Ga to 1.8 Ga,far from the formation of zircon age of 533 Ma,indicating that the rhyodacite was derived from recycled ancient crust,may with the involvement of mantle materials,corresponding to 1.7-2.0 Ga crustal recycling.%西昆仑赞坎英安斑岩的锆石LA-ICPMS年龄和LA-MC-ICPMS Hf同位素分析结果表明,两个样品均获得了较为一致的主体年龄,分别为533±10 Ma及527.4±9.0 Ma,都归为古生代,而不是前人所归为的前寒武纪布伦阔勒群.选用其中一个样品进行,锆石Hf同位素组成实验,其赞坎英安斑岩εHf(t)值为-3.31~-9.02,平均为-5.40,具有明显的不均一性,Hf平均地壳模式年龄为TDMC=1.70~2.06 Ga(去除其中两个U-Pb年龄异常高值),峰值在1.7~1.8 Ga左右,与锆石形成年龄533 Ma相差甚远,说明这类锆石的母岩中主体是再造的古老地壳,同时也可能混合幔源,对应着1.7~2.0 Ga地壳再造.

  12. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: Is this really archean crust? (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Castineiras, Pedro; Wooden, Joseph L.


    New SHRIMP-RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) data confirm the existence of Archean components within zircon grains of a sample from the orthogneiss of Angel Lake, Nevada, United States, previously interpreted as a nappe of Archean crust. However, the combined evidence strongly suggests that this orthogneiss is a highly deformed, Late Cretaceous monzogranite derived from melting of a sedimentary source dominated by Archean detritus. Zircon grains from the same sample used previously for isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) isotopic work were analyzed using the SHRIMP-RG to better define the age and origin of the orthogneiss. Prior to analysis, imaging revealed a morphological variability and intragrain, polyphase nature of the zircon population. The SHRIMP-RG yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 2430 and 2580 Ma (a best-fit mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2531 ± 19 Ma; 95% confidence) from mostly rounded to subrounded zircons and zircon components (cores). In addition, several analyses from rounded to subrounded cores or grains yielded discordant 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 1460 and ca. 2170 Ma, consistent with known regional magmatic events. All cores of Proterozoic to latest Archean age were encased within clear, typically low Th/U (206Pb/238U ages between 72 and 91 Ma, consistent with magmatic ages from Lamoille Canyon to the south. An age of ca. 90 Ma is suggested, the younger 206Pb/238U ages resulting from Pb loss. The Cretaceous and Precambrian zircon components also have distinct trace element characteristics, indicating that these age groups are not related to the same igneous source. These results support recent geophysical interpretations and negate the contention that the Archean-Proterozoic boundary extends into the central Great Basin area. They further suggest that the world-class gold deposits along the Carlin Trend are not underlain by Archean cratonal crust, but rather by the Proterozoic Mojave

  13. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in north-eastern France (United States)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas


    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal changes and trends in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land-use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Lead isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  14. Complexity of In-situ zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope systematics during arc magma genesis at the roots of a Cretaceous arc, Fiordland, New Zealand (United States)

    Milan, L. A.; Daczko, N. R.; Clarke, G. L.; Allibone, A. H.


    Zircons from seventeen samples of Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO) diorites and three samples of country rock (two schists and one Darran Suite diorite) from the lowermost exposed sections of the Median Batholith, Fiordland, New Zealand, were analysed for in-situ U-Pb and Hf-isotopes. The WFO represents the deeper levels of Early Cretaceous continental arc magmatism on the Pacific margin of Gondwana, marking the final stage of long-lived arc magmatism on the margin spanning the Palaeozoic. The WFO plutons were emplaced at high-P (mid to deep crust at c. 8-12 kbar) between 124 and 114 Ma. Minor very high-P (c. 18 kbar) WFO eclogite and omphacite granulite facies orthogneiss (Breaksea Orthogneiss) are inferred to have crystallised in the base of thickened crust at c. 124 Ma. Zircons from the Breaksea Orthogneiss are considered to be variably affected by Pb-loss due to emplacement of the adjacent (Malaspina) Pluton at c. 114 Ma. By identifying Pb-loss, magmatic ages were able to be inferred in respect to apparent Pb-loss ages. Hf isotope data for the WFO define an excursion to less radiogenic Hf isotope ratios with time, reflecting increased recycling of an old source component. Peaks at c. 555, 770 and 2480 Ma, determine the age spectra of inherited populations of zircons within the WFO. This contrasts with detrital zircon patterns in country rocks of the Takaka terrane, which include peaks at c. 465 Ma, and 1250-900 Ma that are absent in the WFO inheritance pattern. These results indicate a previously unrecognised Precambrian lower crustal component of New Zealand. Recycling of this lower crust became increasingly important as a source for the final stage or Mesozoic arc magmatism along this segment of the palaeo-Pacific margin of Gondwana.

  15. Precise determination of Pb isotope ratios by simple double spike MC-ICP-MS technique without Tl addition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Makishima, A.; Nath, B.N.; Nakamura, E.

    A double-spike multicollector ICP-MS (DS-MC-ICP-MS) technique for Pb isotope analysis without Tl addition is established and its analytical performance is examined in detail. This simple DS-MC-ICP-MS technique using 20 ng ml sup(-1) gave averages...

  16. Petrology, Geochemistry and Nd-Sr-Pb Isotopic Properties of Volcanic Rocks in Daheishan Island, Penglai, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yongtao; Li Anchun


    The major elements, trace elements, K-Ar age and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic systems of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks in Daheishan Island and Cishan, Penglai, Shandong Province are measured. The volcanic rocks ( olivine-nephelinite and nepheline-basanite ) in Daheishan Island erupted periodically in an interval of 0.32 Ma, from 8.72 Ma, 8.39 Ma, 8.08 Ma to 7.73 Ma. The volcanic rocks are all rich in light REEs. They are similar to the OIB-type alkali basalt in the trace elements normalized model by primordial mantle: rich in high field elements such as Nb and Ta, and imcompatible elements such as Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U. The volcanic rocks show a depletion of K and Rb elements. It is suggested by the trace elements that the olivine-nephelinite in Daheishan Island is originated from deep resources under the continental mantle. ε Nd (0) values of the volcanic rocks in Daheishan Island and Cisban are 5.31 ~ 8.51 and 7.33 respectively, suggesting that the volcanic rocks are from the depleted mantle resources, which have higher Sm/Nd ratios than the CHUR. 143Nd /144Nd ratios of Daheishan Island olivine-nephelinite and Cishan alkali basalts are 0.512 910 ~ 0.513 074 and 0.513 014 respectively. The 87Sr /86Sr of Daheishan Island volcanic rocks are lower than that of Cishan, 0.703 427 ~ 0.703 482 and 0.703 895 respectively. The Daheishan Island olivinenephelinite has the Pb isotopic values as follows: 206Pb /204pb = 18.028 9 ~ 17.972 8, 207Pb /204pb= 15.435 8 ~ 15.402 2 and 208Pb /204Pb = 38.087 6 ~ 37.997 5, lower than those of Cishan basanite. The Cishan basanite has 206Pb /204pb = 18.240 1, 207Pb /204Pb = 15.564 5 and 208Pb /204pb = 38.535. The authors suggest that the olivine-nephelinite in Daheishan Island is similar to the E-type MORB or Hawaii OIB, and the alkali basalts in Cishan similar to the Kerguelen OIB. The dominant mantle components of DM+PREMA and perhaps DM ( Dupal type ) are the dominant mantle components for volcanic rocks in Daheishan Island and Cishan. The

  17. U-Pb isotopic ages and Hf isotope composition of zircons in Variscan gabbros from central Spain: evidence of variable crustal contamination (United States)

    Villaseca, Carlos; Orejana, David; Belousova, Elena; Armstrong, Richard A.; Pérez-Soba, Cecilia; Jeffries, Teresa E.


    Ion microprobe U-Pb analyses of zircons from three gabbroic intrusions from the Spanish Central System (SCS) (Talavera, La Solanilla and Navahermosa) yield Variscan ages (300 to 305 Ma) in agreement with recent studies. Only two zircon crystals from La Solanilla massif gave slightly discordant Paleoproterozoic ages (1,848 and 2,010 Ma). Hf isotope data show a relatively large variation with the juvenile end-members showing ɛHfi values as high as +3.6 to +6.9 and +1.5 to +2.9 in the Navahermosa and Talavera gabbros, respectively. These positive ɛHfi values up to +6.9 might represent the composition of the subcontinental mantle which generates these SCS gabbros. This ɛHfi range is clearly below depleted mantle values suggesting the involvement of enriched mantle components on the origin of these Variscan gabbros, and is consistent with previous whole-rock studies. The presence of zircons with negative ɛHfi values suggest variable, but significant, crustal contamination of the gabbros, mainly by mixing with coeval granite magmas. Inherited Paleoproterozoic zircons of La Solanilla gabbros have similar trace element composition (e.g. Th/U ratios), but more evolved Hf-isotope signatures than associated Variscan zircons. Similar inherited ages have been recorded in zircons from coeval Variscan granitoids from the Central Iberian Zone. Granitic rocks have Nd model ages (TDM) predominantly in the range of 1.4 to 1.6 Ga, suggesting a juvenile addition during the Proterozoic. However, Hf crustal model ages of xenocrystic Proterozoic zircons in La Solanilla gabbro indicate the presence of reworked Archean protoliths (TDM2 model ages of 3.0 to 3.2 Ga) incorporated into the hybridized mafic magma.

  18. In situ simultaneous determination of trace elements,U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes in zircon and baddeleyite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE LieWen; ZHANG YanBin; ZHANG HuiHuang; SUN JingFeng; WU FuYuan


    This paper describes a combined method of simultaneously measuring U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes as well as trace elements in Phalaborwa baddeleyite and 91500, GJ-1, TEMORA-1 and SK10-2 zircons by means of Neptune MC-ICPMS and Agilent Q-ICPMS connected to a 193 nm excimer laser ablation system. Material ablated by laser was carried in different proportions into Q-ICPMS for U-Pb isotopic and trace elemental and MC-ICPMS for Lu-Hf isotopic compositions. Experiments indicate that different propor-tions of ablated material for the Q-ICPMS and MC-ICPMS (6∶4, 5∶5 and 4∶6 respectively) do not show any bias for the zircon/baddeleyite U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope and trace elemental compositions within ana-lytical errors. Using 40-60 μm spot size, the obtained U-Pb ages of Phalaborwa baddeleyite, 91500, GJ-1, TEMORA and SK10-2 zircons are 2065~15 (2σ, n=20), 1063±6 (2σ, n=19), 613±6 (2σ,=20), 416±5 (2σ, n=20) and 32.6±0.5 (2σ, n=20) Ma, respectively. The 176Hf/177Hf ratios are 0.281231±24 (2SD, n=20), 0.282310±35 (2SD, n=19), 0.282028±34 (2SD, n=20), 0.282687±34 (2SD, n=20) and 0.282752±53 (2SD, n=20), respectively. The obtained trace elemental compositions are identical to the reference values. Therefore, this kind of technique makes it possible to simultaneously obtain the U-Pb age, Lu-Hf iso-topes and trace elemental compositions of zircon and baddeleyite, which could be an important tool in solving problems in earth sciences.

  19. Combined in-situ Trace Element, Pb, Sr Isotope Analysis and U-Th Dating of Speleothems and Ostracods (United States)

    Jochum, K. P.; Scholz, D.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Gleixner, G.; Guenther, F.; Schwalb, A.; Kuzmin, D.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Izmer, A. V.; Andreae, M. O.


    Terrestrial and marine calcium carbonate deposits, such as speleothems and corals, can be used as high-resolution paleoclimate archives. A promising new application is the investigation of ostracod shells. We have developed a LA-ICP-MS technique for combined in-situ trace element, isotope (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 87Sr/86Sr) and 230Th-232Th-234U-238U analysis in carbonates. High spatial resolution is obtained by using small spot sizes of 12 - 100 µm. The technique has been applied to a stalagmite from Hüttenbläserschachthöhle, western Germany, and ostracod shells found in lake sediments from Lake Nam Co, Tibet. We focused on a 4 mm long section of the stalagmite that grew continuously for 400 years at 106,000 years B.P. The section includes a transition from aragonite to calcite. Spatial resolution of the trace element analyses is 12 µm corresponding to a temporal resolution of about 1 year. The speleothem calcite is characterized by high Mg (~ 2,000 µg g-1), low Sr (~ 30 µg g-1), Ba (~ 4 µg g-1) and U (~0.04 µg g-1), whereas aragonite has low Mg (~10 µg g-1), high Sr (~ 700 µg g-1), Ba (~ 50 µg g-1) and U (~ 8 µg g-1). Thorium and REE abundances are very low in the ng g-1 range. Calcitic sections probably reflect periods of high recharge, whereas aragonitic sections correspond to dry climate. Remarkable in this context is the steady increase of U, Ba, Sr, Y, Pb, Cd and 208Pb/206Pb in aragonite towards the transition. This may reflect progressively more humid conditions, finally leading to precipitation of calcite. In the U-rich section of the stalagmite, in-situ U-Th-dating by LA-ICP-MS was performed, however, with significantly larger uncertainties of the activity ratios (ca. 3 %) compared to high-precision MC-ICP-MS data (ca. 0.2 %). We also analyzed very small (ca. 0.5 - 1 mm) and thin (about 0.05 mm) ostracod shells from eight levels of a Holocene lake sediment core. 34 major and trace element concentrations could be determined by EPMA and LA

  20. Tracing of ca 800 yr old mining activity in peat bog using Pb elemental concentrations and isotope compositions. (United States)

    Baron, S.; Carignan, J.; Ploquin, A.


    Sixty sites of slags have been documented on the Mont-Lozère in southern France. The petrographic analysis shows that slags are metallurgical wastes (800 to 850 yr BP) which certainly result from smelting activity for lead and silver extraction (Ploquin et al., 2001). The aims of this study are: 1) to trace the source of Pb ores which supplied the smelting sites, by using the Pb isotopic composition of several surrounding Pb deposits, 2) to evaluate the actual pollution caused by these slags, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of soils, water and vegetation, and 3) to document the pollution history of the region, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of peat bog cores collected in the neighbourhood of the historical smelting sites. The lead isotopic composition of galena collected in most surrounding ores is very similar to that of different slag samples. On the other hand, the high precision of the results allowed us to select the mineralised areas which were probably the ore sources. The Pb isotopic composition of slags is even more homogeneous: 208/206 Pb: 2.092±0.002; 206/207 Pb: 1.179±0.001; 208/204 Pb: 38.663±0.025; 207/204 Pb: 15.665±0.006; 206/204 Pb: 18.476±0.023, and will allow source tracing in the environment. The "Narses Mortes" peat bog, around which two smelting sites have been reported, is strongly minerotrophic and contains 8 to 60% ash. A 1.40 m core have been retrieved and divided into 58 individual samples. Minerotrophic peat bog records both atmospheric deposition, soils leaching and the grounwater influence. The measured metal concentrations are normalised to Al contents of peat bog samples and the metal/Al ratios are compared to that of the Mont-Lozère granite: relative excess in metal concentrations are found in peat bog samples. An increasing excess of most metals (Pb, Zn, Cd...) was measured for surface samples, from 55 cm depth to the top of the core (23 cm depth). This profil might be attributed to atmospheric

  1. Textures, trace elements, and Pb isotopes of sulfides from the Haopinggou vein deposit, southern North China Craton: implications for discrete Au and Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Ke; Li, Jian-Wei; Cooke, David R.; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Zhang, Lejun; O'Brien, Hugh; Lahaye, Yann; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Hai-Jun


    The Haopinggou deposit in the Xiong'ershan district, southern margin of the North China Craton, comprises numerous Au and Ag-Pb-Zn veins hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic Taihua Group. Two stages of mineralization have been recognized: Stage 1 pyrite-quartz veins and Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins. Some pyrite-quartz veins are surrounded or cut by Pb-Zn-sulfide veins, others occur as independent veins. Six generations of pyrite have been identified at Haopinggou: Py1 to Py3 in Stage 1 and Py4 to Py6 in Stage 2. Pyrites from Stage 1 are enriched in Au, As, Co, Ni, and Bi, whereas Stage 2 pyrites contain higher Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. Invisible Au mostly occurs as lattice-bound gold in Py2 (up to 92 ppm Au) and Py3 (up to 127 ppm Au) and has a close relationship with As. Native Au grains are also present in Py3 and likely resulted from mobilization and reprecipitation of the invisible Au previously locked in the precursor pyrite. This view is supported by extensive plastic deformation in Stage 1 pyrite as revealed by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. In Stage 2, Ag is mostly present as lattice-bound silver closely associated with Sb in galena (up to 798 ppm Ag). A variety of silver minerals are also present as inclusions within galena or as interstitial grains. These silver minerals were likely formed via Ag-Cu exchange reaction between tetrahedrite and galena or represent exsolution from galena due to a temperature decrease. Pb isotopic compositions differ remarkably between Stage 1 and Stage 2 sulfides, indicating different sources of lead. Pb in Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins is consistent with the Haopinggou porphyry close to the veins. The field, textural, compositional, and lead isotopic data led us to conclude that the early gold-bearing pyrite-quartz veins and late silver-bearing Pb-Zn-sulfide veins likely formed from distinct fluid systems related to discrete mineralization events. Our study suggests that Au and Ag-Pb

  2. On isotopic analyses of Mihonoseki and other meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, Masako [National Science Museum, Tokyo (Japan)


    In the last December, since a meteorite penetrated a house in Mihonoseki-machi, Yatsuka-gun, Simane-ken, Japan, many people aware how meteorites are important for the study of space science. First, the results of the isotopic studies on meteorites obtained so far are summarized. The Mihonoseki meteorite is valuable only because it has the possibility of detecting short life cosmogenic radioactive nuclides as its fall was informed shortly after the fall, though it is a normal chondrite without special feature. A part of the obtained {gamma} ray spectrograph of the Mihonoseki was compared visually with that of the Tahara meteorite which fell one and a half years ago, the Hashima meteorite which fell about 80 years ago and terrestrial rocks. The preliminary data are given together with the data of the chondrites that fell in Japan in the last 10 years. As for the Mihonoseki meteorite, 15 cosmic ray-produced radioactive nuclides with the half life from 2.44 days to 7.2 x 10{sup 5} years were measured. Also the isotopic ratio of rare gas elements was determined, and from these data, it is concluded that the Mihonoseki meteorite has been exposed to cosmic ray for a long age, and it was not subjected to heavy shock effect. (K.I.).

  3. Stages of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic magmatism in the Song Ma belt, NW Vietnam: evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope composition (United States)

    Hieu, Pham Trung; Li, Shuang-Qing; Yu, Yang; Thanh, Ngo Xuan; Dung, Le Tien; Tu, Vu Le; Siebel, Wolfgang; Chen, Fukun


    The Song Ma zone in NW Vietnam bears important tectonic implications as a potential subduction corridor between the Indochina and South China blocks. On the basis of U-Pb ages, the Hf isotopic characteristics of zircons and the geochemical composition of granitoids, a two-stage magmatic evolution process of the Song Ma zone at ~290-260 and ~245-230 Ma can be proposed. Isotopic analyses indicate magmatic contributions from Neoproterozoic oceanic island basalt, Proterozoic continental crust, and depleted mantle or juvenile lithosphere. By combining geochronological and geochemical data from the granitoid rocks, we suggest that the staged magmatic processes of Song Ma zone may be related to a long-lasting period of ocean subduction (ca. 290-260 Ma) and subsequent syn-/post-collisional evolution (ca. 245-230 Ma).

  4. Preliminary study of microscale zircon oxygen isotopes for Dabie-Sulu metamorphic rocks: Ion probe in situ analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Daogong; Deloule Etienne; CHENG Hao; XIA Qunke; WU Yuanbao


    151 in situ analyses of oxygen isotopes were carried out by ion micro-probe for zircons from 8 localities of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks including eclogites in the Dabie-Sulu terrane. The results show significant heterogeneity inδ18O values, with variation in different rocks from -8.5‰ to +9.7‰ and within one sample from 2‰ to 12‰. No measurable difference inδ18O was observed between protolith magmatic (detrital) zircons and metamorphic recrystallized zircons within analytical uncertainties from the ion micro-probe measurements. This indicates that the metamorphic zircons have inherited the oxygen isotopic compositions of protolith zircons despite the HP to UHP metamorphism. According to their protolith ages from zircon U-Pb in situ dating by the same ion micro-probe, two groups of oxygen isotope composition are recognized, with one having δ18O values of 6‰-7‰ for old protolith of 1.9-2.5 Ga ages and the other 0‰-2‰ for young protolith of 0.7-0.8 Ga ages. The latter anomalously lowδ18O values of zircons indicate that the magma has had the obvious involvement of meteoric water when forming the young protolith of high-grade metamorphic rocks. This may be correlated with the snowball Earth event occurring in South China and the world elsewhere during the Neoproterozoic.

  5. Atmospheric Pb isotopic composition and trace metal concentration as revealed by epiphytic lichens:. an investigation related to two altitudinal sections in Eastern France (United States)

    Doucet, F. J.; Carignan, J.

    During Fall 1996, epiphytic lichens were collected along altitudinal sections in two areas of France (the Vosges mountains in the North-East, and the Alps, in Haute-Savoie) in order to verify any geographic distribution of atmospheric metals on a small scale. These lichens have various Pb isotopic compositions ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.126-1.147) which are correlated with the altitude of sampling. Lichens sampled near valleys display isotopic ratios significantly less radiogenic than those sampled at several hundred to thousand meters of altitude. In the Vosges sections, Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions of lichens may be used to define three zones: (1) valley: Pb-rich and non-radiogenic ratios, (2) transition: low-Pb and intermediate isotopic compositions, (3) mountain: heterogeneous Pb concentrations but more radiogenic and homogeneous Pb isotopic composition. Other metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, As), when normalised one to another, are not fractionated between these zones and display homogeneous relative abundance along the altitudinal sections of both sites. Variation of 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios with altitude is interpreted in terms of mixing of at least two pollution sources: one being the petrol (leaded and/or unleaded) combustion, and the other being of industrial origin. The latter is characterised by a more radiogenic isotopic composition. The Pb isotopic composition of flue gas residues from different municipal solid waste combustors in the Rhine valley and in other areas of France would suggest that these plants might be an important source of industrial Pb in the atmosphere. If the average industrial Pb in France has a 206Pb/ 207Pb close to 1.15, between 60 and 80% of the total Pb in lichens from the Rhine valley would come from gasoline combustion, whereas 85-90% of the Pb would have an industrial origin in lichens from higher altitude in the Vosges mountains. Although lichens from the Alps were collected at higher altitude, the percentage of industrial Pb for these

  6. Perspectives on land snails - sampling strategies for isotopic analyses (United States)

    Kwiecien, Ola; Kalinowski, Annika; Kamp, Jessica; Pellmann, Anna


    Since the seminal works of Goodfriend (1992), several substantial studies confirmed a relation between the isotopic composition of land snail shells (d18O, d13C) and environmental parameters like precipitation amount, moisture source, temperature and vegetation type. This relation, however, is not straightforward and site dependent. The choice of sampling strategy (discrete or bulk sampling) and cleaning procedure (several methods can be used, but comparison of their effects in an individual shell has yet not been achieved) further complicate the shell analysis. The advantage of using snail shells as environmental archive lies in the snails' limited mobility, and therefore an intrinsic aptitude of recording local and site-specific conditions. Also, snail shells are often found at dated archaeological sites. An obvious drawback is that shell assemblages rarely make up a continuous record, and a single shell is only a snapshot of the environmental setting at a given time. Shells from archaeological sites might represent a dietary component and cooking would presumably alter the isotopic signature of aragonite material. Consequently, a proper sampling strategy is of great importance and should be adjusted to the scientific question. Here, we compare and contrast different sampling approaches using modern shells collected in Morocco, Spain and Germany. The bulk shell approach (fine-ground material) yields information on mean environmental parameters within the life span of analyzed individuals. However, despite homogenization, replicate measurements of bulk shell material returned results with a variability greater than analytical precision (up to 2‰ for d18O, and up to 1‰ for d13C), calling for caution analyzing only single individuals. Horizontal high-resolution sampling (single drill holes along growth lines) provides insights into the amplitude of seasonal variability, while vertical high-resolution sampling (multiple drill holes along the same growth line

  7. Paleoproterozoic basement beneath the southern Jiangxi Province: Evidence from U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes in zircons from the Doushui Iamprophyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU JinHai; WANG LiJuan; O'REILLY S Y; SHU LiangShu; UN Tao


    This paper presents geochemical analyses of a lamprophyre intruding the Caledonian Doushui granite body in Shangyou County, southern Jiangxi Province. U-Pb dating and Hf-isotope analyses are especially carried out for zircons from it. Petrological and geochemical features show that the lamprophyre belongs to a high-K, weakly alkaline pyroxene-biotite iamprophyre. It is characterized by high Mg# (0.74),Ni (253 μg/g) and Cr (893 μg/g) contents, and also enriched in incompatible elements, such as REE, Rb, Sr, Ba and K. It is suggested that its primitive melt probably derived from enriched mantle metasomatized by non-crust-derived agent. Morphology and LAM-ICPMS dating results of zircons in the lam prophyre indicate that they are xenocrysts captured from deep crustal rocks. Most xenocrystic zircons formed at -1.86 Ga, and a few in different Phanerozoic periods. The Paleoproterozoic zircons are of magmatic origin and have similar 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf ratios, indicating that they probably are from the same igneous basement rock. The ages and Hf-isotope compositions of zircons from this basement rock are similar to those of Paleoproterozoic Danzhu granite in the southern Zhejiang Province, but extremely distinguished from the Nanling basement, suggesting that the study area probably is a westward extension part of Paleoproterozoic Wuyishan terrane in the eastern Cathaysia Block. These Paleoproterozoic zircons have low Hf-isotope compositions, characteristic of crustal source. Hf model ages of these zircons and the presence of older inherited cores within them, coupled with available other data reported by previous studies, suggest that the source of Paleoproterozoic magma is Neoarchaean crust, implying the existence of older basement in the Wuyishan terrane. U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of five Phanerozoic zircons indicate that Paleoproterozoic basement underwent multi-reworking occurring in Caledonian, Indosinian and early Yanshanian, respectively. The Caledonian

  8. Boron isotope systematics of tourmaline formation in the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.


    We report here the results of 54 boron isotope analyses of tourmaline associated with the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The ??11B values range from -11.1 to -2.9???, which is almost as great as the range found worldwide in tourmalines from 33 massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites in dominantly clastic metasedimentary terranes. The major control on the overall ??11B values of the Sullivan tourmalinites is the boron source. Potential controls over the large range of the data also include: (1) differences in formation temperatures of the tourmalinites, (2) different stages of tourmaline formation, (3) variations in the proportions of dissolved boron incorporated into the tourmaline (Rayleigh fractionation), (4) seawater entrainment, and (5) post-depositional metamorphism. The boron isotope data at Sullivan are consistent with boron derivation from leaching of footwall clastic sediments. However, the great abundance of tourmaline in the Sullivan deposit suggests that the local clastic sediments were not the sole source of boron, and we argue that non-marine evaporites, buried deep below the orebody, are the most viable source of this additional boron. It is likely that some of the variation in tourmaline ??11B values reflect mixing of boron from these two sources. Comparison of the potential effects of these controls with geologic and other geochemical evidence suggests that major causes for the wide range of ??11B values measured at Sullivan are seawater entrainment and Rayleigh fractionation, although in places, post-depositional alteration and thermal metamorphism were important in determining ??11B values of some of the recrystallized tourmalinites.

  9. Dating prograde fluid pulses during subduction by in situ U-Pb and oxygen isotope analysis (United States)

    Gauthiez-Putallaz, Laure; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg


    The Dora-Maira whiteschists derive from metasomatically altered granites that experienced ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism at ~750 °C and 40 kbar during the Alpine orogeny. In order to investigate the P-T-time-fluid evolution of the whiteschists, we obtained U-Pb ages from zircon and monazite and combined those with trace element composition and oxygen isotopes of the accessory minerals and coexisting garnet. Zircon cores are the only remnants of the granitic protolith and still preserve a Permian age, magmatic trace element compositions and δ18O of ~10 ‰. Thermodynamic modelling of Si-rich and Si-poor whiteschist compositions shows that there are two main fluid pulses during prograde subduction between 20 and 40 kbar. In Si-poor samples, the breakdown of chlorite to garnet + fluid occurs at ~22 kbar. A first zircon rim directly overgrowing the cores has inclusions of prograde phlogopite and HREE-enriched patterns indicating zircon growth at the onset of garnet formation. A second main fluid pulse is documented close to peak metamorphic conditions in both Si-rich and Si-poor whiteschist when talc + kyanite react to garnet + coesite + fluid. A second metamorphic overgrowth on zircon with HREE depletion was observed in the Si-poor whiteschists, whereas a single metamorphic overgrowth capturing phengite and talc inclusions was observed in the Si-rich whiteschists. Garnet rims, zircon rims and monazite are in chemical and isotopic equilibrium for oxygen, demonstrating that they all formed at peak metamorphism at 35 Ma as constrained by the age of monazite (34.7 ± 0.4 Ma) and zircon rims (35.1 ± 0.8 Ma). The prograde zircon rim in Si-poor whiteschists has an age that is within error indistinguishable from the age of peak metamorphic conditions, consistent with a minimum rate of subduction of 2 cm/year for the Dora-Maira unit. Oxygen isotope values for zircon rims, monazite and garnet are equal within error at 6.4 ± 0.4 ‰, which is in line with closed

  10. In situ U-Pb age determination and Nd isotopic analysis of perovskites from kimberlites in southern Africa and Somerset Island, Canada (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Yuan; Yang, Yue-Heng; Mitchell, Roger H.; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Bin


    Determination of the emplacement ages and initial isotopic composition of kimberlite by conventional isotopic methods using bulk rock samples is unreliable as these rocks usually contain diverse clasts of crustal- and mantle-derived materials and can be subject to post-intrusion sub-aerial alteration. In this study, 8 samples from 5 kimberlites in southern Africa and twelve samples from 7 kimberlites from Somerset Island, Canada have been selected for in situ perovskite U-Pb isotopic age determination and Nd isotopic analysis by laser ablation using thin sections and mineral separates. These fresh perovskites occur as primary groundmass minerals with grain-sizes of 10-100 μm. They were formed during the early stage of magmatic crystallization, and record data for the least contaminated or contamination-free kimberlitic magma. U-Pb isotopic data indicate that the majority of the southern Africa kimberlites investigated were emplaced during the Cretaceous with ages of 88 ± 3 to 97 ± 6 Ma, although one sample yielded an Early Paleozoic age of 515 ± 6 Ma. Twelve samples from Somerset Island yielded ages ranging from 93 ± 4 Ma to 108 ± 5 Ma and are contemporaneous with other Cretaceous kimberlite magmatism in central Canada (103-94 Ma). Although whole-rock compositions of the kimberlites from southern Africa have a large range of ɛNd( t) values (- 0.5 to + 5.1), the analysed perovskites show a more limited range of + 1.2 to + 3.1. Perovskites from Somerset Island have ɛNd( t) values of - 0.2 to + 1.4. These values are lower than that of depleted asthenospheric mantle, suggesting that kimberlites might be derived from the lower mantle. This study shows that in situ U-Pb and Nd isotopic analysis of perovskite by laser ablation is both rapid and economic, and serves as a powerful tool for the determination of the emplacement age and potential source of kimberlite magmas.

  11. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian, Northwest Yunnan, China (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Wai-Quan; Bi, Xian-Wu


    The Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit is located in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Tectonically, it lies in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun island arc. The copper mineralization is mainly hosted in quartz-dioritic and quartz-monzonitic porphyries which intruded into clastic-volcanic rocks of the Late Triassic Tumugou Formation. There are several alteration zones including potassic, strong silicific and phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones from inner to outer of the mineralized porphyry bodies. The ages of ore-bearing quartz-monzonitic porphyry and its host andesite are obtained by using the zircon SIMS U-Pb dating method, with results of 218.3 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.31, N = 15) and 218.5 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.91, N = 16), respectively. Meanwhile, the molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a Re-Os isochronal age of 221.4 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.54, N = 5) and a weighted mean age of 219.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.88). They are quite in accordance with the zircon U-Pb ages within errors. Furthermore, all of them are contemporary with the timing of the Garzê-Litang oceanic crust subduction in the Yidun arc. Therefore, the Xuejiping deposit could be formed in a continental margin setting. There are negative ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.8 to -2.1 and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7051 to 0.7059 for the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites. The (206Pb/204Pb)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t and (208Pb/204Pb)t values of the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites vary from 17.899 to 18.654, from 15.529 to 15.626, and from 37.864 to 38.52, respectively, indicative of high radiogenic Pb isotopic features. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS exhibit that there are quite uniform and slightly positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from -0.2 to +3.2 (mostly between 0 and +2), corresponding to relatively young single-stage Hf model ages from 735 Ma to 871 Ma. These isotopic features suggest that the primary magmas of the Xuejiping porphyries and

  12. Comparison of 265 nm Femtosecond and 213 nm Nanosecond Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Pb Isotope Ratio Measurements. (United States)

    Ohata, Masaki; Nonose, Naoko; Dorta, Ladina; Günther, Detlef


    The analytical performance of 265 nm femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) and 213 nm nanosecond laser ablation (ns-LA) systems coupled with multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) for Pb isotope ratio measurements of solder were compared. Although the time-resolved signals of Pb measured by fs-LA-MC-ICPMS showed smoother signals compared to those obtained by ns-LA-MC-ICPMS, similar precisions on Pb isotope ratio measurements were obtained between them, even though their operating conditions were slightly different. The mass bias correction of the Pb isotope ratio measurement was carried out by a comparison method using a Pb standard solution prepared from NIST SRM 981 Pb metal isotopic standard, which was introduced into the ICP by a desolvation nebulizer (DSN) via a dual-sample introduction system, and it was successfully demonstrated for Pb isotope ratio measurements for either NIST 981 metal isotopic standard or solder by fs-LA-MC-ICPMS since the analytical results agreed well with the certified value as well as the determined value within their standard deviations obtained and the expanded uncertainty of the certified or determined value. The Pb isotope ratios of solder obtained by ns-LA-MC-ICPMS also showed agreement with respect to the determined value within their standard deviations and expanded uncertainty. From these results, it was evaluated that the mass bias correction applied in the present study was useful and both LA-MC-ICPMS could show similar analytical performance for the Pb isotope ratio microanalysis of metallic samples such as solder.

  13. 60 Myr records of major elements and Pb-Nd isotopes from hydrogenous ferromanganese crusts: Reconstruction of seawater paleochemistry (United States)

    Frank, M.; O'Nions, R. K.; Hein, J.R.; Banakar, V.K.


    We compare the time series of major element geochemical and Pb- and Nd-isotopic composition obtained for seven hydrogenous ferromanganese crusts from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans which cover the last 60 Myr. Average crust growth rates and age-depth relationships were determined directly for the last about 10 Myr using 10Be/9Be profiles. In the absence of other information these were extrapolated to the base of the crusts assuming constant growth rates and constant initial 10Be/9Be ratios due to the lack of additional information. Co contents have also been used previously to estimate growth rates in Co-rich Pacific and Atlantic seamount crusts (Puteanus and Halbach, 1988). A comparison of 10Be/9Be- and Co-based dating of three Co-rich crusts supports the validity of this approach and confirms the earlier chronologies derived from extrapolated 10Be/9Be-based growth rates back to 60 Ma. Our data show that the flux of Co into Co-poor crusts has been considerably lower. The relationship between growth rate and Co content for the Co-poor crusts developed from these data is in good agreement with a previous study of a wider range of marine deposits (Manheim, 1986). The results suggest that the Co content provides detailed information on the growth history of ferromanganese crusts, particularly prior to 10-12 Ma where the 10Be-based method is not applicable. The distributions of Pb and Nd isotopes in the deep oceans over the last 60 Myr are expected to be controlled by two main factors: (a) variations of oceanic mixing patterns and flow paths of water masses with distinct isotopic signatures related to major paleogeographic changes and (b) variability of supply rates or provenance of detrital material delivered to the ocean, linked to climate change (glaciations) or major tectonic uplift. The major element profiles of crusts in this study show neither systematic features which are common to crusts with similar isotope records nor do they generally show

  14. Major, trace element and isotope geochemistry (Sr-Nd-Pb) of interplinian magmas from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Rolandi, G.


    Major, trace element and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data are reported for representative samples of interplinian (Protohistoric, Ancient Historic and Medieval Formations) activity of Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano during the last 3500 years. Tephra and lavas exhibit significant major, trace element and isotopic variations. Integration of these data with those obtained by previous studies on the older Somma suites and on the latest activity, allows to better trace a complete petrological and geochemical evolution of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius magmatism. Three main groups of rocks are recognized. A first group is older than 12.000 yrs, and includes effusive-explosive activity of Mt. Somma. The second group (8000-2700 yrs B.P.) includes the products emitted by the Ottaviano (8000 yrs. B.P.) and Avellino (3550 yrs B.P.) plinian eruptions and the interplinian activity associated with the Protohistoric Formation. Ancient Historic Formation (79-472 A.D.), Medieval Formation (472-1139 A.D.) and Recent interplinian activity (1631-1944 A.D.) belong to the third group of activity (79-1944 A.D.). The three groups of rocks display distinct positive trends of alkalis vs. silica, which become increasingly steeper with age. In the first group there is an increase in silica and alkalis with time, whereas an opposite tendency is observed in the two younger groups. Systematic variations are also evident among the incompatible (Pb, Zr, Hf, Ta, Th, U, Nb, Rb, Cs, Ba) and compatible elements (Sr, Co, Cr). REE document variable degrees of fractionation, with recent activity displaying higher La/Yb ratios than Medieval and Ancient Historic products with the same degree of evolution. N-MORB normalized multi-element diagrams for interplinian rocks show enrichment in Rb, Th, Nb, Zr and Sm (> *10 N-MORB). Sr isotope ratios are variable, with Protohistoric rocks displaying 87Sr/86Sr= 0.70711-0.70810, Ancient Historic 87Sr/86Sr=0.70665-0.70729, and Medieval 87Sr/86Sr=0.70685-0.70803. Neodymium isotopic

  15. Origin of the granites and related Sn and Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposits in the Pengshan district, Jiangxi Province, South China: constraints from geochronology, geochemistry, mineral chemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-S isotopes (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Luo, Lan; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Ma, Liang


    The Pengshan Sn and Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits are located in the south margin of the Jiujiang-Ruichang (Jiurui) district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in South China. Four large deposits include Huangjinwa, Zengjialong, Jianfengpo, and Zhangshiba, the former three are Sn-dominant deposits which occur as stratiform orebodies in the contact zones of the Pengshan granites and within the country rock strata, whereas Zhangshiba consists of stratiform Pb-Zn orebodies within the Precambrian metasedimentary strata. In this study, we present results on zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace elements, and mineral chemistry as well as Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data of the granites, Pb and S isotopes of both the Sn-dominant and Pb-Zn dominant deposits, and U-Pb dating of cassiterite from the Pengshan district. SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Pengshan granites were emplaced in the Early Cretaceous (129-128 Ma), which is in good agreement with the U-Pb dating (130-128 Ma) of cassiterite from the Jianfengpo Sn deposit. The Pengshan granites consist mainly of weakly peraluminous highly fractionated I-type affinity granitic rocks. Detailed elemental and isotopic data suggest that the granites formed by partial melting of Mesoproterozoic metamorphic basement materials with minor input of mantle-derived melts. The mineral chemistry of biotite demonstrates that the Pengshan granitic magma had a low oxygen fugacity, thereby precluding the tin dominantly partitioning into the rock-forming silicate minerals and favoring accumulation in the exsolved residual liquid during magma crystallization stages. Sulfur isotopes show a relatively heavy sulfur isotopic composition from 5.8 to 17.6 ‰, and no difference for sulfur isotopes between the Sn deposits (5.8-13.4 ‰, Huangjinwa, Zengjialong, Jianfengpo) and the Pb-Zn deposit (mostly 7.1-13.0 ‰, except for one 17.6 ‰, Zhangshiba). The sulfur isotope data of pyrite from the host sedimentary rocks show

  16. Origin of the granites and related Sn and Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposits in the Pengshan district, Jiangxi Province, South China: constraints from geochronology, geochemistry, mineral chemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-S isotopes (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Luo, Lan; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Ma, Liang


    The Pengshan Sn and Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits are located in the south margin of the Jiujiang-Ruichang (Jiurui) district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in South China. Four large deposits include Huangjinwa, Zengjialong, Jianfengpo, and Zhangshiba, the former three are Sn-dominant deposits which occur as stratiform orebodies in the contact zones of the Pengshan granites and within the country rock strata, whereas Zhangshiba consists of stratiform Pb-Zn orebodies within the Precambrian metasedimentary strata. In this study, we present results on zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace elements, and mineral chemistry as well as Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data of the granites, Pb and S isotopes of both the Sn-dominant and Pb-Zn dominant deposits, and U-Pb dating of cassiterite from the Pengshan district. SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Pengshan granites were emplaced in the Early Cretaceous (129-128 Ma), which is in good agreement with the U-Pb dating (130-128 Ma) of cassiterite from the Jianfengpo Sn deposit. The Pengshan granites consist mainly of weakly peraluminous highly fractionated I-type affinity granitic rocks. Detailed elemental and isotopic data suggest that the granites formed by partial melting of Mesoproterozoic metamorphic basement materials with minor input of mantle-derived melts. The mineral chemistry of biotite demonstrates that the Pengshan granitic magma had a low oxygen fugacity, thereby precluding the tin dominantly partitioning into the rock-forming silicate minerals and favoring accumulation in the exsolved residual liquid during magma crystallization stages. Sulfur isotopes show a relatively heavy sulfur isotopic composition from 5.8 to 17.6 ‰, and no difference for sulfur isotopes between the Sn deposits (5.8-13.4 ‰, Huangjinwa, Zengjialong, Jianfengpo) and the Pb-Zn deposit (mostly 7.1-13.0 ‰, except for one 17.6 ‰, Zhangshiba). The sulfur isotope data of pyrite from the host sedimentary rocks show

  17. U-Pb ases and Hf isotopes for detrital zircons from quartzite in the Paleoproterozoic Songshan Group on the southwestern margin of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIWU ChunRong; SUN Yong; YUAN HongLin; WANG HongLiang; ZHONG XingPing; LIU XiaoMing


    In situ U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis were carried out for detrital zircons from quartzite in the Paleoproterozoic Songshan Group on the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The re-sults provide further constraints on the crustal formation and evolution history of NCC. Four 207Pb/206Pb age populations were obtained from 99 analyses, with clusters at ~3.40 Ga, 2.77-2.80 Ga, ~2.50 Ga and 2.34 Ga, respectively. The 3.40 Ga old zircons have similar Hf isotopic compositions to those from Ar-chean rocks in the Jidong and Anshan areas of NCC. However, crustal remnants older than 3.6 Ga have been identified in the southern margin of NCC, the South China Craton, the northwestern part of the Qinling Orogen and its adjacent area. Thus, it is not easy to trace the source rock from which the 3.40 Ga detrital zircons were derived. It can be inferred that the crustal remnants older than 3.40 Ga might have been widely distributed in the North China Craton. The 2.77-2.80 Ga zircons make up a relatively small proportion and have the highest ε (t) values (up to 6.1±1.6), consistent with the Hf isotopic composition of the depleted mantle at 2.83 Ga. Their single-stage Hf model age of 2.83 Ga is close to their crystallized age, suggesting that their source rocks were extracted from the contemporaneous depleted mantle. The ~2.50 Ga zircon grains constitute about 85% of the total grain population and their Hf isotopic compositions indicate major growth of juvenile crust at ~2.50 Ga but minor reworking of ancient crust. The youngest zircon dated in this study gave an U-Pb age of 2337±23 Ma, which can be considered the maximum depositional age of the formation of the Songshan Group.

  18. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (United States)

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang


    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  19. Insights from Pb and O isotopes into along-arc variations in subduction inputs and crustal assimilation for volcanic rocks in Java, Sunda arc, Indonesia (United States)

    Handley, Heather K.; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Gertisser, Ralf; Macpherson, Colin G.; Turner, Simon P.; Zaennudin, Akhmad; Abdurrachman, Mirzam


    New Pb isotope data are presented for Gede Volcanic Complex, Salak and Galunggung volcanoes in West Java, Merbabu and Merapi volcanoes in Central Java and Ijen Volcanic Complex in East Java of the Sunda arc, Indonesia. New O isotope data for Merbabu and new geochemical and radiogenic isotope data (Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb) for three West Javanese, upper crustal, Tertiary sedimentary rocks are also presented. The data are combined with published geochemical and isotopic data to constrain the relative importance of crustal assimilation and subducted input of crustal material in petrogenesis in Java. Also discussed are the significance of limestone assimilation in controlling the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of erupted Javanese rocks and the geochemical impact upon central and eastern Javanese arc rocks due to the subduction of Roo Rise between 105 and 109°E. The negative correlation between Pb isotopes and SiO2, combined with mantle-like δ18O values in Gede Volcanic Complex rocks, West Java, are most likely explained by assimilation of more isotopically-primitive arc rocks and/or ophiolitic crust known to outcrop in West Java. The negative Pb isotope-SiO2 trend cannot be explained by assimilation of the known compositions of the upper crustal rocks. A peak in δ18O whole-rock and mineral values in Central Javanese volcanic rocks (Merbabu and Merapi) combined with along-arc trends in Sr isotope ratios suggest that a different or additional crustal assimilant exerts control on the isotopic composition of Central Javanese volcanic rocks. This assimilant (likely carbonate material) is characterised by high δ18O and high Sr isotope ratio but is not particularly elevated in its Pb isotopic ratio. Once the effects of crustal assimilation are accounted for, strong East to West Java regional variations in Ba concentration, Ba/Hf ratio and Pb isotopic composition are evident. These differences are attributed to heterogeneity in the subducted source input component along the

  20. Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic composition of metasomatised xenoliths from the backarc Patagonian Mantle Wedge: Insights into the origin of the uprising melts (United States)

    Zanetti, Alberto; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio; Hemond, Christope; Cipriani, Anna; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Cingolani, Carlos; Vannucci, Riccardo


    Information about the geochemical composition of metasomatic melts migrating through the Patagonian mantle wedge is provided by the ultramafic xenoliths occurrence of Tres Lagos (TL; lat. 49.13°S, long. 71.18°W), Argentina. Such a locality is placed at the eastern border of the Meseta de la Muerte backarc basaltic plateau, where a post-plateau volcanic diatreme contains mantle xenoliths in both pyroclastites and lavas. Its latitude corresponds with the Northern limit of the Austral Volcanic Arc (AVZ), which is separated from the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) by a gap in the arc magmatism ranging between 49° and 46°30' latitude S. The analysed xenoliths have been distinguished into two groups (Group 1 & 2). Group 1 consists of lherzolites and harzburgites, whereas Group 2 is formed by harzburgites. The texture of the Group 1 lherzolites varies from protogranular to granoblastic to porphyroblastic, whereas Group 1 harzburgites have always granoblastic texture. Group 2 harzburgites have granular texture, which may change to porphyroblastic owing to the random concentration of large olivine and orthopyroxene crystals. The clinopyroxenes (Cpx) from Group 1 lherzolites have PM-normalised REE patterns ranging from LREE-depleted (LaN/SmN= 0.24-0.37), to LREE-enriched (LaN/YbN up to 4.08) and spoon-shaped: the latter have minimum at Pr and Pr-Yb concentrations similar to those shown by the LREE-depleted Cpx. The Cpx from Group 1 harzburgites have lower REE concentrations with respect to the lherzolite ones and their REE patterns vary from HREE-enriched, steadily fractionated, (LaN/YbN = 0.21-0.35, Ybn ~ 1-2) to spoon-shaped (LaN/SmN = 2.81; SmN/YbN = 0.89; YbN ~ 3. The Cpx from the Group 2 harzburgites have convex-upward (LaN/SmN = 0.31; SmN/YbN = 1.50) to LREE-enriched (LaN/YbN = 2.94) patterns. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the Group 1 clinopyroxenes form arrays spanning from DM to the field delimited by the TL basaltic lavas, pointing to EMI end

  1. De-excitation of high spin isomers in the sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 Pb isotope

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, J M; Dionisio, J S; Vieu, C; Vanhorenbeeck, J


    The sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 Pb isotope, produced through different A (b,xn) sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 Pb reactions, where b stands for nuclei such as sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne, and sup 3 sup 1 P, is studied. The half-life of some excited levels being greater than 10 ns, the recoil catcher method is suitable to look into the de-excitation gamma ray and conversion electron spectra of these states. The conversion coefficients are deduced and e sup - -gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence measurements lead to the part of the level scheme de-exciting these isomers. This level scheme is compared to theoretical predictions obtained through a microscopic calculation in a three quasi-particle approximation, using a surface delta interaction with a reduced pairing component. The conclusions are very similar to those previously obtained for sup 1 sup 9 sup 3 Pb.

  2. Origin of the deep fluids in the paleosubduction zones in western Tianshan: Evidence from Pb- and Sr-isotope compositions of high-pressure veins and host rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Dezhi; GAO; Jun; DAI; Tageng; ZOU; Haiyang; XIONG; X


    Fluids in the deep subduction zones play an important role in crust-mantle exchange related to the subduction process. Identification of fluids origin, internal or external, can help us to evaluate the contribution of crust materials to mantle during this process. High-pressure veins, which developed in the western Tianshan HP-metamorphic belt extensively, are the direct products of the fluids in subduction zones. In western Tianshan, high-pressure veins and host rocks have overall Pb- and Sr-isotope compositions. At t = 340 Ma, the high-pressure metamorphic time, the ratios of 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr of high pressure veins are 17.122―18.431, 15.477―15.611, 37.432―38.689 and 0.70529―0.70705, and are 17.605―17.834, 15.508―15.564, 37.080―38.145 and 0.70522―0.70685 for host rocks. However, high-pressure veins show a much larger variation in Pb-isotope compositions than host rocks. Plots of samples are distributed roughly along a line parallel to and far away from the Northern Hemisphere reference line (NHRL) on the plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs 207Pb/204Pb. On the plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs 208Pb/204Pb, plots of data are distributed nearby mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORB) area or along a line parallel to and not far away from NHRL, which shows that the data plots are farther away from MORB and ocean island basalts (OIB) areas on the plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs 207Pb/204Pb than on the plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs 208Pb/204Pb. The compositions of Pb- and Sr-isotopes of these high-pressure metamorphic rocks are between that of enriched mantle 1(EMI) and of sediments or upper crust. A notable characteristic can be seen from plots of Pb-isotope ratio vs Pb-isotope ratio and 206Pb/204Pb vs 87Sr/86Sr that array of plots shows an evident tendency of mixture of two end members. Ratios of Rb/Ba, Ce/Pb, Nb/U and Ta/U of high-pressure veins and host rocks are between that of OIB or MORB and that of continental crust, which indicates that continental crust

  3. The effects of succimer on the absorption of lead in adults determined by using the stable isotope [sup 204]Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.R. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States) Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)); Markowitz, M.E.; Rosen, J.F. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)); Crick, J.; Flegal, A.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States))


    The chelating agent succimer (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccine acid) is orally effective at inducing a urinary lead diuresis and a decrease in blood lead levels in lead poisoned children and adults. However, there are concerns that succimer may increase the absorption of lead from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during treatment, particularly in cases of continuing lead exposure, which would compromise its effectiveness in reducing whole body lead stores. This preliminary study investigated the effects of succimer on the absorption of lead in adults using a stable lead isotopic tracer ([sup 204]Pb). Twelve male subjects were divided into control (no succimer), 10, and 30 mg succimer/kg body wt treatment groups of 4 individuals each. All subjects ingested a single tracer dose (200 [mu]g) of [sup 204]Pb, followed by a single oral dose of placebo (control) or succimer. Whole blood was collected at intervals of 0, 2, 4, and [approx] 26 hr following ingestion of the [sup 204]Pb tracer, and composite urine and feces samples were collected over the duration of the study ([approx] 26 hr). Mean intestinal excretion of [sup 204]Pb was reduced in the succimer-treated groups compared to the control (placebo), whereas urinary diuresis of [sup 204]Pb was higher in the succimer groups. The amount of lead [sup 204]Pb tracer accounted for at the end of the study was lower in the succimer-treated groups. These results suggest that GI lead absorption was enhanced by succimer and that succimer mediated the redistribution of lead from the circulation to other tissues. However, none of the differences between treatment groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05, t test) because of the relatively large within-group variability. This study demonstrates the utility of microgram doses of a stable lead isotopic tracer to assess the efficacy of clinical chelating agents in humans. 39 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Identification of trace metal pollution in urban dust from kindergartens using magnetic, geochemical and lead isotopic analyses (United States)

    Zhu, Zongmin; Sun, Guangyi; Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Yu, Genhua


    In the present study, magnetic measurements were combined with geochemical analysis and stable Pb isotopic ratios to reveal the distribution and origination of trace metal pollutants in kindergarten dusts from a typical urban environment of Wuhan, central China. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) of magnetic properties was more prominent than those of individual metals. The magnetic susceptibility (MS) and trace metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) in this study together with published results from other Chinese cities formed a liner relationship, suggesting that metal contaminants in Chinese urban areas had similar MS to metal ratios, which could be used as an indicator for identification of pollution sources between Chinese cities and the other Asian cities. Stable Pb isotopic ratios (1.1125-1.1734 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.4457-2.4679 for 208Pb/207Pb) in the urban dusts from Wuhan were characterized by higher 208Pb component in comparison with those from other Chinese cities. This result combined with principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that metal pollutants in the dusts were derived from industrial activities and coal combustion, whereas the traffic emissions were no longer a predominant pollution source in urban environment. Our study demonstrated that environmental magnetic methods could not only reveal the overall situation of trace metal contamination, but also prove evidence in the identification of pollution sources.

  5. Vertical distribution of Th-isotope ratios, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs in sediment cores from an estuary affected by anthropogenic releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel, E.G.; Bolivar, J.P. [Dpto Fisica Aplicada, E.P.S. La Rabida, Ctra Palos S/N, Huelva 21819 (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dpto Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Avda, Reina Mercedes, 2, Sevilla 41012 (Spain)


    In an estuary system highly polluted by mining and industrial activities, the sections of sediment cores affected by anthropogenic inputs of U-series radionuclides (due to fertilizer plants releases) were determined through the vertical profiles of Th-isotopic ratio ({sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th). Also, when possible, a modified version of the {sup 210}Pb dating method was applied in the uncontaminated sections of these cores. Using the information provided by the Th-isotopic ratio and {sup 210}Pb methods, we were able to establish confident chronologies, covering the last century, in several of the analysed sediment cores. These chronologies will be used in forthcoming research to study the time evolution of pollutant concentrations in the estuary. Additionally, and based on the established chronologies, we have found that sedimentation rates have drastically increased in some zones of the estuary since the commencement of several industrial activities in the surrounding environment and since the construction of two dikes in the area.

  6. Isotopic Constraints (U, Th, Pb, Sr, Ar) on the Timing of Magma Generation, Storage and Eruption of a Late-Pleistocene Subvolcanic Granite, Alid Volcanic Center, Eritrea (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Charlier, B. L.; Wooden, J. L.; Lanphere, M. A.; Clynne, M. A.; Bullen, T. D.


    Isotopic analyses demonstrate that a shallow granophyric intrusion from the Alid volcanic center (AVC) was generated, intruded and crystallized over a 20,000-year period in the latest Pleistocene. The granophyre is not exposed, but was ejected as unmelted blocks within a ~1 km3 pyroclastic flow deposit around 15 ka and is a subvolcanic equivalent of the erupted rhyolitic pumice (Lowenstern et al., 1997: J Petrol 12, p. 1707-1721). The rock contains 2.59) is 15.2+/- 5.8 ka (all errors are 2 σ ). Two other splits with lower density (thus higher in Na) yielded ages older than 24 ka, and may retain some excess Ar. Thus, the time between intrusion and complete crystallization for the granophyre was Danakil Depression and are found as unmelted lithic xenoliths in lavas and tuffs of the AVC. Pb isotopes also rule out significant assimilation of Precambrian basement during genesis of the young granophyre. Similarly zircon grains, analyzed with the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG, show little evidence for inheritance, with only a single 760 Ma zircon (U-Pb age) that was also petrographically different from the 130 other zircons in the mount. The other zircons yielded SHRIMP 238U230Th disequilibrium ages of Alidpage.html

  7. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes in surficial materials at the Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwestern Alaska: can the mineralizing fingerprint be detected through cover? (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Forni, Francesca


    The Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit is covered by tundra and glacigenic sediments. Pb-Sr-Nd measurements were done on sediments and soils to establish baseline conditions prior to the onset of mining operations and contribute to the development of exploration methods for concealed base metal deposits of this type. Pebble rocks have a moderate range for 206Pb/204Pb = 18.574 to 18.874, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.484 to 15.526, and 208,Pb/204Pb = 38.053 to 38.266. Mineralized granodiorite shows a modest spread in 87Sr/86Sr (0.704354–0.707621) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512639–0.512750). Age-corrected (89 Ma) values for the granodiorite yield relatively unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 207Pb/204Pb 87Sr/86Sr, and positive values of ɛNd (1.00–4.52) that attest to a major contribution of mantle-derived source rocks. Pond sediments and soils have similar Pb isotope signatures and 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd values that resemble the mineralized granodiorites. Glacial events have obscured the recognition of isotope signatures of mineralized rocks in the sediments and soils. Baseline radiogenic isotope compositions, prior to the onset of mining operations, reflect natural erosion, transport and deposition of heterogeneous till sheets that included debris from barren rocks, mineralized granodiorite and sulfides from the Pebble deposit, and other country rocks that pre- and postdate the mineralization events. Isotopic variations suggest that natural weathering of the deposit is generally reflected in these surficial materials. The isotope data provide geochemical constraints to glimpse through the extensive cover and together with other geochemical observations provide a vector to concealed mineralized rocks genetically linked with the Pebble deposit.

  8. The Ellsworth terrane, coastal Maine: Geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd-Pb isotopic composition - Implications for the rifting of Ganderia (United States)

    Schulz, K.J.; Stewart, D.B.; Tucker, R.D.; Pollock, J.C.; Ayuso, R.A.


    The Ellsworth terrane is one of a number of fault-bounded blocks that occur along the eastern margin of Ganderia, the western-most of the peri-Gondwanan domains in the northern Appalachians that were accreted to Laurentia in the Paleozoic. Geologic relations, detrital zircon ages, and basalt geochemistry suggest that the Ellsworth terrane is part of Ganderia and not an exotic terrane. In the Penobscot Bay area of coastal Maine, the Ellsworth terrane is dominantly composed of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanic sequences of the Ellsworth Schist and unconformably overlying Castine Volcanics. We use new U-Pb zircon geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd and Pb isotopes for these volcanic sequences to constrain the petrogenetic history and paleotectonic setting of the Ellsworth terrane and its relationship with Ganderia. U-Pb zircon geochronology for rhyolites indicates that both the Ellsworth Schist (508.6 ?? 0.8 Ma) and overlying Castine Volcanics (503.5 ?? 2.5 Ma) are Middle Cambrian in age. Two tholefitic basalt types are recognized. Type Tb-1 basalt, present as pillowed and massive lava flows and as sills in both units, has depleted La and Ce ([La/Nd]N = 0.53-0.87) values, flat heavy rare earth element (REE) values, and no positive Th or negative Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized diagrams. In contrast, type Th-2 basalt, present only in the Castine Volcanics, has stightly enriched LREE ([La/Yb]N = 1.42-2.92) values and no Th or Th anomalies. Both basalt types have strongly positive ??Nd (500) values (Th-1 = +7.9-+8.6; Th-2 = +5.6-+7.0) and relatively enriched Pb isotopic compositions (206Ph/204Pb = 18.037-19.784; 207/204Pb = 15.531-15.660; 2088Pb/204Pb = 37.810-38.817). The basalts have compositions transitional between recent normal and enriched mid-ocean-ridge basalt, and they were probably derived by partial melting of compositionatly heterogeneous asthenosphenc mantle. Two types of rhyolite also are present. Type R-1 rhyolite, which mostly occurs as tuffs

  9. Chronology of anthropogenic impacts reconstructed from sediment records of trace metals and Pb isotopes in Todos os Santos Bay (NE Brazil). (United States)

    Andrade, R L B; Hatje, V; Masqué, P; Zurbrick, C M; Boyle, E A; Santos, W P C


    The evolution of the impacts of anthropogenic activities in Todos os Santos Bay was evaluated by profiles of trace metals and Pb isotopes determined in sediment cores. Fluxes of metals increased up to 12, 4 and 2 times for Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively, compared to those recorded in the beginning of the 20(th) century. Stable Pb isotopes identified a decommissioned lead smelter and burning of fossil fuels as the main sources of Pb. Most metals showed minor to moderate enrichment factors (EF<4), but Cu and Pb were highly enriched (EF=28 and 6, respectively) at the Aratu harbor. Temporal changes in sediments were associated to different activities, namely Pb smelting, burning of fossil fuels, maritime traffic, petroleum related activities, inputs of domestic effluents, and changes in land uses. The effects of the implementation of environmental policies to improve the waters of the bay could not be identified in the evaluated cores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of the Cenozoic basalts in Southeast China: Insights into their mantle sources and melting processes (United States)

    Sun, Pu; Niu, Yaoling; Guo, Pengyuan; Ye, Lei; Liu, Jinju; Feng, Yuexing


    We analyzed whole-rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the Cenozoic basalts in Southeast China to investigate their mantle source characteristics and melting process. These basalts are spatially associated with three extensional fault systems parallel to the coast line. After correction for the effect of olivine microlites on bulk-rock compositions and the effect of crystal fractionation, we obtained primitive melt compositions for these samples. These primitive melts show increasing SiO2, Al2O3 but decreasing FeO, MgO, TiO2, P2O5, CaO and CaO/Al2O3 from the interior to the coast. Such spatial variations of major element abundances and ratios are consistent with a combined effect of fertile source compositional variation and increasing extent and decreasing pressure of decompression melting from beneath the thick lithosphere in the interior to beneath the thin lithosphere in the coast. These basalts are characterized by incompatible element enrichment but varying extent of isotopic depletion. This element-isotope decoupling is most consistent with recent mantle source enrichment by means of low-degree melt metasomatism that elevated incompatible element abundances without yet having adequate time for isotopic ingrowth in the mantle source regions. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope ratios show significant correlations with Nb/Th, Nb/La, Sr/Sr* and Eu/Eu*, which substantiates the presence of recycled upper continental crustal material in the mantle sources of these basalts. Pb isotope ratios also exhibit spatial variation, increasing from the interior to the coastal area. The significant correlations of major element abundances with Pb isotope ratios indicate that the Pb isotope variations also result from varied extent and pressure of decompression melting. We conclude that the elevated Pb isotope ratios from the interior to coast are consistent with increasing extent of decompression melting of the incompatible element depleted mantle matrix, which

  11. Geochemical proxies of ocean circulation and weathering inputs: Radiogenic isotopes of Nd, Pb, Sr, Hf, and Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Martin, E-mail: [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, Wischhofstrasse 1-3, 24148 Kiel (Germany)


    Marine records of the radiogenic isotope composition of the elements neodymium (Nd), lead (Pb), hafnium (Hf), strontium (Sr), and osmium (Os) allow the reconstruction of past continental weathering inputs on different time scales as a function of their respective oceanic residence times. Sr and Os have oceanic residence times significantly longer than the global mixing time of the ocean and are efficiently mixed on a global scale. Their isotope composition changes on long time scales as a function of plate tectonics and major orogenies, which allows their use as precise stratigraphic tools for the entire Phanerozoic. In contrast, Hf, Pb, and in particular Nd, have residence times on the order of or shorter than the global mixing time of the ocean, which results in distinct isotopic signatures of water masses and allows the reconstruction of past water mass mixing and weathering inputs on both long and short time scales. Here applications of these isotopes systems with a focus on the shorter residence time tracers are reviewed (without claiming to be comprehensive) and problems and potential solutions are discussed.

  12. Subduction Contributions in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Implications from Lava Chemistry and Hf-Nd-Pb Isotopes (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Goldstein, S. L.; Langmuir, C. H.; Gómez-Tuena, A.; Lagatta, A.; Straub, S. M.; Martín Del Pozzo, A.


    Despite thick continental crust, near primitive lavas erupt throughout the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). In order to distinguish and better constrain subduction contributions and effects of crustal contamination, we analyzed samples representing subducting sediments from DSDP Site 487, and Quaternary lavas from stratovolcanoes and cinder cones, including alkaline "high-Nb" lavas from the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field (SCVF) showing negligible subduction signature in its trace element chemistry and representing melts of the mantle wedge. Our primary observations and implications are: (1) The high-Nb SCVF `intraplate' lavas define a linear trend along the "Nd-Hf mantle-crust array", defining the composition of the mantle wedge. (2) Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca stratovolcanoes show the highest Nd and Hf isotope ratios, higher than the `intraplate' lavas, indicating their sources are more "depleted mantle-like" than the regional mantle wedge. (3) The Popo and Toluca chemical and isotopic trends sharply contrast with Pico de Orizaba, which shows classic indications of crustal contamination (e.g. high 207Pb/204Pb, low Nd-Hf isotope ratios), consistent with contamination by local Precambrian crust. (4) Higher Nd-Hf isotopes in Popo and Toluca lavas also correlate with lower Pb isotope ratios, and lower Lu/Hf and Zr/Hf. Together, these data indicate contributions from subducted Pacific oceanic crust and hydrothermal sediment. (5) Popo and Toluca are also enriched in Th/LREE compared with `intraplate' lavas, reflecting subducted sediment contributions. (6) Nd-Hf isotope ratios of hydrothermal sediment from DSDP Site 487 lie on the "seawater array", with high Hf isotope ratios compared to the "mantle-crust array". Popo and Toluca Nd-Hf isotopes display a shallower slope than the "intraplate lava Nd-Hf array", reflecting contributions from hydrothermal sediment. Popocatepetl and Toluca lavas therefore avoid substantial crustal contamination of mantle wedge

  13. Investigation of the concentration and isotopic composition of inputs and outputs of Pb in waters at an upland catchment in NE Scotland. (United States)

    Vinogradoff, Susan I; Graham, Margaret C; Thornton, Gareth J P; Dunn, Sarah M; Bacon, Jeffrey R; Farmer, John G


    As a consequence of the accumulation of anthropogenic Pb in upland catchments, there has been much recent concern about the potential mobilisation and transport of Pb from the soils to receiving waters and also the possible harmful effects that this might have on aquatic biota. This paper presents the findings of a two-year study of Pb behaviour in an organic-rich upland catchment at Glensaugh in NE Scotland. Pb inputs to the catchment were characterised by direct measurements of Pb concentration and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in rain water and interception. Pb outputs from the catchment were calculated from measurements on stream water samples taken from the two main streams, the Cairn Burn and Birnie Burn. The relative contribution of Pb from groundwater and throughflow, under different flow conditions (base flow and high flow), to stream waters was investigated via analysis of springs sourced from groundwater and of waters flowing through the various soil horizons (S (surface), A, B, C, and D), respectively. The outcome of intensive sampling and analysis over the two-year time period was that, even with marked reduction in Pb inputs over the past two decades, the catchment was still acting as a net sink for the current atmospheric deposition. Although the Pb isotopic signature for stream water is very similar to that for the contemporaneous rain water ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.15-1.16), only a small portion of the rain water is transferred directly to stream water. Instead, the Pb input is transferred to the stream waters mainly via groundwater and it was also confirmed that the latter had a similar Pb isotopic signature. From the Pb isotopic measurements on throughflow waters, however, Pb being removed via the streams contained some previously deposited Pb, i.e. mobilisation of a small portion of soil-derived anthropogenic Pb was occurring. These findings are important not only with respect to the source/sink status of the catchment but also for calculation

  14. A simplified method for obtaining high-purity perchlorate from groundwater for isotope analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    vonKiparski, G; Hillegonds, D


    Investigations into the occurrence and origin of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) found in groundwater from across North America have been sparse until recent years, and there is mounting evidence that natural formation mechanisms are important. New opportunities for identifying groundwater perchlorate and its origin have arisen with the utilization of improved detection methods and sampling techniques. Additionally, application of the forensic potential of isotopic measurements has begun to elucidate sources, potential formation mechanisms and natural attenuation processes. Procedures developed appear to be amenable to enable high precision stable isotopic analyses, as well as lower precision AMS analyses of {sup 36}Cl. Immediate work is in analyzing perchlorate isotope standards and developing full analytical accuracy and uncertainty expectations. Field samples have also been collected, and will be analyzed when final qa/qc samples are deemed acceptable.

  15. Authenticity of Benin metalworks evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and lead isotope analyses (United States)

    Fabbri, E.; Soffritti, C.; Merlin, M.; Vaccaro, C.; Garagnani, G. L.


    Two metal plaques and a cock statuette belonging to a private collection and stylistically consistent with the Royal Art of Benin (Nigeria) were investigated in order to verify their authenticity. The characterization of alloys and patinas were carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy, and X-Ray diffraction spectrometry. Furthermore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundances of lead isotopes and to attempt a dating by the measurement of 210Pb/204Pb ratio. The results showed that all three artefacts were mainly composed of low lead-brass alloys, with relatively high concentrations of zinc, antimony, cadmium and aluminum in the solid copper solution. Microstructures were mostly dendritic, typical of as-cast brasses, and characterized by recrystallized non-homogeneous twinned grains in areas corresponding to surface decorations, probably due to multiple hammering steps followed by partial annealing treatments. The matrix was composed of a cored α-Cu solid solution together with non-metallic inclusions, lead globules and Sn-rich precipitates in interdendritic spaces. On the surface of all metalworks, both copper and zinc oxides, a non-continuous layer of sulphur-containing contaminants and chloride-containing compounds, were identified. The lead isotope results were consistent with brasses produced shortly before or after 1900 CE. Overall, the data obtained by different techniques supported the hypothesis that the three artefacts were not authentic.

  16. Historical changes of the anthropogenic impact in a coastal lagoon: Pb isotopes and trace elements on mussel`s fleshes and shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labonne, M.; Othman, D.B.; Luck, J.M. [Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Geofluides, Bassins, Eaux, Montpellier (France)


    Molluscs are known to concentrate metals and are used as bioindicators in many programs of coastal survey. The aims of this study were: (1) to better understand the spatial and temporal variations of metals in a greatly anthropized lagoon (Thau, S France) by using concentrations and Pb isotopes in mussel flesh; (2) to compare present and past environment and the different sources of local Pb in recent mussel shells and ones from the Roman empire. Young mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the sea were introduced at various locations in the lagoon. The ancient shells came from a Roman villa on the lagoon coast. We compare their isotopic compositions to different sources present on the watershed such as rocks, road, harbour, ancient lead castings or Spanish and English ingots. Concentrations of trace metals were determined directly by ICP-MS after proper dilution and the isotopic compositions was determined on a VG Sector mass spectrometer. The Pb concentration variations are difficult to separate from weight variations so we use isotopic compositions for determination of lead sources. The Pb isotopic composition of the flesh define nice alignments in {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb vs {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb diagram with season, which can be explained by two-component mixtures. However, while one end-member remains quite stable and influenced by road network, the other one shifts to more radiogenic values indicating either a variable origin, or varying proportions of a third component. The ancient shells have more radiogenic isotopes than the current shells but shift towards ancient lead castings and ingots signature. Variations of Pb ratios in the ancient shells can be roughly correlated with age and the evolution of population density around the lagoon over the centuries

  17. Impact of hydrothermal alteration on the U-Pb isotopic system of zircons from the Fangcheng syenites in the Qinling orogen, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Zhiwei; WANG Qiang; BAI Guodian; ZHAO Zhenhua


    Disturbance of the zircon U-Pb isotopic system has been investigated extensively, but mostly in lab, in the last decades. Here, we reported a field-based study on intensive sericitization, K-feldsparthization and the impacts of mylonitization on zircons from the Fangcheng syenites.The Fangcheng syenites occur in the eastern part of the Qinling orogen and consist mainly of aegirine-augite syenite, aegirine nepheline syenite, biotite syenite and hornblende nepheline syenite. Zircons from the slightly sericitized aegirine augite syenite are colorless, transparent crystals and exhibit well-developed oscillatory and sector zoning on the cathodoluminescence (CL) images which are typical of magmatic zircons from alkaline rocks. Zircon U-Pb determinations by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) showed that the syenite was formed in Neoproterozoic time, the weighted average of 206Pb/238U ages is 844.3±1.6 Ma (MSWD=0.86). In contrast, the hydrothermally altered zircons (hydrothermal zircon) from the intensively sericitized, K-feldsparthized, and weakly mylonitized aegirine augite syenite are conglomerates, yellowish to brown in color, generally translucent and internally textureless. The CL and backscatter electron (BSE) images of hydrothermal zircons exhibit fractured, textureless or mosaic textures, and occasionally show "sponge texture" with the veinlets and inclusions of K-feldspar; however, relicts of magmatic oscillatory zoning can still be discerned locally in individual grains. LA-ICPMS analyses of the hydrothermal zircons demonstrated that the zircons are chemically inhomogeneous, with enhanced and widely varied Pb, U, and Th contents. The U and Th contents of the hydrothermal zircons are estimated to be 32×10-6-1550×10-6 and 188×10-6-4059×10-6, respectively, with Th/U ratios within the range of 0.7-44.9. 206Pb/238U apparent ages of the hydrothermal zircons are negatively correlated with the contents of U, and radiogenic and

  18. Major element, trace element, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope studies of Cenozoic basalts from the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN QuanShu; SHI XueFa; WANG KunShan; BU WenRui; XIAO Long


    The whole rock K-Ar ages of basalts from the South China Sea basin vary from 3.8 to 7.9 Ma, which suggest that intra-plate volcanism after the cessation of spreading of the South China Sea (SCS) is comparable to that in adjacent regions around the SCS, i.e., Leiqiong Peninsula, northern margin of the SCS, Indochina block, and so on. Based on detailed petrographic studies, we selected many fresh basaltic rocks and measured their major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions.Geochemical characteristics of major element and trace element show that these basaltic rocks belong to alkali basalt magma series, and are similar to OIB-type basalt. The extent of partial melting of mantle rock in source region is very low, and magma may experience crystallization differentiation and cumulation during the ascent to or storing in the high-level magma chamber. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of these basaltic rocks imply an inhomogeneous mantle below the South China Sea. The nature of magma origin has a two end-member mixing model, one is EM2 (Enriched Mantle 2) which may be originated from mantle plume, the other is DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle). Pb isotopic characteristics show the Dupal anomaly in the South China Sea, and combined with newly found Dupal anomaly at Gakkel ridge in Arctic Ocean, this implies that Dupal anomaly is not only limited to South Hemisphere. In variation diagrams among Sr, Nd and Pb, the origin nature of mantle below the SCS is similar to those below Leiqiong peninsula, northern margin of the SCS and Indochina peninsula, and is different from those below north and northeast China. This study provides geochemical constraints on Hainan mantle plume.

  19. Trophic structure in a seabird host-parasite food web: insights from stable isotope analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gómez-Díaz

    Full Text Available Ecological studies on food webs rarely include parasites, partly due to the complexity and dimensionality of host-parasite interaction networks. Multiple co-occurring parasites can show different feeding strategies and thus lead to complex and cryptic trophic relationships, which are often difficult to disentangle by traditional methods. We analyzed stable isotope ratios of C ((13C/(12C, delta(13C and N ((15N/(14N, delta(15N of host and ectoparasite tissues to investigate trophic structure in 4 co-occurring ectoparasites: three lice and one flea species, on two closely related and spatially segregated seabird hosts (Calonectris shearwaters. delta(13C isotopic signatures confirmed feathers as the main food resource for the three lice species and blood for the flea species. All ectoparasite species showed a significant enrichment in delta(15N relatively to the host tissue consumed (discrimination factors ranged from 2 to 5 per thousand depending on the species. Isotopic differences were consistent across multiple host-ectoparasite locations, despite of some geographic variability in baseline isotopic levels. Our findings illustrate the influence of both ectoparasite and host trophic ecology in the isotopic structuring of the Calonectris ectoparasite community. This study highlights the potential of stable isotope analyses in disentangling the nature and complexity of trophic relationships in symbiotic systems.

  20. Characteristics of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of hydrothermal Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides at the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Baoju; ZENG Zhigang; WANG Xiaoyuan


    Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides dredged at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea–Australia–Canada–Manus) hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin, have87Sr/86Sr=0.708 079–0.708 581;εNd=5.149 833–6.534 826;208Pb/204Pb=38.245–38.440;207Pb/204Pb=15.503–15.560;206Pb/204Pb=18.682–18.783.87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios are relatively homogeneous and close to the value of the surrounding seawater (0.709 16). The content of Sr in the samples contributed by seawater was estimated to be 76.7%–83.1% of total amount. The mixing temperature of hydrothermal fluids and seawater were ranging from 53.2°C to 72.2°C and the hydrothermal activities were unstable when the samples precipitated. TheεNd values of all the samples are positive, which differ from the values of ferromanganese nodules (crusts) with hydrogenic origin. Nd was mainly derived from substrate rocks leached by hydrothermal circulation and preserved the hydrothermal signature. Pb isotopic compositions of most samples show minor variability except Sample #9–2 that has relatively high values of Pb isotopes. The Pb may be derived from the Eastern Manus Basin rocks leached by the hydrothermal fluid. The slightly lower208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb values of the samples indicated that the hydrothermal circulation in PACMANUS was not entire and sufficient, or that hydrothermal circulation had transient changes in the past. Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides in the samples preserved the heterogeneities of local rocks.

  1. Mixing of water in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy, analysed through stable isotope investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrella Emma


    Full Text Available Mixing of water was analysed in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy, through stable isotope investigations (18O,δ2H. The input signal (rainwater was compared with the isotopic content of a 35-meter groundwater vertical prof ile, over a 1-year period. Within the studied aquifer, recharge and f low are diffuse in a well-connected f issure network.At the test site, the comparison between input and groundwater isotopic signals illustrates that no eff icient mixing takes place in the whole unsaturated zone, between the fresh inf iltration water and the stored water.When analysing the stable isotope composition of groundwater, signif icant variations were observed above the threshold elevation of 1062 m asl, while a nearly constant composition was observed below the same threshold. Thus, temporal variations in stable isotope composition of rainwater are completely attenuated just in the deeper phreatic zone.On the whole, taking into consideration also the results of previous studies in the same area, the investigations showed that physical characteristics of the carbonate bedrock, as well as aquifer heterogeneity, are factors of utmost importance in inf luencing the complete mixing of water. These f indings suggest a more complex scenario at catchment scale.

  2. Pb-isotopic Features of Primitive Rocks from Hess Deep: Distinguishing between EPR and Cocos-Nazca Mantle Source(s) (United States)

    Jean, M. M.; Falloon, T.; Gillis, K. M.


    We have acquired high-precision Pb-isotopic signatures of primitive lithologies (basalts/gabbros) recovered from IODP Expedition 345.The Hess Deep Rift, located in the vicinity of the Galapagos triple junction (Cocos, Nazca, and Pacific), is viewed as one the best-studied tectonic windows into fast-spreading crust because a relatively young (<1.5 Ma) cross section of oceanic crust. This allows for (1) characterization of the mantle source(s) at Hess Deep, (2) insight into the extent of isotopic homogeneity or heterogeneity in the area, and (3) constrain the relative contributions from the intruding Cocos-Nazca spreading center. The observed Pb-isotopic variation at Hess Deep covers almost the entire range of EPR MORB (10°N to -5°S). Hess Deep samples range from 208Pb (37.3-38.25), 207Pb (15.47-15.58), 206Pb (17.69-18.91). These compositions suggest that this part of Hess Deep mantle is no more isotopically homogeneous than EPR mantle. Two distinct arrays are also observed: 208Pb-enriched (r2=0.985; n=30) and 208Pb-depleted (r2=0.988; n=6). The 208Pb/204Pb isotopes indicates that the Pb-source for some of the samples at Hess Deep had very low Th/U ratios, whereas other areas around the Galapagos microplate seem to have more "normal" ratios. These trends are less apparent when viewed with 207Pb-isotopes. Instead, the majority of basalts and gabbros follow the NHRL, however, at the depleted-end of this array a negative excursion to more enriched compositions is observed. This negative but linear trend could signify an alteration trend or mixing with an EMI-type mantle source, yet this mixing is not observed with 208Pb. This trend is also observed at Pito Deep, which has similar origins to Hess Deep (Barker et al., 2008; Pollack et al., 2009). The Galapagos region has been considered a testing ground for mixing of HIMU, Enriched Mantle, and Depleted Mantle reservoirs (e.g., Schilling et al., 2002). According to our data, however, an EPR-component must also be

  3. Systematic decay studies of even-even $132-138$^Nd, $144-158$^Gd, $176-196$^Hg and $192-198$^Pb isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P


    The alpha and cluster decay properties of the $132-138$^Nd, $144-158$^Gd, $176-196$^Hg and $192-198$^Pb even-even isotopes in the two mass regions A = 130-158 and A = 180-198 are analysed using the Coulomb and Proximity Potential Model. On examining the clusters at corresponding points in the cold valleys (points with same A_2) of the various isotopes of a particular nucleus we find that at certain mass numbers of the parent nuclei, the clusters emitted are getting shifted to the next lower atomic number. It is interesting to see that the change in clusters appears at those isotopes where a change in shape is occurring correspondingly. Such a change of clusters with shape change is studied for the first time in cluster decay. The alpha decay half lives of these nuclei are computed and these are compared with the available experimental alpha decay data. It is seen that the two are in good agreement. On making a comparison of the alpha half lives of the normal deformed and super deformed nuclei, it can be seen ...

  4. Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes in seamount basalts from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and Kodiak-Bowie seamount chain, northeast Pacific (United States)

    Hegner, E.; Tatsumoto, M.


    Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios and their parent/daughter element concentrations for 28 basalts from 10 hotspot and nonhotspot seamounts are reported. Nd and Sr isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51325-0.51304; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70237-0.70275) plot in the envelope for Juan de Fuca-Gorda ridge basalts with tholeiitic basalts showing more depleted sources and a better negative correlation than transitional to alkalic basalts. Pb isotopic ratios in tholeiitic and alkalic basalts overlap (206Pb/204Pb = 18.29-19.44) and display a trend toward more radiogenic Pb in alkalic basalts. The isotopic data for hotspot and nonhotspot basalts are indistinguishable and correlate broadly with rock composition, implying that they are controlled by partial melting. The isotopic variation in the seamount basalts is about 60% (Nd-Sr) to 100% (Pb) of that in East Pacific Rise basalts and is interpreted as a lower limit for the magnitude of mantle heterogeneity in the northeast Pacific. The data indicate absence of a chemically distinct plume component in the linear seamount chains and strongly suggest an origin from mid-ocean ridge basalt-like east Pacific mantle. -Authors

  5. Fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope evidence for the origin of the Ahangran Pb-Ag deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou


    sulfur isotope analysis. The sulfur isotopes in sulfides and sulfates were run on a Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus XP IRMS mass spectrometer. The analytical uncertainty for δ34S is ±0.2‰. Results and Discussion The main types of fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite are as follows: I: dominant liquid + less vapor (L+V; II: dominant vapor + less liquid (V + L; III: liquid + vapor+ CO2 (L+V+CO2 (L+V; IV: CO2 (L+V; V: liquid + vapor + sylvite (L+V+Sy. Homogenization temperatures of primary fluid inclusions indicate that mineralization occurred at temperatures ranging from 130 to 320 °C (ave., 200°C and their salinites range from 10 to 15 wt % NaCl equiv. The temperatures and salinities of the mineralizing fluids of the Ahangaran deposit are similar to the Irish type Zn-Pb deposits, and suggest a similar origin. The δ34S values of pyrite and galena are within the range of -25.5 to +11.6 ‰ and -6.3 to -8.5 ‰, respectively and for barite are in the range of 26 to 27.2 ‰. These values indicate that the δ34SH2S values of fluids in that deposited the pyrite and galena are within the range of -6.4 to-2.9 ‰ and 9.4 to 27.9 ‰, respectively. The δ34S values of marine sulfate were 13 to 20 ‰ during the Cretaceous (Hoefs, 2009. The δ34S values of barite are near to that of marine sulfate in the Cretaceous which indicate that the sulfate of the barite may have a marine origin. On the other hand, the δ34SH2S values of galena lie within a narrow range, suggesting that the main source of sulfur may be from thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Acknowledgments In this research, we thank Sormak Mines Company for its support during field work. We also thank Sormak Mines Managers, especially Mr. Khakbaz for his cooperation and support of this research. Parts of this research were supported by the research department of Bu-Ali Sina University. We also wish to express our appreciation of the isotopic analyses by Queen's University, Canada. References Bodnar, R.J. and Vityk

  6. Uranium-Lead Zircon Ages and Sr, Nd, and Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Selected Plutonic Rocks from Western Idaho (United States)

    Unruh, Daniel M.; Lund, Karen; Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.


    Across the Salmon River suture in western Idaho, where allochthonous Permian to Cretaceous oceanic rocks are juxtaposed against Proterozoic North American rocks, a wide variety of plutonic rocks are exposed. Available data indicate much variation in composition, source, and structural state of these plutons. The plutonic rocks were long described as the western border zone of the Cretaceous Idaho batholith but limited pre-existing age data indicate more complicated origins. Because the affinity and age of the plutonic rocks cannot be reliably determined from field relations, TIMS U-Pb dating in conjunction with Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic studies of selected plutons across the suture in western Idaho were undertaken. The data indicate three general groups of plutons including (1) those that intruded the island arc terranes during the Triassic and Jurassic, those that intruded near the western edge of oceanic rocks along the suture in the Early Cretaceous, and the plutons of the Idaho batholith that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks in the Late Cretaceous. Plutons that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks commonly include xenocrystic zircons and in several cases, ages could not be determined. The least radiogenic Sr and most radiogenic Nd are found among the Blue Mountains superterrane island arc samples. Suture-zone plutons have isotopic characteristics that span the range between Idaho batholith and island arc samples but mostly follow island arc signatures. Plutons of the Idaho batholith have the most radiogenic initial Pb and Sr ratios and the least radiogenic Nd of the samples analyzed.

  7. Lead-isotopic, sulphur-isotopic, and trace-element studies of galena from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb ores, polymetallic veins from the Gory Swietokrzyskie MTS, and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, Poland (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Vaughn, R.B.; Gent, C.A.; Hopkins, R.T.


    Lead-isotopic data on galena samples collected from a paragenetically constrained suite of samples from the Silesian-Cracow ore district show no regional or paragenetically controlled lead-isotopic trends within the analytical reproducibility of the measurements. Furthermore, the new lead-isotopic data agree with previously reported lead-isotopic results (R. E. Zartman et al., 1979). Sulfur-isotopic analyses of ores from the Silesian-Cracow district as well as from vein ore from the Gory Swietokrzyskie Mts. and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, when coupled with trace-element data from the galena samples, clearly discriminate different hydrothermal ore-forming events. Lead-isotopic data from the Permian and Miocene evaporite deposits in Poland indicate that neither of these evaporite deposits were a source of metals for the Silesian-Cracow district ores. Furthermore, lead-isotopic data from these evaporite deposits and the shale residues from the Miocene halite samples indicate that the crustal evolution of lead in the central and western European platform in southern Poland followed normal crustal lead-isotopic growth, and that the isotopic composition of crustal lead had progressed beyond the lead-isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores by Permian time. Thus, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary flysch rocks can be eliminated as viable source rocks for the metals in the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The uniformity of the isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores, when coupled with the geologic evidence that mineralization must post-date Late Jurassic faulting (E. Gorecka, 1991), constrains the geochemical nature of the source region. The source of the metals is probably a well-mixed, multi-cycle molasse sequence of sedimentary rocks that contains little if any Precambrian metamorphic or granitic clasts (S. E. Church, R. B. Vaughn, 1992). If ore deposition was post Late Jurassic (about 150 m. y.) or later

  8. Metal extent in blood of livestock from Dandora dumping site, Kenya: Source identification of Pb exposure by stable isotope analysis. (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishii, Chihiro; Yohannes, Yared B; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ishizuka, Mayumi


    Nairobi city in Kenya produces 2000 tons/day of garbage, and most of it is dumped onto the Dandora dumping site, home to a quarter-million residents. This study was conducted (1) to assess the contamination levels of nine metals and a metalloid (arsenic) in the blood of pigs, goats, sheep and cattle from Dandora, and (2) to identify a possible source of lead (Pb) pollution. Cadmium (Cd, 0.17-4.35 μg/kg, dry-wt) and Pb (90-2710 μg/kg) levels in blood were generally high, suggesting human exposure to Cd through livestock consumption and Pb poisoning among pigs (2600 μg/kg) and cattle (354 μg/kg). Results of Pb isotope ratios indicated that the major exposure route might differ among species. Our results also suggested a possibility that the residents in Dandora have been exposed to the metals through livestock consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Source components and magmatic processes in the genesis of Miocene to Quaternary lavas in western Turkey: constraints from HSE distribution and Hf-Pb-Os isotopes (United States)

    Aldanmaz, Ercan; Pickard, Megan; Meisel, Thomas; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Sayıt, Kaan; Şen, Pınar; Hanan, Barry B.; Furman, Tanya


    Hf-Pb-Os isotope compositions and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance variations are used to evaluate the mantle source characteristics and possible effects of differentiation processes in lavas from western Turkey, where the eruption of Late Miocene to Quaternary OIB-type intraplate mafic alkaline lavas followed pre-Middle Miocene convergent margin-type volcanism. Concentrations of Os, Ir, and Ru (IPGE) in the OIB-type intraplate lavas decrease with fractionation for primitive melts (MgO > 10 wt%), suggesting that these elements reside predominantly in olivine and associated HSE retaining trace phases and behave compatibly during olivine-dominated fractionation. Fractional crystallization trends indicate distinctly lower bulk partition coefficients for IPGE in more evolved lavas, possibly reflecting a change in the fractionating assemblages. Pd and Re in the primitive melts display negative correlations with MgO, demonstrating moderately incompatible behavior of these elements during fractionation, while the significantly scattered variation in Pt against MgO may indicate the effects of micronuggets of a Pt-rich alloy. Os-rich alkaline primary lavas (>50 ppt Os) exhibit a limited range of 187Os/188Os (0.1361-0.1404), with some xenolith-bearing lavas displaying depletions in 187Os/188Os (0.1131-0.1232), suggesting slight compositional modification of primitive melts through contamination with highly depleted, Os-rich mantle lithosphere. More radiogenic Os isotope ratios (187Os/188Os > 0.1954) in the evolved lavas reflect contamination of the magmas by high187Os/188Os crustal material during shallow differentiation. The OIB-type lavas show limited variations in Hf and Pb isotopes with 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282941-0.283051, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.683-19.091, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.579-15.646, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.550-38.993; 176Hf/177Hf ratios correlate negatively with 208Pb*/206Pb*, suggesting the effects of similar mantle processes on the evolution of time-integrated Th/U and Lu

  10. Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope characteristics of synorogenic lower crust-derived granodiorites (Central Damara orogen, Namibia) (United States)

    Simon, I.; Jung, S.; Romer, R. L.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Berndt, J.


    The 547 ± 7 Ma old Achas intrusion (Damara orogen, Namibia) includes magnesian, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, calcic to calc-alkalic granodiorites and ferroan, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic leucogranites. For the granodiorites, major and trace element variations show weak if any evidence for fractional crystallization whereas some leucogranites are highly fractionated. Both, granodiorites and leucogranites are isotopically evolved (granodiorites: εNdinit: - 12.4 to - 20.5; TDM: 2.4-1.9; leucogranites: εNdinit: - 12.1 to - 20.6, TDM: 2.5-2.0), show similar Pb isotopic compositions, and may be derived from late Archean to Paleoproterozoic crustal source rocks. Comparison with melting experiments and simple partial melting modeling indicate that the granodiorites may be derived by extensive melting (> 40%) at 900-950 °C under water-undersaturated conditions (produce anhydrous granodioritic melts.

  11. Use of isotope ratios to assess sources of Pb and Zn dispersed in the environment during mining and ore processing within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgopolova, A. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Weiss, D.J. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Seltmann, R. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Kober, B. [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mason, T.F.D. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Coles, B. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Stanley, C.J. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)


    Element concentrations, element ratios and Pb and Zn isotope data are reported for different geologic samples (barren and ore-bearing granites and host rocks), technogenic products (ore concentrates and tailings) and biologic samples (lichens and birch leaves) from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining district, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia, with the aim to trace the sources of Pb and Zn at a local level within the mining site. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptors of contamination within the mining site. Pb/Zr and Zn/Zr values indicated Pb and Zn enrichment relative to host rocks. Zn isotope data of 15 geologic and 11 lichen samples showed different Zn isotopic signatures with the total range for the geologic suite of -0.4 per mille to +1.2 per mille and for lichens of +0.4 per mille to +1.4 per mille in {delta} {sup 66}Zn relative to Lyon JMC Zn standard. The source of isotopically heavy Zn within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site could be potentially associated with long-range atmospheric aerosols that also contributed Pb to the studied mining site. Our results demonstrated that Zn isotopes might be used as new tools for Zn source assessment.

  12. A combined Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic study of Mg-suite norite 78238: Further evidence for early differentiation of the Moon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunson, J; E.Borg, L; Nyquist, L E; Asmerom, Y


    Lunar Mg-suite norite 78238 was dated using the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic systems in order to constrain the age of lunar magma ocean solidification and the beginning of Mg-suite magmatism, as well as to provide a direct comparison between the three isotopic systems. The Sm-Nd isotopic system yields a crystallization age for 78238 of 4334 {+-} 37 Ma and an initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value of -0.27 {+-} 0.74. The age-initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} (T-I) systematics of a variety of KREEP-rich samples, including 78238 and other Mg-suite rocks, KREEP basalts, and olivine cumulate NWA 773, suggest that lunar differentiation was completed by 4492 {+-} 61 Ma assuming a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir bulk composition for the Moon. The Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of 78238 were disturbed by post-crystallization processes. Nevertheless, selected data points yield two Rb-Sr isochrons. One is concordant with the Sm-Nd crystallization age, 4366 {+-} 53 Ma. The other is 4003 {+-} 95 Ma and is concordant with an Ar-Ar age for 78236. The {sup 207}Pb-{sup 206}Pb age of 4333 {+-} 59 Ma is concordant with the Sm-Nd age. The U-Pb isotopic systematics of 78238 yield linear arrays equivalent to younger ages than the Pb-Pb system, and may reflect fractionation of U and Pb during sample handling. Despite the disturbed nature of the U-Pb systems, a time-averaged {mu} ({sup 238}U/{sup 204}Pb) value of the source can be estimated at 27 {+-} 30 from the Pb-Pb isotopic systematics. Because KREEP-rich samples are likely to be derived from source regions with the highest U/Pb ratios, the relatively low {mu} value calculated for the 78238 source suggests the bulk Moon does not have an exceedingly high {mu} value.

  13. Dust provenance in NEEM deep ice core from Greenland over the past 30,000 years using Pb and Sr isotopic composition (United States)

    Han, C.; Han, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Hong, S.; Hur, S. D.


    Pb and Sr isotopic compositions and Pb and Ba concentrations are reported in 71 sections of the 2,540-m-long deep ice core drilled at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) site, Greenland (77.45o N, 51.06 oW, surface elevation 2,450 m). The depth of the section ranged from 1,215 m to 1,671 m, corresponding to the period of 8,000 yr BP (Holocene) to 30,800 yr BP (Marine Isotopic Stage 2.2). Samples were decontaminated and analyzed using a thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) (TRITON, Thermo Scientific) under class 10 clean conditions. Concentrations of Pb and 206Pb/207Pb ratios are observed to have strongly varied with changing climate. Pb concentrations were low ( -40‰) and much higher up to 250 pg/g during cold climatic phases (δ18O < -40‰). Pronounced variation in 206Pb/207Pb ratios is observed during warm climatic phases, while a relatively small variation in 206Pb/207Pb ratios is observed during cold climatic phases. The variation in 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratios (also 87Sr/86Sr) linked to climatic conditions reflects changes in the source areas of dust deposited in Greenland. The combination of Pb and Sr isotopic ratios suggest that Asia (the Northern Chinese and Gobi deserts) is identified as the primary contributor to the Greenland dust during the period from 30,000 yr BP to 20,000 yr BP. Interestingly, our data represent that the Saharan desert was an important source of dust in Greenland between 21,000 yr BP and 16,000 yr BP, probably due to an increase in northward Saharan dust transport during this period of intensified atmospheric circulation in high northern latitudes. After the last deglaciation, a wide range of the isotopic compositions is observed, suggesting the exposure of other potential source areas in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere such as Canada and Spitsbergen.

  14. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the Early Paleozoic mafic-ultramafic dykes and basalts from South Qinling belt and their implications for mantle composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Late Early Paleozoic mafic-ultramafic dykes and volcanic rocks from the South Qinling belt are characterized by eNd( t ) = +3.28―+5.02, (87Sr/86Sr)i=0.70341―0.70555, (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.256―18.993, (207Pb/204Pb)i= 15.505―15.642, (208Pb/204Pb)i=37.125―38.968, △8/4=21.18―774.43, △7/4=8.11―18.82. These charac- teristics suggest that they derived from a Middle Neoproterozoic mantle with isotopic compositions of mixed HIMU, EMII and minor EMI components. We interpret that these rocks were melting products of depleted mantle modified by subducted ancient oceanic crust and continental margin sediments along the northern margin of Yangtze block during Early Neoproterozoic.

  15. Multi isotopic characterization (Li-Cu-Zn-Pb) of waste waters pollution in a small watershed (Loire River basin, France) (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.


    The goal of this study is to use multi-isotopic signature to track the pollution in surface waters, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in the environment. In the present study, we investigate waste water releases from a hospital water treatment plant and its potential impact in a small river basin near Orléans in France (Egoutier watershed: 15 km²and 5 km long). We decided to monitor this small watershed which is poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is located in a pristine area (forested area), while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. A sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Isotopic ratios were measured using a MC-ICP-MS at BRGM, after a specific protocol of purification for each isotopic systematics. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters along the main course of the stream. The waste water signal is very different from the natural background with significant heavy lithium contribution (high δ7Li). Lead isotopic compositions are rather homogenous in river waters and sediments with values close to geologic background. For Zn, the sediments with high concentrations and depleted isotopic compositions (low δ66Zn), typical of an anthropic pollution, are strongly impacted. The analyses of Cu isotopes in sediments show the impact of waster waters, but also isotopic fractionations due to redox processes in the watershed. To better understand these processes controlling the release of metals in water, sequential extractions on sediments are in progress under laboratory conditions and will provide important constraints for metal distribution in this river basin.

  16. Measurements of competing structures in neutron-deficient Pb isotopes by employing Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Rahkila, P J; Srebrny, J; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Syed naeemul, H; Peura, P J; Siem, S; Hadynska-klek, K; Habs, D; Napiorkowski, P J; Diriken, J V J; Iwanicki, J S

    Coulomb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient Pb nuclei are proposed. Even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei will be post-accelerated at REX-ISOLDE in order to measure transition probabilities and quadrupole moments for the first excited states. In combination with results obtained in lifetime measurements, this will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the first time for 2$^{+}$ states in the even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei.

  17. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and REE geochemistry constrains on the provenance and tectonic setting of Indochina Block in the Paleozoic (United States)

    Wang, Ce; Liang, Xinquan; Foster, David A.; Fu, Jiangang; Jiang, Ying; Dong, Chaoge; Zhou, Yun; Wen, Shunv; Van Quynh, Phan


    In situ U-Pb geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and REE geochemical analyses of detrital zircons from Cambrian-Devonian sandstones in the Truong Son Belt, central Vietnam, are used to provide the information of provenance and tectonic evolution of the Indochina Block. The combined detrital zircon age spectra of all of the samples ranges from 3699 Ma to 443 Ma and shows with dominant age peaks at ca. 445 Ma and 964 Ma, along with a number of age populations at 618-532 Ma, 1160-1076 Ma, 1454 Ma, 1728 Ma and 2516 Ma. The zircon age populations are similar to those from time equivalent sedimentary sequences in continental blocks disintegrated from the East Gondwana during the Phanerozoic. The younger zircon grains with age peaks at ca. 445 Ma were apparently derived from middle Ordovician-Silurian igneous and metamorphic rocks in Indochina. Zircons with ages older than about 600 Ma were derived from other Gondwana terrains or recycled from the Precambrian basement of the Indochina Block. Similarities in the detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest that Paleozoic strata in the Indochina, Yangtze, Cathaysia and Tethyan Himalayas has similar provenance. This is consistent with other geological constrains indicating that the Indochina Block was located close to Tethyan Himalaya, northern margin of the India, and northwestern Australia in Gondwana.

  18. U-Pb isotopic geochemistry of the post-collisional mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Dabie Mountains--Crust-mantle interaction and LOMU component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄方; 李曙光; 周红英; 李惠民


    The U-Pb isotope geochemical study of the pyroxenite-gabbro intrusion in the Dabie Mountains shows that the post-collisional mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Dabie Mountains are characterized by relative high Pb contents, low U contents and low U/Pb ratios. These characters may be results of interaction between lithosphere or depleted asthenospheric mantle (DMM) and lower crust, but have nothing to do with mantle plume and subducted continental crust. It was first observed that some samples with lower 206Pb/204Pb and higher 207Pb/204Pb ratios show typical characters of the LOMU component. The Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic tracing shows that three components are needed in the source of the Zhujiapu pyroxenite-gabbro intrusion. They could be old enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle (LOMU component), lower crust and depleted asthenospheric mantle. The crust-mantle interaction process producing primitive magma of post-collisional mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Dabie Mountains could be described by a lithospheric delamination and magma underplating model. After continent-continent collision, delamination of the thickened lithosphere induced the upwelling of depleted asthenospheric mantle, which caused partial melting of asthenospheric mantle and residual sub-continental lithospheric mantle. The basaltic magma produced in this process underplated in the boundary between the crust and mantle and interacted with lower crust resulting in the geochemical characters of both enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust.

  19. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies of the Mesloula Pb-Zn-Ba ore deposit, NE Algeria: Characteristics and origin of the mineralizing fluids (United States)

    Laouar, Rabah; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Sami, Lounis; Boyce, Adrian J.; Kolli, Omar; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Fallick, Anthony E.


    In the Saharan Atlas (NE Algeria), the Triassic evaporitic formation was brought to the surface through the thick Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary cover as diapirs due to the effect of Atlasic tectonic events. The diapir piercing began in the Jurassic and has continued through present day. Many outcrops of several square kilometres are distributed in a large area (approximately 80 km wide) that extends northeasterly over 300 km towards Tunisia. The diapiric evaporitic formation is often accompanied by the emplacement of Pb-Zn-Ba-F mineralization. The Mesloula massif is an example of these deposits. Fluid inclusion and sulphur, carbon and oxygen isotope studies were carried out on Pb-Zn-Ba mineralization and associated gangue carbonates. Gypsum of the Triassic formation was also analysed for its sulphur isotope composition to show the role of evaporates in the generation of this typical peridiapiric deposit. Gypsum from the Triassic formation showed a narrow range of δ34SVCDT values, ranging from +14.6 to +15.5‰ (n = 8). This range is comparable to that of Triassic seawater sulphates. Sulphide minerals yielded δ34SVCDT values between 0 and + 11.7‰ (n = 15), indicating that sulphide sulphur was likely derived from Triassic sulphates through thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) because fluid inclusion microthermometric measurements yielded a mean temperature of 150 °C. Residual sulphate in such a system would have been enriched in 34S; this is reflected in the barite δ34SVCDT values, which range from +21.1 to +33.5‰ (n = 5). The δ13CVPDB values of calcite minerals, ranging from +2.1 to +6.3‰ (n = 4), indicate an inorganic carbon origin, likely from the host carbonate rocks. δ18OVSMOW values were between +21.9 and + 24.9‰, indicating that the most likely source of mineralizing fluids was formation water.

  20. U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd-Hf-O isotopic systematics of the Neoproterozoic Hadb adh Dayheen ring complex, Central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Ali, Kamal A.; Jeon, Heejin; Andresen, Arild; Li, Shuang-Qing; Harbi, Hesham M.; Hegner, Ernst


    A combined study of single zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O zircon isotopic analyses and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions was carried out to infer the magma sources of Neoproterozoic post-collisional A-type granitoids in Saudi Arabia. U-Pb zircon dating of magmatic zircons of two samples from the Hadb adh Dayheen ring complex yielded ages of 625 ± 11 Ma for a hornblende-biotite granite sample, and 613 ± 4 Ma for a monzogranite sample. The granitic rocks show initial εNd values of + 4.1 to + 5.3 and εHf of + 4.5 to + 8.4 that are lower than those of a model depleted mantle (εHf ~+ 14 and εNd ~+ 6.5) and consistent with melting of subduction-related crustal protoliths that were formed during the Neoproterozoic assembly of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Crustal-model ages (Hf-tNC) of 0.81 to 1.1 Ga are inconsistent with depleted-mantle Nd model ages of 0.71 to 0.81 Ga and indicate that the post-collisional Hadb adh Dayheen granites were derived mostly from juvenile crust formed in Neoproterozoic time. Single zircons data show a wide range in δ18O values from + 3.2‰ to + 6.4‰, possibly indicating crystallization of zircon from magma derived from magmatic rocks altered by meteoric water in a magma chamber-caldera system.

  1. $\\beta$-decay study of neutron-rich Tl and Pb isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to study the structure of neutron-rich nuclei beyond $^{208}$Pb. The one-proton hole $^{211-215}$Tl and the semi magic $^{213}$Pb will be produced and studied via nuclear and atomic spectroscopy searching for long-lived isomers and investigating the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$- emission to build level schemes. Information on the single particle structure in $^{211-215}$Pb, especially the position of the g$_{9/2}$ and i$_{11/2}$ neutron orbitals, will be extracted along with lifetimes. The $\\beta$-decay will be complemented with the higher spin selectivity that can be obtained by resonant laser ionization to single-out the decay properties of long-living isomers in $^{211,213}$Tl and $^{213}$Pb.

  2. Trace Metals, Rare Earths, Carbon and Pb Isotopes as Proxies of Environmental Catastrophe at the Permian - Triassic Boundary in Spiti Himalayas, India (United States)

    Ghosh, N.; Basu, A. R.; Garzione, C. N.; Ghatak, A.; Bhargava, O. N.; Shukla, U. K.; Ahluwalia, A. D.


    Himalayan sediments from Spiti Valley, India preserve geochemical signatures of the Permian - Triassic (P-Tr) mass extinction in the Neo-Tethys Ocean. We integrate new sedimentological and fossil record with high-resolution geochemical-isotopic data from Spiti that reveals an ecological catastrophe of global proportions. Trace elements of U, Th, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, the rare earths (REE) and carbon, oxygen and lead isotopes measured across the P-Tr boundary in Spiti are used as proxies for evaluating abrupt changes in this continental shelf environment. δ13Corg excursions of 2.4‰ and 3.1‰ in Atargu and Guling P-Tr sections in Spiti Valley are associated with an abrupt fall of biological productivity while δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb record of these sediments shows effects of diagenesis. Here, the P-Tr boundary is compositionally distinct from the underlying Late Permian gray shales, as a partly gypsiferous ferruginous layer that allows additional geochemical-isotopic investigation of sedimentary sources. Conspicuous Ce - Eu anomalies in the light REE-enriched Late Permian shales reflect the source composition of the adjacent Panjal Trap basalts of Kashmir. An abrupt change of this source to continental crust is revealed by Nb - Ta and Zr - Hf anomalies at the P-Tr ferruginous layer and continuing through the overlying Early Triassic carbonate rocks. Pb concentration and isotope ratios of 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb identify changes in the sedimentary element flux, distinguishing the Late Permian shales from the distinct siliciclastic continental crustal signature in the Early Triassic carbonates. These geochemical-isotopic constraints on the sedimentary geochemistry of one of the most critical transitions in geological record establish the utility of multi-proxy datasets for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  3. Geology, S-Pb isotopes, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Zhaxikang Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in Southern Tibet: implications for multiple mineralization events at Zhaxikang (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Zheng, Youye; Pirajno, Franco; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Yu, Miao; Xia, Shenlan; Song, Qingjie; Chang, Huifang


    Several Au, Sb, Sb-Au, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits are present throughout the North Himalaya in southern Tibet, China. The largest Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is Zhaxikang (18 Mt at 0.6 wt% Sb, 2.0 wt% Pb, 3.5 wt% Zn, and 78 g/t Ag). Zhaxikang veins are hosted within N-S trending faults, which crosscut the Early-Middle Jurassic Ridang Formation consisting of shale interbedded with sandstone and limestone deposited on a passive continental margin. Ore paragenesis indicates that Zhaxikang mineralization occurred in two main phases composed of six total stages. The initial phase was characterized by assemblages of fine-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + arsenopyrite + pyrite + sphalerite (stage 1), followed by relatively coarse-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + Fe-rich sphalerite + galena + pyrite (stage 2). The second phase was marked by assemblages of quartz + pyrite + Fe-poor sphalerite and Ag-rich galena + tetrahedrite + sericite (stage 3), quartz + Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals mainly composed of boulangerite and jamesonite (stage 4), quartz + stibnite ± cinnabar (stage 5), and quartz ± calcite (stage 6). Sulfides of stage 2 have δ34SV-CDT of 8.4-12.0‰, 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 19.648 to 19.659, 207Pb/204Pb ratios of 15.788 to 15.812, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 40.035 to 40.153. Sulfides of stage 3 have similar δ34SV-CDT of 6.1-11.2‰ and relatively more radiogenic lead isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 19.683-19.792). Stage 4 Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals have δ34SV-CDT of 5.0-7.2‰ and even more radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 19.811-19.981). By contrast, stibnite of stage 5 has δ34SV-CDT of 4.5-7.8‰ and less radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 18.880-18.974). Taken together with the geological observations that the Pb-Zn-bearing Mn-Fe carbonate veins were crosscut by various types of quartz veins, sphalerite and galena of stage 2 underwent dissolution and remobilization, and that Sb-Pb(-Fe) sulfosalts formed at the expense of Pb from stage 2 galena and of Fe from stage 2 sphalerite, we argue that

  4. HFSE (High Field Strength Elements)-transport and U-Pb-Hf isotope homogenization mediated by Ca-bearing aqueous fluids at 2.04 Ga: Constraints from zircon, monazite, and garnet of the Venetia Klippe, Limpopo Belt, South Africa (United States)

    Zeh, A.; Gerdes, A.


    Results from laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and isotope dilution (ID) analyses of minerals and rocks from a single outcrop of the Venetia Klippe of the Limpopo Belt indicate that the U-Pb and Hf isotope system homogenized on the decimetre scale under amphibolite-facies conditions of ⩽645 ± 25 °C and ⩽7.0 ± 1.1 kbar, i.e. in the presence of an aqueous fluid phase. For a metabasite sample, homogenization is supported by isotope analyses of metamorphic zircon, garnet, and whole rock, which yield a six-point Lu-Hf isochron age of 2039.7 ± 3.4 Ma, with initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28126 ± 0.00001, and a U-Pb zircon age of 2042 ± 10 Ma. The occurrence of a few inherited magmatic zircon cores with ages up to 2705 Ma, and with significantly lower initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28112, however, indicate that homogenization was incomplete. For a chlorite-biotite-garnet schist isotope homogenization is reflected by within error identical zircon and monazite U-Pb ages of 2045 ± 10 Ma and 2041 ± 8 Ma, respectively, and by a zircon-garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochron age of 2083 ± 63 Ma, with an initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28140 ± 0.00003. Contemporaneous formation of metamorphic zircon, monazite and garnet in the chlorite schist is not only supported by the isotope data, but also by chlorite inclusions in all three minerals, and by inclusions of metamorphic zircon in garnet. The inclusion textures and the identical initial 176Hf/177Hf support the conclusion that metamorphic zircon grains precipitated from an aqueous fluid phase, after dissolution of zirconium-bearing phases elsewhere, followed by a major HFSE transport, and Hf isotope homogenization. This fluid perhaps was Ca-bearing, as is suggested by the fact that garnet in the schist sample is the only Ca-bearing phase, and that metamorphic monazite, dating the metamorphic peak, is partially replacement by apatite. The fact that the metamorphic zircon rims in the metabasite sample have

  5. Simultaneous in situ determination of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopes in monazite by laser ablation ICP-MS (United States)

    Goudie, Dylan J.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Hanchar, John M.; Crowley, James L.; Ayers, John C.


    are presented for in situ simultaneous determination of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopes in monazite using the Laser Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) method. This method uses a laser ablation system coupled to a magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR) (ICP-MS) for measuring U-Pb isotopes and a multicollector (MC) ICP-MS for measuring Sm-Nd isotopes. Ablated material is split using a Y-connector and transported simultaneously to both mass spectrometers. In addition to Sm and Nd isotopes, the MC-ICP-MS is configured to also acquire Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd elemental abundances. This approach provides age, tracer isotope, and trace element data in the same ablation volume, reducing sampling problems associated with fine-scale zoning in accessory minerals and minimizing the material needed for ablation. Precision and accuracy of the U-Pb method (and the precision of the Sm-Nd method) is demonstrated with results from well-characterized monazite reference materials. The LASS results agree within uncertainty with the isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb dates. The accuracy of the Sm-Nd method is assessed by comparing the LA-MC-ICP-MS results with ID-TIMS determinations on a well-characterized, in-house monazite reference material. The LASS method is then applied to monazite from the Birch Creek Pluton in the White Mountains of California as a case study to illustrate the utility of this method for solving geologic problems. The U-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic data from the LASS method support the conclusions drawn from previous results that monazite can record timing and information about the source region(s) of hydrothermal fluids.

  6. Multi-isotope tracers to investigate processes in the Elbe, Weser and Ems river catchment using B, Mo, Sr, and Pb isotope ratios assessed by MC ICP-MS (United States)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Reese, Anna; Zimmermann, Tristan; Prohaska, Thomas; Retzmann, Anika; Wieser, Michael E.; Zitek, Andreas; Proefrock, Daniel


    Environmental monitoring of complex ecosystems requires reliable sensitive techniques based on sound analytical strategies to identify the source, fate and sink of elements and matter. Isotopic signatures can serve to trace pathways by making use of specific isotopic fingermarks or to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources. The presented work shows the potential of using the isotopic variation of Sr, Pb (as well-established isotopic systems), Mo and B (as novel isotopic system) assessed by MC ICP-MS in water and sediment samples to study aquatic ecosystem transport processes. The isotopic variation of Sr, Pb, Mo and B was determined in different marine and estuarine compartments covering the catchment of the German Wadden Sea and its main tributaries, the Elbe, Weser and Ems River. The varying elemental concentrations, the complex matrix and the expected small variations in the isotopic composition required the development and application of reliable analytical measurement approaches as well as suited metrological data evaluation strategies. Aquatic isoscapes were created using ArcGIS® by relating spatial isotopic data with geographical and geological maps. The elemental and isotopic distribution maps show large variation for different parameters and also reflect the numerous impact factors (e.g. geology, anthropogenic sources) influencing the catchment area.

  7. Multivariate statistical and lead isotopic analyses approach to identify heavy metal sources in topsoil from the industrial zone of Beijing Capital Iron and Steel Factory. (United States)

    Zhu, Guangxu; Guo, Qingjun; Xiao, Huayun; Chen, Tongbin; Yang, Jun


    Heavy metals are considered toxic to humans and ecosystems. In the present study, heavy metal concentration in soil was investigated using the single pollution index (PIi), the integrated Nemerow pollution index (PIN), and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) to determine metal accumulation and its pollution status at the abandoned site of the Capital Iron and Steel Factory in Beijing and its surrounding area. Multivariate statistical (principal component analysis and correlation analysis), geostatistical analysis (ArcGIS tool), combined with stable Pb isotopic ratios, were applied to explore the characteristics of heavy metal pollution and the possible sources of pollutants. The results indicated that heavy metal elements show different degrees of accumulation in the study area, the observed trend of the enrichment factors, and the geoaccumulation index was Hg > Cd > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu ≈ As > Ni. Hg, Cd, Zn, and Cr were the dominant elements that influenced soil quality in the study area. The Nemerow index method indicated that all of the heavy metals caused serious pollution except Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb show obvious correlation and have higher loads on the same principal component, suggesting that they had the same sources, which are related to industrial activities and vehicle emissions. The spatial distribution maps based on ordinary kriging showed that high concentrations of heavy metals were located in the local factory area and in the southeast-northwest part of the study region, corresponding with the predominant wind directions. Analyses of lead isotopes confirmed that Pb in the study soils is predominantly derived from three Pb sources: dust generated during steel production, coal combustion, and the natural background. Moreover, the ternary mixture model based on lead isotope analysis indicates that lead in the study soils originates mainly from anthropogenic sources, which contribute much more

  8. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: the Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: fluid inclusion and isotope study (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David L.; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.


    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian-Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ˜110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained simply by the

  9. A Fourier transform infrared trace gas and isotope analyser for atmospheric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith


    Full Text Available Concern in recent decades about human impacts on Earth's climate has led to the need for improved and expanded measurement capabilities of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this paper we describe in detail an in situ trace gas analyser based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy that is capable of simultaneous and continuous measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrous oxide (N2O and 13C in CO2 in air with high precision. High accuracy is established by reference to measurements of standard reference gases. Stable water isotopes can also be measured in undried airstreams. The analyser is automated and allows unattended operation with minimal operator intervention. Precision and accuracy meet and exceed the compatibility targets set by the World Meteorological Organisation – Global Atmosphere Watch for baseline measurements in the unpolluted troposphere for all species except 13C in CO2.

    The analyser is mobile and well suited to fixed sites, tower measurements, mobile platforms and campaign-based measurements. The isotopic specificity of the optically-based technique and analysis allows its application in isotopic tracer experiments, for example in tracing variations of 13C in CO2 and 15N in N2O. We review a number of applications illustrating use of the analyser in clean air monitoring, micrometeorological flux and tower measurements, mobile measurements on a train, and soil flux chamber measurements.

  10. Effects of Continental Weathering and Sedimentary Sorting on the Hf, Nd, and Pb Isotopic Composition of Sediments and Implications for Dissolved Input to the Ocean (United States)

    van de Flierdt, T.; Hemming, S. R.; Goldstein, S. L.


    The application of radiogenic isotopes of dissolved trace metals (Hf, Pb, Nd) in the ocean to study climate induced weathering changes on the continents is a relatively new and exciting field of research. Most studies on the radiogenic isotope composition of past seawater are based on chemical sediments such as ferromanganese crusts, and suggest a strong linkage in changes in the style of weathering (chemical vs. physical/glacial) on the continents and the isotopic composition of seawater for elements such as Hf and Pb. This is evidenced by records from the northwest Atlantic, which show significant changes in the Hf and Pb isotopic composition of seawater associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) over the past 3 Myr. On the other hand, the impact of glacial weathering on the Nd isotopic composition of seawater is generally thought to be negligible. In order to better understand the systematics and mechanisms of weathering, erosion, and run-off, as well as their bearing on the isotopic composition of the ocean we choose the following strategy: sediments from the Amerilik and Gothabs Fjords near Nuuk (Greenland) have been analyzed for their bulk rock and grain size specific Hf, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions (sand, silt, mud). Both Fjords are surrounded by early Archean gneisses, among the oldest rocks on Earth, and are filled with glacially floured sediments. Precambrian rocks surround a large fraction of the circum-North Atlantic area that was covered by ice sheets during the NHG, and the source rocks in this region are the most extreme examples. Current knowledge about the impact of weathering processes on isotope systematics implies that the largest changes in the Hf (and Pb) isotopic composition of seawater are expected to arise from glacial weathering of old continental sources. Our data reveal large differences in grain size specific isotope ratios, e.g. between the mud and sand fractions, for sediments with an old provenance

  11. Origin and fate of sulfide liquids in hotspot volcanism (La Réunion): Pb isotope constraints from residual Fe-Cu oxides (United States)

    Vlastélic, I.; Gannoun, A.; Di Muro, A.; Gurioli, L.; Bachèlery, P.; Henot, J. M.


    Immiscible sulfide liquids in basaltic magmas play an important role in trace metal transport and the sulfur budget of volcanic eruptions. However, sulfides are transient phases, whose origin and fate are poorly constrained. We address these issues by analyzing sulfide destabilization products preserved in lavas from La Réunion Island. Iron oxide globules and coatings, typically 20-80 μm in size, were found to occur in vesicles of differentiated lavas from Piton des Neiges, and recent pumice samples from Piton de la Fournaise. Field and mineralogical evidence indicates that the iron oxides are syn-eruptive phases not resulting from hydrothermal processes. Samples were first studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The globules were separated, whereas the smaller spherules and coatings were concentrated by magnetic sorting and acid leaching, and samples were processed through wet chemistry. The Fe oxide phases comprise 49-74 wt.% Fe, 26-40 wt.% O, and up to 6 wt.% Cu, 811 ppm Ni, 140 ppm Bi, and 8.5 ppm Pb. Compared to the host lava, Cu, Ni, and Bi are enriched by a factor of 101-103. Systematic Pb isotope disequilibrium (between 500 ppm and 2.9% for 206Pb/204Pb) exists between Fe oxides and host rocks, with Fe oxides generally displaying less radiogenic ratios. Unradiogenic Pb is a typical signature of sulfide, which tends to concentrate Pb, but not its parent elements U and Th. Thus, both the chemical and isotopic compositions of the vesicle-hosted Fe oxides suggest that they are more or less direct products of the destabilization of immiscible sulfide liquids. Although Pb dominantly partitions into the gas phase during sulfide breakdown, the original Pb isotope signature of sulfide is preserved in the residual oxide. The composition estimated for the parent sulfides (206Pb/204Pb = 18.20-18.77, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.575, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.2-38.8) precludes a genetic link with the La Réunion plume, and suggests a lithospheric or crustal origin. It is estimated

  12. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John


    .... We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands...

  13. Geochronology, fluid inclusions and isotopic characteristics of the Chaganbulagen Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Li, Tiegang; Wu, Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Guorui; Hu, Yanqing; Zhang, Yunfu; Luo, Dafeng; Mao, Zhihao; Xu, Bei


    Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb values of the ore minerals are in the ranges of 18.302-19.037, 15.473-15.593, and 38.110-38.945, respectively. The data for the S and Pb isotopic systems indicate that the ore-forming metals and sulfur came from Mesozoic magma. The Chaganbulagen deposit is a low-sulfidation epithermal Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, and the temperature decrease is the dominant mechanism for the deposition of ore-forming materials.

  14. Zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granite batholith in the northern Mexico: Implications for Tectonomagmatic evolution of southern Cordillera. (United States)

    Mahar, M. A.; Goodell, P.


    We present the zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granite batholith exposed at the western boundary of Chihuahua. Granidiorite samples were analyzed from both, north and south of the Rio El Fuerte and Sinforosa Lineament. Based on previous studies, the WWN-EES trending Sinforosa Lineament is proposed as the manifestation of a terrane boundary between Seri in the north and Tahue terrane in the south. Zircon U-Pb data indicate that the magmatism spans a time period of 36 Ma from 89 to 53 Ma to the north of the Sinforosa Lineament while granodiorites in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament are dated at 59 Ma. The U-Pb apatite ages are variable in the north of the Sinforosa Lineament and range from 86-51 Ma. These apatite dates are 1-28 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages. This indicates variable cooling rates and moderate to shallow emplacement. In contrast, in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament, the U-Pb apatite ages (64-59 Ma) are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb age (59 Ma), indicating rapid cooling and shallow emplacement. Zircon morphology and U-Pb dating revealed the absence of inherited component in the zircon ages, as no inheritance of any age has been observed. Most of the northwestern Mexico is underlain by Precambrian-Paleozoic-Jurassic basement. However, in the study area, U-Pb dating does not support the involvement of the older basement in generating the granite magmas. The weighted mean initial ɛHf (t) isotope composition of granodiorites on both sides of the Sinforosa Lineament varies from +2 to +5. However, Hf isotope composition in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament is more heterogeneous and relatively evolved with weighted Mean ɛHf (t) = +1.45. The Hf isotope composition is consistent with the previously reported near bulk silicate Sr-Nd isotope values. We suggest that the magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from melting of a felsic older crust beneath the batholith

  15. Stable Isotope and Signature Fatty Acid Analyses Suggest Reef Manta Rays Feed on Demersal Zooplankton: e77152

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lydie I E Couturier; Christoph A Rohner; Anthony J Richardson; Andrea D Marshall; Fabrice R A Jaine; Michael B Bennett; Kathy A Townsend; Scarla J Weeks; Peter D Nichols


    .... Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different...

  16. Determination of the provenance of cocoa by soil protolith ages and assessment of anthropogenic lead contamination by pb/nd and lead isotope ratios. (United States)

    Manton, William I


    The Pb contents of chocolate and the products it flavors are among the highest of all commonly consumed substances. Others have shown that this Pb is acquired by cocoa beans after harvesting and is concentrated in their shells, portions of which are ground up with the cotyledons during processing. It is shown here that the shells also contain the lanthanides Nd and Sm, which they appear to take up more slowly than Pb when dried on bare soil. Consideration of Pb/Nd ratios, model Sm-Nd ages and the isotope ratios of Pb and Sr indicates that, in the absence of contamination, the relationship between Pb and Nd in shells is y = 13.1x(-0.383), where x is the Nd concentration in microg/kg and y is the Pb/Nd ratio. For cocoa powders, the relationship is y = 114x(-0.988). Samples that plot above these curves are probably contaminated. Model ages indicate where the cocoa of cocoa powders is grown, and these same considerations point to African samples being uncontaminated but samples from Asia containing 50% anthropogenic Pb of Australian origin. No measurable Pb contamination occurs during the transport of beans and the manufacture of chocolate.

  17. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.


    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  18. Metagenomic and stable isotopic analyses of modern freshwater microbialites in Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. (United States)

    Breitbart, Mya; Hoare, Ana; Nitti, Anthony; Siefert, Janet; Haynes, Matthew; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Edwards, Robert; Souza, Valeria; Rohwer, Forest; Hollander, David


    Ancient biologically mediated sedimentary carbonate deposits, including stromatolites and other microbialites, provide insight into environmental conditions on early Earth. The primary limitation to interpreting these records is our lack of understanding regarding microbial processes and the preservation of geochemical signatures in contemporary microbialite systems. Using a combination of metagenomic sequencing and isotopic analyses, this study describes the identity, metabolic potential and chemical processes of microbial communities from living microbialites from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. Metagenomic sequencing revealed a diverse, redox-dependent microbial community associated with the microbialites. The microbialite community is distinct from other marine and freshwater microbial communities, and demonstrates extensive environmental adaptation. The microbialite metagenomes contain a large number of genes involved in the production of exopolymeric substances and the formation of biofilms, creating a complex, spatially structured environment. In addition to the spatial complexity of the biofilm, microbial activity is tightly controlled by sensory and regulatory systems, which allow for coordination of autotrophic and heterotrophic processes. Isotopic measurements of the intracrystalline organic matter demonstrate the importance of heterotrophic respiration of photoautotrophic biomass in the precipitation of calcium carbonate. The genomic and stable isotopic data presented here significantly enhance our evolving knowledge of contemporary biomineralization processes, and are directly applicable to studies of ancient microbialites.

  19. Effects of preservatives on stable isotope analyses of four marine species (United States)

    Carabel, Sirka; Verísimo, Patricia; Freire, Juan


    The aim of the present study is to quantify the effect of formalin-ethanol preservation on the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of four taxonomical groups of marine species ( Himanthalia elongata, Anemonia sulcata, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Patella vulgata). To examine temporal changes in the effects of preservation and to determine if preservation induced predictable shifts in δ13C and δ15N signatures, repeated analyses were carried out after 6, 12 and 24 months of preservation. Data from our study showed highly variable effects of the formalin-ethanol preservation on carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures between species. The use of a general correction factor was not possible, or else it should be species-specific. Differences in nitrogen isotopic values between preserved and unpreserved samples were minor compared to the assumed enrichment between trophic levels. The combined use of data from preserved and unpreserved samples could lead to biases in the estimation of the trophic level of organisms. Changes that preservatives caused in carbon values were variable between species and not always small enough to be ignored. So the use of data from preserved samples could change the interpretation of the mixing models used to determine the importance of multiple sources of carbon. In order to elucidate the effects that preservatives have in other species, further studies will be necessary.

  20. Geological and isotopic evidence for magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the Ag-Pb-Zn deposits in the Lengshuikeng District, east-central China (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Zhang, Da; Wu, Ganguo; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yigan; Zhang, Yaoyao


    The Lengshuikeng ore district in east-central China has an ore reserve of ˜43 Mt with an average grade of 204.53 g/t Ag and 4.63 % Pb + Zn. Based on contrasting geological characteristics, the mineralization in the Lengshuikeng ore district can be divided into porphyry-hosted and stratabound types. The porphyry-hosted mineralization is distributed in and around the Lengshuikeng granite porphyry and shows a distinct alteration zoning including minor chloritization and sericitization in the proximal zone; sericitization, silicification, and carbonatization in the peripheral zone; and sericitization and carbonatization in the distal zone. The stratabound mineralization occurs in volcano-sedimentary rocks at ˜100-400 m depth without obvious zoning of alterations and ore minerals. Porphyry-hosted and stratabound mineralization are both characterized by early-stage pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite, middle-stage acanthite-native silver-galena-sphalerite, and late-stage pyrite-quartz-calcite. The δ34S values of pyrite, sphalerite, and galena in the ores range from -3.8 to +6.9‰ with an average of +2.0‰. The C-O isotope values of siderite, calcite, and dolomite range from -7.2 to -1.5‰ with an average of -4.4‰ (V-PDB) and from +10.9 to +19.5‰ with an average of +14.8‰ (V-SMOW), respectively. Hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotopes indicate that the hydrothermal fluids were derived mainly from meteoric water, with addition of minor amounts of magmatic water. Geochronology employing LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons from a quartz syenite porphyry yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 136.3 ± 0.8 Ma considered as the emplacement age of the porphyry. Rb-Sr dating of sphalerite from the main ore stage yielded an age of 126.9 ± 7.1 Ma, marking the time of mineralization. The Lengshuikeng mineralization classifies as an epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposit.

  1. Zircon U-Pb Geochronology, Hf Isotopic Composition and Geological Implications of the Neoproterozoic Huashan Group in the Jingshan Area, Northern Yangtze Block, China (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Yang, K.


    In the northern Yangtze Block, a clear angular unconformity between the Mesoproterozoic sequences (e.g. Dagushi Group) and the overlying Neoproterozoic strata (e.g. Huashan Group) marks the the Jinning orogeny. A combined study of Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb ages for detrital zircons from Huashan Group can provide information on the crustal evolution of sedimentary provenances and the timing of the Jinning orogeny. Detrital zircons from Huashan Group have two major U-Pb age populations of about 2.0Ga, 2.65Ga, and three subordinate age groups of about 0.82Ga, 2.5Ga, 2.9Ga with minor >3.0Ga ages. The youngest five analyses yield a weighted average age of 816±9Ma, which is consistent with that of interlayered basalt (824±9Ma, Deng et al., 2013) and roughly defines the minimum depositional age of Huashan Group. Detrital zircons of Huashan Group mostly have two stage Hf isotope model ages (TDM2) between 3.0 to 3.3Ga, indicating that the northern Yangtze Block experienced significant continental crustal growth during the Paleo- to Meso-archean. Similar U-Pb ages of detrital zircons have been obtained from Precambrian sedimentary rocks in the northern Yangtze Block from previous studies (Liu et al., 2008; Guo et al., 2014 and references therein). Recently, ca. 2.65Ga A-type granites had been reported from the Kongling and Huji area, which likely record the thermally stable lithosphere (Chen et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2015). In combination with this study, it documents the widespread 2.6-2.7Ga magmatic rocks in the northern Yangtze Block. Zhao et al. (2013) demonstrated both the ca. 850Ma tonalite and trondhjemite of the Huangling igneous complex were formed in a continental arc setting. This suggests the Miaowan-Huashan oceanic basin proposed by Bader et al. (2013) has not been closed at ca. 850Ma. This evidence, together with the depositional age of the Huashan Group, indicates the Jinning orogeny took place at 850-820 Ma. [1] Bader et al., 2013 Tectonics [2] Deng et al

  2. Major element, REE, and Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic geochemistry of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of eastern China: implications for their origin from suboceanic-type mantle reservoirs (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Wang, Junwen; Huang, Wankang; Xie, Guanghong; Tatsumoto, M.


    Major- and rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations and UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotope systematics are reported for Cenozoic volcanic rocks from northeastern and eastern China. These volcanic rocks, characteristically lacking the calc-alkaline suite of orogenic belts, were emplaced in a rift system which formed in response to the subduction of the western Pacific plate beneath the eastern Asiatic continental margin. The rocks sampled range from basanite and alkali olivine basalt, through olivine tholeiite and quartz tholeiite, to potassic basalts, alkali trachytes, pantellerite, and limburgite. These rock suites represent the volcanic centers of Datong, Hanobar, Kuandian, Changbaishan and Wudalianchi in northeastern China, and Mingxi in the Fujian Province of eastern China. The major-element and REE geochemistry is characteristic of each volcanic suite broadly evolving through cogenetic magmatic processes. Some of the outstanding features of the isotopic correlation arrays are as follows: (1) NdSr shows an anticorrelation within the field of ocean island basalts, extending from the MORB end-member to an enriched, time-averaged high Rb Sr and Nd Sr end-member (EM1), (2) SrPb also shows an anticorrelation, similar to that of Hawaiian and walvis Ridge basalts, (3) NdPb shows a positive correlation, and (4) the 207Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot shows linear arrays parallel to the general trend (NHRL) for MORB on both sides of the geochron, although in the 208Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot the linear array is significantly displaced above the NHRL in a pattern similar to that of the oceanic island basalts that show the Dupal signatures. In all isotope correlation patterns, the data arrays define two different mantle components-a MORB-like component and an enriched mantle component. The isotopic data presented here clearly demonstrate the existence of Dupal compositions in the sources of the continental volcanic rocks of eastern China. We suggest that the subcontinental mantle

  3. Sulfur Isotopes Geochemistry of the Nage Cu-Pb Polymetallic Deposit, Southeast Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Xuan-lin; ZHOU Jia-xi; HUANG Zhi-long; WANG Jing-song; YANG De-zhi; FAN Liang-wu; BAO Guang-ping; LIU Yong-kun


    @@ The Nage Cu-Pb polymetallic deposit is located in the transitional zone of the Yangtze craton and cathaysia, that is the southwest of Jiangnan orogenic belt. The mainly strata are Wentong formation of Mesoproterozoic Sibo group and the Jialu formation (Qbj) , Wuye formation (Qbw) , Fanzhao formation (Qbf) and Gongdong formation (Qbg) of the Neoproterozoic Qingbaikou System Xiajiang group.

  4. Fluid flow along North American Cordillera detachments determined from stable isotope and high resolution chemical analyses (United States)

    Quilichini, A.; Teyssier, C.; Mulch, A.; Nachlas, W.


    Fluid flow is likely a major parameter controlling the dynamics of extensional detachment zones. Buoyancy-driven fluid flow is generated by high heat flow beneath the detachment zone, where heat is advected by crustal thinning and magma intrusions. This hydrothermal convective flow is focused in the detachment zone for the duration of activity of the detachment at relatively high temperature (300-500°C), resulting in very significant fluid-rock interaction and isotopic exchange. Quantifying sources and fluid flux in detachments is a challenge because permeability of ductilely deforming rocks is poorly understood. In order to solve these problems, we studied two different Eocene extensional systems in the North American Cordillera: the quartzitic detachment which borders the Kettle dome metamorphic core complex (WA), and the quartzo-feldspathic Bitterroot shear zone along the Idaho batholith (MT). The Kettle Dome detachment provides a continuous section of ~200 m thick quartzite mylonite where high-resolution sampling (~5 m) indicates that Deuterium isotopic ratios that are obtained from synkinematic muscovite grains are consistent with a meteoric fluid source (-130 per mil). In the Bitterroot shear zone, Coyner (2003) reported similar Deuterium isotopic ratios (down to -140 per mil) in muscovite from mylonites and ultramylonites. Microprobe analyses were obtained for white mica porphyroclasts by performing transects perpendicular to the basal (001) cleavage in order to determine intragrain chemical zoning. Preliminary results for the Kettle dome indicate increasing phengite composition with depth, suggesting enhanced activity of the Tschermak exchange. The variations of the phengitic signature in muscovite indicates that temperature diminuish downsection, which is contradictory with the results obtained by the Qz-Ms oxygen isotope thermometer along the Kettle section. Our recent work provides geologic data for numerical models that address the permeability of

  5. Comprehensive analysis for major, minor and trace element contents and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios in sediment reference materials, JSd-1 and MAG-1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Makishima, A.; Noordmann, J.; Tanaka, R.; Nakamura, E.

    In view of the requirement of a well-characterized and easily available aquatic sediment reference material, a comprehensive analysis comprising of fifty major, minor and trace elements as well as Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes were carried out...

  6. New sequential separation procedure for Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratio measurement in geological material using MC-ICP-MS and TIMS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Makishima, A.; Nath, B.N.; Nakamura, E.

    A new 3-step sequential separation chemistry for Sr, Nd and Pb from silicate samples, which is suitable for isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS as well as TIMS, has been developed. The chemistry is designed to minimize the number of evaporation steps...

  7. Coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations of HIMU oceanic island basalts from Mangaia, Cook-Austral islands, suggest an Archean source component in the mantle transition zone (United States)

    Nebel, Oliver; Arculus, Richard J.; van Westrenen, Wim; Woodhead, Jon D.; Jenner, Frances E.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Yona J.; Wille, Martin; Eggins, Stephen M.


    Although it is widely accepted that oceanic island basalts (OIB) sample geochemically distinct mantle reservoirs including recycled oceanic crust, the composition, age, and locus of these reservoirs remain uncertain. OIB with highly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures are grouped as HIMU (high-μ, with μ = 238U/204Pb), and exhibit unique Hf-Nd isotopic characteristics, defined as ΔɛHf, deviant from a terrestrial igneous rock array that includes all other OIB types. Here we combine new Hf isotope data with previous Nd-Pb isotope measurements to assess the coupled, time-integrated Hf-Nd-Pb isotope evolution of the most extreme HIMU location (Mangaia, French Polynesia). In comparison with global MORB and other OIB types, Mangaia samples define a unique trend in coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations (expressed in 207Pb/206Pb vs. ΔɛHf). In a model employing subducted, dehydrated oceanic crust, mixing between present-day depleted MORB mantle (DMM) and small proportions (˜5%) of a HIMU mantle endmember can re-produce the Hf-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of global HIMU basalts (sensu stricto; i.e., without EM-1/EM-2/FOZO components). An age range of 3.5 to affected by other enriched mantle endmembers (sensu lato). If correct, this requires isolation of parts of the mantle transition zone for >3 Gyr and implies that OIB chemistry can be used to test geodynamic models.

  8. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the early Mesozoic Xitian granitic pluton in the middle Qin-Hang Belt, South China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and bulk-rock trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Cao, Jingya; Kong, Hua; Shao, Yongjun; Li, Huan; Xi, Xiaoshuang; Deng, Xuantong


    The Xitian pluton in southeast Hunan province is one of the early Mesozoic (Indosinian) granitic plutons in the South China Block. It is composed of biotite adamellite with K-feldspar megacrysts, biotite adamellite, and biotite granite that have U-Pb zircon ages of 229.9 ± 1.4 Ma, 223.6 ± 1.3 Ma, and 224.0 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The Indosinian granitoids in the Xitian pluton belong to S-type granites, with highly radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71397-0.71910), negative εNd(t) values ranging from -10.1 to -9.4, and old Nd model ages (1858-1764 Ma). They are enriched in radiogenic Pb isotopes, with (206Pb/204Pb)t ranging from 18.130 to 18.903, (207Pb/204Pb)t from 15.652 to 15.722, and (208Pb/204Pb)t from 38.436 to 39.037, respectively. These features indicate that the granitoidswithin the Xitian pluton were formed from magmas generated by remelting of metapelite and metapsammite of the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement at temperatures of ca. 800 °C, with low oxygen fugacity. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the rocks from Xitian pluton indicate that the granitic magmas were mixed with less than 10% mantle-derived magmas. We suggest that the Xitian pluton was emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting related to release of compressional stresses within the thickened crust during the early Mesozoic.

  9. Assessing human diet and movement in the Tongan maritime chiefdom using isotopic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Stantis

    Full Text Available The rise of stratified societies fundamentally influences the interactions between status, movement, and food. Using isotopic analyses, we assess differences in diet and mobility of individuals excavated from two burial mounds located at the `Atele burial site on Tongatapu, the main island of the Kingdom of Tonga (c. 500 - 150 BP. The first burial mound (To-At-1 was classified by some archaeologists as a commoner's mound while the second burial mound (To-At-2 was possibly used for interment of the chiefly class. In this study, stable isotope analyses of diet (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S; n = 41 are used to asses paleodiet and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (n = 30 are analyzed to investigate individual mobility to test whether sex and social status affected these aspects of life. Our results show significant differences in diet between burial mounds and sexes. Those interred in To-At-2 displayed lower δ13C values, indicating they ate relatively more terrestrial plants (likely starchy vegetable staples compared with To-At-1 individuals. Females displayed significantly lower δ15N values compared with males within the entire assemblage. No differences in δ34S values were observed between sexes or burial mound but it is possible that sea spray or volcanism may have affected these values. One individual displayed the strontium isotopic composition representative of a nonlocal immigrant (outside 2SD of the mean. This suggests the hegemonic control over interisland travel, may have prevented long-term access to the island by non-Tongans exemplifying the political and spiritual importance of the island of Tongatapu in the maritime chiefdom.

  10. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic evidence for ancient lower continental crust beneath the Xi Ujimqin area of NE China (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Guo, Feng; Xiao, Peixi; Kang, Lei; Xi, Rengang


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogen on Earth. The role that Precambrian continental microblocks played in its formation, however, remains a highly controversial topic. New zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic studies on Permian (253-251 Ma) andesites from the Xi Ujimqin area provide the first evidence for the existence of a continental lower mafic crust in the eastern segment of the CAOB. These Permian lavas generally have chemical compositions similar to experimental melts of garnet pyroxenites. Based on Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositional differences, they can be further subdivided into two groups. Group 1 has moderately radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7060-0.7062) and nonradiogenic Nd (εNd(t) = - 9.0-8.3) and Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 17.18-17.23) isotopic compositions similar to the ancient lower mafic crust beneath the North China Craton (NCC). Compared with Group 1, Group 2 has less radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7051-0.7055), and more radiogenic Nd (εNd(t) = - 0.2-+1.4) and Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 18.04-18.20) isotopic compositions as observed in the Phanerozoic granitoids and felsic lavas of the CAOB. The combined geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Group 1 was derived from ancient lower mafic crust of the NCC affinity, with a residual assemblage of pyroxene + plagioclase + amphibole. The source for Group 2 was a mixture of ancient lower mafic crust and a juvenile crustal component, and melting left a residue of orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + garnet + amphibole. Generation of these two types of late Permian andesites favors a model whereby breakoff of a subducted slab and subsequent lithospheric extension triggered extensive asthenospheric upwelling and melting of the continental mafic lower crust of the eastern CAOB. The discovery of ancient lower continental crust of the NCC affinity in the CAOB implies that the NCC experienced continental breakup during

  11. Hydrothermal versus active margin sediment supply to the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 23 million years traced by radiogenic Pb isotopes: Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications (United States)

    Höfig, Tobias W.; Hoernle, Kaj; Hauff, Folkmar; Frank, Martin


    We investigated the evolution of the Pb isotopic composition of bulk sediments on the Cocos Plate in sedimentary successions of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 495 and Ocean Drilling Program/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP/IODP) Site 1256 over the past 23 million years of depositional history. Our study addresses the relationship of the sediment Pb isotope record to plate tectonics, weathering inputs, and paleoceanography. It is the first effort to characterize the Pb isotopic evolution of eastern equatorial Pacific sedimentation covering the entire tectonic pathway of the Cocos Plate from its formation at the East Pacific Rise to its arrival at the Central American subduction zone. The Sites 495 and 1256 bulk sediment Pb isotope records are fully consistent over time despite distinct differences between the type of sediment deposited at both locations. A systematic and continuous trend from ∼23 to ∼6-4 Ma toward more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, e.g., 206Pb/204Pb ratios increase from 18.29 to 18.81, reflects a decrease in the contribution of hydrothermal particles from the East Pacific Rise and an increase in the predominantly eolian contribution of mixed weathering products from the continental arcs of the Northern and south Central Andes as well as from southern Mexico. Surprisingly, both the Pb isotopic composition of the detrital fraction and that of past seawater indicate that inputs from nearby Central America and the Galápagos Archipelago did not significantly contribute to the sediments of our core locations but were overwhelmed by other sediment sources. A systematic change to less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios in sediments younger than ∼4-3 Ma, reaching present-day 206Pb/204Pb values near 18.70, reflects a reduction of the continental input from the South Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Arc and increased contributions from southern Mexican igneous complexes. This isotopic trend reversal took place as a consequence of

  12. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses. (United States)

    Bong, Yeon-Sik; Shin, Woo-Jin; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Lee, A-Reum; Jang, Chang-Soon; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Chung, Gong-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Sik


    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage.

  13. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes from the metamorphic basement in the Wuhe Complex: Implications for Neoarchean active continental margin along the southeastern North China Craton and constraints on the petrogenesis of Mesozoic granitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andong Wang


    Full Text Available We report zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data from mafic granulites and garnet amphibolites of the Wuhe Complex in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC. In combination with previous data, our results demonstrate that these rocks represent fragments of the ancient lower crust, and have features similar to those of the granulite basement in the northern margin of the NCC. A detailed evaluation of the Pb isotope data shows that Pb isotopes cannot effectively distinguish the role of the Yangtze Craton basement from that of the NCC basement with regard to the source and generation of magmas, at least for southeastern NCC. The age data suggest that the protoliths of the granulites or amphibolites in the Wuhe Complex were most likely generated in Neoarchean and that these rocks were subjected to Paleoproterozoic (1.8–1.9 Ga high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism. This study also shows that the Precambrian metamorphic basement in the southeastern margin of the NCC might have formed in a tectonic setting characterized by a late Neoarchean active continental margin.

  14. MKED1: A new titanite standard for in situ microanalysis of trace elements, Sm-Nd isotopes, and U-Pb geochronology (United States)

    Spandler, C.; Hammerli, J.; Hilbert-Wolf, H.; Sha, P.; Hu, Y.; Roberts, E.; Schmitz, M. D.


    Titanite has great potential as a petrogenetic indicator and mineral geochronometer as it can host high trace element concentrations and it occurs in a wide range of rock types. Here, we describe a potential new titanite standard for calibration of the chemical and isotopic composition of titanite of varying age and origin. Through comprehensive bulk analysis of mm-size crystal fragments and in-situ microanalysis, we show that the titanite, labeled MKED1, is largely free of inclusions and is homogenous at the level of analytical precision for major element, U-Pb isotope and Sm-Nd isotope composition. Some minor zoning in trace element composition is recognized using backscatter electron imaging, although the trace element concentrations of each of these zones are also very homogenous. MKED1 has high contents of REE, Th, U, and radiogenic Pb, but very low levels of common Pb. U-Pb isotope data (ID-TIMS and LA-ICP-MS) show MKED1 to be concordant with an age of ca. 1518 Ma. Cross calibration with other titanite standards demonstrates that MKED1 can be used as a primary standard for determining U-Pb ages of titanite ranging in age from Precambrian to Neogene. We also show that MKED1 is suitable as a Sm-Nd isotope standard due to its high REE concentrations and homogenous 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd content. We suggest MKED1 can be employed as a trace element, U-Pb isotope and Sm-Nd isotope standard for in situ or bulk analytical methods, including techniques that allow simultaneous collection of multiple elemental and/or isotopic data sets in situ. We present two case studies to demonstrate the potential of titanite analysis for resolving geological problems: The first examines the genesis of Cu-REE skarn mineralization from the Mt Isa Inlier, Australia, and the second study investigates the timing and origin of volcanism and sedimentation in the Western Branch of the East African Rift.

  15. Stable Isotopes of Sr and Pb as Tracers of Sources of Airborne Particulate Matter in Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    ConclusionsElemental concentrations were higher at the LIDAR site compared to the Bishkek site. Also, concentrations were higher during dust than non-dust events at both sites.The Sr isotopic ratios suggest dust from another region, such as from Western China, Africa, or Middle E...

  16. Trophic positioning of meiofauna revealed by stable isotopes and food web analyses. (United States)

    Schmid-Araya, Jenny M; Schmid, Peter E; Tod, Steven P; Esteban, Genoveva F


    Despite important advances in the ecology of river food webs, the strength and nature of the connection between the meio- and macrofaunal components of the web are still debated. Some unresolved issues are the effects of the inclusion of meiofaunal links and their temporal variations on the overall river food web properties, and the significance of autochthonous and allochthonous material for these components. In the present study, we conducted analyses of gut content of macro- and meiofauna and stable isotope analyses of meiofauna to examine seasonal food webs of a chalk stream. The results of the gut content analyses, confirmed by the δ(13) C signatures, revealed a seasonal shift from a dependence on autochthonous (biofilm) to allochthonous food sources. Here, we demonstrate that aggregating basal or meiofaunal species into single categories affects key web properties such as web size, links, linkage density, and predator-prey ratios. More importantly, seasonal variation in attributes characterized the entire web and these changes persist regardless of taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, our analyses evidenced discrete variations in δ(15) N across the meiofauna community with a trophic structure that confirms gut content analyses, placing the meiofauna high in the food web. We, therefore, conclude that small-body-sized taxa can occur high in dynamic river food webs, questioning assumptions that trophic position increases with body size and that webs are static. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Multi-metal interactions between Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in water flea Daphnia magna, a stable isotope experiment. (United States)

    Komjarova, I; Blust, R


    Metal interaction effects were investigated in Daphnia magna during a simultaneous exposure to essential (Cu, Ni and Zn) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metals at environmentally relevant concentrations using a stable isotope technique. The metals were applied in the following concentration ranges: 0.0125-0.2 microM for (106)Cd, 0.025-0.25 microM for (65)Cu and (204)Pb, 0.1-1.25 microM for (62)Ni and (67)Zn. Cadmium and copper exhibited a suppressing effect on the uptake rates of all other metals present in the mixture with the exception to lead at all studied concentrations. The effect was already pronounced at low Cd and Cu concentrations and reached a maximum at the higher concentrations. Nickel and zinc showed weaker interactions with cadmium and between each other, while having no effect on copper and lead uptake. There was a high degree of correlation between Cd, Ni and Zn uptake rates indicating that these metals share in part common uptake or interaction pathways. Moreover, a significant correlation between Zn and Cu uptake processes suggests that more than one mechanism is involved in Zn accumulation since Cu is known to interact with Na uptake sites. The uptake of lead was marked by a high initial rate, but the uptake process reached saturation within 24 h. Cd applied at a concentration of 0.2 microM was the only metal which affected the lead uptake process by stimulation of the Pb uptake. Added to the medium at a concentration of 0.25 microM, lead in turn, increased copper uptake. Current work illustrates that metal interactions are significant and occur at low environmentally realistic concentrations affecting bioavailability of both toxic and essential metals.

  18. An Analysis of 178Pb to 238U Isotopes with the Universal and Yukawa Proximity Potentials (United States)

    Javadimanesh, E.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.


    The alpha particle preformation and the penetration probability by the Yukawa proximity potential in the even-even nuclei from 178Pb to 238U are studied. Using the experimental values of the alpha decay half-lives and the decay energies, we extract the preformation factors and the penetration probabilities. We also calculate the assault frequencies and the decay constants. The obtained results are motivating.

  19. Determination of seasonal and regional variation in the provenance of dissolved cations in rain in Japan based on Sr and Pb isotopes (United States)

    Nakano, Takanori; Morohashi, Satomi; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Masaharu; Aizawa, Shuhei; Shichi, Koji; Morisawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masamichi; Sanada, Masaru; Matsuura, Yojiro; Sakai, Hisao; Akama, Akio; Okada, Naoki

    We determined the elemental and Pb and Sr isotopic compositions of monthly wet precipitation at five sites in Japan (Sapporo, Morioka, Toyama, Tsukuba, and Kumamoto) to elucidate the seasonal and regional variation in the provenance of water-soluble materials. The concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb in the precipitation became high in winter to spring when the prevailing winds are westerly, but those of some metals (Mn, Cu, Ni) did not show distinct seasonal variations. Comparison of Pb isotopic ratios of the precipitation with those of aerosols from the Asian region showed (1) a geographical trend such that precipitation at Sapporo and Morioka in northeastern Japan contained Pb from aerosols from Russia and Mongolia, whereas that at Kumamoto in southwestern Japan contained Pb from aerosols from southern China, and (2) a seasonal variation in that precipitation in winter and spring became enriched in the airborne Pb from northern China, but the degree of the enrichment differed geographically. The sea-salt component (Cl, Na, and Mg) was high in winter and low in summer, particularly at Sapporo and Toyama, which face the Sea of Japan, whereas the non-sea-salt content of Ca and Sr and the 87Sr/ 86Sr tended to become high in spring and low in summer to autumn. The pH was low in winter and became high in spring and summer, except at Tsukuba, which faces the Pacific Ocean. These results show that spring precipitation was partly neutralized by the dissolution of calcium carbonate in the Asian dust with high 87Sr/ 86Sr and Ca/Sr. Summer and autumn precipitation, which was less affected by the Asian aerosols, had distinct Pb and Sr isotopic ratios depending on the site, suggesting that there are several Japanese sources of the base cations and heavy metals in the atmosphere over Japan.

  20. Geochemical and Sr-Pb-Nd isotopic characteristics of the Shakhtama porphyry Mo-Cu system (Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia) (United States)

    Berzina, A. P.; Berzina, A. N.; Gimon, V. O.


    The Shakhtama Mo-Cu porphyry deposit is located within the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, bordering the southern margin of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture zone. The deposit includes rocks of two magmatic complexes: the precursor plutonic (J2) and ore-bearing porphyry (J3) complexes. The plutonic complex was emplaced at the final stages of the collisional regime in the region; the formation of the porphyry complex may have overlapped with a transition to extension. The Shakhtama rocks are predominantly metaluminous, I-type high K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition, with relatively high Mg#, Ni, Cr and V. They are characterized by crustal-like ISr (0.70741-0.70782), relatively radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, ɛNd(T) values close to CHUR (-2.7 to +2.1) and Nd model ages from 0.8 to 1.2 Ga. Both complexes are composed of rocks with K-adakitic features and rocks without adakite trace element signatures. The regional geological setting together with geochemical and isotopic data indicate that both juvenile and old continental crust contributed to their origin. High-Mg# K-adakitic Shakhtama magmas were most likely generated by partial melting of thickened lower crust during delamination and interaction with mantle material, while magmas lacking adakite-like signatures were probably generated at shallower levels of lower crust. The derivation of melts, related to the formation of plutonic and porphyry complexes involved variable amounts of old Precambrian lower crust and juvenile Phanerozoic crust. Isotopic data imply stronger contribution of juvenile mantle-derived material to the fertile magmas of the porphyry complex. Juvenile crust is proposed as an important source of fluids and metals for the Shakhtama ore-magmatic system.

  1. Simultaneous N, C, S isotopic analyses using purge and trap EA technology. Application to δ34S analyses of natural phosphate material NBS120c and BCR32 (United States)

    Fourel, F. P.; Lecuyer, C.; Martineau, F.


    The first example of stable isotope analyses in continuous flow mode by Preston et al in 19861 involved Elemental Analyser Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS) dedicated to carbon isotopes in combustion mode. EA-IRMS has since then evolved to allow 34S/32S determinations still in combustion mode and mainly to access pyrolysis reaction for O and H isotopes. As far as combustion EA-IRMS is concerned the technique itself has remained unchanged since the development of 'purge and trap' separation techniques online with IRMS instruments. Here we have used a high-precision, easy, low-cost and rapid method of simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotope analysis using this new type of elemental analyser based on 'purge and trap' technology 2,3. Simultaneous determinations, performed on the same aliquot of 13C, 15N and 34S are demonstrated. Emphasis is put on the high quality of 34S/32S determinations. First concentrating on peak shapes, yields of conversion and preliminary results. Then the reliability and accuracy of such a technique is illustrated using analyses from various international reference materials. Alongside international reference material working NCS calibrated material has been selected and characterized prior to apply this technology to calibrate natural phosphate material used as compositional reference material BCR32 and NBS120c. δ34S values of respectively 15.62×0.32‰ and 16.5×0.17‰ are proposed for those samples with sulphur concentrations below the 1% level. The possibility to reliably measure S isotopes on that kind of samples opens up new fields of investigation especially for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Keywords: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, isotope, combustion, phosphate, elemental-analyser 1. T. Preston, N.J.P. Owens: Preliminary 13C Measurements using a Gas Chromatograph Interfaced to an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. Biomedical. Mass Spectrom. 1985, 12-9, 510. 2. H.P. Sieper, H.J. Kupka, L. Lange, A. Rossmann, N. Tanz

  2. Palaeoproterozoic continental arc magmatism, and Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, NW India: New constraints from in situ zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope systematics, monazite dating and whole-rock geochemistry (United States)

    Kaur, Parampreet; Zeh, Armin; Chaudhri, Naveen


    Presently, the extent, origin and petrogenesis of late Palaeoproterozoic (ca. 1.85 Ga) magmatism in the north-central Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, NW India and subsequent metamorphic overprints are poorly constrained. Results of new in situ zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope analyses in combination with whole-rock elemental and isotopic data provide the first hard evidence that granitoid magmatism occurred in a continental magmatic arc setting between 1.86 and 1.81 Ga. The Hf-Nd model ages of 3.0-2.6 Ga and inherited zircon grains of 3.3-2.5 Ga indicate abundant reworking of Archaean crust. Flat HREE patterns with negative Eu anomalies furthermore reveal that the granitoids were generated from garnet-free and plagioclase-rich sources at shallow depths. Significant isotope variation among granitoid samples (εHft = -3.7 to -9.0; εNdt = -4.8 to -7.9) indicate that the reworked Archaean crust was not completely homogenised during the Palaeoproterozoic. This is best reflected by zircon Hf-isotope variation of ca. 9.5 epsilon units within the oldest granitoid sample. Zircon grains from this sample define three discrete Hf-isotope groups at εHf1.86Ga = -8.9, -4.8 and -1.6. These are interpreted to result from mixing of zircon-saturated magmas derived from three distinct sources within the crust prior to solidification. A monazite U-Pb isochron age of 868 ± 4 Ma from one of the granitoid samples furthermore indicates that the Aravalli fold belt was affected by an important post-magmatic overprint, perhaps related to the widespread metasomatic, granulite metamorphic and/or magmatic events during the same time span.

  3. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.


    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian–Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ∼110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained

  4. Neon isotopic composition of the mantle constrained by single vesicle analyses (United States)

    Péron, Sandrine; Moreira, Manuel; Colin, Aurélia; Arbaret, Laurent; Putlitz, Benita; Kurz, Mark D.


    The origin of volatiles on Earth is still a matter of debate. Noble gases are an efficient geochemical tool to constrain Earth formation processes due to their inertness. Several studies have focused on the neon isotopic composition of the lower mantle because the 20Ne/22Ne ratio is thought to reflect that of Earth's primordial components. Two models to explain the origin of light noble gases on Earth have been proposed: either solar wind implantation onto the Earth's solid precursors or dissolution into the mantle of a primordial atmosphere captured from solar nebula gas. In order to test these two models, we analyzed the noble gas compositions (helium, neon and argon) of two submarine oceanic island basalt glasses from Fernandina volcano (Galápagos archipelago), which have among the most primitive/unradiogenic terrestrial helium and neon isotopic compositions. Several sample pieces are studied both by step-crushing and by laser ablation analyses of single vesicles. Results of step-crushing are consistent with those of laser ablation analyses, but the latter results provide new insights into the origin of atmospheric contamination. The single-vesicle laser-ablation measurements overlap with the step crushing results, but have systematically higher 40Ar/36Ar, and 3He/36Ar, suggesting less atmospheric contamination using this method. The single vesicle data therefore suggest that atmospheric contamination is introduced by exposure to the modern atmosphere, after sample collection. 3He/4He values are about 23 times the atmospheric ratio (R/Ra) for the two Fernandina (Galápagos) samples, in agreement with previous studies. We obtain 20Ne/22Ne and 40Ar/36Ar isotopic ratios as high as 12.91 and 9400, respectively, for the mantle source of the Galápagos hotspot. The new data show that step-crushing and laser ablation analyses are complementary methods that should be used together to derive the noble gas ratios in uncontaminated samples. The results of neon

  5. A fully automated simultaneous single-stage separation of Sr, Pb, and Nd using DGA Resin for the isotopic analysis of marine sediments. (United States)

    Retzmann, A; Zimmermann, T; Pröfrock, D; Prohaska, T; Irrgeher, J


    A novel, fast and reliable sample preparation procedure for the simultaneous separation of Sr, Pb, and Nd has been developed for subsequent isotope ratio analysis of sediment digests. The method applying a fully automated, low-pressure chromatographic system separates all three analytes in a single-stage extraction step using self-packed columns filled with DGA Resin. The fully automated set-up allows the unattended processing of three isotopic systems from one sediment digest every 2 h, offering high sample throughput of up to 12 samples per day and reducing substantially laboratory manpower as compared to conventional manual methods. The developed separation method was validated using the marine sediment GBW-07313 as matrix-matched certified reference material and combines quantitative recoveries (>90% for Sr, >93% for Pb, and >91% for Nd) with low procedural blank levels following the sample separation (0.07 μg L(-1) Sr, 0.03 μg L(-1) Pb, and 0.57 μg L(-1) Nd). The average δ values for Sr, Pb, and Nd of the separated reference standards were within the certified ranges (δ ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)NIST SRM 987 of -0.05(28) ‰, δ((208)Pb/(206)Pb)NIST SRM 981 of -0.21(14) ‰, and δ((143)Nd/(144)Nd)JNdi-1 of 0.00(7) ‰). The DGA Resin proved to be reusable for the separation of >10 sediment digests with no significant carry-over or memory effects, as well as no significant on-column fractionation of Sr, Pb, and Nd isotope ratios. Additional spike experiments of NIST SRM 987 with Pb, NIST SRM 981 with Sr, and JNdi-1 with Ce revealed no significant impact on the measured isotopic ratios, caused by potential small analyte peak overlaps during the separation of Sr and Pb, as well as Ce and Nd.

  6. Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt: U-Pb zircon geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and tectonic implications (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Liu, Junlai; Qi, Yinchuan; Fan, Wenkui; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    The Neoproterozoic tectonic characteristics of the high grade metamorphic massifs along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt are debated. Controversies are on 1) whether the massifs were parts of the Yangtze block to the northeast or 2) parts of the Indochina block to the southwest and 3) the magmatic rocks represent arc magmatism or rifting linked to break-up of the Rodinia supercontinent. This study presents new and precise LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age dating and geochemical and Hf isotopic analyses of granitic intrusions along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt in an attempt to elucidate the Neoproterozoic magmatic evolution of this belt. In general, zircon U-Pb ages of the studied granitic rocks are between 804 and 724Ma, with a weighted mean of ca. 770 Ma, thus confirming Neoproterozoic magmatism. All samples plot into the peraluminous domain, indicating a major crustal resource. In consistency with these conclusions, most of the Neoproterozoic granitoids show negative ɛHf (t) values near the chondrite line. A few samples possess low positiveɛ Hf (t) values, being signatures of mantle sources. It is therefore concluded that the Neoproterozoic magmatism along the ASRR belt originated from mantle sources with important contributions through anatexis of ancient lower crust. Discrimination diagrams of tectonic settings suggest continental arc magmatism. Neoproterozoic magmatism is widely reported along the margins of the Yangtze block, especially in the northern margin. However, there are fewer reports about Neoproterozoic magmatic activity along the southern and southwestern margins. The geochronology spectrum and geochemisty of the studied Neoproterozoic granitic rocks are similar to those along the western margin of the Yangtze block. The present study, combined with previous results, suggests that oceanic subduction contributed to the generation of the arc magmatisms along the western and southwestern margin of the Yangtze plate and along the ASRR belt (as part of the

  7. Stable isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile Myrophic punctatus in Florida (United States)

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (Florida) using stomach contents and stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Stomach dietary analyses identified four tax...

  8. Pb-Sr isotopic and geochemical constraints on sources and processes of lead contamination in well waters and soil from former fruit orchards, Pennsylvania, USA: A legacy of anthropogenic activities (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.


    Isotopic discrimination can be an effective tool in establishing a direct link between sources of Pb contamination and the presence of anomalously high concentrations of Pb in waters, soils, and organisms. Residential wells supplying water containing up to 1600 ppb Pb to houses built on the former Mohr orchards commercial site, near Allentown, PA, were evaluated to discern anthropogenic from geogenic sources. Pb (n = 144) and Sr (n = 40) isotopic data and REE (n = 29) data were determined for waters from residential wells, test wells (drilled for this study), and surface waters from pond and creeks. Local soils, sediments, bedrock, Zn-Pb mineralization and coal were also analyzed (n = 94), together with locally used Pb-As pesticide (n = 5). Waters from residential and test wells show overlapping values of 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 87Sr/86Sr. Larger negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*) distinguish residential wells from test wells. Results show that residential and test well waters, sediments from residential water filters in water tanks, and surface waters display broad linear trends in Pb isotope plots. Pb isotope data for soils, bedrock, and pesticides have contrasting ranges and overlapping trends. Contributions of Pb from soils to residential well waters are limited and implicated primarily in wells having shallow water-bearing zones and carrying high sediment contents. Pb isotope data for residential wells, test wells, and surface waters show substantial overlap with Pb data reflecting anthropogenic actions (e.g., burning fossil fuels, industrial and urban processing activities). Limited contributions of Pb from bedrock, soils, and pesticides are evident. High Pb concentrations in the residential waters are likely related to sediment build up in residential water tanks. Redox reactions, triggered by influx of groundwater via wells into the residential water systems and leading to subtle changes in pH, are implicated in precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides

  9. Stable Isotope Analyses of Ancient Penguin Tissues Support the Krill Surplus Hypothesis in Antarctica (United States)

    Emslie, S. D.; Polito, M. J.; Patterson, W. P.


    The krill surplus hypothesis in Antarctica is based on the premise that historic depletion of krill-eating whales and seals in the 18-20th centuries provided a surplus of krill in the southern ocean that benefited penguins. Previous study of δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes in ancient and modern tissues of Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from dozens of active and abandoned colonies in Antarctica have provided the first test in support of this hypothesis (Emslie and Patterson 2007). Specifically, there is a significant decrease in both δ13C and δ15N isotope values in modern versus ancient Adélie Penguin tissues from an apparent dietary shift from fish to krill associated with the timing of the purported krill surplus. Here, we present new data on similar analyses of Gentoo Penguin (P. papua) tissues from active and abandoned colonies at two locations in the Antarctic Peninsula to determine if this species recorded a similar shift in its diet in association with the krill surplus. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease (1.5-2.0 ‰) in δ13C in modern versus fossil eggshells (two-tailed t-test of modern versus fossil mean values, t = 1.98, p Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 11666-11669. A pair of Adélie Penguins with their well-fed chick.

  10. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767. (United States)

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T


    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given.

  11. Application of tree-ring isotopic analyses to reconstruct historical water use of riparian trees. (United States)

    Alstad, Karrin P; Hart, Stephen C; Horton, Jonathan L; Kolb, Thomas E


    Historical patterns of water source use by trees inferred from long-term records of tree-ring stable isotopic content could assist in evaluating the impact of human alterations to natural stream flow regimes (e.g., water impoundments, stream flow diversions, and groundwater extraction). Our objective was to assess the utility of the hydrogen stable isotopic composition (SD) of tree rings as an index of historical water source use by riparian trees. We investigated the influence of site conditions that varied in climate and hydrology on the relationship between deltaD of Populus xylem water (deltaD(xyl)) and tree-ring cellulose (deltaD(cell)). deltaD(xyl) and deltaD(cell) were strongly correlated across sites (r2 = 0.89). However, the slope of this relationship was less than 1, indicating that factors other than deltaD(xyl) influenced deltaD(cell). Inverse modeling with an isotopic fractionation model for tree-ring cellulose suggested that the lack of one-to-one correspondence between deltaD(xyl) and deltaD(cell) was due to the influence of the hydrogen isotopic content of the atmospheric water vapor (deltaD(atm)). Empirically measured values of deltaD(cell) were typically within the seasonal range of deltaD(cell) predicted from the fractionation model. Sensitivity analyses showed that changes in deltaD(xyl) generally had a greater influence at high-elevation montane sites, whereas deltaD(xyl) and deltaD(atm) had about equal influence on deltaD(cell) at low-elevation desert sites. The intrasite relationship between deltaD(cell) and deltaD(xyl) among individual trees was poor, perhaps because of the within-site spatial variation in hydrologic conditions and associated tree physiological responses. Our study suggests that historical variation in deltaD(cell) of Populus provides information on historical variation in both time-integrated water source use and atmospheric conditions; and that the influence of atmospheric conditions is not consistent over sites with large

  12. Mesozoic vein-type Pb-Zn mineralization in the Pyrenees: Lead isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence from the Les Argentières and Lacore deposits (United States)

    Munoz, Marguerite; Baron, Sandrine; Boucher, Adrien; Béziat, Didier; Salvi, Stefano


    The Axial Zone of the Pyrenees contains numerous sedimentary-exhalative Pb-Zn deposits formed during the Early Palaeozoic, which have been the subject of several studies. In addition to these, base-metal vein-type mineralizations are also exposed within the Axial Zone metasediments. These deposits, however, have not been investigated in depth and the timing and geodynamic context of their formation has not been specifically addressed. The vein-type Pb-Zn deposits of Les Argentières and Lacore are located in Devonian terranes of the eastern Pyrenees, south of the Mesozoic Aulus basin. They are interpreted as having been emplaced under an extensional setting. They are characterized by silver-rich tetrahedrite that occurs with Pb-Zn sulphides deposited by low-temperature NaCl-CaCl2 brines. Lead isotopic 208Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios acquired on galena show more radiogenic values compared to those from the Palaeozoic sedimentary-exhalative mineralization, thus indicating younger ages. According to the model ages, the formation of the two deposits may be narrowed down to middle Late Triassic and Late Jurassic periods, respectively, which allows us to argue in favour of the role of pre-Alpine rifting phases in hydrothermal fluids circulation and mineralization deposition in a vein system bounding the Mesozoic Aulus basin.

  13. Drought Impacts on Ancient Maya Maize Agriculture Inferred from Isotopic Analyses of Plant Biomarkers (United States)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.


    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Maya lowlands of southeastern Mexico and northern Central America coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax hydrogen and carbon analyses in two lake sediment cores from the Yucatan and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change and assess drought impacts on maize agriculture In the Maya lowlands plant-wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) are controlled by the isotopic composition of precipitation and evapotranspiration, and are highly sensitive to changes in aridity. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δD would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analyses of plant-wax δD and δ13C from two lake sediment cores in the Maya lowlands indicate co-evolving changes in hydroclimate and C4 plant coverage over the past 4000 years. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of plant-waxes provide independent chronologies for these plant-wax stable isotope records, and plant-wax δD records developed using these chronologies agree closely with other regional records of hydroclimate change. Trends in plant-wax δD and δ13C diverge following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend

  14. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media (United States)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Agrinier, P.


    CO2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of δ 13C in CO2. Using a set of reference gases of known CO2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO2 concentration, and 0.05 ‰ for δ 13C at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of δ 13C on CO2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO2 concentration and 1.3 ‰ for δ 13C, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source.

  15. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Chihuahua-Sinaloa border region in northern Mexico: Insights from zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granodiorite intrusions (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Goodell, Philip C.; Feinstein, Michael Nicholas


    We present the whole-rock geochemistry, LA-ICP-MS zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granodioritic plutons at the southwestern boundary of Chihuahua with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora. These granodiorites are exposed in the north and south of the Rio El Fuerte in southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. The magmatism spans over a time period of 37 Ma from 90 to 53 Ma. Zircons are exclusively magmatic with strong oscillatory zoning. No inheritance of any age has been observed. Our new U-Pb dating ( 250 analyses) does not support the involvement of older basement lithologies in the generation of the granitic magmas. The U-Pb apatite ages from granodiorites in southwest Chihuahua vary from 52 to 70 Ma. These apatite ages are 1 to 20 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages, suggesting variable cooling rates from very fast to 15 °C/Ma ( 800 °C to 500 °C) and shallow to moderate emplacement depths. In contrast, U-Pb apatite ages from the Sinaloa batholith are restricted from 64 to 61 Ma and are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb ages range from 67 to 60 Ma within the error, indicating rapid cooling and very shallow emplacement. However, one sample from El Realito showed a larger difference of 20 Ma in zircon-apatite age pair: zircon 80 ± 0.8 Ma and apatite 60.6 ± 4 Ma, suggesting a slower cooling rate of 15 °C/Ma. The weighted mean initial εHf (t) isotope composition (2σ) of granodiorites varies from + 1.8 to + 5.2. The radiogenic Hf isotope composition coupled with previous Sr-Nd isotope data demonstrates a significant shift from multiple crustal sources in the Sonoran batholithic belt to the predominant contribution of the mantle-derived magmas in the southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. Based on U-Pb ages, the absence of inheritance, typical high Th/U ratio and radiogenic Hf isotope composition, we suggest that the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from

  16. Chemical and Pb isotope composition of phenocrysts from bentonites constrains the chronostratigraphy around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in the Hell Creek region, Montana (United States)

    Ickert, Ryan B.; Mulcahy, Sean R.; Sprain, Courtney J.; Banaszak, Jessica F.; Renne, Paul R.


    An excellent record of environmental and paleobiological change around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is preserved in the Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations in the western Williston Basin of northeastern Montana. These records are present in fluvial deposits whose lateral discontinuity hampers long-distance correlation. Geochronology has been focused on bentonite beds that are often present in lignites. To better identify unique bentonites for correlation across the region, the chemical and Pb isotopic composition of feldspar and titanite has been measured on 46 samples. Many of these samples have been dated by 40Ar/39Ar. The combination of chemical and isotopic compositions of phenocrysts has enabled the identification of several unique bentonite beds. In particular, three horizons located at and above the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary can now be traced—based on their unique compositions—across the region, clarifying previously ambiguous stratigraphic relationships. Other bentonites show unusual features, such as Pb isotope variations consistent with magma mixing or assimilation, that will make them easy to recognize in future studies. This technique is limited in some cases by more than one bentonite having compositions that cannot be distinguished, or bentonites with abundant xenocrysts. The Pb isotopes are consistent with a derivation from the Bitterroot Batholith, whose age range overlaps that of the tephra. These data provide an improved stratigraphic framework for the Hell Creek region and provide a basis for more focused tephrostratigraphic work, and more generally demonstrate that the combination of mineral chemistry and Pb isotope compositions is an effective technique for tephra correlation.

  17. Syn-orogenic high-temperature crustal melting: Geochronological and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope constraints from basement-derived granites (Central Damara Orogen, Namibia) (United States)

    Ostendorf, Jörg; Jung, Stefan; Berndt-Gerdes, Jasper; Hauff, Folkmar


    Major and trace element and Nd, Sr and Pb isotope data from c. 550 Ma-old gray granites and c. 510 Ma-old red leucogranites of the high-grade central part of the Damara orogen (Namibia) indicate a dominantly deep crustal origin. Moderately peraluminous gray granites are isotopically evolved (initial ɛNd: c. - 17) and were likely derived from meta-igneous sources with late Archean to Paleoproterozoic crustal residence ages. Based on a comparison with experimental results, the granites were derived by partial melting of a granodioritic biotite gneiss at c. 900-950 °C and less than 10 kbar. Slightly peraluminous red leucogranites are also isotopically evolved (initial ɛNd: - 15 to - 18) but have undergone extensive crystal fractionation coupled with minor contamination of mid crustal meta-pelitic material. Major and trace element data do not support closed-system fractional crystallization processes for all samples, however, some chemical features underline the importance of crystal fractionation processes especially for the leucogranites. Isotope data do not support mixing of different crust-derived melts or assimilation of crustal rocks by a mafic magma on a large scale. For the gray granites, unradiogenic Pb isotope compositions with substantial variation in 207Pb/204Pb at almost constant 206Pb/204Pb, strongly negative ɛNd values and moderately radiogenic Sr isotope compositions argue for an undepleted nature of the source. High Rb/Sr ratios of the red leucogranites permit a comparison with the gray granites but similar initial ɛNd values indicate that the source of these granites is not fundamentally different to the source of the gray granites. The most acceptable model for both granite types involves partial melting of meta-igneous basement rocks of Archean to Proterozoic age. The consistency of the chemical data with a crustal anatectic origin and the observation that the gray granites intruded before the first peak of high-grade regional metamorphism

  18. 40Ar/39Ar ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of alkaline and tholeiitic rocks from the northern Deccan Traps (United States)

    Marzoli, A.; Parisio, L.; Jourdan, F.; Melluso, L.; Sethna, S. F.; Bellieni, G.


    The Deccan large igneous province in India was emplaced close to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (K-Pg; 66.0 Ma) and is formed by tholeiitic and alkaline rocks. Definition of the origin of Deccan magmatism and of its environmental impact relies on precise and accurate geochronological analyses. We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages from the northern sector of the province. In this area, tholeiitic and alkaline rocks were contemporaneously emplaced at 66.60±0.35 to 65.25±0.29 Ma in the Phenai Mata area, while rocks from Rajpipla and Mt. Pavagadh yielded ages ranging from 66.40±2.80 to 64.90±0.80 Ma. Indistinguishable ages for alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism, coupled with distinct major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest that distinct mantle sources, necessary for the two magmatic series were synchronously active. The new ages are compared with previous ages, which were carefully screened and filtered and then recalculated in order to be comparable. The entire data set of geochronological data does not support a time-related migration of the magmatism related to the northward Indian Plate movement relative to the Reunion mantle plume. The main phase of magmatism, including the newly dated rocks from the Northern Deccan occurred across the K-Pg boundary, confirming a causal link between the emplacement of the province and the K-Pg mass extinction.

  19. Origin of enormous trace metal enrichments in weathering mantles of Jurassic carbonates: evidence from Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes (United States)

    Hissler, C.; Stille, P.; Juilleret, J.; Iffly, J.; Perrone, T.; Morvan, G.


    Weathering mantels are widespread worldwide and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved carbonate rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual content of associated trace elements in this type of weathering mantle. For instance, these enrichments can represent about five times the content of the underlying Bajocian to Oxfordian limestone/marl complexes, which have been relatively poorly studied compared to weathering mantle developed on magmatic bedrocks. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources (saprolite, Bajocian silty marls and limestones, atmospheric particles deposition...). Of special interest has also been the origin of trace metals and the processes causing their enrichments. Especially Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution patterns and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments shall help to identify mobile phases in the soil system. This may inform on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. Trace metal migration and enrichments were studied on a cambisol developing on an underlying Jurassic limestone. The base is strongly enriched among others in rare earth elements (ΣREE: 2640ppm) or redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (920ppm), Cr (700ppm), Zn (550ppm), As (260ppm), Co (45ppm

  20. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Nd isotope of the Guandaoshan pluton in SW Sichuan: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xianhua(李献华); LI; Zhengxiang(李正祥); ZHOU; Hanwen(周汉文); LIU; Ying(刘颖); LIANG; Xirong(梁细荣); LI; Wuxian(李武显)


    SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemical and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Neoproterozoic Guandaoshan pluton in the Yanbian region, SW Sichuan. This pluton is of typical I-type granite and emplaced at (857±13) Ma. Geochemical and Nd isotopic characters suggest that the pluton was generated by partial melting of pre-existing, young (late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic) low-K tholeiitic protolith within an intraplate anorogenic setting. The Guandaoshan pluton probably records the earliest magmatism induced by the proposed ca. 860-750 Ma mantle superplume beneath the supercontinent Rodinia.

  1. Testing the Mutually Enhanced Magicity Effect in Nuclear Incompressibility via the Giant Monopole Resonance in the $^{204,206,208}$Pb Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, D; Fujiwara, M; Adachi, T; Akimune, H; Berg, G P A; Harakeh, M N; Itoh, M; Iwamoto, C; Long, A; Matta, J T; Murakami, T; Okamoto, A; Sault, K; Talwar, R; Uchida, M; Yosoi, M


    Using inelastic $\\alpha$-scattering at extremely forward angles, including $0^\\circ$, the strength distributions of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) have been measured in the $^{204,206,208}$Pb isotopes in order to examine the proposed mutually enhanced magicity (MEM) effect on the nuclear incompressibility. The MEM effect had been suggested as a likely explanation of the "softness" of nuclear incompressibility observed in the ISGMR measurements in the Sn and Cd isotopes. Our experimental results rule out any manifestation of the MEM effect in nuclear incompressibility and leave the question of the softness of the open-shell nuclei unresolved still.

  2. Evidence for in-situ methane production in ice based on anomalous isotope analyses (United States)

    Sowers, T. A.; Priscu, J.


    the Sajama ice core from central Bolivia (18oS, 69oW, 6542masl), for example, were 1X-5X higher than contemporaneous values recorded in polar ice cores [Campen et al., 2003]. \\delta13CH4 values from five discrete depths were compared to corresponding measurements made on the Taylor Dome ice core and suggest the additional (in-situ) CH_{4} in the Sajama samples has an average isotopic composition of -63.2±2.8‰ . For reference, atmospheric δ ^{13}CH_{4} values range from -42 to -45/pm over this period. The Sajama isotope values are characteristic of methanogenic CH_{4} emitted from most terrestrial ecosystems. The second case study revolves around ice that was recovered from a perennially ice covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Previous work on ice from Lake Bonney demonstrated a rich microbial consortium located ~2m below the surface [Priscu et al., 1998]. Methane isotope analyses were made on ice from this depth interval to identify the presence of microbially produced CH_{4}. δ ^{13}CH_{4} and δ DCH4 results suggest the CH4 arises from acetogenic CH4 production as opposed to CO2 reduction. Campen, R.K., T. Sowers, and R.B. Alley, Evidence of Microbial Consortia Metabolizing Within a Low-Latitude Mountain Glacier, Geology, 31 (No. 3), 231-234, 2003. Priscu, J.C., et al., Perennial Antarctic Lake Ice: An oasis for life in a polar desert, Science, 280, 2095-2098, 1998.

  3. Nitrogen and Triple Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Atmospheric Particulate Nitrate over the Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Kamezaki, Kazuki; Hattori, Shohei; Iwamoto, Yoko; Ishino, Sakiko; Furutani, Hiroshi; Miki, Yusuke; Miura, Kazuhiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Naohiro


    for atmospheric particulate NO3- originated from Central North Pacific Ocean showed the possibility of atmospheric particulate NO3- formation pathway is reaction NO2 with halogen oxides. At the presentation, we discuss the sources and formation pathways of atmospheric particulate NO3- by using stable isotopic analyses for each region. References J. N. Galloway, A. R. Townsend, J. Willem Erisman, M. Bekunda, Z. Cai, J. R. Freney, L. A. Martinelli, S. P. Seitzinger, M. A. Sutton, Biogeochemistry, 70, 153-226, 2004 T. W. Kim, K. Lee, R. G. Najjar, H.D. Jeong, H. J. Jeong, Science 334, 505-509, 2011 E. M. Elliott, C. Kendall, S. D. Wankel, D. A. Burns, E. W. Boyer, K. Harlin, D. J. Bain, and T. J. Butler, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 7661-7667, 2007 G. Michalski, Z. Scott, M. Kabiling, and M. H. Thiemens, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1870, 2003 M. H. Thiemens, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sc., 34, 217-262, 2006

  4. Suggested protocol for collecting, handling and preparing peat cores and peat samples for physical, chemical, mineralogical and isotopic analyses. (United States)

    Givelet, Nicolas; Le Roux, Gaël; Cheburkin, Andriy; Chen, Bin; Frank, Jutta; Goodsite, Michael E; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Rausch, Nicole; Rheinberger, Stefan; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Sapkota, Atindra; Scholz, Christian; Shotyk, William


    elements have led to the development of many analytical procedures which now permit the measurement of a wide range of elements in peat samples such as lead and lead isotope ratios, mercury, arsenic, antimony, silver, molybdenum, thorium, uranium, rare earth elements. Radiometric methods (the carbon bomb pulse of (14)C, (210)Pb and conventional (14)C dating) are combined to allow reliable age-depth models to be reconstructed for each peat profile.

  5. U-Th-Pb analyses of soil from the Sea of Fertility. (United States)

    Tera, F.; Wasserburg, G. J.


    Analyses have been made of lead, uranium, and thorium in two soil samples from the Luna 16 mission. Lead was found to be distinctly radiogenic, but significantly less radiogenic than other lunar soils. The Th/U ratio was found to be 3.8, and the uranium concentration was the lowest so far found for lunar soils.

  6. Magma mixing and the generation of isotopically juvenile silicic magma at Yellowstone caldera inferred from coupling 238U–230Th ages with trace elements and Hf and O isotopes in zircon and Pb isotopes in sanidine (United States)

    Stelten, Mark E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Reid, Mary R.; Barfod, Gry H.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu


    The nature of compositional heterogeneity within large silicic magma bodies has important implications for how silicic reservoirs are assembled and evolve through time. We examine compositional heterogeneity in the youngest (~170 to 70 ka) post-caldera volcanism at Yellowstone caldera, the Central Plateau Member (CPM) rhyolites, as a case study. We compare 238U–230Th age, trace-element, and Hf isotopic data from zircons, and major-element, Ba, and Pb isotopic data from sanidines hosted in two CPM rhyolites (Hayden Valley and Solfatara Plateau flows) and one extracaldera rhyolite (Gibbon River flow), all of which erupted near the caldera margin ca. 100 ka. The Hayden Valley flow hosts two zircon populations and one sanidine population that are consistent with residence in the CPM reservoir. The Gibbon River flow hosts one zircon population that is compositionally distinct from Hayden Valley flow zircons. The Solfatara Plateau flow contains multiple sanidine populations and all three zircon populations found in the Hayden Valley and Gibbon River flows, demonstrating that the Solfatara Plateau flow formed by mixing extracaldera magma with the margin of the CPM reservoir. This process highlights the dynamic nature of magmatic interactions at the margins of large silicic reservoirs. More generally, Hf isotopic data from the CPM zircons provide the first direct evidence for isotopically juvenile magmas contributing mass to the youngest post-caldera magmatic system and demonstrate that the sources contributing magma to the CPM reservoir were heterogeneous in 176Hf/177Hf at ca. 100 ka. Thus, the limited compositional variability of CPM glasses reflects homogenization occurring within the CPM reservoir, not a homogeneous source.

  7. Age and origin of post collision Baltoro granites, south Karakoram, North Pakistan: Insights from in-situ U-Pb, Hf and oxygen isotopic record of zircons (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Mahéo, Gweltaz; Goodell, Philip C.; Pavlis, Terry L.


    Origin of post collision plutonism is critical to understand the tectonothermal evolution of the over thickened continental crust in collision zones. This has proven difficult to reconcile with the conventional whole rock geochemical and field based studies alone. We report in-situ study of zircon U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes from five samples of the Baltoro Plutonic Unit (BPU) in south Karakoram. The plutonic unit is the western part of the southern Asian margin of the India-Asia convergent zone. Baltoro granites and a biotite-rich enclave yielded similar and overlapping U-Pb ages ranging from 26 to 15 Ma. Hafnium isotopic composition (εHf (0)) is very heterogeneous ranging from - 17.1 to + 4.4 while the oxygen isotopic composition of the granites is homogeneous with mean δ18O ranging from 7.2 to 9.4‰. Based on U-Pb geochronology and Hf-O isotopic composition, the involvement of two main sources is suggested (1) Cretaceous calc-alkaline Karakoram crust and (2) Karakoram gneisses. Moreover, possible involvement of metasomatized Asian lithospheric mantle is supported by elevated oxygen composition of granites and identical Hf composition of biotite-rich enclave to the mantle derived Baltoro lamprophyre. However, direct contribution from juvenile pristine mantle is unlikely as no juvenile mantle type Hf and oxygen values were obtained. This also precludes the involvement of southward juvenile arc related component of Kohistan-Ladakh batholith. Our new U-Pb and Hf data are comparable to the Mesozoic Karakoram batholith, Miocene two-mica leucogranites in the Pangong Range and magmatism from the Lhasa terrane in south Tibet, suggesting a genetic link between the Karakoram and the rocks to the east. This magmatic event is best explained by lower crust partial melting promoted by both thermal equilibration following crustal thickening and heat advection by ultrapotassic magmas associated with the breakoff of the Indian continental margin.

  8. Relevance of single-particle and collective excitations in zirconium isotopes populated by neutron transfer reactions in the {sup 90}Zr+{sup 208}Pb system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajtler, M. Varga, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Trg Ljudevita Gaja 6, 31000 Osijek (Croatia); Szilner, S.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Mijatović, T.; Soić, N. [Ruer Bošković Institute, HR-10001, Zagreb (Croatia); Corradi, L.; Angelis, G. de; Fioretto, E.; Montanari, D.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gadea, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Haas, F. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université de Strasbourg, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Recchia, F.; Scarlassara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Padova, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Märginean, N. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Pollarolo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universitá di Torino,and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-10125 Torino (Italy); and others


    Multineutron transfer reaction {sup 90}Zr+{sup 208}Pb has been studied at the energy close to the Coulomb barrier energy by using the PRISMA + CLARA set-up. In this fragment-γ coincidence measurement, the selective properties of the reaction mechanism in the population of the specific states have been discussed. Based on the observed γ transitions of neutron transfer channels, namely {sup 89–94}Zr isotopes, their level schemes have been constructed and updated.

  9. Genesis and open-system evolution of Quaternary magmas beneath southeastern margin of Tibet: Constraints from Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics (United States)

    Zou, Haibo; Ma, Mingjia; Fan, Qicheng; Xu, Bei; Li, Shuang-Qing; Zhao, Yongwei; King, David T.


    Post-collisional volcanic rocks on the Tibetan Plateau and its margins contain valuable information about the geodynamic processes associated with this Cenozoic continent-continent collision. The Quaternary Tengchong volcanic field at the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau formed high-potassium calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. Herein, we present comprehensive Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotopic and elemental data for trachybasalts, basaltic trachyandesites, and trachyandesites from four Quaternary Tengchong volcanoes (Maanshan, Dayingshan, Heikongshan, and Laoguipo) in order to understand their magma genesis and evolution as well as tectonic significance. Good correlations between SiO2 content and the ratios 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, and 177Hf/176Hf for these Quaternary volcanics strongly suggest that the combined assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) was an important process in the origin of basaltic trachyandesites and trachyandesites. High Y and Yb contents and low Sr/Y ratios of these basaltic trachyandesites and trachyandesites are uncharacteristic of adakites that formed by partial melting of eclogitic lower crust or partial melting of basaltic oceanic crust with eclogite as a restite. A combined assimilation-fractional crystallization model is proposed for these basaltic trachyandesites and trachyandesites. Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotopes for the uncontaminated Tengchong magma (trachybasalts with SiO2 5.5% wt.%) reflect a heterogeneous enriched mantle source. High Th/U, Th/Ta, and Rb/Nb ratios and Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotope characteristics of the uncontaminated magmas suggest that the enriched mantle beneath Tengchong formed as a result of subduction of clay-rich sediments, which probably came from the Indian continental plate. Partial melting of the enriched mantle was generated by deep continental subduction coupled with recent regional extension in the Tengchong area.

  10. Petrogenesis of keratophyes in the Pingshui Group,Zhejiang: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhiHong; XING GuangFu; GUO KungaYi; DONG YongGuan; CHEN Rong; ZENG Yong; LI LongMing; HE ZhengYu; ZHAO Ling


    Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic as well as whole-rock geochemical data are reported for keratophyes in the Pingshui Group, Zhejiang. The results are used to discuss their petrogenesis and geological significance. The keratophyes were dated at 904±8 to 906±10 Ma. These intermediate-felsic rocks are characterized by high LREE contents end depletion of HREE and HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, P), resembling arc-derived rocks. The keratophyes exhibit positive εHf(t) values of 8.6 to 15.4, consistent with their εNd(t) values of 6.4 to 7.9 but far away from those of crust-derived rocks. Such features indicate that they were likely originated from prompt reworking of juvenile crust by arc-continent collision during the early-Neoproterozoic assembly between the Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks. Combining with their Hf model ages, we suggest that there may exist not only remarkable growth of juvenile crust at ca.1.3-1.1 Ga but also production of juvenile arc-derived crust along the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block (e.g., the Pingshui area) at ca.1.0-0.9 Ga.

  11. Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry and U/Pb geochronological data of the Campina Grande complex, Paraiba State, NE Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, C.N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Guimaraes, I.P.; Silva Filho, A.F. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Beurlen, H. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas


    The Campina Grande Complex (CCG) constitutes a 250 Km{sup 2} intrusion within the high grade gneiss-migmatitic terrain, in the contact zone between the Mesoproterozoic Pajeu-Paraiba Fold Belt and the Archean Caldas Brandao Massif of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The contact of the complex is made by the Guarabira Shear Zone (west) and the Campina Grande Shear Zone in the south. The CCG is composed of coarse grained porphyritic quartz-monzonites, quartz-monzodiorites and medium grained porphyritic granodiorites. Mafic enclaves are common and show composition ranging from diorites to quartz diorites. Field and petrographic features point out to magma mixing and mingling processes involved in the CCG evolution. Basalts of probably Cretaceous age occur as dykes cutting in the CCG. This work presents and discusses the Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry of the CCG and a gabro which occur very close to the south contact of the CCG. This also presents the U/Pb in zircon geochronological data for the CCG. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Isotopic (U-Pb, Nd) and geochemical constraints on the origins of the Aileu and Gondwana sequences of Timor (United States)

    Boger, S. D.; Spelbrink, L. G.; Lee, R. I.; Sandiford, M.; Maas, R.; Woodhead, J. D.


    Detrital zircon U-Pb age data collected from the argillitic sedimentary rocks of the Timorese Aileu Complex and Gondwana Sequence indicate that both units were derived from a common source containing 200-600 Ma, 900-1250 Ma and 1450-1900 Ma zircon. The modally most significant age population within this range of ages dates to c. 260 Ma. The observed spectrum of ages can be traced to the eastern active margin of Pangaea and its immediate foreland, which today is best exposed along the northeast coast of Australia. Compared to the relative homogeneity of the detrital zircon age data, geochemical and Nd isotopic data show that the mudstones of the Aileu Complex are on average more siliceous, have higher K2O/Na2O, Rb/Sr, Th/Sc and yield notably older Nd TDM model ages when compared to those from the Gondwana Sequence. These data are interpreted to suggest that, although both sequences share a common east Pangaea provenance, they were eroded from different sections of this active margin and deposited in spatially separated basins. The present proximity of these units is a result of their tectonic juxtaposition during the Pliocene to Recent collision between the northern edge of the Indo-Australia plate and the Banda Arc.

  13. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). (United States)

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E


    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  14. Mesoproterozoic Continental Arc Type Granite in the Central Tianshan Mountains: Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb Dating and Geochemical Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tiannan; LI Jinyi; SUN Guihua; WANG Yanbin


    The Central Tianshan belt in northwestern China is a small Precambrian block located in the southern part of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which is considered as "the most voluminous block of young continental crust in the world" that comprises numerous small continental blocks separated by Paleozoic magmatic arcs. The Precambrian basement of the central Tianshan Mountains is composed of volcanic rocks and associated volcano-sedimentary rocks that were intruded by granitic plutons. Geochemical analyses demonstrate that the granitic plutons and volcanic rocks were generated in the Andean-type active continental arc environment like today's Chile, and the zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating indicates that they were developed at about 956 Ma, possibly corresponding to the subduction of the inferred Mozambique Ocean under the Baltic-African super-continent.

  15. A method for rapid in situ extraction and laboratory determination of Th, Pb, and Ra isotopes from large volumes of seawater (United States)

    Baskaran, M.; Murphy, David J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Orr, James C.; Schink, David R.


    An in situ pump and six channel extraction system, operating typically at 351 min -1, can not only filter seawater samples but also extract dissolved Th, Pb and Ra isotopes from large volumes of seawater at six different depths on a single lowering. By gamma counting the ash residues of three cartridges (one particle extractor and two nuclide extractors), we can determine 234Th and 210Pb concentrations in the particulate and dissolved phase. Extraction efficiencies for 234Th from the dissolved phase average 93 ± 5% and for 210Pb average ≥90%. At the same time we can determine radium isotopic ratios precisely, but, at present radium concentrations can only be established by the determination of 226Ra in a 30-1 cohort sample. This system can be deployed easily from ships having an A-frame. It eliminates the problems of transporting and processing large volumes of samples and involves relatively little manual labor and analytical time. We have tested and used this device repeatedly in the Gulf of Mexico. Our preliminary results agree well with values of 234Th and 210Pb concentrations and 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratios reported in the literature for the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Thermal Safety Analyses for the Production of Plutonium-238 at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Freels, James D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hobbs, Randy W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Prashant K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maldonado, G. Ivan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    There has been a considerable effort over the previous few years to demonstrate and optimize the production of plutonium-238 (238Pu) at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This effort has involved resources from multiple divisions and facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the fabrication, irradiation, and chemical processing of targets containing neptunium-237 (237Np) dioxide (NpO2)/aluminum (Al) cermet pellets. A critical preliminary step to irradiation at the HFIR is to demonstrate the safety of the target under irradiation via documented experiment safety analyses. The steady-state thermal safety analyses of the target are simulated in a finite element model with the COMSOL Multiphysics code that determines, among other crucial parameters, the limiting maximum temperature in the target. Safety analysis efforts for this model discussed in the present report include: (1) initial modeling of single and reduced-length pellet capsules in order to generate an experimental knowledge base that incorporate initial non-linear contact heat transfer and fission gas equations, (2) modeling efforts for prototypical designs of partially loaded and fully loaded targets using limited available knowledge of fabrication and irradiation characteristics, and (3) the most recent and comprehensive modeling effort of a fully coupled thermo-mechanical approach over the entire fully loaded target domain incorporating burn-up dependent irradiation behavior and measured target and pellet properties, hereafter referred to as the production model. These models are used to conservatively determine several important steady-state parameters including target stresses and temperatures, the limiting condition of which is the maximum temperature with respect to the melting point. The single pellet model results provide a basis for the safety of the irradiations, followed by parametric analyses in the initial prototypical designs

  17. In-situ trace element analyses and Pb-Pb dating of zircons in granulite from Huangtuling, Dabieshan by LAM-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元保; 陈道公; 夏群科; 涂湘林; 程昊; 杨晓志


    It is revealed by CL images that there are multi-stage growth internal structures of zircons in the Huangtuling granulite, including the inherited zircons, protolith zircons, sector and planar zone zircons and retrograde zircons. In-situ trace element compositions and Pb-Pb ages have been analyzed by LAM-ICP-MS. The sector and the planar zone domains show typical trace element characteristics of granulite zircon (low Th, U, Th/U, total REEs, clear negative Eu anomalies, relatively depleted HREE and small differential degree between MREE and HREE, etc.), indicating that they formed during granulite-facies metamorphism. The protolith zircons have trace element characteristics of crustal zircon (high Th, U, Th/U, total REEs and enriched HREEs, etc.). 12 analyzed spots on granulite-facies domains give a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of (2154±26) Ma (MSWD = 3.8), which is the best estimated age of granulite-facies metamorphism of this sample. The weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 5 analyzed spots on protolith zircon domains is (2714 ± 22) Ma (MSWD = 1.4), which represents the protolith forming time. The discovery of ca. 3.4 Ga inherited zircon indicates that there are Palaeoarchean continental materials in this area. The interpretation of formation conditions and the ages of zircons can be constrained by simultaneous in-situ analysis of trace elements and ages.

  18. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assonov, S.S.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Koeppel, C.; Röckmann, T.


    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and

  19. Evolving Pb isotope signatures of London airborne particulate matter (PM 10)-constraints from on-filter and solution-mode MC-ICP-MS. (United States)

    Noble, Stephen R; Horstwood, Matthew S A; Davy, Pamela; Pashley, Vanessa; Spiro, Baruch; Smith, Steve


    Pb isotope compositions of biologically significant PM(10) atmospheric particulates from a busy roadside location in London UK were measured using solution- and laser ablation-mode MC-ICP-MS. The solution-mode data for PM(10) sampled between 1998-2001 document a dramatic shift to increasingly radiogenic compositions as leaded petrol was phased out. LA-MC-ICP-MS isotope analysis, piloted on a subset of the available samples, is shown to be a potential reconnaissance analytical technique. PM(10) particles trapped on quartz filters were liberated from the filter surface, without ablating the filter substrate, using a 266 nm UV laser and a dynamic, large diameter, low-fluence ablation protocol. The Pb isotope evolution noted in the London data set obtained by both analytical protocols is similar to that observed elsewhere in Western Europe following leaded petrol elimination. The data therefore provide important baseline isotope composition information useful for continued UK atmospheric monitoring through the early 21(st) century.

  20. A new method for stable lead isotope extraction from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurbrick, Cheryl M., E-mail: [WIGS, Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gallon, Céline [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Flegal, A. Russell [WIGS, Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We present a relatively fast (2.5–6.5 h), semi-automated system to extract Pb from seawater. •Extraction requires few chemicals and has a relatively low blank (0.7 pmol kg{sup −1}). •We compare analyses of Pb isotopes by HR ICP-MS with those by MC-ICP-MS. -- Abstract: A new technique for stable lead (Pb) isotope extraction from seawater is established using Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M{sup ®} resin (Tosoh Bioscience LLC). This new method is advantageous because it is semi-automated and relatively fast; in addition it introduces a relatively low blank by minimizing the volume of chemicals used in the extraction. Subsequent analyses by HR ICP-MS have a good relative external precision (2σ) of 3.5‰ for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, while analyses by MC-ICP-MS have a better relative external precision of 0.6‰. However, Pb sample concentrations limit MC-ICP-MS analyses to {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, and {sup 208}Pb. The method was validated by processing the common Pb isotope reference material NIST SRM-981 and several GEOTRACES intercalibration samples, followed by analyses by HR ICP-MS, all of which showed good agreement with previously reported values.

  1. Stable isotope analyses of web-spinning spider assemblages along a headwater stream in Puerto Rico. (United States)

    Kelly, Sean P; Cuevas, Elvira; Ramírez, Alonso


    Web-spinning spiders that inhabit stream channels are considered specialists of aquatic ecosystems and are major consumers of emerging aquatic insects, while other spider taxa are more commonly found in riparian forests and as a result may consume more terrestrial insects. To determine if there was a difference in spider taxa abundance between riverine web-spinning spider assemblages within the stream channel and the assemblages 10 m into the riparian forest, we compared abundances for all web-spinning spiders along a headwater stream in El Yunque National Forest in northeast Puerto Rico. By using a nonmetric dimensional scaling (NMDS) abundance analysis we were able to see a clear separation of the two spider assemblages. The second objective of the study was to determine if aquatic insects contributed more to the diet of the spider assemblages closest to the stream channel and therefore stable isotope analyses of δ (15)N and δ (13)C for web-spinning spiders along with their possible prey were utilized. The results of the Bayesian mixing model (SIAR) however showed little difference in the diets of riverine (0 m), riparian (10 m) and upland (25 m) spiders. We found that aquatic insects made up ∼50% of the diet for web-spinning spiders collected at 0 m, 10 m, and 25 m from the stream. This study highlights the importance of aquatic insects as a food source for web-spinning spiders despite the taxonomic differences in assemblages at different distances from the stream.

  2. Stable isotope analyses of web-spinning spider assemblages along a headwater stream in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Kelly


    Full Text Available Web-spinning spiders that inhabit stream channels are considered specialists of aquatic ecosystems and are major consumers of emerging aquatic insects, while other spider taxa are more commonly found in riparian forests and as a result may consume more terrestrial insects. To determine if there was a difference in spider taxa abundance between riverine web-spinning spider assemblages within the stream channel and the assemblages 10 m into the riparian forest, we compared abundances for all web-spinning spiders along a headwater stream in El Yunque National Forest in northeast Puerto Rico. By using a nonmetric dimensional scaling (NMDS abundance analysis we were able to see a clear separation of the two spider assemblages. The second objective of the study was to determine if aquatic insects contributed more to the diet of the spider assemblages closest to the stream channel and therefore stable isotope analyses of δ15N and δ13C for web-spinning spiders along with their possible prey were utilized. The results of the Bayesian mixing model (SIAR however showed little difference in the diets of riverine (0 m, riparian (10 m and upland (25 m spiders. We found that aquatic insects made up ∼50% of the diet for web-spinning spiders collected at 0 m, 10 m, and 25 m from the stream. This study highlights the importance of aquatic insects as a food source for web-spinning spiders despite the taxonomic differences in assemblages at different distances from the stream.

  3. Characterization of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oils by bulk C, O, H, and fatty acid C stable isotope analyses. (United States)

    Richter, Eva Katharina; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian


    Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) oils differing in cultivar, sites of growth, and harvest year were characterized by fatty acid concentrations and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope analyses of bulk oils (delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), delta(18)O(bulk) values) and individual fatty acids (delta(13)C(FA)). The delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), and delta(18)O(bulk) values were determined by continuous flow combustion and high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS, TC-EA/IRMS). The delta(13)C(FA) values were determined using gas chromatography--combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). For comparison, other C(3) vegetable oils rich in linolenic acid (flax and false flax oils) and rich in linoleic acid (poppy, sunflower, and safflower oils) were submitted to the same chemical and isotopic analyses. The bulk and molecular delta(13)C values were typical for C(3) plants. The delta(13)C value of palmitic acid (delta(13)C(16:0)) and n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (delta(13)C(18:3n-3)) differed (p oils. Also within species, significant differences of delta(13)C(FA) were observed (p oil differed between cultivars (p oil and specific fatty acid stable isotope analysis might be useful in tracing dietary lipids differing in their origin.

  4. Mantle source heterogeneity and magmatic evolution at Carlsberg Ridge (3.7°N): constrains from elemental and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Tang, Limei; Yu, Xing; Dong, Yanhui


    We present new major element, ICP-MS trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of basalts from four locations along the Carlsberg Ridge (CR), northern Indian Ocean. The basalts are low-K tholeiites with 7.52-9.51 wt% MgO, 49.40-50.60 wt% SiO2, 0.09-0.27 wt% K2O, 2.55-2.90 wt% Na2O, and 0.60-0.68 Mg#. Trace element contents of the basalts show characteristics similar to those of average normal MORB, such as LREE depleted patterns with (La/Sm)N ratio of 0.55-0.69; however, some samples are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements such as K and Rb, suggesting probable modification of the mantle source. Poor correlations between the compatible elements [e.g. Ni, Cr, and Sr (related to olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, respectively)] and the incompatible elements (e.g. Zr and Y), and positive correlations in the Zr versus Zr/Y and Nb versus Nb/Y plots suggest a magmatic evolution controlled mainly by mantle melting rather than fractional crystallization. Our results extend the CR basalt range to higher radiogenic Pb isotopes and lower 143Nd/144Nd. These basalts and basalts from the northern Indian Ocean Ridge show lower 143Nd/144Nd and higher 87Sr/86Sr values than those of the depleted mantle (DM), defining a trend towards pelagic sediment composition. The Pb isotopic ratios of basalts from CR 3-4°N lie along the compositional mixing lines between the DM and the upper continental crust. However, the low radiogenic Pb of basalts from CR 9-10°N lie on the mixing line between the DM and lower continental crust. Since the Pb isotopic ratio of MORB would decrease if the source mantle was contaminated by continental lithospheric mantle, we suggest that CR contains continental lithospheric material, resulting in heterogeneous mantle beneath different ridge segments. The continental lithospheric material was introduced into the asthenosphere before or during the breakup of the Gondwana. These results support the long-term preservation of continental material in the

  5. Pb isotopic variability in the modern-Pleistocene Indus River system measured by ion microprobe in detrital K-feldspar grains (United States)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Giosan, Liviu; VanLaningham, Sam; Hinton, Richard; Tabrez, Ali R.; Danish, Muhammad; Edinburgh Ion Microprobe Facility (EIMF)


    The western Himalaya, Karakoram and Tibet are known to be heterogeneous with regard to Pb isotope compositions in K-feldspars, which allows this system to be used as a sediment provenance tool. We used secondary ion mass spectrometry to measure the isotopic character of silt and sand-sized grains from the modern Sutlej and Chenab Rivers, together with Thar Desert sands, in order to constrain their origin. The rivers show a clear Himalayan provenance, contrasting with grains from the Indus Suture Zone, but with overlap to known Karakoram compositions. The desert dunes commonly show 207Pb/ 204Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb values that are much higher than those seen in the rivers, most consistent with erosion from Nanga Parbat. This implies at least some origin from the trunk Indus, probably reworked by summer monsoon winds from the SW, a hypothesis supported by bulk Nd and U-Pb zircon dating. Further data collected from Holocene and Pleistocene sands shows that filled and abandoned channels on the western edge of the Thar Desert were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ˜4.5 ka when flow ceased entirely. This may be linked to climatic drying, northward expansion of the Thar Desert, or changes in drainage style including regional capture, channel abandonment, or active local Thar tributaries. Our data further show a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. While this cannot be distinguished from the Indus it is not heavily contaminated by reworking from the desert. The Pb system shows some use as a provenance tool, but is not effective at demonstrating whether these Nara sediments represent a Ghaggar-Hakra stream independent from the Indus. Our study highlights an important role for eolian reworking of floodplain sediments in arid rivers

  6. Major element,trace element,and Sr,Nd and Pb iso-tope studies of Cenozoic basalts from the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The whole rock K-Ar ages of basalts from the South China Sea basin vary from 3.8 to 7.9 Ma, which suggest that intra-plate volcanism after the cessation of spreading of the South China Sea (SCS) is comparable to that in adjacent regions around the SCS, i.e., Leiqiong Peninsula, northern margin of the SCS, Indochina block, and so on. Based on detailed petrographic studies, we selected many fresh ba-saltic rocks and measured their major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Geochemical characteristics of major element and trace element show that these basaltic rocks belong to alkali basalt magma series, and are similar to OIB-type basalt. The extent of partial melting of mantle rock in source region is very low, and magma may experience crystallization differentiation and cu-mulation during the ascent to or storing in the high-level magma chamber. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of these basaltic rocks imply an inhomogeneous mantle below the South China Sea. The nature of magma origin has a two end-member mixing model, one is EM2 (Enriched Mantle 2) which may be originated from mantle plume, the other is DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle). Pb isotopic characteristics show the Dupal anomaly in the South China Sea, and combined with newly found Dupal anomaly at Gakkel ridge in Arctic Ocean, this implies that Dupal anomaly is not only limited to South Hemisphere. In variation diagrams among Sr, Nd and Pb, the origin nature of mantle below the SCS is similar to those below Leiqiong peninsula, northern margin of the SCS and Indochina peninsula, and is different from those below north and northeast China. This study provides geochemical constraints on Hainan mantle plume.

  7. Geochemistry and S, Pb isotope of the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan, China: Implication for ore genesis (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Cao, Ye; Han, Si-Yu; Gao, Bing-yu; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yue-Dong


    The Yangla copper deposit, situated in the middle section of Jinshajiang tectonic belt between Zhongza-Zhongdian block and Changdu-Simao block, is a representative and giant copper deposit that has been discovered in Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region in recent years. There are coupled relationships between Yangla granodiorite and copper mineralization in the Yangla copper deposit. Five molybdenite samples yielded a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 233.3 ± 3 Ma, the metallogenesis is therefore slightly younger than the crystallization age of the granodiorite. S, Pb isotopic compositions of the Yangla copper deposit indicate that the ore-forming materials were derived from the mixture of upper crust and mantle, also with the magmatic contributions. In the late Early Permian, the Jinshajiang Oceanic plate was subducted to the west, resulting in the formation of a series of gently dipping thrust faults in the Jinshajiang tectonic belt, meanwhile, accompanied magmatic activities. In the early Late Triassic, which was a time of transition from collision-related compression to extension in the Jinshajiang tectonic belt, the thrust faults were tensional; it would have been a favorable environment for forming ore fluids. The ascending magma provided a channel for the ore-forming fluid from the mantle wedge. After the magma arrived at the base of the early-stage Yangla granodiorite, the platy granodiorite at the base of the body would have shielded the late-stage magma from the fluid. The magma would have cooled slowly, and some of the ore-forming fluid in the magma would have entered the gently dipping thrust faults near the Yangla granodiorite, resulting in mineralization.

  8. The effect of weathering on U-Th-Pb and oxygen isotope systems of ancient zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia (United States)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    We report the result of a SIMS U-Th-Pb and O-OH study of 44 ancient zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia with ages ranging from 4.3 Ga to 3.3 Ga. We have investigated the behaviour of oxygen isotopes and water in the grains by determining δ18O and OH values at a number of locations on the polished surfaces of each grain. We have divided the zircons into five groups on the basis of their U-Th-Pb and OH-oxygen isotopic behaviour. The first group has concordant U-Th-Pb ages, minimal common Pb, δ18O values consistent with zircons derived from mantle source rocks and no detectable OH content. U-Th-Pb systems in zircons from Groups 2, 3 and 4 vary from concordant to extremely discordant where influenced by cracks. Discordia intercepts with concordia at approximately zero Ma age are interpreted as disturbance of the zircon U-Th-Pb systems by weathering solutions during the extensive, deep weathering that has affected the Archean Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia since at least the Permian. Weathering solutions entering cracks have resulted in an influx of Th and U. δ18O values of Group 2 grains fall approximately within the "mantle" range and OH is within background levels or slightly elevated. δ18O values of Group 3 grains are characterised by an initial trend of decreasing δ18O with increasing OH content. With further increase in OH this trend reverses and δ18O becomes heavier with increasing OH. Group 4 grains have a distinct trend of increasing δ18O with increasing OH. These trends are explained in terms of the reaction of percolating water with the metamict zircon structure and appear to be independent of analytical overlap with cracks. Group five zircons are characterised by U-Pb systems that appear to consist of more than one age but show only minor U-Pb discordance. Nevertheless trends in δ18O versus OH in this group of grains resemble trends seen in the other groups. The observed trends of δ18O with OH in the Jack Hills zircons are similar

  9. Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Polito

    Full Text Available Stomach content analysis (SCA and more recently stable isotope analysis (SIA integrated with isotopic mixing models have become common methods for dietary studies and provide insight into the foraging ecology of seabirds. However, both methods have drawbacks and biases that may result in difficulties in quantifying inter-annual and species-specific differences in diets. We used these two methods to simultaneously quantify the chick-rearing diet of Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and Gentoo (P. papua penguins and highlight methods of integrating SCA data to increase accuracy of diet composition estimates using SIA. SCA biomass estimates were highly variable and underestimated the importance of soft-bodied prey such as fish. Two-source, isotopic mixing model predictions were less variable and identified inter-annual and species-specific differences in the relative amounts of fish and krill in penguin diets not readily apparent using SCA. In contrast, multi-source isotopic mixing models had difficulty estimating the dietary contribution of fish species occupying similar trophic levels without refinement using SCA-derived otolith data. Overall, our ability to track inter-annual and species-specific differences in penguin diets using SIA was enhanced by integrating SCA data to isotopic mixing modes in three ways: 1 selecting appropriate prey sources, 2 weighting combinations of isotopically similar prey in two-source mixing models and 3 refining predicted contributions of isotopically similar prey in multi-source models.

  10. Origin and evolution of the Tengchong block, southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic evidence from the (meta-) sedimentary rocks and intrusions (United States)

    Li, Dapeng; Chen, Yuelong; Hou, Kejun; Luo, Zhaohua


    U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data from detrital zircons of Gaoligongshan metamorphic complex and the Carboniferous Menghong Group and igneous zircons from intrusions constrain the origin, tectonic affinity (East Gondwana), crustal evolution processes, and the properties of regional high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Tengchong block of southeastern China. Three granites intruded into the Tengchong block at 72 Ma, 114 Ma and 122 Ma. Detrital zircons range in age from Archean to Late Ordovician for both the Carboniferous Menghong Group and the Gaoligongshan metamorphic complex. Analyses for these two units yield similar age clusters at 2.5 Ga, 1.6 Ga, 1.17 Ga, 0.95 Ga, and 0.65-0.5 Ga as well as parallel Hf isotopic distributions. The protolith of the studied Gaoligongshan complex in the Tengchong block should deposit in the Late Paleozoic. Detrital zircon age distribution patterns of the Carboniferous Menghong Group and the Gaoligongshan complex show dominant younger Grenvillian age peaks at 0.95 Ga, indicating the strong paleogeographic connection of the Tengchong block with the Indian margin. The Hf isotopic comparison of both detrital and igneous dated-zircon shows that the Tengchong block can be represented by the post-Archean Indian continental margin. After 250 Ma, the intensive magma events affected the region and considerable juvenile material accreted to the crust of the Tengchong block.

  11. In-situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotopic constraints on the origin of the Hasan-Robat A-type granite from Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, Iran: implications for reworking of Cadomian arc igneous rocks (United States)

    Honarmand, Maryam; Li, Xian-Hua; Nabatian, Ghasem; Neubauer, Franz


    The Lower Permian Hasan-Robat syenogranite occurs as a single pluton and intruded the Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian sandstones and dolomitic limestones in the central part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. This syenogranitic intrusion shows A-type granitic affinity and is a good representative of Early Permian igneous activity in Iran. SIMS U-Pb zircon analyses indicate a crystallization age of 294.2 ± 2.5 Ma for the Hasan-Robat A-type granite. In-situ Lu-Hf and oxygen isotope analyses of magmatic zircons were carried out to infer the magma sources and evolution of the Hasan-Robat A-type syenogranite. The Hf-O zircon isotopic compositions are relatively homogeneous, with nearly chondritic ɛHf(t) values of -0.8 to +2.4 corresponding to two-stage zircon Hf model ages of 1.15-1.36 Ga. The δ18O values of zircon range from +7.6 to +8.6‰. The Hf model ages of the Hasan-Robat zircons is within the range of those reported from the Cadomian granitoids in Iran. The isotopic features of the Hasan-Robat syenogranite are in good agreement with Hf isotopic values and Hf and Nd model ages reported from the Cadomian arc magmatic suites in Iran. Thus, partial melting of these Cadomian igneous rocks would be the favorite source for the Hasan-Robat syenogranitic magma during the opening of the Neotethys Ocean and separation of Iranian terranes from the northern margin of Gondwana.

  12. An autochthonous Avalonian basement source for the latest Ordovician Brenton Pluton in the Meguma terrane of Nova Scotia: U-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints and paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Duncan Keppie, J.; Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Fraser Keppie, D.


    The Ediacaran-Ordovician Meguma Supergroup was thrust over Avalonia basement prior to the intrusion of post-Acadian, ca. 370 Ma, S-type granitic batholiths. This has led to two main hypotheses regarding the original location of the Meguma terrane, a continental rise prism bordering either NW Africa or Avalonia. On the other hand, the pre-Acadian, ca. 440 Ma Brenton pluton has yielded the following U/Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon data: (1) 448 ± 3 Ma population peak inferred to be the intrusive age and (2) ca. 550 and 700 Ma inherited ages common to both Avalonia and NW Africa. In contrast, Hf isotopic analyses of zircon yielded model ages ranging from 814 to 1127 Ma with most between 940 and 1040 Ma: such ages are typical of Avalonia and not NW Africa. The ages of the inherited zircons found within the Brenton pluton suggest that it was probably derived by partial melting of sub-Meguma, mid-crustal Avalonian rocks, upon which the Meguma Supergroup was deposited. Although Avalonia is commonly included in the peri-Gondwanan terranes off NW Africa or Amazonia, paleomagnetic data, faunal provinciality, and Hf data suggest that, during the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian, it was an island chain lying near the tropics (ca. 20-30 °S) and was possibly a continuation of the Bolshezemel volcanic arc accreted to northern Baltica during the Ediacaran Timanide orogenesis. This is consistent with the similar derital zircon population in the Ediacaran-Cambrian Meguma Supergroup and the Dividal Group in northeastern Baltica.

  13. Fluid flow in extensional detachments determined from stable isotope analyses: Application to Kettle dome detachment, Washington, USA (United States)

    Quilichini, A.; Teyssier, C.; Mulch, A.; Nachlas, W.


    In detachment systems that border metamorphic core complexes fluids convect from the surface to the detachment along faults and fractures in the brittle crust that serve as zones of recharge and discharge. This buoyancy-driven fluid flow is controlled by a high heat flow at the base of the system, beneath the detachment, where heat is advected by crustal thinning and magma intrusions. This hydrothermal convective flow is focused in the detachment for the duration of activity of the detachment and at relatively high temperature (300-500°C), resulting in very significant fluid-rock interaction and isotopic exchange. Studies of detachments in the North American Cordilleran core complexes suggest that meteoric fluids permeate detachment zones, as recorded by the deuterium composition of hydrous phases such as white mica, biotite, and amphibole. Quantifying fluid flux in detachments is a challenge because permeability of ductilely deforming rocks is poorly understood. The approach we are using focuses on oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in quartzite (+ minor mica) sections of detachments, complemented by high-precision chemical analyses of mica to understand their growth history and recrystallization process. The initial fluid isotopic composition is approximated using the deuterium composition of mica at a particular temperature that is given by oxygen isotopes in quartz-mica pairs. The more fluid interact with the quartzite, the larger the expected shift in oxygen isotope value. The Eocene Kettle Dome detachment in the North American Cordillera provides a continuous section of ~200 m thick quartzite mylonite where this methodology is applied. High-resolution sampling (up to 5 m) complements the initial sampling that was performed every 10 m in this section (Mulch et al., 2006, Tectonics, TC4001). Based on mica deuterium values, the fluid that participated in mica crystallization was meteoric in origin (~110 per mil). Interaction of this fluid with the quartz mylonite

  14. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of granitoids in the Yulekenhalasu copper ore district, northern Junggar, China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhixin; Geng, Xinxia; Li, Qiang


    The Yulekenhalasu porphyry copper deposit is located in the Kalaxiange'er metallogenic belt in northern Junggar, China. We present the results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, and geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope analyses of the granitoids associated with the ore deposits with a view to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The granitoids consist of quartz diorite, diorite porphyry, porphyritic monzonite, and quartz porphyry, emplaced at 382, 379, 375-374, and 348 Ma, respectively, which span Late Devonian to early Carboniferous ages. The ore-bearing intrusion is mainly diorite porphyry, with subordinate porphyritic monzonite. The Late Devonian intrusions are characterized by SiO2 contents of 54.5-64.79 wt.%, Na2O contents of 3.82-8.24 wt.%, enrichment in Na, light rare-earth elements (LREEs), and large ion lithophile elements. They also display relative depletion in Y, Ba, P, Nb, Ta, and Ti, and weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.6-0.87). The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry is characterized by high SiO2 content (72.26-73.35 wt.%), enrichment in LREEs, K, and Sr, and relative depletion in Y (10.82-12.52 ppm) and Yb (1.06-1.15 ppm). The Late Devonian and early Carboniferous granitoids are characterized by positive ɛNd(t) values (5.2-10.1, one sample at - 1.9), positive ɛHf(t) values (7.46-18.45), low (87Sr/86Sr)i values (0.70363-0.70476), and young crustal residence ages. These data indicate that the sources of the granitoids were mainly mantle-derived juvenile rocks. Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the Late Devonian granitoids formed in an oceanic island arc, and they were formed from different sources, among which the mineralized diorite porphyry might have originated from a mixed slab-derived and mantle wedge melt source. The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry was likely emplaced in a mature island arc environment, and was probably derived from juvenile crust.

  15. Middle Pleistocene ecology and Neanderthal subsistence: insights from stable isotope analyses in Payre (Ardèche, southeastern France). (United States)

    Ecker, Michaela; Bocherens, Hervé; Julien, Marie-Anne; Rivals, Florent; Raynal, Jean-Paul; Moncel, Marie-Hélène


    The Middle Palaeolithic site of Payre in southeastern France yields abundant archaeological material associated with fossil hominid remains. With its long sequence of Middle Pleistocene deposits, Payre is a key site to study the Middle Palaeolithic chronology of this region. This study is the first to investigate carbon and oxygen isotope contents of Neanderthal tooth enamel bioapatite, together with a wide range of herbivorous and carnivorous species. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of hunting behaviour, resource partitioning, diet and habitat use of animals and Neanderthals through a palaeoecological reconstruction. Local topography had a visible influence on carbon and oxygen stable isotope values recorded in herbivore tooth enamel. This was used to investigate possible habitats of herbivores. The different herbivorous species do not show large variations of their carbon and oxygen isotope values through time, indicating niche conservatism from OIS 8-7 to OIS 6-5, i.e., independently of palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental variations. Based on these new observations, we conclude that Neanderthals employed a stable subsistence strategy over time, using a variety of local resources, with resource partitioning visible between humans and carnivores, especially wolves. A comparison of the results of stable isotopic investigation with the results of tooth wear analyses previously conducted on the same teeth allowed us to demonstrate that grazing and browsing do not bind animals to a specific habitat in a C3 environment as reflected in the isotopic values.

  16. Benchmark of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions of depletion analyses for San Onofre PWR MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.


    The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, fabricated with both uranium and plutonium, after discharge from reactors is of significant interest to the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The validation of the SCALE (SAS2H) depletion code for use in the prediction of isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to previous validation studies on uranium-only fueled reactors, has corresponding significance. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program examined the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit 1, during cycles 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses of the MOX spent fuel were conducted on 13 actinides and {sup 148}Nd by either mass or alpha spectrometry. Six fuel pellet samples were taken from four different fuel pins of an irradiated MOX assembly. The measured actinide inventories from those samples has been used to benchmark SAS2H for MOX fuel applications. The average percentage differences in the code results compared with the measurement were {minus}0.9% for {sup 235}U and 5.2% for {sup 239}Pu. The differences for most of the isotopes were significantly larger than in the cases for uranium-only fueled reactors. In general, comparisons of code results with alpha spectrometer data had extreme differences, although the differences in the calculations compared with mass spectrometer analyses were not extremely larger than that of uranium-only fueled reactors. This benchmark study should be useful in estimating uncertainties of inventory, criticality and dose calculations of MOX spent fuel.

  17. Tracing source terranes using U-Pb-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons: provenance of the Orhanlar Unit of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex, NW Turkey (United States)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair; Gerdes, Axel


    -inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-MC-ICP-MS) at Goethe University, Frankfurt. A total of 399 U-Pb spot analyses were carried out on zircons from the sandstones of the Orhanlar Unit. 84% of the data yielded Precambrian ages, which is in marked contrast with the typical arkosic sandstones of the Karakaya Complex in which Precambrian zircons form only 10% of the population. Three zircon grains of Ladinian age suggest a maximum depositional age for the Orhanlar Unit. The most prominent zircon population is of Ediacaran-Cryogenian age (31%). The second largest population is Tonian-Stenian (22%), the third largest Cryogenian-Tonian (9%) and the fourth Devonian-Carboniferous (7%). There are also minor zircon populations of Palaeoproterozoic and Neo-Archean ages. The Precambrian zircon populations in the Orhanlar Unit sandstones are identical to those in the schists of the Sakarya continental crust (P.A. Ustaömer et al. 2012; this study). Their Hf isotope compositions also overlap, suggesting that the Sakarya continental crust could be a source for the sandstones of the Orhanlar Unit. On the other hand, the Hf(t) values of most of the Devonian and Carboniferous detrital zircons differ from those of the Devonian and Carboniferous granites that intrude the Sakarya continental crust. The Karakaya Complex as a whole appears to have been derived from two different source terranes, of which the Orhanlar Unit sandstones represent a minor, but significant component. Possible explanations are that two different source terranes already existed in the same region but that these were not exposed to erosion at the same time or, if exposed simultaneously, experienced different depositional pathways (without mixing); alternatively, the Orhanar Unit represents part of a different tectono-stratigraphic terrane from the other Karakaya Complex units, with which it was tectonically amalgamated prior to Early Jurassic deposition of a common sedimentary cover. Ustaömer PA, Ustaömer T

  18. Zircon U-Pb Age, Trace Element, and Hf Isotope Evidence for Paleoproterozoic Granulite-Facies Metamorphism and Archean Crustal Remnant in the Dabie Orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Nengzhong; Wu Yuanbao


    Zircon U-Pb age, trace elements, and Hf isotopes were determined for granulite and gneiss at Huaugtuling (黄土岭), which is hosted by ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Dabie(大别) orogen, east-central China. Cathodolumineseence (CL) images reveal core-rim structure for most zircons in the granulite. The cores show oscillatory zoning, relatively high Th/U and 176 Lu/177 Hf ratios, and high rare earth element (HREE)-enriched pattern, consistent with magmatic origin. They gave a weighted mean 207 Pb/206 Pb age of (2 766±9) Ma, dating magma emplacement of protolith. The rims are characterized by sector ur planar zoning, low Th/U and 176 Lu/177 Hf ratios, negative Euanomalies and flat HREE patterns, consistent with their formation under granulite-facies metamorphicconditions. Zircon U-Pb dating yields an age of (2 029±13) Ma, which is interpreted as a record ofmetamorphic event during the assembly of the supercontinent Columbia. The gneiss has a protolith ageof (1982±14) Ma, which is similar to the zircon U-Pb age for the granulite-facies metamorphism,suggesting complementary processes to granulite-facies metamorphism and partial melting. A fewinherited cores with igneous characteristics have 207 pb/206 Pb ages of approximately 3.53, 3.24, and 2.90Ga, respectively, suggesting the presence of Mesoarchean to Paleoarchean crustal remnants. A fewTriassic and Cretaceous metamorphic ages were obtained, suggesting the influences by the Triassiccontinental collision and postcollisional collapse in response to the Cretaceous extension. Comparingwith abundant occurrence of Triassic metamorphic zircons in ultrahigh-pressure eclogite and granitehydrous melt is evident for zircon growth in theHuangtuling granulite and gneiss during thecontinental collision. The magmatic protolithzircons from the granulite show a large variationin 176 Hf/177 Hf ratios from 0.280 809 to 0.281 289,corresponding to era(t) values of-7.3 to 6.3 andHf model ages of 2.74 to 3.34 Ga. The 2

  19. Application of carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur. (United States)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Oe, Takaaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu


    Japanese apricot liqueur manufacturers are required to control the quality and authenticity of their liqueur products. Citric acid made from corn is the main acidulant used in commercial liqueurs. In this study, we conducted spiking experiments and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid used as an acidulant in Japanese apricot liqueurs. Our results showed that the δ(13)C values detected exogenous citric acid originating from C4 plants but not from C3 plants. The δ(2)H values of citric acid decreased as the amount of citric acid added increased, whether the citric acid originated from C3 or C4 plants. Commercial liqueurs with declared added acidulant provided higher δ(13)C values and lower δ(2)H values than did authentic liqueurs and commercial liqueurs with no declared added acidulant. Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses are suitable as routine methods for detecting exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur.

  20. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotope composition of granitoids of the Early Cretaceous Copiapó plutonic complex (27°30'S), Chile (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Fontignie, Denis; Chiaradia, Massimo; Voldet, Pia


    Early Cretaceous plutonic rocks exposed south of Copiapó form part of the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. These rocks intrude arc-derived volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and marine limestones that were deposited in the Early Cretaceous Atacama backarc basin. The Copiapó plutonic complex consists mainly of calc-alkaline, medium- to coarse-grained diorite, granodiorite, tonalite, monzodiorite, and quartz monzonite. The plutonic rocks are subalkaline to alkaline, metaluminous, magnetite-series, volcanic arc, I-type granitoids. Batholithic magmas are a heat, potential fluid, metal, and sulphur source for the hydrothermal iron oxide-rich Cu-Au mineralization in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration affected large portions of the Copiapó complex. The least altered batholithic rocks have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr of 0.703070-0.703231; initial 143Nd/ 144Nd of 0.512733-0.512781; and 206Pb/ 204Pb, 207Pb/ 204Pb, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 18.428-18.772, 15.550-15.603, and 38.127-38.401, respectively. The δ18O values for these rocks range from +6.9 to +8.6‰. Isotope signatures and trace element distributions suggest that the magmas are mantle derived. A subduction fluid-modified mantle source may explain the geochemical characteristics of the Copiapó complex. The ascent of magmas occurred along deep-rooted structures without significant crustal contamination, though minor contamination by relatively young (e.g. Jurassic) igneous rocks during ascent is possible. Intrusive rocks with high-K to shoshonitic characteristics probably represent residual liquids of less evolved magmas. The regional geologic context suggests that the plutons of the Copiapó complex were emplaced at a relatively shallow crustal level of 2-3 km.

  1. Behaviour mechanisms and correlation between lead (Pb) and its isotope (210)Pb in industrial residue as an indicator for waste characterization. (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Bityukova, Liidia; Kiisk, Madis; Özden, Banu; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry


    Total lead and (210)Pb concentrations were determined in various ash fractions (collected from two of the world's largest oil shale-fired power plants) by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry. Results show a clear increase in total lead (values up to 193 ppm in filter ashes) and (210)Pb (values up to 148 Bq kg(-1) in filter ashes) concentrations in the ash fractions from the furnace towards the filter ashes. A strong positive linear correlation (Pearson's bivariate correlation remained between 0.86 and 0.99) was determined between total lead concentration (ppm) and (210)Pb activity concentration (Bq kg(-1)) within all the boilers under observation. The constant concentration ratio between total lead and (210)Pb remained around one (with minor exceptions), independent of the sampling location and the used combustion technology. The determined concentration ratio can be applicable as an indicative tool in waste material characterization. It also provides multiple additions to the general material characterization approach, by integrating radiological and elemental studies and providing an option to rapidly obtain initial indicative information about the residues. This in turn helps to generate the initial information to work out the next steps in waste material management.

  2. Zircon U-Pb and geochemical analyses for leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group,north Qinling Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Field observation showed that there are many irregular leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group in the Xiaowangjian area, north Qinling orogenic belt. Photomicrographs indicated that the protoliths of those altered leucocratic intrusive rocks are dioritic rocks. Geochemical analyses showed that pillow lavas have a range of SiO2 from 47.35% to 51.20%, low abundance of TiO2 from 0.97% to 1.72%, and percentages of MgO (MgO#=41―49). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of pillow lavas are even, indicative of a weak differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=1.52―0.99). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that pillow lavas are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba). Leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas have a wide range of SiO2 from 53.85%―67.20%, low abundances of TiO2 from 0.51%―1.10%, and MgO (MgO#=40―51), and higher percentages of Al2O3 (13.32%―16.62%) and concentration of Sr (342-539 μg/g), ratios of Na2O/K2O (2―7) and Sr/Y (17―28). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of leucocratic intrusive rocks showed highly differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=12.26―19.41). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that leucocratic intrusive rocks are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba), and significantly depleted in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr and Ti), indicative of a relationship to subduction. Isotopically, leucocratic intrusive rocks have a similar εNd(t) (+7.45―+13.14) to that of MORB (+8.8―+9.7), which indicates that those leucocratic intrusive rocks sourced from depleted mantle most likely. SHRIMP U-Pb analyses for zircon showed that those leucocratic intrusive rocks were formed at 442±7 Ma, yielding an age of subduction in the early Paleozoic in the north Qinling orogenic belt.

  3. Trace Element and Stable Isotope Analyses of Deep Sea Fish from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Manganese, Tl, Pb, Bi, In, Cs and As showed significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) with δ15N, ... To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting Tl biomagnification in fish. ... constitutes a health risk to humans, as Cr is potentially toxic.

  4. Zircon LA-ICP MS U-Pb Age, Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopic Compositions and Geochemistry of the Triassic Post-collisional Wulong Adakitic Granodiorite in the South Qinling, Central China, and Its Petrogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiangfeng; LAI Shaocong; WANG Juan; LI Yongfei


    The Indosinian post-collisional Wulong pluton intruded into the Mesoproterozoic Fuping Group, South Qinling, central China. In the southern part of the pluton, some mafic enclaves have sharp or gradational contact relationships with the host biotite granodiorite. Geochemistry, zircon LA-ICP MS (laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) U-Pb chronology and Sr- Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of the pluton are reported in this paper. The biotite granodiorite shows close compositional similarities to high-silica adakite. Its chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by strong HREE depletion (Yb = 0.33-0.96 10-6 and Y = 4.77-11.19×10-6), enrichment of Ba (775-1386×10-6) and Sr (643-1115×10-6) and high Sr/Y (57.83-159.99) and Y/Yb (10.99-14.32) ratios, as well as insignificant Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.70-0.83), suggesting a feldspar-poor, garnet±amphibole-rich residual mineral assemblage. The mafic enclaves have higher MgO (4.15- 8.13%), Cr (14.79-371.31×10-6), Ni (20.00-224.24×10-6) and Nb/Ta (15.42-21.91) than the host granodiorite, implying that they are mantle-derived and might represent underplated mafic magma. Zircon LA-ICP MS dating of the granodiorite yields a 20.6Pb/238U weighted mean age of 208±2 Ma (MSWD=0.50, 1σ), which is the age of emplacement of the host biotite granodiorite. This age indicates that the Wulong pluton formed during the late-orogenic or post-collisional stage (≤242±21 Ma) of the South Qinling belt. The host biotite granodiorite displays 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7059-0.7062, Isr = 0.7044-0.7050,143Nd/144Nd = 0.51236-0.51238, εNd(t)=-2.26 to-2.66,2.6Pb/2.4pb=18.099-18.209,207Pb/2.4pb=15.873-15.979 and 2.8Pb/204pb=38.973-39.430. Those ratios are similar to those of the Mesoproterozoic Yaolinghe Group in the South Qinling. Furthermore, its Nd isotopic model age(~1.02 Ga) is consistent with the age (~1.1 Ga) of the Yaolinghe Group. Based on the integrated geological and geochemical studies, coupled with previous

  5. Development of procedure for measurement of Pb isotope ratios in seawater by application of seaFAST sample pre-treatment system and Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Vassileva, Emilia; Wysocka, Irena


    Anthropogenic Pb in the oceans, derived from high-temperature industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration can have an isotopic signature distinct from naturally occurring Pb, supplied by rock weathering. To identify the different pollution sources accurately and to quantify their relative contributions, Pb isotope ratios are widely used. Due to the high salt content (approximately 3.5% of total dissolved solids) and very low levels of Pb (typically from 1 to 100 ng L- 1) in seawater the determination of Pb isotope ratios requires preliminary matrix separation and analyte preconcentration. An analytical protocol for the measurements of Pb isotope ratios in seawater combining seaFAST sample pre-treatment system and Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF ICP-MS) was developed. The application of seaFAST system was advantageous, because of its completely closed working cycle and small volumes of chemicals introduced in pre-treatment step, resulting in very low detection limits and procedural blanks. The preconcentration/matrix separation step was also of crucial importance for minimizing the isobaric and matrix interferences, coming from the seawater. In order to differentiate between anthropogenic and natural Pb sources, particular attention was paid to the determination of 204Pb isotope because of its implication in some geological interpretations. The validation of the analytical procedure was effectuated according to the recommendations of the ISO/IEC 17025 standard. The method was validated by processing the common Pb isotope reference material NIST SRM 981. All major sources of uncertainty were identified and propagated together following the ISO/GUM guidelines. The estimation of the total uncertainty associated to each measurement result was fundamental tool for sorting the main sources of possible biases. The developed analytical procedure was applied to the coastal and open seawater samples, collected in different regions of

  6. Selective properties of neutron transfer reactions in the {sup 90}Zr + {sup 208}Pb system for the population of excited states in zirconium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga Pajtler, M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek (Croatia); Szilner, S. [Rudjer Bošković Institute, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Corradi, L.; Angelis, G. de; Fioretto, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gadea, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Haas, F. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université de Strasbourg, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Lunardi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Padova, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Jelavić Malenica, D. [Rudjer Bošković Institute, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Mărginean, N. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mengoni, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Padova, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Mijatović, T. [Rudjer Bošković Institute, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Montagnoli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Padova, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Montanari, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Pollarolo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universitá di Torino, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-10125 Torino (Italy); and others


    Nuclei produced via multineutron transfer channels have been studied in {sup 90}Zr + {sup 208}Pb close to the Coulomb barrier energy in a fragment-γ coincident measurement employing the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer coupled to the CLARA γ-array. The selective properties of the reaction mechanism have been discussed in terms of states and their strength excited in the neutron transfer channels leading to {sup 89–94}Zr isotopes. A strong population of yrast states, with energies up to ∼7.5 MeV has been observed.

  7. Selective properties of neutron transfer reactions in the 90Zr + 208Pb system for the population of excited states in zirconium isotopes (United States)

    Varga Pajtler, M.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; de Angelis, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Haas, F.; Lunardi, S.; Jelavić Malenica, D.; Mărginean, N.; Mengoni, D.; Mijatović, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Recchia, F.; Salsac, M.-D.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.


    Nuclei produced via multineutron transfer channels have been studied in 90Zr + 208Pb close to the Coulomb barrier energy in a fragment-γ coincident measurement employing the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer coupled to the CLARA γ-array. The selective properties of the reaction mechanism have been discussed in terms of states and their strength excited in the neutron transfer channels leading to 89-94Zr isotopes. A strong population of yrast states, with energies up to ∼7.5 MeV has been observed.

  8. Characteristic Features and U—Pb Isotopic Ages of Zircons in a Middle Proterozoic Granite Pluton from Baohan Area,Hainan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓铁殷; 陈毓蔚; 等


    The crystal form,chemical composition and U-Pb isotopic composition of various zircon fractions is a Middle Proterozoic granite pluton from the Baoban area suggest that the zircons are typically magmatogenic in nature,and different from those of sedimentary and epigenetic orgins.The various zircon fractions yielded and age of about 1440.87Ma,which may represent the ge of zircon crystallization.The so-called aoban-group migmatite is,as a matter of fact,a Middle Proterozoic granite pluton.

  9. Geochemistry, water dynamics and metals: Major, trace elements, Pb and Sr isotope constraints on their origins and movements in a small anthropized catchment over a flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, J.M.; Othman, D.B. [University Montpellier II, Laboratoire Geofluides, Bassins, Eaux, Montpellier (France)


    Major, trace elements and Sr-Pb isotope data on the dissolved and particulate phases are reported for water samples taken regularly over the September flood of a Mediterranean river (S France). This river drains runoff from a small, carbonate, karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies, and characterized by agricultural, urban and road network activities. The objective is to combine all the data into a dynamic model for constraining the origin(s) and movements of waters and of their loads. Furthermore, for metals, it becomes then feasible to know their fate and bioavailability downstream 18 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Isotopic yields and kinetic energies of primary residues in 1 A GeV sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb+p reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Enqvist, T; Benlliure, J; Bernas, M; Boudard, A; Czajkowski, S; Legrain, R; Leray, S; Mustapha, B; Pravikoff, M S; Rejmund, F; Schmidt, K H; Stéphan, C; Taieb, J; Tassan-Got, L; Volant, C; Wlazlo, W


    The production of primary residual nuclei in the reaction 1 A GeV sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb on proton has been studied by measuring isotopic distributions for all elements from titanium (Z=22) to lead (Z=82). Kinematical properties of the residues were also determined and used to disentangle the relevant reaction mechanisms, spallation (projectile fragmentation) and fission. The fragment separator FRS at GSI, Darmstadt, was used to separate and identify the reaction products. The measured production cross sections are highly relevant for the design of accelerator-driven subcritical reactors and for the planning of future radioactive-beam facilities.

  11. Compilation of Radiogenic Isotope Data in Mexico and their Petrogenetic Implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ignacio S Torres-Alvarado; Surendra P Verma1; Gerardo Carrasco-Nunez


    Seven hundred and twenty-five Sr, two hundred and forty-three Nd and one hundred and fifty-one Pb isotopic ratios from seven different Mexican magmatic provinces were compiled in an extensive geochemical database. Data were arranged according to the Mexican geological provinces, indicating for each province total number of analyses, range and mean of values and two times standard deviation (2). Data from seven provinces were included in the database: Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), Baja California (BC), Pacific Ocean (PacOc), Altiplano (AP), Sierra Madre del Sur (SMS), and Sierra Madre Oriental (SMOr). Isotopic values from upper mantle and lower crustal xenoliths, basement outcrops and sediments from the Cocos Plate were also compiled. In the MVB the isotopic ratios range as follows: 87Sr/86Sr 0.703003-0.70841; 143Nd/144Nd 0.512496-0.513098; 206Pb/204Pb 18.567-19.580; 207Pb/204Pb 15.466-15.647; 208Pb/204Pb 38.065-38.632. The SMO shows a large variation in 87Sr/86Sr ranging from ~ 0.7033 to 0.71387. 143Nd/144Nd ratios are relatively less variable with values from 0.51191 to 0.51286. Pb isotope ratios in the SMO are as follows: 206Pb/204Pb 18.060-18.860; 207Pb/204Pb 15.558- 15.636; 208Pb/204Pb 37.945-38.625. PacOc rocks show the most depleted Sr and Nd isotopic ratios (0.70232-0.70567 for Sr and 0.512631-0.513261 for Nd). Pb isotopes for PacOc show the following range: 206Pb/204Pb 18.049-19.910; 207Pb/204Pb 15.425-15.734; 208Pb/204Pb 37.449-39.404. The isotopic ratios of the AP rocks seem to be within the range of those from the PacOc. Most samples with reported Sr and Nd isotopic data are spread within and around the ``mantle array''. The SMO seems to have been formed by a mixing process between mantle derived magmas and continental crust. The MVB appears to have a larger mantle component, with AFC as the dominant petrogenetic process for the evolved rocks. There is still a need for Pb isotopic data in all Mexican magmatic provinces andof

  12. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the lower crust beneath northern Tarim: insights from igneous rocks in the Kuluketage area, NW China (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wei, Xun; Xu, Yi-Gang; Long, Xiao-Ping; Shi, Xue-Fa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Feng, Yue-Xing


    The composition of lower crust of the Tarim Craton in NW China is essential to understand the petrogenesis of the ~290-275 Ma Tarim basalts and associated intermediate-felsic rocks. However, it remains poorly constrained because extremely sparse granulite terrains or granulite xenoliths have been found in the Tarim Craton. New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data are reported for the Neoarchean and Neoproterozoic igneous rocks widely distributed in the northern margin of the Tarim Craton. The Neoarchean granitic gneisses show fractionated REE (rare earth element) patterns [(La/Yb) N = 12-58, YbN = 10.6-36] with pronounced negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. These features, together with negative ɛNdi (-0.7 to -3.2) suggest that they were derived from melting of mafic lower crust. The Neoproterozoic biotite granodiorites are strongly depleted in HREE with (La/Yb) N up to 55. They are characterized by high Sr (671-789 ppm) but very low Y (7.10-8.06 ppm) and Yb contents (0.47-0.58 ppm), showing typical features of adakitic rocks. The samples with different SiO2 contents display identical 87Sr/86Sri (0.7101-0.7103), ɛNdi (-14.1 to -15.7) and Pb isotopes (208Pb/204Pbi = 36.94-37.07). These features together with arc-like trace element patterns suggest that they were derived from melting of thickened lower crust. In comparison, the Neoproterozoic hornblende-biotite granodiorites have similar trace element compositions except for weaker depletion in HREE and have lower 87Sr/86Sri (0.7078) and initial Pb isotopes, and higher ɛNdi (-12.3 to -12.7). This suggests that they were formed by melting of old lower continental crust at a shallower depth than the biotite granodiorites. These rocks were derived from the lower crust, thus providing valuable information on the nature of the lower crust beneath northern Tarim. Combined with published data, the 87Sr/86Sri, ɛNdi, 206Pb/204Pbi and ɛHfi of the northern Tarim lower crust ranges from 0.7055 to 0.7103, from -12 to -17

  13. Sources of granite magmatism in the Embu Terrane (Ribeira Belt, Brazil): Neoproterozoic crust recycling constrained by elemental and isotope (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry (United States)

    Alves, Adriana; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa


    Whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry and in situ K-feldspar Pb isotope geochemistry were used to identify the sources involved in the genesis of Neoproterozoic granites from the Embu Terrane, Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil. Granite magmatism spanned over 200 Ma (810-580 Ma), and is dominated by crust-derived relatively low-T (850-750 °C, zircon saturation) biotite granites to biotite-muscovite granites. Two Cryogenian plutons show the least negative εNdt (-8 to -10) and highest mg# (30-40) of the whole set. Their compositions are strongly contrasted, implying distinct sources for the peraluminous (ASI ∼ 1.2) ∼660 Ma Serra do Quebra-Cangalha batholith (metasedimentary rocks from relatively young upper crust with high Rb/Sr and low Th/U) and the metaluminous (ASI = 0.96-1.00) ∼ 630 Ma Santa Catarina Granite. Although not typical, the geochemical signature of these granites may reflect a continental margin arc environment, and they could be products of a prolonged period of oceanic plate consumption started at ∼810 Ma. The predominant Ediacaran (595-580 Ma) plutons have a spread of compositions from biotite granites with SiO2 as low as ∼65% (e.g., Itapeti, Mauá, Sabaúna and Lagoinha granites) to fractionated muscovite granites (Mogi das Cruzes, Santa Branca and Guacuri granites; up to ∼75% SiO2). εNdT are characteristically negative (-12 to -18), with corresponding Nd TDM indicating sources with Paleoproterozoic mean crustal ages (2.0-2.5 Ga). The Guacuri and Santa Branca muscovite granites have the more negative εNdt, highest 87Sr/86Srt (0.714-0.717) and lowest 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, consistent with an old metasedimentary source with low time-integrated Rb/Sr. However, a positive Nd-Sr isotope correlation is suggested by data from the other granites, and would be consistent with mixing between an older source predominant in the Mauá granite and a younger, high Rb/Sr source that is more abundant in the Lagoinha granite sample. The

  14. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics of Late Cenozoic leucite lamproites from the East European Alpine belt (Macedonia and Yugoslavia) (United States)

    Altherr, R.; Meyer, H.-P.; Holl, A.; Volker, F.; Alibert, C.; McCulloch, M. T.; Majer, V.

    In the East European Alpine belt, leucite-sanidine-phlogopite-olivine-bearing volcanic rocks of Late Cenozoic age occur at eight localities within the Vardar suture zone and at one locality in the Southern Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt. Most of these volcanics are characterized by high Mg# (66.6-78.6), high abundances of Ni (117-373 ppm) and Cr (144-445 ppm) as well as high primary K2O contents (5.63-7.01 %) and K2O/Na2O values (1.93-4.91). Rocks with more differentiated compositions are rare. A lamproite affinity of these rocks is apparent from their relatively low contents of Al2O3 (9.9-14.3 wt%) and CaO (6.2-8.3 wt%) in combination with high abundances of Rb (85-967 ppm), Ba (1,027-4,189 ppm), Th (18.9-76.5 ppm), Pb (19-54 ppm), Sr (774-1,712 ppm) and F (0.16-0.52 wt%), and the general lack of plagioclase. Although eruption of the magmas took place in post-collisional extensional settings, significant depletions of Nb and Ta relative to Th and La, low TiO2 contents (0.92-2.17 %), low ratios of Rb/Cs, K/Rb and Ce/Pb as well as high ratios of Ba/La and Ba/Th suggest close genetic relationships to subduction zone processes. Whereas Sr and Nd isotope ratios show relatively large variations (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7078-0.7105, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51242-0.51215), Pb isotope ratios display a very restricted range with 206Pb/204Pb = 18.68-18.88 and variable but generally high Δ7/4 (11-18) and Δ8/4 (65-95) values. The observed petrographic, geochemical and isotopic characteristics are best explained by a genetic model involving preferential melting of phlogopite-rich veins in an originally depleted lithospheric mantle source, whereby the metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source is tentatively related to the addition of components from subducted sediments during consumption of Tethyan oceanic lithosphere.

  15. Physiological analyses indicate superoxide dismutase, catalase, and phytochelatins play important roles in Pb tolerance in Eremochloa ophiuroides. (United States)

    Li, Xi; Cen, Huameng; Chen, Youxiang; Xu, Siying; Peng, Lingli; Zhu, Hanmingyue; Li, Yiqiao


    Phytoremediation is considered to be a promising approach to restore or stabilize soil contaminated by lead (Pb). Turfgrasses, due to their high biomass yields, are considered to be suitable for use in phytoextraction of soil contaminated with heavy metal. It has been demonstrated that centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack., Poaceae) is a good turfgrass for restore of soil contaminated by Pb. However, the enhanced tolerant mechanisms in metallicolous (M) centipedegrass accessions remain unknown. In this study, we made a comparative study of growth performance, Pb accumulation, antioxidant levels, and phytochelatin concentrations in roots and shoots from M and nonmetallicolous (NM) centipedegrass accessions. Results showed that turf quality and growth rate were less repressed in M accessions than in NM accession. Pb stress caused generation of reactive oxygen species in centipedegrass with relatively lower levels in M accessions. Antioxidant activity analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase and catalase played important roles in Pb tolerance in M accessions. M accessions accumulated more Pb in roots and shoots. Greatly increased phytochelatins and less repressed sulfur contents in roots and shoots of M accessions indicated that they correlated with Pb accumulation and tolerance in centipedegrass.

  16. Precambrian ophiolites of arabia: geologic settings, UPb geochronology, Pb-isotope characteristics, and implications for continental accretion (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.; Stacey, J.S.; Fischer, L.B.; Premo, W.R.


    Disrupted ophiolites occur in linear belts up to 900 km long between microplates that collided during the late Proterozoic to form the Arabian Shield. UPb zircon ages and Pb-isotope data from these ophiolitic rocks help constrain the history of accretion of the Arabian Shield and thereby contribute to the definition of its microplates and terranes. Terranes of the central and western Arabian Shield are generally thought to represent intraoceanic island arcs that range in age from about 900 to 640 Ma; however, a region of the eastern Arabian Shield contains rocks of Early Proterozoic age and may represent an exotic continental fragment entrained between the arc complexes. Ophiolites of the Yanbu suture (northwestern shield), dated by UPb (zircon) and SmNd (mineral isochron) methods, yield model ages of 740-780 Ma. These are among the oldest well-dated rocks in the northwestern Arabian Shield. Ages from the Jabal al Wask complex overlap with ages of adjacent arc rocks. This overlap in age supports geologic and geochemical evidence that the Wask complex represents a fragment of back-arc oceanic lithosphere formed during arc magmatism. Older ages of about 780 Ma for gabbro from the Jabal Ess ophiolite suggest that the ophiolite is either a fragment of fore-arc oceanic crust or oceanic basement on which an arc was built. Gabbro samples from ophiolites of the Bir Umq suture (west-central Arabian Shield) yield zircons with ages of 820-870 Ma and $ ??1250 Ma. The 820-870 Ma dates overlap with ages of the oldest nearby arc rocks; this favors an intra-arc or near-arc paleotectonic setting. The older zircons suggest that middle or early Proterozoic crustal material, possibly derived from the Mozambique belt of Africa, was present during back- or intra-arc magmatism. Plagiogranite from the Bir Tuluhah ophiolitic complex at the nothern end of the 900 km-long Nabitah mobile belt was dated by the zircon UPb method at ??? 830 Ma. This date is in the range of the oldest dated arc

  17. Combined 238U/235U and Pb Isotopics of Planetary Core Material: The Absolute Age of the IVA Iron Muonionalusta (United States)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Amelin, Y.; Kleine, T.


    We report a measured 238U/235U for the IVA iron Muonionalusta. This measured value requires an age correction of ~7 Myr to the previously published Pb-Pb age. This has major implications for our understanding of planetary core formation and cooling.

  18. Paleoproterozoic mojaveprovince in northwestern Mexico? Isotopic and U-Pb zircon geochronologic studies of precambrian and Cambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Caborca, Sonora (United States)

    Lang, Farmer G.; Bowring, S.A.; Matzel, J.; Maldonado, G.E.; Fedo, C.; Wooden, J.


    Whole-rock Nd isotopic data and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Caborca area, northern Sonora, reveal that these rocks are most likely a segment of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Supporting this conclusion are the observations that paragneiss from the ??? 1.75 Ga Bamori Complex has a 2.4 Ga Nd model age and contains detrital zircons ranging in age from Paleo- proterozoic (1.75 Ga) to Archean (3.2 Ga). Paragneisses with similar age and isotopic characteristics occur in the Mojave province in southern California. In addition, "A-type" granite exposed at the southern end of Cerro Rajon has ca 2.0 Ga Nd model age and a U-Pb zircon age of 1.71 Ga, which are similar to those of Paleoproterozoic granites in the Mojave province. Unlike the U.S. Mojave province, the Caborcan crust contains ca. 1.1 Ga granite (Aibo Granite), which our new Nd isotopic data suggest is largely the product of anatexis of the local Precambrian basement. Detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian miogeoclinal arenites at Caborca show dominant populations ca. 1.7 Ga, ca. 1.4 Ga, and ca. 1.1 Ga, with subordinate Early Cambrian and Archean zircons. These zircons were likely derived predominately from North American crust to the east and northeast, and not from the underlying Caborcan basement. The general age and isotopic similarities between Mojave province basement and overlying miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks in Sonora and southern California is necessary, but not sufficient, proof of the hypothesis that Sonoran crust is allochthonous and was transported to its current position during the Mesozoic along the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear. One viable alternative model is that the Caborcan Precambrian crust is an isolated, autochthonous segment of Mojave province crust that shares a similar, but not identical, Proterozoic geological history with Mojave province crust found in the southwest United States ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  19. Depositional conditions for the Kuna Formation, Red Dog Zn-PB-Ag-Barite District, Alaska, inferred from isotopic and chemical proxies (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Burruss, Robert A.; Slack, John F.


    Water column redox conditions, degree of restriction of the depositional basin, and other paleoenvironmental parameters have been determined for the Mississippian Kuna Formation of northwestern Alaska from stratigraphic profiles of Mo, Fe/Al, and S isotopes in pyrite, C isotopes in organic matter, and N isotopes in bulk rock. This unit is important because it hosts the Red Dog and Anarraaq Zn-Pb-Ag ± barite deposits, which together constitute one of the largest zinc resources in the world. The isotopic and chemical proxies record a deep basin environment that became isolated from the open ocean, became increasingly reducing, and ultimately became euxinic. The basin was ventilated briefly and then became isolated again just prior to its demise as a discrete depocenter with the transition to the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. Ventilation corresponded approximately to the initiation of bedded barite deposition in the district, whereas the demise of the basin corresponded approximately to the formation of the massive sulfide deposits. The changes in basin circulation during deposition of the upper Kuna Formation may have had multiple immediate causes, but the underlying driver was probably extensional tectonic activity that also facilitated fluid flow beneath the basin floor. Although the formation of sediment-hosted sulfide deposits is generally favored by highly reducing conditions, the Zn-Pb deposits of the Red Dog district are not found in the major euxinic facies of the Kuna basin, nor did they form during the main period of euxinia. Rather, the deposits occur where strata were permeable to migrating fluids and where excess H2S was available beyond what was produced in situ by decomposition of local sedimentary organic matter. The known deposits formed mainly by replacement of calcareous strata that gained H2S from nearby highly carbonaceous beds (Anarraaq deposit) or by fracturing and vein formation in strata that produced excess H2S by reductive dissolution of

  20. Atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Pb isotopes at a remote site in Southwestern China: Implications for monsoon-associated transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Gan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)


    A 13-month sampling campaign was conducted at a remote site in southwestern China from October, 2005 to December, 2006. An integrated approach with lead isotopes and air back trajectory analysis was used to investigate the monsoon-associated atmospheric transport of PBDEs in tropical/subtropical Asia regions. The air concentration of PBDEs ranged from 1.6 to 57.5 pg m{sup -3} (15.9 {+-} 12.0 pg m{sup -3}), comparable to reported levels at other remote sites in the world. BDE-209, followed by BDE-47 and -99 dominated the PBDE compositions, indicating a mixed deca- and penta-BDE source. Air mass back trajectory analysis revealed that the major potential source regions of BDE-47 and -99 could be southern China and Thailand, while those of BDE-209 are widely distributed in industrialized and urbanized areas in tropical Asia. The different lead isotope compositions of aerosols between trajectory clusters further substantiated the observation that the South Asian monsoon from spring to summer could penetrate deep into southwestern China, and facilitate long-range transport of airborne pollutants from South Asia. - Highlights: {yields}The atmospheric levels of PBDEs and Pb isotopic ratios at a remote site were reported. {yields}Significant high concentrations of BDE-47 and -99 were observed when air masses came from China and Southeast Asia. {yields}High concentrations of BDE-209 and low Pb isotopic ratios were associated with Indian monsoon. {yields}The onset of monsoon could facilitate long-range transport of airborne pollutants from South Asia.

  1. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) using amino acid nitrogen isotopic analyses (United States)

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.


    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ~2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ~3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ~3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP~4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure.

  2. Tracing the diet of the monitor lizard Varanus mabitang by stable isotope analyses (δ15N, δ13C) (United States)

    Struck, Ulrich; Altenbach, Alexander; Gaulke, Maren; Glaw, Frank


    In this study, we used analyses of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) to determine the trophic ecology of the monitor lizard Varanus mabitang. Stable isotopes from claws, gut contents, and soft tissues were measured from the type specimen. Samples from Varanus olivaceus, Varanus prasinus, Varanus salvator, the herbivorous agamid lizard Hydrosaurus pustulatus, and some plant matter were included for comparison. Our data show a rapid decrease in δ13C (about10‰) from food plants towards gut contents and soft tissues of herbivorous species. For the varanids, we found a significant linear correlation of decreasing δ13C and increasing δ15N from herbivorous towards carnivorous species. In terms of trophic isotope ecology, the type specimen of V. mabitang is a strict herbivore. Thus it differs significantly in its isotopic composition from the morphologically next closest related species V. olivaceus. The most highly carnivorous species is V. salvator, while δ15N values for V. prasinus and V. olivaceus are intermediate. Claws provide very valuable samples for such measurements, because they can be sampled from living animals without harm. Additionally, their range of variability is relatively small in comparison with measurements from soft tissues.

  3. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae using amino acid nitrogen isotopic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anela Choy

    Full Text Available The δ(15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ(15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ(15N values. Regional differences in the δ(15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ(15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ(15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae (AA-TP ∼2.9 largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ∼3.2, while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae (AA-TP ∼3.2 were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP∼4.1. We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure.

  4. Formation history and protolith characteristics of granulite facies metamorphic rock in Central Cathaysia deduced from U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies of single zircon grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinhai; ZHOU Xinmin; Y. S. O'Reilly; ZHAO Lei; W. L. Griffin; WANG Rucheng; WANG Lijuan; CHEN Xiaomin


    The petrochemical as well as zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies of granulite facies metamorphic rock from the Taoxi Group in eastern Nanling Range, Central Cathaysia indicate that its protolith is the sedimentary rock with low maturation index. The clastic materials are mostly from middle Neoproterozoic (~736 Ma) granitoid rocks with minor Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic rocks. The timing of this Neoproterozoic magmatism is in agreement with the second period of magmatism widespread surrounding the Yangtze Block. Hf isotopic data indicate that the Neoproterozoic granitoids resulted from the recycled Paleoproterozoic mantle-derived crustal materials. The sedimentary rock was deposited in Late Neoproterozoic Era, and carried into low crust in Early Paleozoic. The partial melting of the meta-sedimentary rock took place at about 480 Ma and subsequently granulite facies metamorphism occurred at ca. 443 Ma. The zircons forming during this time interval (Early Paleozoic) show large Hf isotope variations, and their -Hf(t) values increase from -13.2 to +2.36 with decreasing age, suggesting the injection of mantle-derived materials during partial melting and metamorphism processes in the Early Paleozoic. Calculation results show that this metamorphic rock, if evolved to Mesozoic, has similar isotopic composition to the nearby Mesozoic high Si peraluminous granites, implying that this kind of granulite facies metamorphic rock is probably the source material of some Mesozoic peraluminous granitoids in eastern Nanling Range.


    It is generally accepted that both stable isotope analysis (SIA) and gut contents analysis (GCA) be used in food web studies; however, few researchers have analyzed these data in concert. We utilized SIA and GCA to determine if longitudinal and seasonal variation in diet affects...

  6. Comparing trophic position of stream fishes using stable isotope and gut contents analyses (United States)

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) and gut content analysis (GCA) are commonly used in food web studies, but few studies analyze these data in concert. We used SIA and GCA to identify diets and trophic position (TP) of six stream fishes and to compare TP estimates between methods. Ord...

  7. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi


    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  8. Integrated in situ U-Pb Age and Hf-O Analyses of Zircon from the Northern Yangtze Block: New Insights into the Neoproterozoic Low-δ18O Magmas in the South China Block (United States)

    Yang, Y. N.; Wang, X. C.; Li, Q. L.; Li, X. H.


    The oxygen isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic magmas from the northern Yangtze Block holds a key for the origin of large-scale 18O depletion in the HP and UHP metamorphic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, northern margin of the South China Block. We report here the integrated in situ U-Pb dating and O-Hf isotope analyses of zircon grains from sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the late Neoproterozoic Suixian Group (SG) from the northern Yangtze Block. Detrital zircon grains display age peaks of 0.73-0.74 Ga, 0.79 Ga, and 2.0 Ga. Zircon U-Pb ages together with Hf-O isotopic composition indicate provenance of SG dominantly from proximal Neoproterozoic igneous rock and likely hidden Paleoproterozoic basement along the northern margin of the Yangtze Block. The zircon δ18O values from SG range from 10.5‰ to 1.3‰. Zircon grains with negative δ18O value, typical result of magma-ice interaction, were not identified in this study. The major phase of low-δ18O (< 4‰) magmas initiated at ca. 780 Ma, long before the first glaciation event (< 715 Ma) in the South China Block. Thus caution should be taken when using low-δ18O zircon grains to infer cold climate. Low-δ18O zircon grains have large ranges of ɛHf(t) values, varying from -15.5 to 10.7, concentrating on negative ɛHf(t). This strongly argues against the possibility that the low-δ18O magma was produced by partial melting of high-temperature hydrothermally altered oceanic crust because this model predicted MORB-like Hf isotopes for the resultant low-δ18O magmas. This study emphasizes that high-T water-rock interaction and continental rifting tectonic setting are essential to generate abundant low-δ18O magmas. The important application of our study is to confirm that most of negative-δ18O zircons identified in HP and UHP metamorphic rocks may not have been inherited from their Neoproterozoic protoliths.

  9. Computer analyses for the design, operation and safety of new isotope production reactors: A technology status review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.


    A review is presented on the currently available technologies for nuclear reactor analyses by computer. The important distinction is made between traditional computer calculation and advanced computer simulation. Simulation needs are defined to support the design, operation, maintenance and safety of isotope production reactors. Existing methods of computer analyses are categorized in accordance with the type of computer involved in their execution: micro, mini, mainframe and supercomputers. Both general and special-purpose computers are discussed. Major computer codes are described, with regard for their use in analyzing isotope production reactors. It has been determined in this review that conventional systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5, RETRAN, etc.) cannot meet four essential conditions for viable reactor simulation: simulation fidelity, on-line interactive operation with convenient graphics, high simulation speed, and at low cost. These conditions can be met by special-purpose computers (such as the AD100 of ADI), which are specifically designed for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The greatest shortcoming of existing systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5) is their mismatch between very high computational efforts and low simulation fidelity. The drift flux formulation (HIPA) is the viable alternative to the complicated two-fluid model. No existing computer code has the capability of accommodating all important processes in the core geometry of isotope production reactors. Experiments are needed (heat transfer measurements) to provide necessary correlations. It is important for the nuclear community, both in government, industry and universities, to begin to take advantage of modern simulation technologies and equipment. 41 refs.

  10. Effect of Na, Ca and pH on simultaneous uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the water flea Daphnia magna measured using stable isotopes. (United States)

    Komjarova, I; Blust, R


    The present study investigates the effects of Na(+), Ca(2+) and pH on the kinetics of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn uptake in Daphnia magna at low exposure concentrations measured using a stable isotope technique. Using experimental data the uptake rate constants were calculated for each metal individually on the basis of total metal concentrations. The copper uptake was not significantly affected by variations in chemical composition of the test medium. Calcium had a suppressing effect on the uptake of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Specifically, Cd and Ni uptake rate constants decreased with increases in calcium concentrations from 0.1 to 2.5mM. The uptake of Zn and Pb was significantly suppressed only at 2.5mM Ca. The effect of sodium was less clear. There was no effect of varying sodium concentrations on the Ni uptake rate constants. Cd and Pb showed an increase in uptake rate constants at elevated sodium concentrations (2-8mM Na(+) for Cd and 8mM Na(+) for Pb). A bell-shaped response on increasing Na(+) concentrations was observed for Zn with a maximum value of uptake rate constant at the middle value (2mM Na(+)). Variation in pH of the medium affected Cd, Ni and Zn uptake processes. When Daphnia were exposed to acidic conditions (pH 6), the Cd and Ni uptake rate constants were the highest, while similarly low values were observed at neutral and basic conditions. In contrast, the uptake rates of Zn were linearly increasing with increasing pH of the medium.

  11. Geochemical and Sr Nd Pb isotopic evidence for a combined assimilation and fractional crystallisation process for volcanic rocks from the Huichapan caldera, Hidalgo, Mexico (United States)

    Verma, Surendra P.


    This study reports new geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for Miocene to Quaternary basaltic to andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic volcanic rocks from the Huichapan caldera, located in the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). The initial Sr and Nd isotopic ratios, except for one rhyolite, range as follows: 87Sr/ 86Sr 0.70357-0.70498 and 143Nd/ 144Nd 0.51265-0.51282. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios are generally similar to those for volcanic rocks from other areas of the central and eastern parts of the MVB. The isotopic ratios of one older pre-caldera rhyolite (HP30) from the Huichapan area, particularly its high 87Sr/ 86Sr, are significantly different from rhyolitic rocks from this and other areas of the MVB, but are isotopically similar to some felsic rocks from the neighbouring geological province of Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), implying an origin as a partial melt of the underlying crust. The evolved andesitic to rhyolitic magmas could have originated from a basaltic magma through a combined assimilation and fractional crystallisation (AFC) process. Different compositions, representing lower crust (LC) and upper crust (UC) as well as a hypothetical crust similar to the source of high 87Sr/ 86Sr rhyolite HP30, were tested as plausible assimilants for the AFC process. The results show that the UC represented by granitic rocks from a nearby Los Humeros area or by Cretaceous limestone (L) rocks outcropping in the northern part of the study area, and the LC represented by granulitic xenoliths from a nearby San Luis Potosı´ (SLP) area are not possible assimilants for Huichapan magmas, whereas a hypothetical crust (HA) similar in isotopic compositions to rhyolite HP30 could be considered a possible assimilant for the AFC process. Chemical composition of assimilant HA, although not well constrained at present, was inferred under the assumption that HP30 type partial melts could be generated from its partial melting. These data were then used to evaluate

  12. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile). (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo


    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions.

  13. Propagation of Isotopic Bias and Uncertainty to Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL


    Burnup credit methodology is economically advantageous because significantly higher loading capacity may be achieved for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks based on this methodology as compared to the loading capacity based on a fresh fuel assumption. However, the criticality safety analysis for establishing the loading curve based on burnup credit becomes increasingly complex as more parameters accounting for spent fuel isotopic compositions are introduced to the safety analysis. The safety analysis requires validation of both depletion and criticality calculation methods. Validation of a neutronic-depletion code consists of quantifying the bias and the uncertainty associated with the bias in predicted SNF compositions caused by cross-section data uncertainty and by approximations in the calculational method. The validation is based on comparison between radiochemical assay (RCA) data and calculated isotopic concentrations for fuel samples representative of SNF inventory. The criticality analysis methodology for commercial SNF disposal allows burnup credit for 14 actinides and 15 fission product isotopes in SNF compositions. The neutronic-depletion method for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is the two-dimensional (2-D) depletion sequence TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)/NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code) and the 44GROUPNDF5 crosssection library in the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE 5.1) code system. The SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 cross section library is based on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version V (ENDF/B-V) library. The criticality calculation code for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is General Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code. The purpose of this calculation report is to determine the bias on the calculated effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, due to the bias and bias uncertainty associated with

  14. U-Pb zircon geochronology and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the Inchope orthogneiss in Mozambique: Age constraints and petrogenetic implications (United States)

    Manjate, Vicente Albino


    The Inchope orthogneiss comprises a mesoproterozoic group of variously deformed and migmatised orthogneisses in the Chimoio group. This area is well known for its numerous, small pegmatite deposits with cassiterite and columbite. Zircon U-Pb geochronological and whole rock Sr-Nd isotope data are reported for five Inchope orthogneiss samples. The zircon U-Pb data exhibit one period of crystallization between 1065 and 1053 Ma and two metamorphic ages of 956 Ma and 484 Ma. The Inchope orthogneiss displays evolved Nd isotopic compositions with ɛNdi between -11.7 and -13.3, 87Sr/86Sri between 0.7117 and 0.7209 and TDM values of between 2.3 and 2.4 Ga. Therefore, the Inchope orthogneiss crystallized in Mesoproterozoic from the paleoproterozoic metapelites along the eastern margin of the archaen Zimbabwean craton. This was followed by pegmatite veins intrusions and Pan-African tectonometamorphic reworking. These features are typical of S-type and calc-alkaline granites in continental margin arcs.

  15. Ultratrace and isotope ratios analyses of some radionuclides by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.; Abd El-Lateef, A.M.; Mohsen, H.T. [Central Lab. for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis, N.R.C. Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Amr, M.A. [Central Lab. for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis, N.R.C. Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Nuclear Physics Dept., N.R.C., Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Bashter, I.I. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Zagazig Univ. (Egypt); Abbas, Y. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)


    Extensive work is under way using high resolution-ICP-MS for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am detection. Sample preparation procedures based on liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange chromatography were developed. Sr, U, Pu, and Am were separated from their matrix and concentrated to improve the power of detection in the mass spectrometer. A microconcentric nebulizer with a desolvation introduction system (Ardius) is used. Instrumental limits of detection using Sr and U standard solutions are 0.01 ppt and 0.006 ppt for Sr and U, respectively. A study is presented on the mass interferences for the specified radionuclides. In the environmental samples investigated the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope ratio is 6.02 x 10{sup -9} and for {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu the isotope ratio is 0.17. (orig.)

  16. Sources and Spatial Distribution of Metal Pollutants in Soils near the El Paso Smelter: A Forensic Study with Pb and Pu Isotopes. (United States)

    Ketterer, Michael; Moan, Matthew; Gremillion, Paul


    Lead and copper smelting has been conducted at El Paso since the late 1800's, and as a result, environmental media near the smelter have become contaminated. A study has been conducted to investigate the sources and spatial distribution of metal pollutants (Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg, As, Cu) and concomitant tracers (Ag, In, Sb, Bi) in soils from the smelter vicinity. Sampled locations were residential and non-residential locations in El Paso (Texas, USA), Anapra (New Mexico, USA) and Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, Mexico). Lead isotope studies indicate that the soil Pb is derived from smelting, and is consistent with two-component mixing between lead ores from Chihuahua (northern Mexico) having 206Pb/204Pb of 18.6 - 18.8 and ores from the Hanover, New Mexico (USA) mining district with 206Pb/204Pb of ~ 17.6. The Pb isotope results also exclude other common anthropogenic Pb sources such as paint and gasoline emissions as being major contributors. Concentrations of Hg and Pb of up to 10 and 11,000 ppm were found in surface soils within 1 km of the smelter. The metal concentration results clearly indicate that soils near the smelter (soils from control locations (> 10 km distant). A general trend of decreasing concentrations vs. distance from the smelter was also observed. However, the results indicate that metal concentrations vary widely even at a fixed distance from the smelter point source. This phenomenon results from a combination of natural and anthropogenic processes that disturb and re-distribute soils in the surface environment. The site conditions consist of a very arid environment with little vegetation cover that is frequently disturbed by high winds and severe episodic rainfall. To study these effects, we have investigated stratospheric fallout plutonium (239+240Pu) as a proxy measure of disturbed vs. undisturbed soil conditions. The premise is that 'undisturbed' locations will have high 239+240Pu activities, and hence contain most or all of the cumulative deposition

  17. Validation of the scale system for PWR spent fuel isotopic composition analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brady, M.C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    The validity of the computation of pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel isotopic composition by the SCALE system depletion analysis was assessed using data presented in the report. Radiochemical measurements and SCALE/SAS2H computations of depleted fuel isotopics were compared with 19 benchmark-problem samples from Calvert Cliffs Unit 1, H. B. Robinson Unit 2, and Obrigheim PWRs. Even though not exhaustive in scope, the validation included comparison of predicted and measured concentrations for 14 actinides and 37 fission and activation products. The basic method by which the SAS2H control module applies the neutron transport treatment and point-depletion methods of SCALE functional modules (XSDRNPM-S, NITAWL-II, BONAMI, and ORIGEN-S) is described in the report. Also, the reactor fuel design data, the operating histories, and the isotopic measurements for all cases are included in detail. The underlying radiochemical assays were conducted by the Materials Characterization. Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Approved Testing Material program and by four different laboratories in Europe on samples processed at the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant.

  18. Comparative assessment of air quality in two health resorts using carbon isotopes and palynological analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorka, M.; Jedrysek, M.O.; Maj, J.; Worobiec, A.; Buczynska, A.; Stefaniak, E.; Krata, A.; Van Grieken, R.; Zwozdziak, A.; Sowka, I.; Zwozdziak, J.; Lewicka-Szczebak, D. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Geological Science


    This paper describes results of applying the palynological and carbon isotopic analysis of the organic fraction of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) to discriminate distinct pollution sources and assess the anthropogenic impact for the investigated areas. The samples of atmospheric particles were collected in Czerniawa and Cieplice (two health resorts in Lower Silesia, SW Poland) twice a year in summer and winter season (from July 2006 to February 2008). The palynological spectra represent in the vast majority local plant communities without a noticeable contribution of long-transported plant particles. Palynological analysis revealed also differences in the specificity of the two sampling areas, i.e. the higher contribution of identified organic material in Czerniawa stands for more natural character of this site, but is also responsible for the higher allergic pressure when compared to Cieplice. The carbon isotopic composition of TSP varied seasonally ({delta}{sup 13}C value from -27.09 parts per thousand in summer to -25.47 parts per thousand in winter). The increased {delta} {sup 13}C value in winter (heating period) is most probably caused by uncontrolled contribution of coal soot. On the basis of isotopic mass balance the calculated contribution of anthropogenic organic particles in the atmosphere reached in winter season 72% in Czerniawa and 79% in Cieplice.

  19. Isotope analyses to explore diet and mobility in a medieval Muslim population at Tauste (NE Spain). (United States)

    Guede, Iranzu; Ortega, Luis Angel; Zuluaga, Maria Cruz; Alonso-Olazabal, Ainhoa; Murelaga, Xabier; Pina, Miriam; Gutierrez, Francisco Javier; Iacumin, Paola


    The Islamic necropolis discovered in Tauste (Zaragoza, Spain) is the only evidence that a large Muslim community lived in the area between the 8th and 10th centuries. A multi-isotope approach has been used to investigate the mobility and diet of this medieval Muslim population living in a shifting frontier region. Thirty-one individuals were analyzed to determine δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition. A combination of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis indicated that most individuals were of local origin although three females and two males were non-local. The non-local males would be from a warmer zone whereas two of the females would be from a more mountainous geographical region and the third from a geologically-different area. The extremely high δ15N baseline at Tauste was due to bedrock composition (gypsum and salt). High individual δ15N values were related to the manuring effect and consumption of fish. Adult males were the most privileged members of society in the medieval Muslim world and, as isotope data reflected, consumed more animal proteins than females and young males.

  20. Trophic structure of a coastal fish community determined with diet and stable isotope analyses. (United States)

    Malek, A J; Collie, J S; Taylor, D L


    A combination of dietary guild analysis and nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) stable-isotope analysis was used to assess the trophic structure of the fish community in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds, an area off southern New England identified for offshore wind energy development. In the autumn of 2009, 2010 and 2011, stomach and tissue samples were taken from 20 fish and invertebrate species for analysis of diet composition and δ(15) N and δ(13) C signatures. The food chain in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds comprises approximately four trophic levels within which the fish community is divided into distinct dietary guilds, including planktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and piscivores. Within these guilds, inter-species isotopic and dietary overlap is high, suggesting that resource partitioning or competitive interactions play a major role in structuring the fish community. Carbon isotopes indicate that most fishes are supported by pelagic phytoplankton, although there is evidence that benthic production also plays a role, particularly for obligate benthivores such as skates Leucoraja spp. This type of analysis is useful for developing an ecosystem-based approach to management, as it identifies species that act as direct links to basal resources as well as species groups that share trophic roles.

  1. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition and geological significance of the Late Triassic Baijiazhuang and Lvjing granitic plutons in West Qinling Orogen (United States)

    Duan, Meng; Niu, Yaoling; Kong, Juanjuan; Sun, Pu; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shuo; Li, Jiyong


    The Qinling Orogen was a consequence of continental collision of the South China Craton with the North China Craton in the Triassic and caused widespread granitoid magmatism. However, the petrogenesis of these granitoids remains controversial. In this paper, we choose the Baijiazhuang (BJZ) and Lvjing (LJ) plutons in the West Qinling Orogen for a combined study of the zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock major and trace element compositions and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics. We obtained zircon crystallization ages of 216 Ma and 212 Ma for the BJZ and the LJ plutons, respectively. The granitoid samples from both plutons have high K2O metaluminous to peraluminous compositions. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in high field-strength elements (HFSEs) with significant negative Eu anomalies. The BJZ samples have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7032 to 0.7078, εNd(t) of - 10.99 to - 8.54 and εHf (t) of - 10.22 to - 6.41. The LJ granitoids have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7070 to 0.7080, εNd(t) of - 5.37 to - 4.58 and εHf(t) of - 3.64 to - 1.78. The enriched isotopic characteristics of the two plutons are consistent with their source being dominated by ancient continental crust. However, two BJZ samples show depleted Sr isotope compositions, which may infer possible involvement of mantle materials. Mantle-derived melt, which formed from partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite facilitated by dehydration of the subducted/subducting Mianlue ocean crust, provide the required heat for the crustal melting while also contributing to the compositions of these granitoids. That is, the two granitic plutons are magmatic responses to the closure of the Mianlue ocean basin and the continental collision between the Yangtze and South Qinling crustal terranes.

  2. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of ultramafic xenoliths in volcanic rocks of Eastern China: enriched components EMI and EMII in subcontinental lithosphere (United States)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Basu, A.R.; Wankang, H.; Junwen, W.; Guanghong, X.


    The UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotopic systematics of mafic and ultramafic xenolithic rocks and associated megacrystic inclusions of aluminous augite and garnet, that occur in three alkalic volcanic suites: Kuandian in eastern Liaoning Province, Hanluoba in Hebei Province, and Minxi in western Fujian Province, China are described. In various isotopic data plots, the inclusion data invariably fall outside the isotopic ranges displayed by the host volcanic rocks, testifying to the true xenolithic nature of the inclusions. The major element partitioning data on Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al among the coexisting silicate minerals of the xenoliths establish their growth at ambient mantle temperatures of 1000-1100??C and possible depths of 70-80 km in the subcontinental lithosphere. Although the partitioning of these elements reflects equilibrium between coexisting minerals, equilibria of the Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic systems among the minerals were not preserved. The disequilibria are most notable with respect to the 206Pb 204Pb ratios of the minerals. On a NdSr isotopic diagram, the inclusion data plot in a wider area than that for oceanic basalts from a distinctly more depleted component than MORB with higher 143Nd 144Nd and a much broader range of 87Sr 86Sr values, paralleling the theoretical trajectory of a sea-water altered lithosphere in NdSr space. The garnets consistently show lower ?? and ?? values than the pyroxenes and pyroxenites, whereas a phlogopite shows the highest ?? and ?? values among all the minerals and rocks studied. In a plot of ??207 and ??208, the host basalts for all three areas show lower ??207 and higher ??208 values than do the xenoliths, indicating derivation of basalts from Th-rich (relative to U) sources and xenoliths from U-rich sources. The xenolith data trends toward the enriched mantle components, EMI and EMII-like, characterized by high 87Sr 86Sr and ??207 values but with slightly higher 143Nd 144Nd. The EMI trend is shown more distinctly by the host

  3. Characteristics of elemental and Pb isotopic compositions in aerosols (PM10-2.5) at the Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea. (United States)

    Lee, Sanghee; Han, Changhee; Shin, Daechol; Hur, Soon Do; Jun, Seong Joon; Kim, Young-Taeg; Byun, Do-Seong; Hong, Sungmin


    A total of 82 aerosol samples (PM10-2.5) were collected from June 18, 2015 to October 1, 2016 at the remote sea site, the Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), in the East China Sea. Samples were analyzed for 10 elements (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl, and Pb) as well as Pb isotopic composition to characterize temporal variations in elemental concentration levels, and to identify the potential source regions of atmospheric pollutants transported over the remote East China Sea. The results showed that the annual average element concentrations were lowest compared to those at different sites in East Asia, suggesting a very clean background area of IORS, with values ranging from 114 ng m(-3) for Al to 0.045 ng m(-3) for Tl. Concentrations averaged seasonally for all the elements revealed the highest levels occurring between winter and spring, and the lowest levels in summer. High enrichment factors (EF) of more than 100 for trace elements suggest that these elements originated mostly from anthropogenic sources. Coupling the Pb isotopic composition with a back trajectory analysis identified the potential source regions for each sample. Our approach identified China as a dominant contributor affecting atmospheric composition changes at IORS, the remote area of the East China Sea. As the largest anthropogenic emission source in East Asia, China contributed to almost 100% of the elemental concentration levels in winter and spring, ∼53% in summer and ∼63% in autumn. Because IORS's ambient air is sensitive to even slight changes in pollutant loading due to the significantly low pollution levels, long-term monitoring of air quality at IORS will provide invaluable information on the progress and efforts of atmospheric pollution management linked to emission controls in East Asian countries, especially China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope of Quanyishang A-type granite in Yichang: Signification for the Yangtze continental cratonization in Paleoproterozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Qing; ZHENG JianPing; YU ChunMei; SU YuPing; TANG HuaYun; ZHANG ZhiHai


    Zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope, and major and trace element compositions were reported for granite at Quanyishang, which intruded into the Kongling complex in Yichang, Hubei Province. The results show that the Quanyishang granite is rich in silicon and alkalis but poor in calcium and magnesium, and displays enrichment in Ga, Y, Zr, Nb but depletion in Sr and Ba, exhibiting the post-orogenic A-type affinity. 90% zircons from the granite are concordant, and give a middle Paleoproterozoic magmatic crystallization age (mean 1854 Ma). Initial Hf isotope ratios (176Hf/177Hf)1 of the middle Paleoproterozoic zircons range from 0.280863 to 0.281134 and they have negative εHf(t) values with a minimum of -26.3. These zircons give the depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of 2.9-3.3 Ga (mean 3.0 Ga), and the average crustal model ages (Tcrust) of 3.6-4.2 Ga (mean 3.8 Ga)., A Mesoarchean grain with 207pb/206Pb age of 2859 Ma has a slightly high TDM (3.4 Ga) but similar Tcrust (3.8 Ga) to the Paleoproterozoic zircons. All these data suggest that the source materials of the Quanyishang A-type granite are unusually old, at least ≥2.9 Ga (even Eoarchean). The event of crustal remelting, which resulted in the formation of the Quanyishang granite in the middle Paleoproterozoic, recorded the cratonization of the Yangtze conti-nent. The process may have relation to the extension and collapse of the deep crust with Archean ages, in response to the transition stage of the assembly and breakup of the Columbia supercontinent.

  5. Modern Freshwater Microbialites of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. I: Metagenomic and Stable Isotopic Analyses to Assess Microbial Community Structure and Function (United States)

    Breitbart, M.; Hollander, D.; Nitti, A.; van Mooy, B.; Siefert, J.; Souza, V.


    This study utilized metagenomic and stable isotopic analyses to examine the microorganisms and chemical processes leading to carbonate precipitation in the actively-accreting freshwater microbialites from Rio Mesquites in Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico.

  6. U-Pb zircon geochronology, petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristic of Late Neoproterozoic granitoid of the Bornaward Complex (Bardaskan-NE Iran) (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, R. Monazzami; Karimpour, M. H.; Farmer, G. Lang; Stern, C. R.; Santos, J. F.; Rahimi, B.; Heidarian Shahri, M. R.


    The Bornaward Granitoid Complex (BGC) in the Taknar Zone is located in the northeast of Central Iranian Block. The BGC consists of granite, alkaligranite, syenogranite, leucogranite, granophyre, monzogranite, granodiorite, tonalite and diorite that have intruded into the center of Taknar Zone. These intrusive rocks affected by low grade metamorphism. Because of there are no reliable isotope dating data, for the Bornaward Granitoid Complex rocks have been proposed discordant ages (Jurassic, Cretaceous or even younger ages) by many studies. In the present study, new isotopic information based on zircon U-Pb dating has revealed the origin and time of the formation of the BGC. These new results do not confirm previously proposed ages. The results obtained from zircon U-Pb dating of the BGC rocks suggest late-Neoproterozoic (Precambrian) age (540-550 Ma). The Bornaward Granitoid Complex is middle-high metaluminous to lower-middle peraluminous and belongs to tholeiite, calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rock series with enrichment in LIL (Cs, Rb and Ba, U, K, Zr, Y, Th) and depletion in HIL (Sr and Nb, Ta, Ti) elements. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) plots indicate minor enrichment of LREE compared to HREE, and strong negative anomaly of Eu compared to other Rare Earth Elements. Furthermore, initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd range from 0.70351 to 0.71689 and 0.511585 to 0.512061, respectively, and initial εNd isotope values for granite, granodiorite and diorite range from -6.73 to 2.52. These all indicate that the BGC has derived from partial melting of distinct basement source regions with very high initial 87Sr/86Sr and undergoing extensive crustal contamination (S-type granite).

  7. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) U-Pb & Lu-Hf Isotope Analysis of Detrital Zircons from the Old Red Sandstone, NW Svalbard: Implications for Northern Caledonian Paleogeography (United States)

    Beranek, L. P.; Gee, D. G.; Fisher, C. M.


    The Svalbard archipelago consists of three Caledonian provinces that were assembled by thrusting and transcurrent faulting during the Silurian and Devonian in a location directly northeast of the Greenland Caledonides. Syn- to post-orogenic alluvial strata, referred to as the Old Red Sandstones, filled pull-apart basins adjacent to the transcurrent faults and comprise cover assemblages that help constrain the timing of the Caledonian orogeny. To further investigate the tectonic history and paleogeography of the Raudfjorden-Liefdefjorden-Woodfjorden area of Spitsbergen, NW Svalbard, we analyzed rock samples of the Old Red Sandstones and underlying Precambrian basement complexes for detrital zircon analysis. Laboratory studies of the Old Red Sandstones include the novel Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) technique, which allows for simultaneous U-Pb & Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon crystals. Lower Devonian Red Bay Group strata contain a range of early Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons with prominent age peaks c. 960, 1050, 1370, 1450, 1650, and 2700 Ma; subordinate Ordovician (c. 460-490 Ma) and Cryogenian (c. 650 Ma) detrital zircons occur in a subset of the samples. Underlying Precambrian metasedimentary rocks are composed of similar earliest Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean age populations, which argues for much of the Red Bay Group to be derived from local basement rocks during thrusting and other faulting. The U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of Paleozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons are consistent with Arctic crustal evolution, and support the hypothesis that northwestern and northeastern provinces of the Svalbard Caledonides are extruded fragments of the northeast Greenland allochthons. The new Hf isotope results further allow paleogeographic and stratigraphic comparisons with rock assemblages proximal to the North Atlantic Caledonides during the Silurian-Devonian, including the Pearya terrane of Ellesmere Island, Alexander terrane of NW

  8. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) mineralization at Fedj Hassene ore field, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions; Le champ filonien a Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) du district minier de Fedj Hassene (Nord Ouest de la Tunisie): Mineralogie, Elements en traces, Isotopes du Soufre et Inclusions Fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaouil, J.; Bouhlel, S.; Barca, D.; Braham, A.


    The Fedj Hassene district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within sub parallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassene, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.11 g/cm{sup 3} and pressure close to 200 bars. Micro thermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194 degree centigrade. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156 degree centigrade and 210 degree centigrade and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The {delta}{sup 3}4S (VCDT) values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6% to 6,4% (average=5,6%). Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the d{delta}{sup 3}4S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassene in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg) vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern

  9. Trace element and Pb isotope composition of plagioclase from dome samples from the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 35 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006 (United States)

    Kent, Adam J.R.; Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.


    We report the results of in-situ laser ablation ICP–MS analyses of anorthite content, trace-element (Li, Ti, Sr, Ba, La, Pr, Ce, Nd, Eu, Pb) concentrations, and Pb-isotope compositions in plagioclase from eight dome-dacite samples collected from the 2004-5 eruption of Mount St. Helens and, for comparison, from three dome samples from 1981-85. For 2004-5 samples, plagioclase phenocrysts range in composition from An30 to An80, with the majority An42-An65. With the exception of Li, the range of trace-element abundances in plagioclase phenocrysts is largely constant in material erupted between October 2004 and April 2005 and is broadly consistent with the 1983-85 dome samples. Anomalously high Li contents in the early stage of the eruption are thought to reflect addition of Li to the upper part of the magma chamber immediately before eruption (within ~1 year) by transfer of an alkali-enriched, exsolved vapor from deep within the magma chamber. Other trace elements show significant correlations (at >99 percent confidence limits) with anorthite content in plagioclase phenocrysts--Ba, light rareearth elements (LREE), and Pb show positive correlations, whereas Ti and Sr correlate negatively. Variations in plagioclase-melt partitioning as a function of anorthite content cannot explain trace-element variations--in particular predicting trends for Ti and Sr opposite to those observed. A simple model involving closed-system fractional crystallization of plagioclase + hypersthene + amphibole + oxides largely reproduces the observed trends. The model requires no gain or loss of plagioclase and is consistent with the lack of europium anomalies in bulk dacite samples. Analytical traverses within individual plagioclase phenocrysts support this model but also point to a diversity of melt compositions present within the magma storage zone in which plagioclase crystallized.

  10. Winter diets of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) on a northern feeding ground: integrating stomach contents and stable isotope analyses (United States)

    Williams, Natalie C.; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.


    The foraging ecology and diet of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, remain understudied, particularly in peripheral areas of its distribution. We assessed the diet of an aggregation of juvenile green turtles at the northern edge of its range during winter months using two approaches. Stomach content analyses provide a single time sample, and stable isotope analyses integrate diet over a several-month period. We evaluated diet consistency in prey choice over time by comparing the results of these two approaches. We examined stomach contents from 43 juvenile green turtles that died during cold stunning events in St. Joseph Bay, Florida, in 2008 and 2011. Stomach contents were evaluated for volume, dry mass, percent frequency of occurrence, and index of relative importance of individual diet items. Juvenile green turtles were omnivorous, feeding primarily on seagrasses and tunicates. Diet characterizations from stomach contents differed from those based on stable isotope analyses, indicating the turtles are not feeding consistently during winter months. Evaluation of diets during warm months is needed.

  11. Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb mineral ages, and strontium, lead, neodymium, and oxygen isotopic compositions for granitic rocks from the Salinian Composite Terrane, California: (United States)

    Kistler, R.W.; Champion, D.E.


    This report summarizes new and published age and isotopic data for whole-rocks and minerals from granitic rocks in the Salinian composite terrane, California. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock ages of plutons are in two groups, Early Cretaceous (122 to 100 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (95 to 82 Ma). Early Cretaceous plutons occur in all granitic rock exposures from Bodega Head in the north to those from the Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges in the central part of the terrane. Late Cretaceous plutons have been identified in the Point Reyes Peninsula, the Santa Lucia and the Gabilan Ranges, and in the La Panza Range in the southern part of the terrane. Ranges of initial values of isotopic compositions are 87Sr/86Sr, 0.7046-0.7147, δ18O, +8.5 to +12.5 per mil, 206Pb/204Pb, 18.901-19.860, 207Pb/204Pb, 15.618-15.814, 208Pb/204Pb, 38.569- 39.493, and εNd, +0.9 to -8.6. The initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.706 isopleth is identified in the northern Gabilan Range and in the Ben Lomond area of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in Montara Mountain, in Bodega Head, and to the west of the Farallon Islands on the Cordell Bank. This isotopic boundary is offset about 95 miles (160km) by right-lateral displacements along the San Gregorio-Hosgri and San Andreas fault systems.

  12. Nd and Pb isotope variability in the Indus River System: implications for sediment provenance and crustal heterogeneity in the Western Himalaya (United States)

    Clift, Peter D.; Lee, Jae Il; Hildebrand, Peter; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Layne, Graham D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Blum, Joel D.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Khan, Athar Ali


    The Indus River system is the only major drainage system in the western Himalaya, and erodes not only the High Himalaya, but also topographically high regions within and north of the Indus Suture Zone, most notably the Karakoram. Ion microprobe analysis of Pb isotopes in detrital K-feldspar grains taken from the tributaries of the Indus, together with bulk Nd isotope analysis of those same sediments, is here used to identify distinct sediment source regions. These span the very radiogenic Nanga Parbat and associated Lesser Himalaya, the relatively radiogenic-intermediate High Himalaya, the unradiogenic Ladakh and Kohistan Batholiths and intermediate values in the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Lhasa Block. The range of compositions reflects differing degrees of recycling of older continental crust during petrogenesis. K-feldspars from the Ladakh and Kohistan Batholiths are less radiogenic than the laterally equivalent Gangdese granite of Tibet, interpreted to reflect the preferential recycling of accreted oceanic arc units within the western Transhimalaya prior to India-Asia collision. Similarly the Zanskar High Himalaya are less radiogenic than their equivalents in Nepal. Isotope values from Pleistocene Indus Fan sediment are compatible with a dominant source in the Karakoram, with additional important contributions from the arc batholiths and High Himalaya, reflecting both the area and modern rates of tectonic uplift within the drainage basin. In contrast, radiogenic grains are common in the lower reaches of the modern Indus River, possibly as a result of the damming of the main river channel where it reaches the foreland.

  13. Helium-argon isotopic tracing for the Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic ore deposits in the central-south segment of the Da Hinggan Ling Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baode; NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; HU Huabin; LIU Yaming; GUO Lijun; WANG Shuo


    In recent years big strides have been made in the exploration of ores in the central-south segment of the Da Hinggan Ling Range, though some debates still exist on the metallogenesis and sources of ore-forming materials.Pyrite and other sulfides in direct relation to the Pb-Zn-Ag ore deposits were chosen for the He and Ar isotopic analysis of ore-forming fluids, and the first He and Ar isotope data have been obtained from the study region.3He/4He ratios in 14 samples collected from 7 mining districts are 2.17x10-6-12.52×10-6, averaging 6.86×10-6 and their R/Ra ratios are 1.56-9.01 Ra, averaging 4.37 Ra. By projecting the data points onto the 3He-4He concentrations diagram, all the points fall near the mantle helium area. The calculated mantle-source helium ratios are within the range of 19.58%-76.96%, with an average of 49.52%. Argon isotopic characteristics are close to those of mantle source, indicating that the ore-forming material was transport upwards via the multi-stage evolution of mantle plume and concentrated as ores in the favorable loci of mantle branch structures.

  14. Isotopic analyses of food crusts on pottery: Implications for dating and palaeocuisine reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente


    The concentrations of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ13C and δ15N, can be used to roughly reconstruct the former content of Stone Age cooking vessels. This was supported by measurements on experimental food crusts. The reconstruction of the ingredients used in the vessels is not only...... relevant for reconstructing the diet, but also important for 14C-dating. Resources from sea- or freshwater can cause substantial radiocarbon reservoir effects. For a reliable 14C-dating, they therefore have to be identified. This study presents 14C-datings of the earliest pottery of Schleswig...

  15. Some features of mineralization and magnetism of the Kara ore field according to Pb-isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, A.M.; Fefelov, N.N.; Petrovskaya, S.G.; Gnilusha, V.A.; Solodyankina, V.N.


    The genetic nature of the Kara are field, being a part of the gol - molybdenum zone of the East Transbaikal region, is considered. The lead isotopic composition of mineralization represented by veins, ore and metasomatic zones with vein-impregnate mineralization of gold-sulphide-quartz formation is measured. Investigations of the lead isotopic composition permit to connect the mineralization of the Kara ore field with magmatites of the shoshonitelatite series.

  16. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.


    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  17. Run-off analyses using isotopes and hydrochemistry in Yushugou River basin, eastern Tianshan Mountains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoyan Wang; Zhongqin Li; Chanwen Jiang


    Yushugou River basin of East Tianshan Mountains receives water from melting glaciers. In recent years, the glaciers retreated strongly due to global warming which intensified the water cycle in the river basin. For this reason, the relation of water bodies based on hydrochemistry and isotope in the summer flood was carried out. Hydrochemistry research showed that there was frequent hydraulic interaction between river water and groundwater. Studying the isotopes and Cl− of river water, glacier meltwater, groundwater and precipitation, indicated that Yushugou River was recharged by the glacier meltwater, groundwater and precipitation during the summer flood period. The analysis result based on the three-component mixing model showed that Yushugou River was recharged by 54.9% of glacier meltwater, 37.6% of the run-off came from groundwater, while less than 8% was contributed by precipitation. The study suggests that the role of glacier meltwater and groundwater, especially glacier meltwater, should be specially concerned in water resource protection and reasonable utilization, and the injection of glacier meltwater is the main reason for run-off variation in this alpine basin during the summer flood period.

  18. Comparison of neutron cross sections for selected fission products and isotopic composition analyses with burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Gil, C. S.; Kim, J. D.; Jang, J. H.; Lee, Y. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea)


    The neutron absorption cross sections for 18 fission products evaluated within the framework of the KAERI-BNL international collaboration have been compared with the ENDF/B-VI release 7. Also, the influence of the new evaluations on isotopic compositions of the fission products as a function of burnup has been analyzed through the OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality benchmarks (Phase 1B) and the LWR/Pu recycling benchmarks. These calculations were performed by WIMSD-5B with the 69 group libraries prepared from three evaluated nuclear data libraries: ENDF/B-VI.7, ENDF/B-VI.8 including new evaluations in resonance region covering thermal region, and ENDF/B-VII expected including those in upper resonance region up to 20 MeV. For Xe-131, the composition calculated with ENDF/B-VI.8 shows maximum difference of 4.78% compared to ENDF/B-VI.7. However, the isotopic compositions of all fission products calculated with ENDF/B-VII shows no differences compared to ENDF/B-VI.7.

  19. Geology, mineralization, U-Pb dating and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of intrusive bodies in northeast of Kashmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Almasi


    Full Text Available Alireza Almasi1, Mohammad Hassan Karimpour1*, Khosrow Ebrahimi Nasrabadi1, Behnam Rahimi1, Urs KlÖtzli2 and Jose Francisco Santos3 Introduction The study area is located in central part of the Khaf- Kashmar-Bardeskan belt which is volcano-plutonic belt at the north of the Dorouneh fault in the north of Lut block. The north of the Lut block is affected by tectonic rotation and subduction processes which occur in the east of Iran (Tirrul et al., 1983. The magmatism of Lut block begins in Jurassic and continues in Tertiary (Aghanabati, 1995. Karimpour (Karimpour, 2006 pointed out the Khaf-Kashmar-Bardeskan belt has significant potential for IOCG type mineralization such as Kuh-e-Zar, Tannurjeh, and Sangan (Karimpour, 2006; Mazloumi, 2009. The data gathered on the I-type intrusive rocks include their field geology, petrography, U–Pb zircon dating and Sr–Nd isotope and also alteration and mineralization in the study area. Materials and methods - Preparation of 150 thin sections of rock samples for study of petrography and alteration of the intrusive rocks. - Magnetic susceptibility measuring of intrusive rocks. - U-Pb dating in zircon of I-type intrusive rocks by Laser-Ablation Multi Collector ICP-MS method. - Sr-Nd analysis on 5 samples of I-type intrusive rocks by Multi-Collector Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS VG Sector 54 instrument. - Mineralography and paragenetic studies of ore-bearing quartz veins and geochemical analysis for 28 samples. - Production of the geology, alteration and mineralization maps by scale: 1:20000 in GIS. Results Oblique subduction in southern America initiated an arc-parallel fault and shear zones in the back of continental magmatic arc (Sillitoe, 2003. Because of this event, pull-apart basins were formed and high-K to shoshonitic calc-alkalineI- and A-type magmatism occur (Sillitoe, 2003. Most important deposits accompany with this magmatism are Au-Cu deposits types and Fe-Skarns (Sillitoe, 2003. We have

  20. 典型Pb/2n矿区土壤重金属污染特征与Pb同位素源解析%Heavy Metal Contamination and Pb Isotopic Composition in Natural Soils Around a Pb/Zn Mining and Smelting Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锐; 舒帆; 郝伟; 李丽; 孙卫玲


    The heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, and Hg) concentrations in the A horizon and C horizon soils, collected around the Pb/Zn mining and smelting area of Shuikoushan in Hunan, China, were investigated, and the Pb isotopic compositions were also determined to identify the potential origin of Pb in the A horizon soil. Compared with C horizon soils, the A horizon soils exhibit elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially in the vicinity of the mining and smelting area. This reveals that the surface soil was contaminated to some degree. The contents of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, and Hg in soils are up to 3 966. 88, 2 086. 25, 135. 31, 185. 63,56. 15, and 16. 434 mg/kg, respectively. The potential risks caused by different metals are in the order of Cd > Hg > Pb > Cu >Zn = Cr. Much higher potential ecological risk was observed for the central area ( Shuikoushan Pb/Zn mining and smelting area) than for the surrounding area. About 34% , 33% , 11% , and 22% of the sampling sites demonstrate low, moderate, considerable, and very high potential ecological risk in the central area, while about 68% , 16% , 10% , and 6% of the sampling sites show low, moderate,considerable, and very high potential ecological risk in the surrounding area, respectively. Compared with the Pb isotopic compositions in the C horizon soils (206Pb/207pb 1. 168-1. 246,208Pb/206Pb 2. 014-2. 130), the Pb in the A horizon soils has lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios (1. 166-1. 226) and higher 208Pb/206 Pb ratios (2. 043-2. 135). The Pb in the A horizon soils predominantly derives from twocomponent mixing resources. One is the parent materials of C horizon, and the other is the atmospheric deposition of the smelting flue gas dust.%以我国典型的铅锌矿区-湖南水口山铅锌矿区及其周围地区为研究对象,分析自然土壤(A层和C层)样品中不同重金属(Pb、Zn、Cr、Cu、Cd、Hg)的污染特征和Pb同位素组成,结果表明,受铅锌选矿和冶炼活动的影响,研究

  1. Continuous ice core melter system with discrete sampling for major ion, trace element and stable isotope analyses. (United States)

    Osterberg, Erich C; Handley, Michael J; Sneed, Sharon B; Mayewski, Paul A; Kreutz, Karl J


    We present a novel ice/firn core melter system that uses fraction collectors to collect discrete, high-resolution (32 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma sectorfield mass spectrometry (ICP-SMS), and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The new continuous melting with discrete sampling (CMDS) system preserves an archive of each sample, reduces the problem of incomplete particle dissolution in ICP-SMS samples, and provides more precise trace element data than previous ice melter models by using longer ICP-SMS scan times and washing the instrument between samples. CMDS detection limits are similar to or lower than those published for ice melter systems coupled directly to analytical instruments and are suitable for analyses of polar and mid-low-latitude ice cores. Analysis of total calcium and sulfur by ICP-SMS and calcium ion, sulfate, and methanesulfonate by IC from the Mt. Logan Prospector-Russell Col ice core confirms data accuracy and coregistration of the split fractions from each sample. The reproducibility of all data acquired by the CMDS system is confirmed by replicate analyses of parallel sections of the GISP2 D ice core.

  2. Petrogenesis of the igneous Mucajaí AMG complex, northern Amazonian craton — Geochemical, U-Pb geochronological, and Nd-Hf-O isotopic constraints (United States)

    Heinonen, A. P.; Fraga, L. M.; Rämö, O. T.; Dall'Agnol, R.; Mänttäri, I.; Andersen, T.


    The ca. 1525 Ma igneous Mucajaí anorthosite-monzonite-granite (AMG) complex in northern Brazil is a rare manifestation of Mesoproterozoic intraplate magmatism in the northern Amazonian Craton. The complex comprises a two-phase rapakivi granite batholith with subordinate quartz-fayalite monzonites and syenites and the closely associated Repartimento anorthosite. Zircon U-Pb (ID-TIMS) geochronology reveals that the anorthosite (1526 ± 2 Ma), monzonite (1526 ± 2 Ma), and the main-phase biotite-hornblende granite (1527 ± 2 Ma) of the complex intruded the Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.94 Ga) country rocks simultaneously at ~ 1526 Ma and that the more evolved biotite granite is marginally younger at 1519 ± 2 Ma. Intraplate magmatism in the Mucajaí region was relatively short-lived and lasted 12 million years (1529-1517 Ma) at maximum. The Nd (whole-rock, ID-TIMS; ɛNd from - 1.9 to - 2.8), Hf (zircon, LAM-ICP-MS; ɛHf from - 2.0 to - 3.1), and O (zircon, SIMS; δ18O from 6.1 to 7.0‰) isotopic compositions of the studied rocks are fairly uniform but still reveal a small degree of isotopic heterogeneity in the Paleoproterozoic crust enclosing the complex. The small isotopic differences observed in the two types of rapakivi granites (biotite-hornblende granite and biotite granite) may result either from an isotopically heterogeneous lower crustal source or, more likely, from contamination of the granitic magma derived from a lower crustal source during prolonged residence at upper crustal levels.

  3. Stages of weathering mantle formation from carbonate rocks in the light of rare earth elements (REE) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter


    Weathering mantles are widespread and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual high content of associated trace elements in weathering mantles originating from carbonate rocks, which have been poorly studied, compared to those developing on magmatic bedrocks. For instance, these enrichments can be up to five times the content of the underlying carbonate rocks. However, these studies also showed that the carbonate bedrock content only partially explains the soil enrichment for all the considered major and trace elements. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources. REE distribution patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios have been used because they are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments have been applied to identify mobile phases in the soil system and to yield information on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. All these geochemical informations indicate that the cambisol developing on such a typical weathering mantle ("terra fusca") has been formed through weathering of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl facies. This facies shows compared to average world carbonates important trace element enrichments. Their trace element distribution patterns are similar to those of the soil

  4. Effects of organic matter on carbonate stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O values)--implications for analyses of bulk sediments. (United States)

    Oehlerich, Markus; Baumer, Marlene; Lücke, Andreas; Mayr, Christoph


    Stable isotope ratio (δ(13)C, δ(18)O values) analyses of carbonates can be biased by CO(2) release from organic impurities. This is most critical for carbonate isotope analyses from bulk sediments containing comparably high amounts of organic matter (OM). Several methods have been developed to remove OM prior to analyses, but none of them can be universally applied. Moreover, pretreatment methods cause isotopic bias in themselves and should probably best be avoided. Thus, it is essential to have indicators for reliable isotope values of untreated carbonate-OM mixtures. Artificial mixtures of organic compounds with a standard carbonate were analyzed to investigate the bias on carbonate isotope ratios caused by OM in the sample. The total-inorganic-carbon to total-organic-carbon ratio (TIC/TOC) was used as a measure for the " organic impurity" of the sample. The target was to evaluate TIC/TOC as a measure for sample quality and to define TIC/TOC thresholds for reliable isotope measurements of mixtures between calcium carbonate and organic compounds. The effect of organic impurities on carbonate stable isotope values depended on the specific OM compound and the respective TIC/TOC ratio. Different CO(2) release rates were determined for the pure OM compounds. A sample TIC/TOC ratio ≥0.3 was found to be a threshold for reliable measurements of the isotope composition of calcium carbonate. Bulk carbonate analyses from carbonate-OM mixtures are reliable only if the TIC/TOC values do not fall below certain thresholds. This has implications for carbonate isotope studies from bulk sediments for which the TIC/TOC ratios should be considered as an easy-to-determine measure for sample-quality assessment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the Gulf of Mexico revealed by gut content and stable isotope analyses (United States)

    McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Ross, Steve W.


    Mesopelagic fishes represent an important component of the marine food web due to their global distributions, high abundances and ability to transport organic material throughout a large part of the water column. This study combined stable isotope (SIAs) and gut content analyses (GCAs) to characterize the trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, this study examined whether mesopelagic fishes utilized chemosynthetic energy from cold seeps. Specimens were collected (9–25 August 2007) over three deep (>1,000 m) cold seeps at discrete depths (surface to 1,503 m) over the diurnal cycle. GCA classified 31 species (five families) of mesopelagic fishes into five feeding guilds: piscivores, large crustacean consumers, copepod consumers, generalists and mixed zooplanktivores. However, these guilds were less clearly defined based on stable isotope mixing model (MixSIAR) results, suggesting diets may be more mixed over longer time periods (weeks–months) and across co-occurring species. Copepods were likely important for the majority of mesopelagic fishes, consistent with GCA (this study) and previous literature. MixSIAR results also identified non-crustacean prey items, including salps and pteropods, as potentially important prey items for mesopelagic fishes, including those fishes not analysed in GCA (Sternoptyx spp. and Melamphaidae). Salps and other soft-bodied species are often missed in GCAs. Mesopelagic fishes had δ13C results consistent with particulate organic matter serving as the baseline organic carbon source, fueling up to three trophic levels. Fishes that undergo diel vertical migration were depleted in 15N relative to weak migrators, consistent with depth-specific isotope trends in sources and consumers, and assimilation of 15N-depleted organic matter in surface waters. Linear correlations between fish size and δ15N values suggested ontogenetic changes in fish diets for several species. While there was

  6. Precambrian ophiolites of Arabia; a summary of geologic settings, U-Pb geochronology, lead isotope characteristics, and implications for microplate accretion, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Stacey, J.S.; Fischer, L.B.; Premo, W.R.


    Disrupted ophiolites occur in linear belts as much as 900 km long between micro plates that collided during the late Proterozoic to form the Arabian Shield. The U-Pb zircon ages and lead-isotope data from these ophiolitic rocks help constrain the history of accretion of the Arabian Shield and thereby contribute to the definition of its microplates and terranes. Microplates of the central and western Arabian Shield are generally thought to represent intra-oceanic island arcs that range in age from about 900 Ma to 640 Ma; however, a region of the eastern Arabian Shield contains rocks of early Proterozoic age and may represent an exotic continental fragment entrained between the arc complexes.

  7. Tracing Proterozoic arc mantle Hf isotope depletion of southern Fennoscandia through coupled zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes (United States)

    Petersson, Andreas; Bjärnborg, Karolina; Scherstén, Anders; Gerdes, Axel; Næraa, Tomas


    Constraints on the composition of the depleted mantle Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf crust formation ages have a long history of scientific debate. When calculating mantle extraction ages, and constructing crustal growth models, a linear evolution of incompatible trace elements in a depleted mantle since > 4 Ga is routinely used. Mantle depletion however varies regionally and over time and subduction of sediments and oceanic crust renders a mantle-wedge variously enriched relative to a modelled depleted mantle. Here we show that primitive mantle-derived subduction related gabbroic intrusions from southern Fennoscandia have Hf isotope compositions that are enriched relative to a MORB-like linear depleted mantle evolution curve. Extrapolation of primitive Paleoproterozoic gabbro suites enables the construction of a regional mantle evolution curve, providing improved constraints on model ages, crustal residence times and the fraction of juvenile versus reworked continental crust. Convergent margins are assumed to be one of the main sites of continental crust growth, and using an overly depleted mantle source yield model ages that are too old, and hence cumulative crustal growth models show too much crust generation early in the Earth's history. The approach of using the Hf isotope composition of zircon from primitive subduction related gabbroic intrusions as a proxy for mantle Hf isotope composition, piloted in this study, can be applied to other convergent margins.

  8. Tracing collisional route of the Danubian terranes (South Carpathians, Romania), using detrital U-Pb isotopic record (United States)

    Balica, Constantin; Balintoni, Ioan; Campeanu, Mara


    The Danubian Realm of the South Carpathians, Romania, comprises a set of Alpine tectonic units exposed in a large tectonic window, under the Getic Realm. Each of the Danubian tectonic unit has a pre-Alpine basement composed mainly of high-grade metamorphic rocks, several Neoproterozoic granitoids (e.g. [1]), and low-grade Paleozoic formations. The whole basement is intruded by Variscan plutons. Two pre-Variscan metamorphic rock sequences of Pan-African origin [2] have been identified in the Danubian basement: The Drǎgșan and Lainici Pǎiuș. The relation between these two groups is purely tectonic, since they are separated by a Variscan thrust fault. An oceanic crust fragment, (i.e. Tisovița terrane), of presumably Early Devonian age separates the Drǎgșan and Lainici-Pǎiuș pre-Variscan terranes by the Poiana Mraconia terrane fragment of presumably Getic affinity. Generally, most of the doubts in what concen the origin and provenance of the two main terranes, Lainici-Pǎiuș and Drǎgșan, have been cleared up [3]. According to the latest review, the large metasedimentary Lainici-Pǎiuș tract, extensively crosscutted by a network of heterogranular leucogranite and pierced by Cadomian granitoid plutons correspond to a continental margin volcanic arc of Ganderian origin and Peri-Amazonian provenance. The time of formation is constrained, based on the presence of ca 600 Ma granitoid plutons which is Late Neoproterozoic [3]. On what concerns the Drǎgșan terrane, its main lithology (i.e. banded amphibolites) has oceanic island arc isotopic and geochemical signatures [3]. In fact, its lithostratigraphic composition - a lower orthogneiss assemblage, a median metabasic-ultrabasic assemblage and an upper mica gneiss unit- recommends it as of rather composite nature. One of the key points in constraining the age of the Drǎgșan terrane basement is the 808 Ma, age recorded by an augen gneiss zircons and the 811 Ma age recorded by some meta-rhyolite inherited zircons

  9. Zircon U-Pb ages and O-Nd isotopic composition of basement rocks in the North Qinling Terrain, central China: evidence for provenance and evolution (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Xiang; Qi, Yue; Wang, Wei; Siebel, Wolfgang; Zhu, Xi-Yan; Nie, Hu; He, Jian-Feng; Chen, Fukun


    The Qinling Group was previously interpreted as the oldest Precambrian basement unit of the North Qinling Terrain, recording its formation and early crustal evolution. The Qinling Group consists predominantly of gneisses, amphibolites, and marbles, which underwent multi-phase deformation and metamorphism. In order to better constrain the provenance and tectonic setting of this group and the evolution of the North Qinling orogenic belt, in situ U-Pb dating and oxygen isotopic analysis of zircons in combination with whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope analysis was performed on the two dominant rock types, amphibolite and felsic gneiss. Felsic gneisses exhibit enrichment of LREEs and LILEs (Rb, Ba, Th, K, Pb), negative Eu anomalies and depletion of HFSEs (Nb, Ta, P, Ti). The rocks have slightly elevated δ18O values (6.5-9.3 ‰) and initial ɛ Nd values of -4.6 corresponding to two-stage Nd model age of 1.99 Ga. Amphibolites are also enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in Nb and Ta and have homogeneous δ18O values (5.0-6.0 ‰), but higher initial ɛ Nd values (2.8-3.3) and younger two-stage Nd model ages (1.29-1.24 Ga) compared to the gneisses. The zircon age record indicates that the gneisses and amphibolites were formed in a ~960 Ma volcanic arc environment rather than in a rift setting as previously suggested. A major metamorphic event took place during the Early Paleozoic. Based on the age spectrum of detrital zircons, the Qinling Group is interpreted as an autonomous geological unit, which was mainly derived mostly from 1,000 to 900 Ma old granitoid rocks. The North Qinling Terrain can be regarded as a remnant of the Grenville orogenic belt with an early Neoproterozoic evolution different from that of the North and South China blocks.

  10. Point processes statistics of stable isotopes: analysing water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Aleppo pine and Holm oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Comas


    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding inter- and intra-specific competition for water is crucial in drought-prone environments. However, little is known about the spatial interdependencies for water uptake among individuals in mixed stands. The aim of this work was to compare water uptake patterns during a drought episode in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill., using the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O, δ2H as hydrological marker. Area of study: The study was performed in a mixed stand, sampling a total of 33 oaks and 78 pines (plot area= 888 m2. We tested the hypothesis that both species uptake water differentially along the soil profile, thus showing different levels of tree-to-tree interdependency, depending on whether neighbouring trees belong to one species or the other. Material and Methods: We used pair-correlation functions to study intra-specific point-tree configurations and the bivariate pair correlation function to analyse the inter-specific spatial configuration. Moreover, the isotopic composition of xylem water was analysed as a mark point pattern. Main results: Values for Q. ilex (δ18O = –5.3 ± 0.2‰, δ2H = –54.3 ± 0.7‰ were significantly lower than for P. halepensis (δ18O = –1.2 ± 0.2‰, δ2H = –25.1 ± 0.8‰, pointing to a greater contribution of deeper soil layers for water uptake by Q. ilex. Research highlights: Point-process analyses revealed spatial intra-specific dependencies among neighbouring pines, showing neither oak-oak nor oak-pine interactions. This supports niche segregation for water uptake between the two species.

  11. The role of ridge subduction in determining the geochemistry and Nd–Sr–Pb isotopic evolution of the Kodiak batholith in southern Alaska (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Farris, David W.; Foley, Nora K.; Wandless, Gregory A.


    The Paleocene Kodiak batholith, part of the Sanak–Baranof belt of Tertiary near-trench intrusive rocks, forms an elongate body (~ 150 km long) that transects Kodiak Island from SW to NE. The batholith consists of three zones (Southern, Central, and Northern) of kyanite-, muscovite-, and garnet-bearing biotite tonalite and granodiorite and less abundant granite that intruded an accretionary prism (Kodiak Formation, and Ghost Rocks Formation). Small and likely coeval bodies (Northern, Western, and Eastern satellite groups) of quartz gabbro, diorite, tonalite, granodiorite, and leucogranite flank the batholith. The batholith is calc-alkalic, has an aluminum saturation index of > 1.1, FeOt/(FeOt + MgO) ~ 0.65 (at SiO2 = 65 wt.%), and increases in SiO2 (~ 61 wt.%–73 wt.%) and decreases in TiO2 (~ 0.9 wt.%–0.3 wt.%) from SW to NE. As a group, the granitic rocks have light REE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns with small or no negative Eu anomalies, primitive mantle-normalized negative anomalies for Nb and Ti, and positive anomalies for Pb. Small to large negative anomalies for Th are also distinctive. The quartz gabbros and diorites are generally characterized by generally flat to light REE chondrite-normalized patterns (no Eu anomalies), and mantle-normalized negative anomalies for Nb, Ti, and P. Pb isotopic compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 18.850–18.960; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.575–15.694; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.350–39.039) are intermediate between depleted mantle and average continental crust. The Southern zone and a portion of the Central zone are characterized by negative εNd values of − 3.7 to − 0.3 and TDM ages ranging from ~ 838 Ma to 1011 Ma. Other granitic rocks from the Central and Northern zones have higher εNd values of − 0.4 to + 4.7 and younger TDM ages of ~ 450 to 797 Ma. Granitic and mafic plutons from the Eastern satellites show a wide range of εNdvalues of − 2.7 to + 6.4, and TDM ages from 204 Ma to

  12. The geodynamic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M; Lopez de Luchi, M; Steenken, A;


    Whole-rock geochemical analyses using major and trace elements in combination with the Sm–Nd and Pb–Pb isotope systems, together with SHRIMP age dating on metasedimentary rocks from the Sierras de Chepes, the Sierras de Co´rdoba, the Sierra Norte and the San Luis Formation in the Sierra de San Luis...

  13. Stable isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile Myrophis punctatus (Angulliformes: Ophichthidae) inthe coastal waters of Florida (United States)

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (Florida) using stomach contents and stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Stomach dietary analyses identified four tax...

  14. Signs of malnutrition and starvation--reconstruction of nutritional life histories by serial isotopic analyses of hair. (United States)

    Neuberger, Ferdinand M; Jopp, Eilin; Graw, Matthias; Püschel, Klaus; Grupe, Gisela


    The diagnosis of starvation in children or adults is an important topic in paediatric and geriatric medicine, and in law assessment. To date, few reliable techniques are available to reconstruct the onset and duration of undernourishment, especially in cases of wilful neglect or abuse. The intention of this research project is to introduce a method based on isotopic analysis to reconstruct nutritional life histories and to detect starvation. For this purpose the specific signature of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in human hair samples is investigated and measured in the course of serious nutritional deprivation. Previous study of our research group on anorectic patients has shown that incremental hair analyses can monitor the individual nutritional status of each patient. Increasing δ(15)N-values indicate the catabolism of bodily protein and are associated with a very low BMI. In contrast, the changes of the δ(13)C values and BMI were in phase, which can be linked to the lack of energy in the consumed diet and the break down of body fat deposits. These findings were now applied to various forensic cases, in which severe starvation occurred recently prior to death. We are aiming at establishing an unbiased biomarker to identify the individual timeframe of nutritional deprivation to detect and prevent starvation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sources of variability and comparability between salmonid stomach contents and isotopic analyses: study design lessons and recommendations (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Budy, P.


    We compared sources of variability and cost in paired stomach content and stable isotope samples from three salmonid species collected in September 2001–2005 and describe the relative information provided by each method in terms of measuring diet overlap and food web study design. Based on diet analyses, diet overlap among brown trout, rainbow trout, and mountain whitefish was high, and we observed little variation in diets among years. In contrast, for sample sizes n ≥ 25, 95% confidence interval (CI) around mean δ15Ν and δ13C for the three target species did not overlap, and species, year, and fish size effects were significantly different, implying that these species likely consumed similar prey but in different proportions. Stable isotope processing costs were US$12 per sample, while stomach content analysis costs averaged US$25.49 ± $2.91 (95% CI) and ranged from US$1.50 for an empty stomach to US$291.50 for a sample with 2330 items. Precision in both δ15Ν and δ13C and mean diet overlap values based on stomach contents increased considerably up to a sample size of n = 10 and plateaued around n = 25, with little further increase in precision.

  16. Patterns of juvenile habitat use by the spider crab Maja brachydactyla as revealed by stable isotope analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Freire


    Full Text Available Patterns of habitat use by spider crab juveniles, Maja brachydactyla, from two geographic areas on the NW coast of the Iberian Peninsula were studied through the analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope relations in muscle and hepatopancreas. Main potential preys of spider crab juveniles in rocky and sandy habitats and different organic matter sources in coastal food webs were also analysed. Isotopic ratios showed no difference between rocky and sandy habitats. The use of carapace colour and epibiosis as an indicator of habitat use was not supported by our data. These results suggest that movements between the two habitats are much more frequent than suggested in previous studies. In the coastal food web, two main trophic compartments were identified according to their organic matter source: one based on plankton and seaweeds (rocky habitats, and one based on sedimentary particulate organic matter (sandy bottoms. By means of the model of Phillips and Gregg (2003, it was found that juveniles of Maja brachydactyla from both habitats consumed approximately two thirds of the preys in rocky habitats and one third in sedimentary habitats. The results indicate that in exposed environments large juveniles spend most of the time on sedimentary bottoms, where they find more refuge, moving frequently to nearby rocky substrates to feed.

  17. Petrogenesis and significance of the Hongshan syenitic pluton,South Taihang: zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Hongshan syenitic pluton (South Taihang) is mainly made up of hornblende syenite and minor granite. SHRIMP zircon dating yields a U-Pb age of 135 ± 2.7 Ma for the emplacement of the pluton, while biotite Rb-Sr isotopic data give an isochron of 120.3 ± 2.4 Ma. Hongshan syenites show low silica, high alkalis and LILE such as Sr, and exhibit negligible Eu anomalies or slightly positive anomalies in the REE patterns. The syenites show quite enriched isotopic compositions with Isr from 0. 7052 to 0. 7102 and εNd( t ) from - 7.5 to - 11. 1. Petrogenesis of the pluton can be that partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle gave birth to an alkali basaltic magma, which subsequently underplated in the lower crust and experienced a coupled fractionation of ferromagnesian phases like pyroxene and hornblende and minor ( < 10 % ) contamination of lower continental crust, producing the Hongshan syenites that partially evolved into granite through combined fractionation of hornblende and feldspar. Our data are not in agreement with a previous model that the syenites originated from melting of lower crust in a thickened crust circumstance, and thus do not support the speculation of "East China Plateau" in the Mesozoic.