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Sample records for analysing pb isotopes

  1. Superdeformation in Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    The Relatvistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is used to explore the structure of superdeformed (SD) 190,212 Pb isotopes using the non-linear NL3* and density dependent (DD-ME2, DD-PC1) interactions. We have studied the the excitation energy, the potential depth and the deformation of these Pb isotopes

  2. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: methodology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, Massimo; Dantas, Elton L.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Bühn, Bernhard, E-mail: massimo@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2010-06-15

    The Lutetium-Hafnium isotopic system represents one of the most innovative and powerful tools for geochronology and isotopic studies. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf in situ analyses on zircon by LA-MC-ICP-MS permit to characterize isotopically the host magma from which it crystallized furnishing significant information for sediment provenance and crustal evolution studies. In this paper e describe the Lu-Hf systematic by LA-MC-ICP-MS developed in the laboratory of Geochronology of the University of Brasilia and report the results obtained by repeated analyses of {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf isotopic ratio of three zircon standards: GJ-1 = 0.282022 ± 11 (n=56), Temora 2 = 0.282693 ± 14 (n=25) and UQZ = 0.282127 ± 33 (n=11). The {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf ratio (0.282352 ± 22, n=14) of gem quality zircon used as in-house standard have been also characterized. As a geological application, we analyzed two complex zircons selected from a migmatitic rocks from the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. On the basis of U-Pb and Lu-Hf data, two main crystallization events have been identified in both studied zircons. An older event at ca. 2.05 Ga recognized in the inherited cores represents a well-characterized paleoproterozoic magmatic event that affected the whole Borborema Province. A second crystallization event at ∼ 575 Ma, recognized at the rims, represents a Neoproterozoic (Brazilian) high grade metamorphic-magmatic event. (author)

  3. Considerations on the age of the Bambui Group (MG, Brazil) based on isotopic analyses of Sr and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, J.G.P.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1981-01-01

    Based on radiometric ages, the Bambui Group deposition time is related to the end of the Precambrian. However, the ages determined and released through scientific magazines are mot in agreement (600-1350 m.y.) and many doubts about the geochrological picture of this important lithostratigraphic unit remained for a long time. As a result of the work developed by Metamig, CPGeo (IG-USP) and IPEN (SP), Rb/Sr and Pb/Pb isotopic determinations were done on 31 rocks samples and 17 galenas collected from the Bambui Basin distributed in Minas Gerais State. The Rb/Sr ages of 590 m.y. for Pirapora Formation, 620 m.y. for Tres Marias Formation, and 640 m.y. for the Paraopeba Formation situated in the stable area are linked to sedimentation processes. In the Paracatu region the age of 680 m.y. found for the Paraopeba Formation is related to metamorphic events. The lead isotopic ratios from the galenas suggest an isotopic evolution in two stages. The first ended with the lead separation from the mantle and its incorporation to the crust during events of the Transamazonic Cycle. The second ended when the lead were incorporated to the galenas and seems to be related to one or more events of the Brazilian Cycle. (Author) [pt

  4. Development of a fully automated open-column chemical-separation system—COLUMNSPIDER—and its application to Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses of igneous rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan Stefanov; Takei, Masakazu; Suzuki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Kouzou; Chang, Qing; Takahashi, Toshiro; Hirahara, Yuka; Hanyu, Takeshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    A fully automated open-column resin-bed chemical-separation system, named COLUMNSPIDER, has been developed. The system consists of a programmable micropipetting robot that dispenses chemical reagents and sample solutions into an open-column resin bed for elemental separation. After the initial set up of resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers for the separated chemical components, all separation procedures are automated. As many as ten samples can be eluted in parallel in a single automated run. Many separation procedures, such as radiogenic isotope ratio analyses for Sr and Nd, involve the use of multiple column separations with different resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers of various volumes. COLUMNSPIDER completes these separations using multiple runs. Programmable functions, including the positioning of the micropipetter, reagent volume, and elution time, enable flexible operation. Optimized movements for solution take-up and high-efficiency column flushing allow the system to perform as precisely as when carried out manually by a skilled operator. Procedural blanks, examined for COLUMNSPIDER separations of Sr, Nd, and Pb, are low and negligible. The measured Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for JB-2 and Nd isotope ratios for JB-3 and BCR-2 rock standards all fall within the ranges reported previously in high-accuracy analyses. COLUMNSPIDER is a versatile tool for the efficient elemental separation of igneous rock samples, a process that is both labor intensive and time consuming.

  5. An ultra-clean technique for accurately analysing Pb isotopes and heavy metals at high spatial resolution in ice cores with sub-pg g{sup -1} Pb concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, Laurie J. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Rosman, Kevin J.R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia)], E-mail: K.Rosman@curtin.edu.au; Candelone, Jean-Pierre [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Vallelonga, Paul [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali (IDPA-CNR), Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Burton, Graeme R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Smith, Andrew M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Morgan, Vin I. [Australian Antarctic Division and Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC, Private Bag 80, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Barbante, Carlo [Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali (IDPA-CNR), Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Hong, Sungmin [Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Boutron, Claude F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement du CNRS, 54, rue Moliere, B.P. 96, 3840.2 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2009-02-23

    Measurements of Pb isotope ratios in ice containing sub-pg g{sup -1} concentrations are easily compromised by contamination, particularly where limited sample is available. Improved techniques are essential if Antarctic ice cores are to be analysed with sufficient spatial resolution to reveal seasonal variations due to climate. This was achieved here by using stainless steel chisels and saws and strict protocols in an ultra-clean cold room to decontaminate and section ice cores. Artificial ice cores, prepared from high purity water were used to develop and refine the procedures and quantify blanks. Ba and In, two other important elements present at pg g{sup -1} and fg g{sup -1} concentrations in Polar ice, were also measured. The final blank amounted to 0.2 {+-} 0.2 pg of Pb with {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of 1.16 {+-} 0.12 and 2.35 {+-} 0.16, respectively, 1.5 {+-} 0.4 pg of Ba and 0.6 {+-} 2.0 fg of In, most of which probably originates from abrasion of the steel saws by the ice. The procedure was demonstrated on a Holocene Antarctic ice core section and was shown to contribute blanks of only {approx}5%, {approx}14% and {approx}0.8% to monthly resolved samples with respective Pb, Ba and In concentrations of 0.12 pg g{sup -1}, 0.3 pg g{sup -1} and 2.3 fg g{sup -1}. Uncertainties in the Pb isotopic ratio measurements were degraded by only {approx}0.2%.

  6. PETROCHEMISTRY, Pb ISOTOPE SYSTEMATICS, AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petrology, geochemistry, geotectonic setting and common Pb isotope model ages for the granite gneisses in Ilesha schist belt have been studied and presented in this paper. These gneisses, apart from the normal rock-forming silicates, contain apatite, monazite, ilmenite and zircon in trace amounts. The occurrence of ...

  7. Reliability of stable Pb isotopes to identify Pb sources and verifying biological fractionation of Pb isotopes in goats and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Yabe, John; Liazambi, Allan; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) have been recognized as an efficient tool for identifying sources. This study carried out at Kabwe mining area, Zambia, to elucidate the presence or absence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken, to evaluate the reliability of identifying Pb pollution sources via analysis of Pb-IRs, and to assess whether a threshold for blood Pb levels (Pb-B) for biological fractionation was present. The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B and were fixed at certain values close to those of the dominant source of Pb exposure at Pb-B > 5 μg/dL. However, chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B, or a fractionation threshold. Given these, the biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats, and the threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at around 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. - Highlights: • Presence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken was studied. • The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B. • Chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B. • The biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats. • Threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. - Biological fractionation and its threshold for stable Pb isotope ratio in goats and chickens were examined.

  8. High-precision measurements of seawater Pb isotope compositions by double spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Maxence; Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van DeFlierdt, Tina; Weiss, Dominik

    2015-03-10

    A new method for the determination of seawater Pb isotope compositions and concentrations was developed, which combines and optimizes previously published protocols for the separation and isotopic analysis of this element. For isotopic analysis, the procedure involves initial separation of Pb from 1 to 2L of seawater by co-precipitation with Mg hydroxide and further purification by a two stage anion exchange procedure. The Pb isotope measurements are subsequently carried out by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using a (207)Pb-(204)Pb double spike for correction of instrumental mass fractionation. These methods are associated with a total procedural Pb blank of 28±21 pg (1sd) and typical Pb recoveries of 40-60%. The Pb concentrations are determined by isotope dilution (ID) on 50 mL of seawater, using a simplified version of above methods. Analyses of multiple aliquots of six seawater samples yield a reproducibility of about ±1 to ±10% (1sd) for Pb concentrations of between 7 and 50 pmol/kg, where precision was primarily limited by the uncertainty of the blank correction (12±4 pg; 1sd). For the Pb isotope analyses, typical reproducibilities (±2sd) of 700-1500 ppm and 1000-2000 ppm were achieved for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb, respectively. These results are superior to literature data that were obtained using plasma source mass spectrometry and they are at least a factor of five more precise for ratios involving the minor (204)Pb isotope. Both Pb concentration and isotope data, furthermore, show good agreement with published results for two seawater intercomparison samples of the GEOTRACES program. Finally, the new methods were applied to a seawater depth profile from the eastern South Atlantic. Both Pb contents and isotope compositions display a smooth evolution with depth, and no obvious outliers. Compared to previous Pb isotope data for seawater, the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios are well correlated

  9. Pb/Pb isochron ages and Pb isotope geochemistry of Bambui Group carbonate rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the establishment of chemical and analytical procedure for Pb/Pb dating of Neo proterozoic carbonate rocks and their application to obtaining isochron ages of Bambui Group rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin, Minas Gerais State. The Pb isotopic compositions and U and Pb concentrations determined on more than 90 samples (≅ 600 analyses) from Sete Lagoas do Jacare formations, Bambui Group, from different parts of the basin, showed four distinct types of Pb, here called types I, II, III and IV. Type I Pb was found in samples with low Pb concentrations and relatively high U concentrations. Type II Pb is present in samples with relatively high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations it is non-radiogenic crustal Pb. Type III Pb is also found in samples with high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations but it is radiogenic crustal Pb. Type IV Pb occurs in samples with U/Pb ratios lower than 1 and is intermediate in composition between Type III and Type I Pb. According to the data presented in this paper it is suggested that carbonate rocks from Sete Lagoas Formations were deposited before 686±69 Ma. Rocks from the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, contained only Type II Pb, which does not permit determination of a Pb/Pb age. During the interval from 690 to 500 Ma, the Pb isotope system of the carbonate rocks from the Sao Francisco Basin was disturbed, and in some areas it was totally reset. The imprecise U/Pb ages of 550-600 Ma obtained from some of the carbonate rocks reflect this disturbance. The ages determined in this study are in agreement with most of the published ages of the tectonism from the Brasiliano fold belts marginal to Sao Francisco Craton, showing that the isotopic systems of Sao Francisco Basin rocks were largely affected by brasiliano tectonism. (author)

  10. Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Three short marine sediment cores from the Cascais Submarine Canyon (CSC; cores 252-32 and 252-35) and the Estremadura Spur (core 252-16) on the central Portuguese Margin were analysed for Hg, Pb, Al, and Mn concentrations, and both Pb and Hg stable isotope compositions, in order to reconstruct

  11. Isotope Exchange: a Potential Mechanism Regulating the Natural and Anthropogenic Pb Isotope Budget in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zurbrick, C.; Carrasco, G. G.; Switzer, A.; Zhao, N.

    2016-02-01

    Two independent studies on anthropogenic Pb and Pb isotopes in coastal corals from the northern Arabian Gulf and the Singapore Straits have shown an isotopic excursion where the main Pb sources discharging to the water move to more crustal-like values, indicating that the Pb in coastal waters might exchange isotopically with crustal particulates without propotional change in concentration. To investigate this issue, Pb isotope exchange is assessed through a closed-system exchange experiment using estuarine waters collected at the Johor River mouth (discharging to the Singapore Straits). During the experiment, a known amount of NBS-981 (206Pb/207Pb=1.093) was spiked into the unfiltered Johor water (dissolved 206Pb/207Pb = 1.199) and the changing isotopic composition of the dissolved Pb was monitored. Shortly after the spike addition, dissolved Pb exhibited 206Pb/207Pb=1.178, reflecting the influence of the spike. Within the following few days, the 206Pb/207Pb in the water increased to >1.190 with limited changes of the dissolved Pb concentration. The observations in closed-system experiment agree with the isotope difference between Singapore aerosol and seawater in our 2-year-long field observations. The kinetics of isotope exchange were assessed using a simple model, which reproduced >70% of the observed Pb isotope variance. Both the close-system experiment and field measurements imply that isotope exchange can be an important mechanism for regulating the Pb and Pb isotopes in coastal waters. Investigations on the distribution of Pb and Pb isotope in estuaries and coastal waters should further assess the role of isotope exchange in ocean Pb chemistry.

  12. Analytical procedures for determining Pb and Sr isotopic compositions in water samples by ID-TIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Few articles deal with lead and strontium isotopic analysis of water samples. The aim of this study was to define the chemical procedures for Pb and Sr isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from an urban sedimentary aquifer. Thirty lead and fourteen strontium isotopic analyses were performed to test different analytical procedures. Pb and Sr isotopic ratios as well as Sr concentration did not vary using different chemical procedures. However, the Pb concentrations were very dependent on the different procedures. Therefore, the choice of the best analytical procedure was based on the Pb results, which indicated a higher reproducibility from samples that had been filtered and acidified before the evaporation, had their residues totally dissolved, and were purified by ion chromatography using the Biorad® column. Our results showed no changes in Pb ratios with the storage time.

  13. Reconstruction of historical atmospheric Pb using Dutch urban lake sediments: A Pb isotope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; van Os, B.J.H.; Klaver, G.Th.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sediments provide a record of atmospheric Pb deposition and changes in Pb isotope composition. To our knowledge, such an approach has not previously been performed in The Netherlands or linked to national air monitoring data. Results are presented for Pb content and isotope composition of 137Cs

  14. An update of the Pb isotope inventory in post leaded-petrol Singapore environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Gonzalo; Chen, Mengli; Boyle, Edward A; Tanzil, Jani; Zhou, Kuanbo; Goodkin, Nathalie F

    2018-02-01

    Pb is a trace metal that tracks anthropogenic pollution in natural environments. Despite recent leaded petrol phase out around Southeast Asia, the region's growth has resulted in continued exposure of Pb from a variety of sources. In this study, sources of Pb into Singapore, a highly urbanised city-state situated in the central axis of Southeast Asia, are investigated using isotopic ratios and concentrations. We compiled data from our previous analyses of aerosols, incineration fly ash and sediments, with new data from analyses of soil from gas stations, water from runoff and round-island coastal seawater to obtain a spatio-temporal overview of sources of Pb into the Singapore environment. Using 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio, we identified three main Pb source origins: natural Pb (1.215 ± 0.001), historic/remnant leaded petrol (1.123 ± 0.013), and present-day industrial and incinerated waste (1.148 ± 0.005). Deep reservoir sediments bore larger traces of Pb from leaded petrol, but present-day runoff waters and coastal seawater were a mix of industrial and natural sources with somewhat variable concentrations. We found temporal variability in Pb isotopic ratio in aerosols indicating alternating transboundary Pb sources to Singapore that correspond to seasonal changes in monsoon winds. By contrast, seasonal monsoon circulation did not significantly influence isotopic ratios of coastal seawater Pb. Instead, seawater Pb was driven more by location differences, suggesting stronger local-scale drivers of Pb such as point sources, water flushing, and isotope exchange. The combination of multiple historic and current sources of Pb shown in this study highlights the need for continued monitoring of Pb in Southeast Asia, especially in light of emerging industries and potential large sources of Pb such as coal combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. China, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  16. In-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses of the Xiangshan Ni-Cu-Co deposit in Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang), Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Constraints on the timing and genesis of the mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Jien; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2010-12-01

    The timing and genesis of the major Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit in the Xiangshan intrusion have been studied based on newly obtained in-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses. The SIMS U-Pb zircon ages of the gabbro hosting the Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit indicate that the Xiangshan intrusion was emplaced at 279.6 ± 1.1 Ma (95% confidence level, MSWD = 1.30, n = 15). On the basis of combined geological and geochronological evidence, we suggest that the Xiangshan and other adjacent Ni-Cu deposits were formed in the same period. Sulphides have low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios, similar to sulphide ores from the Duluth, Sally Malay and Voisey Bay complexes. The Re-Os isotopic data from the disseminated and massive ores from the Xiangshan intrusion do not form a single isochron, as they have different initial Os ratios. The Hf and Os isotopic data suggest that the Xiangshan intrusion and associated Ni-Cu-Co mineralization were derived from crustally contaminated mantle melts. The geochemical data show a tholeiitic affinity and a strong suprasubduction zone signature with negative Nb, Sr, and Ti anomalies similar to N-MORB and E-MORB. We suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks and associated Ni-Cu mineralization of the Eastern Tianshan orogen formed in an Alaska-type subduction zone-arc setting. Some diagnostic features of ridge-trench interaction are present in the Chinese East Tianshan orogen (e.g. granites, adakites, high-Mg andesites, near-trench magmatism, Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes, high-temperature metamorphic belts that prograde rapidly from low-grade belts, and orogenic gold deposits). The above distinctive rock groups are probably related to the same thermal event, ridge subduction, as in the Cenozoic orogen of Alaska. We suggest that ridge subduction is the most plausible mechanism to provide the necessary heat. Ridge subduction provides an important promising model for understanding many aspects of the evolution of the Chinese

  17. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of

  18. U-Pb isotope systematics in josephinites and associated rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goepel, C.; Manhes, G.; Allegre, C.J. (Lab. Geochimie et Cosmochimie, I.P.G., 75 - Paris (France))

    1990-02-01

    Josephinite nodules, composed of metallic nickel iron alloy intergrown with andradite garnet, are found in the peridotitic section of an obducted ophiolite in SW Oregon. The origin of josephinite is widely debated: for example, previous investigation have proposed it as a byproduct of low temperature synserpentinization processes linked to the intrusion of dikes or and its derivation from primitive mantle, conceivably from as deep as the core mantle boundary. We report U-Pb data from josephinites, wyrdite (a rock associated with josephinite) consisting of rutile and ilmente intergrown with silicates, and their surrounding rocks (hornblende diorites and harzburgites). The measured Pb isotopic composition of all decontaminated, leached josephinite metal samples plots in the Pb-Pb diagram just above/in the MORB field, while the first leachates are characterized by higher {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios. The isotopic Pb composition measured in the leachates of the wyrdite defines a line whose slope corresponds to an age of 159{plus minus}8 Myr. The harzburgites show a wide spread in Pb isotopic compositions; all samples lie above the MORB field and three samples plot to the left side of the 4.55 AE geochron. The hornblende diorite dikes, characterized by the highest U and Pb concentrations of all studied rocks, plot in the MORB field. None of these different rocks is characterized by a single or homogeneous Pb composition. All samples are affected by secondary alteration processes: the circulation of hydrothermal fluids disturbed the dikes and ultramafic rocks and serpentinization processes have affected harzburgites, josephinites, and wyrdites. Thus the Pb isotopic composition measured today represents a mixture of initial Pb, radiogenic Pb and inherited Pb in variable proportions. Concerning the origin of josephinite these results show a close relationship between josephinite, wyrdite, and the dikes. (orig./WB).

  19. Reconstruction of historical atmospheric Pb using Dutch urban lake sediments: A Pb isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, N., E-mail: n.walraven@geoconnect.nl [GeoConnect, Meester Dekkerstraat 4, 1901 PV Castricum (Netherlands); Os, B.J.H. van, E-mail: b.vanos@rce.nl [Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten, P.O. Box 1600, 3800 BP Amersfoort (Netherlands); Klaver, G.Th., E-mail: g.klaver@brgm.nl [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Middelburg, J.J., E-mail: j.b.m.middelburg@uu.nl [University Utrecht, Faculty of Geosciences, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Davies, G.R., E-mail: g.r.davies@vu.nl [VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Petrology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-01

    Lake sediments provide a record of atmospheric Pb deposition and changes in Pb isotope composition. To our knowledge, such an approach has not previously been performed in The Netherlands or linked to national air monitoring data. Results are presented for Pb content and isotope composition of {sup 137}Cs dated lake sediments from 2 Dutch urban lakes. Between 1942 and 2002 A.D. anthropogenic atmospheric Pb deposition rates in the two lakes varied from 12 ± 2 to 69 ± 16 μg cm{sup −2} year{sup −1}. The rise and fall of leaded gasoline is clearly reflected in the reconstructed atmospheric Pb deposition rates. After the ban on leaded gasoline, late 1970s/early 1980s, atmospheric Pb deposition rates decreased rapidly in the two urban lakes and the relative contributions of other anthropogenic Pb sources — incinerator ash (industrial Pb) and coal/galena — increased sharply. Atmospheric Pb deposition rates inferred from the lake record a clear relationship with nearby measured annual mean air Pb concentrations. Based on this relationship it was estimated that air Pb concentrations between 1942 and 2002 A.D. varied between 5 and 293 ng/m{sup 3}. - Highlights: • Sixty years of atmospheric Pb was reconstructed using urban lake sediments. • Stable Pb isotopes were applied to determine Pb sources in urban lakes. • The rise and fall of leaded gasoline is clearly reflected in the lake sediments. • Other dominant anthropogenic Pb sources are incinerator ash and coal/galena. • The lake Pb record shows a clear relationship with measured air Pb concentrations.

  20. Weathering During Glacial-Interglacial Cycles Based on Pb Isotopes at Orphan Knoll, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, S. N.; Martin, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seawater Pb isotopes extracted from FeMn oxyhydroxide coatings on deep sea sediments preserve a record of regional variations in continental weathering intensity. Crocket et al. (2012) documented a distinct increase in seawater Pb isotopes across Termination I (TI) at IODP Sites U1302/03 on Orphan Knoll in the NW Atlantic which they attributed to an increase in weathering intensity associated with ice sheet retreat. Deglaciation during Termination II (TII) was more rapid than TI due to higher insolation forcing and elevated CO2 levels. This rapid warming followed Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11) cooling and circulation changes, but was not interrupted by a Younger Dryas-type reversal in warming. In this study, Pb isotopic data from leachates of the Sites U1302/03 are used to test whether changes in weathering are a feature of terminations and whether differences in the character of the termination translate to differences in the weathering response. We analyzed the clay/silt fraction to minimize preformed FeMn oxyhydroxides associated with IRD. All three Pb isotopic systems display similar patterns. Seawater 206Pb/204Pb values are 19.5 during MIS 6, reach a minimum of 18.7 during HS11, increase in < 1 ky to 20.6 in MIS 5e, and then vary between 19.9 - 20.5 across MIS 5e-d. In comparison to the TI study (Crocket et al., 2009), the TII HS is defined by a minimum in Pb isotopes that suggests suppressed chemical weathering during cooling and ice sheet advance. The increase in 206Pb/204Pb during TII indicates a rapid increase in weathering at high latitudes following glacial retreat. This result is consistent with a negative shift in ɛNd values during TII observed farther south on Bermuda Rise and interpreted as increased weathering of old continental material (Deaney et al. 2017). Future research on TII at Orphan Knoll includes analyses of detrital Pb isotopes to isolate the impact of changes in source material versus weathering intensity on seawater Pb isotopes, and

  1. Metallic elements and isotope of Pb in wet precipitation in urban area, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Daniela Montanari; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Gervasoni, Fernanda; Conceição, Rommulo Vieira; Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2012-04-01

    The atmosphere of urban areas has been the subject of many studies to show the atmospheric pollution in large urban centers. By quantifying wet precipitation through the analysis of metallic elements (ICP/AES) and Pb isotopes, the wet precipitation of the Metropolitan Area of the Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, was characterized. The samples were collected between July 2005 and December 2007. Zn, Fe and Mn showed the highest concentration in studied sites. Sapucaia do Sul showed the highest average for Zn, due to influence by the steel plant located near the sampling site. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions from vehicular activity and steel plants in wet precipitation and suspended particulate matter in the MAPA was identified by the isotopic signatures of 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb. Moreover the analyses of the metallic elements allowed also to identify the contribution of other anthropic sources, such as steel plants and oil refinery.

  2. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): Isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, B.; Echeverria, L.M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-02-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8x2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb proportional 19.75) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island.

  3. Geochemistry contribution of Pb isotopes on basalts origin study from Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.; Dupre, B.; Allegre, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents thirty new Pb-isotope and concentration data for low- and high-tiO sub(2) continental flood basalts of the Parana Basin. The results obtained from representative samples show significant differences with respect to type and location of these basic rocks. The low- and high-TiO sub(2) basalts from the northern region of the Parana Basin exhibit very similar Pb-isotope compositions. On the other hand, the low-TiO sub(2) basalts of central and southern areas, which exhibit low Sr initial isotope ratios (less than 0,7060), show very small variation in Pb isotope compositions which are highly enriched in radiogenic Pb in comparison with the analogues of northern region. The high-TiO sub(2) basic rocks analysed from northern and central regions have the same values for Pb isotope ratios, which are slightly more radiogenic compared with high-TiO sub(2) basalts from southern region. The data obtained, combined with other geochemical (major and trace elements, including rare earths) and isotope (Sr and Nd) results support the view that the basalts from northern and southern areas of the Parana Basin originated in lithospheric mantle reservoirs with different geochemical characteristics. (author)

  4. Hercynian Pb-Zn mineralization types in the Alcudia Valley mining district (Spain) and their reflect in Pb isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Madinabeitia, S.; Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Palero, F.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.; Carracedo, M.

    2003-04-01

    More than 450 ore deposits indexed within the Alcudia Valley of the Central-Iberian Zone (Spain) may be grouped by their tectonic and lithologic characteristics (1,2) as follows: type A of rare stratabound mineralizations, and types B, C, D and E represented by abundant Hercynian veins (post-Namurian). 86 new Pb isotope analyses of galenas from the four vein types reveal that types B and C have similar isotopic ratios with values of μ_2 = 10.07, ω_2 = 40.6 and a mean model age of 564 Ma. Types D and E have μ_2 and ω_2 values of 9.79 and 38.5, respectively, but differ each other with respect to their model ages, 600 Ma (type D) and 335 Ma (type E). The observed variations appear to be related to the geochemical features of the metasedimentary host-rocks of the mineralizations where two distinct types of Pb isotopic ratios have been reported (3): one with μ_2 and ω_2 comparable to those of the D and E types and another with a more radiogenic composition, close to those of the B and C types of galenas. Nägler et al. have suggested partial rehomogeneization of Pb isotopic composition within the metasediments at ca. 330 Ma, that is, prior to the mineralization events, but the extent of this process and its effects on the ore bodies isotopic features is not evident. The origin of the more abundant E type ore bodies has been related to the Hercynian granitic rocks in the area (2, and references therein). Other plutons within this sector of the Central Iberian Zone (e.g., Linares, etc.; cf. accompanying Abstract) associate ore bodies whose Pb isotopic composition is very similar to that of the E type galenas from the Alcudia Valley. The isotopic data obtained thus point to a related or common source material for the various types of granites within the area studied. Yet, the Pb isotopic composition of other mineralizations (B, C, D), likewise located in Hercynian veins, allow to consider different types of Pb-Zn ore bodies and point therefore to different sources of

  5. Coexistence of galenas with different Pb isotopic composition in Los Pedroches batholith area (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Madinabeitia, S.; Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Larrea, F. J.; Carracedo, M.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2003-04-01

    The Los Pedroches batholith region (S Spain) includes three separated mining districts: Linares, La Carolina and Los Pedroches. The Pb isotopic composition of thirty-three galenas from this sector has been measured. On the basis of the Pb data two types of mineralization are established. A first type including: (i) the Linares and La Carolina districts where ore-bearing filons cut Hercynian granites or their hostrocks (SE of the batholith), and (ii) the so-called "peribatholithic" ore bodies represented by scarce mines in the host-rock of the batholith; all of them exhibit homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions of: 206Pb/204Pb = 18.236, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.615, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.347 and a model age of ca. 324 Ma. The second type is represented by a huge N120^oE hydrotermal vein (the El Zumajo vein) intrusive in granitoid bodies of the batholith; the Pb isotopic composition of the vein is: 206Pb/204Pb = 18.457, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.636, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.611 and a model age of ca. 201 Ma. Analysed K-feldspars from batholithic granodiorite and granites have Pb isotopic compositions similar to those reported previously from Hercynian granites of the area (1) and to the galenas of Linares, La Carolina and "peribatholithic" ores. The whole dataset reveals a Pb evolution curve with μ_2 = 9.8 and ω_2 = 38.3, close to the model curve for the "orogen" (2). This suggests for Linares, La Carolina and the "peribatholithic" mineralizations a Pb source related to that of the granites. The pre-Tremadoc metasedimentary rocks of the area, with Pb isotopic composition (3) very close to that of feldspars and galenas studied is proposed as a possible source of Pb for both the granites and associated mineralizations, although the Pb isotopic composition of El Zumajo calls for a different origin. The observed difference in Pb isotopic ratios of the studied galenas points to, at least, two ore-forming events: (i) one relating older mineralizations and granitoid intrusives, in agreement with

  6. Spectroscopic measurement of 204Pb isotope shift and 205Pb nuclear spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonberger, P.

    1984-01-01

    The isotope shift of 204 Pb and the nuclear spin of 1.4 X 10 7 -y 205 Pb was determined from a high-resolution optical measurement of the 6p 23 P 0 -6p7s 3 P 1 0 283.3-nm resonance line. The value of the shift, relative to 208 Pb is -140.2(8) x 10 -3 cm -1 , the negative sign indicating a shift to lower wave numbers. The precision is 3-4 times greater than that of previous measurements. The spin of 205 Pb I = 5/2 was obtained from the measurement of the relative intensities of its three hyperfine components. This method of absorption spectroscopy determination of ground state nuclear spin is applicable to any stable or long-lived isotope. High resolution optical absorption spectra were obtained with a 25.4 cm diffraction grating in a 9.1 m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer. A signal-averaging scanning technique was used to record the spectra. Increased precision in the isotope shift measurement was attained by using separated isotope samples of 204 Pb and 207 Pb

  7. High-spin states in the 192Pb and 193Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, J.M.; Pautrat, M.

    1991-01-01

    The 193 Pb and 192 Pb isotopes are produced through the 182 W( 16 O, 5n, 6n) reactions. The de-excitation γ-ray and conversion electron spectra lead to the conversion coefficients for most transitions. With the results of the γ-γ and e - -γ coincidences, the half-lives measured for several states, the angular distribution coefficients for the odd isotope and the transition multipolarities, the data on the 192 Pb level scheme has been much enhanced and the 193 Pb one studied for the first time. The experimental schemes are compared to those given by microscopic calculations, in a two or three quasi-particle approximation using a surface delta interaction with a reduced pairing component. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are attributed to the increasing influence of proton configurations

  8. Precise determination of the neutron scattering length of lead isotopes 204Pb,207Pb and 208Pb by neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A.; Ermakov, O.; Karpikhin, I.; Krupchitsky, P.; Mikula, P.; Lukas, P.; Vrana, M.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron scattering length of lead isotopes 204 Pb, 207 Pb and 208 Pb are determined by a set of neutron interferometry experiments. The obtained values b (208) =9.494(30) fm, b (207) =9.286(16) fm, b (204) =10.893(78) fm have much higher accuracy then current table data. Together with the precise value of b for natural lead, these results represent a complete set of data and allow one to calculate b (206) =9.221(69) fm, which is in the very good agreement with the present day experimental value. (orig.)

  9. Archaeological reconstruction of medieval lead production: Implications for ancient metal provenance studies and paleopollution tracing by Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Sandrine; Le-Carlier, Cecile; Carignan, Jean; Ploquin, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The identification of metal provenance is often based on chemical and Pb isotope analyses of materials from the operating chain, mainly ores and metallic artefacts. Such analyses, however, have their limits. Some studies are unable to trace metallic artefacts or ingots to their ore sources, even in well-constrained archaeological contexts. Possible reasons for this difficulty are to be found among a variety of limiting factors: (i) problems of ore signatures, (ii) mixing of different ores (alloys), (iii) the use of additives during the metallurgical process, (iv) metal recycling and (v) possible Pb isotopic fractionation during metal production. This paper focuses on the issue of Pb isotope fractionation during smelting to address the issue of metal provenance. Through an experimental reconstruction of argentiferous Pb production in the medieval period, an attempt was made to better understand and interpret the Pb isotopic composition of ore smelting products. It is shown that the measured differences (outside the total external uncertainties of 0.005 (2*sd) for 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios) in Pb signatures measured between ores, slag and smoke are not due to Pb mass fractionation processes, but to (1) ore heterogeneity (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb slag-ores = 0.066) and (2) the use of additives during the metallurgical process (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb slag-ores = 0.083). Even if these differences are due to causes (1) and/or (2), smoke from the ore reduction appears to reflect the ore mining area without a significant disturbance of its Pb signature for all the isotopic ratios (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb smokes-ores = 0.026). Thus, because the isotopic heterogeneity of the mining district and additives is averaged in slags, slag appears as the most relevant product to identify ancient metal provenance. Whereas aiming at identifying a given mine seems beyond the possibilities provided by the method, searching for the mining district through analysis of the smelting workshop materials should

  10. Preliminary Report on U-Th-Pb Isotope Systematics of the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions, and trace element abundances.. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible-element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible-element-rich reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there has been a long debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former clearly requires the ancient martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and U-Th-Pb concentration analyses of the olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint because U-Th-Pb isotope systematics have been intensively used as a powerful radiogenic tracer to characterize old crust/sediment components in mantle- derived, terrestrial oceanic island basalts. The U-Th-Pb analyses are applied to sequential acid leaching fractions obtained from Tissint whole-rock powder in order to search for Pb isotopic source components in Tissint magma. Here we report preliminary results of the U-Th-Pb analyses of acid leachates and a residue, and propose the possibility that Tissint would have experienced minor assimilation of old martian crust.

  11. Lead isotopes in tap water: implications for Pb sources within a municipal water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zhongqi; Foland, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Residential tap waters were investigated to examine the feasibility of using isotopic ratios to identify dominant sources of water Pb in the Columbus (Ohio, USA) municipal supply system. Overall, both the concentrations, which are generally low (0.1-28 μg/L), and isotopic compositions of tap water Pb show wide variations. This contrasts with the situation for a limited number of available service lines, which exhibit only a limited Pb-isotope variation but contain Pb of two very different types with one significantly more radiogenic than the other. Most tap water samples in contact with Pb service lines have Pb-isotope ratios that are different from the pipe Pb. Furthermore, the Pb isotope compositions of sequentially drawn samples in the same residence generally are similar, but those from separate residences are different, implying dominant Pb sources from domestic plumbing. A separate pilot study at two residences without Pb service lines shows isotopic similarity between water and solders in each house, further suggesting that the major Pb sources are domestic in these cases and dominated by Pb from solder joints. Although complicated by the broad range of overall Pb-isotope variations observed and limited by sample availability, the results suggest that Pb isotopes can be used effectively to constrain the sources of Pb in tap waters, especially for individual houses where multiple source candidates can be identified

  12. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Laboratory for Isotope Geology; Fayek, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite.

  13. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H.; Fayek, M.

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite

  14. Solubility of hydrogen isotopes in liquid LiPb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Noborio, K.; Calderoni, P.; Merrill, B.

    2014-01-01

    This research was performed mainly in the first half of the task 1-2 of TITAN project to investigate the interaction between hydrogen isotopes and liquid LiPb. Solubility of hydrogen in liquid LiPb was measured under a static condition. Kyoto University provided the first experimental apparatus shipped to Idaho, and Kyushu University succeeded the experiment and further improved. Obtained solubility generally agreed with some previous reports, but varied orders of magnitudes suggesting influence of impurity or other chemical processes. (author)

  15. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, Jens, E-mail: jens@dmu.d [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Elberling, Bo [Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); University Centre in Svalbard, NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned 'Black Angel Mine' in West Greenland in the period 1988-2008. Stable Pb isotope ratios and total Pb concentrations were determined in lichens, seaweed and mussels as well as in marine sediments. The results show that natural background Pb ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb: 0.704-0.767) and Pb originating from the mine ore ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb: 0.955) have distinct isotopic fingerprints. Total Pb in lichens, seaweed, and mussels was measured at values up to 633, 19 and 1536 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively, and is shown to be a mixture of natural Pb and ore-Pb. This enables quantification of mining-related Pb and shows that application of Pb isotope data is a valuable tool for monitoring mining pollution. - Lead isotopes can be used to monitor uptake of mining-related lead in lichens, seaweed and mussels.

  16. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, B.; Echeverría, L. M.

    1984-02-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8 × 2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios ( 206Pb/ 204Pb˜ 19.75 ) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island. Other rock types (komatiites of the east coast, K-tholeiites, picrites and tuffs) have isotopic characteristics intermediate between these two extreme values. These results are explained by the existence of two distinct mantle source regions, and by mixing or contamination between them.

  17. Spectroscopic study of {sup 206,207,208}Pb isotopes by high resolution analysis of 24.5 MeV proton scattering; Etude spectroscopique des isotopes 206, 207 et 208 du plomb par analyse a haute resolution de la diffusion de protons de 24,5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    {sup 206,207,208}pb have been studied by 24.5 MeV proton inelastic scattering with a resolution of 20 keV. The angular distributions of the differential cross-sections corresponding to the different excited levels have been measured in a large angular region and analysed with the DWBA.This work shows that it exists between 4 and 5 MeV of excitation energy some strongly excited levels corresponding to transfer momenta l = 2, 4, 6 and 8. The single particle-hole models do not explain these states; so it will probably be necessary to introduce some several particle - hole configurations. (author) [French] Les isotopes 206, 207 et 208 du plomb ont ete etudies par diffusion inelastique de protons de 24,5 MeV avec une resolution de 20 keV. Les distributions angulaires des sections efficaces differentielles correspondant aux differents niveaux excites ont ete mesurees sur un large domaine angulaire et analysees a l'aide de la DWBA. Ce travail met en evidence l'existence, entre 4 et 5 MeV d'excitation, de niveaux fortement excites correspondant a des moments de transfert de 2, 4, 6 et 8. Les modeles a simple particule-trou ne rendant pas compte de ces niveaux, il faudra sans doute recourir a des configurations a plusieurs particules-trous pour les expliquer. (auteur)

  18. Crustal evolution of granitoids and gneisses from the Cambaizinho belt, southern Brazil: Review zircon Pb-Pb evaporation ages and Pb-Nd-Sr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remus, M.V.D; Macambira, M.B; Hartmann, L.A.; Beilfuss, M

    2001-01-01

    Deformed granitoids and gneisses from the Cambai Complex (900-700 Ma) along Cambaizinho Creek and in the Vila Nova do Sul region, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were formed in a remarkably short time, about 10 m.y., between 704±13 and 697±3 Ma. The data base of this work includes eighteen zircon Pb/Pb evaporation analyses, five Pb isotope in feldspar and whole rock. The oldest known rocks in the region are polydeformed dioritic gneisses dated by conventional U-Pb zircon at 704±13 Ma. New Pb-Pb zircon evaporation data on the late transcurrent, less deformed and more evolved granitoids (Sanga do Jobim Granitoids) yield a 697± Ma age and indicates that the evolution of the plutonic magmatism in the area was nearly contemporaneous. These data contrast with previous interpretations based on Rb-Sr data which considered that these rock associations were formed during a longer time period (700-640 Ma). All these granitoids intruded the supracrustal sequence. These granitoids yield a minimum age of about 700 Ma for the formation of the supracrustal sequence and its regional dynamothermal metamorphism. Lead isotope composition of K-feldspar from Sanga do Jobim Granitoids plot close to, but slightly below the lead isotope evolution curve of orogeny in the Zartmann and Doe model (1981). This indicates that the setting for these granitoids was that of a juvenile magmatic arc. These new data plus previous data in the region also corroborate that the crustal evolution involved juvenile crust accreted between 760-700 Ma. In contrast, the Cacapava and Sao Sepe Granites intruded the supracrustal sequences along the eastern side of the Sao Gabriel Block at 562 Ma and 550 Ma, respectively, and show Pb and Nd isotope signatures from an old basement. This evidence suggests that the juvenile terrane was thrusted over the older basement situated along the eastern part of the shield during the Dom Feliciano collisional orogeny at about 620-590 Ma (au)

  19. Characterization of a new candidate isotopic reference material for natural Pb using primary measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonose, Naoko; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Miura, Tsutomu; Hioki, Akiharu

    2017-06-29

    A lead isotopic standard solution with natural abundance has been developed by applying a mixture of a solution of enriched 208 Pb and a solution of enriched 204 Pb ( 208 Pb- 204 Pb double spike solution) as bracketing method. The amount-of-substance ratio of 208 Pb: 204 Pb in this solution is accurately measured by applying EDTA titrimetry, which is one of the primary measurement methods, to each enriched Pb isotope solution. Also metal impurities affecting EDTA titration and minor lead isotopes contained in each enriched Pb isotope solution are quantified by ICP-SF-MS. The amount-of-substance ratio of 208 Pb: 204 Pb in the 208 Pb- 204 Pb double spike solution is 0.961959 ± 0.000056 (combined standard uncertainty; k = 1). Both the measurement of lead isotope ratios in a candidate isotopic standard solution and the correction of mass discrimination in MC-ICP-MS are carried out by coupling of a bracketing method with the 208 Pb- 204 Pb double spike solution and a thallium internal addition method, where thallium solution is added to the standard and the sample. The measured lead isotope ratios and their expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in the candidate isotopic standard solution are 18.0900 ± 0.0046 for 206 Pb: 204 Pb, 15.6278 ± 0.0036 for 207 Pb: 204 Pb, 38.0626 ± 0.0089 for 208 Pb: 204 Pb, 2.104406 ± 0.00013 for 208 Pb: 206 Pb, and 0.863888 ± 0.000036 for 207 Pb: 206 Pb. The expanded uncertainties are about one half of the stated uncertainty for NIST SRM 981, for 208 Pb: 204 Pb, 207 Pb: 204 Pb and 206 Pb: 204 Pb, or one eighth, for 208 Pb: 206 Pb and 207 Pb: 206 Pb, The combined uncertainty consists of the uncertainties due to lead isotope ratio measurements and the remaining time-drift effect of mass discrimination in MC-ICP-MS, which is not removed by the coupled correction method. In the measurement of 208 Pb: 204 Pb, 207 Pb: 204 Pb and 206 Pb: 204 Pb, the latter contribution is two or three times larger than the former. When the coupling of

  20. Tracing the recently increasing anthropogenic Pb inputs into the East China Sea shelf sediments using Pb isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Deli; Zhao, Zhiqi; Dai, Minhan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithogenic Pb dominated in the ECS shelf sediments. • Small but increasing anthropogenic Pb occurred in the ECS shelf sediments. • HCl-leachated Pb suggested a source from “polluted” coastal sediments. • Residual Pb was mainly contributed from the “pristine” upper Yangtze watershed. - Abstract: This study examined the Pb content and Pb isotopic composition in a sediment core taken from the East China Sea (ECS) shelf, and it was observed that since 2003 the increasing anthropogenic Pb inputs have impacted as far as the ECS shelf sediments. The ECS shelf sediments were generally characterized with low bulk Pb contents (12.5–15.0 μg/g) and relatively lithogenic Pb isotopic signatures (both HCl-leached and residual fractions). However, elevated Pb records along with lighter Pb isotopic signals have occurred in the post-2003 sediments, as a result of a small but increasing anthropogenic Pb contribution from the heavily human perturbed coastal sediments due to the sharply increasing coal consumption in mainland China since 2003

  1. Lithologically inherited variation in Pb isotope ratios in sedimentary soils in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the lithologically inherited variation in present day Pb isotope ratios in soils is remarkably limited. Such information is essential to determine the anthropogenic Pb fraction and anthropogenic Pb sources in Pb-polluted soils. This study presents results of a survey of subsoil samples

  2. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-10

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown ( Rattus norvegicus , n = 43) and black ( R. rattus , n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  3. Pb concentrations and isotope ratios of soil O and C horizons in Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway: Anthropogenic or natural sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, C.; Fabian, K.; Flem, B.; Schilling, J.; Roberts, D.; Englmaier, P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil O and C horizon samples (N = 752) were collected at a sample density of 1 site/36 km"2 in Nord-Trøndelag and parts of Sør-Trøndelag (c. 25,000 km"2), and analysed for Pb and three of the four naturally occurring Pb isotopes ("2"0"6Pb, "2"0"7Pb and "2"0"8Pb) in a HNO_3/HCl extraction. Soil O and C horizons are decoupled in terms of both Pb concentrations and Pb isotope ratios. In the soil C horizon the Grong-Olden Culmination, a continuous exposure of the Precambrian crystalline basement across the general grain of the Caledonian orogen, is marked by a distinct "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio anomaly. No clear regional or even local patterns are detected when mapping the Pb isotope ratios in the soil O horizon samples. Variation in the isotope ratios declines significantly from the soil C to the O horizon. On average, Pb concentrations in the O horizon are four times higher and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is shifted towards a median of 1.15 in comparison to 1.27 in the C horizon. It is demonstrated that natural processes like weathering in combination with plant uptake need to be taken into account in order to distinguish anthropogenic input from natural influences on Pb concentration and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio in the soil O horizon. - Highlights: • Lead concentrations are on average higher by a factor of 4 in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is considerably lower in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The observed shifts are in conflict with exclusive anthropogenic input of Pb. • The hypothesis of natural Pb-isotope invariance can not be hold.

  4. Tracing the origin of Pb using stable Pb isotopes in surface sediments along the Korean Yellow Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Choi, Man-Sik; Song, Yunho; Lim, Dhong-Il

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the factors controlling lead (Pb) concentration and identify the sources of Pb in Yellow Sea sediments along the Korean coast, the concentration of Pb and Pb isotopes in 87 surface and 6 core sediment samples were analyzed. The 1 M HCl leached Pb concentrations had a similar geographic distribution to those of fine-grained sediments, while the distribution of residual Pb concentrations resembled that of coarse-grained sediments. Leached Pb was presumed to be associated with manganese (Mn) oxide and iron (Fe) oxy/hydroxide, while residual Pb was associated with potassium (K)-feldspar, based on good linear relationships between the leached Pb and the Fe/Mn concentrations, and the residual Pb and K concentrations. Based on a ratio-ratio plot with three isotopes (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) and the geographic location of each sediment, sediments were categorized into two groups of samples as group1 and group2. Group 1 sediments, which were distributed in Gyeonggi Bay and offshore (north of 36.5°N), were determined to be a mixture of anthropogenic and natural Pb originating from the Han River, based on a 208Pb/206Pb against a Cs/Pbleached mixing plot of core and surface sediments. Group 2 sediments, which were distributed in the south of 36.5°N, also showed a two endmembers mixing relationship between materials from the Geum River and offshore materials, which had very different Pb concentrations and isotope ratios. Based on the isotopes and their concentrations in core and surface sediments, this mixing relationship was interpreted as materials from two geographically different origins being mixed, rather than anthropogenic or natural mixing of materials with the same origin. Therefore, the relative percentage of materials supplied from the Geum River was calculated using a two endmembers mixing model and estimated to be as much as about 50% at 35°N. The spatial distribution of materials derived from the Geum River represented that of fine

  5. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): Isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, B.; Echeverria, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8x2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pbproportional19.75) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island. Other rock types (komatiites of the east coast, K-tholeiites, picrites and tuffs) have isotopic characteristics intermediate between these two extreme values. These results are explained by the existence of two distinct mantle sourbe regions, and by mixing or contamination between them. (orig.)

  6. Heavy metal input to agricultural soils from irrigation with treated wastewater: Insight from Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Cary, Lise; Psarras, Georgios; Surdyk, Nicolas; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Pettenati, Marie; Maton, Laure

    2010-05-01

    A major objective of the EU FP6 project SAFIR was to overcome certain drawbacks of wastewater reuse through the development of a new irrigation technology combining small-scale modular water treatment plants on farm level and improved irrigation hardware, in the aim to lower the risks related to low quality water and to increase water use efficiency. This innovative technology was tested in several hydro-climatic contexts (Crete, Italy, Serbia, China) on experimental irrigated tomato and potato fields. Here we present the heavy metal variations in soil after medium-term (3 irrigation seasons from 2006-2008) use of treated municipal wastewater with a special focus on lead and lead isotope signatures. The experimental site is located in Chania, Crete. A matrix of plots were irrigated, combining different water qualities (secondary, primary treated wastewater, tap water, partially spiked with heavy metals, going through newly developed tertiary treatment systems) with different irrigation strategies (surface and subsurface drip irrigation combined with full irrigation and partial root drying). In order to assess small scale heavy metal distribution around a drip emitter, Pb isotope tracing was used, combined with selective extraction. The sampling for Pb isotope fingerprinting was performed after the 3rd season of ww-irrigation on a lateral profile from a drip irrigator (half distance between drip lines, i.e. 50cm) and three depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm). These samples were lixiviated through a 3 step selective extraction procedure giving rise to the bio-accessible, mobile and residual fraction: CaCl2/NaNO3 (bio-accessible fraction), DPTA (mobile fraction), total acid attack (residual fraction). Those samples were analysed for trace elements (including heavy metals) and major inorganic compounds by ICP-MS. The extracted fractions were then analysed by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for their lead isotope fingerprints (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb

  7. Age relationships from U-Th-Pb isotope studies of uranium mineralization in Wernecke breccias, Yukon Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, A.

    1986-01-01

    Pb-U ± Th isotope analyses for 17 specimens of uraniferous breccia from the northeastern Wernecke Mountains reveal several apparent ages for mineralization. The oldest date, 1194 Ma, reflects either initial emplacement of the breccias or their modification by effects of the Rackla of Rapitan (Windermere) thick clastic wedges and iron formation. The 510 Ma date reflects mid-Cambrian mineralization roughly coincident with regional uplift (and attendant karstification) and development of thick clastic wedges. This was also an important period for Pb-Zn mineralization. Younger dates resulted from continuing remobilization, and all isotopic ages for mineralized breccia reflect movements associated with the Richardson Fault array

  8. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  9. Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on mantle sources and crustal contaminants in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Thirlwall, Matthew F.

    2015-01-01

    The presented Sr, Nd, Hf and double-spike Pb-isotopic analyses of Quaternary basalts from the Payenia volcanic province in southern Mendoza, Argentina, confirm the presence of two distinct mantle types feeding the Payenia volcanism. The southern Payenia mantle source feeding the intraplate-type Río...

  10. Stable lead isotopic analyses of historic and contemporary lead contamination of San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, P.I.; Bouse, R.M.; Flegal, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in stable lead isotopic composition (240Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in three sediment cores from the San Francisco Bay estuary document temporal changes in sources of lead during the past two centuries. Sediment, with lead from natural geologic sources, and relatively homogeneous lead isotopic compositions are overlain by sediments whose isotopic compositions indicate change in the sources of lead associated with anthropogenic modification of the estuary. The first perturbations of lead isotopic composition in the cores occur in the late 1800s concordant with the beginning of industrialization around the estuary. Large isotopic shifts, toward lower 206Pb/207Pb, occur after the turn of the century in both Richardson and San Pablo Bays. A similar relationship among lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations in both Bays suggest contamination from the same source (a lead smelter). The uppermost sediments (post 1980) of all cores also have a relatively homogenous lead isotopic composition distinct from pre-anthropogenic and recent aerosol signatures. Lead isotopic compositions of leachates from fourteen surface sediments and five marsh samples from the estuary were also analyzed. These analyses suggest that the lead isotopic signature identified in the upper horizons of the cores is spatially homogeneous among recently deposited sediments throughout the estuary. Current aerosol lead isotopic compositions [Smith, D.R., Niemeyer, S., Flegal, A.R., 1992. Lead sources to California sea otters: industrial inputs circumvent natural lead biodepletion mechanisms. Environmental Research 57, 163-175] are distinct from the isotopic compositions of the surface sediments, suggesting that the major source of lead is cycling of historically contaminated sediments back through the water column. Both the upper core sediments and surface sediments apparently derive their lead predominantly from sources internal to the estuary. These results support the idea that

  11. Geochemistry, Nd-Pb Isotopes, and Pb-Pb Ages of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge Iron Oxide-Apatite–Rare Earth Element Deposit, Southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Slack, John F.; Day, Warren C.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits occur within ~1.48 to 1.47 Ga volcanic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane near a regional boundary separating crustal blocks having contrasting depleted-mantle Sm-Nd model ages (TDM). Major and trace element analyses and Nd and Pb isotope data were obtained to characterize the Pea Ridge deposit, improve identification of exploration targets, and better understand the regional distribution of mineralization with respect to crustal blocks. The Pea Ridge deposit is spatially associated with felsic volcanic rocks and plutons. Mafic to intermediate-composition rocks are volumetrically minor. Data for major element variations are commonly scattered and strongly suggest element mobility. Ratios of relatively immobile elements indicate that the felsic rocks are evolved subalkaline dacite and rhyolite; the mafic rocks are basalt to basaltic andesite. Granites and rhyolites display geochemical features typical of rocks produced by subduction. Rare earth element (REE) variations for the rhyolites are diagnostic of rocks affected by hydrothermal alteration and associated REE mineralization. The magnetite-rich rocks and REE-rich breccias show similar REE and mantle-normalized trace element patterns.Nd isotope compositions (age corrected) show that: (1) host rhyolites have ɛNd from 3.44 to 4.25 and TDM from 1.51 to 1.59 Ga; (2) magnetite ore and specular hematite rocks display ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.21 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga, and ɛNd from 2.23 to 2.81, respectively; (3) REE-rich breccias have ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.11 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga; and (4) mafic to intermediate-composition rocks range in ɛNd from 2.35 to 3.66 and in TDM from 1.66 to 1.56. The ɛNd values of the magnetite and specular hematite samples show that the REE mineralization is magmatic; no evidence exists for major overprinting by younger, crustal meteoric fluids, or by externally derived Nd. Host rocks, breccias, and

  12. Heavy metal and Pb isotopic compositions of aquatic organisms in the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, C.C.M.; Li, X.D.; Zhang, G.; Wong, C.S.C.; Zhang, W.L.

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of trace metals in aquatic organisms may lead to serious health problems through the food chain. The present research project aims to study the accumulation and potential sources of trace metals in aquatic organisms of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Four groups of aquatic organisms, including fish, crab, shrimp, and shellfish, were collected in the PRE for trace metal and Pb isotopic analyses. The trace metal concentrations in the aquatic organism samples ranged from 0.01 to 2.10 mg/kg Cd, 0.02 to 4.33 mg/kg Co, 0.08 to 4.27 mg/kg Cr, 0.15 to 77.8 mg/kg Cu, 0.17 to 31.0 mg/kg Ni, 0.04 to 30.7 mg/kg Pb, and 8.78 to 86.3 mg/kg Zn (wet weight). High concentrations of Cd were found in crab, shrimp and shellfish samples, while high concentration of Pb was found in fish. In comparison with the baseline reference values in other parts of the world, fish in the PRE had the highest elevated trace metals. The results of Pb isotopic compositions indicated that the bioaccumulation of Pb in fish come from a wide variety of food sources and/or exposure pathways, particularly the anthropogenic inputs. - Relative high concentrations of Cd were found in crab, shrimp and shellfish samples while high concentration of Pb was found in fish, particularly from the anthropogenic inputs

  13. Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Eizo

    1990-01-01

    New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples. The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer. Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Here we present new reliable lead isotope compositions of GSJ standard rock samples and USGS standard rock, BCR-1. (author)

  14. The Pb isotopic record of historical to modern human lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gulson, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Human teeth and bones incorporate trace amounts of lead (Pb) from the local environment during growth and remodeling. Anthropogenic activities have caused changes in the natural Pb isotopic background since historical times and this is reflected in the Pb isotopes of historical European teeth. Lead mining and use increased exponentially during the last century and the isotopic compositions of modern human teeth reflect the modern anthropogenic Pb. USA teeth show the most radiogenic Pb and Australian teeth show the least radiogenic Pb, a result of different Pb ores used in the two regions. During the last century the Australian Pb was exported to Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa, resulting in swamping of the local environmental Pb signal by the imported Pb. As a result, the modern human teeth in Europe show a significant drop to lower isotopic values compared with historical times. Similarly, modern human teeth in other regions of the world show similar Pb isotopic ratios to modern European teeth reflecting the Pb imports. The specific pattern of human Pb exposure allows us to use the Pb isotopic signal recorded in the skeleton as a geo-referencing tool. As historical European teeth show a distinct Pb signal, we can identify early European skeletal remains in the New World and likely elsewhere. In modern forensic investigations we can discriminate to some extent Eastern Europeans from Western and Northern Europeans. Australians can be identified to some extent in any region in the world, although there is some overlap with Western European individuals. Lead isotopes can be used to easily identify foreigners in the USA, as modern USA teeth are distinct from any other region of the world. By analogy, USA individuals can be identified virtually in any other region of the world. - Highlights: • We present high-precision Pb isotope data for historical and modern human teeth. • Human teeth reflect human Pb exposure since historical times. • Modern teeth show

  15. The Pb isotopic record of historical to modern human lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenov, George D., E-mail: kamenov@ufl.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gulson, Brian L. [Graduate School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Human teeth and bones incorporate trace amounts of lead (Pb) from the local environment during growth and remodeling. Anthropogenic activities have caused changes in the natural Pb isotopic background since historical times and this is reflected in the Pb isotopes of historical European teeth. Lead mining and use increased exponentially during the last century and the isotopic compositions of modern human teeth reflect the modern anthropogenic Pb. USA teeth show the most radiogenic Pb and Australian teeth show the least radiogenic Pb, a result of different Pb ores used in the two regions. During the last century the Australian Pb was exported to Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa, resulting in swamping of the local environmental Pb signal by the imported Pb. As a result, the modern human teeth in Europe show a significant drop to lower isotopic values compared with historical times. Similarly, modern human teeth in other regions of the world show similar Pb isotopic ratios to modern European teeth reflecting the Pb imports. The specific pattern of human Pb exposure allows us to use the Pb isotopic signal recorded in the skeleton as a geo-referencing tool. As historical European teeth show a distinct Pb signal, we can identify early European skeletal remains in the New World and likely elsewhere. In modern forensic investigations we can discriminate to some extent Eastern Europeans from Western and Northern Europeans. Australians can be identified to some extent in any region in the world, although there is some overlap with Western European individuals. Lead isotopes can be used to easily identify foreigners in the USA, as modern USA teeth are distinct from any other region of the world. By analogy, USA individuals can be identified virtually in any other region of the world. - Highlights: • We present high-precision Pb isotope data for historical and modern human teeth. • Human teeth reflect human Pb exposure since historical times. • Modern teeth show

  16. Lead (Pb) isotopic fingerprinting and its applications in lead pollution studies in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-05-01

    As the most widely scattered toxic metal in the world, the sources of lead (Pb) observed in contamination investigation are often difficult to identify. This review presents an overview of the principles, analysis, and applications of Pb isotopic fingerprinting in tracing the origins and transport pathways of Pb in the environment. It also summarizes the history and current status of lead pollution in China, and illustrates the power of Pb isotopic fingerprinting with examples of its recent applications in investigating the effectiveness of leaded gasoline phase-out on atmospheric lead pollution, and the sources of Pb found in various environmental media (plants, sediments, and aquatic organisms) in China. The limitations of Pb isotopic fingerprinting technique are discussed and a perspective on its development is also presented. Further methodological developments and more widespread instrument availability are expected to make isotopic fingerprinting one of the key tools in lead pollution investigation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isotopic composition of Pb and Th in interplinian volcanics from Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortini, M.; De Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; Holden, P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed isotopic study of volcanic rocks emitted from Somma-Vesuvius volcano during three periods of interplinian activity: 'Protohistoric' (3550 y B.P. to 79 A.D.), 'Ancient Historic' (79 to 472 A.D.) and 'Medieval' (472 to 1631 A.D.). Pb isotopic compositions of two acid leached fractions and whole rock residues of 37 whole rock samples (determined by Somma et al., 2001) show that each of the three interplinian periods is distinguished by small, systematic, and unique uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotopic trends. This key and novel feature is compatible with the notion that the Pb isotopic data reflect small-scale source heterogeneity operating over relatively short periods of time. From this representative group of samples, a selected set of nine whole rocks were analyzed for Th isotopes. 232 Th/ 238 U ratios in the source can be obtained independently from Pb and from Th isotopes. Those obtained from Pb isotopes represent source ratios, time-integrated over the whole age of the earth; they range from 3.9 to 4.1. 232 Th/ 238 U obtained from Th isotopes are those of the present source. They are lower, and cluster around 3.5; this difference probably indicates recent U enrichment of the present source. The behavior of Pb, as inferred by its isotopic ratios, is quite distinct from that of Sr and Nd isotopes: Pb isotope variations are not correlated to Sr or Nd isotope variations. The isotopic contrast is compatible with the idea that the isotopes were decoupled during magmatic production, evolution, and ascent through the crust. Thus, the Pb isotopes do not reflect the effects of the same processes as in the case of the Sr and Nd isotopes, or, as we also favor, they do not necessarily reflect the same source contributions into the magmas. Moreover, the Pb isotopic evolution of the interplinian rocks chiefly reflects mixing, driven by processes that are superimposed on, and independent of, other source contributions that determine the isotopic

  18. Common Pb isotope mapping of UHP metamorphic zones in Dabie orogen, Central China: Implication for Pb isotopic structure of subducted continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji; Wang, Ying; Li, Shu-Guang

    2014-10-01

    We report Pb isotopic compositions for feldspars separated from 57 orthogneisses and 2 paragneisses from three exhumed UHPM slices representing the North Dabie zone, the Central Dabie zone and the South Dabie zone of the Dabie orogen, central-east China. The feldspars from the gneisses were recrystallized during Triassic continental subduction and UHP metamorphism. Precursors of the orthogneisses are products of Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatic events, those in north Dabie zone emplaced into the lower crust and those in central and south Dabie zones into middle or upper crust, respectively. On a 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram, almost all orthogneisses data lie to the left of the 0.23 Ga paleogeochron and plot along the model mantle evolution curve with the major portion of the data plotting below it. On a 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram the most of data of north Dabie zone extend in elongate arrays along the lower crustal curve and others extend between the lower crustal curve to near the mantle evolution curve for the plumbotectonics model. This pattern demonstrates that the Pb isotopic evolution of the feldspars essentially ended at 0.23 Ga and the orthogneiss protoliths were principally dominated by reworking of ancient lower crust with some addition of juvenile mantle in the Neoproterozoic rifting tectonic zone. According to geological evolution history of the locally Dabie orogen, a four-stage Pb isotope evolution model including a long time evolution between 2.0 and 0.8 Ga with a lower crust type U/Pb ratio (μ = 5-6) suggests that magmatic emplacement levels of the protoliths of the orthogneisses in the Dabie orogen at 0.8 Ga also play an important role in the Pb evolution of the exhumed UHPM slices, corresponding to their respective Pb characters at ca. 0.8-0.23 Ga. For example, north Dabie zone requires low μ values (3.4-9.6), while central and south Dabie zones require high μ values (10.9-17.2). On the other hand, Pb isotopic mixing between

  19. Monopole Effect on Isotopes in Sn and Pb Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KHITER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. When going toward in description of neutron-rich nuclei, the monopole field plays a determining role in the properties of the quasiparticle states and their interactions. Detailed theoretical in shell model calculations of the characteristics of the neutron-rich isotopes in 132Sn and 208Pb regions are performed using the monopole hamiltonien effect. Some modification mentioned in literatures of effectives interactions are introduced for evaluated the effective single-particle energies. Their effect show a successful and consistent description of excitation energies spectra of these nuclei.Keywords:Nuclear Structure, Monopole Hamiltonian, Odd-Odd Nuclei,Three body Effects, Similarity, 21.60.Cs; 27.60. +j; 21.30.Fe

  20. Pb isotopic composition of the atmosphere of the Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and isotopic characterization of some pollutant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aily, C.; Babinski, M.; Ruiz, I.R.; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Lead isotopes are known to be good tools for surveying lead origin in atmospheric samples (Chow et al., 1975). Lead has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb and 204 Pb. The first three isotopes are end products of radioactive decay chains from 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, respectively, and the last one is non-radiogenic. Therefore, their abundance and the ratios among the four isotopes gradually change with time. Lead in the atmosphere comes from various sources, such as leaded gasoline, industrial emissions and coal combustion. Thus, lead isotope ratios different from those of the mother rock in the region are often observed in the atmosphere (Tatsumoto and Patterson, 1963). Lead is emitted to the atmosphere in fine particles, which can be transported within air masses for very long distances, e. g. from mid latitude regions to the Artic and Antarctica (Sturges and Barrie, 1989). Lead isotopes have been used to trace the pollutant sources in many cities of the world. However, a systematic study using this methodology has not been done in any Brazilian city. The main purpose of the present work is to characterize the Pb isotope composition in the atmosphere in Sao Paulo city, and suggest the possible pollutant sources. For our study lead isotopes were measured in different samples: aerosols and rainwater which would yield the Pb isotope composition of the atmosphere. Samples of gasoline and ethanol, gutter sweepings, soot from vehicle exhaust pipes, and filters containing particulate material from industrial emissions were also analyzed, since they were considered potential pollutant sources of the atmosphere. In order to obtain the local geogenic Pb isotopic composition we also analyzed rock and K-feldspar samples. Lead concentrations were only determined on aerosols and rainwater samples (au)

  1. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  2. Lead exposure in raptors from Japan and source identification using Pb stable isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Chihiro; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakata, Hokuto; Saito, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Hayashi, Terutake; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-11-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning is widespread among raptors and water birds. In Japan, fragments of Pb ammunition are still found in endangered eagles although more than 10 years have passed since legislation regarding use of Pb ammunition was introduced. This study was performed to investigate Pb exposure in raptors from various locations in Japan. We measured hepatic and renal Pb concentrations and hepatic Pb isotope ratios of Steller's sea eagles (Haliaeetus pelagicus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and 13 other species (total 177 individuals) that were found dead, as well as blood samples from three eagles found in a weakened state during 1993-2015 from Hokkaido (northern part), Honshu (the main island), and Shikoku (a southern island) of Japan. In the present study in Hokkaido, one quarter of the sea eagles showed a high Pb concentration, suggesting exposure to abnormally high Pb levels and Pb poisoning. Pb isotope ratios indicated that endangered Steller's sea eagle and white-tailed sea eagle were poisoned by Pb ammunition that was used illegally in Hokkaido. In other areas of Japan, both surveillance and regulations were less extensive than in Hokkaido, but Pb poisoning in raptors was also noted. Therefore, Pb poisoning is still a serious problem in raptors in various areas of Japan due to accidental ingestion of materials containing Pb, especially Pb ammunition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Isotope exchange between natural and anthropogenic Pb in the coastal waters of Singapore: exchange experiment, Kd model, and implications for the interpretation of coastal 210Pb data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E. A.; Chen, M.; Zurbrick, C.; Carrasco, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from annually-banded corals and seawater samples show that marine lead (Pb) in the coastal waters of Singapore has an isotopic composition that does not match that of the anthropogenic aerosols in this region, unlike what is seen in most parts of the open ocean. The 206Pb/207Pb composition of Singaporean marine Pb is 1.18-1.20 whereas the local aerosols are 1.14-1.16. In order to explore this discrepancy further, we collected a large volume water from the Johor River estuary (flowing from Malaysia to the northern border of Singapore), added a distinct isotope spike (NBS981, 206Pb/207Pb =1.093) to an unfiltered sample, and followed the dissolved isotope composition of the mixture during the following two months. The initial dissolved Pb concentration was 18.3 pmol/kg with 206Pb/207Pb of 1.200. "Total dissolvable" Pb released after acidification of the in the unfiltered sample was 373 pmol/kg with 206Pb/207Pb of 1.199, indicating that there is a large particulate Pb reservoir with an isotopic composition comparable to regional crustal natural Pb. The isotope spike should have brought the dissolved 206Pb/207Pb to 1.162, but less than a day after isotope spiking, the dissolved Pb had risen to 1.181 and continued a slow increase to 1.197 over the next two months. This experiment demonstrates that Johor estuary particulate matter contains a large reservoir of exchangeable Pb that will modify the isotopic composition of deposited aeolian aerosol anthropogenic Pb. We have modeled the evolution of Pb and Pb isotopes in this experiment with a single Kd -type model that assumes that there are two or three different Pb reservoirs with different exchange time constants. This observation has implications for isotope equilibrium between high Pb/210Pb continental particles and low Pb/210Pb ocean waters - what is merely isotope equilibration may appear to be 210Pb scavenging.

  4. Lead and stable Pb-isotope characteristics of tropical soils in north-eastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schucknecht, Anne; Matschullat, Jörg; Reimann, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Stable Pb-isotope ratios are widely used as tracers for Pb-sources in the environment. Recently, a few publications have challenged the predominating view of environmental applications of Pb-isotopes. Present applications of Pb-isotopic tracers in soils largely represent the northern hemisphere. This study focuses on tropical soils from Paraíba, north-eastern Brazil. Lead concentrations and Pb-isotopic signatures (both 7N HNO 3 ) were determined at 30 sites along a 327 km E–W-transect, from the Atlantic coast at João Pessoa to some kilometers west of Patos, to identify possible processes for the observed (and anticipated) distribution pattern. Thirty samples each of litter (ORG) and top mineral soil (TOP) were taken on pasture land at suitable distance from roads or other potential contamination sources. Lead-content was determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and the ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb by ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Both sample materials show similarly low Pb-concentrations with a lower median in the ORG samples (ORG 3.4 mg kg −1 versus TOP 6.9 mg kg −1 ). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios revealed a large spread along the transect with median 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios of 1.160 (ORG) and 1.175 (TOP). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios differ noticeably between sample sites located in the Atlantic Forest biome along the coast and sample sites in the inland Caatinga biome. The “forest” sites were characterised by a significant lower median and a lower spread in the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb ratios compared to the Caatinga sites. Results indicate a very restricted influence of anthropogenic activities (individual sites only). The main process influencing the spatial variability of Pb-isotope ratios is supposed to be precipitation-dependent bioproductivity and weathering.

  5. Geochemical and Pb isotopic evidence for sources and dispersal of metal contamination in stream sediments from the mining and smelting district of Pribram, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej; Molek, Michael; Grygar, Tomas; Zeman, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Stream sediments from the mining and smelting district of Pribram, Czech Republic, were studied to determine the degree, sources and dispersal of metal contamination using a combination of bulk metal and mineralogical determinations, sequential extractions and Pb isotopic analyses. The highest metal concentrations were found 3-4 km downstream from the main polymetallic mining site (9800 mg Pb kg -1 , 26 039 mg Zn kg -1 , 316.4 mg Cd kg -1 , 256.9 mg Cu kg -1 ). The calculated enrichment factors (EFs) confirmed the extreme degree of contamination by Pb, Zn and Cd (EF > 40). Lead, Zn and Cd are bound mainly to Fe oxides and hydroxides. In the most contaminated samples Pb is also present as Pb carbonates and litharge (PbO). Lead isotopic analysis indicates that the predominant source of stream sediment contamination is historic Pb-Ag mining and primary Pb smelting ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.16), while the role of secondary smelting (car battery processing) is negligible. - Pb isotopes properly complete traditional investigations of metal sources and dispersal in contaminated stream sediments

  6. Lead Isotopic Compositions of Selected Coals, Pb/Zn Ores and Fuels in China and the Application for Source Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiang-Yang; Li, Zhong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Rui; Liu, Jin-Ling; Yang, Hong-Mei; Guo, Ming-Zhi

    2017-11-21

    Lead (Pb) pollution emission from China is becoming a potential worldwide threat. Pb isotopic composition analysis is a useful tool to accurately trace the Pb sources of aerosols in atmosphere. In this study, a comprehensive data set of Pb isotopes for coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels from China was presented. The ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb in the coals were in the range of 1.114-1.383 and 1.791-2.317, similar to those from Europe, Oceania, and South Asia, but different from those from America (p fuels from in coals. Urban aerosols demonstrated similar Pb isotopic compositions to coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels in China. After removing the leaded gasoline, the Pb in aerosols is more radiogenic, supporting the heavy contribution of coal combustion to the atmospheric Pb pollution.

  7. Multi-element isotope dilution analyses using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Presently, 37 elements ranging from light (Li,B) through transition metals, noble, rare earth and heavy elements, to actinides and transuranics (Pu, Am, Cm) are measured by isotope dilution at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Projects range from geological and hydrological to biological. The research goal is to measure accurately many elements present in diverse matrices at trace (ppb) levels using isotope dilution methods. Major advantages of isotope dilution methods are accuracy, elimination of ion intensity calibration, and quantitation for samples that require chemical separation. Accuracy depends on tracer isotope calibration, tracer-sample isotopic equilibration, and appropriate background, isobaric and mass bias corrections. Propagation of isotope ratio error due to improper tracer isotope addition is a major concern with multi-element analyses when abundances vary widely. 11 refs., 3 figs

  8. High-precision Pb isotopic measurements of teeth and environmental samples from Sofia (Bulgaria): insights for regional lead sources and possible pathways to the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.

    2008-08-01

    High-precision Pb isotopic measurements on teeth and possible sources in a given area can provide important insights for the lead (Pb) sources and pathways in the human body. Pb isotopic analyses on soils from the area of Sofia, Bulgaria show that Pb is contributed by three end-members represented by two natural sources and leaded gasoline. Sequential leaching experiments reveal that the alumosilicate fraction of the soils is mainly controlled by natural Pb derived from two mountain massifs bordering the city. Around 1/3 to a half of the Pb in the soil leachates, however, can be explained by contamination from leaded gasoline. Contemporary teeth from Sofia residents show very similar Pb isotopic compositions to the soil leachates, also indicating that around 1/3 to a half of the Pb can be explained by derivation from leaded gasoline. The remarkable isotopic similarities between the teeth and the most labile fractions of the local soils suggest that the lead can be derived from the latter. Pb incorporation in the human body via soil-plant-human or soil-plant-animal-human chains is unlikely due to the fact that no significant farming occurs in the city area. The isotopic compositions of the local soil labile fractions can be used as approximation of the bioaccessible lead for humans. Considering all possible scenarios it appears that soil and/or soil-born dust inhalation and/or ingestion is the most probable pathway for incorporation of local soil lead in the local population. The high-precision Pb isotope data presented in this work indicate that apparently the local soil is what plays major role in the human Pb exposure.

  9. Pb and Sr isotopic compositions of ancient pottery: a method to discriminate production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xun; Chen Jiangfeng; Ma Lin; He Jianfeng; Wang Changsui; Qiu Ping

    2004-01-01

    The discriminating of production sites of ancient pottery samples using multi-isotopic systematics was described. Previous work has proven that Pb isotopic ratios can be used for discriminating the production sites of ancient pottery under certain conditions. The present work suggests that although Nd isotopic ratios are not sensitive to the production sites of ancient pottery, Sr isotopic ratios are important for the purpose. Pb isotopic ratios are indistinguishable for the pottery excavated from the Jiahu relict, Wuyang, Henan Province and for famous Qin Terra-cotta Figures. But, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the former (about 0.715) are significantly lower than that of the latter (0.717-0.718). The authors concluded that a combined use of Pb and Sr isotopes would be a more powerful method for discriminating the production site of ancient pottery. (authors)

  10. Variations of Pb in a mine-impacted tropical river, Taxco, Mexico: Use of geochemical, isotopic and statistical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F. [Unidad de Quimica en Sisal, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Sisal 97355 (Mexico)], E-mail: arcega@icmyl.unam.mx; Armienta, M.A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Daessle, L.W. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Ensenada 22870 (Mexico); Castillo-Blum, S.E. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Talavera, O. [Escuela de Ciencias de la Tierra, UAG, Taxco Viejo 40201 (Mexico); Dotor, A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    The potential environmental threat from Pb in Mexican rivers impacted by historic mining activities was studied using geochemical, isotopic and statistical methods. Lead geochemical fractionation and factor analysis of fractionated and total Pb indicate that anthropogenic sources have contributed significantly to Pb concentrations, while natural sources have contributed only small amounts. The analyses also indicate that two main processes are controlling the total Pb variation throughout the year in both rivers: erosion with discharge processes, and proportional dilution related to differences in grain-size distribution processes. Bio-available Pb in riverbed sediments was greater than 50% in 80% of the sampling stations indicating a high potential environmental risk, according to the risk assessment criteria (RAC). Nevertheless, based on the environmental chemistry of Pb and on multivariate statistical analysis, these criteria did not apply in this particular case. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in total Pb concentrations (from 50 to 5820 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the geochemical fractionation were observed as a function of seasonality and location along the river flow path. In the Cacalotenango and Taxco rivers, the highest concentrations of total Pb were found at stations close to tailings during the rainy and post-rainy seasons. The geochemistry of Pb was mainly controlled, during the dry and post-rainy seasons by the organic matter and carbonate content, and in the rainy season by hydrological conditions (e.g., the increase in river flux), hydrological basin erosion, and the suspended solids concentration. Isotopic analyses of the {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Pb ratio showed three processes in the Cacalotenango and Taxco rivers. First, the accumulation of atmospheric excess {sup 210}Pb, favoured during calmer hydrodynamic conditions in the river basin commonly during dry periods, is recorded by a {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Pb ratio of >1. In the case of the Cacalotenango

  11. Lead (Pb) isotopic fingerprinting and its applications in lead pollution studies in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hefa; Hu Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    As the most widely scattered toxic metal in the world, the sources of lead (Pb) observed in contamination investigation are often difficult to identify. This review presents an overview of the principles, analysis, and applications of Pb isotopic fingerprinting in tracing the origins and transport pathways of Pb in the environment. It also summarizes the history and current status of lead pollution in China, and illustrates the power of Pb isotopic fingerprinting with examples of its recent applications in investigating the effectiveness of leaded gasoline phase-out on atmospheric lead pollution, and the sources of Pb found in various environmental media (plants, sediments, and aquatic organisms) in China. The limitations of Pb isotopic fingerprinting technique are discussed and a perspective on its development is also presented. Further methodological developments and more widespread instrument availability are expected to make isotopic fingerprinting one of the key tools in lead pollution investigation. - This review presents an overview of the principles, applications, and limitations of Pb isotopic fingerprinting in lead pollution investigation, and provides a perspective on its future development.

  12. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Burn-Nunes, Laurie J.; Hong, Sungmin; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F.; Rosman, Kevin J.R.

    2011-01-01

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature (∼ 1.20 for 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and ∼ 2.50 for 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last ∼ 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 2.471 for 208 Pb/ 207 Pb in the period 1990–1996. The depression of the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  13. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, N; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R

    2014-02-15

    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The Netherlands. The Pb isotope composition of the litter layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.12-1.14) differs from the deeper soil samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.20-1.21). Based on a mixing model it is concluded that the samples contain two Pb sources: natural Pb and anthropogenic Pb, the latter mainly derived from gasoline. (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios demonstrate that the roadside soils were polluted to a depth of ~15 cm. Within this depth interval, anthropogenic Pb content is associated with organic matter. Although Pb pollution only reached a depth of ~15 cm, this does not mean that the topsoils retain all anthropogenic Pb. Due to the low pH and negligible binding capacity of soils at depths >15 cm, anthropogenic Pb migrated towards groundwater after reaching depths of >15 cm. The Pb isotope composition of the groundwater ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.135-1.185) establishes that groundwater is polluted with anthropogenic Pb. The contribution of anthropogenic Pb to the groundwater varies between ~30 and 100%. Based on the difference in soil Pb content and Pb isotope compositions over a period of 12 years, downward Pb migration is calculated to vary from 72 ± 95 to 324 ± 279 mg m(-2)y(-1). Assuming that the downward Pb flux is constant over time, it is calculated that 35-90% of the atmospherically delivered Pb has migrated to the groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Profiling of new psychoactive substances (NPS) by using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS): study on the synthetic cannabinoid 5F-PB-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster-Müller, S; Scheid, N; Holdermann, T; Schneiders, S; Pütz, M

    2018-05-21

    In this paper results of a pilot study on the profiling of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist 5F-PB-22 (5F-QUPIC, pentylfluoro-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid-8-quinolinyl ester) via isotope ratio mass spectrometry are presented. It is focused on δ 13 C, δ 15 N and δ 2 H isotope ratios, which are determined using elemental analyser (EA) and high temperature elemental analyser (TC/EA) coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). By means of a sample of pure material of 5F-PB-22 it is shown that the extraction of 5F-PB-22 from herbal material, a rapid clean-up procedure, or preparative column chromatography had no influences on the isotope ratios. Furthermore, 5F-PB-22 was extracted from fourteen different herbal blend samples ("Spice products" from police seizures) and analysed via IRMS, yielding three clusters containing seven, five and two samples, distinguishable through their isotopic composition, respectively. It is assumed that herbal blends in each cluster have been manufactured from individual batches of 5F-PB-22. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. New mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.; Daves, H.L.; Hess, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes are being evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4, an abundance sensitivity of > 100,000 for the HT-D 2 doublet, and a sophisticated electronic control and data collection system. The second is a smaller, simpler, stigmatic-focusing instrument in which exceptionally high ion intensities (> 1 x 10 -9 A) result in high signal to noise ratios. A containment facility with sample inlet systems and a standard distribution system was built to permit testing with tritium mixtures. The characteristics of the mass spectrometers under a variety of operating conditions will be presented. Factors to be discussed include: sample equilibration and its elimination; linearity; trimer formation; gas interference; stability; signal to noise ratio; mass discrimination; and anticipated precision and accu sublimed molybdenum collector of Converter No. 262; and (3) demonstration of tungsten CVD onto molybdenum flange using a reuseable graphite mandrel

  16. Natural and anthropogenic lead in soils and vegetables around Guiyang city, southwest China: A Pb isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fei-Li; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Yang, Yuan-Gen; Bi, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Tao-Ze; Zhao, Zhi-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Soils, vegetables and rainwaters from three vegetable production bases in the Guiyang area, southwest China, were analyzed for Pb concentrations and isotope compositions to trace its sources in the vegetables and soils. Lead isotopic compositions were not distinguishable between yellow soils and calcareous soils, but distinguishable among sampling sites. The highest 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios were found for rainwaters (0.8547–0.8593 and 2.098–2.109, respectively), and the lowest for soils (0.7173–0.8246 and 1.766–2.048, respectively). The 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios increased in vegetables in the order of roots 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios versus the 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios from all samples formed a straight line and supported a binary end-member mixing model for Pb in vegetables. Using deep soils and rainwaters as geogenic and anthropogenic end members in the mixing model, it was estimated that atmospheric Pb contributed 30–77% to total Pb for vegetable roots, 43–71% for stems, 72–85% for leaves, and 90% for capsicum fruits, whereas 10–70% of Pb in all vegetable parts was derived from soils. This research supports that heavy metal contamination in vegetables can result mainly from atmospheric deposition, and Pb isotope technique is useful for tracing the sources of Pb contamination in vegetables.

  17. Trace elements and Pb isotopes in soils and sediments impacted by uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuvier, A., E-mail: alicia.cuvier@hotmail.fr [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d' études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Pourcelot, L. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d' études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Probst, A. [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Prunier, J. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, laboratoire Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/IRD/Université Paul Sabatier, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Le Roux, G., E-mail: gael.leroux@ensat.fr [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contamination in As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and REE, in a high uranium activity (up to 21,000 Bq ∙ kg{sup −1}) area, downstream of a former uranium mine. Different geochemical proxies like enrichment factor and fractions from a sequential extraction procedure are used to evaluate the level of contamination, the mobility and the availability of the potential contaminants. Pb isotope ratios are determined in the total samples and in the sequential leachates to identify the sources of the contaminants and to determine the mobility of radiogenic Pb in the context of uranium mining. In spite of the large uranium contamination measured in the soils and the sediments (EF ≫ 40), trace element contamination is low to moderate (2 < EF < 5), except for Ba (5 < EF < 15), due to the precipitation of barium sulfate resulting from mining activities. Most of the trace elements are associated with the most mobile fractions of the sediments/soils, implying an enhanced potential availability. Even if no Pb enrichment is highlighted, the Pb isotopic signature of the contaminated soils is strongly radiogenic. Measurements performed on the sequential leachates reveal inputs of radiogenic Pb in the most mobile fractions of the contaminated soil. Inputs of low-mobile radiogenic Pb from mining activities may also contribute to the Pb signature recorded in the residual phase of the contaminated samples. We demonstrate that Pb isotopes are efficient tools to trace the origin and the mobility of the contaminants in environments affected by uranium mining. - Highlights: • Contamination of soils is evidenced by a multiproxy approach. • Enrichment factors highlight a low contamination except for U, S and Ba. • Pb isotope ratios point out inputs of radiogenic Pb from the mine. • Radiogenic Pb is mainly in the acid-soluble and the reducible fractions.

  18. Pb isotope constaints on the extent of crustal recycling into a steady state mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galer, S.J.G.; Goldstein, S.L.; Onions, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic and geochemical evidence was discussed against recycling of continental crust into the mantle. Element ratios such as Sm/Nd, Th/Sc, and U/Pb in sedimentary masses have remained relatively constant throughout Earth history, and this can only be reconciled with steady state recycling models if new crustal materials added from the mantle have had similar ratios. Such recycling models would also require shorter processing times for U, Th, and Pb through the mantle than are geodynamically reasonable. Models favoring subduction of pelagic sediments as the only recycling mechanism fail to account for the Pb isotopic signature of the mantle. Recycling of bulk crust with Pb isotopic compositions similar to those expected for primitive mantle would be permissable with available data, but there appear to be no plausible tectonic mechanisms to carry this out

  19. Tracing lead pollution sources in abandoned mine areas using stable Pb isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Seon; Lee, Khanghyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the (203)Tl/(205)Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60%. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines.

  20. Pb isotope analysis of ng size samples by TIMS equipped with a 1013 Ω resistor using a 207Pb-204Pb double spike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Smeets, R.J.; Koornneef, J.M.; Davies, G.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation has yielded high precision results for lead isotope measurements by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), but the applicability to ng size Pb samples is hampered by the small size of the

  1. Coupling meteorology, metal concentrations, and Pb isotopes for source attribution in archived precipitation samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graney, Joseph R; Landis, Matthew S

    2013-03-15

    A technique that couples lead (Pb) isotopes and multi-element concentrations with meteorological analysis was used to assess source contributions to precipitation samples at the Bondville, Illinois USA National Trends Network (NTN) site. Precipitation samples collected over a 16month period (July 1994-October 1995) at Bondville were parsed into six unique meteorological flow regimes using a minimum variance clustering technique on back trajectory endpoints. Pb isotope ratios and multi-element concentrations were measured using high resolution inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) on the archived precipitation samples. Bondville is located in central Illinois, ~250km downwind from smelters in southeast Missouri. The Mississippi Valley Type ore deposits in Missouri provided a unique multi-element and Pb isotope fingerprint for smelter emissions which could be contrasted to industrial emissions from the Chicago and Indianapolis urban areas (~125km north and east, of Bondville respectively) and regional emissions from electric utility facilities. Differences in Pb isotopes and element concentrations in precipitation corresponded to flow regime. Industrial sources from urban areas, and thorogenic Pb from coal use, could be differentiated from smelter emissions from Missouri by coupling Pb isotopes with variations in element ratios and relative mass factors. Using a three endmember mixing model based on Pb isotope ratio differences, industrial processes in urban airsheds contributed 56±19%, smelters in southeast Missouri 26±13%, and coal combustion 18±7%, of the Pb in precipitation collected in Bondville in the mid-1990s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region. PMID:27806065

  3. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  4. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...... in the selected samples. Uncontaminated Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts appear to have sampled the same broad range in mantle compositions seen in Recent Iceland basalts. In contrast to the peripheral lava suites from the British Isles and Southeast Greenland, where the inferred uncontaminated magmas have...... to the most radiogenic values found in recent Icelandic basalts. Furthermore, the main volume of lavas in East Greenland is displaced away from the NAEM towards this radiogenic Pb component. Thus, this ‘Iceland radiogenic Pb end-member’ component was a significant contributor to the break-up-related magmatism...

  5. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99 Mo is the parent isotope of 99m Tc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  6. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  7. Genesis of the Bangbule Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic deposit in Tibet, western China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and S-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tian; Zheng, Youye; Gao, Shunbao

    2016-04-01

    The Banbule Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposit is located in the Longger-Gongbujiangda volcanic magma arc in the Gangdese-Nyainqentanglha Plate. It is the only lead-zinc polymetallic deposit discovered in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha metallogenic belt. The measured and indicated resources include 0.9 Mt of Pb+Zn (4.77% Pb and 4.74% Zn, respectively), 6499 t of Cu, and 178 t of Ag (18.75g/t Ag). The orebodies mainly occur as lenses, veins and irregular shapes in the contact zone between the quartz-porphyry and limestone of the Upper Permian Xiala Formation, or in the boundaries between limestone and sandstone. Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in the Banbule deposit is closely associated with skarns. The ore minerals are dominated by galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and magnetite, with subordinate pyrite, malachite, and azurite. The gangue minerals are mainly garnet, actinolite, diopside, quartz, and calcite. The ore-related quartz-porphyry displays LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 77.31±0.74 Ma. The δ34S values of sulfides define a narrow range of -0.8 to 4.7‰ indicating a magmatic source for the ore-forming materials. Lead isotopic systematics yield 206Pb/204Pb of 18.698 to 18.752, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.696 to 15.760, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.097 to 39.320. The data points are constrained around the growth curves of upper crust and orogenic belt according to the tectonic discrimination diagrams. The calculated Δβ - Δγ values plot within the magmatic field according to the discrimination diagram of Zhu et al. (1995). The S-Pb isotopic data suggest that Bangbule is a typical skarn deposit, and the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization is genetically related to the quartz-porphyry in the mining district. The discovery of the Bangbule deposit indicates that there is metallogenic potential in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha belt, which is of great importance for the exploration work in this area.

  8. The Archaean Granny Smith gold deposit, western Australia: age and Pb-isotope tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, V.J.; McNaughton, N.J.; Groves, D.I.; Ridley, J.R.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Granny Smith gold deposits are situated within a greenstone sequence in the Laverton-Leonora area of the Northeastern Goldfields Province of the Archaean Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. The greenstone sequence (U-Pb zircon age of 2677±6 Ma, felsic pyroclastic rock) was intruded by the Granny Smith Granodiorite at 2665±4 Ma. Gold mineralisation is located along a reactivated N-S Stricking, thrust which wraps around the granitoid intrusion, and within the granitoid intrusion. Initial lead-isotope compositions of the Granny Smith Granodiorite and ore-fluid Pb, estimated from K-feldspar and galena and lead tellurides, respectively, are slightly different. Calculations based on Pb isotope data for the host rocks, and the U-Pb zircon age of the Granny Smith Granodiorite, suggest that ore-fluid Pb was derived from a source with a similar initial lead-isotopic composition to the source of the Granny Smith Granodiorite but about 30 million years after the intrusion of the granitoid. The Pb-isotope data for granitoids of the Northeastern Goldfields fall in a distinct field different to that of the granitoids of the Norseman area and those from Kambalda to Menzies. (authors)

  9. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, N., E-mail: n.walraven@geoconnect.nl [GeoConnect, Meester Dekkerstraat 4, 1901 PV Castricum (Netherlands); Os, B.J.H. van, E-mail: b.vanos@rce.nl [Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten, P.O. Box 1600, 3800 BP Amersfoort (Netherlands); Klaver, G.Th., E-mail: g.klaver@brgm.nl [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Middelburg, J.J., E-mail: j.b.m.middelburg@uu.nl [University Utrecht, Faculty of Geosciences, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Davies, G.R., E-mail: g.r.davies@vu.nl [VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Petrology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-01

    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The Netherlands. The Pb isotope composition of the litter layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.12–1.14) differs from the deeper soil samples ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.20–1.21). Based on a mixing model it is concluded that the samples contain two Pb sources: natural Pb and anthropogenic Pb, the latter mainly derived from gasoline. {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios demonstrate that the roadside soils were polluted to a depth of ∼ 15 cm. Within this depth interval, anthropogenic Pb content is associated with organic matter. Although Pb pollution only reached a depth of ∼ 15 cm, this does not mean that the topsoils retain all anthropogenic Pb. Due to the low pH and negligible binding capacity of soils at depths > 15 cm, anthropogenic Pb migrated towards groundwater after reaching depths of > 15 cm. The Pb isotope composition of the groundwater ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.135–1.185) establishes that groundwater is polluted with anthropogenic Pb. The contribution of anthropogenic Pb to the groundwater varies between ∼ 30 and 100%. Based on the difference in soil Pb content and Pb isotope compositions over a period of 12 years, downward Pb migration is calculated to vary from 72 ± 95 to 324 ± 279 mg m{sup −2} y{sup −1}. Assuming that the downward Pb flux is constant over time, it is calculated that 35–90% of the atmospherically delivered Pb has migrated to the groundwater. - Highlights: • Lead isotope composition of litter and topsoil differs from the deeper soil samples. • Litter and topsoil contain anthropogenic Pb, with gasoline Pb as main source. • Anthropogenic Pb is strongly associated with organic matter in litter and topsoil. • Approximately 35–90% of

  10. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope geological characteristics and its evolution of Jianchaling rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Chunyong; Chen Minyang; Xu Wenxin

    2003-01-01

    It has been a long time debatable subject on the raw material source and its genesis of Jianchaling ultrabasic rock, because the original rock phases, the original mineral compositions, texture and structure, even part of the chemical components of the rocks had been changed completely after many periods and phases of metamorphism. According to the content of Pb, Rb, Sr, Nd elements and their Pb, Sr, Nd isotope compositions of the rocks, together with the isotope geological age of late magmatic activities, the authors analyze the evolution of Pb, Sr, Nd isotope compositions, The inferred initiate Nd isotope ratio of ultrabasic rocks is 0.510233, lower than that of meteorite unity at a corresponding period, its ε Nd(T)>O; The initiate Sr ratios inferred by the isotope geological age ranges from 0.702735 to 0.719028; Projecting the lead isotope compositions on the Pb tectonic evolution model, the result indicates that the raw material of Jianchaling ultrabasic rock coming from the deplete upper mantle. The ultrabasic magma which enrich of Mg, Ni and less S intruded the crust and formed the Jianchaling ultrabasic rock at late Proterozoic era (927 Ma±). The forming time of serpentinite is mostly equal to the granitoid intruding time, showing the intrusion o flate acidic magma caused a large scale alteration of the ultrabasic rocks and formed the meta-ultrabasic phase rock observed today. (authors)

  11. Measurement of solubility of hydrogen isotopes in Li-Pb by adsorption and desorption method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edao, Yuki; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of tritium solubility in lithium lead eutectic alloy (Li-Pb) has been performed under the Japan-US collaboration work of 'TITAN'. The present paper reports that results of H and D solubility in Li-Pb which melted in an alumina tube determined by means of a constant volume method, and also reports an experimental apparatus for measurement of tritium solubility in Li-Pb in a tungsten crucible is improved and examined in the STAR facility of the Idaho National Laboratory. It was shown that H solubility in Li-Pb was easily influenced by impurities, interaction with surrounding materials and evaporated Li-Pb. The influences were suggested to be caused by large scattering among the previously reported data on solubility of hydrogen isotopes in Li-Pb. (author)

  12. Archean and proterozoic in the West-European Hercynian chain: isotopic geochemistry (Sr-Nd-Pb) and U-Pb geochronology on zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrot, C.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis reports the study of isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology on zircons in the immersed granulites of the Bay of Biscay: U-Pb geochronology on zircons, Nd isotopic geochemistry, Sr isotopic geochemistry, common Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and rare earth data on minerals, comparison with other European granulites, comparison with West-Africa, study of Archean and proterozoic in the Hercynian chain. The second part reports the study of the U-Pb geochronology on zircon in the Cadomian, and the third part addresses the Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of some Cadomian granitoid, and the crust contamination in different regions [fr

  13. Sr-Pb-Nd isotopic evidence that both MORB and OIB sources contribute to oceanic island arc magmas in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-eight new Pb, 20 Sr, and 9 Nd isotopic compositions are presented for 32 rocks and one galena from Fiji and the South Fiji (back-arc) Basin. The Fijian rocks range in age from 35 to 143 Nd/ 144 Nd and low 206 Pb/ 204 Pb). Nearly constant 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, and an OIB source component lying within the conventional Sr-Nd-Pb mantle array. In later calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series rocks, these same trace element and isotopic ratios are more like those of OIB. The change was not accompanied by an increase in 207 Pb/ 204 Pb or Cs/K, indeed, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb is closer to the mantle array in these later series. Consequently, the change indicates a greater contribution from OIB sources, rather than from recycled ocean crust. These interpretations require that both MORB and OIB sources coexist in the uppermost mantle above subducted lithosphere. (orig./WB)

  14. Investigations into Pb isotope signatures in groundwater and sediments in a uranium-mineralized area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchia, Adriana Monica Dalla; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar Horta; Rios, Francisco Javier; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Queiroz, E-mail: amdvc@cdtn.br, E-mail: acql@cdtn.br, E-mail: javier@cdtn.br, E-mail: pchr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    This work presents the investigation in an environment that contains uranium deposits by using Pb isotope signatures. The study area, southeast of Brazil, is characterized by the lack of surface water and, as a consequence, the groundwater plays an important role in the economy of the region, such as the supply to the uranium industry and, above all serving the needs of the local population. The objective of the present investigation is the determination of the signatures of Pb in groundwater and sediments as well as the identification of environments under influences of geogenic and/or anthropogenic sources. It was determined that the Pb in the majority of sediments was geogenic in origin. Although data from the literature, related to the environmental studies, consider {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotopic ratio values below or close to 1.2 as an indicative of anthropogenic Pb, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb determined for the majority of groundwater samples ranged from 1.14 to 1.19, and are similar to the data reported for rocks samples (1.09 to 1.96) from area with U mineralization. It was also determined that the anthropogenic influence of the uranium was restricted to a single sampling point within the mining area. (author)

  15. Investigations into Pb isotope signatures in groundwater and sediments in a uranium-mineralized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mônica Dalla Vecchia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This work presents the investigation in an environment that contains uranium deposits by using Pb isotope signatures. The study area, southeast of Brazil, is characterized by the lack of surface water and, as a consequence, the groundwater plays an important role in the economy of the region, such as the supply to the uranium industry and, above all serving the needs of the local population. The objective of the present investigation is the determination of the signatures of Pb in groundwater and sediments as well as the identification of environments under influences of geogenic and/or anthropogenic sources. It was determined that the Pb in the majority of sediments was geogenic in origin. Although data from the literature, related to the environmental studies, consider 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratio values below or close to 1.2 as an indicative of anthropogenic Pb, the 206Pb/ 207Pb determined for the majority of groundwater samples ranged from 1.14 to 1.19, and are similar to the data reported for rocks samples (1.09 to 1.96 from area with U mineralization. It was also determined that the anthropogenic influence of the uranium was restricted to a single sampling point within the mining area.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, G.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Cook, G.T.; Pulford, I.D.; Duncan, H.J.; Scott, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: → A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. → Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. → Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg -1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg -1 in 2010. → Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

  17. Isotope analysis by emission spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique par spectroscopie d'emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Blaise, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. Aime Cotton, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France)

    1959-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of isotope mixtures by emission spectroscopy is resulting from the phenomenon called 'isotope shift', say from the fact that spectral lines produced by a mixture of isotopes of a same element are complex. Every spectral line is, indeed, resulting from several lines respectively corresponding to each isotope. Then isotopic components are near one to others, and their separation is effected by means of Fabry-Perot calibration standard: the apparatus allowing to measure abundances is the Fabry-Perot photo-electric spectrometer, designed in 1948 by MM. JACQUINOT and DUFOUR. This method has been used to make abundance determination in the case of helium, lithium, lead and uranium. In the case of lithium, the utilised analysis line depends on the composition of examined isotopic mixture. For mixtures containing 7 to 93 pour cent of one of isotopes of lithium, this line is the lithium blue line: {lambda} = 4603 angstrom. In other cases the red line {lambda} = 6707 angstrom is preferable, though it allows to do easily nothing but relative determinations. Helium shows no particular difficulty and the analysis line selected was {lambda} = 6678 angstrom. For lead the line {lambda} = 5201 angstrom gives the possibility to determine the isotope abundance for the four isotopes of lead notwithstanding the presence of hyperfine structure of {sup 207}Pb. For uranium, line {lambda} 5027 angstrom is used, and this method allows to determine the composition of isotope mixtures, the content of which in {sup 235}U may shorten to 0,1 per cent. Relative precision is about 2 per cent for contents in {sup 235}U over 1 per cent. For lower contents, this line {lambda} = 5027 angstrom will allow relative measures when using previously dosed mixtures. (author) [French] L'analyse quantitative des melanges isotopiques par spectroscopie d'emission doit son existence au phenomene appele 'deplacement isotopique', c'est-a-dire au fait que les raies spectrales emises par un

  18. The use of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in Great Lakes precipitation as a tool for pollution source attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Laura S., E-mail: lsaylors@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dvonch, J. Timothy [University of Michigan, Air Quality Laboratory, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gratz, Lynne E. [University of Washington-Bothell, 18115 Campus Way NE, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States); Landis, Matthew S. [U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals including mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) present human health and environmental concerns. Although it is known that local and regional sources of these metals contribute to deposition in the Great Lakes region, it is difficult to trace emissions from point sources to impacted sites. Recent studies suggest that metal isotope ratios may be useful for distinguishing between and tracing source emissions. We measured Pb, strontium (Sr), and Hg isotope ratios in daily precipitation samples that were collected at seven sites across the Great Lakes region between 2003 and 2007. Lead isotope ratios ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8062 to 0.8554) suggest that Pb deposition was influenced by coal combustion and processing of Mississippi Valley-Type Pb ore deposits. Regional differences in Sr isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.70859 to 0.71155) are likely related to coal fly ash and soil dust. Mercury isotope ratios (δ{sup 202}Hg = − 1.13 to 0.13‰) also varied among the sites, likely due to regional differences in coal isotopic composition, and fractionation occurring within industrial facilities and in the atmosphere. These data represent the first combined characterization of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotope ratios in precipitation collected across the Great Lakes region. We demonstrate the utility of multiple metal isotope ratios in parallel with traditional trace element multivariate statistical modeling to enable more complete pollution source attribution. - Highlights: • We measured Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in precipitation from the Great Lakes region. • Pb isotopes suggest that deposition was impacted by coal combustion and metal production. • Sr isotope ratios vary regionally, likely due to soil dust and coal fly ash. • Hg isotopes vary due to fractionation occurring within facilities and the atmosphere. • Isotope results support conclusions of previous trace element receptor modeling.

  19. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope 206 Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of 204 Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research

  20. Pb and O isotope systematics in granulite facies xenoliths, French Massif Central: Implications for crustal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, H.; Kempton, P.D.; Harmon, R.S.; Briot, D.; Leyreloup, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Pb and O isotope data are represented for a suite of granulite facies xenoliths found within Tertiary alkaline volcanic rocks of the Massif Central, France. The suite consists of ultramafic and mafic cumulates, metagabbros which are considered to represent basic liquids, felsic meta-igneous lithologies (charnockites) and metasediments. Ranges of δ 18 O values are +6.9 to +9.8per mille for mafic xenoliths, +9.3 to +10.2per mille for felsic meta-igneous samples and +6.1 to +11.8per mille for the metasediments. By comparison, δ 18 O values for mantle peridotites from the same region range from +5.1 to +6.9per mille, whilst local Hercynian granitoids vary from +8.6 to +12.0per mille. The 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios of the granulite xenoliths are between 17.77 and 19.19, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios vary from 15.51 to 15.69, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios range from 38.07 to 40.07. In general, metasedimentary granulites have the more radiogenic Pb isotope compositions, whereas mafic meta-igneous samples are less radiogenic. These isotopic characteristics can be explained as the result of the interaction of mafic magmas with the metasedimentary crust into which they intruded. The release of heat also provoked melting of the more fusible parts of the lower crust and led to the formation of late-orogenic Hercynian granitoids. However, an additional component which provides less radiogenic Pb is also needed in the source of the granitoids; this may be the felsic meta-igneous xenoliths or middle/upper crustal gneisses. (orig.)

  1. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes in oceanic ferromanganese deposits and ocean floor basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Nions, R.K.; Carter, S.R.; Cohen, R.S.; Evensen, N.M.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Pb-, Nd-, and Sr-isotope compositions of oceanic ferromanganese deposits, together with the Nd- and Sr-isotope compositions of altered ocean-floor basalts, are here reported. These data are used to evaluate these metals as sources in both the oceans and ocean ferromanganese deposits and the extent to which ocean-floor basalts may be a source of, or a sink for, these metals. (author)

  2. Source identification of heavy metal contamination using metal association and Pb isotopes in Ulsan Bay sediments, East Sea, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jung Sun; Choi, Man Sik; Song, Yun Ho; Um, In Kwon; Kim, Jae Gon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The levels of Cu, Zn, and Pb in sediments were higher than the Korean TEL at one-third of all sites. • The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor. • Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as endmembers using Pb isotopes. • The major anthropogenic Pb sources were identified as imported ores from Australia and Peru. • Isotope ratios in anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay to offshore could be identified. - Abstract: To determine the characteristics of metal pollution sources in Ulsan Bay, East Sea, 39 surface and nine core sediments were collected within the bay and offshore area, and analyzed for metals and stable lead (Pb) isotopes. Most surface sediments (>95% from 48 sites) had high copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and Pb concentrations that were as much as 1.3 times higher than background values. The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor, and the next largest source was from shipbuilding companies located at the mouth of the Taehwa River. Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as end-members using Pb isotopes. Isotopic ratios for the anthropogenic Pb revealed that the sources were imported ores from Australia, Peru, and the United States. In addition, Pb isotopes of anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay toward offshore could be determined

  3. Pb isotope composition in lichens and aerosols from eastern Sicily: Insights into the regional impact of volcanoes on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monna, F. (Institut FA Forel (Switzerland)); Aiuppa, A.; Varrica, D. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy)); Dongarra, G. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy) CNR, Palermo (Italy). Istituto Geochimica dei Fluidi)

    1999-08-01

    A total of 25 lichen thalli of Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh), collected at Vulcano island and at Mt. Etna, during a one-year biogeochemical survey, were analyzed for Pb, br, Al, Sc,[sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 206]Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios were also measured on aerosol samples from urban areas and industrial sites of Sicily. The observed [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb range for urban and industrial aerosols matches the anthropogenic signature. Lichens instead, are closer to the compositional field of [sup 206]Pb rich geogenic sources. This natural input is more evident at Vulcano island than at Mt. Etna, where the anthropogenic activities are considerably more effective. On the basis of lead isotope data, Pb/Br ratios and calculated lead enrichment factors, a natural lead pollution from volcanoes is suggested. Volcanic lead contribution ranges from 10 to 30% at Mt. Etna to 10--80% at Vulcano island.

  4. Man, nutrition and mobility: A comparison of teeth and bone from the Medieval era and the present from Pb and Sr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberg, G.; Stray, H.; Fosse, G.

    1998-01-01

    Naturally occurring isotopic systems, such as strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb), are very useful for characterizing different sources and to produce background information. Norwegian teeth from the Medieval era have 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios between 18.8 and 18.2, in comparison with present day ratios of between 18.0 and 17.6 showing the impact of Pb from modern industrialization and from traffic. Sr analyses of Medieval teeth show that an individual living in a coastal town on the west coast of Norway can easily be distinguished from one in a rural area at that time. The Sr signature shows that Medieval people lived on local products while present people to a greater degree live on imported or domestic industrially processed food. Medieval and modern teeth from one site give similar Pb signatures and concentrations indicating no increase in pollution over time. However, the impact of industrial pollution can be seen from Pb analyses on contemporary teeth, so that the method can be used to monitor emission of heavy metals from local industry. Whilst the Pb and Sr natural isotopic systems individually provide valuable information, a combination of the two techniques is a very powerful tool in environmental and archaeological research. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Man, nutrition and mobility: A comparison of teeth and bone from the Medieval era and the present from Pb and Sr isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, G.; Stray, H. [Institute for Energy Technology, Box 40, N-2007 Kjeller (Norway); Fosse, G. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Bergen, N-5009 Bergen (Norway)

    1998-12-11

    Naturally occurring isotopic systems, such as strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb), are very useful for characterizing different sources and to produce background information. Norwegian teeth from the Medieval era have {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios between 18.8 and 18.2, in comparison with present day ratios of between 18.0 and 17.6 showing the impact of Pb from modern industrialization and from traffic. Sr analyses of Medieval teeth show that an individual living in a coastal town on the west coast of Norway can easily be distinguished from one in a rural area at that time. The Sr signature shows that Medieval people lived on local products while present people to a greater degree live on imported or domestic industrially processed food. Medieval and modern teeth from one site give similar Pb signatures and concentrations indicating no increase in pollution over time. However, the impact of industrial pollution can be seen from Pb analyses on contemporary teeth, so that the method can be used to monitor emission of heavy metals from local industry. Whilst the Pb and Sr natural isotopic systems individually provide valuable information, a combination of the two techniques is a very powerful tool in environmental and archaeological research. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Radiogenic Isotopes As Paleoceanographic Tracers in Deep-Sea Corals: Advances in TIMS Measurements of Pb Isotopes and Application to Southern Ocean Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. J.; van de Flierdt, T.; Bridgestock, L. J.; Paul, M.; Rehkamper, M.; Robinson, L. F.; Adkins, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea corals have emerged as a valuable archive of deep ocean paleoceanographic change, with uranium-series dating providing absolute ages and the potential for centennial resolution. In combination with measurements of radiocarbon, neodymium isotopes and clumped isotopes, this archive has recently been exploited to reconstruct changes in ventilation, water mass sourcing and temperature in relation to millennial climate change. Lead (Pb) isotopes in both corals and seawater have also been used to track anthropogenic inputs through space and time and to trace transport pathways within the oceans. Better understanding of the oceanic Pb cycle is emerging from the GEOTRACES programme. However, while Pb isotopes have been widely used in environmental studies, their full potential as a (pre-anthropogenic) paleoceanographic tracer remains to be exploited. In deep-sea corals, challenges exist from low Pb concentrations in aragonite in comparison to secondary coatings, the potential for contamination, and the efficient elemental separation required for measurement by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). Here we discuss progress in measuring Pb isotopes in coral aragonite using a 207Pb-204Pb double spike on a ThermoFinnigan Triton TIMS. For a 2 ng NIST-981 Pb standard, the long term reproducibility (using 1011 Ω resistors) is ~1000 ppm (2 s.d.) on 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios. We now show that using a new 1012 Ω resistor to measure the small 204Pb beam improves the internal precision on these ratios from ~500 ppm (2 s.e.) to ~250 ppm (2 s.e.) and we envisage a potential improvement in the long term reproducibility as a consequence. We further assess the internal precision and external reproducibility of our method using a BCR-2 rock standard and an in-house coral standard. Preliminary evidence on the application of this method to natural samples is derived from cleaning experiments and replication tests on deep-sea corals from the Southern

  7. Lead isotopes and trace metal ratios of aerosols as tracers of Pb pollution sources in Kanpur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida; Paul, Debajyoti; Tyagi, Swati; Sengupta, Deep

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic flux of Pb in the Earth's surface is almost an order of magnitude higher than its corresponding natural flux [1]. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb- isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, an industrial city in northern India. The Pb concentration in the airborne particulate matter varies between 14-216 ng/m3, while the other heavy metals vary by factor of 10 or less, e.g. Cd=0.3-3 ng/m3, As=0.4-3.5 ng/m3, Zn=36-161 ng/m3, and Cu=3-22 ng/m3. The 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/207Pb vary between 1.112 - 1.129, 2.123-2.141, and 2.409-2.424 respectively, and are highly correlated with each other (R2>0.9). Pb isotopes and trace metal data reveals that coal combustion is the major source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere, with limited contribution from mining and smelting processes. We further conclude that combination of Pb isotope ratios and V/Pb ratios are powerful tracers for Pb source apportionment studies, which is otherwise difficult to differentiate based only on Pb systematics [1] Sen and Peucker-Ehrenbrink (2012), Environ. Sci. Technol.(46), 8601-8609

  8. [sup 205]Bi/[sup 206]Bi cyclotron production from Pb-isotopes for absorption studies in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R.; Dresow, B.; Heinrich, H.C. (Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Medizinische Biochemie); Wendel, J.; Bechtold, V. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1993-12-01

    Pb(p,xn) thick target excitation functions were measured in the energy range 10-38 MeV in order to optimize the production of isotopically pure radiobismuth from [sup nat]Pb, [sup 206]Pb, and [sup 207]Pb. Additionally, the decay of Po-isotopes from deuteron irradiation of natural bismuth ([sup 209]Bi) was exploited for radiobismuth production. [sup 205]Bi was produced from [sup 206]Pb at 20 MeV with only 2% of [sup 206]Bi at 4 weeks post irradiation. Bismuth compounds as used in the treatment of peptic ulcer were labeled with [sup 205]Bi for absorption studies in animals and subjects. (Author).

  9. Influence of temporal variations in water chemistry on the Pb isotopic composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Jerry R.; Anderson, Jamie B.; Lechler, Paul J.; Kondrad, Shannon L.; Galbreath, Peter F.; Salter, Emory B.

    2005-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken to determine (1) the relations between discharge, Pb concentration, and the Pb isotopic composition of the dissolved load in Richland Creek, western North Carolina, and (2) the potential influence of varying Pb water chemistry on the Pb isotopic abundances in liver and bone tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Stream waters were characterized by relatively low Pb concentrations during periods of base flow exceeding 10 days in length. Moreover, greater than 65% of the Pb was derived from orchard soils located upstream of the monitoring site which are contaminated by lead arsenate. During small to moderate floods, the dissolved load exhibited Pb concentrations more than twice as high as those measured during base flow, but the contribution of Pb from lead arsenate was relatively low and varied directly with discharge. In contrast to smaller events, Pb from lead arsenate in an 8- to 10-year (overbank) event in May 2003 was minimal during peak flow conditions, suggesting that discharge-source relations are dependent on flood magnitude. The hydrologic and geochemical data demonstrate that aquatic biota in Richland Creek are subjected to short-term variations in Pb concentrations and Pb isotopic abundances within the dissolved load ranging from a few hours to few a weeks. Laboratory studies demonstrated that when rainbow trout were exposed to elevated Pb concentrations with a distinct isotopic fingerprint, the bone and liver rapidly acquire isotopic ratios similar to that of the water. Following exposure, bone retains Pb from the contaminant source for a period of months, while the liver excreted approximately 50% of the accumulated Pb within a few days and nearly all of the Pb within a few weeks. Differences in the rates of excretion resulted in contrasting isotopic ratios between the tissues. It seems plausible, then, that previously observed differences between the isotopic composition of bone and liver in

  10. Simultaneous determination of picogram per gram concentrations of Ba, Pb and Pb isotopes in Greenland ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimi, Salah I.; Rosman, Kevin J.R.; Candelone, Jean-Pierre; Burn, Laurie J. [Curtin University of Technology, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Perth (Australia); Hong, Sungmin [Polar Research Centre, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan, P.O. Box 29, Seoul (Korea); Boutron, Claude F. [Domaine Universitaire, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique du l' Environnement, 54 rue Moliere, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); UFR de Mecanique, Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble (Institut Universitaire de France), Domaine Universitaire, Grenoble (France)

    2008-01-15

    A technique has been developed to simultaneously measure picogram per gram concentrations of Ba and Pb by isotope dilution mass spectrometry, as well as Pb isotopic ratios in polar ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. BaPO{sup +}{sub 2} and Pb{sup +} ions were employed for these determinations. A calibrated mixture of enriched {sup 205}Pb and {sup 137}Ba was added to the samples providing an accuracy of better than approximately 2% for Pb/Ba element ratio determinations. Interference by molecular ions in the Pb mass spectrum occurred only at {sup 204}Pb and {sup 205}Pb, but these contributions were negligible in terms of precisions expected on picogram-sized Pb samples. The technique is illustrated with measurements on Greenland firn, using a drill-core section that includes the Laki volcanic eruption of 1783-1784. The data show deviations from the element concentrations indicating volatile metal enrichments, but the Pb isotopic signature of the Laki lava could not be identified. (orig.)

  11. Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic systematics in a three-component mantle: a new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zindler, A.; Goldstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    Average Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions for oceanic basalts indicate that the present day mantle consists of three chemically independent components. The recognition of a third mantle component obviates geochemical arguments which have been used to support chemical stratification and convective decoupling within the mantle, and the transport of lead to the core throughout geological time. (author)

  12. Across-arc versus along-arc Sr-Nd-Pb isotope variations in the Ecuadorian volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancellin, Marie-Anne; Samaniego, Pablo; Vlastélic, Ivan; Nauret, François; Gannoun, Adbelmouhcine; Hidalgo, Silvana

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies of the Ecuadorian arc (1°N-2°S) have revealed across-arc geochemical trends that are consistent with a decrease in mantle melting and slab dehydration away from the trench. The aim of this work is to evaluate how these processes vary along the arc in response to small-scale changes in the age of the subducted plate, subduction angle, and continental crustal basement. We use an extensive database of 1437 samples containing 71 new analyses, of major and trace elements as well as Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes from Ecuadorian and South Colombian volcanic centers. Large geochemical variations are found to occur along the Ecuadorian arc, in particular along the front arc, which encompasses 99% and 71% of the total variations in 206Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Quaternary Ecuadorian volcanics, respectively. The front arc volcanoes also show two major latitudinal trends: (1) the southward increase of 207Pb/204Pb and decrease of 143Nd/144Nd reflect more extensive crustal contamination of magma in the southern part (up to 14%); and (2) the increase of 206Pb/204Pb and decrease of Ba/Th away from ˜0.5°S result from the changing nature of metasomatism in the subarc mantle wedge with the aqueous fluid/siliceous slab melt ratio decreasing away from 0.5°S. Subduction of a younger and warmer oceanic crust in the Northern part of the arc might promote slab melting. Conversely, the subduction of a colder oceanic crust south of the Grijalva Fracture Zone and higher crustal assimilation lead to the reduction of slab contribution in southern part of the arc.

  13. Natural and anthropogenic lead in soils and vegetables around Guiyang city, southwest China: A Pb isotopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fei-Li [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Liu, Cong-Qiang, E-mail: liucongqiang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yang, Yuan-Gen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Bi, Xiang-Yang [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Tao-Ze; Zhao, Zhi-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Soils, vegetables and rainwaters from three vegetable production bases in the Guiyang area, southwest China, were analyzed for Pb concentrations and isotope compositions to trace its sources in the vegetables and soils. Lead isotopic compositions were not distinguishable between yellow soils and calcareous soils, but distinguishable among sampling sites. The highest {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios were found for rainwaters (0.8547-0.8593 and 2.098-2.109, respectively), and the lowest for soils (0.7173-0.8246 and 1.766-2.048, respectively). The {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios increased in vegetables in the order of roots < stems < leaves < fruits. Plots of the {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios versus the {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios from all samples formed a straight line and supported a binary end-member mixing model for Pb in vegetables. Using deep soils and rainwaters as geogenic and anthropogenic end members in the mixing model, it was estimated that atmospheric Pb contributed 30-77% to total Pb for vegetable roots, 43-71% for stems, 72-85% for leaves, and 90% for capsicum fruits, whereas 10-70% of Pb in all vegetable parts was derived from soils. This research supports that heavy metal contamination in vegetables can result mainly from atmospheric deposition, and Pb isotope technique is useful for tracing the sources of Pb contamination in vegetables.

  14. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do [Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Hou, Shugui [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Burn-Nunes, Laurie J. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Hong, Sungmin, E-mail: smhong@inha.ac.kr [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Barbante, Carlo [Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (UMR Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS 5183 ), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Unite de Formation et de Recherche ' Physique, Ingenierie, Terre, Environnement, Mecanique' , Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble ( Institut Universitaire de France ), 715 rue de la Houille Blanche, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rosman, Kevin J.R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature ({approx} 1.20 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {approx} 2.50 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last {approx} 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and 2.471 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in the period 1990-1996. The depression of the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  15. Enhanced Continental Weathering on Antarctica During the Mid Miocene Climatic Optima Based on Pb Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. E.; Fenn, C.; Basak, C.

    2012-12-01

    Feedbacks between climate and continental weathering can be monitored over geologic time scales using Pb isotopes preserved in marine sediments. During chemical weathering, radiogenic Pb is preferentially released to the dissolved phase, producing weathering solutions with more radiogenic isotopic values than the parent rock. The offset between the composition of the solution and rock tend to increase with the intensity of incongruent weathering (von Blanckenburg and Nägler, 2001; Harlavan and Erel, 2002). The seawater isotopic signal extracted from Fe-Mn oxides on bulk marine sediments is interpreted to represent the composition of local dissolved weathering inputs. For example, increasing seawater Pb isotopes observed during the most recent deglaciation are believed to reflect enhanced weathering of newly exposed glacial rock flour under warm conditions (Foster and Vance, 2006; Kurzweil et al., 2010). For this study we evaluated Nd and Pb isotopes from both the seawater fraction (extracted from Fe-Mn oxides) and parent rock (the detrital fraction of marine sediment) during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and subsequent cooling and East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) expansion (18 to 8 Ma) from Ocean Drilling Program site 744 on Kerguelen Plateau (2300 m; Indian sector) and sites 689 and 690 on Maud Rise (2080 m and 2914 m; Atlantic sector). The absolute value of seawater 206Pb/204Pb and separation between values for seawater and detrital fractions increased during the MMCO, suggesting enhanced weathering in proglacial and deglaciated areas exposed by ice sheet meltback during the warm interval. During the ensuing cooling, seawater values and the offset between the two archives decreased. Similar trends are displayed by 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb, although 207Pb/204Pb detrital values tend to be higher than seawater values. Reconstructions of atmospheric pCO2 in the Miocene have suggested both 1) decoupling between pCO2 and climate with consistently low

  16. Heavy metal pollution and Pb isotopic tracing in the intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay, southeast coast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ruilian; Zhang, Weifang; Hu, Gongren; Lin, Chengqi; Yang, Qiuli

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of 16 heavy metals and Pb isotopic ratios in the intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay were determined to study the pollution level of heavy metals and the sources of Pb. The results showed that most concentrations of Cd, Sn, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Co, Cs, Fe and V were higher than the background values, while most concentrations of Ti, Sb and Sr were lower than the background values. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd exceeded the first-grade criteria of Chinese marine sediment quality. The geo-accumulation indexes revealed that the sediments had been polluted by some heavy metals. The results of Pb isotopic tracing indicated that the total Pb in the sediments were mainly from parent material, industrial emission and vehicle exhaust with the mean contributions of 38.2%, 51.3% and 10.5%, respectively, calculated by a three-end-member model of Pb isotopic ratios. - Highlights: •Level of 16 heavy metals in intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay was studied. •The sediments had been polluted by some heavy metals including Pb. •Pb isotopic compositions in the sediments and the potential sources were determined. •A three-end member model was applied to estimate the contributions of Pb sources. •Industrial emission was the major anthropogenic Pb contributor in the sediments.

  17. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.

    2017-07-01

    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  18. Seawater and Detrital Marine Pb Isotopes as Monitors of Antarctic Weathering Following Ice Sheet Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, C.; Martin, E. E.; Basak, C.

    2011-12-01

    Comparisons of seawater and detrital Pb isotopes from sites proximal to Antarctica at the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT) are being used to understand variations in continental weathering associated with the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Previous work has shown that seawater and detrital archives yield similar isotopic values during Eocene warmth, which is interpreted to record congruent chemical weathering of the continent. In contrast, distinct isotopic values for the two phases at the EOT represents increased incongruent mechanical weathering during growth of the ice sheet. For this study we expanded beyond the initial glaciation at the EOT to determine whether less dramatic changes in ice volume and climate also produce variations in weathering and intensity that are recorded by seawater and detrital Pb isotopes. We collected Nd and Pb isotope data from extractions of Fe-Mn oxide coatings of bulk decarbonated marine sediments, which preserve seawater isotopic values, and from complete dissolutions of the remaining silicate fraction for Ocean Drilling Program Site 748 on Kerguelen Plateau (1300 m modern water depth). The data spans an interval of deglaciation from ~23.5-27 Ma documented by δ18O that has been equated to a ~30% decrease in ice volume on Antarctica (Pekar and Christie-Blick, 2008, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol.). Initial results from Site 748 include the first ɛNd values for intermediate waters in the Oligocene Southern Ocean and reveal a value of ~-8 over the entire 3.5 my interval, which is consistent with values reported for deep Indian Ocean sites at this time and similar to deeper Southern Ocean sites. Corresponding detrital ɛNd values are less radiogenic and decrease from -9 to -13 during the study interval. Detrital 206Pb/204Pb values also decrease during the warming interval, while seawater 206Pb/204Pb values increase. The decrease in detrital values indicates the composition of source materials entering

  19. Pb and Sr isotopic systematics of some basalts and sulfides from the East Pacific Rise at 210N (project RITA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, P.; Clauer, N.

    1981-01-01

    Tholeiitic basalts and sulfide deposits from the 'Cyana' and 'Alvin' diving programs (RITA project) on the East Pacific Rise were analyzed for Pb and Sr isotopes. The basalt data plot within the field defined previously by other East Pacific Rise basalts ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb: 18.35-18.58; 207 Pb/ 204 Pb: 15.48-15.53; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb: 37.8-38.1; 87 Sr/ 86 Sr: 0.7022-0.7025). Pb, U and Sr contents (approx. equal to 0.5, approx. equal to 0.05 and approx. equal to 110 ppm, respectively) and μ values (approx. equal to 6) are typical of MORB, whereas Th/U ratios (approx. equal to 3.5) are significantly higher. The Pb isotopic ratios of the sulfide samples are very homogeneous ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb approx. equal to 18.47, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb approx. equal to 15.49, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb approx. equal to 37.90), and plot in the middle of the basalt field. This indicates that the sulfide Pb was derived from the basaltic crust without any significant contribution from either seawater or hemipelagic sediments, and the solutions from which the sulfiedes were deposited had uniform Pb isotopic composition. The Pb contents of three sulfide samples is relatively high (170-1310 ppm). The Sr contents of five sulfide samples are widely scattered from 12 to 210 ppm, with 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios intermediate between basaltic and seawater values (0.70554 +- 0.00005 to 0.70795 +- 0.00011). Leaching experiments show that both basalt-derived Sr and seawater Sr were present in the solutions which deposited the sulfides. In some cases, Sr was also adsorbed from seawater onto the sulfides following their deposition. Basalt-derived Sr and seawater Sr are also present in associated non-sulfide phases. (orig.)

  20. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil-plant-snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Walraven, N.; Beets, K.; Vroon, P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and

  1. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil­-plant-­snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Walraven, N.; Beets, C.J.; Vroon, P.Z.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and

  2. U, Th, and Pb isotopes in hot springs on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations and isotopic compositions of U, Th, and Pb in three hydrothermal fluids from the Juan de Fuca Ridge were determined. The samples consisted of 10.2--57.6% of the pure hydrothermal end-members based on Mg contents. The Pb contents of the samples ranged from 34 to 87 ng/g, U from 1.3 to 3.0 ng/g, and Th from 0.2 to 7.7 pg/g. These samples showed large enrichments of Pb and Th relative to deep-sea water and some depletion of U. They did not show coherent relationships with Mg, however, indicating nonideal mixings between the hot hydrothermal fluids and cold ambient seawater. Particles filtered from these hydrothermal fluids contained significant amounts of Th and Pb which may effectively increase the concentration of these elements in the fluids when acidified. The /sup 234/U//sup 238/U values in all samples show a /sup 234/U enrichment relative to the equilibrium value and have a seawater signature. The Pb isotopic composition of the Juan de Fuca hydrothermal fluids resembles that of 21 0 N East Pacific Rise and has a uniform mid-ocean ridge basalt signature. The hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading ridges have circulated through a large volume of basalts. Therefore Pb in these fluids may represent the best average value of the local oceanic crust. From the effects of U deposition from seawater to the crust and Pb extraction from rock to the ocean, the U/Pb ratio in the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust may be increased significantly. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  3. Pico-CSIA: Picomolar Scale Compound-Specific Isotope Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczynski, A. A.; Polissar, P. J.; Juchelka, D.; Schwieters, J. B.; Hilkert, A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    The basic approach to analyzing molecular isotopes has remained largely unchanged since the late 1990s. Conventional compound-specific isotope analyses (CSIA) are conducted using capillary gas chromatography (GC), a combustion interface, and an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Commercially available GC-IRMS systems are comprised of components with inner diameters ≥0.25 mm and employ helium flow rates of 1-4 mL/min. These flow rates are an order of magnitude larger than what the IRMS can accept. Consequently, ≥90% of the sample is lost through the open split, and 1-10s of nanomoles of carbon are required for analysis. These sample requirements are prohibitive for many biomarkers, which are often present in picomolar concentrations. We utilize the resolving power and low flows of narrow-bore capillary GC to improve the sensitivity of CSIA. Narrow bore capillary columns (<0.25 mm ID) allow low helium flow rates of ≤0.5mL/min for more efficient sample transfer to the ion source of the IRMS while maintaining the high linear flow rates necessary to preserve narrow peak widths ( 250 ms). The IRMS has been fitted with collector amplifiers configured to 25 ms response times for rapid data acquisition across narrow peaks. Previous authors (e.g., Sacks et al., 2007) successfully demonstrated improved sensitivity afforded by narrow-bore GC columns. They reported an accuracy and precision of 1.4‰ for peaks with an average width at half maximum of 720 ms for 100 picomoles of carbon on column. Our method builds on their advances and further reduces peak widths ( 600 ms) and the amount of sample lost prior to isotopic analysis. Preliminary experiments with 100 picomoles of carbon on column show an accuracy and standard deviation <1‰. With further improvement, we hope to demonstrate robust isotopic analysis of 10s of picomoles of carbon, more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than commercial systems. The pico-CSIA method affords high-precision isotopic analyses for

  4. Columbite-Group Minerals from New York Pegmatites: Insights from Isotopic and Geochemical Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian V. Lupulescu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Columbite crystals from niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF pegmatites lacking zircon or containing metamict cyrtolite were analyzed for major and minor elements (Electron Microprobe (EMP, trace elements (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and U-Pb geochronology (Laser AblationMulti-Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS. All four pegmatite localities sampled are hosted by the Proterozoic Fordham gneiss and/or Paleozoic Bedford gneiss (Columbite-(Fe; Kinkel and Baylis localities and the Manhattan Schist of Lower Paleozoic age (Columbite-(Mn; Fort George and Harlem River Drive localities and yield Neoacadian ages. The weighted average U-Pb ages are 372.2 ± 8.2 Ma (Baylis Quarry, 371.3 ± 7.3 and 383.4 ± 8.9 Ma (Kinkel Quarry; 383 ± 15 Ma (185th St. and Harlem River Drive; and 372 ± 10 Ma (Fort George. A partial metamict zircon (“cyrtolite” from the Kinkel Quarry yielded a weighted average U-Pb age of 376.9 ± 4.3 Ma. The Neoacadian ages obtained agree with those determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS for zircon from Lithium-Cesium-Tantalum (LCT pegmatites from Connecticut and Maine. No pegmatites temporally associated with the Taconic orogeny were found. The size, lack of common Pb, uniform U concentrations across crystal cross-sections, sufficient but moderate uranium concentrations, lack of metamictization, and consistency in U-Pb isotopic ratios for columbite samples BCB-COL, NYSM #25232, and NYSM #525.8 suggests they show promise as potential standards for oxide mineral LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronological analyses, however, additional characterization using ID-TIMS would be necessary to develop as such.

  5. Tracing the sources of stream sediments by Pb isotopes and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyung-Seok Ko; Jae Gon Kim; Kyoochul Ha; Kil Yong Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to trace the sources of stream sediments in a small watershed influenced by anthropogenic and lithogenic origins identified by the spatial distributions and temporal variations of stream sediments using geochemical interpretation of the stable and radiogenic isotopes, major components, and heavy metals data and principal component analysis. To know the effects of both present and past mining, the stream sediments were sampled at the stream tributaries and sediment coring work. The spatial distributions of heavy metals clearly showed the effects of Cu and Pb-Zn mineralization zones at the site. Anthropogenic Pb was elevated at the downstream area by the stream sediments due to an active quarry. The results of principal components analysis also represent the effects of the stream sediments origins, including anthropogenic wastes and the active quarry and lithogenic sediment. Anomalous Cu, indicating the effect of past Guryong mining, was identified at the deep core sediments of 1.80-5.05 m depth. The influence of active quarry was shown in the recently deposited sediments of 210 Pb and stable Pb and Sr isotopes. This study suggests that the chemical studies using radiogenic and stable isotopes and heavy metals and multivariate statistical method are useful tools to discriminate the sources of stream sediments with different origins. (author)

  6. Soil-plant interactions and the uptake of Pb at abandoned mining sites in the Rookhope catchment of the N. Pennines, UK - A Pb isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenery, S.R.; Izquierdo, M. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Marzouk, E. [School of Biosciences, Sutton Bonnington Campus, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Klinck, B.; Palumbo-Roe, B. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Tye, A.M., E-mail: atye@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-01

    This paper examines Pb concentrations and sources in soil, grass and heather from the Rookhope catchment in the North Pennines, UK, an area of historical Pb and Zn mining and smelting. Currently, the area has extensive livestock and sports shooting industries. Risk assessment, using the source-pathway-receptor paradigm, requires the quantification of source terms and an understanding of the many factors determining the concentration of Pb in plants. A paired soil and vegetation (grass and heather) geochemical survey was undertaken. Results showed no direct correlation between soil (total or EDTA extractable Pb) and vegetation Pb concentration. However, regression modelling based on the Free-Ion Activity Model (FIAM) suggested that the underlying mechanism determining grass Pb concentration across the catchment was largely through root uptake. Spatial patterns of {sup 206/207}Pb isotopes suggested greater aerosol deposition of Pb on high moorland and prevailing wind facing slopes. This was evident in the isotopic ratios of the heather plants. Pb isotope analysis showed that new growth heather tips typically had {sup 206/207}Pb values of {approx} 1.14, whilst grass shoots typically had values {approx} 1.16 and bulk soil and peat {approx} 1.18. However, the {sup 206/207}Pb ratio in the top few cm of peat was {approx} 1.16 suggesting that grass was accessing Pb from a historical/recent pool of Pb in soil/peat profiles and consisting of both Pennine ore Pb and long-range Pb deposition. Isotope Dilution assays on the peat showed a lability of between 40 and 60%. A simple source apportionment model applied to samples where the isotope ratios was not within the range of the local Pennine Pb, suggested that grass samples contained up to 31% of non-Pennine Pb. This suggests that the historical/recent reservoir of non-Pennine Pb accessed by roots continues to be a persistent contaminant source despite the principal petrol Pb source being phased out over a decade ago

  7. Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Nikolova, Mariyana; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Mollov, Mihail; Swain, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Lead isotope signatures ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb), determined by magnetic sector ICP-MS in river channel sediment, metal ores and mine waste, have been used as geochemical tracers to quantify the delivery and dispersal of sediment-associated metals in the lower Danube River catchment. Due to a diverse geology and range of ore-body ages, Pb isotope signatures in ore-bodies within the lower Danube River catchment show considerable variation, even within individual metallogenic zones. It is also possible to discriminate between the Pb isotopic signatures in mine waste and river sediment within river systems draining individual ore bodies. Lead isotopic data, along with multi-element data; were used to establish the provenance of river sediments and quantify sedimentary contributions to mining-affected tributaries and to the Danube River. Data indicate that mining-affected tributaries in Serbia and Bulgaria contribute up to 30% of the river channel sediment load of the lower Danube River. Quantifying relative sediment contributions from mining-affected tributaries enables spatial patterns in sediment-associated metal and As concentrations to be interpreted in terms of key contaminant sources. Combining geochemical survey data with that regarding the provenance of contaminated sediments can therefore be used to identify foci for remediation and environmental management strategies.

  8. Isotopic analysis of a single Pb particle by using laser ablation TOF-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I. H.; Yoo, H. S. [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Song, K. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    A laser ablation can be applied to a direct isotopic analysis of solid samples due to the following advantages. Because a laser ablation is a very powerful ionization source, an additional ionization source is not required and an one step vaporization and ionization of samples is possible. Due to the small size of a laser beam, an analysis of a local trace can be applied. Also, the contamination or loss of samples is reduced because there is no need for a sample preparation process. In this study, Pb particles with a size of∼150μm were analyzed by LA TOF MS and a second harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser, 532nm, was used for the laser ablation. First, the ion signal of Pb was measured depending on the matrices. For loading a Pb particle, a silicon wafer, cotton textile, and Ta metal plate were used as a basic plate. As a result, the silicon wafer plate was identified to be the best matrix for the analysis of Pb with a good resolution and its measured isotopic ratios reasonably agree with the natural abundance within 5%. The figure shows a mass spectrum of Pb onto a silicon wafer. In applying the resonance laser ablation, the detection sensitivity was increased by more than 10 times. In the experiment regarding the cotton textile, the mass resolution of Pb was more than 500 which was enough to measure the isotopes, and it is applicable to real swipe samples in various fields such as environmental analysis, industry, and nuclear forensic.

  9. Origin and tectonic implications of the Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit in northern Himalaya: evidence from structures, Re-Os-Pb-S isotopes, and fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Li, Wenchang; Qing, Chengshi; Lai, Yang; Li, Yingxu; Liao, Zhenwen; Wu, Jianyang; Wang, Shengwei; Dong, Lei; Tian, Enyuan

    2018-04-01

    The Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag-(Au) deposits, located in the eastern part of northern Himalaya, totally contain more than 1.146 million tonnes (Mt) of Pb, 1.407 Mt of Zn, 0.345 Mt of Sb, and 3 kilotonnes (kt) of Ag. Our field observations suggest that these deposits are controlled by N-S trending and west- and steep-dipping normal faults, suggesting a hydrothermal rather than a syngenetic sedimentary origin. The Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag-(Cu-Au) mineralization formed in the Eocene as indicated by a Re-Os isochron age of 43.1 ± 2.5 Ma. Sulfide minerals have varying initial Pb isotopic compositions, with (206Pb/204Pb)i of 19.04-19.68, (207Pb/204Pb)i of 15.75-15.88, and (208Pb/204Pb)i of 39.66-40.31. Sulfur isotopic values display a narrow δ34S interval of +7.8-+12.2‰. These Pb-S isotopic data suggest that the Zhaxikang sources of Pb and S should be mainly from the coeval felsic magmas and partly from the surrounding Mesozoic strata including metasedimentary rocks and layered felsic volcanic rocks. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that the hydrothermal fluids have medium temperatures (200-336 °C) but varying salinities (1.40-18.25 wt.% NaCl equiv.) with densities of 0.75-0.95 g/cm3, possibly suggesting an evolution mixing between a high salinity fluid, perhaps of magmatic origin, with meteoric water.

  10. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned ‘Black Angel Mine’ in West Greenland in the period 1988–2008....... mining pollution. Lead isotopes can be used to monitor uptake of mining-related lead in lichens, seaweed and mussels.......Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned ‘Black Angel Mine’ in West Greenland in the period 1988...

  11. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  12. High spatial resolution U-Pb geochronology and Pb isotope geochemistry of magnetite-apatite ore from the Pea Ridge iron oxide-apatite deposit, St. Francois Mountains, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Pietruszka, Aaron; Aleinikoff, John N.; Fanning, C. Mark; Pillers, Renee M.; Moscati, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pea Ridge iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit is one of the major rhyolite-hosted magnetite deposits of the St. Francois Mountains terrane, which is located within the Mesoproterozoic (1.5–1.3 Ga) Granite-Rhyolite province in the U.S. Midcontinent. Precise and accurate determination of the timing and duration of oreforming processes in this deposit is crucial for understanding its origin and placing it within a deposit-scale and regional geologic context. Apatite and monazite, well-established U-Pb mineral geochronometers, are abundant in the Pea Ridge orebody. However, the potential presence of multiple generations of dateable minerals, processes of dissolution-reprecipitation, and occurrence of micrometer-sized intergrowths and inclusions complicate measurements and interpretations of the geochronological results. Here, we employ a combination of several techniques, including ID-TIMS and high spatial resolution geochronology of apatite and monazite using LA-SC-ICPMS and SHRIMP, and Pb isotope geochemistry of pyrite and magnetite to obtain the first direct age constraints on the formation and alteration history of the Pea Ridge IOA deposit. The oldest apatite TIMS 207Pb*/206Pb* dates are 1471 ± 1 and 1468 ± 1 Ma, slightly younger than (but within error of) the ~1474 to ~1473 Ma U-Pb zircon ages of the host rhyolites. Dating of apatite and monazite inclusions within apatite provides evidence for at least one younger metasomatic event at ~1.44 Ga, and possibly multiple superimposed metasomatic events between 1.47 and 1.44 Ga. Lead isotop analyses of pyrite show extremely radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb ratios up to ~80 unsupported by in situ U decay. This excess radiogenic Pb in pyrite may have been derived from the spatially associated apatite as apatite recrystallized several tens of million years after its formation. The low initial 206Pb/204Pb ratio of ~16.5 and 207Pb/204Pb ratio of ~15.4 for individual magnetite grains indicate closed U-Pb system behavior in

  13. Assessing of distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in agricultural soils using isotopic labeling method coupled with BCR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhi-Yong, E-mail: zhyhuang@jmu.edu.cn [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xie, Hong [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Shandong Vocational Animal Science and Veterinary College, Weifang 261061 (China); Cao, Ying-Lan [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Cai, Chao [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhang, Zhi [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Large amounts of exogenous Pb were found to distribute in reducible fractions. • Very few of exogenous Pb were found to distribute in acid-extractable fractions. • More than 60% of exogenous Pb in rhizosphere soils lost after planting. • Isotopic labeling method and SEP enable to explore Pb bioavailability in soil. -- Abstract: The contamination of Pb in agricultural soils is one of the most important ecological problems, which potentially results in serious health risk on human health through food chain. Hence, the fate of exogenous Pb contaminated in agricultural soils is needed to be deeply explored. By spiking soils with the stable enriched isotopes of {sup 206}Pb, the contamination of exogenous Pb{sup 2+} ions in three agricultural soils sampled from the estuary areas of Jiulong River, China was simulated in the present study, and the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in the soils were investigated using the isotopic labeling method coupled with a four-stage BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. Results showed that about 60–85% of exogenous Pb was found to distribute in reducible fractions, while the exogenous Pb in acid-extractable fractions was less than 1.0%. After planting, the amounts of exogenous Pb presenting in acid-extractable, reducible and oxidizable fractions in rhizospheric soils decreased by 60–66%, in which partial exogenous Pb was assimilated by plants while most of the metal might transfer downward due to daily watering and applying fertilizer. The results show that the isotopic labeling technique coupled with sequential extraction procedures enables us to explore the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb contaminated in soils, which may be useful for the further soil remediation.

  14. Assessing of distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in agricultural soils using isotopic labeling method coupled with BCR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Hong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large amounts of exogenous Pb were found to distribute in reducible fractions. • Very few of exogenous Pb were found to distribute in acid-extractable fractions. • More than 60% of exogenous Pb in rhizosphere soils lost after planting. • Isotopic labeling method and SEP enable to explore Pb bioavailability in soil. -- Abstract: The contamination of Pb in agricultural soils is one of the most important ecological problems, which potentially results in serious health risk on human health through food chain. Hence, the fate of exogenous Pb contaminated in agricultural soils is needed to be deeply explored. By spiking soils with the stable enriched isotopes of 206 Pb, the contamination of exogenous Pb 2+ ions in three agricultural soils sampled from the estuary areas of Jiulong River, China was simulated in the present study, and the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in the soils were investigated using the isotopic labeling method coupled with a four-stage BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. Results showed that about 60–85% of exogenous Pb was found to distribute in reducible fractions, while the exogenous Pb in acid-extractable fractions was less than 1.0%. After planting, the amounts of exogenous Pb presenting in acid-extractable, reducible and oxidizable fractions in rhizospheric soils decreased by 60–66%, in which partial exogenous Pb was assimilated by plants while most of the metal might transfer downward due to daily watering and applying fertilizer. The results show that the isotopic labeling technique coupled with sequential extraction procedures enables us to explore the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb contaminated in soils, which may be useful for the further soil remediation

  15. Activities of AREVA Med. Extraction and purification of the 212Pb isotope from Thorium for radio-immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miquel, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    After having recalled the definition of radio-immunotherapy (RIT) and the benefits of alpha RIT for the treatment of some cancers, this document explains the choice of the 212-Pb isotope instead of the 212-Bi isotope (the first one has a longer half-life than the second). The Pb isotope in fact progressively transforms itself into the Bi isotope. The production process is evoked with its important steps. A second part reports the first clinic tests performed in the Alabama Centre for the treatment of different cancer (breast, colon, ovarian, pancreas, stomach). Processes and doses are discussed

  16. Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, A.

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico Abigail Jimenez-Franco1*, Pura Alfonso Abella2, Carles Canet3, Eduardo González-Partida4 1 Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 2 Departament d'Enginyeria Minera i Recursos Naturals, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av de Les Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa. 3Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Qro., Mexico The Velardeña mining district is located in north-eastern part of the state of Durango, in northern of Mexico. The ore deposit is a lead-zinc, garnet-rich skarn developed at the contact between granite porphyry dikes (Eocene) and well-laminated limestones with interbedded chert (Albian-Cenomanian). A study of sulfur isotopes has been carried out in various sulfide minerals of the ores of Velardeña, in order to: (a) constrain the possible sources of sulfur and, therefore, better understand the sulfide mineralizing processes, and (b) to estimate the temperature of the ore-forming stage of the skarn. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed in 21 pure fractions of sulfide minerals of the ore mineralization (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena). The mineral separation was performed using a series of sieves, and the purity of the samples was verified under a binocular microscope. Isotopic analyses were done on a Finnigan MAT Delta C flow elemental analyzer coupled to a TC-EA, according with the method of Giesemann et al. (1974). The δ34S values of the analyzed sulfides range mostly between -0.6 and +2.6 ‰ (relative to the CDT standard). These values are indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. A single analysis falls

  17. Assessing of distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in agricultural soils using isotopic labeling method coupled with BCR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Hong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhi

    2014-02-15

    The contamination of Pb in agricultural soils is one of the most important ecological problems, which potentially results in serious health risk on human health through food chain. Hence, the fate of exogenous Pb contaminated in agricultural soils is needed to be deeply explored. By spiking soils with the stable enriched isotopes of (206)Pb, the contamination of exogenous Pb(2+) ions in three agricultural soils sampled from the estuary areas of Jiulong River, China was simulated in the present study, and the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in the soils were investigated using the isotopic labeling method coupled with a four-stage BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. Results showed that about 60-85% of exogenous Pb was found to distribute in reducible fractions, while the exogenous Pb in acid-extractable fractions was less than 1.0%. After planting, the amounts of exogenous Pb presenting in acid-extractable, reducible and oxidizable fractions in rhizospheric soils decreased by 60-66%, in which partial exogenous Pb was assimilated by plants while most of the metal might transfer downward due to daily watering and applying fertilizer. The results show that the isotopic labeling technique coupled with sequential extraction procedures enables us to explore the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb contaminated in soils, which may be useful for the further soil remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. U-Pb isotopic evidence pertaining to the age and genesis of uranium mineralisation in Karoo sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsopp, H.L.; Welke, H.J.; Armstrong, R.A.; Clough, W.; Evans, I.B.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary investigations have been carried out, using the uranium-lead isotopic method, on the uranium mineralisation that occurs within the Karoo sediments. Two occurences were studied, namely the lower Beaufort sediments (Adelaide Subgroup) in the Beaufort West area and the Molteno Formation sediments in the Ficksburg area. The objective were to determine the age of the mineralisation and to study the mode of formation of the ores. The pattern of U-Pb apparent ages for all the Karoo samples is 207 Pb/ 206 Pb age >> 207 Pb* 235 U age > 206 Pb* 238 U age

  19. Petrogenesis of ultramafic xenoliths from Hawaii inferred from Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Osamu; Tatsumoto, Mitsunobu

    Isotopic compositions of Nd, Sr, and Pb in xenoliths in the Honolulu volcanic series from the Salt Lake Crater (H-type) are similar to those of the host post-erosional basalts, but are distinct from the magma sources of Koolau shield tholeiites and MORB. In contrast, one spinel Iherzolite (K-type) has isotopic compositions of Nd and Sr that are close to those of Koolau tholeiite rather than to the other Hawaiian basalts. Previous studies have shown that Sr isotopic composition of the xenoliths and the host basalt and that trace element concentrations in minerals of garnet Iherzolites from Honolulu basalt were nearly in equilibrium with the host magma, indicating that Honolulu volcanics were derived from garnet Iherzolite or similar material. However, differences exist among the isotopic compositions (especially Nd) of the xenoliths indicating that they are accidental inclusions from upper layers. The similarity in isotopic compositions between xenoliths and Honolulu basalt suggests that the source areas in the mantle are chemically similar. Correlation of 238U/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb of chrome diopside separated from the H-type spinel Iherzolites indicates that the xenoliths are 80±36 Ma, which corresponds to the lithosphere age of the Hawaiian site. This age is consistent with petrological studies [e.g., Sen and Leeman, 1991] which have found that the spinel Iherzolite inclusions are derived from the lithosphere wall rocks. The ɛNd = ˜+8 of the H-xenoliths is slightly lower than that for the East Pacific Rise MORB indicating that the xenoliths are derived from a trace element depleted source similar to the MORB residue. If the garnet Iherzolite xenoliths are derived from mixture of spinel Iherzolite with intrusive pyroxenite, then the source of the pyroxenite contained little plume component. The one exceptional spinel Iherzolite xenolith may be a residue of Koolau-like tholeiitic magma or may have been metasomatized by Koolau volcanism in the deep lithosphere

  20. A study of U-Pb isotopic evolutionary system in Chanziping uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weichang; Huang Shijie; Xia Yuliang.

    1988-01-01

    Chanziping uranium deposit occurred in the black siliceous slate of Lower cambrian. The uranium mineralization was controlled by both interstratified fault belt and the ore-bearing beds. Based on the study of the U-Pb isotopic system of the various rocks, ores and minerals in the ore-bearing beds, the authors find out the obvious disequilibrium of U-Pb isotopic composition in most rock samples which indicates the loss of uranium form the ore-bearing beds and surrounding granite. Its counting loss ranges from 30 to 80%. The age of rich ores of the U-Pb concordance diagram and the U-Pb three stage model are t 1 = 523 ± 19M. Y. , t 2 = 22 ± 2 M.Y.. The isochronal ages for pitchblend are 75 ± 4 M.Y., 43 ± 7 M.Y., and for rock is 416 M.y.. These data shows that the uranium in ore-bearing beds was mainly derived from the ore-bearing beds itself and partly from the surrounding granite. The ore deposit can be considered to be of stratabound uranium deposit of sedimentation and late transformation type

  1. The isotope systematics of a juvenile intraplate volcano: Pb, Nd, and Srisotope ratios of basalts from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudigel, H.; Zindler, A.; Leslie, T.

    1984-01-01

    Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for a representative suite of 15 basanites, alkali basalts, transitional basalts and tholeiites from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, display unusually large variations for a single volcano, but lie within known ranges for Hawaiian basalts. Nd isotope ratios in alkali basalts show the largest relative variation (0.51291 - 0.51305), and include the nearly constant tholeiite value (approx.= 0.51297). Pb isotope ratios show similarly large ranges for tholeiites and alkali basalts and continue Tatsumoto's [31] 'Loa' trend towards higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, ratios, resulting in a substantial overlap with the 'Kea' trend. 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios for Loihi and other volcanoes along the Loa and Kea trends [31] are observed to correlate with the age of the underlying lithosphere suggesting lithosphere involvement in the formation of Hawaiian tholeiites. Loihi lavas display no correlation of Nd, Sr, or Pb isotope ratios with major element compositions or eruptive age, in contrast with observations of some other Hawaiian volcanoes. Isotope data for Loihi, as well as average values for Hawaiian volcanoes, are not adequately explained by previously proposed two-end-member models; new models for the origin and the development of Hawaiian volcanoes must include mixing of at least three geochemically distinct source regions and allow for the involvement of heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere. (orig.)

  2. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil-plant-snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Walraven, N.; Beets, C.J.; Vroon, P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and concentrations were determined in soil, litter, plant leaves, snails, rainwater and airborne particulate matter. Anthropogenic Pb in the soils of all locations was found to be derived from deposition of Pb polluted river sediments. Discharging rivers influenced the reference location before being reclaimed from the sea. The river sediment contains anthropogenic Pb from various sources related to industrial activities in the hinterland of the rivers Meuse and Rhine. Lead in the atmosphere contributed substantially to Pb pollution and Pb transfer in plant leaves and snails in all locations. Lead pollution in plant leaves and snails can be explained from a mixture of river sediment-Pb and atmospheric Pb from various transfer routes that involve low concentrations

  3. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil-plant-snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of System Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.notten@nunhems.com; Walraven, N. [Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Earth Sciences/Geochemistry, University of Utrecht, Budapestlaan 4, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Beets, C.J. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Department of Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vroon, P. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Department of Petrology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J.; Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of System Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and concentrations were determined in soil, litter, plant leaves, snails, rainwater and airborne particulate matter. Anthropogenic Pb in the soils of all locations was found to be derived from deposition of Pb polluted river sediments. Discharging rivers influenced the reference location before being reclaimed from the sea. The river sediment contains anthropogenic Pb from various sources related to industrial activities in the hinterland of the rivers Meuse and Rhine. Lead in the atmosphere contributed substantially to Pb pollution and Pb transfer in plant leaves and snails in all locations. Lead pollution in plant leaves and snails can be explained from a mixture of river sediment-Pb and atmospheric Pb from various transfer routes that involve low concentrations.

  4. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    (PF) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) firing technology. These samples were analyzed to determine macro and trace elements by the ICP-MS method. The same samples were also measured with a high-purity germanium detector (planar BSI GPD-50400) to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. The lead concentrations and Pb-210 activity concentrations were determined, and the correlation between the corresponding values was analyzed. Initial results demonstrate a strong positive linear relationship between these values, with the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) over 94. The correlation coefficient (Pearson's, 'r') had a value over 0.95. Both Pb and Pb-210 values had an increasing trend from the bottom ash towards electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ashes. The strong linear correlation between Pb concentrations and Pb-210 activity concentrations gives a credible indication that lead can be measured in ash samples using its radioactive isotope Pb-210. Especially in situations where there are higher concentrations of Pb, for example in the case of wastes from the metallurgic and energy industries, this method could be used to detect the lead concentration quickly and with no chemical processing of the sample. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Application of carbon isotope analyses in food technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, Zsuzsa; Svingor, E.; Futo, I.; Palcsu, L.; Molnar, M.

    2001-01-01

    The vast economic size of the food market offers great temptations for the production and sale of fraudulent products, adulterated products and synthetic products that are labeled as natural ones. Conventional techniques of chemical analyses have served the food industry well for many years but are limited in their ability to detect certain types of fraudulent or mislabelled products. The aversion to added sugar and the demand for 'all natural' food products among consumers has led to a great deal of mislabelling on the part of food processors in order to achieve greater economic gain. The nature of deceptions detectable by carbon Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis (SIRA) in food technology falls into three broad categories. The most common is the adulteration of an expensive natural product, such as apple juice, with a much cheaper natural product such as cane sugar or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The second is outright falsification of a food. An example is maple syrup produced by simple addition of maple flavoring to a sugar syrup or HFCS. The third general category is the sale of synthetic materials as natural ones or the addition of synthetic materials to natural ones in order to increase the volume of the product. The procedure for using carbon SIRA in monitoring food products involves two stages. It must first be established that the product to be analyzed, or some specific component of it, has a particular isotopic composition that can be distinguished from that of the materials that might be used to adulterate it. Potential adulterating components are then analyzed to establish their isotopic identity. The carbon SIRA method cannot, in general, be used to establish purity unequivocally but it can be used to establish impurity or adulteration with a high degree of success. The overall process of carbon SIRA consists of three stages: selection of the sample or the isolation of the particular compound to be analyzed, conversion of this compound into CO 2 gas

  6. Anthropogenic influences on Pb/Al and lead isotope signature in annually layered Holocene Maar lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, G.; Romer, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Annually laminated sediments from two Maar lakes in the West Eifel volcanic field (Germany) show anomalously high Pb within sections deposited during the first centuries A.D. exceeding the local geological background 8.5-fold in Lake Meerfelder Maar (MFM) and 4-fold in Lake Schalkenmehrener Maar (SMM). These Pb anomalies are associated with a distinct shift in the Pb isotope signature to less radiogenic compositions. The excess Pb causing the anomaly has the same isotopic composition as galena deposits 60 km to the NW of the Maar lakes. It is suggested that this component was transported airborne into the Maar lakes and originates from regional Roman Pb refinement and cupellation of argentiferous Pb. Varve chronostratigraphy of correlated cores indicates that significant Roman Pb input lasted for about 230 a. SMM does not get fluviatile input. Its sedimentary record is more sensitive to variations in airborne input than that of MFM, which had an inflow. SMM sediment sections deposited during periods of low soil erosion (early Holocene, Dark Ages) with comparably high Pb/Al values also show little radiogenic Pb. This is caused by airborne minerogenic matter from a geochemically and isotopically distinct remote source that becomes apparent only in sedimentation periods of very restricted local allochthonous input. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Historical changes of the anthropogenic impact in a coastal lagoon: Pb isotopes and trace elements on mussel's fleshes and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonne, M.; Othman, D.B.; Luck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Molluscs are known to concentrate metals and are used as bioindicators in many programs of coastal survey. The aims of this study were: (1) to better understand the spatial and temporal variations of metals in a greatly anthropized lagoon (Thau, S France) by using concentrations and Pb isotopes in mussel flesh; (2) to compare present and past environment and the different sources of local Pb in recent mussel shells and ones from the Roman empire. Young mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the sea were introduced at various locations in the lagoon. The ancient shells came from a Roman villa on the lagoon coast. We compare their isotopic compositions to different sources present on the watershed such as rocks, road, harbour, ancient lead castings or Spanish and English ingots. Concentrations of trace metals were determined directly by ICP-MS after proper dilution and the isotopic compositions was determined on a VG Sector mass spectrometer. The Pb concentration variations are difficult to separate from weight variations so we use isotopic compositions for determination of lead sources. The Pb isotopic composition of the flesh define nice alignments in 207 Pb/ 204 Pb vs 206 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram with season, which can be explained by two-component mixtures. However, while one end-member remains quite stable and influenced by road network, the other one shifts to more radiogenic values indicating either a variable origin, or varying proportions of a third component. The ancient shells have more radiogenic isotopes than the current shells but shift towards ancient lead castings and ingots signature. Variations of Pb ratios in the ancient shells can be roughly correlated with age and the evolution of population density around the lagoon over the centuries

  8. In situ isotopic analyses of U and Pb in zircon by remotely operated SHRIMP II, and Hf by LA-ICP-MS: an example of dating and genetic evolution of zircon by {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf from the Ita Quarry in the Atuba Complex, SE, Brazil; Analises in situ de U e Pb em zircao por SRIMP II por controle remoto e de Hf por LA-ICP-MS: um exemplo de datacao e da evolucao genetica de zircao atraves da razao {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177} em amostra da Pedreira Ita no Complexo Atuba, SE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; McReath, Ian; Sproesser, Walter; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], e-mail: keisato@usp.br, e-mail: osigajr@usp.br, e-mail: ianmcr@usp.br, e-mail: wmspres@usp.br, e-mail: baseimas@usp.br; Silva, Josiane Aline da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica; Dunyi, Liu [Institute of Geology, Beijing (China); Iizuka, Takafumi; Rino, Shuji; Hirata, Takafumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Remotely-operated SHRIMP dating of zircon is an interesting alternative for dating of zircon crystals. Although it does not represent any technical progress of the geochronological method using the U-Pb system in zircon it is a very useful and cheap facility. The procedure was first used for mass spectrometric analyses involving two international laboratories in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Beijing, China. It was applied to samples of three gneiss-migmatitic rocks from the Ita quarry in the Atuba Complex (located between the Luis Alves and the Apiai Domain) to test previous controversial hypotheses about its evolution. The presence of important archaean and paleo proterozoic components in the complex is confirmed by analyses of zircon found in probably neo proterozoic leucosomes. Diorite intrusion also occurred during the neo proterozoic, associated with the 0.6Ga continental collisions involved in the assembly of Gondwana. The determination of Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP/MS represents a new option for checking the relative importance of mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} > 0) and crustal contributions (({epsilon}{sub Hf} < 0) during the growth of the zircon crystals. While the archaean component in the complex was derived from the mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} + 1.5 to + 8.7) the paleo proterozoic component had a crustal contribution ({epsilon}{sub Hf} - 9.1 to -10.1). (author)

  9. Improved analytical procedure for the determination of 210Pb and 210Po using alpha-spectrometric isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnezis, P.W.; Holtzman, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    An isotope dilution method has been incorporated into the 210 Pb- 210 Po analysis. A known amount of 209 Po is added to the sample before analysis. Then both 209 Po and 210 Po are deposited on a silver planchet which is assayed in an alpha spectrometer to determine the activities of each isotope. The recoveries generally range from 70% to 90%

  10. Pb-Isotopic Study of Galena by LA-Q-ICP-MS: Testing a New Methodology with Applications to Base-Metal Sulphide Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. M. McFarlane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In situ laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure Pb isotopes in galena. Data acquisition was optimized by adjusting spot size, energy density, and ablation time to obtain near steady-state low relative standard deviation (%RSD signals. Standard-sample bracketing using in-house Broken Hill galena as external reference standard was used and offline data reduction was carried out using VizualAge for Iolite3. Using this methodology, galena grain in polished thin sections from selected massive sulphide deposits of the Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada, were tested and compared to previously published data. Absolute values and errors on the weighted mean of ~20 individual analyses from each sample compared favourably with whole-rock Pb-Pb isotope data. This approach provides a mean to obtain rapid, accurate, and moderately (0.1% 2σ precise Pb isotope measurements in galena and is particularly well suited for exploratory or reconnaissance studies. Further refinement of this approach may be useful in exploration for volcanogenic massive sulphides deposits and might be a useful vectoring tool when complemented with other conventional exploration techniques.

  11. Oxygen isotopic analyses of individual planktic foraminifera species: Implications for seasonality in the western Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Niitsuma, N.; Naik, S.S.

    The variation of stable isotopes between individual shells of planktic foraminifera of a given species and size may provide short-term seasonal insight on Paleoceanography. In this context, oxygen isotope analyses of individual Globigerinoides...

  12. Zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotopes of felsic rocks from the Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. Z.; Zhang, W. Q.

    2017-12-01

    Hole U1473A was drilled to 790 meters below seafloor on the Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex in the Southwest Indian Ridge, where the upper crust has been removed by detachment faulting. The recovered core consists dominantly of olivine gabbro, with subordinate gabbro, gabbro with varying Fe-Ti oxide concentrations. Felsic veins intermittently occur throughout the whole core section. Zircons separated from twenty-four felsic samples have been conducted for U-Pb dating and O isotope analyses on the Cameca 1280 and Lu-Hf isotopes by laser ablation coupled with a MC-ICPMS. The zircons have highly variable contents of U (12-2078 ppm) and Th (5-801 ppm), yielding Th/U ratios of 0.33-0.81. They are typical oceanic zircons as defined by the trace element discrimination plots of Grimes et al. (2015). The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of the analyzed zircons vary from 11.29 to 12.57 Ma. Age differences between felsic veins throughout the whole core are not resolved within analytical uncertainty of the SIMS measurements. All felsic samples have similar zircon Hf isotope compositions, with initial 176Hf/177Hf ratios of 0.283126-0.283197 and ɛHf values of 12.76-15.27. Zircons from all felsic samples but one have mantle-like δ18O values of 5.14-5.50‰. Zircons from one sample show partial resorption or total recrystallization; in comparison, they have lower δ18O values of 4.81±0.21‰. Such characteristics provide clear evidence for hydrothermal alteration after magmatic intrusion.

  13. Pb isotopes during crustal melting and magma mingling - A cautionary tale from the Miki Fjord macrodike, central east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... grain boundaries during disequilibrium melting of the host rock by the mafic magma. The crustal melt involved in magma interactions was therefore heterogeneous with respect to Pb isotopes on a metre-scale. These results illustrate the difficulties inherent in interpreting isotopic variations...... in contaminated mafic magmas even when the end-members are well constrained by field relations. We show that the Pb isotopic composition of the crustal contaminants and contamination trajectories for the Miki Fjord hybrid magmatic lithologies are markedly different from regional basement gneisses and contaminated...

  14. Study of the Neutron Deficient Pb and Bi Isotopes by Simultaneous Atomic- and Nuclear-Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Kessler, T

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study systematically nuclear properties of the neutron deficient lead $^{183-189}$Pb, $^{191g}$Pb, $^{193g}$Pb and bismuth isotopes $^{188-200}$Bi by atomic spectroscopy with the ISOLDE resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) combined with simultaneous nuclear spectroscopy at the detection set-up. The main focus is the determination of the mean square charge radii of $^{183-190}$Pb and $^{188-193}$Bi from which the influence of low-lying intruder states should become obvious. Also the nuclear spin and magnetic moments of ground-states and long-lived isomers will be determined unambiguously through evaluation of the hyperfine structure, and new isomers could be discovered. The decay properties of these nuclei can be measured by $\\alpha$-$\\gamma$ and $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ spectroscopy. With this data at hand, possible shape transitions around mid-shell at N$\\sim$104 will be studied. This data is crucial for the direct test of nuclear theory in the context of intruder state influence (e.g. energy ...

  15. Possibility of wine dating using the natural Pb-210 radioactive isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Gaye, J.

    2015-01-01

    To control the authenticity of an old wine without opening the bottle, we developed a few years ago a method based on the measurement of the 137 Cs activity. However, for recent vintages, the 137 Cs activity drops to far too low values (most of the time less than 10 mBq/L for a 10-year-old wine) for this method to perform correctly. In this paper we examine the possibility to date wines using the natural radio-element 210 Pb which has a 22-year period. This new method we propose implies the opening of the bottle and the follow-on destruction of the wine itself, which means that it can only be used for investigating non-expensive bottles or wine lots where there are multiple bottles of the same provenance. Uncertainties on the resulting 210 Pb radioactivity values are large, up to more than 50%, mainly due to local atmospheric variations, which prevents us to carry out precise dating. However it can be used to discriminate between an old wine (pre-1952) and a young wine (past-1990), an information that cannot be obtained with the other techniques based on other isotopes ( 137 Cs, 14 C or tritium). - Highlights: • We correlate the measured 210 Pb activity in wine to the vintage year. • A precise dating with 210 Pb is still difficult. • The method is complementary to the 137 Cs technique we previously developed

  16. Indications of a major Neolithic trade route? An archaeometric geochemical and Sr, Pb isotope study on amphibolitic raw material from present day Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.-M.; Holm, P.M.; Schuessler, U.; Petrasch, J.

    2006-01-01

    In order to interpret pre-historic cultural interactions, the provenance of amphibolitic raw material used for flat-axes and adzes in lower to middle Neolithic cultures throughout present day Germany were investigated by elemental and Sr, Pb isotopic methods. Within all settlements studied, a homogeneous actinolite-hornblende schist rock type (AHS) was found to be massively dominating, with a distinct petrography of needle-shaped actinolite interwoven with single larger grains of hornblende along with calcic plagioclase and large amounts of ilmenite. Geochemically, the AHS group is very homogeneous and has a signature of an enriched basaltic precursor with high concentrations of particularly the LIL-elements. The geochemical signature is relatively rare and can not be matched in nearby geological outcrops, wherefore the conclusion of 'imported material' is quickly reached. Strontium and Pb isotopic analyses of the AHS were compared to the isotopic composition of amphibolitic rocks with similar petrography and trace elemental signatures within possible archaeological trade regions. The isotopic data of the archaeological material point roughly to a Proterozoic age of the stone used; an age which can be reasonable matched to a single outcrop situated at Jistebsko within the Czech Republic. This area further shows archaeological traces of prehistoric mining. Based on petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence, this area is here presented as the provenance area of the stone raw material, which later spread throughout prehistoric Europe - establishing contact and trade routes between Neolithic cultures

  17. Unraveling the sources of ground level ozone in the Intermountain Western United States using Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, John N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Weiss-Penzias, Peter [University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fine, Rebekka [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); McDade, Charles E.; Trzepla, Krystyna [University of California at Davis, Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, Davis, CA (United States); Brown, Shaun T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Ozone as an atmospheric pollutant is largely produced by anthropogenic precursors and can significantly impact human and ecosystem health, and climate. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed lowering the ozone standard from 75 ppbv (MDA8 = Maximum Daily 8-Hour Average) to between 65 and 70 ppbv. This will result in remote areas of the Intermountain West that includes many U.S. National Parks being out of compliance, despite a lack of significant local sources. We used Pb isotope fingerprinting and back-trajectory analysis to distinguish sources of imported ozone to Great Basin National Park in eastern Nevada. During discrete Chinese Pb events (> 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} & > 80% Asian Pb) trans-Pacific transported ozone was 5 ± 5.5 ppbv above 19 year averages for those dates. In contrast, concentrations during regional transport from the Los Angeles and Las Vegas areas were 15 ± 2 ppbv above the long-term averages, and those characterized by high-altitude transport 3 days prior to sampling were 19 ± 4 ppbv above. However, over the study period the contribution of trans-Pacific transported ozone increased at a rate of 0.8 ± 0.3 ppbv/year, suggesting that Asian inputs will exceed regional and high altitude sources by 2015–2020. All of these sources will impact regulatory compliance with a new ozone standard, given increasing global background. - Highlights: • Ozone can significantly impact human and ecosystem health and climate. • Pb isotopes and back-trajectory analysis were used to distinguish sources of O{sub 3}. • Baseline concentrations in the Western US are ~ 54 ppbv. • During discrete Asia events O{sub 3} increased by 5 ± 5.5 ppbv and during S CA events by 15 ± 2 ppbv. • Data indicate that Asian ozone inputs will exceed other sources by 2015–2020.

  18. Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Borrok, David M.; Thapalia, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hg and Pb concentration and isotopic compositions traced anthropogenic sources. ► Concentrations and metal loadings of Hg and Pb increased during the smelting period. ► Hg isotopic compositions changed during smelting compared to the pre-smelting period. ► Data indicate mass independent fractionation of Hg isotopes. - Abstract: Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were measured in a sediment core collected from Lake Ballinger, near Seattle, Washington, USA. Lake Ballinger has been affected by input of metal contaminants emitted from the Tacoma smelter, which operated from 1887 to 1986 and was located about 53 km south of the lake. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb in Lake Ballinger increased by as much as three orders of magnitude during the period of smelting as compared to the pre-smelting period. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb then decreased by about 55% and 75%, respectively, after smelting ended. Isotopic compositions of Hg changed considerably during the period of smelting (δ 202 Hg = −2.29‰ to −0.38‰, mean −1.23‰, n = 9) compared to the pre-smelting period (δ 202 Hg = −2.91‰ to −2.50‰, mean −2.75‰, n = 4). Variations were also observed in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb isotopic compositions during these periods. Data for Δ 199 Hg and Δ 201 Hg indicate mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in Lake Ballinger sediment during the smelting and post-smelting period and suggest MIF in the ore smelted, during the smelting process, or chemical modification at some point in the past. Negative values for Δ 199 Hg and Δ 201 Hg for the pre-smelting period are similar to those previously reported for soil, peat, and lichen, likely suggesting some component of atmospheric Hg. Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were useful in tracing contaminant sources and the understanding of the depositional history of sedimentation in Lake Ballinger

  19. Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China—Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Celine S. L.; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Ding, Ai-Jun; Wang, Tao

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization in South China has placed great strain on the environment and on human health. In the present study, the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, the two largest urban centres in South China, was sampled from December 2003 to January 2005. The samples were analysed for the concentrations of major elements (Al, Fe, Mg and Mn) and trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn), and for Pb isotopic composition. Elevated concentrations of metals, especially Cd, Pb, V and Zn, were observed in the urban and suburban areas of Guangzhou, showing significant atmospheric trace element pollution. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in the heavy metal concentrations of aerosols in Hong Kong, with higher metal concentrations during the winter monsoon period, and lower concentrations during summertime. The seasonal variations in the metal concentrations of the aerosols in Guangzhou were less distinct, suggesting the dominance of local sources of pollution around the city. The Pb isotopic composition in the aerosols of Hong Kong had higher 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in winter, showing the influence of Pb from the northern inland areas of China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and lower 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in summer, indicating the influence of Pb from the South Asian region and from marine sources. The back trajectory analysis showed that the enrichment of heavy metals in Hong Kong and Guangzhou was closely associated with the air mass from the north and northeast that originated from northern China, reflecting the long-range transport of heavy metal contaminants from the northern inland areas of China to the South China coast.

  20. Elucidating the formation of terra fuscas using Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Juilleret, Jérôme; Iffly, Jean François; Perrone, Thierry; Morvan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemical evidences on stabile phase confirm Bajocian marl as terra fusca parent material. • Precipitation/Dissolution of secondary carbonates controls geochemistry of labile phases. • This terra fusca sequence record at least four geological and environmental events. - Abstract: Carbonate weathering mantles, like terra fusca, are common in Europe but their formation and evolution is still badly understood. We propose to combine geological, mineralogical and pedological knowledge with trace element and isotope data of a weathering mantle as a novel approach to understand the evolution of terra fuscas. Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes and rare earth element (REE) contents were analyzed in a cambisol developing on a typical terra fusca on top of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl succession from the eastern side of the Paris Basin. The isotope data, REE distribution patterns and mass balance calculations suggest that the cambisol mirrors the trace element enrichments present in this carbonate lithology, which are exceptionally high compared to global average carbonate. The deeper soil horizons are strongly enriched not only in REE (ΣREE: 2640 ppm) but also in redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (1000 ppm), Cr (700 ppm), Zn (550 ppm), As (260 ppm), Co (45 ppm) and Cd (2.4 ppm). The trace element distribution patterns of the carbonate bedrock are similar to those of the soil suggesting their close genetic relationships. Sr–Nd–Pb isotope data allow to identify four principal components in the soil: a silicate-rich pool close to the surface, a leachable REE enriched pool at the bottom of the soil profile, the limestone on which the weathering profile developed and an anthropogenic, atmosphere-derived component detected in the soil leachates of the uppermost soil horizon. The leachable phases are mainly secondary carbonate-bearing REE phases such as bastnaesite ((X) Ca(CO 3 ) 2 F) (for X: Ce, La and Nd). The isotope data and trace element

  1. A geochemical and Pb, Sr isotopic study of the evolution of granite-gneisses from the Bastar craton, Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, G.; Paul, D.K.; Misra, V.P.; de Laeter, J.R.; Mc Naughton, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr geochronology of granitic and gneissic rocks from the Sukma area of the Bastar craton, Central India, provides important constraints on crustal evolution. Much of the craton is made up of felsic orthogneisses and younger granitic intrusives, compositionally ranging from tonalite to granite. Pb-Pb isotopic data suggest the presence of ca. 3.0 Ga old gneisses. Younger granitic intrusives have been dated at ca. 2.6 Ga which represents a widespread resetting and/or emplacement event. Comparison of the Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr whole rock ages suggests that the latter were more perturbed after the gneiss-forming or emplacement events. All rock suites show significant geological scatter of isotopic data probably because of sampling on a regional scale, and reflect multi-stage isotopic evolution in a complex terrain. The present isotopic data indicate the presence of Archaean rock in the Bastar craton and suggest temporal similarity with the oldest crustal rocks in the Singhbhum and Dharwar cratons. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  2. Multiple enrichment of the Carpathian-Pannonian mantle: Pb-Sr-Nd isotope and trace element constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Jeffrey M.; Wilson, Marjorie; Downes, Hilary

    1997-07-01

    Pb isotope compositions of acid-leached clinopyroxene and amphibole mineral separates from spinel peridotite mantle xenoliths entrained in Tertiary-Quaternary alkali basalts from the Carpathian-Pannonian Region of eastern Europe provide important constraints on the processes of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle lithosphere in an extensional tectonic setting associated with recent subduction. Principal component analysis of Pb-Sr-Nd isotope and rare earth element compositions of the pyroxenes is used to identify the geochemical characteristics of the original lithospheric mantle protolith and a spectrum of infiltrating metasomatic agents including subduction-related aqueous fluids and silicate melts derived from a subduction-modified mantle wedge which contains a St. Helena-type (HIMU) plume component. The mantle protolith is highly depleted relative to mid-ocean ridge basalt-source mantle with Pb-Nd-Sr isotope compositions consistent with an ancient depletion event. Silicate melt infiltration into the protolith accounts for the primary variance in the Pb-Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the xenoliths and has locally generated metasomatic amphibole. Infiltration of aqueous fluids has introduced radiogenic Pb and Sr without significantly perturbing the rare earth element signature of the protolith. The Pb isotope compositions of the fluid-modified xenoliths suggest that they reacted with aqueous fluids released from a subduction zone which had equilibrated with sediment derived from an ancient basement terrain. We propose a model for mantle lithosphere evolution consistent with available textural and geochemical data for the xenolith population. The Pb-Sr-Nd isotope compositions of both alkaline mafic magmas and rare, subduction-related, calc-alkaline basaltic andesites from the region provide important constraints for the nature of the asthenospheric mantle wedge and confirm the presence of a HIMU plume component. These silicate melts contribute to the metasomatism

  3. The genesis of the Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: constraints from mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and multiple isotope (H, O, S, Mo, Pb) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Tombros, Stylianos; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2018-03-01

    The Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Great Hinggan Range Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic metallogenic province of NE China, in which the Mo-bearing quartz veins are hosted in approximately coeval granites and porphyries. The deposit contains more than 100 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.13 wt.% Mo. This well-preserved magmatic-hydrothermal system provides an excellent opportunity to determine the source of the molybdenum, the evolution of the hydrothermal fluids and the controls on molybdenite precipitation in a potentially important but poorly understood metallogenic province. Studies of fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins demonstrate that the Hashitu hydrothermal system evolved to progressively lower pressure and temperature. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion analyses and physicochemical calculations suggest that molybdenite deposition occurred at a temperature of 285 to 325 °C, a pressure from 80 to 230 bars, a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, and a Δlog fO2 (HM) of -3.0, respectively. Results of multiple isotope (O, H, S, Mo, and Pb) analyses are consistent in indicating a genetic relationship between the ore-forming fluids, metals, and the Mesozoic granitic magmatism (i.e., δ 18OH2O from +1.9 to +9.7‰, δDH2O from -106 to -87‰, δ 34SH2S from +0.3 to +3.9‰, δ 98/95Mo from 0 to +0.37‰, 206Pb/204Pb from 18.2579 to 18.8958, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.5384 to 15.5783, and 208Pb/204Pb from 38.0984 to 42.9744). Molybdenite deposition is interpreted to have occurred from a low-density magmatic-hydrothermal fluid in response to decreases in temperature, pressure, and fO2.

  4. The use Pb- and Sr- isotopes for the study of Pacific Islander population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, P.; Gulson, B.L.; Montgomery, J.; Rainbird, P.; Thomas, R.G.; Young, S.

    1997-01-01

    Lead isotope measurements of dental enamel are regularly used as a means of determining information as to the source of the lead burden in modern human populations (Gulson and Wilson 1994). Lead ions have a considerable propensity to replace calcium ions in skeletal hard tissue; principally composed of hydroxy-apatite. The lead isotopic composition of teeth in adult humans has been shown to relate directly to the subject's exposure to the element at the time of eruption of their adult teeth and is unaffected by changes in the lead burden of an individual in latter life. In children, the analogous lead burden relates to the lead exposure of the mother during pregnancy and in the neo-natal period. Moreover due to its high crystallinity and density dental enamel does not undergo post-mortem recrystallization. This fact raised the exciting possibility that isotopic measurements of hard tissue could be used as a means of determining whether and individual is a migrant to a particular region. Despite a number of complications, briefly described, this paper presents the results of the ongoing study which uses measurements of Sr and Pb isotopes within dental enamel to determine the origin of Pacific Islander populations

  5. Metal extent in blood of livestock from Dandora dumping site, Kenya: Source identification of Pb exposure by stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishii, Chihiro; Yohannes, Yared B.; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Nairobi city in Kenya produces 2000 tons/day of garbage, and most of it is dumped onto the Dandora dumping site, home to a quarter-million residents. This study was conducted (1) to assess the contamination levels of nine metals and a metalloid (arsenic) in the blood of pigs, goats, sheep and cattle from Dandora, and (2) to identify a possible source of lead (Pb) pollution. Cadmium (Cd, 0.17–4.35 μg/kg, dry-wt) and Pb (90–2710 μg/kg) levels in blood were generally high, suggesting human exposure to Cd through livestock consumption and Pb poisoning among pigs (2600 μg/kg) and cattle (354 μg/kg). Results of Pb isotope ratios indicated that the major exposure route might differ among species. Our results also suggested a possibility that the residents in Dandora have been exposed to the metals through livestock consumption. - Highlights: • Metals extent in blood of livestock were examined. • Dandora dumping site, Kenya is study site. • Concentrations of Cd and Pb were high in the blood of livestock. • Pb isotope ratios indicated that major exposure route might differ among species. - Metal extent and stable Pb isotope ratio in livestock from Dandora, Kenya were examined

  6. Isotopic chemical weathering behaviour of Pb derived from a high-Alpine Holocene lake-sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, Marcus; Süfke, Finn; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio; Glur, Lukas; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Several studies assessing the chemical weathering systematics of Pb isotopes provided evidence for the incongruent release of Pb from source rocks during early stages of chemical weathering, resulting in runoff compositions more radiogenic (higher) than the bulk source-rock composition [e.g. 1]. Deep NW Atlantic seawater Pb isotope records covering the last glacial-interglacial transition further support these findings. Clear excursions towards highly radiogenic Pb isotopic input in the deep NW Atlantic seen during the early Holocene, hence after the large-scale retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America, are interpreted to be controlled by preferential release of radiogenic Pb from U- and Th-rich mineral phases during early stages of chemical weathering that are less resistant to chemical dissolution than other rock-forming mineral phases [2-4]. To date, however, no terrestrial Pb isotope record exists that could corroborate the evidence from deep marine sites for efficient late deglacial weathering and washout of radiogenic Pb. We present a high-resolution adsorbed Pb isotope record from a sediment core retrieved from Alpine Lake Grimsel (1908 m.a.s.l.) in Switzerland, consisting of 117 Pb compositions over the past 10 kyr. This high-Alpine study area is ideally located for incipient and prolonged chemical weathering studies. The method used to extract the adsorbed lake Pb isotope signal is identical to previous marine approaches targeting the authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides fraction within the lake sediments [5, 6]. The Pb isotope compositions are further accompanied by various elemental ratios derived from the same samples that equally trace climatic boundary conditions in the Grimsel Lake area. The Pb isotopic composition recorded in Lake Grimsel is remarkably constant throughout the majority of the Holocene until ˜2.5 ka BP, despite variable sediment composition and -age, and isotopically relatively close to the signature of the granitic source rock

  7. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Albogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of soil lead (Pb with different isotope compositions at a range of Pb concentrations. Earthworms (Eiseniafetida were exposed to different lead concentrations through the addition of 500 mg/kg lead oxide (Pb3O4 to soil and 500 mg/kg lead nitrate to food (manure, with distinctly different isotopic compositions. Earthworms were also exposed to combinations of soil only and soil plus food in order to quantify the proportions of Pb taken up from each component. After acid digestion of the earthworm tissues, the Pb isotope composition of the accumulated lead in the earthworms was measured using a Thermo-fisher, iCAPQ, ICP-MS for 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured relative to NIST SRM 981, allowing us to determine the pathway of lead uptake. Mixing calculations have been used to deconvolute the lead isotope signatures and identify the amount of lead taken up by the earthworms from the different soil pools. Differences in bioaccumulation factors and the relative amounts of lead accumulated from different pools changes as a function of concentration in the different pools. Earthworms were shown to uptake lead from bothsoil and food sources through ingestion route. Our findings suggest that a major pathway of lead uptake in earthworm species is heavily influenced by their ecology.

  8. Zircon U-Pb chronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the Volcanic Rocks in the Elashan area, NW China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Wei, J.; Shi, W.; Li, P.; Chen, M.; Zhao, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elashan area is located in the intersection of the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) and the West Qinling Orogenic (WQOB). We present petrology, zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions from the andesite and felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolite and rhyolitic tuffs) in Elashan group volcanic rock. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age data indicate that the volcanic rocks are emplaced at 250 247 Ma. The volcanic rocks have high -K and aluminum - peraluminous characteristics, A/CNK = 1.07 1.82, δ ranges from 1.56 2.95, the main body is calc-alkaline rock. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in some high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb, Ta, P and Ti), while having a flat heavy REE (HREEs) pattern. The ∑REE values of 178.68 to 298.11 ppm, average 230.50 ppm. The LREE/HREE values of 4.39 to 11.78 ppm, average 6.77 ppm. REE fractionation is obvious, REE distribution curve was right smooth, and have slightly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.44-0.80, average 0.60), which as similar to the island arc volcanic rocks. The volcanic rocks have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.71028-0.71232, ɛNd(t) values of -6.7 to -7.6, with T2DM-Nd ranging from 1561 to 1640 Ma. Pb isotopic composition (206 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 18.055 18.330, (207 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 15.586 15.618, (208 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 37.677 38.332. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes indicates that Elashan group volcanic magma derived mainly from the lower crust. Elashan group volcanic rocks is the productive East Kunlun block and West Qinling block collision, which makes the thicken crust caused partial melting in the study area. The source rocks is probably from metamorphic sandstone of Bayankala. But with Y-Nb and Rb-(Y+Nb), R1-R2 and Rb/10-Hf-Ta*3 diagrams showing that intermediate-acid rocks mainly formed in volcanic arc-collision environment, probably the collision event is short , therefore rocks retain the original island

  9. Isotopic ratio measurement using a double focusing magnetic sector mass analyser with an inductively coupled plasma as an ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma source was coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors. An electrostatic filter located between the plasma source and the magnetic sector was used to create a double focusing system. Isotopic ratio measurements of uranium and lead standards revealed levels of internal and external precision comparable to those obtained using thermal inonization mass spectrometry. An external precision of 0.014% was obtained from the 235 U: 238 U measurement of six samples of a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Material (SRM) U-500, while an RSD of 0.022% was obtained from the 206 Pb: 204 Pb measurement of six samples of NBS SRM Pb-981. Measured isotopic ratios deviated from the NBS value by approximately 0.9% per atomic mass unit. This deviation approximates to a linear function of mass bias and can therefore be corrected for by the analysis of standards. The analysis of NBS SRM Sr-987 revealed superior levels of internal and external precision. The normalization of the 87 Sr: 86 Sr ratio to the 86 Sr: 88 Sr ratio reduced the RSD to approximately 0.008%. The measured ratio was within 0.01% of the NBS value and the day-to-day reproducibility was consistent within one standard deviation. (author)

  10. Morphology versus U-Pb systematics in zircon: A high-resolution isotopic study of a zircon population from a Variscan dike in the Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.J.; Meier, M.; Oberli, F.; Steiger, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    U/Pb isotopic measurements on individual zircon crystals combined with morphological analyses permit the identification of three distinct components within the zircon population of the Saedelhorn diorite, a Variscan dike from the western Gotthard (Central Alps, Switzerland): (i) 94% of the grains in the zircon population are elongate crystals with pronounced skeletal morphology indicative of rapid growth from a supercooled melt. (ii) 5% of the population consist of turbid, mostly subhedral zircons frequently showing D-type morphology and elevated uranium contents compared to the skeletal variety. Single-crystal and multi-grain U-Pb isotopic data of group (i) and (ii) zircons define an intrusion age of 293 + 5/ -4 m.y. for the dike. (iii) Rare, transparent zircon crystals (< 1% of the zircons population) yield apparent U-Pb ages in the range of 370-490 m.y. and display morphological and isotopic characteristics closely resembling those of a Caledonian orthogneiss intruded by the dike. This implies presence of assimilated wall-rock components in the macroscopically homogeneous dike sample. (orig./WB)

  11. Nd isotopes, U-Pb single grain and SHRIMP zircon ages from basement rocks of the Tocantin Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A.; Dantas, E.L.; Pimentel, M.M.; Junges, S.L.; Moraes, R

    2001-01-01

    , which were interpreted as minimum ages of the igneous protoliths. Here we present a preliminary Nd isotope survey on basement gneiss and associated rocks sampled along a transect from Arraias to Porto Nacional, Tocantins. Single zircon U-Pb determinations and two SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages are also presented. This study aims to assess the ages of rocks and sources involved in the continental crust generation of the northern segment of the Tocantins Province. The main goal is to identify different geochronologic provinces or crustal blocks and provide age constraints on the timing of crustal evolution recorded in the basement gneiss. U-Pb single crystal zircon and Sm-Nd whole rock isotopic analyses were carried out at the geochronology laboratory, Universidade de Brasilia. SHRIMP analyses were performed at Australian National University, Canberra (au)

  12. Sulfur isotopes of host strata for Howards Pass (Yukon–Northwest Territories) Zn-Pb deposits implicate anaerobic oxidation of methane, not basin stagnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Kelley, Karen Duttweiler; Falck, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    A new sulfur isotope stratigraphic profile has been developed for Ordovician-Silurian mudstones that host the Howards Pass Zn-Pb deposits (Canada) in an attempt to reconcile the traditional model of a stagnant euxinic basin setting with new contradictory findings. Our analyses of pyrite confirm the up-section 34S enrichment reported previously, but additional observations show parallel depletion of carbonate 13C, an increase in organic carbon weight percent, and a change in pyrite morphology. Taken together, the data suggest that the 34S enrichment reflects a transition in the mechanism of pyrite formation during diagenesis, not isotopic evolution of a stagnant water mass. Low in the stratigraphic section, pyrite formed mainly in the sulfate reduction zone in association with organic matter–driven bacterial sulfate reduction. In contrast, starting just below the Zn-Pb mineralized horizon, pyrite formed increasingly within the sulfate-methane transition zone in association with anaerobic oxidation of methane. Our new insights on diagenesis have implications for (1) the setting of Zn-Pb ore formation, (2) the reliability of redox proxies involving metals, and (3) the source of ore sulfur for Howards Pass, and potentially for other stratiform Zn-Pb deposits contained in carbonaceous strata.

  13. Fingerprinting Marcellus Shale waste products from Pb isotope and trace metal perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jason D.; Graney, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry drilled, uncontaminated cuttings from Marcellus Shale and surrounding units. • Unoxidized and oxidized samples leached short and long term with H 2 O or dilute HCl. • Pb isotope ratios have distinctly different values from Marcellus Shale samples. • Mo and other trace metals can be used as Marcellus Shale environmental tracers. • Marcellus Shale leachate concentrations can exceed EPA contaminant screening levels. - Abstract: Drill cuttings generated during unconventional natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, U.S.A., generally contain a very large component of organic-rich black shale because of extensive lateral drilling into this target unit. In this study, element concentrations and Pb isotope ratios obtained from leached drill cuttings spanning 600 m of stratigraphic section were used to assess the potential for short and long term environmental impacts from Marcellus Shale waste materials, in comparison with material from surrounding formations. Leachates of the units above, below and within the Marcellus Shale yielded Cl/Br ratios of 100–150, similar to produced water values. Leachates from oxidized and unoxidized drill cuttings from the Marcellus Shale contain distinct suites of elevated trace metal concentrations, including Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Sb, U, V and Zn. The most elevated Mo, Ni, Sb, U, and V concentrations are found in leachates from the lower portion of the Marcellus Shale, the section typically exploited for natural gas production. In addition, lower 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios within the lower Marcellus Shale (0.661–0.733) provide a distinctive fingerprint from formations above (0.822–0.846) and below (0.796–0.810), reflecting 206 Pb produced as a result of in situ 238 U decay within this organic rich black shale. Trace metal concentrations from the Marcellus Shale leachates are similar to total metal concentrations from other black shales. These metal concentrations can exceed screening

  14. Integrated elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic studies of Mesozoic mafic dykes from the eastern North China Craton: implications for the dramatic transformation of lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Santosh, M.; Feng, Guangying; Coulson, Ian M.; Xu, Mengjing; Guo, Zhuang; Guo, Xiaolei; Peng, Hao; Feng, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC) from its Precambrian cratonic architecture until Paleozoic, and the transformation to an oceanic realm during Mesozoic, with implications on the destruction of cratonic root have attracted global attention. Here we present geochemical and isotopic data on a suite of newly identified Mesozoic mafic dyke swarms from the Longwangmiao, Weijiazhuang, Mengjiazhuang, Jiayou, Huangmi, and Xiahonghe areas (Qianhuai Block) along the eastern NCC with an attempt to gain further insights on the lithospheric evolution of the region. The Longwangmiao dykes are alkaline with LILE (Ba and K)- and LREE-enrichment ((La/Yb) N > 4.3) and EM1-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic signature ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.6, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.8, ε Hf (t) 3.7), and display similar EM1-like isotopic features ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 2.4) and EM1-like isotopic features((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 3.7) and EM1-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic features ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd(t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 9.3) and EM1-like isotopic composition ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.705; ε Nd (t) 16.9, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.5, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 0.705; ε Nd (t) 16.9, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.5, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) < -8.6). Our data from the various mafic dyke suites suggest that the magmas were derived from EM1-like lithospheric mantle, corresponding to lithospheric mantle modified by the previously foundered lower crust beneath the eastern NCC. Our results suggest contrasting lithospheric evolution from Triassic (212 Ma) to Cretaceous (123 Ma) beneath the NCC. These mafic dykes mark an important phase of lithospheric thinning in the eastern North China Craton.

  15. Use of Pb and Sr isotopes on the determination of lead mineralization sources from Ribeira valley - Sao Paulo and Parana states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.; Barbour, A.P.; Sato, K.; Daitx, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    A lead and strontium isotope study was carried out on galena, barite and calcite from Pb-Ag syngenetic stratiform (Perau type) and hydrothermal veins (Panela type) deposits from Vale do Ribeira region (Sao Paulo and Parana states). The leads from the Perau and Panelas type deposits have respectively isotope ratios (sup(206)Pb/ sup(204)Pb 16.157 to 16.505 amd 16.520 to 17.273; sup(207)Pb/ sup(204)Pb = 15.466 to 15.720 and 15.470 to 15.780 and sup(208)Pb/ sup(204)Pb = 36.370 to 36.763 and 37.043 to 38.243), that defined a Stacey and Kramers model ages mainly concentrate within 1.7-1.5Ga. A review of published Pb isotopic compositions for these deposits and considerations of new Sr isotope data and Pb results using plumbotectonics model, indicate that the Perau type mineralizations are related to the syngenetic process and the Pb are derived from upper crust with a short crustal residence time. For the Panelas type deposits the Pb and Sr isotope studies support the conclusion that the ores were emplaced during regional metamorphism and the Pb were derived from lithologically complex source which may include metasedimentary and basement rocks. (author)

  16. Run-off analyses using isotopes and hydrochemistry in Yushugou ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Key Laboratory for Ecology and Environment of River Wetlands in Shaanxi Province, ... Stable isotopes; run-off composition; hydrograph separation; Yushugou River basin. ..... rock weathering and hydrogeological condition in.

  17. Analysis and separation of boron isotopes; Analyse et separation des isotopes du bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-01

    operatoire pour l'analyse de traces de-bore,par dilution isotopique. Par ailleurs, les besoins en bore-10 de l'industrie nucleaire justifient la mise au point de procedes de separation des isotopes du bore. Un effet isotopique notable a ete mis en evidence dans la reaction d'echange chimique entre le borate de methyle et un sel borique en solution. Dans le cas de l'echange borate de methyle - borate de sodium, le facteur de separation elementaire {alpha}: {alpha}=(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)vap.)/(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)liq.)=1.03{sub 3}. Cet effet elementaire eleve a ete multiplie dans une colonne de distillation dans laquelle le probleme de la regeneration des reactifs a ete resolu. Une variante de ce procede a ete etudiee, en remplacant le borate alcalin par un borate de base volatile; ici la diethylamine ({alpha}=1,02{sub 5} en milieu hydromethanolique a 2,2 pour cent d'eau). (auteur)

  18. Spatial evolution of Zn-Fe-Pb isotopes of sphalerite within a single ore body: A case study from the Dongshengmiao ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhaofu; Zhu, Xiangkun; Sun, Jian; Luo, Zhaohua; Bao, Chuang; Tang, Chao; Ma, Jianxiong

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of sphalerite minerals from the characteristic brecciated Zn-Pb ores of the main ore body in the giant Dongshengmiao deposit have revealed variations in δ66Zn from 0.17 to 0.40‰ and in δ56Fe from -1.78 to -0.35‰. Further, the investigated pyrrhotite samples have iron that is isotopically similar to that of associated sphalerite minerals. The most distinctive pattern revealed by the zinc and iron isotope data is the lateral trend of increasing δ66Zn and δ56Fe values from southwest to northeast within the main ore body. The lead isotopic homogeneity of ore sulfides from the main ore body suggests that there is only one significant source for metal, thus precluding the mixing of multiple metal sources as the key factor controlling spatial variations of zinc and iron isotopes. The most likely control on spatial variations is Rayleigh fractionation during hydrothermal fluid flow, with lighter Zn and Fe isotopes preferentially incorporated into the earliest sulfides to precipitate from fluids. Precipitations of sphalerite and pyrrhotite have played vital roles in the Zn and Fe isotopic variations, respectively, of the ore-forming system. Accordingly, the larger isotopic variability for Fe than Zn within the same hydrothermal system perhaps resulted from a larger proportion of precipitation for pyrrhotite than for sphalerite. The lateral trend pattern revealed by the zinc and iron isotope data is consistent with the occurrence of a cystic-shaped breccia zone, which is characterized by marked elevation in Cu. The results further confirm that Zn and Fe isotopes can be used as a vectoring tool for mineral prospecting.

  19. Quantifying the signature of the industrial revolution from Pb and Cd isotopes in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Herndon, E.; Jin, L.; Sanchez, D.; Brantley, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic forcings have dominated metal cycling in many environments. During the period of the industrial revolution, mining and smelting of ores and combustion of fossil fuels released non-negligible amounts of potentially toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, Mn, and Zn into the environment. The extent and fate of these metal depositions in soils during that period however, have not been adequately evaluated. Here, we combine Pb isotopes with Cd isotopes to trace the sources of metal pollutants in a small temperate watershed (Shale Hills) in Pennsylvania. Previous work has shown that Mn additions to soils in central PA was caused by early iron production, as well as coal burning and steel making upwind. Comparison of the Pb and Cd concentrations in the bedrock and soils from this watershed show that Pb and Cd in soils at Shale Hills are best characterized by addition profiles, consistent with atmospheric additions. Three soil profiles at Shale Hills on the same hillslope have very similar anthropogenic Pb inventories. Pb isotope results further reveal that the extensive use of local coals during iron production in early 19th century in Pennsylvania is most likely the anthropogenic Pb source for the surface soils at Shale Hills. Pb concentrations and isotope ratios were used to calculate mass balance and diffusive transport models in soil profiles. The model results further reveal that during the 1850s to 1920s, coal burning in local iron blasting furnaces significantly increased the Pb deposition rates to 8-14 μg cm-2 yr-1, even more than modern Pb deposition rates derived from the use of leaded gasoline in the 1940s to 1980s. Furthermore, Cd has a low boiling point (~760 °C) and easily evaporates and condenses. The evaporation and condensation processes could generate systematic mass-dependent isotope fractionation between Cd in coal burning products and the naturally occurring Cd in the sulfide minerals of coals. This fractionation indicates that Cd isotopes can

  20. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  1. The use of Pb isotopes to differentiate between contemporary and ancient sources of pollution in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, G.; Charalampides, G.; Fosse, G.; Hjelmseth, H.

    Stable lead isotopes are used to illustrate the relation source-receptor and to differentiate between sources of pollution in Greece. Air filters collected in the Kozani-Ptolemais lignite mining area, West Macedonia, point to an impact from gasoline lead as well as lead from the combustion of lignite. This is supported by lead isotope data of wheat grown on reclaimed land. Lead isotope analyses of contemporary teeth from the Lavrio sulphide mining area, southeast of Greece, show the imprint of previous mining activities as well as traffic emissions. Moreover, the Lavrio teeth can be distinguished from one tooth from Athens; the Athens tooth show a stronger impact of gasoline lead. Lead data also imply that the Greek top soil is contaminated by air pollution from earlier sulphide mining and smelting since Hellenic and Roman times.

  2. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: Is this really archean crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Castineiras, Pedro; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    New SHRIMP-RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) data confirm the existence of Archean components within zircon grains of a sample from the orthogneiss of Angel Lake, Nevada, United States, previously interpreted as a nappe of Archean crust. However, the combined evidence strongly suggests that this orthogneiss is a highly deformed, Late Cretaceous monzogranite derived from melting of a sedimentary source dominated by Archean detritus. Zircon grains from the same sample used previously for isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) isotopic work were analyzed using the SHRIMP-RG to better define the age and origin of the orthogneiss. Prior to analysis, imaging revealed a morphological variability and intragrain, polyphase nature of the zircon population. The SHRIMP-RG yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 2430 and 2580 Ma (a best-fit mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2531 ± 19 Ma; 95% confidence) from mostly rounded to subrounded zircons and zircon components (cores). In addition, several analyses from rounded to subrounded cores or grains yielded discordant 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 1460 and ca. 2170 Ma, consistent with known regional magmatic events. All cores of Proterozoic to latest Archean age were encased within clear, typically low Th/U (206Pb/238U ages between 72 and 91 Ma, consistent with magmatic ages from Lamoille Canyon to the south. An age of ca. 90 Ma is suggested, the younger 206Pb/238U ages resulting from Pb loss. The Cretaceous and Precambrian zircon components also have distinct trace element characteristics, indicating that these age groups are not related to the same igneous source. These results support recent geophysical interpretations and negate the contention that the Archean-Proterozoic boundary extends into the central Great Basin area. They further suggest that the world-class gold deposits along the Carlin Trend are not underlain by Archean cratonal crust, but rather by the Proterozoic Mojave

  3. Research on evolutionary laws of Sr, Nd, Pb isotopes of uranium metallization and volcanic rocks in south china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong

    1998-01-01

    According to research on evolutionary tracer of Sr, Nd, Pb isotopes, the author proposes that isotopic evolution of Mesozoic volcanics in south China is controlled by regionally metamorphic rocks of ancient land basement, early reformed derivates and recycled continental crust. Isotopic composition of uranium metallization shows the characteristics of crust sources, and Yanshanian accretion of continental margin caused the crust movement such as magmatic activity in lower crust within continent, extension-down-faulting, etc., promoting the migration, enrichment and ore formation of uranium

  4. Excitation Energies of Superdeformed States in 196Pb: Towards a Systematic Study of the Second Well in Pb Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.N.; Singh, A.K.; Huebel, H.; Rossbach, D.; Schonwasser, G.; Davidson, P.M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Goergen, A.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Astier, A.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Kroell, T.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Buforn, N.; Redon, N.

    2005-01-01

    The excitation energy of the lowest-energy superdeformed band in 196 Pb is established using the techniques of time-correlated γ-ray spectroscopy. Together with previous measurements on 192 Pb and 194 Pb, this result allows superdeformed excitation energies, binding energies, and two-proton and two-neutron separation energies to be studied systematically, providing stringent tests for current nuclear models. The results are examined for evidence of a 'superdeformed shell gap'

  5. Petrogenesis of Miocene alkaline volcanic suites from western Bohemia. Whole rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Tomek, Č.; Lloyd, F. E.; Ladenberger, A.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Balogh, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2016), s. 77-93 ISSN 0009-2819 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Cenozoic alkaline volcanism * Geochemistry * K-Ar ages * Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2016

  6. Precise determination of Pb isotope ratios by simple double spike MC-ICP-MS technique without Tl addition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Makishima, A.; Nath, B.N.; Nakamura, E.

    A double-spike multicollector ICP-MS (DS-MC-ICP-MS) technique for Pb isotope analysis without Tl addition is established and its analytical performance is examined in detail. This simple DS-MC-ICP-MS technique using 20 ng ml sup(-1) gave averages...

  7. Generation of covariance files for the isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb in ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.M.; Larson, D.C.; Fu, C.Y.

    1991-02-01

    The considerations that governed the development of the uncertainty files for the isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb in ENDF/B-VI are summarized. Four different approaches were used in providing the covariance information. Some examples are given which show the standard deviations as a function of incident energy and the corresponding correlation matrices. 11 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Geochemical and Pb isotopic characterization of soil, groundwater, human hair, and corn samples from the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert A.; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2018-01-01

    A geochemical survey was carried out to investigate metal contamination in the Domizio Littoral and Agro Aversano area (Southern Italy) by means of soil, groundwater, human hair and corn samples. Pb isotope ratios were also determined to identify the sources of metals. Specifically, the investigation focused on topsoils (n = 1064), groundwater (n = 26), 25 human hair (n = 24) and corn samples (n = 13). Topsoils have been sampled and analysed in a previous study for 53 elements (including potentially harmful ones), and determined by ICP-MS after dissolving with aqua regia. Groundwater was analysed for 72 elements by ICP-MS and by ICP-ES. Samples of human hair were prepared and analysed for 16 elements by ICP-MS. Dried corn collected at several farms were also analysed for 53 elements by ICP-MS. The isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb in selected topsoil (n = 24), groundwater (n = 9), human hair (n = 9) and corn (n = 4) samples were analysed from both eluates and residues to investigate possible anthropogenic contamination and geogenic contributions. All data were processed and mapped by ArcGis software to produce interpolated maps and contamination factor maps of potentially harmful elements, in accordance with Italian Environmental Law (Legislative Decree 152/06). Results show that soil sampling sites are characterized by As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn contents exceeding the action limits established for residential land use (RAL) and, in some cases, also the action limits for industrial land use (IAL) as established by Legislative Decree 152/06. A map of contamination factors and a map showing the degrees of contamination indicate that the areas in the municipalities of Acerra, Casoria and Giugliano have been affected by considerable anthropogenic-related pollution. To interpret the isotopic data and roughly estimate proportion of Pb from an anthropogenic source we broadly defined possible natural and anthropogenic Pb end

  9. Pb and Sr isotopes and trace metals in molluscs: constraints on metal sources and water fluxes in a coastal lagoon (Thau, France); Isotope du Pb, du Sr et metaux traces dans les mollusques: contraintes sur les sources de metaux et les mouvements d'eaux dans une lagune cotiere (Thau, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labonne, M

    1998-07-01

    Because of its unique ability to characterize the origins and quantify the fluxes of waters and their loads, isotopic geochemistry is being increasingly used in environmental problems. On the other hand, molluscs are known to concentrate metals in a very strong manner and equilibrate relatively rapidly with their environment. They are used in many programs of coastal survey (Mussel Watch, RNO,...). The originality of our work is to apply isotopic systems (Pb, Sr) to living organisms, in order to: 1- identify the metal sources; 2- determine their proportions in the lagoon and 3- to trace the water movements. The Thau lagoon (Herault, S. France) presents various potential sources of metals inputs: heavy traffic road, Sete harbour, various industries (cement factory, fertilizers...), agriculture, camping areas and leisure ports, not to mention natural (rock) sources. Our study deals with the metal and alkali, alkali-earth concentrations, Pb and Sr isotopes determined on both mussels implanted in the lagoon and wild mussels. We also compare our mussel results with those determined on clams which live at the water/sediments interface. A first study deals with the metal accumulation in laboratory experiments using mono-isotopic tracers 'spike'. It shows that the new metal is being superimposed to the metals initially present in the organisms; this effect is seen within a few days, although variable depending on elements (Zn, Cd, Pb). We have sampled the introduced mussels 4 times a year and we see that the concentration fluctuations are principally related to animal weight variations. The flesh isotopic compositions usually define nice alignments depending on season, indicative of a progressive mixing between two main components: one natural, one anthropogenic. Depending on winds,two influences of seawater entries orlocal water treatment plants effluents can be shown. We have compared past and present metal levels and origins in the area by analysing also

  10. Controversial Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope results in the early Archean Isua (West Greenland) oxide iron formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Rosing, Minik; Stecher, Ole

    1999-01-01

    Pb stepwise leaching (PbSL) determinations on two magnetite-enriched fractions of a BIF sample from the northeastern part of the Isua supracrustal belt (West Greenland) yield an isochron of 3691 ± 22 Ma (MSWD = 0.4). In combination with previously published geochronological constraints for a mini...

  11. Isotope-dilution analyses of the metallic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.

    1982-01-01

    The isotope-dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS) technique has proven to be to be a reliable, versatile analytical tool. Its applications seem to be limited only by the ingenuity of the investigator. Among its advantages are: small sample size; general applicability; precision and accuracy; dynamic range; simplified chemistry; determination is fixed at the time and place of isotopic homogenization. The last listed item is especially important for nuclear safeguards and processes where inventories are critical. IDMS is now a routine analytical technique in geochemical and nuclear laboratories, and in many environmental laboratories. Microgram and nanogram samples are normally used, frequently with automatic mass spectrometers, in many of these routine applications. More advanced techniques permit picogram and sub picogram samples to be analyzed, and spike to sample ratios can range from 1:1 to 1:10 12 with detection limits at attogram levels for some elements. 3 figures, 3 tables

  12. Measurement of isotopic cross sections of the fission fragments produced in 500 AMeV 208Pb + p reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Dominguez, B.

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the fission fragments produced in the spallation reaction 208 Pb + p at 500 AMeV. The fission fragments from Z=23 up to Z=59 have been detected and identified by using the inverse kinematics technique with the high-resolution spectrometer FRS. The production cross sections and the recoil velocities of 430 nuclei have been measured. The measured data have been compared with previous data. The isotopic distributions show a high precision. However, the absolute value of the fission cross section is higher than expected. From the experimental data the characteristics of the average fissioning system have been reconstructed (Z fis , A fis , E* fis ). In addition, the number of post-fission neutrons emitted from the fission fragments, v post , has been determined by using a new method. The experimental data have been compared to the two-steps models describing the spallation reaction. The impact of the model parameters on the observables has been analysed and the reasons Leading to the observed differences between the codes are also presented. This analyse shows a good agreement with the INCL4+ABLA code. (author)

  13. An important harvest by applying Pb-isotope analysis to ancient Chinese bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhengyao

    2003-01-01

    Analysing numerous ancient Chinese bronze objects unearthed at the archaeological sites by lead isotopic method, we found that a major portion Shang (1600 B. C.-1100 B. C.) bronzes contained a kind of high-radiogenic lead, The results suggested that there is a 'bronze road' linking the Shang sites in both of the Yellow River valley and the Yangtze River valley in Shang dynasty. (authors)

  14. The crust role at Paramillos Altos intrusive belt: Sr and Pb isotope evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostera, H.A.; Linares, E; Haller, M.J; Cagnoni, M.C

    2001-01-01

    Paramillos Altos Intrusive Belt (PAIB) (Ostera, 1996) is located in the thick skinned folded-thrust belt of Malargue, southwestern Mendoza, Argentina. Geochemical, geochronologic and isotopic studies were carried out in it (Ostera 1996, 1997, Ostera et al. 1999; Ostera et al. 2000) and these previous papers suggested a minor involvement of the crust in the genesis of the PAIB. According with Ostera et al. (2000) it is composed by stocks, laccoliths, dykes and sills which range in composition from diorites to granodiorites, and from andesites to rhyolites, and divided in five Members, which range in age from Middle Miocene to Early Miocene: a- Calle del Yeso Dyke Complex (CYDC), with sills and dykes of andesitic composition (age: 20±2 Ma). b- Puchenque-Atravesadas Intrusive Complex (PAIC), composed by dykes and stocks ranging from diorites to granodiorites (age: 12.5±1 Ma). c- Arroyo Serrucho Stock (SAS), an epizonal and zoned stock, with four facies, with K/Ar and Ar/Ar dates of 10±1 and 9.5±0.5 Ma. d- Portezuelo de los Cerros Bayos (PCB), that includes porphyritic rocks of rhyolitic composition, of 7.5±0.5 Ma. e- Cerro Bayo Vitrophyres (CBV), with andesitic sills and dykes (age: 4.8±0.2 Ma). We present in this paper new Sr and Pb isotopes data that constrain the evolution of the PAIB (au)

  15. Groundwater in the Broken Hill region, Australia: recognising interaction with bedrock and mineralisation using S, Sr and Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caritat, Patrice de; Kirste, Dirk; Carr, Graham; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The supergiant Pb-Zn-Ag Broken Hill orebody and numerous other minor mineral deposits occur within the limited outcrop of the Proterozoic Curnamona Province of Australia. The vast majority of this Province is concealed by up to 200 m of transported regolith, hampering conventional exploration strategies. Approximately 300 groundwater samples were collected over the southern Curnamona Province to test whether this medium could be helpful in the search for hidden mineral deposits. Sulphur, Sr and Pb isotope composition of the groundwaters were determined and S excess (S XS ), i.e., the amount of S that can be ascribed neither to evaporation nor to mixing, was calculated. Many samples were recognised to have undergone an addition of 34 S-depleted S, which can be attributed to oxidation of sulfides with a Broken Hill type δ 34 S signature (average ∼0%o V-CDT). Furthermore, Sr isotopes identify the broad types of bedrock that the groundwater has been interacting with, from the less radiogenic Adelaidean rocks (and minerals) in the west (groundwater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio as low as 0.708) to the highly radiogenic Willyama Supergroup in the east ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio up to 0.737). The groundwaters have 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios comparable to, or intermediate between, various mineralisation types recognised in the area (Broken Hill, Rupee, Thackaringa, etc., types). The few samples taken in the vicinity of known mineralisation yield positive indicators (positive S XS , low δ 34 S, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signature of bedrock type and Pb isotope fingerprinting of mineralisation type). This study also highlights several new locations under sedimentary cover where these indicators suggest interaction with mineralisation

  16. Insights into Wilson's Warbler migration from analyses of hydrogen stable-isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Viorel Atudorei; Zachary D. Sharp; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    Our ability to link the breeding locations of individual passerines to migration stopover sites and wintering locations is limited. Stable isotopes of hydrogen contained in bird feathers have recently shown potential in this regard. We measured hydrogen stable-isotope ratios (deltaD) of feathers from breeding, migrating, and wintering Wilson's Warblers. Analyses...

  17. U-Pb zircon geochronology and Sm-Nd-Pb isotopic constraint for precambrian plutonic rocks in the northeastern part of Ryeongnam massif, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Wan

    2003-01-01

    The Ryeongnam massif is composed of Precambrian gneisses, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and extensive Triassic-Jurassic plutonic rocks of felsic to mafic composition. In the northeast Ryeongnam massif, the oldest rocks belong to the Sobaegsan gneiss complex, which is composed of orthogneisses, paragneisses and mafic plutonic rocks. U-Pb zircon ages for the felsic and mafic intrusive bodies within the Sobaegsan gneiss complex are: the Icheon granite gneiss, 2357±43 and 2342±47 Ma; the Buncheon granite gneiss, 1963±5 Ma; the Pyeonghae granite gneiss, 1936±21 Ma; the Ogbang amphibolite, 1918±10 Ma; the Imwon leucogranite gneiss, 1826±20 Ma. The Hyeondong biotite schist, which is intruded by the Buncheon granite gneiss and the Ogbang amphibolite, yielded an age of 2271±44 Ma. The Nd-Sm-Pb isotopic data indicate that the felsic plutonic rocks are derived from an older Archean crust. The Nd T DM ages are Archean, and the εNd values are negative for the felsic rocks and positive for the amphibolite. Common Pb isotope compositions also indicate a crustal source for the felsic intrusives. The U-Pb ages of Precambrian rocks of the Ryeongnam massifs are similar to those in the Gyeonggi massif, and may have a similar crustal evolutionary history. The Precambrian rocks of South Korea could be related either to the North China block or to the South China block, as the isotope ages and patterns are not unique to either block. Similarly, a geologic correlation with Japan, although possible, is tenuous at present. (author)

  18. Use of Sr and Pb isotopes in gneissic-migmatic rocks in Itacambira-Barrocao, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siga Junior, O.; Cordani, U.G.; Basei, M.A.S.; Kawashita, K.

    1987-01-01

    This work tries to show the potential of the Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and K-Ar methods applied to basic geological mapping. The different interpretative values of these methodologies contribute to the understanding of the tectonic processes developed in the southeastern border of the Sao Francisco Craton. The Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb isotopic data for the gneissic-migmatitic unit of this sector indicates their generation during the Archean (-2.7 Ga) and Early Proterozoic (-2.1 Ga.). The high (Sr 87 /Sr 86 ) and μ 1 values also suggest an origin through reworking of older crustal rocks. The K-Ar data (and one fission track age) allow the thermal history of this domain to be delineated and suggest a vertical tectonic in the Late Brazilian Cycle, putting side by side blocks formed in different depths. (M.V.M.)

  19. Labile pools of Pb in vegetable-growing soils investigated by an isotope dilution method and its influence on soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zeng, Xiang-Cheng; Li, Jian

    2012-08-01

    Pollution of Pb in the surface of agricultural soils is of increasing concern due to its serious impact on the plant growth and the human health through the food chain. However, the mobility, activity and bioavailability of Pb rely mainly on its various chemical species in soils. In the present study, E and L values, the labile pools of isotopically exchangeable Pb, were estimated using the method of isotope dilution in three vegetable-growing soils. The experiments involved adding a stable enriched isotope ((206)Pb > 96%) to a soil suspension and to soils in which plants are subsequently grown, the labile pools of Pb were then estimated by measuring the isotopic composition of Pb in soil solutions and in the plant tissues, respectively. In addition, the correlation of E values and soil pH was investigated at the ranges of pH 4.5-7.0. The amount of labile Pb in soils was also estimated using different single chemical extractants and a modified BCR approach. The results showed that after spiking the enriched isotopes of (206)Pb (>96%) for 24 hours an equilibration of isotopic exchanges in soil suspensions was achieved, and the isotope ratios of (208)Pb/(206)Pb measured at that time was used for calculating the E(24 h) values. The labile pools of Pb by %E(24 h) values, ranging from 53.2% to 61.7% with an average 57%, were found to be significantly higher (p soil pH was found in the tested soil sample. The results indicate that the %E(24 h) value can more rapidly and easily predict the labile pools of Pb in soils compared with L values, but it might be readily overestimated because of the artificial soil acidity derived from the spiked isotopic tracer and the excess of spiked enriched isotopes. The results also suggest that the amounts of Pb extracted with EDTA and the Σ(BCR) values extracted with the modified BCR approach are helpful to detect the labile pools of Pb in soils. In addition, the negative correlation between soil pH and the labile pools of Pb in soils

  20. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition (major ions and pollutants such as metals) of the dissolved load of rivers. Furthermore, this influence can also be evidenced in the suspended solid matter known to play an important role in the transport of heavy metals through river systems. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. Initially, the Loire upstream flows in a south to north direction originating in the Massif Central, and continues up to the city of Orléans, 650 km from the source. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The Loire River then follows a general east to west direction to the Atlantic Ocean. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for heavy metals Zn-Cd-Pb-Hg in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for these metals for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of

  1. Application of Zn isotopes in environmental impact assessment of Zn–Pb metallurgical industries: A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Benedetti, Marc F.; Lens, Piet N.L.; Hullebusch, Eric D. van

    2016-01-01

    Zn and Pb smelters are the major contributors to Zn and Pb emissions among all anthropogenic sources, thus, it is essential to understand Zn isotopic variations within the context of metallurgical industries, as well as its fractionation in different environments impacted by smelting activities. This mini review outlines the current state of knowledge on Zn isotopic fractionation during the high-temperature roasting process in Zn and Pb refineries; δ"6"6Zn values variations in air emissions, slags and effluents from the smelters in comparison to the geogenic Zn isotopic signature of ores formation and weathering. In order to assess the environmental impact of these smelters, the available and measured δ"6"6Zn values are compiled for smelter impacted natural water bodies (groundwater, stream and river water), sediments (lake and reservoir) and soils (peat bog soil, inland soil). Finally, the discussion is extended to the fractionation induced during numerous physicochemical reactions and transformations, i.e. adsorption, precipitation as well as both inorganic and organic surface complexation. - Highlights: • Zn and Pb smelters are the major contributors to Zn emissions among all anthropogenic sources. • Zn isotopic variations in this context has been widely studied over the last 15 years. • Zn isotopic fractionation during the high-temperature roasting process and electroplating process is summarize. • Subsequent δ"6"6Zn values variations in air emissions, slags and effluents from the smelters are compared to the geogenic one. • The usefulness of δ"6"6Zn values to trace environmental impact of these smelters is discussed.

  2. Perspectives on land snails - sampling strategies for isotopic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Ola; Kalinowski, Annika; Kamp, Jessica; Pellmann, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Since the seminal works of Goodfriend (1992), several substantial studies confirmed a relation between the isotopic composition of land snail shells (d18O, d13C) and environmental parameters like precipitation amount, moisture source, temperature and vegetation type. This relation, however, is not straightforward and site dependent. The choice of sampling strategy (discrete or bulk sampling) and cleaning procedure (several methods can be used, but comparison of their effects in an individual shell has yet not been achieved) further complicate the shell analysis. The advantage of using snail shells as environmental archive lies in the snails' limited mobility, and therefore an intrinsic aptitude of recording local and site-specific conditions. Also, snail shells are often found at dated archaeological sites. An obvious drawback is that shell assemblages rarely make up a continuous record, and a single shell is only a snapshot of the environmental setting at a given time. Shells from archaeological sites might represent a dietary component and cooking would presumably alter the isotopic signature of aragonite material. Consequently, a proper sampling strategy is of great importance and should be adjusted to the scientific question. Here, we compare and contrast different sampling approaches using modern shells collected in Morocco, Spain and Germany. The bulk shell approach (fine-ground material) yields information on mean environmental parameters within the life span of analyzed individuals. However, despite homogenization, replicate measurements of bulk shell material returned results with a variability greater than analytical precision (up to 2‰ for d18O, and up to 1‰ for d13C), calling for caution analyzing only single individuals. Horizontal high-resolution sampling (single drill holes along growth lines) provides insights into the amplitude of seasonal variability, while vertical high-resolution sampling (multiple drill holes along the same growth line

  3. Increasing Precision and Accuracy of Laser Isotope Analyser Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Janet; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Dercon, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Isotope analysis with laser spectroscopy is an emerging technology that is growing in scientific demand. Because this technology allows for real-time, in situ measurements of carbon-13 ("1"3C) and nitrogen-15 ("1"5N) of CO_2, CH_4 and N_2O, it is increasingly being used to monitor fluxes of these greenhouse gases. However, despite its potential to provide robust data to researchers, methods of calibration and data correction are still being developed and refined. Furthermore, standard reference gases are currently not available and researchers must make their own gases to ensure proper calibration and data correction. To improve quality of data and allow for comparison of data between studies, it is essential that standard CO_2, CH_4 and N_2O gases are accessible to researchers.

  4. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian, Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Wai-Quan; Bi, Xian-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit is located in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Tectonically, it lies in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun island arc. The copper mineralization is mainly hosted in quartz-dioritic and quartz-monzonitic porphyries which intruded into clastic-volcanic rocks of the Late Triassic Tumugou Formation. There are several alteration zones including potassic, strong silicific and phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones from inner to outer of the mineralized porphyry bodies. The ages of ore-bearing quartz-monzonitic porphyry and its host andesite are obtained by using the zircon SIMS U-Pb dating method, with results of 218.3 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.31, N = 15) and 218.5 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.91, N = 16), respectively. Meanwhile, the molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a Re-Os isochronal age of 221.4 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.54, N = 5) and a weighted mean age of 219.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.88). They are quite in accordance with the zircon U-Pb ages within errors. Furthermore, all of them are contemporary with the timing of the Garzê-Litang oceanic crust subduction in the Yidun arc. Therefore, the Xuejiping deposit could be formed in a continental margin setting. There are negative ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.8 to -2.1 and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7051 to 0.7059 for the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites. The (206Pb/204Pb)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t and (208Pb/204Pb)t values of the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites vary from 17.899 to 18.654, from 15.529 to 15.626, and from 37.864 to 38.52, respectively, indicative of high radiogenic Pb isotopic features. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS exhibit that there are quite uniform and slightly positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from -0.2 to +3.2 (mostly between 0 and +2), corresponding to relatively young single-stage Hf model ages from 735 Ma to 871 Ma. These isotopic features suggest that the primary magmas of the Xuejiping porphyries and

  5. Evidence of a connection between the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis from Pb and Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestou, Sevasti; Gutjahr, Marcus; Fietzke, Jan; Rodés, Ángel; Frank, Martin; Bolhão Muiños, Susana; Ellam, Rob; Flecker, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    Prior to the opening of the Gibraltar Strait at 5.33 Ma, the Betic (southern Spain) and Rifian (northern Morocco) marine palaeocorridors linked the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. Although the central regions of these corridors have been heavily eroded due to uplift, evidence published to date indicates that both closed before the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.97 to 5.33 Ma [1, 2]). However, pre-MSC corridor closure presents a paradox, as the volume of halite deposited within the Mediterranean basin requires several times the volume of seawater contained in the basin itself. In this regard, radiogenic isotopes such as Sr, Pb, and Nd can provide key information about the timing of exchange through the Betic and Rifian palaeogateways. Due to the resolvable isotopic difference in Nd isotope signatures of outgoing Mediterranean and incoming Atlantic water masses, demonstrated both for the present day as well as the past environment, this isotope system can be used to identify exchange between these two water bodies. Although less well constrained to date, the Pb isotope system can be used in a similar manner due to its short residence time in seawater and interbasin variability. A high resolution Pb isotope record extracted using laser ablation from ferromanganese crust 3514-6 (recovered from the Lion Seamount, NE Atlantic, water depth 690-940 m) indicates a relatively constant Pb isotope signature before, during and after the MSC period. The previously published [3] Nd isotope record of crust 3514-6 corroborates that the crust was deposited in a current distinct from NE Atlantic Deep water or Antarctic Intermediate Water, the principal currents in the region of the Lion Seamount. The combined Pb and Nd isotope evolution suggests that Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) was continuously advected into the NE Atlantic during and after the MSC. Furthermore, preliminary Nd isotope records from Late Miocene sediments collected in the Sorbas Basin, Spain

  6. A discussion for the evolution model of Pb isotope of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and its interpretation to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kaixing; Hu Ruizhong; Bi Xianwu; Zhang Qian; Peng Jiantang

    2003-01-01

    Thirty Pb isotope data of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan have the similar trends with the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves but apparently deviate from it on the lead isotope composition programs, which may suggest Pb isotope of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan might have two stage evolution history though not fit very well to the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves. In this paper, a two-stage growth curves which can better fit the Pb isotope data was constructed based on the lead isotope data of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and the principle that Stacey and Kramers constructed the two-stage model and a reasonable interpretation was given to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks using the model. (authors)

  7. Round robin analyses of hydrogen isotope thin films standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, J.C. E-mail: jcbanks@sandia.gov; Browning, J.F.; Wampler, W.R.; Doyle, B.L.; LaDuca, C.A.; Tesmer, J.R.; Wetteland, C.J.; Wang, Y.Q

    2004-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope thin film standards have been manufactured at Sandia National Laboratories for use by the materials characterization community. Several considerations were taken into account during the manufacture of the ErHD standards, with accuracy and stability being the most important. The standards were fabricated by e-beam deposition of Er onto a Mo substrate and the film stoichiometrically loaded with hydrogen and deuterium. To determine the loading accuracy of the standards two random samples were measured by thermal desorption mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques with a stated combined accuracy of {approx}1.6% (1{sigma}). All the standards were then measured by high energy RBS/ERD and RBS/NRA with the accuracy of the techniques {approx}5% (1{sigma}). The standards were then distributed to the IBA materials characterization community for analysis. This paper will discuss the suitability of the standards for use by the IBA community and compare measurement results to highlight the accuracy of the techniques used.

  8. Advanced mass spectrometers for hydrogen-isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.; Daves, H.L.; Hess, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes were evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4 and an abundance sensitivity of >100,000 for the HT-D 2 doublet. The second is a smaller, simpler, stigmatic focusing instrument with exceptionally high ion intensities (>1 x 10 - 9 A at 600 resolution and about 1 x 10 - 10 A at 1300 resolution) for high signal-to-noise ratios. Both instruments are computer controlled. Once a scan is started, peak switching, scanning, mass discrimination control, data collection, and data reduction are done without operator intervention. Utility routines control hysteresis effects and instrument calibration. A containment facility, with dual inlet systems and a standard distribution system, permits testing with tritium mixtures. Helium flow standards and tritium activity meters provide independent verification of the mass spectrometer calibrations. A recovery system prevents the release of tritium to the environment. The performance of the mass spectrometers was essentially equal under simulated process control conditions. Precision and accuracy for the D/T ratio was <0.5% (rel 2sigma limits). Performance factors were: sample equilibration <300 ppM; linearity within +-0.3%; and gas interference <0.1%. Mass discrimination was controlled reliably by the computers

  9. Origin of the Early Sial Crust and U-Pb Isotope-Geochemical Heterogeneity of the Earth's Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, M. A.; Nozhkin, A. D.; Vovna, G. M.; Sakhno, V. G.; Veldemar, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    It is shown that presence of the Early Precambrian sial crust in the Indo-Atlantic segment of the Earth and its absence in the Pacific has been caused by geochemical differences in the mantle underlying these segments. These differences were examined on the basis of Nd-Hf and U-Pb isotopes in modern basalts. The U-Pb isotope system is of particular interest, since uranium is a member of a group of heat-generating radioactive elements providing heat for plumes. It is shown that in the Indo-Atlantic segment, a distribution of areas of the modern HIMU type mantle is typical, while it is almost completely absent in the Pacific segment. In the Archean, in the upper HIMU type paleo-mantle areas, plume generation and formation of the primordial basic crust occurred; this was followed by its remelting resulting in the appearance of an early sial crust forming cratons of the Indo-Atlantic segment.

  10. Determination of Cd and Pb in human blood by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry : International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Joon; Suh, Jeong Ki; Lee, Sang Hwa

    1996-01-01

    Inorganic analytical laboratory of Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science participated in an interlaboratory comparison program operated by Quebec Toxicology Centre of Canada in 1994 and again in 1995. The objective of this program is to enable participating laboratories to assess reproducibility and accuracy of their analytical results for trace toxic elements in human biological fluids. This laboratory determined Cd and Pb concentrations in 3 levels of human blood samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 0.5 mL of blood sample is added to the digestion bomb together with 2 mL of nitric acid and enriched spike isotopes and then decomposed in the microwave digestion system. The decomposed sample is diluted to 10 mL and nebulized into ICP-MS. The Cd and Pb values reported by all participating laboratories are presented and compared. The values reported by this laboratory are within the acceptable range of target values. (author)

  11. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the post-paleozoic magmatism from eastern Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P; Gasparon, M; Gomes, C.B; Antonini, P

    2001-01-01

    The Parana Angola-Namibia igneous province (PAN) is characterized by Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites and tholeiitic dyke swarms associated with alkaline rocks of Early and Late Cretaceous ages, respectively, and with scarce post-Mesozoic magmatic rocks (Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1997; 1999; Marques et al., 1999). The Eastern Paraguay, at the westernmost side of the Parana Basin, is of special interest because: (1) it is located between two main cratonic blocks, i.e. the southernmost tip of the Amazon Craton, and the northermost exposure of the Rio de La Plata Craton; (2) it was the site of repeated Na-K-alkaline magmatism since Late-Permian-Triassic times (i.e.: 250-240 Ma, Na-alkaline; c. 145 Ma, K-alkaline; 128-126 Ma, K-alkaline; 120-90 Ma, Na-alkaline; 61-33 Ma, Na-alkaline; cf. Comin-Chiaramonti and Gomes, 1996; Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1999), and of Early Cretaceous tholeiitic magmatism, both low- and high-Ti variants, L-Ti and H-Ti, respectively (133-131 Ma; cf. Marzoli et al., 1999); (3) the younger sodic magmatic rocks are closely associated in space to the potassic analogues (Comin- Chiaramonti et al., 1999). The paper aims discussing the most important Sr- Nd-Pb isotope features of the alkaline and tholeiitic magmas from Eastern Paraguay in comparison with the PAN analogues (au)

  12. Pb isotope investigations on Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Province, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macambira, M.J.B.; Galarza, M.A.T.; Souza, S.R.B.; Silva, C.M.G

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Province is the most important mineral province of Brazil hosting deposits of iron, copper, gold, manganese, nickel and others. In the last years, discoveries of large Cu-Au deposits in Carajas Province have demonstrated the vocation of this region for such deposits, which are, in general, associated with volcanosedimentary sequences and, in some cases, with Archean and/or Paleoproterozoic granitic instrusions. The age and nature of the deposits, as well as the metal source, are still not well understood. Someone believe that these deposits are volcano-exhalant in nature (e.g. Ferreira Filho, 1985; Vieira et al., 1988; Almada and Villas, 1999), while others propose a hydrothermal source for the ore associated with granitic intrusions (e.g. Winter, 1994; Lindenmayer et al., 1998; Tallarico et al., 2000). This work presents a brief discussion about three Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Basin (Bahia, Aguas Claras, and Pojuca deposits) based on new Pb isotope data on zircon and sulfides carried out in the Para-Iso Laboratory of the University of Para, Brazil (au)

  13. How to take environmental samples for stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to analyse a diverse range of samples for environmental investigations. The main types are soil/sediments, vegetation, fauna, shellfish, waste and water. Each type of samples requires different storage and collection methods. Outlined here are the preferred methods of collection to ensure maximum sample integrity and reliability. (author).

  14. How to take environmental samples for stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is possible to analyse a diverse range of samples for environmental investigations. The main types are soil/sediments, vegetation, fauna, shellfish, waste and water. Each type of samples requires different storage and collection methods. Outlined here are the preferred methods of collection to ensure maximum sample integrity and reliability. (author).

  15. How to take environmental samples for stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is possible to analyse a diverse range of samples for environmental investigations. The main types are soil/sediments, vegetation, fauna, shellfish, waste and water. Each type of samples requires different storage and collection methods. Outlined here are the preferred methods of collection to ensure maximum sample integrity and reliability. (author).

  16. How to take environmental samples for stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to analyse a diverse range of samples for environmental investigations. The main types are soil/sediments, vegetation, fauna, shellfish, waste and water. Each type of samples requires different storage and collection methods. Outlined here are the preferred methods of collection to ensure maximum sample integrity and reliability. (author)

  17. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, Sm-Nd and Pb-Pb isotope systematics of Ediacaran post-collisional high-silica Acampamento Velho volcanism at the Tupanci area, NW of the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Leitzke, Felipe Padilha; Lima, Evandro Fernandes de; Barreto, Carla Joana Santos; Matté, Vinicius; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Conceição, Rommulo Vieira, E-mail: casommer@sinos.net, E-mail: eflgeologo@gmail.com, E-mail: ruy.philipp@ufrgs.br, E-mail: rommulo.conceicao@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociências; Lafon, Jean Michel, E-mail: lafonjm@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil). Laboratório de Geologia Isotópica; Basei, Miguel Ângelo Stipp, E-mail: baseimas@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (CPGeo/IGc/USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    We present new U-Pb zircon ages and Sm-Nd-Pb isotopic data for volcanic and hypabyssal acid rocks from the northernmost exposure of the Acampamento Velho Formation in the NW portion of the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield, Brazil. The first volcanic episode, grouped in the high-Ti rhyolites from the Tupanci hill, shows age of 579 ± 5.6 Ma, which is in agreement with the post-collisional Acampamento Velho Formation volcanism in the Bom Jardim Group of the Camaquã Basin. A poorly constrained age of 558+/- 39Ma was obtained for rhyolites from the low-Ti group at the Picados Hill, which may indicate a younger acid volcanism, or a greater time span for the volcanism of the Acampamento Velho Formation in southernmost Brazil. Regarding magmatic sources, Sm/Nd isotopic data coupled to Pb isotopes and a review of trace element geochemistry indicate different amounts of Paleoproterozoic (Dom Feliciano, Pinheiro Machado Suite) to Neoproterozoic (Rio Vacacaí terrane) lower crust melting. Our data, coupled with literature data, contribute to a better understanding of the stratigraphic evolution for the Neoproterozoic post-collisional volcanic successions of the Camaquã Basin in the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield. (author)

  18. First measurements on the core and edge isotope composition using the JET isotope separator neutral particle analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettella, D; Murari, A; Stamp, M; Testa, D

    2003-01-01

    Direct measurements of tokamak plasmas isotope composition are in general quite difficult and have therefore been very seldom performed. On the other hand, the importance of this measurement is going to increase, as future experiments will be progressively focused on plasmas approaching reactor conditions. In this paper, we report for the first time encouraging experimental evidence supporting a new method to determine the radial profile of the density ratio n H /(n H + n D ), based on neutral particle analyser (NPA) measurements. The measurements have been performed in JET with the ISotope SEParator (ISEP), a NPA device specifically developed to measure the energy spectra of the three hydrogen isotopes with very high accuracy and low cross-talk. The data presented here have been collected in two different experimental conditions. In the first case, the density ratio has been kept constant during the discharge. The isotope ratio derived from the ISEP has been compared with the results of visible spectroscopy at the edge and with the isotope composition derived from an Alfven eigenmodes active diagnostic (AEAD) system at about half the minor radius for the discharges reported in this paper. A preliminary evaluation of the additional heating effects on the measurements has also been carried out. In the second set of experiments, the isotope composition of deuterium plasmas has been abruptly changed with suitable short blips of hydrogen, in order to assess the capability of the method to study the transport of the hydrogen isotope species. Future developments of the methodology and its applications to the evaluation of hydrogen transport coefficients are also briefly discussed. The results obtained so far motivate further development of the technique, which constitutes one of the few candidate diagnostic approaches viable for ITER

  19. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  20. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses of a Late Quaternary core in the Zaire (Congo) fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olausson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses have been carried out on samples from a core of the Angola Basin (6 0 50'S, 10 0 45'E, depth 2100 m). The pelagic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber, a species with a shallow water habitat, and two benthic species Uvigerina peregrina and Bulimina aculeata have been analysed. The data are given relative to PDB. (Auth.)

  1. The Ellsworth terrane, coastal Maine: Geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd-Pb isotopic composition - Implications for the rifting of Ganderia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, K.J.; Stewart, D.B.; Tucker, R.D.; Pollock, J.C.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Ellsworth terrane is one of a number of fault-bounded blocks that occur along the eastern margin of Ganderia, the western-most of the peri-Gondwanan domains in the northern Appalachians that were accreted to Laurentia in the Paleozoic. Geologic relations, detrital zircon ages, and basalt geochemistry suggest that the Ellsworth terrane is part of Ganderia and not an exotic terrane. In the Penobscot Bay area of coastal Maine, the Ellsworth terrane is dominantly composed of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanic sequences of the Ellsworth Schist and unconformably overlying Castine Volcanics. We use new U-Pb zircon geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd and Pb isotopes for these volcanic sequences to constrain the petrogenetic history and paleotectonic setting of the Ellsworth terrane and its relationship with Ganderia. U-Pb zircon geochronology for rhyolites indicates that both the Ellsworth Schist (508.6 ?? 0.8 Ma) and overlying Castine Volcanics (503.5 ?? 2.5 Ma) are Middle Cambrian in age. Two tholefitic basalt types are recognized. Type Tb-1 basalt, present as pillowed and massive lava flows and as sills in both units, has depleted La and Ce ([La/Nd]N = 0.53-0.87) values, flat heavy rare earth element (REE) values, and no positive Th or negative Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized diagrams. In contrast, type Th-2 basalt, present only in the Castine Volcanics, has stightly enriched LREE ([La/Yb]N = 1.42-2.92) values and no Th or Th anomalies. Both basalt types have strongly positive ??Nd (500) values (Th-1 = +7.9-+8.6; Th-2 = +5.6-+7.0) and relatively enriched Pb isotopic compositions (206Ph/204Pb = 18.037-19.784; 207/204Pb = 15.531-15.660; 2088Pb/204Pb = 37.810-38.817). The basalts have compositions transitional between recent normal and enriched mid-ocean-ridge basalt, and they were probably derived by partial melting of compositionatly heterogeneous asthenosphenc mantle. Two types of rhyolite also are present. Type R-1 rhyolite, which mostly occurs as tuffs

  2. U–Pb, Rb–Sr, and U-series isotope geochemistry of rocks and fracture minerals from the Chalk River Laboratories site, Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymark, L.A.; Peterman, Z.E.; Moscati, R.J.; Thivierge, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • AECL evaluates Chalk River Laboratories site as potential nuclear waste repository. • Isotope-geochemical data for rocks and fracture minerals at CRL site are reported. • Zircons from gneiss and granite yielded U–Pb ages of 1472 ± 14 and 1045 ± 6 Ma. • WR Rb–Sr and Pb–Pb systems do not show substantial large-scale isotopic mobility. • U-series and REE data do not support oxidizing conditions at depth in the past 1 Ma. - Abstract: As part of the Geologic Waste Management Facility feasibility study, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is evaluating the suitability of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario, situated in crystalline rock of the southwestern Grenville Province, for the possible development of an underground repository for low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste. This paper presents petrographic and trace element analyses, U–Pb zircon dating results, and Rb–Sr, U–Pb and U-series isotopic analyses of gneissic drill core samples from the deep CRG-series characterization boreholes at the CRL site. The main rock types intersected in the boreholes include hornblende–biotite (±pyroxene) gneisses of granitic to granodioritic composition, leucocratic granitic gneisses with sparse mafic minerals, and garnet-bearing gneisses with variable amounts of biotite and/or hornblende. The trace element data for whole-rock samples plot in the fields of within-plate, syn-collision, and volcanic arc-type granites in discrimination diagrams used for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Zircons separated from biotite gneiss and metagranite samples yielded SHRIMP-RG U–Pb ages of 1472 ± 14 (2σ) and 1045 ± 6 Ma, respectively, in very good agreement with widespread Early Mesoproterozoic plutonic ages and Ottawan orogeny ages in the Central Gneiss Belt. The Rb–Sr, U–Pb, and Pb–Pb whole-rock errorchron apparent ages of most of the CRL gneiss samples are consistent with zircon U–Pb age and do not indicate

  3. Subduction Contributions in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Implications from Lava Chemistry and Hf-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Goldstein, S. L.; Langmuir, C. H.; Gómez-Tuena, A.; Lagatta, A.; Straub, S. M.; Martín Del Pozzo, A.

    2007-05-01

    Despite thick continental crust, near primitive lavas erupt throughout the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). In order to distinguish and better constrain subduction contributions and effects of crustal contamination, we analyzed samples representing subducting sediments from DSDP Site 487, and Quaternary lavas from stratovolcanoes and cinder cones, including alkaline "high-Nb" lavas from the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field (SCVF) showing negligible subduction signature in its trace element chemistry and representing melts of the mantle wedge. Our primary observations and implications are: (1) The high-Nb SCVF `intraplate' lavas define a linear trend along the "Nd-Hf mantle-crust array", defining the composition of the mantle wedge. (2) Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca stratovolcanoes show the highest Nd and Hf isotope ratios, higher than the `intraplate' lavas, indicating their sources are more "depleted mantle-like" than the regional mantle wedge. (3) The Popo and Toluca chemical and isotopic trends sharply contrast with Pico de Orizaba, which shows classic indications of crustal contamination (e.g. high 207Pb/204Pb, low Nd-Hf isotope ratios), consistent with contamination by local Precambrian crust. (4) Higher Nd-Hf isotopes in Popo and Toluca lavas also correlate with lower Pb isotope ratios, and lower Lu/Hf and Zr/Hf. Together, these data indicate contributions from subducted Pacific oceanic crust and hydrothermal sediment. (5) Popo and Toluca are also enriched in Th/LREE compared with `intraplate' lavas, reflecting subducted sediment contributions. (6) Nd-Hf isotope ratios of hydrothermal sediment from DSDP Site 487 lie on the "seawater array", with high Hf isotope ratios compared to the "mantle-crust array". Popo and Toluca Nd-Hf isotopes display a shallower slope than the "intraplate lava Nd-Hf array", reflecting contributions from hydrothermal sediment. Popocatepetl and Toluca lavas therefore avoid substantial crustal contamination of mantle wedge

  4. Two mineralization events in the Baiyinnuoer Zn-Pb deposit in Inner Mongolia, China: Evidence from field observations, S-Pb isotopic compositions and U-Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Si-Hong; Chen, Chun-Liang; Bagas, Leon; Liu, Yuan; Han, Ning; Kang, Huan; Wang, Ze-Hai

    2017-08-01

    The Xing-Mong Orogenic Belt (XMOB) is located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and has experienced multiple tectonic events. The Baiyinnuoer Pb-Zn deposit may be a rare case that documents two periods of mineralization in the tectonically complex XMOB. There are two types of Pb-Zn mineralization in the deposit: (1) skarn-type ore, hosted by the skarn in the contact zone between marble and granodiorite and within the marble and (2) vein-type ore, hosted by crystal tuff and feldspar porphyry. This study revealed that the host rocks, mineral assemblages, mineralization occurrences, S-Pb isotopes, and ages between the two types of ore are notably different. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granodiorite was emplaced in the Early Triassic (244 ± 1 to 242 ± 1 Ma), the crystal tuff was deposited in the Early Cretaceous (140 ± 1 to 136 ± 1 Ma), and the feldspar porphyry was intruded in the Early Cretaceous (138 ± 2 to 136 ± 2 Ma). The first skarn mineralization occurred at ∼240 Ma and the second vein-type Pb-Zn mineralization took place between 136 and 129 Ma. Thus the Triassic orebodies were overprinted by Early Cretaceous mineralization. The sphalerite and galena from the skarn mineralization have higher δ34S values (-4.7 to +0.3‰) than the sphalerite, galena and aresenopyrite from the vein-type mineralization (-7.5 to -4.2‰), indicating different sulfur sources or ore-forming processes for the two types of mineralization. The Pb isotopic compositions of the two types of ore are very similar, suggesting similar lead sources. Geochemistry and Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic systematics of the igneous rocks in the region show that the Triassic granodiorite was generated from hybridization of mafic and felsic magmas due to strong crust-mantle interaction under the collisional setting that resulted following the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the collision of North China and Siberian cratons at the end of the Permian; while the

  5. Pb and Sr isotope measurements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: efficient time management for precision improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monna, F.; Loizeau, J.-L.; Thomas, B. A.; Guéguen, C.; Favarger, P.-Y.

    1998-08-01

    One of the factors limiting the precision of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is the counting statistics, which depend upon acquisition time and ion fluxes. In the present study, the precision of the isotopic measurements of Pb and Sr is examined. The time of measurement is optimally shared for each isotope, using a mathematical simulation, to provide the lowest theoretical analytical error. Different algorithms of mass bias correction are also taken into account and evaluated in term of improvement of overall precision. Several experiments allow a comparison of real conditions with theory. The present method significantly improves the precision, regardless of the instrument used. However, this benefit is more important for equipment which originally yields a precision close to that predicted by counting statistics. Additionally, the procedure is flexible enough to be easily adapted to other problems, such as isotopic dilution.

  6. Compound-specific isotopic analyses: a novel tool for reconstruction of ancient biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.; Freeman, K. H.; Popp, B. N.; Hoham, C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Patterns of isotopic fractionation in biogeochemical processes are reviewed and it is suggested that isotopic fractionations will be small when substrates are large. If so, isotopic compositions of biomarkers will reflect those of their biosynthetic precursors. This prediction is tested by consideration of results of analyses of geoporphyrins and geolipids from the Greenhorn Formation (Cretaceous, Western Interior Seaway of North America) and the Messel Shale (Eocene, lacustrine, southern Germany). It is shown (i) that isotopic compositions of porphyrins that are related to a common source, but which have been altered structurally, cluster tightly and (ii) that isotopic differences between geolipids and porphyrins related to a common source are equal to those observed in modern biosynthetic products. Both of these observations are consistent with preservation of biologically controlled isotopic compositions during diagenesis. Isotopic compositions of individual compounds can thus be interpreted in terms of biogeochemical processes in ancient depositional environments. In the Cretaceous samples, isotopic compositions of n-alkanes are covariant with those of total organic carbon, while delta values for pristane and phytane are covariant with those of porphyrins. In this unit representing an open marine environment, the preserved acyclic polyisoprenoids apparently derive mainly from primary material, while the extractable, n-alkanes derive mainly from lower levels of the food chain. In the Messel Shale, isotopic compositions of individual biomarkers range from -20.9 to -73.4% vs PDB. Isotopic compositions of specific compounds can be interpreted in terms of origin from methylotrophic, chemautotrophic, and chemolithotrophic microorganisms as well as from primary producers that lived in the water column and sediments of this ancient lake.

  7. Isotopic analysis using optical spectroscopy (1963); Analyse isotopique par spectroscopie optique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The isotopic displacement in the atomic lines of certain elements (H, He, Li, Ne, Sr, Hg, Pb, U, Pu) is used for dosing these elements isotopically. The use of the Fabry-Perot photo-electric interference spectrometer is shown to be particularly adapted for this sort of problem: in each case we give on the one hand the essential results obtained with this apparatus, and on the other hand the results previously obtained with a conventional apparatus (grating, photographic plate). These results together give an idea of the possibilities of optical spectroscopy: in the best case, the precision which may be expected is of the order of 1 to 2 per cent for isotopes whose concentration is about 1 per cent. (author) [French] Le deplacement isotopique dans les raies atomiques de certains elements (H, He, Li, Ne, Sr, Hg, Pb, U, Pu) est utilise pour effectuer le dosage isotopique de ces elements. L'utilisation du spectrometre interferentiel Fabry-Perot photoelectrique se revele particulierement adapte a ce genre de probleme: dans chaque cas, nous donnons d'une part l'essentiel des resultats obtenus avec cet appareil, et d'autre part, les resultats obtenus anterieurement a l'aide de l'appareillage classique (reseau, plaque photographique). L'ensemble de ces informations donne une idee des possibilites offertes par la spectroscopie optique: dans le meilleur des cas, la precision que l'on peut esperer est de l'ordre de 1 a 2 pour cent pour des isotopes dont la concentration est de l'ordre de 1 pour cent. (auteur)

  8. A rapid and reliable method for Pb isotopic analysis of peat and lichens by laser ablation-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for biomonitoring and sample screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylander, M.E.; Weiss, D.J.; Jeffries, T.E.; Kober, B.; Dolgopolova, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, R.; Coles, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical protocol for rapid and reliable laser ablation-quadrupole (LA-Q)- and multi-collector (MC-) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of Pb isotope ratios ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) in peats and lichens is developed. This technique is applicable to source tracing atmospheric Pb deposition in biomonitoring studies and sample screening. Reference materials and environmental samples were dry ashed and pressed into pellets for introduction by laser ablation. No binder was used to reduce contamination. LA-MC-ICP-MS internal and external precisions were 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios. LA-Q-ICP-MS internal precisions on 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios were lower with values for the different sample sets 208 Pb by Q-ICP-MS are identified as sources of reduced analytical performance

  9. Complementary analyses to interpret profiles of 2{sup 10}Pb; Analisis complementarios para interpretar perfiles de {sup 210}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia (Mexico); Mulsow, Sandor [Universidad Austral de Chile (Chile)

    2012-07-01

    The coastal zone is highly dynamic, subject to processes that often cause disturbances in the sedimentary record. These processes have varied origins: physical, chemical and biological. Because of this feature of the coastal area we suggest improving the quality of dating and estimated accumulation rates through the study of some of the many features expressed in the sedimentary record. Below are some ancillary techniques that can improve the quality of the interpretation of the profile of {sup 210}Pb{sub ex}. [Spanish] La zona costera es un medio altamente dinamico, sujeta a procesos que frecuentemente causan perturbaciones en el registro sedimentario. Estos procesos tienen origenes variados: fisicos, quimicos y biologicos. Debido a esta caracteristica del area costera sugerimos mejorar la calidad del fechado y las estimaciones de las tasas de acumulacion a traves del estudio de algunas de las muchas caracteristicas expresadas en los registros sedimentarios. A continuacion describimos algunas tecnicas auxiliares que pueden mejorar la calidad de la interpretacion del perfil de {sup 210}Pb{sub ex}.

  10. Sr and Pb isotopic composition of five USGS glasses (BHVO-2G, BIR-1G, BCR-2G, TB-1G, NKT-1G)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elburg, M.A.; Vroon, P.Z.; van der Wagt, R.A.C.A.; Tchalikian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sr isotopic compositions and Rb/Sr ratios of three USGS glasses (BHVO-2G, BIR-1G, BCR-2G) are identical to those of the original USGS reference materials. NKT-1G and TB-1G give values of 0.70351 and 0.70558, respectively. Pb isotopic ratios were measured by the standard-sample bracketing technique

  11. Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic constraints on the origin of Hawaiian basalts and evidence for a unique mantle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stille, P.

    1986-01-01

    Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic relationships among basalts from the Hawaiian Islands suggest that these basalts were derived from three sources; the oceanic lithosphere (Kea end member), the depleted asthenosphere (posterosional end member) and a deep-mantle plume (Koolau end member). Hawaiian tholeiites are derived within the lithosphere and the isotopic trends collectively defined by the tholeiite data are interpreted as a plume-lithosphere mixing trend. The isotopic characteristics of late-stage basalts are derived from the tholeiite source (lithosphere + plume) with additional input from the lithosphere, asthenosphere, or both. These basalts probably originate from near the asthenosphere-lithosphere boundary. Posterosional basalts are derived from the depleted asthenosphere, but their isotopic characteristics have been slightly modified by either the plume or the source of previously erupted volcanics. The isotopic data require little or no mixing of asthenospheric material into the plume during tholeiite production and thus are consistent with the concept of a rapidly ascending, fluid-rich plume. In addition to providing a source of heat, the plume may supply volatiles to both the sources of tholeiites and posterosional basalts. The isotopic characteristics of the Koolau (plume) component are unique among OIB sources. If undifferentiated or 'primitive' mantle material still exists, then the radiogenic-isotope data for Koolau in combination with rare gas data for Hawaiian basalts in general suggest that the Hawaiian plume may be derived from such material. In any case, the Hawaiian Islands data, when compared to those of other OIB, serve to illustrate the isotopically diverse nature of mantle sources. (author)

  12. Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic characterization of Mesozoic rocks throughout the northern end of the Peninsular Ranges batholith: Isotopic evidence for the magmatic evolution of oceanic arc–continental margin accretion during the Late Cretaceous of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the duration of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–based Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), many samples from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith were studied for their whole-rock radioisotopic systematics (rubidium-strontium [Rb-Sr], uranium-thorium-lead [U-Th-Pb], and samarium-neodymium [Sm-Nd]), as well as oxygen (O), a stable isotope. The results of three main studies are presented separately, but here we combine them (>400 analyses) to produce a very complete Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic profile of an arc-continent collisional zone—perhaps the most complete in the world. In addition, because many of these samples have U-Pb zircon as well as argon mineral age determinations, we have good control of the timing for Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic variations.The ages and isotopic variations help to delineate at least four zones across the batholith from west to east—an older western zone (126–108 Ma), a transitional zone (111–93 Ma), an eastern zone (94–91 Ma), and a much younger allochthonous thrust sheet (ca. 84 Ma), which is the upper plate of the Eastern Peninsular Ranges mylonite zone. Average initial 87Sr/86 Sr (Sri), initial 206Pb/204Pb (206 Pbi), initial 208Pb/204Pb (average 208Pbi), initial epsilon Nd (average εNdi), and δ18O signatures range from 0.704, 18.787, 38.445, +3.1, and 4.0‰–9.0‰, respectively, in the westernmost zone, to 0.7071, 19.199, 38.777, −5, and 9‰–12‰, respectively, in the easternmost zone. The older western zone is therefore the more chemically and isotopically juvenile, characterized mostly by values that are slightly displaced from a mantle array at ca. 115 Ma, and similar to some modern island-arc signatures. In contrast, the isotopic signatures in the eastern zones indicate significant amounts of crustal involvement in the magmatic plumbing of those plutons. These isotopic signatures confirm previously published results that interpreted the Peninsular Ranges batholith as a progressively

  13. Isotopic compositions of Sr in waters and of Pb in sediments and ashes from an urban incinerator using an ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillion, N.; Clauer, N.; Samuen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical precision of the Sr and the Pb isotopic compositions of natural samples obtained with a conventional ICP-MS is of 3 to 7 x 10 -3 (internal 2 σ) for the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, 6 to 8 x 10 -3 for the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 1 to 4 x 10 -1 for the 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios. Such accuracy is obtained with a procedure including a resin-chromatographic purification, a correction with respect to standard values (NBS 987 and 981) and a routine of four determinations for each sample. This procedure should allow rapid geochemical investigations ahead of more precise determinations by thermo-ionization mass spectrometry. (authors). 8 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope evidence for the origin of the Ahangran Pb-Ag deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2015-10-01

    sulfur isotope analysis. The sulfur isotopes in sulfides and sulfates were run on a Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus XP IRMS mass spectrometer. The analytical uncertainty for δ34S is ±0.2‰. Results and Discussion The main types of fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite are as follows: I: dominant liquid + less vapor (L+V; II: dominant vapor + less liquid (V + L; III: liquid + vapor+ CO2 (L+V+CO2 (L+V; IV: CO2 (L+V; V: liquid + vapor + sylvite (L+V+Sy. Homogenization temperatures of primary fluid inclusions indicate that mineralization occurred at temperatures ranging from 130 to 320 °C (ave., 200°C and their salinites range from 10 to 15 wt % NaCl equiv. The temperatures and salinities of the mineralizing fluids of the Ahangaran deposit are similar to the Irish type Zn-Pb deposits, and suggest a similar origin. The δ34S values of pyrite and galena are within the range of -25.5 to +11.6 ‰ and -6.3 to -8.5 ‰, respectively and for barite are in the range of 26 to 27.2 ‰. These values indicate that the δ34SH2S values of fluids in that deposited the pyrite and galena are within the range of -6.4 to-2.9 ‰ and 9.4 to 27.9 ‰, respectively. The δ34S values of marine sulfate were 13 to 20 ‰ during the Cretaceous (Hoefs, 2009. The δ34S values of barite are near to that of marine sulfate in the Cretaceous which indicate that the sulfate of the barite may have a marine origin. On the other hand, the δ34SH2S values of galena lie within a narrow range, suggesting that the main source of sulfur may be from thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Acknowledgments In this research, we thank Sormak Mines Company for its support during field work. We also thank Sormak Mines Managers, especially Mr. Khakbaz for his cooperation and support of this research. Parts of this research were supported by the research department of Bu-Ali Sina University. We also wish to express our appreciation of the isotopic analyses by Queen's University, Canada. References Bodnar, R.J. and Vityk

  15. A simplified method for obtaining high-purity perchlorate from groundwater for isotope analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    vonKiparski, G; Hillegonds, D

    2011-04-04

    Investigations into the occurrence and origin of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) found in groundwater from across North America have been sparse until recent years, and there is mounting evidence that natural formation mechanisms are important. New opportunities for identifying groundwater perchlorate and its origin have arisen with the utilization of improved detection methods and sampling techniques. Additionally, application of the forensic potential of isotopic measurements has begun to elucidate sources, potential formation mechanisms and natural attenuation processes. Procedures developed appear to be amenable to enable high precision stable isotopic analyses, as well as lower precision AMS analyses of {sup 36}Cl. Immediate work is in analyzing perchlorate isotope standards and developing full analytical accuracy and uncertainty expectations. Field samples have also been collected, and will be analyzed when final qa/qc samples are deemed acceptable.

  16. Diet of Tollund Man. Stable isotope analyses of an Iron Age bog body from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt Nielsen, Nina; Philippsen, Bente; Jensen, L. V.

    Tollund Man is one of the world’s most famous bog bodies due to his exceptionally well-preserved head. He was found in 1950 by peat cutters in a bog near Bjældskovdal, c. 10 km west of Silkeborg. During the years, several analyses have been performed on the body to shed light on the life and deat...... to dry out, and the bone sample could therefore be analysed without special pretreatment. The hair, on the other hand, had been treated with wax, which needed to be removed prior to analysis. The successful method of pre-treatment will be presented....... and hair of Tollund Man. The analysis of the isotopes of C, N and S reveals the diet on long and short time scales: The isotope signature in the bone sample reflects the average diet in the years prior to death; the isotope signature in the hair reflects the diet in the last months of his life. Any...

  17. Pb and Sr isotopic systematics of some basalts and sulfides from the East Pacific Rise at 21/sup 0/N (project RITA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 35 - Rennes (France). Centre Armoricain d' Etude Structurale des Socles); Clauer, N. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 67 - Strasbourg (France). Centre de Sedimentologie et Geochimie de la Surface)

    1981-10-01

    Tholeiitic basalts and sulfide deposits from the 'Cyana' and 'Alvin' diving programs (RITA project) on the East Pacific Rise were analyzed for Pb and Sr isotopes. The basalt data plot within the field defined previously by other East Pacific Rise basalts (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb: 18.35-18.58; /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb: 15.48-15.53; /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb: 37.8-38.1; /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr: 0.7022-0.7025). Pb, U and Sr contents (approx. equal to 0.5, approx. equal to 0.05 and approx. equal to 110 ppm, respectively) and ..mu.. values (approx. equal to 6) are typical of MORB, whereas Th/U ratios (approx. equal to 3.5) are significantly higher. The Pb isotopic ratios of the sulfide samples are very homogeneous (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb approx. equal to 18.47, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb approx. equal to 15.49, /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb approx. equal to 37.90), and plot in the middle of the basalt field. This indicates that the sulfide Pb was derived from the basaltic crust without any significant contribution from either seawater or hemipelagic sediments, and the solutions from which the sulfiedes were deposited had uniform Pb isotopic composition. The Pb contents of three sulfide samples is relatively high (170-1310 ppm). The Sr contents of five sulfide samples are widely scattered from 12 to 210 ppm, with /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios intermediate between basaltic and seawater values (0.70554 +- 0.00005 to 0.70795 +- 0.00011). Leaching experiments show that both basalt-derived Sr and seawater Sr were present in the solutions which deposited the sulfides. In some cases, Sr was also adsorbed from seawater onto the sulfides following their deposition. Basalt-derived Sr and seawater Sr are also present in associated non-sulfide phases.

  18. Oxygen isotope analyses of ground ice from North of West Siberia, from Yakutia and from Chukotka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikmaee, R.; Vassilchuk, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to make the large amount of original factual material obtained by studying the oxygen isotope composition in different types of permafrost and ground ice available to specialists. The samples analysed were systematically collected over a period of many years from different permafrost areas of the Soviet Union with the aim of elucidating and studying the regularities of isotope composition formation in different types of ground ice and selecting the most promising objects for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Much attention was paid on methodical problems of isotopic analysis starting with the collection, transportation and storage of samples up to the interpretation of the results obtained. Besides permafrost isotope data covering a large geographical area, a good deal of data concerns the isotopic composition of precipitation and surface water in permafrost areas. This is of great consequence as regards the understanding of the regularities of isotope compositions formation in permafrost. The largest chapter gives a brief account of the isotopic composition in different types of ground ice. The conclusion has been reached that in terms of paleoclimatic research syngenetic ice wedges are most promising. Grounding on the representative data bank it may be maintained with certainty that the isotopic composition provides a reliable basis for the differentiation of ice wedges originating in different epochs , however, it also reveals regional regularities. Much more complicated is the interpretation of textural ice isotopic composition. In some cases it is possible to use the distribution of 18 O in vertical sections of textural ice for their stratigraphic division. One has to consider here different mechanisms of textural ice formation as a result of which the initial isotopic composition of the ice-forming water can be in some cases highly modified. A problem of its own is the investigation of 18 O variations in the section of massive

  19. Origins and evolution of rhyolitic magmas in the central Snake River Plain: insights from coupled high-precision geochronology, oxygen isotope, and hafnium isotope analyses of zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Dylan P.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Christiansen, Eric H.; Stern, Richard A.

    2018-02-01

    We present new high-precision CA-ID-TIMS and in situ U-Pb ages together with Hf and O isotopic analyses (analyses performed all on the same grains) from four tuffs from the 15-10 Ma Bruneau-Jarbidge center of the Snake River Plain and from three rhyolitic units from the Kimberly borehole in the neighboring 10-6 Ma Twin Falls volcanic center. We find significant intrasample diversity in zircon ages (ranges of up to 3 Myr) and in δ18O (ranges of up to 6‰) and ɛHf (ranges of up to 24 ɛ units) values. Zircon rims are also more homogeneous than the associated cores, and we show that zircon rim growth occurs faster than the resolution of in situ dating techniques. CA-ID-TIMS dating of a subset of zircon grains from the Twin Falls samples reveals complex crystallization histories spanning 104-106 years prior to some eruptions, suggesting that magma genesis was characterized by the cyclic remelting of buried volcanic rocks and intrusions associated with previous magmatic episodes. Age-dependent trends in zircon isotopic compositions show that rhyolite production in the Yellowstone hotspot track is driven by the mixing of mantle-derived melts (normal δ18O and ɛHf) and a combination of Precambrian basement rock (normal δ18O and ɛHf down to - 60) and shallow Mesozoic and Cenozoic age rocks, some of which are hydrothermally altered (to low δ18O values) by earlier stages of Snake River Plain magmatism. These crustal melts hybridize with juvenile basalts and rhyolites to produce the erupted rhyolites. We also observe that the Precambrian basement rock is only an important component in the erupted magmas in the first eruption at each caldera center, suggesting that the accumulation of new intrusions quickly builds an upper crustal intrusive body which is isolated from the Precambrian basement and evolves towards more isotopically juvenile and lower-δ18O compositions over time.

  20. U-Pb isotope and trace element compositions of pyrites in the Black Reef: implications on their age and origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the Black Reef Quartzite Formation of the Transvaal Supergroup two gold-bearing conglomerate facies have been recognized. The source of gold in these reefs has long been a matter of speculation. Although some ascribe the gold and pyrite to a hydrothermal origin, the prevailing opinion favours a detrital origin. As a possible source, the reworked underlying sub-outcrops of the Kimberly Reef horizons in the Central Rand group have been proposed. An investigation was undertaken with the aim of defining the Pb-isotopic and trace element signatures of morphologically different pyrite populations within the two Black Reef facies as well as for the underlying Kimberly Reef. 2 tabs

  1. A comparative analysis of alpha-decay half-lives for even-even 178Pb to 234U isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The feasibility for the alpha decay from the even-even transitions of 178Pb to 234U isotopes has been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The alpha decay half-lives are considered from different theoretical approaches using Semi-empirical formula of Poenaru et al. (SemFIS), the Universal Decay law (UDL) of Qi et al., Akrawy-Dorin formula of Akrawy and Poenaru (ADF), the Scaling law of Brown (SLB) and the Scaling Law of Horoi et al. (SLH). The numerical results obtained by the CPPM and compared with other method as well the experimental data.

  2. Isotopic yields and kinetic energies of primary residues in 1 A GeV 208Pb + p reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, T.; Wlazlo, W.; Armbruster, P.

    2000-09-01

    The production of primary residual nuclei in the reaction 1 A GeV 208 Pb on proton has been studied by measuring isotopic distributions for all elements from titanium (Z=22) to lead (Z=82). Kinematical properties of the residues were also determined and used to disentangle the relevant reaction mechanisms, spallation (projectile fragmentation) and fission. The fragment separator FRS at GSI, Darmstadt, was used to separate and identify the reaction products. The measured production cross sections are highly relevant for the design of accelerator-driven subcritical reactors and for the planning of future radioactive-beam facilities. (orig.)

  3. Effects of interaction between ultramafic tectonite and mafic magma on Nd-Pb-Sr isotopic systems in the Neoproterozoic Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Yuri V.; Ritsk, Eugeni Yu.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    1997-04-01

    Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotopic systems have been studied in minerals and whole rocks of harzburgites and mafic cumulates from the Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt, eastern Siberia, in order to determine the relationship between mantle ultramafic and crustal mafic sections. Geological relations in the Chaya Massif indicate that the mafic magmas were emplaced into, and interacted with older solid peridotite. Hand picked, acid-leached, primary rock-forming and accessory minerals (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase) from the two harzburgite samples show coherent behavior and yield 147Sm/ 144Nd- 143Nd/ 144Nd and 238U/ 204Pb- 206Pb/ 204Pb mineral isochrons, corresponding to ages of 640 ± 58 Ma (95% confidence level) and 620 ± 71 Ma, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from the crystallization age of the Chaya mafic units of 627 ± 25 Ma (a weighted average of internal isochron Sm-Nd ages of four mafic cumulates). The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems in the harzburgite whole-rock samples were disturbed by hydrothermal alteration. These alteration-related isotopic shifts mimic the trend of variations in primary isotopic compositions in the mafic sequence, thus emphasizing that isotopic data for ultramafic rocks should be interpreted with great caution. On the basis of initial Sr and Nd values, ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Chaya Massif can be divided into two groups: (1) harzburgites and the lower mafic unit gabbronorites withɛ Nd = +6.6 to +7.1 andɛ Sr = -11 to -16; and (2) websterite of the lower unit and gabbronorites of the upper mafic unit:ɛ Nd = +4.6 to +6.1 andɛ Sr = -8 to -9. Initial Pb isotopic ratios are identical in all rocks studied, with mean values of 206Pb/ 204Pb= 16.994 ± 0.023 and 207Pb/ 204Pb= 15.363 ± 0.015. The similarity of ages and initial isotopic ratios within the first group indicates that the isotopic systems in the pre-existing depleted peridotite were reset by extensive interaction with

  4. Use of isotope ratios to assess sources of Pb and Zn dispersed in the environment during mining and ore processing within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site (Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgopolova, A.; Weiss, D.J.; Seltmann, R.; Kober, B.; Mason, T.F.D.; Coles, B.; Stanley, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Element concentrations, element ratios and Pb and Zn isotope data are reported for different geologic samples (barren and ore-bearing granites and host rocks), technogenic products (ore concentrates and tailings) and biologic samples (lichens and birch leaves) from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining district, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia, with the aim to trace the sources of Pb and Zn at a local level within the mining site. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptors of contamination within the mining site. Pb/Zr and Zn/Zr values indicated Pb and Zn enrichment relative to host rocks. Zn isotope data of 15 geologic and 11 lichen samples showed different Zn isotopic signatures with the total range for the geologic suite of -0.4 per mille to +1.2 per mille and for lichens of +0.4 per mille to +1.4 per mille in δ 66 Zn relative to Lyon JMC Zn standard. The source of isotopically heavy Zn within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site could be potentially associated with long-range atmospheric aerosols that also contributed Pb to the studied mining site. Our results demonstrated that Zn isotopes might be used as new tools for Zn source assessment

  5. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete volcanic sequences restored in the Coastal Range of Taiwan are key archives for better understanding the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc. This paper reports (1 new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data of fourteen volcanic samples from different sequences of four major volcanoes in the Coastal Range, (2 Hf isotopic data of dated magmatic and detrital zircons from two offshore volcanic islands, Lutao and Lanyu. These data indicate that the arc magmatism in the Coastal Range started at ~15 Ma, most active at ~9 Ma, and ceased at ~4.2 Ma. Magmatic zircons from the arc rocks show a significant variation in Hf isotopic composition, with εHf(T values varying from +24.9 to +4.8. As pointed out by our previous studies, old continental zircons that show Cathaysian-type ages and Hf isotope features are common in samples from the Yuemei, Chimei, and Lanyu volcanoes, supporting the notion for the influence of the existence of an accreted micro-continent or continental fragment plays a role in the petrogenesis. Such inherited zircons are not observed in the Chengkuang’ao and Tuluanshan volcanoes and uncommon in Lutao, implying the discontinuity or a limited extent of the accreted continental fragment. The εHf(T values are high and positive from ~15 - 8 Ma (+25 to +15; ±5ε-unit variation, and became lower from ~6 to 4.2 Ma (+20 to +8; ±6ε units and the lowest from ~1.3 Ma (+19 to +5; ±7ε units. Such a temporal variation in zircon Hf isotopic ratios can be also identified in whole-rock Hf and Nd isotopic compositions, which decrease from ~6 Ma when the Northern Luzon Arc may have started colliding with the Eurasian continental margin.

  6. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic data of Indian Ocean ridges: New evidence of large-scale mapping of mantle heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelin, B.; Dupre, B.; Allegre, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    A Pb-Sr-Nd isotope study of South West and East Indian Ridges confirms that the Indian Ocean belongs to a specific regional isotopic domain, as previously suggested by the results from islands of this ocean. The isotopic domain defined by the Indian MORB is indeed different from that of the North Atlantic and East Pacific Oceans. This demonstrates that the convective circulation of the upper mantle does not allow a rapid homogenization from one region to the other. The isotopic data of the Indian ridges can be interpreted by a contamination model, in which the depleted upper mantle (identical to that under the North Atlantic) is contaminated by two different types of contaminant, one corresponding to the source of the ''central Indian Ocean'' islands (Amsterdam, St. Paul, Marion, Prince Edward, Reunion, Rodriguez, Mauritius), and the other to a source similar to that of Walvis or Ninety East aseismic ridges. These two contaminants would have contributed to the ridge volcanism in different proportion over time. (orig.)

  7. Trophic ecology influence on metal bioaccumulation in marine fish: Inference from stable isotope and fatty acid analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Croizier, Gaël; Schaal, Gauthier; Gallon, Régis; Fall, Massal; Le Grand, Fabienne; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Rouget, Marie-Laure; Machu, Eric; Le Loc'h, François; Laë, Raymond; De Morais, Luis Tito

    2016-12-15

    The link between trophic ecology and metal accumulation in marine fish species was investigated through a multi-tracers approach combining fatty acid (FA) and stable isotope (SI) analyses on fish from two contrasted sites on the coast of Senegal, one subjected to anthropogenic metal effluents and another one less impacted. The concentrations of thirteen trace metal elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, U, and Zn) were measured in fish liver. Individuals from each site were classified into three distinct groups according to their liver FA and muscle SI compositions. Trace element concentrations were tested between groups revealing that bioaccumulation of several metals was clearly dependent on the trophic guild of fish. Furthermore, correlations between individual trophic markers and trace metals gave new insights into the determination of their origin. Fatty acids revealed relationships between the dietary regimes and metal accumulation that were not detected with stable isotopes, possibly due to the trace metal elements analysed in this study. In the region exposed to metallic inputs, the consumption of benthic preys was the main pathway for metal transfer to the fish community while in the unaffected one, pelagic preys represented the main source of metals. Within pelagic sources, metallic transfer to fish depended on phytoplankton taxa on which the food web was based, suggesting that microphytoplankton (i.e., diatoms and dinoflagellates) were a more important source of exposition than nano- and picoplankton. This study confirmed the influence of diet in the metal accumulation of marine fish communities, and proved that FAs are very useful and complementary tools to SIs to link metal accumulation in fish with their trophic ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zn isotope study of atmospheric emissions and dry depositions within a 5 km radius of a Pb-Zn refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattielli, Nadine; Petit, Jérôme C. J.; Deboudt, Karine; Flament, Pascal; Perdrix, Esperanza; Taillez, Aurélien; Rimetz-Planchon, Juliette; Weis, Dominique

    The present paper examines the use of zinc isotopes as tracers of atmospheric sources and focuses on the potential fractionation of Zn isotopes through anthropogenic processes. In order to do so, Zn isotopic ratios are measured in enriched ores and airborne particles associated with pyrometallurgical activities of one of the major Pb-Zn refineries in France. Supporting the isotopic investigation, this paper also compares morphological and chemical characteristics of Zn particles collected on dry deposition plates ("environmental samples") placed within a 5 km radius of the smelter, with those of Zn particles collected inside the plant ("process samples"), i.e. dust collected from the main exhaust system of the plant. To ensure a constant isotopic "supply", the refinery processed a specific set of ores during the sampling campaigns, as agreed with the executive staff of the plant. Enriched ores and dust produced by the successive Zn extraction steps show strong isotope fractionation (from -0.66 to +0.22‰) mainly related to evaporation processes within the blast furnaces. Dust from the main chimney displays a δ 66Zn value of -0.67‰. Application of the Rayleigh equation to evaluate the fractionation factor associated with the Zn vapor produced after a free evaporation gives a range of αore/vapor from 1.0004 to 1.0008. The dry deposits, collected on plates downwind of the refinery, display δ 66Zn variations of up to +0.7‰. However, it is to be noted that between 190 and 1250 m from the main chimney of the refinery, the dry deposits show a high level of large (>10 μm) Zn, S, Fe and O bearing aggregates characterized by positive δ 66Zn values (+0.02 to +0.19‰). These airborne particles probably derive from the re-suspension of slag heaps and local emissions from the working-units. In contrast, from 1720 to 4560 m, the dry deposits are comprised of small (PM10) particles, including spherical Zn-bearing aggregates, showing negative δ 66Zn values (-0.52 to -0

  9. Characterization of the region and year of production of wines by stable isotopes and elemental analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Day

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope and elemental analyses were applied to the study of wines produced from the Cabernet Franc vine variety cultivated during several years (1982 to 1990 on specific parts of the Saumur-Champigny vineyard dedicated to the « terroir » experiment of INRA. The purpose of this work was to describe the behaviour or 2H, 13C and 18O isotopes in the water and ethanol of wines in terms of the meteorological conditions (temperature, precipitation and insolation which govern vine growing. Since the « terroir » concept involves a synergy between the c1imate and the soil, the distribution of typical metallic elements was also determined by flame and electrothermal ionization atomic absorption. About twenty parcels, carefully described from the geological and pedological point of view were considered in this study which demonstrated the ability of Sr, Al and Rb to discriminate between wines from the same year but grown on adjacent parcels. The content in trace elements of the wines was also shown to be correlated with the geological nature of the soil. As far as stable isotopes are considered, it appears that the climate of the year of production of a given region has a drastic influence on the isotope ratios of water and ethanol of wines and good correlations way be computed between these parameters and temperature and precipitations. From a more basic aspect, it is also shown that the nature of the soil which governs, at least in a part, the water use efficiency of vine, induces typical variations in the isotopic composition of wines. The results of this study demonstrate also the ability of stable isotope and elemental analyses to determine the geographical origin of a wine, and when the region of production is known, to infer the year of production from meteorological data. This method might prove to be an alternative method to radio carbon analysis for the next vintages.

  10. Measurements of competing structures in neutron-deficient Pb isotopes by employing Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Rahkila, P J; Srebrny, J; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Syed naeemul, H; Peura, P J; Siem, S; Hadynska-klek, K; Habs, D; Napiorkowski, P J; Diriken, J V J; Iwanicki, J S

    Coulomb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient Pb nuclei are proposed. Even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei will be post-accelerated at REX-ISOLDE in order to measure transition probabilities and quadrupole moments for the first excited states. In combination with results obtained in lifetime measurements, this will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the first time for 2$^{+}$ states in the even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei.

  11. Multi isotopic characterization (Li-Cu-Zn-Pb) of waste waters pollution in a small watershed (Loire River basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study is to use multi-isotopic signature to track the pollution in surface waters, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in the environment. In the present study, we investigate waste water releases from a hospital water treatment plant and its potential impact in a small river basin near Orléans in France (Egoutier watershed: 15 km²and 5 km long). We decided to monitor this small watershed which is poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is located in a pristine area (forested area), while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. A sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Isotopic ratios were measured using a MC-ICP-MS at BRGM, after a specific protocol of purification for each isotopic systematics. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters along the main course of the stream. The waste water signal is very different from the natural background with significant heavy lithium contribution (high δ7Li). Lead isotopic compositions are rather homogenous in river waters and sediments with values close to geologic background. For Zn, the sediments with high concentrations and depleted isotopic compositions (low δ66Zn), typical of an anthropic pollution, are strongly impacted. The analyses of Cu isotopes in sediments show the impact of waster waters, but also isotopic fractionations due to redox processes in the watershed. To better understand these processes controlling the release of metals in water, sequential extractions on sediments are in progress under laboratory conditions and will provide important constraints for metal distribution in this river basin.

  12. $\\beta$-decay study of neutron-rich Tl and Pb isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to study the structure of neutron-rich nuclei beyond $^{208}$Pb. The one-proton hole $^{211-215}$Tl and the semi magic $^{213}$Pb will be produced and studied via nuclear and atomic spectroscopy searching for long-lived isomers and investigating the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$- emission to build level schemes. Information on the single particle structure in $^{211-215}$Pb, especially the position of the g$_{9/2}$ and i$_{11/2}$ neutron orbitals, will be extracted along with lifetimes. The $\\beta$-decay will be complemented with the higher spin selectivity that can be obtained by resonant laser ionization to single-out the decay properties of long-living isomers in $^{211,213}$Tl and $^{213}$Pb.

  13. The suitability of annual tree growth rings as environmental archives: Evidence from Sr, Nd, Pb and Ca isotopes in spruce growth rings from the Strengbach watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Peter; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Labolle, François; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Gangloff, Sophie; Cobert, Florian; Lucot, Eric; Guéguen, Florence; Brioschi, Laure; Steinmann, Marc; Chabaux, François

    2012-05-01

    The combination of the Sr, Nd and Pb isotope systems, recognized as tracers of sources, with the Ca isotope system, known to reveal biology-related fractionations, allowed us to test the reliability of spruce (Picea abies) growth rings as environmental archives through time (from 1916 to 1983) in a forest ecosystem affected by acid atmospheric deposition. Sr and Pb isotopes have already been applied in former tree-ring studies, whereas the suitability of Nd and Ca isotope systems is checked in the present article. Our Sr and Nd isotope data indicate an evolution in the cation origin with a geogenic origin for the oldest rings and an atmospheric origin for the youngest rings. Ca isotopes show, for their part, an isotopic homogeneity which could be linked to the very low weathering flux of Ca. Since this flux is weak the spruces' root systems have pumped the Ca mainly from the organic matter-rich top-soil over the past century. In contrast, the annual growth rings studied are not reliable and suitable archives of past Pb pollution.

  14. Geology, S-Pb isotopes, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Zhaxikang Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in Southern Tibet: implications for multiple mineralization events at Zhaxikang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Zheng, Youye; Pirajno, Franco; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Yu, Miao; Xia, Shenlan; Song, Qingjie; Chang, Huifang

    2018-03-01

    Several Au, Sb, Sb-Au, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits are present throughout the North Himalaya in southern Tibet, China. The largest Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is Zhaxikang (18 Mt at 0.6 wt% Sb, 2.0 wt% Pb, 3.5 wt% Zn, and 78 g/t Ag). Zhaxikang veins are hosted within N-S trending faults, which crosscut the Early-Middle Jurassic Ridang Formation consisting of shale interbedded with sandstone and limestone deposited on a passive continental margin. Ore paragenesis indicates that Zhaxikang mineralization occurred in two main phases composed of six total stages. The initial phase was characterized by assemblages of fine-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + arsenopyrite + pyrite + sphalerite (stage 1), followed by relatively coarse-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + Fe-rich sphalerite + galena + pyrite (stage 2). The second phase was marked by assemblages of quartz + pyrite + Fe-poor sphalerite and Ag-rich galena + tetrahedrite + sericite (stage 3), quartz + Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals mainly composed of boulangerite and jamesonite (stage 4), quartz + stibnite ± cinnabar (stage 5), and quartz ± calcite (stage 6). Sulfides of stage 2 have δ34SV-CDT of 8.4-12.0‰, 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 19.648 to 19.659, 207Pb/204Pb ratios of 15.788 to 15.812, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 40.035 to 40.153. Sulfides of stage 3 have similar δ34SV-CDT of 6.1-11.2‰ and relatively more radiogenic lead isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 19.683-19.792). Stage 4 Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals have δ34SV-CDT of 5.0-7.2‰ and even more radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 19.811-19.981). By contrast, stibnite of stage 5 has δ34SV-CDT of 4.5-7.8‰ and less radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 18.880-18.974). Taken together with the geological observations that the Pb-Zn-bearing Mn-Fe carbonate veins were crosscut by various types of quartz veins, sphalerite and galena of stage 2 underwent dissolution and remobilization, and that Sb-Pb(-Fe) sulfosalts formed at the expense of Pb from stage 2 galena and of Fe from stage 2 sphalerite, we argue that

  15. Study on hydrogen isotope behavior in Pb-Li forced convection flow with permeable wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ryosuke; Fukada, Satoshi, E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Muneoka, Taiki; Kinjo, Mao; Katayama, Kazunari

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Transient- and steady-state hydrogen permeation from Li-Pb forced convection flow through permeable tube to outside Ar purge gas was investigated at 600 °C. • It was found that the overall permeation rates were limited by diffusion in the Li-Pb boundary layer developed from the flow inlet. • The effect of the boundary layer was correlated in terms of mass transfer coefficient. The values of mass transfer coefficients at 600 °C were compared with those of 400 °C and 500 °C obtained beforehand. - Abstract: Transient- and steady-state hydrogen permeation from Li-Pb forced convection flow in a permeable tube to outside Ar purge gas was investigated between 400–600 °C. The values of the steady-state permeation rate increased with the increase of the Li-Pb flow rate. It was found that the overall permeation rates were limited by diffusion in a Li-Pb boundary layer developed from flow inlet. The effect of the boundary layer was correlated in terms of the mass-transfer coefficient. The values of the mass-transfer coefficient at 600 °C were compared with those of 400 °C and 500 °C obtained beforehand. Judged from these data of mass-transfer coefficients, it can be predicted that the effect of boundary layer varies with the increase of Li-Pb flow rate at different temperature conditions.

  16. Trace-element and Sr, Nd, Pb, and O isotopic composition of Pliocene and Quaternary alkali basalts of the Patagonian Plateau lavas of southernmost South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C.R.; Frey, F.A.; Futa, K.; Zartman, R.E.; Peng, Z.; Kurtis, Kyser T.

    1990-01-01

    The Pliocene and Quaternary Patagonian alkali basalts of southernmost South America can be divided into two groups. The "cratonic" basalts erupted in areas of Cenozoic plateau volcanism and continental sedimentation and show considerable variation in 87Sr/86Sr (0.70316 to 0.70512), 143Nd/144Nd (e{open}Nd) and 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios (18.26 to 19.38, 15.53 to 15.68, and 38.30 to 39.23, respectively). These isotopic values are within the range of oceanic island basalts, as are the Ba/La, Ba/Nb, La/Nb, K/Rb, and Cs/Rb ratios of the "cratonic" basalts. In contrast, the "transitional" basalts, erupted along the western edge of the outcrop belt of the Pliocene and Quaternary plateau lavas in areas that were the locus of earlier Cenozoic Andean orogenic arc colcanism, have a much more restricted range of isotopic composition which can be approximated by 87Sr/86Sr=0.7039??0.0004, e{open}Nd, 206Pb/204Pb=18.60??0.08, 207Pb/204Pb=15.60??0.01, and 208Pb/204Pb=38.50??0.10. These isotopic values are similar to those of Andean orogenic are basalts and, compared to the "cratonic" basalts, are displaced to higher 87Sr/86Sr at a given 143Nd/144Nd and to higher 207Pb/204Pb at a given 208Pb/204Pb. The "transitional" basalts also have Ba/La, Ba/Nb, La/Nb, and Cs/Rb ratios higher than the "cratonic" and oceanic island basalts, although not as high as Andean orogenic are basalts. In contrast to the radiogenic isotopes, ??18O values for both groups of the Patagonian alkali basalts are indistinguishable and are more restricted than the range reported for Andean orogenic are basalts. Whole rock ??18O values calculated from mineral separates for both groups range from 5.3 to 6.5, while measured whole rock ??18O values range from 5.1 to 7.8. The trace element and isotopic data suggest that decreasing degrees of partial melting in association with lessened significance of subducted slabderived components are fundamental factors in the west to east transition from arc

  17. Spectroscopy of 189Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, A.M.; Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Brown, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Conticchio, L.F.; Davids, C.N.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Nisius, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Recent studies of the very neutron-deficient lead isotopes 188 , 190 Pb have shown evidence for competing structures which may be attributed to the coexistence of spherical, weakly-deformed oblate and moderately-deformed prolate shapes. These studies have relied strongly on the observation of isomers to distinguish the properties of the states concerned. However, prior to the present work, information on the properties of the yrast and near-yrast states in the neighbouring, odd-A isotope 189 Pb was tentative and fragmentary. In an experiment at the Argonne National Laboratory, prompt gamma-gamma coincidence data on 189 Pb were obtained with the 158 Gd( 36 Ar,5n) reaction. In this experiment, mass identification of the gamma-radiation was provided by coincident detection of recoiling evaporation residues in the ANL Fragment Mass Analyser. In a second experiment, at the Australian National University, using the 164 Er( 29 Si,4n) reaction, an isomer with a 32-μs lifetime was identified in 189 Pb and the main features of the level scheme below this isomer were established. The results will be discussed in the light of the structures identified in the heavier odd-mass lead isotopes and in the neighbouring even-mass isotopes

  18. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: the Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: fluid inclusion and isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David L.; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

    2016-08-01

    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian-Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ˜110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained simply by the

  19. Intensity profiles of superdeformed bands in Pb isotopes in a two-level mixing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A. N.; Szigeti, S. S.; Rogers, J. I.; Davidson, P. M.; Cardamone, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    A recently developed two-level mixing model of the decay out of superdeformed bands is applied to examine the loss of flux from the yrast superdeformed bands in 192 Pb, 194 Pb, and 196 Pb. Probability distributions for decay to states at normal deformations are calculated at each level. The sensitivity of the results to parameters describing the levels at normal deformation and their coupling to levels in the superdeformed well is explored. It is found that except for narrow ranges of the interaction strength coupling the states, the amount of intensity lost is primarily determined by the ratio of γ decay widths in the normal and superdeformed wells. It is also found that while the model can accommodate the observed fractional intensity loss profiles for decay from bands at relatively high excitation, it cannot accommodate the similarly abrupt decay from bands at lower energies if standard estimates of the properties of the states in the first minimum are employed

  20. Predicting the solubility and lability of Zn, Cd, and Pb in soils from a minespoil-contaminated catchment by stable isotopic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, E. R.; Chenery, S. R.; Young, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Rookhope catchment of Weardale, England, has a diverse legacy of contaminated soils due to extensive lead mining activity over four centuries. We measured the isotopically exchangeable content of Pb, Cd and Zn (E-values) in a large representative subset of the catchment soils (n = 246) using stable isotope dilution. All three metals displayed a wide range of %E-values (c. 1-100%) but relative lability followed the sequence Cd > Pb > Zn. A refinement of the stable isotope dilution approach also enabled detection of non-reactive metal contained within suspended sub-micron (dilution, in a diverse range of soil ecosystems within the catchment of an old Pb/Zn mining area. Assess the controlling influences of soil properties on metal lability and develop predictive algorithms for metal lability in the contaminated catchment based on simple soil properties (such as pH, organic matter (LOI), and total metal content). Examine the incidence of non-isotopically-exchangeable metal held within suspended colloidal particles (SCP-metal) in filtered soil solutions (<0.22 μm) by comparing E-values from isotopic abundance in solutions equilibrated with soil and in a resin phase equilibrated with the separated solution. Assess the ability of a geochemical speciation model, WHAM(VII), to predict metal solubility using isotopically exchangeable metal as an input variable.

  1. Parental Sources of High-Alumina Alkaline Melts: Nd, Sr, Pb, and O Isotopic Evidence from the Devonian Kiya-Shaltyr Gabbro-Urtite Intrusion, South Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Chugaev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The isotope geochemistry (ɛNd( t) 4.8-5.4, 206Pb/204Pb in 18.05-18.36, 207Pb/204Pbin 15.53-15.57, 208Pb/204Pb in 37.59-37.83, 87Sr/86Sr( t) 0.7048-0.7057, δ18OSMOW 8-10.5‰) and trace element composition of the Kiya-Shaltyr gabbro-urtite pluton allow us to suggest a heterogeneous source and complex geodynamic settings of the Devonian alkali magmatism in the Kuznetsk Alatau. It is assumed that its evolution took place under conditions of partial mingling of matter of the depleted (PREMA) and enriched (EM) mantle with crustal contamination of the evolving melt. Such an interaction could have been a result of superposition of a mantle plume and an active margin (OIB and IAB components). In fold belts this led to the formation of hybrid high-alumina foidoite magmas.

  2. The composition and distribution of the rejuvenated component across the Hawaiian plume: Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb isotope systematics of Kaula lavas and pyroxenite xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimis, Michael; Salters, Vincent J. M.; Garcia, Michael O.; Norman, Marc D.

    2013-10-01

    Rejuvenated volcanism refers to the reemergence of volcanism after a hiatus of 0.5-2 Ma following the voluminous shield building stage of Hawaiian volcanoes. The composition of the rejuvenated source and its distribution relative to the center of the plume provide important constraints on the origin of rejuvenated volcanism. Near-contemporaneous lavas from the Kaula-Niihau-Kauai ridge and the North Arch volcanic field that are aligned approximately orthogonally to the plume track can constrain the lateral geochemical heterogeneity and distribution of the rejuvenated source across the volcanic chain. Nephelinites, phonolites and pyroxenite xenoliths from Kaula Island have radiogenic Hf, Nd and unradiogenic Sr isotope compositions consistent with a time-integrated depleted mantle source. The pyroxenites and nephelinites extend to the lowest 208Pb/204Pb reported in Hawaiian rocks. These data, along with new Pb isotope data from pyroxenites from the Salt Lake Crater (Oahu) redefine the composition of the depleted end-member of the Hawaiian rejuvenated source at 208Pb/204Pb=37.35±0.05, 206Pb/204Pb = 17.75±0.03, ɛNd = 9-10, ɛHf ˜16-17 and 87Sr/88Sr Niihau-Kauai-North Arch transect are consistent with a larger proportion of the rejuvenated depleted component in the periphery of the plume track rather than along its axis.

  3. Using S and Pb isotope ratios to trace leaching of toxic substances from an acid-impacted industrial-waste landfill (Pozdatky, Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra; Erbanova, Lucie; Veron, Alain J.; Buzek, Frantisek; Jackova, Ivana; Paces, Tomas; Rukavickova, Lenka; Blaha, Vladimir; Holecek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► S and Pb isotopes are useful tracers of polluted groundwater movement. ► Large ranges of found δ 34 S and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios made source apportionment robust. ► δ 34 S values higher than 6.5 permil indicated contamination. ► Pb in stream sediment recorded landfill leaks, but was insensitive to air pollution. ► The front of polluted groundwater plume in fractured plutonic rocks spread unevenly. - Abstract: Slightly elevated concentrations of toxic species in waters sampled in the surroundings of a leaky landfill may be both a sign of an approaching contaminant plume, or a result of water–rock interaction. Isotopes can be instrumental in distinguishing between anthropogenic and geogenic species in groundwater. We studied sulfur and lead isotope ratios at an abandoned industrial-waste landfill, located in a densely populated part of Central Europe. Stable isotope variability in space and time was used to follow the movement of a groundwater plume, contaminated with toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Be), in fractured granitoids. Toxic metals had been mobilized from industrial waste by a strong pulse of sulfuric acid, also deposited in the landfill. Both tracers exhibited a wide range of values (δ 34 S between +2.6 and +18.9‰; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb between 1.16 and 1.39), which facilitated identification of mixing end-members, and made it possible to assess the sources of the studied species. In situ fractionations did not hinder source apportionment. Influx of contaminated groundwater was observed neither in irrigation wells in a nearby village, nor at distances greater than 300 m from the landfill. Combination of stable isotope tracers can be used as part of an early-warning system in landscapes affected by landfills.

  4. Bioavailability and uptake of smelter emissions in freshwater zooplankton in northeastern Washington, USA lakes using Pb isotope analysis and trace metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, A W; Moore, B C; Vervoort, J D; Beutel, M W

    2018-07-01

    The upper Columbia River and associated valley systems are highly contaminated with metal wastes from nearby smelting operations in Trail, British Columbia, Canada (Teck smelter), and to a lesser extent, Northport, Washington, USA (Le Roi smelter). Previous studies have investigated depositional patterns of airborne emissions from these smelters, and documented the Teck smelter as the primary metal contamination source. However, there is limited research directed at whether these contaminants are bioavailable to aquatic organisms. This study investigates whether smelter derived contaminants are bioavailable to freshwater zooplankton. Trace metal (Zn, Cd, As, Sb, Pb and Hg) concentrations and Pb isotope compositions of zooplankton and sediment were measured in lakes ranging from 17 to 144 km downwind of the Teck smelter. Pb isotopic compositions of historic ores used by both smelters are uniquely less radiogenic than local geologic formations, so when zooplankton assimilate substantial amounts of smelter derived metals their compositions deviate from local baseline compositions toward ore compositions. Sediment metal concentrations and Pb isotope compositions in sediment follow significant (p < 0.001) negative exponential and sigmoidal patterns, respectively, as distance from the Teck smelting operation increases. Zooplankton As, Cd, and Sb contents were related to distance from the Teck smelter (p < 0.05), and zooplankton Pb isotope compositions suggest As, Cd, Sb and Pb from historic and current smelter emissions are biologically available to zooplankton. Zooplankton from lakes within 86 km of the Teck facility display isotopic evidence that legacy ore pollution is biologically available for assimilation. However, without water column data our study is unable to determine if legacy contaminants are remobilized from lake sediments, or erosional pathways from the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet in pottery-making societies from Central Chile: The contribution of stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, Fernanda; Planella, M.Teresa; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Sanhueza, Lorena; Tykot, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    This is the first time that stable carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of human bones and teeth have been used to reconstruct subsistence and settlement patterns of prehispanic ceramic societies from Central Chile. Isotope analyses, unlike the evidence from botanical, faunal and artifactual remains from archaeological sites, and from dental and skeletal pathologies, gave information of which resources were really eaten by each individual during the last years of their life. The human data were evaluated against isotopic values of marine and terrestrial resources from central Chile. These results were interpreted taking into consideration different lines of paleodiet evidence. The main contributions are: empirical evidence of dietary differences according to cultural groups; low dependence on marine foods for most people living on the coast; indirect evidence of mobility strategies that show differences between Early and Late Intermediate societies; increased dependence on maize with time, especially among the Aconcagua people; gender differences in maize consumption for the same Aconcagua groups, men showing the greatest levels of maize intake. The results support some hypotheses, such as the difference in dietary patterns between contemporary Bato and Lolleo groups, contradict others, such as the supposed importance of marine diet for coastal inhabitants, and open new research questions for the future [es

  6. The alpha-branching ratios of the 188,190,192Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauters, J.; Dendooven, P.; Decrock, P.; Huyse, M.; Reusen, G.; Duppen, P. van

    1992-01-01

    The α-branching ratios (b α ) of 192,190,188 Pb are measured using mass-separated sources. Different experimental set-ups are used - one detector as well as two detector set-ups - thereby detecting the α particles from the parent and/or via α decay formed daughter nuclei, the β-delayed gamma radiation from the parent and/or via β decay formed daughter nuclei in the Tl KX Rays from electron capture decay. Values for b α of 6.2(6) 10 -5 and 4.0(4) 10 -3 were found for 191,190 Pb respectively. For 188 Pb, limits on the b α values were obtained: 0.03 α α values showed that the discrepancies in the b α values were not due to inadequate correction procedures, as was suggested, but to experimental uncertainties in the efficiency determination of the different detection set-ups and to an unreliable β-decay scheme for 188 Pb. The b α obtained in this work show that the lead α decay is not faster than the Hg α decay and that there is no need to assume a disappearance of the Z=82 shell closure halfway between N=82 and N=126. (orig.)

  7. A Fourier transform infrared trace gas and isotope analyser for atmospheric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Concern in recent decades about human impacts on Earth's climate has led to the need for improved and expanded measurement capabilities of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this paper we describe in detail an in situ trace gas analyser based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy that is capable of simultaneous and continuous measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrous oxide (N2O and 13C in CO2 in air with high precision. High accuracy is established by reference to measurements of standard reference gases. Stable water isotopes can also be measured in undried airstreams. The analyser is automated and allows unattended operation with minimal operator intervention. Precision and accuracy meet and exceed the compatibility targets set by the World Meteorological Organisation – Global Atmosphere Watch for baseline measurements in the unpolluted troposphere for all species except 13C in CO2.

    The analyser is mobile and well suited to fixed sites, tower measurements, mobile platforms and campaign-based measurements. The isotopic specificity of the optically-based technique and analysis allows its application in isotopic tracer experiments, for example in tracing variations of 13C in CO2 and 15N in N2O. We review a number of applications illustrating use of the analyser in clean air monitoring, micrometeorological flux and tower measurements, mobile measurements on a train, and soil flux chamber measurements.

  8. Petrogenesis of orogenic lamproites of the Bohemian Massif: Sr-Nd-Pb-Li isotope constraints for Variscan enrichment of ultra-depleted mantle domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krmíček, Lukáš; Romer, R. L.; Ulrych, Jaromír; Glodny, J.; Prelevič, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, 1 July (2016), s. 198-216 ISSN 1342-937X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Silica-rich lamproites * Sr-Nb-Pb-Li isotopes * mantle metasomatism * Variscides Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 6.959, year: 2016

  9. Spectroscopy of heavy nuclei by configuration mixing of symmetry restored mean-field states: shape coexistence in neutron-deficient Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.; Heenen, P.H.; Bonche, P.; Duguet, T.

    2003-01-01

    We study shape coexistence and low-energy excitation spectra in neutron-deficient Pb isotopes using configuration mixing of angular-momentum and particle-number projected self-consistent mean-field states. The same Skyrme interaction SLy6 is used everywhere in connection with a density-dependent zero-range pairing force. (orig.)

  10. New sequential separation procedure for Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratio measurement in geological material using MC-ICP-MS and TIMS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Makishima, A.; Nath, B.N.; Nakamura, E.

    A new 3-step sequential separation chemistry for Sr, Nd and Pb from silicate samples, which is suitable for isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS as well as TIMS, has been developed. The chemistry is designed to minimize the number of evaporation steps...

  11. Coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations of HIMU oceanic island basalts from Mangaia, Cook-Austral islands, suggest an Archean source component in the mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Oliver; Arculus, Richard J.; van Westrenen, Wim; Woodhead, Jon D.; Jenner, Frances E.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Yona J.; Wille, Martin; Eggins, Stephen M.

    2013-07-01

    Although it is widely accepted that oceanic island basalts (OIB) sample geochemically distinct mantle reservoirs including recycled oceanic crust, the composition, age, and locus of these reservoirs remain uncertain. OIB with highly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures are grouped as HIMU (high-μ, with μ = 238U/204Pb), and exhibit unique Hf-Nd isotopic characteristics, defined as ΔɛHf, deviant from a terrestrial igneous rock array that includes all other OIB types. Here we combine new Hf isotope data with previous Nd-Pb isotope measurements to assess the coupled, time-integrated Hf-Nd-Pb isotope evolution of the most extreme HIMU location (Mangaia, French Polynesia). In comparison with global MORB and other OIB types, Mangaia samples define a unique trend in coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations (expressed in 207Pb/206Pb vs. ΔɛHf). In a model employing subducted, dehydrated oceanic crust, mixing between present-day depleted MORB mantle (DMM) and small proportions (˜5%) of a HIMU mantle endmember can re-produce the Hf-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of global HIMU basalts (sensu stricto; i.e., without EM-1/EM-2/FOZO components). An age range of 3.5 to 3 Gyr and implies that OIB chemistry can be used to test geodynamic models.

  12. Rare earth elements, yttrium and H, O, C, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope studies in mineral waters and corresponding rocks from NW-Bohemia, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Dulski, P.; Gerstenberger, H.; Morteani, G.; Fuganti, A.

    1998-01-01

    The sparkling waters from the area of Kyselka near Karlovy Vary at the western slope of the Doupovske hory, Bohemia (Czech Republic), and CO 2 -poor waters from two underground boreholes at Jachymov, Krusne hory, Bohemia, have been studied with the aim of characterizing the distribution of rare earth elements, yttrium, and H, O, C, Sr, Nd, Pb isotopes during the low-temperature alteration processes of the host rocks. Additionally, leaching experiments were performed at pH 3 on the granitic and basaltic host rocks from Kyselka and the granite of Jachymov. All REE patterns of the granite- and the basalt-derived waters from the Kyselka area are different from those of their source rocks and the leachates of the latter. This elucidates the inhomogeneous distribution of REE and Y among the solid phases in the altered magmatic rocks. The Eu and Ce anomalies in granite-derived waters are inherited, the Y anomaly is achieved by fluid migration. Yttrium is always preferentially leached by mineral waters, whereas Y/Ho ratios of rocks and their leachates are very similar. The REE abundances in waters from the wells in Jachymov are derived from rocks intensely leached and depleted in easily soluble REE-bearing minerals, whereas the granites and basalts from Kyselka still contain soluble, REE-bearing minerals. A comparison of REE/Ca patterns of the experimental leachates with those of the mineral waters elucidate the high retention of REE in rocks during water-rock interaction. In strongly altered rocks Sr isotope ratios of mineral waters and rocks differ widely, whereas the corresponding Nd isotope ratios are very similar. 207 Pb/ 208 Pb, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in mineral waters are independent from U/Th ratios in the rocks. 206 Pb/ 208 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb are lower in mineral waters than in their source rocks and their leachates, which indicates that Pb is primarily derived from solid phases that do not contain significant contents of leachable U and Th

  13. Combining emission inventory and isotope ratio analyses for quantitative source apportionment of heavy metals in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian; Zhou, Shenglu; Wu, Shaohua; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Baojie; Li, Yan; Wang, Junxiao

    2018-08-01

    Two quantitative methods (emission inventory and isotope ratio analysis) were combined to apportion source contributions of heavy metals entering agricultural soils in the Lihe River watershed (Taihu region, east China). Source apportionment based on the emission inventory method indicated that for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, the mean percentage input from atmospheric deposition was highest (62-85%), followed by irrigation (12-27%) and fertilization (1-14%). Thus, the heavy metals were derived mainly from industrial activities and traffic emissions. For Ni the combined percentage input from irrigation and fertilization was approximately 20% higher than that from atmospheric deposition, indicating that Ni was mainly derived from agricultural activities. Based on isotope ratio analysis, atmospheric deposition accounted for 57-93% of Pb entering soil, with the mean value of 69.3%, which indicates that this was the major source of Pb entering soil in the study area. The mean contributions of irrigation and fertilization to Pb pollution of soil ranged from 0% to 10%, indicating that they played only a marginally important role. Overall, the results obtained using the two methods were similar. This study provides a reliable approach for source apportionment of heavy metals entering agricultural soils in the study area, and clearly have potential application for future studies in other regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New Zealand guidelines for the collection of groundwater samples for chemical and isotopic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.; Cameron, S.G.; Reeves, R.R.; Taylor, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater are important tools for differentiating between the natural composition and human-induced contaminants of groundwater. A comprehensive suite of inorganic water chemical analyses is necessary to characterise waters. The geology of New Zealand is diverse, so it is impractical to characterise a ''typical'' groundwater chemical composition. Each aquifer system should be evaluated individually because the major dissolved species contain useful information about the pathways of water through the soil zone into the aquifer. Analyses of major ions such as chloride, nitrate, potassium and sulphate often give indication of septic systems and agricultural contamination. The minor ions, while most are not considered contaminants, are often indicators of human activity. Iron and manganese are good indicators of Eh potential, which is an important control on the mobility of many heavy metals. The inexpensive inorganic chemical analytical suite should be used as a guide to advisability of more expensive contaminant testing. The purpose of this manual is to provide consistent groundwater sampling guidelines for use throughout New Zealand. Sinton's (1998) guide to groundwater sampling techniques provided a sound basis for the accurate collection of groundwater samples. However Sinton did not address sampling materials and techniques for the collection of samples for ultra trace component analysis or the collection of environmental isotope samples. These important aspects of groundwater sampling have been included in this updated manual. (author). 30 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs., 1 appendix

  15. Use of 210Pb and 109Cd isotopes in a preliminary study of their uptake and translocation by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, J.; Hemphill, D.; Pierce, J.O.

    1974-01-01

    Leaf lettuce and white icicle radish were grown under greenhouse culture for a period of three and one-half weeks. Appropriate solutions of Pb (NO 3 ) 2 or CdCl 2 were applied to foliage via a micropipette. These solutions also contained radioisotopes of Pb or Cd. The plants were grown for an additional three and one-half weeks, harvested and analyzed. Results of autoradiography and scintillation analyses of the radioisotopes showed foliar absorption and subsequent translocation of both metals. In the lettuce the greatest translocation was to the youngest leaves of the plant and in the radish to the storage root, in both cases the edible portion of these plants. Thus, it seems that foliar absorption of heavy metals may well be an important source of contamination of radish and leaf lettuce. (U.S.)

  16. Normalization Methods and Selection Strategies for Reference Materials in Stable Isotope Analyses - Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, G.; Sadler, R.; Paul, D.; Forizs, I.

    2011-01-01

    A stable isotope analyst has to make a number of important decisions regarding how to best determine the 'true' stable isotope composition of analysed samples in reference to an international scale. It has to be decided which reference materials should be used, the number of reference materials and how many repetitions of each standard is most appropriate for a desired level of precision, and what normalization procedure should be selected. In this paper we summarise what is known about propagation of uncertainties associated with normalization procedures and propagation of uncertainties associated with reference materials used as anchors for the determination of 'true' values for δ''1''3C and δ''1''8O. Normalization methods Several normalization methods transforming the 'raw' value obtained from mass spectrometers to one of the internationally recognized scales has been developed. However, as summarised by Paul et al. different normalization transforms alone may lead to inconsistencies between laboratories. The most common normalization procedures are: single-point anchoring (versus working gas and certified reference standard), modified single-point normalization, linear shift between the measured and the true isotopic composition of two certified reference standards, two-point and multipoint linear normalization methods. The accuracy of these various normalization methods has been compared by using analytical laboratory data by Paul et al., with the single-point and normalization versus tank calibrations resulting in the largest normalization errors, and that also exceed the analytical uncertainty recommended for δ 13 C. The normalization error depends greatly on the relative differences between the stable isotope composition of the reference material and the sample. On the other hand, the normalization methods using two or more certified reference standards produces a smaller normalization error, if the reference materials are bracketing the whole range of

  17. Stable carbon isotope analyses of nanogram quantities of particulate organic carbon (pollen) with laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, Linda; Sluijs, Appy; Laks, Jelmer J.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to

  18. Seaching for a Silver Lining: Using Pb Isotopes to Constrain the Source of Argentiferous Galena at La Isabela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, A. M.; Killick, D. J.; Ruiz, J.; Chesley, J. T.; Baker, M.

    2005-12-01

    This study investigates the smelting and refining of argentiferous galena at La Isabela, Dominican Republic (1493-1498), the town founded by Columbus on his second voyage to the Americas. Archaeologists recovered approximately 100 kilograms of galena and 200 kilograms of metallurgical slag near the remains of a crude furnace unearthed at the site (Deagan and Cruxent 2002). The purpose of this study was to determine if these remains are evidence that members of Columbus's fleet prospected for silver during his second expedition. Samples of ore and slag were examined as metallographic polished sections, and petrographic thin sections by optical and scanning electron microscopes. The composition of the ore and slag allows us to infer these ores were processed in a two-stage procedure to produce silver metal and a lead silicate slag. Electron microprobe analysis of galena indicates highly variable but low Ag content (50 ppm), which may account for the fact some of the ore was left unprocessed. Lead isotope analysis by multi-collector ICP-MS indicates that the galena likely came from a single source and was not mined within the Caribbean. Instead, the isotopic signature of these ores is consistent with an Old World source, possibly in the Linares-La Carolina Pb-Zn vein field of southwestern Spain.

  19. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korovin, Y.A.; Konobeyev, A.Y.; Pereslavtsev, P.E. [Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclide transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.

  20. Slab-derived components in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Chilean Patagonia: Geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of mantle xenoliths and host basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Gervasoni, Fernanda; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Sumino, Hirochika; Schilling, Manuel E.; Nagao, Keisuke; Morata, Diego; Sylvester, Paul

    2017-11-01

    In subduction zones, ultramafic xenoliths hosted in alkaline basalts can yield significant information about the role of potential slab-derived components in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Chemical and isotopic heterogeneities in such xenoliths are usually interpreted to reflect melt extraction followed by metasomatic re-enrichment. Here we report new whole-rock major, trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) data for a Proterozoic suite of 17 anhydrous spinel-lherzolites and Eocene (new K-Ar data) host alkaline basalt found near Coyhaique ( 46°S), Aysén Region, Chile. These Patagonian nodules are located in a current back-arc position, 100 km east of the present day volcanic arc and 320 km from the Chile Trench. The mantle xenoliths consist of coarse- to medium-grained spinel-lherzolites with trace element compositions characteristic of a subduction zone setting, such as pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies coupled with significant enrichment of LILEs (e.g., U) and chalcophile elements (W, Pb and Sn). Most of them are characterized by flat to depleted light-rare earth element (LREE) patterns (Ce/YbN = 0.6-1.1) coupled with less radiogenic Sr-Pb (87Sr/86Sr = 0.702422-0.703479; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.212-18.539) and more radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd = 0.512994-0.513242), similar to the depleted mantle component (DMM or PREMA). In contrast, samples with slight LREE enrichment (Ce/YbN = 1.3-1.8) show more radiogenic Sr-Pb (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703791-0.704239; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.572-18.703) and less radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd = 0.512859-0.512934), similar to the EM-2 reservoir. These new geochemical and isotope data suggest that the Coyhaique spinel-lherzolites are derived from a heterogeneous SCLM resulting from mixing between a depleted mantle component and up to 10% of slab-derived components. The enriched component added to the SCLM represents variable extents of melts of both subducted Chile Trench sediments and

  1. Pacific 187Os/188Os isotope chemistry and U-Pb geochronology: Synchroneity of global Os isotope change across OAE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Vivier, A. D. C.; Selby, D.; Condon, D. J.; Takashima, R.; Nishi, H.

    2015-10-01

    Studies of OAE 2 sections beyond the Atlantic Ocean, Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and European pelagic shelf are limited. Here, we present initial osmium isotope stratigraphy (187Os/188Os-Osi) from two proto-Pacific sites that span the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval (CTBI): the Yezo Group (YG) section, Hokkaido, Japan, and the Great Valley Sequence (GVS), California, USA; to evaluate the 187Os/188Os seawater chemistry of the proto-Pacific. Additionally we combine new 206Pb/238U zircon CA-ID-TIMS geochronology from five volcanic tuff horizons of the Yezo Group section to test and facilitate inter-basinal integration with the WIS using radio-isotopically constrained age-depth models for both sections, and quantitatively constrain the absolute timing and duration of events across the CTBI. The YG shows an almost identical Osi profile to that of the WIS, and very similar to that of other sites of the proto-Atlantic and European pelagic oceans (Turgeon and Creaser, 2008; Du Vivier et al., 2014). The characteristics of the Osi profile are radiogenic and heterogeneous (∼0.55-0.85) prior to the OAE 2, and synchronous with the inferred OAE 2 onset the Osi abruptly become unradiogenic and remain relatively homogeneous (∼0.20-0.30) before showing a gradual return to more radiogenic Osi (∼ 0.70) throughout the middle to late OAE 2. A206Pb/238U zircon age of an interbedded tuff (HK017) in the adjacent horizon to the first unradiogenic Osi value constrains the age of the Osi inflection at 94.44 ± 0.14 Ma. This age, including uncertainty, agrees with the interpolated age of the same point in the Osi profile (94.28 ± 0.25 Ma) in the only other dated OAE 2 section, the WIS; indicating a coeval shift in seawater chemistry associated with volcanism at the OAE 2 onset at the levels of temporal resolution (ca. 0.1 Myr). Further, prior to the onset of OAE 2 an enhanced radiogenic inflection in the Osi profile of the YG is correlative, within uncertainty, with a similar

  2. Isotopic and velocity distributions of {sub 83}Bi produced in charge-pickup reactions of {sup 208}{sub 82}PB at 1 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Enqvist, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2004-07-01

    Isotopically resolved cross sections and velocity distributions have been measured in charge-pickup reactions of 1 A GeV {sup 208}Pb with proton, deuterium and titanium target. The total and partial charge-pickup cross sections in the reactions {sup 208}Pb + {sup 1}H and {sup 208}Pb + {sup 2}H are measured to be the same in the limits of the error bars. A weak increase in the total charge-pickup cross section is seen in the reaction of {sup 208}Pb with the titanium target. The measured velocity distributions show different contributions - quasi-elastic scattering and {delta}-resonance excitation - to the charge-pickup production. Data on total and partial charge-pickup cross sections from these three reactions are compared with other existing data and also with model calculations based on the coupling of different intra-nuclear cascade codes and an evaporation code. (orig.)

  3. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian–Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ∼110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained

  4. Pb-Sr isotopic and geochemical constraints on sources and processes of lead contamination in well waters and soil from former fruit orchards, Pennsylvania, USA: A legacy of anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic discrimination can be an effective tool in establishing a direct link between sources of Pb contamination and the presence of anomalously high concentrations of Pb in waters, soils, and organisms. Residential wells supplying water containing up to 1600 ppb Pb to houses built on the former Mohr orchards commercial site, near Allentown, PA, were evaluated to discern anthropogenic from geogenic sources. Pb (n = 144) and Sr (n = 40) isotopic data and REE (n = 29) data were determined for waters from residential wells, test wells (drilled for this study), and surface waters from pond and creeks. Local soils, sediments, bedrock, Zn-Pb mineralization and coal were also analyzed (n = 94), together with locally used Pb-As pesticide (n = 5). Waters from residential and test wells show overlapping values of 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 87Sr/86Sr. Larger negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*) distinguish residential wells from test wells. Results show that residential and test well waters, sediments from residential water filters in water tanks, and surface waters display broad linear trends in Pb isotope plots. Pb isotope data for soils, bedrock, and pesticides have contrasting ranges and overlapping trends. Contributions of Pb from soils to residential well waters are limited and implicated primarily in wells having shallow water-bearing zones and carrying high sediment contents. Pb isotope data for residential wells, test wells, and surface waters show substantial overlap with Pb data reflecting anthropogenic actions (e.g., burning fossil fuels, industrial and urban processing activities). Limited contributions of Pb from bedrock, soils, and pesticides are evident. High Pb concentrations in the residential waters are likely related to sediment build up in residential water tanks. Redox reactions, triggered by influx of groundwater via wells into the residential water systems and leading to subtle changes in pH, are implicated in precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides

  5. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the timing and origin of Mesozoic granitoids hosting the Mo deposits in northern Xilamulun district, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qihai; Lai, Yong; Zhou, Yitao; Xu, Jiajia; Wu, Huaying

    2015-12-01

    Located in the east section of the Central Asian orogen in northeastern China, the Xilamulun district comprises several newly discovered molybdenum deposits, primarily of porphyry type and Mesozoic ages. This district is divided by the Xilamulun fault into the southern and the northern parts. In this paper, we present new zircon U-Pb dating, trace elements and Hf isotope, and/or whole rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic results for the host granitoids from three Mo deposits (Yangchang, Haisugou and Shabutai) in northern Xilamulun. Our aim is to constrain the age and petrogenesis of these intrusions and their implications for Mo mineralization. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating shows that the monzogranites from the Shabutai and Yangchang deposits formed at 138.4 ± 1.5 and 137.4 ± 2.1 Ma, respectively, which is identical to the molybdenite Re-Os ages and coeval well with the other Mo deposits in this region, thereby indicating an Early Cretaceous magmatism and Mo mineralization event. Zircon Ce/Nd ratios from the mineralized intrusions are significantly higher than the barren granites, implying that the mineralization-related magmas are characterized by higher oxygen fugacity. These mineralized intrusions share similar zircon in-situ Hf and whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, with slightly negative to positive εHf(t) ranging from - 0.8 to + 10.0, restricted εNd(t) values from - 3.7 to + 1.6 but a little variable (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios between 0.7021 and 0.7074, indicative of formation from primary magmas generated from a dominantly juvenile lower crust source derived from depleted mantle, despite diverse consequent processes (e.g., magma mixing, fractional crystallization and crustal contamination) during their evolution. The Pb isotopes (whole rock) also show a narrow range of initial compositions, with (206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.03-18.88, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.48-15.58 and (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.72-38.28, in agreement with Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes reflecting the dominance of a mantle component

  6. Role of stable isotope analyses in reconstructing past life-histories and the provenancing human skeletal remains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrawat Jagmahender Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present scenario of use of stable isotopes (mainly δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, 87Sr to trace past life behaviours like breast feeding and weaning practices, the geographic origin, migration history, paleodiet and subsistence patterns of past populations from the chemical signatures of isotopes imprinted in human skeletal remains. This approach is based on the state that food-web isotopic signatures are seen in the human bones and teeth and such signatures can change parallely with a variety of biogeochemical processes. By measuring δ13C and δ15N isotopic values of subadult tissues of different ages, the level of breast milk ingestion at particular ages and the components of the complementary foods can be assessed. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analyses have been used for determining the geographic origins and reconstructing the way of life of past populations as these isotopes can map the isotopic outline of the area from where the person acquired water and food during initial lifetime. The isotopic values of strontium and oxygen values are considered specific to geographical areas and serve as reliable chemical signatures of migration history of past human populations (local or non-local to the site. Previous isotopic studies show that the subsistence patterns of the past human populations underwent extensive changes from nomadic to complete agricultural dependence strategies. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of local fauna of any archaeological site can be used to elucidate the prominence of freshwater resources in the diet of the past human populations found near the site. More extensive research covering isotopic descriptions of various prehistoric, historic and modern populations is needed to explore the role of stable isotope analysis for provenancing human skeletal remains and assessing human migration patterns/routes, geographic origins, paleodiet and subsistence practices of past populations.

  7. Geochemistry, U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating and Hf isotopes of the Gondwanan magmatism in NW Argentina: petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poma, Stella; Zappettini, Eduardo O; Quenardelle, Sonia; Santos, Joao O; Koukharsky, Magdalena; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neil

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating and Hf isotope determinations as well as geochemical analyses on three plutonic units of Gondwanan magmatism that crop out in NW Argentina. Two episodes of different age and genesis have been identified. The older one includes gabbros and diorites (Rio Grande Unit) of 267±3 Ma and granitoids (belonging to the Llullaillaco Unit) of 263±1 Ma (late Permian, Guadalupian); the parent magmas were generated in an intraplate environment and derived from an enriched mantle but were subsequently contaminated by crustal components. The younger rocks are granodiorites with arc signature (Chuculaqui Unit) and an age of 247±2 Ma (middle Triassic-Anisian). Hf isotope signature of the units indicates mantle sources as well as crustal components. Hf model ages obtained are consistent with the presence of crustal Mesoproterozoic (mainly Ectasian to Calymnian (T DM(c) =1.24 to 1.44 Ga-negative ε Hf m) and juvenile Cryogenian sources (T DM =0.65 to 0.79 Ga-positiveε Hf(T) , supporting the idea of a continuous, mostly Mesoproterozoic, basement under the Central Andes, as an extension of the Arequipa-Antofalla massif. The tectonic setting and age of the Gondwanan magmatism in NW Argentina allow to differentiate: a. Permian intra-plate magmatism developed under similar conditions to the upper section of the Choiyoi magmatism exposed in the Frontal Cordillera and San Rafael Block, Argentina; b. Triassic magmatism belonging to a poorly known subduction-related magmatic arc segment of mostly NS trend with evidence of porphyry type mineralization in Chile, allowing to extend this metallotect into Argentina

  8. Sr isotope geochemistry of East Alpine mineral deposits and mass spectrometric analyses of fluid inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grum, W.

    1995-05-01

    Strontium isotope geochemistry and deformational history of selected carbonate-hosted deposits from different tectonic positions in the Eastern Alps were studied. In this context an equipment has been constructed to analyze the composition of volatile components of fluid inclusions (FI). Based on the results of Sr-isotopic investigations two groups of deposits are discriminated: Deposits formed by formation waters and/or metamorphogenic fluids: Tux (magnesite, scheelite), Otterzug (barite), Lassing (magnesite), Rabenwald (talc), Laussa and Mooseck (fluorite). The mineralizing fluids are derived from different sedimentary rock series and therefore 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-ratios vary between 0.707 and 0.719. Deposits situated along fault zones: Lassing (talc), Gasteiner Tal (Silberpfennig area; gold), Schlaining (stibnite) and Waldenstein (specularite). Sr isotope ratios of the mineralizing fluids from Lassing, Waldenstein and Schlaining ranges from 0.7112 to 0.7127 and are therefore thought to have scavenged the East Alpine crystalline. The mineralizing solutions of the Gasteiner Tal deposit may either have equilibrated with low radiogenic sedimentary or with (ultra-)basic rocks. A cracking chamber has been constructed in order to open FI by cracking for mass spectrometric analysis of volatile components. Gases are analysed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The desorption of gas from metal and sample surfaces during cracking can be neglected. The amount of gas released from the mineral lattices was studied. With that fast method ore bearing from barren host rocks have been distinguished by different composition of the FI at the Brixlegg barite mineralization (Eastern Alps). Within the Galway fluorite deposit (Ireland) different fluids were involved and mass spectrometric analysis were carried out to characterize these different fluids and to identify their origin. (author)

  9. Sulphur isotope variations in the mantle from ion microprobe analyses of micro-sulphide inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, M.; Albarede, F.; Sheppard, S.M.F.

    1989-01-01

    21 samples of sulphide trapped either as liquid globules or grains in various minerals (olivine, pyroxenes, ilmenite and garnet) or rocks (basalt glasses, peridotites, eclogites and kimberlites) of mantle origin, have been analysed for their sulphur isotope, and their Cu, Ni, Fe compositions by ion microprobe. The results show a wide range of δ 34 S values between -4.9±1 and +8±1per mille. Sulphides with high nickel contents (up to 40% pentlandite), corresponding mostly to residual peridotites, have δ 34 S values ranging from -3.2per mille to +3.6per mille with a mode of +3±1per mille, compared to low Ni content sulphides, mostly contained in pyroxenites, OIB and kimberlites, ranging from -3.6per mille to +8per mille with a mode of +1±1per mille. The δ 34 S of sulphides originating from within the mantle are variable. The sulphide globules with high Ni contents and δ 34 S values close to +3per mille, are probably produced by 10-20% partial melting of a mantle source containing 300 ppm sulphur as an upper limit and having a δ 34 S value of +0.5±0.5per mille. This difference in δ 34 S values suggests a high-temperature S-isotope fractionation of ≅+3per mille between liquid sulphide and the sulphur dissolved in the silicate liquid. The sulphur isotopes balance in the system upper mantle + oceanic crust + continental crust + seawater requires a mean δ 34 S value of the primitive upper mantle of +0.5per mille, slightly but significantly different from that of chondrites (+0.2±0.2per mille). (orig.)

  10. Coupling fallout 210Pb and stables isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) for catchment urbanization reconstruction in southeastern coastal zone of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, Mauricio; Macario, Kita Damasio; Roberto Meigikos dos Anjos; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Lamego, Fernando; Universidade Federal Fluminense

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication history was reconstructed by bulk organic and inorganic proxies (C, N, P) and isotope (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) analysis constrained by geochronological model derived from fallout 210 Pb in Brazilian coastal lagoon. The sedimentary record spanning the last four decades showed impact of urbanization starting from 1970s. These changes were marked by increase of TN, TP, IP fluxes that were significantly correlated with population growth. Significant covariation of C:N, MDP and δ 15 N along age-depth profiles provided linkage with sedimentation rates, serving as an independent time marker for geochronology and validating use of 210 Pb dating model based on constant initial concentration. (author)

  11. The Proterozoic of NW Mexico revisited: U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes of Sonoran rocks and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L. A.; González-León, C. M.; Ortega-Obregón, C.; Valencia-Moreno, M.; Rascón-Heimpel, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Several Proterozoic basement units crop out in the Sonora State of NW Mexico, and the same can be correlated with crustal provinces of southern Laurentia in the neighboring southwestern USA. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic determinations in more than 300 grains separated from igneous and metaigneous rocks from these units indicate that the crystalline basement in Sonora is made up of different components, which are from west to east: (1) The Caborca-Mojave province to the west, characterized by the so-called Bámori Complex, have U-Pb ages between 1696 and 1772 Ma, with moderately juvenile to slightly evolved ɛHf values, yielding T DM ages of ca. 2.1-2.4 Ga; (2) in the intermediate area, east of Hermosillo, the Palofierral and La Ramada orthogneiss units yield an age of 1640 and 1703 Ma, respectively, both having juvenile ɛHf with the Palofierral overlapping the depleted mantle curve at ca. 1.65 Ga; and (3) in the northeastern Sonora, samples from the southern extension of the Mazatzal province, represented by the Pinal Schist, yielded ages between 1674 and 1694 Ma, with moderately juvenile to juvenile ɛHf values and a T DM age of ca. 1.9 Ga. In addition, a suite of post-tectonic granites was also studied in Caborca (San Luis granite) as well as in northeastern Sonora (Cananea granite), both yielding ages of ca. 1.44 Ga with moderately juvenile ɛHf values ranging from -1 to +8 and T DM dates of ca. 1.8-1.9 Ga and 1.6-1.7 Ga, respectively. These two isotopically contrasting provinces may imply the existence of a Proterozoic paleo-suture. However, if the Palofierral gneiss, of which the Hf signature straddles the depleted mantle array, is taken as the source for the 1.44 Ga Cananea granite, then the location of such a suture zone should lay farther south than the proposed trace of the Mojave-Sonora megashear.

  12. Origin of enormous trace metal enrichments in weathering mantles of Jurassic carbonates: evidence from Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, C.; Stille, P.; Juilleret, J.; Iffly, J.; Perrone, T.; Morvan, G.

    2013-12-01

    Weathering mantels are widespread worldwide and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved carbonate rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual content of associated trace elements in this type of weathering mantle. For instance, these enrichments can represent about five times the content of the underlying Bajocian to Oxfordian limestone/marl complexes, which have been relatively poorly studied compared to weathering mantle developed on magmatic bedrocks. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources (saprolite, Bajocian silty marls and limestones, atmospheric particles deposition...). Of special interest has also been the origin of trace metals and the processes causing their enrichments. Especially Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution patterns and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments shall help to identify mobile phases in the soil system. This may inform on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. Trace metal migration and enrichments were studied on a cambisol developing on an underlying Jurassic limestone. The base is strongly enriched among others in rare earth elements (ΣREE: 2640ppm) or redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (920ppm), Cr (700ppm), Zn (550ppm), As (260ppm), Co (45ppm

  13. Carbon Isotope Analyses of Individual Hydrocarbon Molecules in Bituminous Coal, Oil Shale and Murchison Meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungsook Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the origin of organic matter in meteorite, terrestrial rocks which contain organic compounds similar to the ones found in carbonaceous chondrites are studied and compared with Murchison meteorite. Hydrocarbon molecules were extracted by benzene and methanol from bituminous coal and oil shale and the extracts were partitioned into aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Carbon isotopic ratios in each fractions were analysed by GC-C-IRMS. Molecular compound identifications were carried by GC-MS Engine. Bituminous coal and oil shale show the organic compound composition similar to that of meteorite. Oil shale has a wide range of δ(13C, -20.1%_0 - -54.4%_0 compared to bituminous coal, -25.2%_0 - -34.3%_0. Delta values of several molecular compounds in two terrestrial samples are different. They show several distinct distributions in isotopic ratios compared to those of meteorite; Murchison meteorite has a range of δ(13C from -13%_0 to +30%_0. These results provide interpretation for the source and the formation condition of each rock, in particular alteration and migration processes of organic matter. Especially, they show an important clue whether some hydrocarbon molecules observed in meteorite are indigenous or not.

  14. Isotope analysis of uranium by optical spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique de I'uranium par spectroscopie optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Isotope analysis of uranium is made by means of hollow cathode lamp and Fabry-Perot photoelectric spectrometer. When using the line U I 5027 A, this method allows to determine isotopic concentrations in {sup 235}U down to 0,1 per cent. The relative precision is about 2 per cent for amounts of {sup 235}U over 1 per cent. For weaker amounts this line would allow relative measurements of better precision when using standard mixtures. (author) [French] L'analyse isotopique de l'uranium est effectuee a l'aide d'une lampe a cathode creuse et du spectrometre Fabry-Perot photo-electrique. On utilise la raie U I 5027 A. Cette methode permet de doser des melanges isotopiques dont la teneur en {sup 235}U, peut descendre jusqu'a 0,1 pour cent. La precision relative est de l'ordre de 2 pour cent pour des teneurs en {sup 235}U superieures a 1 pour cent. Pour des teneurs plus faibles cette raie {lambda} = 5027 A permettrait des mesures relatives de meilleure precision, en utilisant des melanges prealablement doses. (auteur)

  15. Variations of lead isotopes and airborne particulate concentrations from the Kozani basin, West Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampides, G; Manoliadis, O; Triantafyllou, A

    2002-03-01

    The spread and variation in 206Pb/207Pb ratios make Pb isotopes a powerful tool when it comes to detecting trends in airborne particulates originating mainly from power plants. This study was conducted to determine the source of pollution in Kozani area, an affected industrial area. Lead isotopic ratios of air filters under certain meteorological conditions were compared to Pb isotope analyses sampled from lignite mines, but also to Pb isotope analyses of cultivations in soil originating from the reclamation of old abandoned lignite-mines. The particles taken into consideration have an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10). The measurements were carried out in a central part of the town of Kozani, West Macedonia, for one year observation period. The lead isotope values of air filters and of wheat in the Kozani area are between the values of lignite Pb and of Greek gasoline.

  16. Petrogenesis of the Yaochong granite and Mo deposit, Western Dabie orogen, eastern-central China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaowen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Chao; Yu, Yang; Wang, Hao; Su, Yang

    2015-05-01

    The Dabie orogen is among the most famous continent-continent collisional orogenic belts in the world, and is characterized by intensive post-collisional extension, magmatism and Mo mineralization. However, the genetic links between the mineralization and the geodynamic evolution of the orogen remain unresolved. In this paper, the Yaochong Mo deposit and its associated granitic stocks were investigated to elucidate this issue. Our new zircon U-Pb ages yielded an Early Cretaceous age (133.3 ± 1.3 Ma) for the Yaochong granite, and our molybdenite Re-Os dating gave a similar age (135 ± 1 Ma) for the Mo deposit. The Yaochong stock is characterized by high silica and alkali but low Mg, Fe and Ca. It is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Rb, K, Th and U), but strongly depleted in heavy REEs, and high field strength elements (HFSEs: Nb, Ta, Ti and Y). The Yaochong granite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7087-0.7096, and Pb isotopic ratios of (206Pb/204Pb)i = 16.599-16.704, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.170-15.618 and (208Pb/204Pb)i = 36.376-38.248. The granite has εNd(t) of -18.0 to -16.3 and εHf(t) values of -26.5 to -20.0. All these data indicate that the Yaochong granite is a high-K calc-alkaline fractionated I-type granite, and may have originated from partial melting of the thickened Yangtze continental crust. The Mo ores also show low radiogenic Pb isotopes similar to the Yaochong stock. Medium Re content in molybdenite (21.8-74.8 ppm) also suggests that the ore-forming materials were derived from the thickened lower crust with possibly minor mixing with the mantle. Similar to the Eastern Dabie orogen, the thickened crust beneath the Western Dabie orogen may also have experienced tectonic collapse, which may have exerted fundamental geodynamic controls on the two-stage Mo mineralization in the region.

  17. ENDF/B-VI evaluations for isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.M.; Fu, C.Y.; Larson, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluations have been done for each of the stable isotopes of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and lead. They are based on analysis of experimental data and results of nuclear model calculations which reproduce the experimental data. Evaluated data are given for neutron induced reaction cross sections, angular and energy distributions, and gamma-ray production cross sections associated with the reactions. The new file 6 formats are used to represent energy-angle correlated data and recoil spectra for the first time in ENDF. This paper reviews the structure of the evaluations, notes the major pieces of experimental data utilized, gives a summary of the model codes used, and compares calculations to measured data

  18. Characterization of frictional melting processes in subduction zone faults by trace element and isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Ujiie, K.

    2017-12-01

    . These results demonstrate that trace element and isotope analyses are useful not only to detect preexistence of pseudotachylytes but also to evaluate the frictional melting in subduction zone faults quantitatively.

  19. Testing the mutually enhanced magicity effect in nuclear incompressibility via the giant monopole resonance in the {sup 204,206,208}Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, D. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Garg, U., E-mail: garg@nd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Fujiwara, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Adachi, T. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Akimune, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Berg, G.P.A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, 14076 Cean (France); Itoh, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Iwamoto, C. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Long, A.; Matta, J.T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Murakami, T. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Okamoto, A. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Sault, K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Talwar, R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Uchida, M. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8850 (Japan); and others

    2013-10-07

    Using inelastic α-scattering at extremely forward angles, including 0°, the strength distributions of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) have been measured in the {sup 204,206,208}Pb isotopes in order to examine the proposed mutually enhanced magicity (MEM) effect on the nuclear incompressibility. The MEM effect had been suggested as a likely explanation of the “softness” of nuclear incompressibility observed in the ISGMR measurements in the Sn and Cd isotopes. Our experimental results rule out any manifestation of the MEM effect in nuclear incompressibility and leave the question of the softness of the open-shell nuclei unresolved still.

  20. Compilation of gas geochemistry and isotopic analyses from The Geysers geothermal field: 1978-1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Janik, Cathy; Fahlquist, Lynne; Johnson, Linda S.

    1999-01-01

    We present 45 chemical and isotopic analyses from well discharges at The Geysers geothermal field and summarize the most notable geochemical trends. H2 and H2S concentrations are highest in the Southeast Geysers, where steam samples have δD and δ18O values that reflect replenishment by meteoric water. In the Northwest Geysers, samples are enriched in gas/steam, CO2, CH4, and N2/Ar relative to the rest of the field, and contain steam that is elevated in δD and δ18O, most likely due to substantial contributions from Franciscan-derived fluids. The δ13C of CO2, trends in CH4 vs. N2, and abundance of NH3 indicate that the bulk of the non-condensable gases are derived from thermal breakdown of organic materials in Franciscan meta-sediments.

  1. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO 2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO 2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of C-13 in CO 2 . Using a set of reference gases of known CO 2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO 2 concentration, and 0.05 per thousand for δC-13 at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of C-13 on CO 2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO 2 concentration and 1.3 per thousand for δC-13, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO 2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source. (authors)

  2. Decay-out from low-lying superdeformed bands in Pb isotopes: Tunneling widths in a two-level mixing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.N.; Davidson, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed two-level mixing model of superdeformed decay is applied to evaluate the tunneling width between the superdeformed and normally deformed potential wells in 192 Pb and 194 Pb. Estimates are made of level densities and γ decay widths for levels in the normally deformed well, which are required for evaluation of the model. Experimental quasicontinuum results are used to suggest a spin-dependent reduction of the energy gap in the level spectrum, resulting in approximately constant level densities and decay widths in the normal well over the decay-out region for each isotope. However, it transpires that the model's prediction of the tunneling width is nearly independent of the normally deformed state widths for both isotopes. This observation is used to extract potential barrier heights for the two nuclei that depend mainly on experimentally determined values

  3. Magma mixing and the generation of isotopically juvenile silicic magma at Yellowstone caldera inferred from coupling 238U–230Th ages with trace elements and Hf and O isotopes in zircon and Pb isotopes in sanidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelten, Mark E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Reid, Mary R.; Barfod, Gry H.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The nature of compositional heterogeneity within large silicic magma bodies has important implications for how silicic reservoirs are assembled and evolve through time. We examine compositional heterogeneity in the youngest (~170 to 70 ka) post-caldera volcanism at Yellowstone caldera, the Central Plateau Member (CPM) rhyolites, as a case study. We compare 238U–230Th age, trace-element, and Hf isotopic data from zircons, and major-element, Ba, and Pb isotopic data from sanidines hosted in two CPM rhyolites (Hayden Valley and Solfatara Plateau flows) and one extracaldera rhyolite (Gibbon River flow), all of which erupted near the caldera margin ca. 100 ka. The Hayden Valley flow hosts two zircon populations and one sanidine population that are consistent with residence in the CPM reservoir. The Gibbon River flow hosts one zircon population that is compositionally distinct from Hayden Valley flow zircons. The Solfatara Plateau flow contains multiple sanidine populations and all three zircon populations found in the Hayden Valley and Gibbon River flows, demonstrating that the Solfatara Plateau flow formed by mixing extracaldera magma with the margin of the CPM reservoir. This process highlights the dynamic nature of magmatic interactions at the margins of large silicic reservoirs. More generally, Hf isotopic data from the CPM zircons provide the first direct evidence for isotopically juvenile magmas contributing mass to the youngest post-caldera magmatic system and demonstrate that the sources contributing magma to the CPM reservoir were heterogeneous in 176Hf/177Hf at ca. 100 ka. Thus, the limited compositional variability of CPM glasses reflects homogenization occurring within the CPM reservoir, not a homogeneous source.

  4. Isotopic (U-Pb, Nd) and geochemical constraints on the origins of the Aileu and Gondwana sequences of Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, S. D.; Spelbrink, L. G.; Lee, R. I.; Sandiford, M.; Maas, R.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age data collected from the argillitic sedimentary rocks of the Timorese Aileu Complex and Gondwana Sequence indicate that both units were derived from a common source containing 200-600 Ma, 900-1250 Ma and 1450-1900 Ma zircon. The modally most significant age population within this range of ages dates to c. 260 Ma. The observed spectrum of ages can be traced to the eastern active margin of Pangaea and its immediate foreland, which today is best exposed along the northeast coast of Australia. Compared to the relative homogeneity of the detrital zircon age data, geochemical and Nd isotopic data show that the mudstones of the Aileu Complex are on average more siliceous, have higher K2O/Na2O, Rb/Sr, Th/Sc and yield notably older Nd TDM model ages when compared to those from the Gondwana Sequence. These data are interpreted to suggest that, although both sequences share a common east Pangaea provenance, they were eroded from different sections of this active margin and deposited in spatially separated basins. The present proximity of these units is a result of their tectonic juxtaposition during the Pliocene to Recent collision between the northern edge of the Indo-Australia plate and the Banda Arc.

  5. Sr-Nd isotopic characteristic, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and petrogenesis of Najmabad Granodiorite batholith, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrab Moradi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located south of Ghonabad in Eastern Iran. This area is situated between two major faults, Darouneh to the north and Dashtbyaz to the south. The movements of these faults cased major dislocation of this block. Najmabad granodiorite to granite batholith is elongated trending east-west 2×8 Km2. Mineralization is associated with granite and monzonite. Alteration zones are: propylitic, sericitic, argillic and silicification. Chemically, granite-granodiorite is met-aluminous,, spider diagram normalized to lower continental crust show enrichment of LILE such as Rb, Cs, K and LREE (La, Ce , depletion of Ti, Sr, Ta, Nb, Ba, Cs. Based on low values of magnetic susceptibility [(5 to 11 × 10-5 SI], therefore it is classified as belonging to the ilmenite-series (reduced type. The result of U-Pb zircon age dating of granodiorite is 161.85 Ma (Middle Jurassic, Callovian time. Based on Initial εNd isotope values for granodiorite is -6.51, initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for granodiorite is (0.70913 and 0.512095, the magma for granite and granodiorite originated from the continental crust. During Middle Jurassic (Callovian due to continental collision, Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic rocks is regionally metamorphosed. During the continental collision, Middle Jurassic (164-162Ma reduced type granitoid magma (Ilmenite series, continental crust melting formed and intruded these regional metamorphosed rock in Najmabad, Shah Kuh and Sorkh Kuh area.

  6. U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis of detrital zircons from Mesozoic strata of the Gravina belt, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, Intan; Gehrels, George E.; Pecha, Mark; Giesler, Dominique; White, Chelsi; McClelland, William C.

    2015-10-01

    The Gravina belt consists of Upper Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous marine clastic strata and mafic-intermediate volcanic rocks that occur along the western flank of the Coast Mountains in southeast Alaska and coastal British Columbia. This report presents U-Pb ages and Hf isotope determinations of detrital zircons that have been recovered from samples collected from various stratigraphic levels and from along the length of the belt. The results support previous interpretations that strata in the western portion of the Gravina belt accumulated along the inboard margin of the Alexander-Wrangellia terrane and in a back-arc position with respect to the western Coast Mountains batholith. Our results are also consistent with previous suggestions that eastern strata accumulated along the western margin of the inboard Stikine, Yukon-Tanana, and Taku terranes and in a fore-arc position with respect to the eastern Coast Mountains batholith. The history of juxtaposition of western and eastern assemblages is obscured by subsequent plutonism, deformation, and metamorphism within the Coast Mountains orogen, but may have occurred along an Early Cretaceous sinistral transform system. Our results are inconsistent with models in which an east-facing subduction zone existed along the inboard margin of the Alexander-Wrangellia terrane during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time.

  7. Soil erosion and sedimentation rates in a small eutrophic lake in southern Chile estimated by 210Pb isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisternas, M.; Urrutia, R.; Araneda, A.; Debels, P.; Rios, F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the effects of historical land use patterns on soil erosion within the San Pedro Lake watershed (Concepcion, VIII Region, Chile). To this end, a geochronological reconstruction of the last 50 years was accomplished by 210 Pb isotope and photo-interpretation analysis through the use of GIS. The erosion rate has varied from 0.40 t ha -1 y -1 in 1955 to 0.86 t ha -1 y -1 in 1994. The decrease in native forest was closely coupled with the increase in exotic forestry. The Total Change, meaning the land use change without considering each typology, shows a constant trend indicating a greater degree of anthropogenic intervention. As opposed to the expected, there is no relationship between land use typologies and erosion rates, however it is possible to recognise some degree of dependency between Total Change and erosion values. It is concluded that over the last 50 years the soil erosion processes in the San Pedro Lake watershed may have been more regulated more by land use changes than by land use typologies themselves. (author)

  8. The End of Monterey Submarine Canyon Incision and Potential River Source Areas-Os, Nd, and Pb Isotope Constraints from Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, T. A.; Nielsen, S.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Blusztajn, J.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Monterey Canyon off central California is the largest submarine canyon off North America and is comparable in scale to the Grand Canyon. The age and history of the Monterey Canyon are poorly constrained due to thick sediment cover and sediment disruption from turbidity currents. To address this deficit we analyzed isotopic proxies (Os, Pb, Nd) from hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts, which grow over millions of years on elevated rock surfaces by precipitation of metals from seawater. Fe-Mn crusts were studied from Davidson Seamount near the base of the Monterey submarine fan, the Taney Seamount Chain, and from Hoss Seamount, which serves as a regional control (Fig.). Fe-Mn crusts were dated using Os isotope ratios compared to those that define the Cenozoic Os isotope seawater curve. Four Fe-Mn crust samples from Davidson and Taney Seamounts deviate from the Os isotopic seawater curve towards radiogenic values after 4.5±1 Ma. Osmium is well mixed in the global ocean and is not subject to significant diffusive reequilibration in Fe-Mn crusts. We therefore attribute deviations from the Os isotope seawater curve to large-scale terrestrial input that ended about 4.5±1 Ma. The two Davidson samples also show more radiogenic Nd isotope values from about 4.5±1 Ma. Lead isotopes in one Davidson Seamount crust, measured by LA-ICPMS, deviate from regional values after 4.5±1 Ma for about 500 ka towards terrestrial sources. The Taney Seamount Fe-Mn crust does not deviate from regional Nd nor Pb isotope values due to its greater distance from Monterey Canyon and the shorter marine residence times of Nd and Pb. Isotope plots of our crust data and compiled data for potential source rocks indicate that the river that carved Monterey Canyon carried sediment with values closer to the Sierra Nevada than to a Colorado Plateau source, with cessation of major riverine input occurring approximately 4.5±1 Ma, an age that we interpret as the end of the Monterey Canyon

  9. Primary Data on U/Pb-Isotope Ages and Lu/Hf-Isotope Geochemical Systematization of Detrital Zircons from the Lopatinskii Formation (Vendian-Cambrian Transition Levels) and the Tectonic Nature of Teya-Chapa Depression (Northeastern Yenisei Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. B.; Priyatkina, N. S.; Rud'ko, S. V.; Shatsillo, A. V.; Collins, W. J.; Romanyuk, T. V.

    2018-03-01

    The main results are presented on U/Pb-isotope dating of 100 detrital zircons and, selectively, on the Lu/Hf-isotope system of 43 grains from sandstones of the Lopatinskii formation (the lower stratigraphic level of the Chingasan group). Ages from 896 ± 51 to 2925 ± 38 Ma were obtained with a pronounced maximum of 1890 Ma in the curve of probability density, along with ɛHf estimates from +8.4 to-15.1, which allow one to throw doubt upon the molasse nature of the Lopatinskii formation.

  10. Quantifying sediment-associated metal dispersal using Pb isotopes: Application of binary and multivariate mixing models at the catchment-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Nikolova, Mariyana; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Mollov, Mihail; Swain, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In this study Pb isotope signatures were used to identify the provenance of contaminant metals and establish patterns of downstream sediment dispersal within the River Maritsa catchment, which is impacted by the mining of polymetallic ores. A two-fold modelling approach was undertaken to quantify sediment-associated metal delivery to the Maritsa catchment; employing binary mixing models in tributary systems and a composite fingerprinting and mixing model approach in the wider Maritsa catchment. Composite fingerprints were determined using Pb isotopic and multi-element geochemical data to characterize sediments delivered from tributary catchments. Application of a mixing model allowed a quantification of the percentage contribution of tributary catchments to the sediment load of the River Maritsa. Sediment delivery from tributaries directly affected by mining activity contributes 42-63% to the sediment load of the River Maritsa, with best-fit regression relationships indicating that sediments originating from mining-affected tributaries are being dispersed over 200 km downstream. - Pb isotopic evidence used to quantify sediment-associated metal delivery within a mining-affected river catchment.

  11. Provenance of sediments from Sumatra, Indonesia - Insights from detrital U-Pb zircon geochronology, heavy mineral analyses and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, C.; Hall, R.; Gough, A.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Sumatra is situated at the southwestern margin of the Indonesian archipelago. Although it is the sixth largest island in the world, the geology of the Sumatra sedimentary basins and their underlying basement is relatively poorly understood in terms of their provenance. This work is a multi-proxy provenance study utilizing U-Pb detrital zircon dating by LA-ICP-MS combined with optical and Raman spectroscopy-based heavy mineral analysis. It will help to unravel the stratigraphy of Sumatra, contribute to paleogeographic reconstruction of western SE Asia, and aid a wider understanding of Sumatran petroleum plays. Thin section analyses, heavy mineral assemblages, and >3500 concordant U-Pb zircon ages, from samples acquired during two fieldwork seasons indicate a mixed provenance for Cenozoic sedimentary formations, including both local igneous sources and mature basement rocks. Characteristic Precambrian zircon age spectra are found in all analysed Cenozoic sedimentary strata. These can be correlated with zircon age populations found in Sumatran basement rocks; Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic age groups are dominant (c. 500-600 Ma, c. 850-1000 Ma, c. 1050-1200 Ma). Paleoproterozoic to Archaean zircons occur as minor populations. The Phanerozoic age spectra of the Cenozoic formations are characterised by distinct Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, and Jurassic-Cretaceous zircon populations. Permo-Triassic zircons are interpreted to come from granitoids in the Malay peninsula or Sumatra itself. Eocene to Lower Miocene strata are characterised by ultrastable heavy minerals such as zircon, tourmaline, and rutile, which together with garnet, suggest the principal sources were igneous and metamorphic basement rocks. Cenozoic zircons appear only from the Middle Miocene onwards. This change is interpreted to indicate a new contribution from a local volcanic arc, and is supported by the occurrence of unstable heavy minerals such as apatite and clinopyroxene, and the

  12. Data Reduction of Laser Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) Analyses Using Newly Developed Features Within Iolite: With Applications to Lu-Hf + U-Pb in Detrital Zircon and Sm-Nd +U-Pb in Igneous Monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Paton, Chad; Pearson, D. Graham; Sarkar, Chiranjeeb; Luo, Yan; Tersmette, Daniel B.; Chacko, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    A robust platform to view and integrate multiple data sets collected simultaneously is required to realize the utility and potential of the Laser Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) method. This capability, until now, has been unavailable and practitioners have had to laboriously process each data set separately, making it challenging to take full advantage of the benefits of LASS. We describe a new program for handling multiple mass spectrometric data sets collected simultaneously, designed specifically for the LASS technique, by which a laser aerosol is been split into two or more separate "streams" to be measured on separate mass spectrometers. New features within Iolite (https://iolite-software.com) enable the capability of loading, synchronizing, viewing, and reducing two or more data sets acquired simultaneously, as multiple DRSs (data reduction schemes) can be run concurrently. While this version of Iolite accommodates any combination of simultaneously collected mass spectrometer data, we demonstrate the utility using case studies where U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope composition of zircon, and U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope composition of monazite were analyzed simultaneously, in crystals showing complex isotopic zonation. These studies demonstrate the importance of being able to view and integrate simultaneously acquired data sets, especially for samples with complicated zoning and decoupled isotope systematics, in order to extract accurate and geologically meaningful isotopic and compositional data. This contribution provides instructions and examples for handling simultaneously collected laser ablation data. An instructional video is also provided. The updated Iolite software will help to fully develop the applications of both LASS and multi-instrument mass spectrometric measurement capabilities.

  13. Pb migration in the OKLO uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancarz, A.J.; Curtis, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    U-Pb and Pb isotopic data are presented which indicate that Pb is lost from host uraninite by diffusion, and that not only in situ uranogenic Pb but also the initial Pb is lost by diffusion. The conglomerate underlying the U deposit contains excess Pb and is both a transport zone and the repository for the Pb. 2 figures

  14. Nitrogen and Triple Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Atmospheric Particulate Nitrate over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezaki, Kazuki; Hattori, Shohei; Iwamoto, Yoko; Ishino, Sakiko; Furutani, Hiroshi; Miki, Yusuke; Miura, Kazuhiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-04-01

    for atmospheric particulate NO3- originated from Central North Pacific Ocean showed the possibility of atmospheric particulate NO3- formation pathway is reaction NO2 with halogen oxides. At the presentation, we discuss the sources and formation pathways of atmospheric particulate NO3- by using stable isotopic analyses for each region. References J. N. Galloway, A. R. Townsend, J. Willem Erisman, M. Bekunda, Z. Cai, J. R. Freney, L. A. Martinelli, S. P. Seitzinger, M. A. Sutton, Biogeochemistry, 70, 153-226, 2004 T. W. Kim, K. Lee, R. G. Najjar, H.D. Jeong, H. J. Jeong, Science 334, 505-509, 2011 E. M. Elliott, C. Kendall, S. D. Wankel, D. A. Burns, E. W. Boyer, K. Harlin, D. J. Bain, and T. J. Butler, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 7661-7667, 2007 G. Michalski, Z. Scott, M. Kabiling, and M. H. Thiemens, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1870, 2003 M. H. Thiemens, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sc., 34, 217-262, 2006

  15. Purple haze: Combined geochemical and Pb-Sr isotope constraints on colourants in Celtic glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D. J.; van der Laan, J.; Davies, G. R.; van Os, B. J. H.; Roymans, N.; Fermin, B.; Karwowski, M.

    The composition of 2977 Late Prehistoric glass objects was investigated to derive information on the nature of the colourants used. 2673 Late Iron Age Celtic (La Tène) bracelet fragments from the Netherlands and Austria and 51 Early Iron Age beads from the Netherlands were analysed. Hand-held XRF

  16. The history of a continent from U-Pb ages of zircons from Orinoco River sand and Sm-Nd isotopes in Orinoco basin river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S.L.; Arndt, N.T.; Stallard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 49 zircons from a sand sample from the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, and Nd model ages of the fine sediment load from the main river and tributaries. The U-Pb ages reflect individual magmatic or metamorphic events, the Sm-Nd model ages reflect average crustal-residence ages of the sediment sources. Together they allow delineation of the crust-formation history of the basement precursors of the sediments. The U-Pb ages range from 2.83 to 0.15 Ga, and most are concordant or nearly so. Discrete age groupings occur at ??? 2.8, ??? 2.1, and ??? 1.1 Ga. The oldest group contains only three samples but is isolated from its closest neighbors by a ??? 600 Ma age gap. Larger age groupings at ??? 2.1 and ??? 1.1 Ga make up about a third and a quarter of the total number of analyses, respectively. The remaining analyses scatter along concordia, and most are younger than 1.6 Ga. The ??? 2.8 and ??? 2.1 Ga ages correspond to periods of crust formation of the Imataca and Trans-Amazonian provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, and record intervals of short but intensive continental growth. These ages coincide with ??? 2.9 and ??? 2.1 Ga Nd model ages of sediments from tributaries draining the Archean and Proterozoic provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, indicating that the U-Pb ages record the geological history of the crystalline basement of the Orinoco basin. Zircons with ages corresponding to the major orogenies of the North Atlantic continents (the Superior at ??? 2.7 Ga and Hudsonian at 1.7-1.9 Ga) were not found in the Orinoco sample. The age distribution may indicate that South and North America were separated throughout their history. Nd model ages of sediments from the lower Orinoco River and Andean tributaries are ??? 1.9 Ga, broadly within the range displayed by major rivers and dusts. This age does not coincide with known thermal events in the region and reflects mixing of sources with different crust-formation ages. The

  17. Isotopic analysis of plutonium by optical spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique du plutonium par spectroscopie optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Chaput, M; Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Isotopic analysis of mixtures of plutonium 239 and 240 has been carried out by means of the photo-electric spectrometer Fabry-Perot, the source being a hollow cathode cooled by liquid nitrogen. This first research has been concerned with finding among the spectral lines given by the hollow cathode, those suitable for use in analysis. Actually, the relative precision is of the order of 2 per cent (for samples containing 3 per cent of {sup 240}Pu). The study of the reproducibility of the measurements should make it possible to increase the precision; the relative precision which can be expected from this method should be 1 per cent for mixtures containing 1 per cent of {sup 240}Pu. (author) [French] L'analyse isotopique des melanges de plutonium 239 et 240 a ete effectuee a l'aide du spectrometre photoelectrique Fabry-Perot, la source etant une cathode creuse refroidie a l'azote liquide. Ce premier travail a eu pour but de discerner parmi les raies spectrales emises par la cathode creuse, celles susceptibles de servir de raies d'analyse. Actuellement, la precision relative est de l'ordre de 2 pour cent (pour des echantillons contenant 3 pour cent de {sup 240}Pu). L'etude de la reproductibilite des mesures devrait permettre d'ameliorer la precision; la precision relative que l'on pourrait atteindre par cette methode serait de 1 pour cent pour des melanges contenant 1 pour cent de {sup 240}Pu. (auteur)

  18. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E

    2011-08-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  19. Performance of the multiple target He/PbI sub 2 aerosol jet system for mass separation of neutron-deficient actinide isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ichikawa, S; Asai, M; Haba, H; Sakama, M; Kojima, Y; Shibata, M; Nagame, Y; Oura, Y; Kawade, K

    2002-01-01

    A multiple target He/PbI sub 2 aerosol jet system coupled with a thermal ion source was installed in the isotope separator on line (JAERI-ISOL) at the JAERI tandem accelerator facility. The neutron-deficient americium and curium isotopes produced in the sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 sup , sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U( sup 6 Li, xn) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np( sup 6 Li, xn) reactions were successfully mass-separated and the overall efficiency including the ionization of Am atoms was evaluated to be 0.3-0.4%. The identification of a new isotope sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Cm with the present system is reported.

  20. XPS-and-DFT analyses of the Pb 4f — Zn 3s and Pb 5d — O 2s overlapped ambiguity contributions to the final electronic structure of bulk and thin-film Pb-modulated zincite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsepin, D.A. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Boukhvalov, D.W., E-mail: danil@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics Department, Ural Federal University,Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, N.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurmaev, E.Z. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A.F. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Cui, L. [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Shur, V. Ya.; Esin, A.A. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave, 620000 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Two modes of ZnO:Pb in the bulk and surface morphologies were established: the high- and low-interaction. • It was shown the ambiguity contribution of Pb 4f − Zn 3s and Pb 5d − O 2s states into final electronic structure. • The main type of defects is PbO-like with some PbO{sub 2}-like contributions. • An applied wurzite-like structural model well agrees with experimental data obtained for zincite. - Abstract: The electronic structures of zincite Pb-modulated bulk and thin-films were studied via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) techniques. Both XPS data and DFT-calculations allowed the derivation of two different Pb-embedding scenarios into the ZnO-hosts. These included the high-interaction mode of Pb-impurity with initial zinc-oxygen host-lattice for the bulk morphology, accompanied with low Pb-metal losses; and the low-interaction mode for thin-films, where there was intake of Pb-impurities into the hollows of the surface. Despite dissimilar mechanisms of Pb-impurity accumulation and distribution in the bulk and thin-films zincite host-matrices, the strong Pb 4f — Zn 3s and Pb 5d — O 2s overlapped ambiguity contribution to the appropriate core-level structure and valence bands was established by XPS analysis and reproduced with the help of DFT-calculations. It was shown that the microscopic structure of the embedded lead-impurity played a crucial role in the Pb ion-beam stimulated synthesis of secondary lead-oxygen phases via large-area defect fabrication, and the difference among zincite and wurzite polymorphs played almost no role in this case.

  1. Improved source apportionment of PAHs and Pb by integrating Pb stable isotopes and positive matrix factorization application (PAHs): A historical record case study from the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minggang; Lin, Yan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Weifeng; Du, Huihong; Xu, Ye; Cheng, Shayen; Xu, Fangjian; Hong, Jiajun; Chen, Mian; Ke, Hongwei

    2017-12-31

    To obtain the historical changes of pyrogenic sources, integrated source apportionment methods, which include PAH compositions, diagnostic ratios (DRs), Pb isotopic ratios, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, were developed and applied in sediments of the northern South China Sea. These methods provided a gradually clear picture of energy structural change. Spatially, Σ 15 PAH (11.3 to 95.5ng/g) and Pb (10.2 to 74.6μg/g) generally exhibited decreasing concentration gradient offshore; while the highest levels of PAHs and Pb were observed near the southern Taiwan Strait, which may be induced by accumulation of different fluvial input. Historical records of pollutants followed closely with the economic development of China, with fast growth of Σ 15 PAH and Pb occurring since the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. The phasing-out of leaded gasoline in China was captured with a sharp decrease of Pb after the mid-1990s. PAHs and Pb correlated well with TOC and clay content for core sediments, which was not observed for surface sediments. There was an up-core increase of high molecular PAH proportions. Coal and biomass burning were then qualitatively identified as the major sources of PAHs with DRs. Furthermore, shift toward less radiogenic signatures of Pb isotopic ratios after 1900 revealed the start and growing importance of industrial sources. Finally, a greater separation and quantification of various input was achieved by a three-factor PMF model, which made it clear that biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emissions accounted for 40±20%, 41±13%, and 19±12% of PAHs through the core. Biomass and coal combustion acted as major sources before 2000, while contributions from vehicle emission soared thereafter. The integrated multi-methodologies here improved the source apportionment by reducing biases with a step-down and cross-validation perspective, which could be similarly applied to other aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Five Years of Analyses of Volatiles, Isotopes and Organics in Gale Crater Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Andrejkovicova, S. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Buch, A.; Coll, P. J.; Conrad, P. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Farley, K. A.; Flesch, G.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Hogancamp, J. V.; House, C. H.; Knudson, C. A.; Lewis, J. M.; Malespin, C.; Martin, P. M.; Millan, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J. C.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M. G.; Webster, C. R.; Wong, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last five years, the Curiosity rover has explored a variety of fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian sedimentary rocks, and soils. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument has analysed 3 soil and 12 rock samples, which exhibit significant chemical and mineralogical diversity in over 200 meters of vertical section. Here we will highlight several key insights enabled by recent measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of inorganic volatiles and organic compounds detected in Gale Crater materials. Until recently samples have evolved O2 during SAM evolved gas analyses (EGA), attributed to the thermal decomposition of oxychlorine phases. A lack of O2 evolution from recent mudstone samples may indicate a difference in the composition of depositional or diagenetic fluids, and can also have implications for the detection of organic compounds since O2 can combust organics to CO2 in the SAM ovens. Recent mudstone samples have also shown little or no evolution of NO attributable to nitrate salts, possibly also as a result of changes in the chemical composition of fluids [1]. Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfur, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and carbon in methane evolved during SAM pyrolysis are providing constraints on the conditions of possible paleoenvironments [e.g., 2, 3]. There is evidence of organic C from both EGA and GCMS measurements of Gale samples [e.g., 4, 5]. Organic sulfur volatiles have been detected in several samples, and the first opportunistic derivatization experiment produced a rich dataset indicating the presence of several organic compounds [6, 7]. A K-Ar age has been obtained from the Mojave mudstone, and the age of secondary materials formed by aqueous alteration is likely history and habitability. [1] Sutter et al. (2017) LPSC 3009. [2] Franz et al., this mtg. [3] Stern et al., this mtg. [4] Ming et al. (2014) Science 343. [5] Freissinet et al. (2015) JGR 120. [6] Eigenbrode et al. (2016) AGU P21D-08. [7] Freissinet

  3. Coupled-channels analyses for 9,11Li + 208Pb fusion reactions with multi-neutron transfer couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; So, W. Y.; Hagino, K.; Kim, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the role of two-neutron transfer processes in the fusion reaction of the 9,11Li + 208Pb systems. We first analyze the 9Li + 208Pb reaction by taking into account the coupling to the 7Li + 210Pb channel. To this end, we assume that two neutrons are directly transferred to a single effective channel in 210Pb and solve the coupled-channels equations with the two channels. By adjusting the coupling strength and the effective Q-value, we successfully reproduce the experimental fusion cross sections for this system. We then analyze the 11Li + 208Pb reaction in a similar manner, that is, by taking into account three effective channels with 11Li + 208Pb, 9Li + 210Pb, and 7Li + 212Pb partitions. In order to take into account the halo structure of the 11Li nucleus, we construct the potential between 11Li and 208Pb with a double folding procedure, while we employ a Woods-Saxon type potential with the global Akyüz-Winther parameters for the other channels. Our calculation indicates that the multiple two-neutron transfer process plays a crucial role in the 11Li + 208Pb fusion reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  4. Thermal Safety Analyses for the Production of Plutonium-238 at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Freels, James D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hobbs, Randy W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Prashant K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maldonado, G. Ivan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    There has been a considerable effort over the previous few years to demonstrate and optimize the production of plutonium-238 (238Pu) at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This effort has involved resources from multiple divisions and facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the fabrication, irradiation, and chemical processing of targets containing neptunium-237 (237Np) dioxide (NpO2)/aluminum (Al) cermet pellets. A critical preliminary step to irradiation at the HFIR is to demonstrate the safety of the target under irradiation via documented experiment safety analyses. The steady-state thermal safety analyses of the target are simulated in a finite element model with the COMSOL Multiphysics code that determines, among other crucial parameters, the limiting maximum temperature in the target. Safety analysis efforts for this model discussed in the present report include: (1) initial modeling of single and reduced-length pellet capsules in order to generate an experimental knowledge base that incorporate initial non-linear contact heat transfer and fission gas equations, (2) modeling efforts for prototypical designs of partially loaded and fully loaded targets using limited available knowledge of fabrication and irradiation characteristics, and (3) the most recent and comprehensive modeling effort of a fully coupled thermo-mechanical approach over the entire fully loaded target domain incorporating burn-up dependent irradiation behavior and measured target and pellet properties, hereafter referred to as the production model. These models are used to conservatively determine several important steady-state parameters including target stresses and temperatures, the limiting condition of which is the maximum temperature with respect to the melting point. The single pellet model results provide a basis for the safety of the irradiations, followed by parametric analyses in the initial prototypical designs

  5. Improvements in RIMS Isotopic Precision: Application to in situ atom-limited analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.; Stephan, T.; Savina, M.; Pellin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry offers high sensitivity and elemental selectivity in microanalysis, but the isotopic precision attainable by this technique has been limited. Here we report instrumental modifications to improve the precision of RIMS isotope ratio measurements. Special attention must be paid to eliminating pulse-to-pulse variations in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer through which the photoions travel, and resonant excitation schemes must be chosen such that the resonance transitions can substantially power-broadened to cover the isotope shifts. We report resonance ionization measurements of chromium isotope ratios with statistics-limited precision better than 1%.

  6. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assonov, S.S.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Koeppel, C.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and

  7. Pb-Pb age and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope signature of paleoproterozoic syenitic plutonism in the south of Salvador-Curaca mobile belt: Sao Felix Syenitic Massif, Bahia-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceicao, Herbet; Leal, Luiz Rogerio Bastos

    2001-01-01

    The Sao Felix Syenitic Massif (MSSF) has a tabular shape with about 32 km 2 that represents the south expression of the aligned syenitic plutonism, which occur in the middle part of Salvador-Curaca mobile belt (CMSC). Single zircon dating by stepwise Pb evaporation methodology yields an age of 2098 ± 1 Ma to SFSM. This data correlate the emplacement of the SFSM with the late stages of SCMB stabilization. This massif is isotopically characterized by negative epsilon neodymium values (-1.45 to -2.89) and low initial strontium ratio (0.701 to 0.704). SFSM isotopic signature is similar to the ones displayed by the others syenites from the belt and reflects an enriched source which should be related to a metasomatic enriched mantle. (author)

  8. Stable carbon isotope analyses of nanogram quantities of particulate organic carbon (pollen) with laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Appy; Laks, Jelmer J.; Reichart, Gert‐Jan

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to samples containing at least several μg of carbon. Methods Here we present a setup combining laser ablation, nano combustion gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LA/nC/GC/IRMS). A deep UV (193 nm) laser is used for optimal fragmentation of organic matter with minimum fractionation effects and an exceptionally small ablation chamber and combustion oven are used to reduce the minimum sample mass requirement compared with previous studies. Results Analyses of the international IAEA CH‐7 polyethylene standard show optimal accuracy, and precision better than 0.5‰, when measuring at least 42 ng C. Application to untreated modern Eucalyptus globulus (C3 plant) and Zea mays (C4 plant) pollen grains shows a ~ 16‰ offset between these species. Within each single Z. mays pollen grain, replicate analyses show almost identical δ 13C values. Conclusions Isotopic offsets between individual pollen grains exceed analytical uncertainties, therefore probably reflecting interspecimen variability of ~0.5–0.9‰. These promising results set the stage for investigating both δ 13C values and natural carbon isotopic variability between single specimens of a single population of all kinds of organic particles yielding tens of nanograms of carbon. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27766694

  9. An autochthonous Avalonian basement source for the latest Ordovician Brenton Pluton in the Meguma terrane of Nova Scotia: U-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan Keppie, J.; Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Fraser Keppie, D.

    2018-04-01

    The Ediacaran-Ordovician Meguma Supergroup was thrust over Avalonia basement prior to the intrusion of post-Acadian, ca. 370 Ma, S-type granitic batholiths. This has led to two main hypotheses regarding the original location of the Meguma terrane, a continental rise prism bordering either NW Africa or Avalonia. On the other hand, the pre-Acadian, ca. 440 Ma Brenton pluton has yielded the following U/Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon data: (1) 448 ± 3 Ma population peak inferred to be the intrusive age and (2) ca. 550 and 700 Ma inherited ages common to both Avalonia and NW Africa. In contrast, Hf isotopic analyses of zircon yielded model ages ranging from 814 to 1127 Ma with most between 940 and 1040 Ma: such ages are typical of Avalonia and not NW Africa. The ages of the inherited zircons found within the Brenton pluton suggest that it was probably derived by partial melting of sub-Meguma, mid-crustal Avalonian rocks, upon which the Meguma Supergroup was deposited. Although Avalonia is commonly included in the peri-Gondwanan terranes off NW Africa or Amazonia, paleomagnetic data, faunal provinciality, and Hf data suggest that, during the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian, it was an island chain lying near the tropics (ca. 20-30 °S) and was possibly a continuation of the Bolshezemel volcanic arc accreted to northern Baltica during the Ediacaran Timanide orogenesis. This is consistent with the similar derital zircon population in the Ediacaran-Cambrian Meguma Supergroup and the Dividal Group in northeastern Baltica.

  10. Spectroscopy of 186 Pb with mass identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, A.M.; Byrne, A.P.; Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT; Dracoulis, G.D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Bearden, I.G.; Henry, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Transitions in the very neutron-deficient isotope 186 Pb have been identified in mass-gated, recoil-γ and recoil-γ-γ coincidence data obtained with a Fragment Mass Analyser and Compton-suppressed Ge-detector array. The results of the present work confirm and extend a band of levels tentatively proposed in earlier work done elsewhere, and provide a definitive mass assignment of the observed transitions. The band observed in 186 Pb bears a very close resemblance to the yrast band in the isotones 184 Hg, supporting the view that the 186 Pb band is built upon a prolate structure. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Determination of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in Sediment Compartments by Sequential Extraction and Isotope Dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardolinski Paulo C. F. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in four different sediment fractions extracted in sequence were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled mass spectrometry (IDICPMS. The metals from each fraction were extracted following the sequential extraction procedure recommended by the Bureau Commun de Référence (BCR of the Commission of the European Communities. As an alternative to external calibration, the elements were quantified by spiking the extracted solutions with 112Cd, 63Cu, 208Pb and 66Zn and application of isotope dilution. The proposed approach was applied to a sample collected from a lake and two standard reference materials, NIST2704 river sediment from the National Institute of Standards & Technology and the BCR-277 estuarine sediment. Detection limits, for each extracted solution, varied from 0.31 to 0.53 mug L¹ for Cd, 0.92 to 2.9 mug L¹ for Cu, 0.22 to 1.1 mug L¹ for Pb and 1.3 to 7.6 mug L¹ for Zn. The sum of the metals concentration in the different fractions was compatible with 95% confidence level found amounts obtained with complete digestion of the samples and with the certified values of the standard reference materials.

  12. Textural, compositional, and sulfur isotope variations of sulfide minerals in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for Ore Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Johnson, C.A.; Clark, J.L.; Fayek, M.; Slack, J.F.; Anderson, V.M.; Ayuso, R.A.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog Zn-Pb deposits are hosted in organic-rich mudstone and shale of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. A complex mineralization history is defined by four sphalerite types or stages: (1) early brown sphalerite, (2) yellow-brown sphalerite, (3) red-brown sphalerite, and (4) late tan sphalerite. Stages 2 and 3 constitute the main ore-forming event and are volumetrically the most important. Sulfides in stages 1 and 2 were deposited with barite, whereas stage 3 largely replaces barite. Distinct chemical differences exist among the different stages of sphalerite. From early brown sphalerite to later yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite, Fe and Co content generally increase and Mn and Tl content generally decrease. Early brown sphalerite contains no more than 1.9 wt percent Fe and 63 ppm Co, with high Mn (up to 37 ppm) and Tl (126 ppm), whereas yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite contain high Fe (up to 7.3 wt %) and Co (up to 382 ppm), and low Mn (ion microprobe sulfur isotope analyses show a progression from extremely low ??34S values for stage 1 (as low as -37.20???) to much higher values for yellow-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.3???; n = 30) and red-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.4; n = 20). Late tan sphalerite is isotopically light (-16.4 to -27.2???). The textural, chem ical, and isotopic data indicate the following paragenesis: (1) deposition of early brown sphalerite with abundant barite, minor pyrite, and trace galena immediately beneath the sea floor in unconsolidated mud; (2) deposition of yellow-brown sphalerite during subsea-floor hydrothermal recrystallization and coarsening of preexisting barite; (3) open-space deposition of barite, red-brown sphalerite and other sulfides in veins and coeval replacement of barite; and (4) postore sulfide deposition, including the formation of late tan sphalerite breccias. Stage 1 mineralization took place in a low-temperature environment where fluids rich in Ba mixed with pore water or water

  13. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L I; Terzer-Wassmuth, S; Douence, C; Araguas-Araguas, L; Aggarwal, P K; Coplen, T B

    2018-03-15

    Water stable isotope ratios (δ 2 H and δ 18 O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test. Eight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies. For the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ 18 O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ 2 H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected. Analysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that laboratories include 1-2 'known

  14. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L. I.; Terzer-Wassmuth, S.; Douence, C.; Araguas-Araguas, L.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2018-01-01

    RationaleWater stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test.MethodsEight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies.ResultsFor the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ18O and δ2H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ18O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ2H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected.ConclusionsAnalysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that

  15. Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Polito

    Full Text Available Stomach content analysis (SCA and more recently stable isotope analysis (SIA integrated with isotopic mixing models have become common methods for dietary studies and provide insight into the foraging ecology of seabirds. However, both methods have drawbacks and biases that may result in difficulties in quantifying inter-annual and species-specific differences in diets. We used these two methods to simultaneously quantify the chick-rearing diet of Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and Gentoo (P. papua penguins and highlight methods of integrating SCA data to increase accuracy of diet composition estimates using SIA. SCA biomass estimates were highly variable and underestimated the importance of soft-bodied prey such as fish. Two-source, isotopic mixing model predictions were less variable and identified inter-annual and species-specific differences in the relative amounts of fish and krill in penguin diets not readily apparent using SCA. In contrast, multi-source isotopic mixing models had difficulty estimating the dietary contribution of fish species occupying similar trophic levels without refinement using SCA-derived otolith data. Overall, our ability to track inter-annual and species-specific differences in penguin diets using SIA was enhanced by integrating SCA data to isotopic mixing modes in three ways: 1 selecting appropriate prey sources, 2 weighting combinations of isotopically similar prey in two-source mixing models and 3 refining predicted contributions of isotopically similar prey in multi-source models.

  16. Anthropogenic versus natural control on trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope stratigraphy in peat sediments of southeast Florida (USA), ˜1500 AD to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Brenner, Mark; Tucker, Jaimie L.

    2009-06-01

    Analysis of a well-dated peat core from Blue Cypress Marsh (BCM) provides a detailed record of natural and anthropogenic factors that controlled the geochemical cycles of a number of trace elements in Florida over the last five centuries. The trace elements were divided into "natural" and "anthropogenic" groups using concentration trends from the bottom to the top of the core. The "natural" group includes Li, Sc, Cr, Co, Ga, Ge, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Y, Ta, Th, and REE (Rare Earth Elements). These elements show similar concentrations throughout the core, indicating that changes in human activities after European arrival in the "New World" did not affect their geochemical cycles. The "anthropogenic" group includes Pb, Cu, Zn, V, Sb, Sn, Bi, and Cd. Upcore enrichment of these elements indicates enhancement by anthropogenic activities. From the early 1500s to present, fluxes of the "anthropogenic" metals to the marsh increased significantly, with modern accumulation rates several-fold (e.g., V) to hundreds of times (e.g., Zn) greater than pre-colonial rates. The dominant input mechanism for trace elements from both groups to the marsh has been atmospheric deposition. Atmospheric input of a number of the elements, including the anthropogenic metals, was dominated by local sources during the last century. For several elements, long-distant transport may be important. For instance, REE and Nd isotopes provide evidence for long-range atmospheric transport dominated by Saharan dust. The greatest increase in flux of the "anthropogenic" metals occurred during the 20th century and was caused by changes in the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition entering the marsh. Increased atmospheric inputs were a consequence of several anthropogenic activities, including fossil fuel combustion (coal and oil), agricultural activities, and quarrying and mining operations. Pb and V exhibit similar trends, with peak accumulation rates in 1970. The principal anthropogenic source of V

  17. Precambrian-Cambrian provenance of Matinde Formation, Karoo Supergroup, northwestern Mozambique, constrained from detrital zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicca, Marcos Müller; Jelinek, Andrea Ritter; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; de Carvalho Lana, Cristiano; Alkmim, Ana Ramalho

    2018-02-01

    The Permian-Triassic time interval was a period of high sedimentation rates in the intracontinental Karoo rift basin of northwestern Mozambique, reflecting high exhumation rates in the surrounding high ground Precambrian-Cambrian basement and juxtaposed nappes. U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS dating and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons from the Late Permian-Early Triassic Matinde Formation of the Karoo Supergroup is used as a reliable proxy to map denudation patterns of source regions. Data allow discrimination of U-Pb age populations of ca. 1250-900 Ma, a secondary population between ca. 900-700 and a major contribution of ages around ca. 700-490 Ma. Zircon grains of the Mesoproterozoic age population present Mesoproterozoic (1000-1500 Ma) to Paleoproterozoic (1800-2300 Ma) Hf TDM ages, with positive (0 to +11) and negative εHf values (-3 to -15), respectively. The younger U-Pb age population also presents two different groups of zircon grains according to Lu-Hf isotopes. The first group comprise Paleoproterozoic (1800-2300 Ma) ages, with highly negative εHf values, between -10 and -22, and the second group exhibits Mesoproterozoic ages (1200-1500 Ma), with increased juvenile εHf values (ca. 0 to -5). These Hf isotopes reinforce the presence of unexposed ancient crust in this region. The oldest U-Pb age population resembles the late stages of Grenville Orogeny and the Rodinia Supercontinent geotectonic activity mostly represented by magmatic rocks, which are widely present in the basement of northern Mozambique. The juvenile Hf-isotope signature with an older age component is associated to rocks generated from subduction processes with crust assimilation by continental arcs, which we correlate to rocks of the Nampula Complex, south and east of the Moatize-Minjova Basin. The U-Pb ages between 900 and 700 Ma were correlated to the calc-alkaline magmatism registered in the Guro Suite, related to the breakup phase of Rodinia, and mark the western limit of the Moatize

  18. Tracking atmospheric sulphur pollution from the study of Racomitrium lanuginosum mosses in Iceland: A multi-isotope approach (δ34S, 206Pb/204Pb, δ13C and δ15N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, E.; Widory, D.; Gautason, B.; Rogers, K.; Morrison, J.

    2010-12-01

    Among terrestrial plants, the applicability of mosses as monitoring organisms of atmospheric pollutants is a world-wide accepted technique due to their special biological and morphologic characteristics as nonvascular plants. They are commonly regarded as the best bioindicators of air quality because they can accumulate sulphur (S) and other elements to a far greater level than is necessary for their physiological needs. This study aims at using different isotope systematics δ34S, 206Pb/204Pb, δ13C and δ15N) to help understand the origin of S in the atmophsere of Reykjavik and its vicinity, and especially the potential contribution of surrounding geothermal plants. The selected Icelandic woolly fringe moss (Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid.) is extremely common in lava fields and gravely and stony areas. Samples were taken in four distinct sampling sites around the city of Reykjavik: Bláfjöll area (south-eastern suburb of the city), and close to three power plants: Hellisheioarvirkjun (northern suburb of the city), Svartsengi (south-western suburb of the city) and Nesjavellir (north-eastern suburb of the city). Results show that, whatever the sampling context is, S is controlled by a binary mixing, between i) a high δ34S (around 16‰) end-member, characteristic of mosses from Hellisheioarvirkjun, and ii) a low δ34S (around -2‰) end-member, characteristic of mosses from Nesjavellir. The multi-isotope approach, confirms this binary relation and helps to constrain the different end-members involved.

  19. High-precision lead isotope ratio measurement by inductively coupled plasma multiple collector mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Furuta, Naoki.

    1993-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors has been used to measure the lead isotope ratios in solutions of Sanshiro Pond sediment collected at the University of Tokyo, airborne particulates collected at Shinjuku in Tokyo and Merck multielement standard product number 97279494. A thallium correction technique was utilized to allow a simultaneous correction for mass bias. This work followed an earlier interlaboratory comparison study of the above-mentioned solutions using ICP quadrupole mass spectrometry, and has demonstrated a considerable improvement in analytical precision. The following isotope ratio measurements were recorded. Pond sediment solution containing 82 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.762±0.014; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.1424±0.0009; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=37.678±0.034. Airborne particulate solution containing 45 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.969±0.006; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.1528±0.0003; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=37.915±0.021. Merck multielement standard solution containing 100 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=19.255±0.015; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.2238±0.0004; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=38.476±0.021 (All errors are given as ±2 standard deviations). (author)

  20. Microstructure analyses and thermoelectric properties of Ag1−xPb18Sb1+yTe20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlt, S.; Höche, Th.; Dadda, J.; Müller, E.; Bauer Pereira, P.; Hermann, R.; Sarahan, M.; Pippel, E.; Brydson, R.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports microstructural investigations of long-term annealed Ag 1−x Pb m Sb 1+y Te 2+m (m=18, x=y=0, hereinafter referred to as AgPb 18 SbTe 20 ) (Lead–Antimony–Silver–Tellurium, LAST-18) as well as of Ag 1−x Pb 18 Sb 1+y Te 20 , i.e. Ag-deficient and Sb-excess LAST-18 (x≠0,y≠0), respectively. Two different length scales are explored. The micrometer scale was evaluated by SEM to analyze the volume fraction and the number of secondary phases as well as the impact of processing parameters on the homogeneity of bulk samples. For AgPb 18 SbTe 20 , site-specific FIB liftout of TEM lamellae from thermoelectrically characterized samples was accomplished to investigate the structure on the nanometer scale. High-resolution TEM and energy-filtered TEM were performed to reveal shape and size distribution of nanoprecipitates, respectively. A hypothesis concerning the structure–property relationship is set out within the frame of a gradient annealing experiment. This study is completed by results dealing with inhomogeneities on the micrometer scale of Ag 1−x Pb 18 Sb 1+y Te 20 and its electronic properties. Highlights: ► SEM and TEM microstructure investigation of long-term annealed AgPb 18 SbTe 20 . ► SEM and thermoelectric studies on Ag 1−x Pb 18 Sb 1+y Te 20 . ► Discussion concerning structure–property relationship in long-term annealed AgPb 18 SbTe 20 . ► Correlation between Ag 1−x Pb 18 Sb 1+y Te 20 microscale structure and electronic properties.

  1. Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) consists of many tectonic terranes with distinct origin and complicated evolutionary history. Understanding of individual block is crucial to reconstruct the geodynamic history of the gigantic accetionary collage. This study presents zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for the granitoid rocks in the Russian Altai mountain range (including Gorny Altai, Altai-Mongolian terrane and CTUS suture zone between them), in order to clarify the timing of granitic magmatism, source nature, continental crustal growth and tectonic evolution. Our dating results suggest that granitic magmatism of the Russian Altai mountain range occurred in three major episodes including 445~429 Ma, 410~360 Ma and ~241 Ma. Most of the zircons within the Paleozoic granitoids present comparable positive ɛHf(t) values and Neoproterozoic crustal model ages, which favor the interpretation that the juvenile crustal materials produced in the early stage of CAOB were probably dominant sources for the Paleozoic magmatism in the region. The inference is also supported by widespread occurrence of short-lived juvenile materials including ophiolites, seamount relics and arc assemblages in the north CAOB. Consequently, the Paleozoic massive granitic rocks maybe not represent continental crustal growth at the time when they were emplaced, but rather record reworking of relatively juvenile Proterozoic crustal rocks although mantle-derived mafic magma was possibly involved to sever as heat engine during granitic magma generation. The Early Triassic granitic intrusion may be product in an intra-plate environment, as the case of same type rocks in the adjacent areas. The positive ɛHf(t) values (1.81~7.47) and corresponding Hf model ages (0.80~1.16 Ga) together with evidence of petrology are consistent with the interpretation that the parental magma of the Triassic granitic intrusion was produced from enriched mantle-derived sources under an usually high temperature condition

  2. Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of a suite of Large Archean, igneous rocks, eastern Beartooth Mountains - Implications for crust-mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, J. L.; Mueller, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Compositionally diverse Late Archean rocks (2.74-2.79 Ga old) from the eastern Beartooth Mountains (Montana and Wyoming) were studied and shown to have the same initial Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios. Lead and Sr initial ratios are higher and Nd initial values lower than predicted for rocks derived from model mantle sources and strongly indicate the involvement of an older crustal reservoir in the genesis of these rocks. A model involving subduction of continental detritus and contamination of the overlying mantle is suggested.

  3. Geochemistry, water dynamics and metals: Major, trace elements, Pb and Sr isotope constraints on their origins and movements in a small anthropized catchment over a flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.M.; Othman, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    Major, trace elements and Sr-Pb isotope data on the dissolved and particulate phases are reported for water samples taken regularly over the September flood of a Mediterranean river (S France). This river drains runoff from a small, carbonate, karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies, and characterized by agricultural, urban and road network activities. The objective is to combine all the data into a dynamic model for constraining the origin(s) and movements of waters and of their loads. Furthermore, for metals, it becomes then feasible to know their fate and bioavailability downstream

  4. Atmospheric trace elements and Pb isotopes at an offshore site, Ieodo Ocean Research Station, in the East China Sea from June to October 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Han, C.; Shin, D.; Hur, S. D.; Jun, S. J.; Kim, Y. T.; Hong, S.

    2016-12-01

    East Asia, especially China, has become a major anthropogenic source region of trace elements due to the rapid industrialization and urbanization in the past decades. Numerous studies reported that anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia are transported by westerly winds during winter to spring across the Pacific to North America and beyond. Here we report elemental concentrations and Pb isotope ratios in airborne particles from Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS) located in the middle of the East China Sea (32.07o N, 125.10o E). A total of 30 aerosol samples (PM2.5-10) were collected between 18 June and 30 October 2015 and analyzed for trace elements (Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl, and Pb) and Pb isotopes using ICP-SFMS and TIMS, respectively. The mean concentrations of trace elements ranged from 0.06 ng m-3 for Tl to 10.1 ng m-3 for Zn. These values are much lower (up to several orders) than those at unban sites in East Asia, confirming a low level of air pollution at IORS due to the remoteness of the site from major sources of anthropogenic pollutants. On the other hand, the mean crustal enrichment factors, calculated using Ba as a conservative crustal element, are much higher than unity (84 for Tl, 100 for Mo, 140 for Pb, 166 for Zn, 262 for As, 526 for Cd, and 570 for Sb, respectively), indicating that these elements are of anthropogenic origin. Combining the Pb isotope ratios and the HYSPLIT model 5-day backward trajectory analysis, we have identified episodic long-range transport of air pollutants from diverse source regions of China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan to the site in summer (June to August). By comparison, an increasing long-range transport of pollution from China was observed in autumn (September and October). Finally, our study shows that IORS is an ideal background site for monitoring levels of concentrations and source origins of atmospheric trace elements in East Asia.

  5. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of felsic intrusions in the El Teniente and Laguna La Huifa areas, Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbia, O.M.; Hernandez, L.B.; King, R.W.; Lopez Escobar, L

    2001-01-01

    (NPB) for being the main source of this type of magmatism. The presence of silicic lower crustal melts in the El Teniente region was earlier suggested by Kay and Kurtz (1995), who identified the geochemical fingerprint of mafic lower crust in postmineralization intrusives of the area. There is a growing regional scale, isotope data base that covers the timing of the magmatism at the El Teniente deposit (Kay and Kurtz, 1995; Stern and Skewes, 1995, Skewes and Stern, 1996 and Kurtz et al., 1997). Notwithstanding, there is still a need of additional data on a mine scale. The objective of this communication is to cover, at least partly, this need, presenting new Sr-Nd-Pb data. In the discussion section, we also discuss published Os isotope data from the El Teniente mine in order to further constrain the source of felsic magmatism linked to copper mineralization in the El Teniente and Laguna La Huifa areas (au)

  6. Development of procedure for measurement of Pb isotope ratios in seawater by application of seaFAST sample pre-treatment system and Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Emilia; Wysocka, Irena

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the oceans, derived from high-temperature industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration can have an isotopic signature distinct from naturally occurring Pb, supplied by rock weathering. To identify the different pollution sources accurately and to quantify their relative contributions, Pb isotope ratios are widely used. Due to the high salt content (approximately 3.5% of total dissolved solids) and very low levels of Pb (typically from 1 to 100 ng L- 1) in seawater the determination of Pb isotope ratios requires preliminary matrix separation and analyte preconcentration. An analytical protocol for the measurements of Pb isotope ratios in seawater combining seaFAST sample pre-treatment system and Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF ICP-MS) was developed. The application of seaFAST system was advantageous, because of its completely closed working cycle and small volumes of chemicals introduced in pre-treatment step, resulting in very low detection limits and procedural blanks. The preconcentration/matrix separation step was also of crucial importance for minimizing the isobaric and matrix interferences, coming from the seawater. In order to differentiate between anthropogenic and natural Pb sources, particular attention was paid to the determination of 204Pb isotope because of its implication in some geological interpretations. The validation of the analytical procedure was effectuated according to the recommendations of the ISO/IEC 17025 standard. The method was validated by processing the common Pb isotope reference material NIST SRM 981. All major sources of uncertainty were identified and propagated together following the ISO/GUM guidelines. The estimation of the total uncertainty associated to each measurement result was fundamental tool for sorting the main sources of possible biases. The developed analytical procedure was applied to the coastal and open seawater samples, collected in different regions of

  7. Deciphering human-climate interactions in an ombrotrophic peat record: REE, Nd and Pb isotope signatures of dust supplies over the last 2500 years (Misten bog, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, N.; Allan, M.; Le Roux, G.; Mattielli, N.; Piotrowska, N.; Sikorski, J.

    2014-06-01

    A high-resolution peat record from Eastern Belgium reveals the chronology of dust deposition for the last 2500 years. REE and lithogenic elements in addition to Nd and Pb isotopes were measured in a 173 cm age-dated peat profile and provide a continuous chronology of dust source and intensity. Calculated dust flux show pronounced increases c. 300 BC, 600 AD, 1000 AD, 1200 AD and from 1700 AD, corresponding to local and regional human activities combined with climate change. The Industrial Revolution samples (1700-1950 AD) are characterised by a significant enrichment in Sc-normalised REE abundance (sum REE/Sc > 25) due to intensive coal combustion. For the pre-Industrial Revolution samples, the Sc-normalised REE abundance (10 climate. Combining REE abundance, fractionation between Light REE and Heavy REE and Nd isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows one to distinguish between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcings.

  8. Atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Pb isotopes at a remote site in Southwestern China: Implications for monsoon-associated transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xiangdong

    2011-01-01

    A 13-month sampling campaign was conducted at a remote site in southwestern China from October, 2005 to December, 2006. An integrated approach with lead isotopes and air back trajectory analysis was used to investigate the monsoon-associated atmospheric transport of PBDEs in tropical/subtropical Asia regions. The air concentration of PBDEs ranged from 1.6 to 57.5 pg m -3 (15.9 ± 12.0 pg m -3 ), comparable to reported levels at other remote sites in the world. BDE-209, followed by BDE-47 and -99 dominated the PBDE compositions, indicating a mixed deca- and penta-BDE source. Air mass back trajectory analysis revealed that the major potential source regions of BDE-47 and -99 could be southern China and Thailand, while those of BDE-209 are widely distributed in industrialized and urbanized areas in tropical Asia. The different lead isotope compositions of aerosols between trajectory clusters further substantiated the observation that the South Asian monsoon from spring to summer could penetrate deep into southwestern China, and facilitate long-range transport of airborne pollutants from South Asia. - Highlights: →The atmospheric levels of PBDEs and Pb isotopic ratios at a remote site were reported. →Significant high concentrations of BDE-47 and -99 were observed when air masses came from China and Southeast Asia. →High concentrations of BDE-209 and low Pb isotopic ratios were associated with Indian monsoon. →The onset of monsoon could facilitate long-range transport of airborne pollutants from South Asia.

  9. Depositional conditions for the Kuna Formation, Red Dog Zn-PB-Ag-Barite District, Alaska, inferred from isotopic and chemical proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Burruss, Robert A.; Slack, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Water column redox conditions, degree of restriction of the depositional basin, and other paleoenvironmental parameters have been determined for the Mississippian Kuna Formation of northwestern Alaska from stratigraphic profiles of Mo, Fe/Al, and S isotopes in pyrite, C isotopes in organic matter, and N isotopes in bulk rock. This unit is important because it hosts the Red Dog and Anarraaq Zn-Pb-Ag ± barite deposits, which together constitute one of the largest zinc resources in the world. The isotopic and chemical proxies record a deep basin environment that became isolated from the open ocean, became increasingly reducing, and ultimately became euxinic. The basin was ventilated briefly and then became isolated again just prior to its demise as a discrete depocenter with the transition to the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. Ventilation corresponded approximately to the initiation of bedded barite deposition in the district, whereas the demise of the basin corresponded approximately to the formation of the massive sulfide deposits. The changes in basin circulation during deposition of the upper Kuna Formation may have had multiple immediate causes, but the underlying driver was probably extensional tectonic activity that also facilitated fluid flow beneath the basin floor. Although the formation of sediment-hosted sulfide deposits is generally favored by highly reducing conditions, the Zn-Pb deposits of the Red Dog district are not found in the major euxinic facies of the Kuna basin, nor did they form during the main period of euxinia. Rather, the deposits occur where strata were permeable to migrating fluids and where excess H2S was available beyond what was produced in situ by decomposition of local sedimentary organic matter. The known deposits formed mainly by replacement of calcareous strata that gained H2S from nearby highly carbonaceous beds (Anarraaq deposit) or by fracturing and vein formation in strata that produced excess H2S by reductive dissolution of

  10. Paleoproterozoic mojaveprovince in northwestern Mexico? Isotopic and U-Pb zircon geochronologic studies of precambrian and Cambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Caborca, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Farmer G.; Bowring, S.A.; Matzel, J.; Maldonado, G.E.; Fedo, C.; Wooden, J.

    2005-01-01

    Whole-rock Nd isotopic data and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Caborca area, northern Sonora, reveal that these rocks are most likely a segment of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Supporting this conclusion are the observations that paragneiss from the ??? 1.75 Ga Bamori Complex has a 2.4 Ga Nd model age and contains detrital zircons ranging in age from Paleo- proterozoic (1.75 Ga) to Archean (3.2 Ga). Paragneisses with similar age and isotopic characteristics occur in the Mojave province in southern California. In addition, "A-type" granite exposed at the southern end of Cerro Rajon has ca 2.0 Ga Nd model age and a U-Pb zircon age of 1.71 Ga, which are similar to those of Paleoproterozoic granites in the Mojave province. Unlike the U.S. Mojave province, the Caborcan crust contains ca. 1.1 Ga granite (Aibo Granite), which our new Nd isotopic data suggest is largely the product of anatexis of the local Precambrian basement. Detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian miogeoclinal arenites at Caborca show dominant populations ca. 1.7 Ga, ca. 1.4 Ga, and ca. 1.1 Ga, with subordinate Early Cambrian and Archean zircons. These zircons were likely derived predominately from North American crust to the east and northeast, and not from the underlying Caborcan basement. The general age and isotopic similarities between Mojave province basement and overlying miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks in Sonora and southern California is necessary, but not sufficient, proof of the hypothesis that Sonoran crust is allochthonous and was transported to its current position during the Mesozoic along the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear. One viable alternative model is that the Caborcan Precambrian crust is an isolated, autochthonous segment of Mojave province crust that shares a similar, but not identical, Proterozoic geological history with Mojave province crust found in the southwest United States ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  11. Compound-Specific Isotope Analyses to Assess TCE Biodegradation in a Fractured Dolomitic Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Justin A; Stotler, Randy L; Frape, Shaun K; Illman, Walter A

    2017-01-01

    The potential for trichloroethene (TCE) biodegradation in a fractured dolomite aquifer at a former chemical disposal site in Smithville, Ontario, Canada, is assessed using chemical analysis and TCE and cis-DCE compound-specific isotope analysis of carbon and chlorine collected over a 16-month period. Groundwater redox conditions change from suboxic to much more reducing environments within and around the plume, indicating that oxidation of organic contaminants and degradation products is occurring at the study site. TCE and cis-DCE were observed in 13 of 14 wells sampled. VC, ethene, and/or ethane were also observed in ten wells, indicating that partial/full dechlorination has occurred. Chlorine isotopic values (δ 37 Cl) range between 1.39 to 4.69‰ SMOC for TCE, and 3.57 to 13.86‰ SMOC for cis-DCE. Carbon isotopic values range between -28.9 and -20.7‰ VPDB for TCE, and -26.5 and -11.8‰ VPDB for cis-DCE. In most wells, isotopic values remained steady over the 15-month study. Isotopic enrichment from TCE to cis-DCE varied between 0 and 13‰ for carbon and 1 and 4‰ for chlorine. Calculated chlorine-carbon isotopic enrichment ratios (ϵ Cl /ϵ C ) were 0.18 for TCE and 0.69 for cis-DCE. Combined, isotopic and chemical data indicate very little dechlorination is occurring near the source zone, but suggest bacterially mediated degradation is occurring closer to the edges of the plume. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Pb sbnd Sr sbnd Nd isotopic data of Indian Ocean ridges: new evidence of large-scale mapping of mantle heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Bruno; Dupré, Bernard; Allègre, Claude J.

    1986-01-01

    A Pb sbnd Sr sbnd Nd isotope study of South West and East Indian Ridges confirms that the Indian Ocean belongs to a specific regional isotopic domain, as previously suggested by the results from islands of this ocean. The isotopic domain defined by the Indian MORB is indeed different from that of the North Atlantic and East Pacific Oceans. This demonstrates that the convective circulation of the upper mantle does not allow a rapid homogenization from one region to the other. The isotopic data of the Indian ridges can be interpreted by a contamination model, in which the depleted upper mantle (identical to that under the North Atlantic) is contaminated by two different types of contaminant, one corresponding to the source of the "central Indian Ocean" islands (Amsterdam, St. Paul, Marion, Prince Edward, Réunion, Rodriguez, Mauritius), and the other to a source similar to that of Walvis or Ninety East aseismic ridges. These two contaminants would have contributed to the ridge volcanism in different proportions over time.

  13. Successful application of lead isotopes in source apportionment, legal proceedings, remediation and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Korsch, Michael [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Winchester, Wayne; Devenish, Matthew; Hobbs, Thad [Esperance Cleanup and Recovery Project, Western Australia (WA) Department of Transport, Esperance 6450 (Australia); Main, Cleve; Smith, Gerard [Animal Health Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Food, Perth 6151, WA (Australia); Rosman, Kevin; Howearth, Lynette; Burn-Nunes, Laurie [Curtin University, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Bentley 6102, WA (Australia); Seow, Jimmy; Oxford, Cameron [Department of Environment and Conservation, Booragoon 6154, WA (Australia); Yun, Gracie; Gillam, Lindsay [Department of Health, East Perth 6004, WA (Australia); Crisp, Michelle [LED (Locals for Esperance Development), Esperance 6450, WA (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    In late 2006, the seaside community in Esperance Western Australia was alerted to thousands of native bird species dying. The source of the lead (Pb) was determined by Pb isotopes to derive from the handling of Pb carbonate concentrate through the Port, which began in July 2005. Concern was expressed for the impact of this on the community. Our objectives were to employ Pb isotope ratios to evaluate the source of Pb in environmental samples for use in legal proceedings, and for use in remediation and monitoring. Isotope measurements were undertaken of bird livers, plants, drinking water, soil, harbour sediments, air, bulk ceiling dust, gutter sludge, surface swabs and blood. The unique lead isotopic signature of the contaminating Pb carbonate enabled diagnostic apportionment of lead in samples. Apart from some soil and water samples, the proportion of contaminating Pb was >95% in the environmental samples. Lead isotopes were critical in resolving legal proceedings, are being used in the remediation of premises, were used in monitoring of workers involved in the decontamination of the storage facility, and monitoring transport of the concentrate through another port facility. Air samples show the continued presence of contaminant Pb, more than one year after shipping of concentrate ceased, probably arising from dust resuspension. Brief details of the comprehensive testing and cleanup of the Esperance community are provided along with the role of the Community. Lead isotopic analyses can provide significant benefits to regulatory agencies, interested parties, and the community where the signature is able to be characterised with a high degree of certainty. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Lead carbonate concentrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Successful use of Pb isotopes in identifying sources of Pb arising from transport and shipping. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Use of Pb isotopes in legal proceedings and their use in cleanup of residences. Black

  14. Trace element and stable isotope analyses of deep sea fish from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing results from this study to the dietary standards and guidelines for Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in fish and shellfish of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food of the United Kingdom, these levels were not high to warrant concern if they were to be consumed by humans. However, 16.7% of the fish samples had high Cr ...

  15. Stable Isotope Analyses of water and Aqueous Solutions by Conventional Dual-inlet Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Juske [ORNL; Kendall, C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA

    2004-01-01

    The foundation of various analytical methods for the stable isotope composition of water and other aqueous samples (natural abundance, {sup 1}H : {sup 2}H (D) = 99.985 : 0.015 atom%, and {sup 16}O : {sup 17}O : {sup 18}O = 99.762 : 0.038 : 0.200 atom%) was established during the Manhatten Project in the U.S.A., when large amounts of heavy water were produced for nuclear reactors (see Kirshenbaum, 1951, for a detailed account). From early on, there was great interest in the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of water, because they are the ideal tracers of water sources and reactions. The increased analytical precisions made possible by the subsequent development of modern gas-source isotope-ratio mass spectrometers with dual-inlets and multi-collectors, have caused the proliferation of new analytical methods and applications for the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of water. These stable isotopes have found wide applications in basic as well as applied sciences (chemistry, geology, hydrology, biology, medical sciences, and food sciences). This is because water is ubiquitous, is an essential and predominant ingredient of living organisms, and is perhaps the most reactive compound in the Earth.

  16. Mineralogical, textural, sulfur and lead isotope constraints on the origin of Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization at Bianjiadayuan, Inner Mongolia, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Cook, Nigel J.; Wang, Xilong; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Anli; Jiao, Yingchun

    2018-04-01

    The Bianjiadayuan Ag-Pb-Zn deposit (4.81 Mt. @157.4 g/t Ag and 3.94% Pb + Zn) is located in the Great Hinggan Range Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu-Mo-Sn-Fe polymetallic metallogenic belt, NE China. Vein type Pb-Zn-Ag ore bodies are primarily hosted by slate, adjacent to a Sn ± Cu ± Mo mineralized porphyry intrusion. The deposit is characterized by silver-rich ores with Ag grades up to 3000 g/t. Four primary paragenetic sequences are recognized: (I) arsenopyrite + pyrite + quartz, (II) main sulfide + quartz, (III) silver-bearing sulfosalt + quartz, and (IV) boulangerite + calcite. A subsequent supergene oxidation stage has also been identified. Hydrothermal alteration consists of an early episode of silicification, two intermediate episodes (propylitic and phyllic), and a late argillic episode. Silver mineralization primarily belongs to the late paragenetic sequence III. Freibergite is the dominant and most important Ag-mineral in the deposit. Detailed ore mineralogy of Bianjiadayuan freibergite reveals evidence of chemical heterogeneity down to the microscale. Silver-rich sulfosalts in the late paragenetic sequence III are largely derived from a series of retrograde and solid-state reactions that redistribute Ag via decomposition and exsolution during cooling, illustrating that documentation of post-mineralization processes is essential for understanding silver ore formation. Sulfur and lead isotope compositions of sulfides, and comparison with those of local various geological units, indicate that the ore-forming fluids, lead, and other metals have a magmatic origin, suggesting a close genetic association between the studied Ag-Pb-Zn veins and the local granitic intrusion. Fluid cooling coupled with decreases in fO2 and fS2 are the factors inferred to have led to a decrease of silver solubility in the hydrothermal fluid, and successively promoted extensive Ag deposition.

  17. Effect of Na, Ca and pH on simultaneous uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the water flea Daphnia magna measured using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komjarova, I.; Blust, R.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of Na + , Ca 2+ and pH on the kinetics of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn uptake in Daphnia magna at low exposure concentrations measured using a stable isotope technique. Using experimental data the uptake rate constants were calculated for each metal individually on the basis of total metal concentrations. The copper uptake was not significantly affected by variations in chemical composition of the test medium. Calcium had a suppressing effect on the uptake of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Specifically, Cd and Ni uptake rate constants decreased with increases in calcium concentrations from 0.1 to 2.5 mM. The uptake of Zn and Pb was significantly suppressed only at 2.5 mM Ca. The effect of sodium was less clear. There was no effect of varying sodium concentrations on the Ni uptake rate constants. Cd and Pb showed an increase in uptake rate constants at elevated sodium concentrations (2-8 mM Na + for Cd and 8 mM Na + for Pb). A bell-shaped response on increasing Na + concentrations was observed for Zn with a maximum value of uptake rate constant at the middle value (2 mM Na + ). Variation in pH of the medium affected Cd, Ni and Zn uptake processes. When Daphnia were exposed to acidic conditions (pH 6), the Cd and Ni uptake rate constants were the highest, while similarly low values were observed at neutral and basic conditions. In contrast, the uptake rates of Zn were linearly increasing with increasing pH of the medium.

  18. Authigenic oxide Neodymium Isotopic composition as a proxy of seawater: applying multivariate statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, C. C.; Scudder, R.; Thomas, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Neodymium Isotopic composition (Nd IC) of oxide coatings has been applied as a tracer of water mass composition and used to address fundamental questions about past ocean conditions. The leached authigenic oxide coating from marine sediment is widely assumed to reflect the dissolved trace metal composition of the bottom water interacting with sediment at the seafloor. However, recent studies have shown that readily reducible sediment components, in addition to trace metal fluxes from the pore water, are incorporated into the bottom water, influencing the trace metal composition of leached oxide coatings. This challenges the prevailing application of the authigenic oxide Nd IC as a proxy of seawater composition. Therefore, it is important to identify the component end-members that create sediments of different lithology and determine if, or how they might contribute to the Nd IC of oxide coatings. To investigate lithologic influence on the results of sequential leaching, we selected two sites with complete bulk sediment statistical characterization. Site U1370 in the South Pacific Gyre, is predominantly composed of Rhyolite ( 60%) and has a distinguishable ( 10%) Fe-Mn Oxyhydroxide component (Dunlea et al., 2015). Site 1149 near the Izu-Bonin-Arc is predominantly composed of dispersed ash ( 20-50%) and eolian dust from Asia ( 50-80%) (Scudder et al., 2014). We perform a two-step leaching procedure: a 14 mL of 0.02 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HH) in 20% acetic acid buffered to a pH 4 for one hour, targeting metals bound to Fe- and Mn- oxides fractions, and a second HH leach for 12 hours, designed to remove any remaining oxides from the residual component. We analyze all three resulting fractions for a large suite of major, trace and rare earth elements, a sub-set of the samples are also analyzed for Nd IC. We use multivariate statistical analyses of the resulting geochemical data to identify how each component of the sediment partitions across the sequential

  19. Age determination of paintings by 210Pb method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilot, E.; Apers, D.

    1977-01-01

    Often the 210 Pb method for age determination of paintings is inoperative because the initial 210 Pb activity of undated lead oxide cannot be determined. This difficulty could be removed if the ores could be identified from which the lead white was prepared. It would be possible to measure the initial 210 Pb activity directly in Pb ores or in identical Pb oxides from properly dated pictures. Some results show that Pb ores can be identified by the isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb. A systematic study of Pb ores and pigment isotopic composition is necessary. (author)

  20. Identification of historical lead sources in roof dust and recent lake sediments from an industrialized are: Indications from lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenhall, B.E.; Depers, A.M.; Jones, B.G.; Chiaradia, M.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence and stable lead (Pb) isotopic analyses have been undertaken on dusts, known from microscopic investigation to contain significant quantities of industrially- and urban-derived particulate matter, present in the roof cavities of houses in the Illawarra region (N.S.W., Australia), with the objective of examining the historic record of Pb pollution. All investigated houses contained in excess of 250 μg g -1 Pb, with dwellings close to a copper smelter, in a large industrial complex including a major steelworks, containing higher (>2500 μg g -1 ) Pb concentrations. The isotopic composition in the dusts, expressed here as 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, is relatively constant at 17.0, irrespective of dwelling age or distance from the industrial complex. Contamination of the dusts by Pb sourced from paint cannot explain the isotopic uniformity of the dust samples. Isotopic modelling indicates that the dusts contain Pb derived from the copper smelter, gasoline-air Pb and a minor contribution from the steelworks. Isotopic calculations, together with records of particulate pollution emission, indicate a link between the Pb in roof dusts and Pb contamination of the near surface lagoonal sediments. Over the last five decades, atmospheric fallout of Pb-bearing particulate matter appears to have been the dominant pathway for addition of Pb to the lagoon and dwellings in the Illawarra region

  1. Potential use of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses for traceability of geographic origins of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Li, Yunkai; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Ling

    2018-04-15

    Squid is an important seafood resource for Asian and European countries. With the continuous development of processed squid products, an effective traceability system has become increasingly prominent. Here, we attempt to trace the fishery products of the main target species, jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas), by using biochemical tracers. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 13 C and δ 15 N values) and fatty acid profiles were identified in squid from three harvest locations in the eastern Pacific Ocean by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. Comparative analysis was used to evaluate the geographic variations in tracers and to identify the suitable discriminatory variables among origins. Significant spatial variations were found in isotopic values and fatty acid profiles in squid muscle tissues, possibly because of different food availability and/or oceanographic conditions that each group experiences at a given location. The stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that δ 15 N, C16:1n7, C17:1n7, C18:2n6, C20:1 and C20:4n6 were effective variables at differentiating origin. Combined use of stable isotope ratios and fatty acid analyses could trace geographic origins of jumbo squid. This study provides an alternative approach for improving authenticity evaluation of commercial squid products. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Isotopic analyses of food crusts on pottery: Implications for dating and palaeocuisine reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ13C and δ15N, can be used to roughly reconstruct the former content of Stone Age cooking vessels. This was supported by measurements on experimental food crusts. The reconstruction of the ingredients used in the vessels is not only...

  3. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  4. Computer analyses for the design, operation and safety of new isotope production reactors: A technology status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented on the currently available technologies for nuclear reactor analyses by computer. The important distinction is made between traditional computer calculation and advanced computer simulation. Simulation needs are defined to support the design, operation, maintenance and safety of isotope production reactors. Existing methods of computer analyses are categorized in accordance with the type of computer involved in their execution: micro, mini, mainframe and supercomputers. Both general and special-purpose computers are discussed. Major computer codes are described, with regard for their use in analyzing isotope production reactors. It has been determined in this review that conventional systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5, RETRAN, etc.) cannot meet four essential conditions for viable reactor simulation: simulation fidelity, on-line interactive operation with convenient graphics, high simulation speed, and at low cost. These conditions can be met by special-purpose computers (such as the AD100 of ADI), which are specifically designed for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The greatest shortcoming of existing systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5) is their mismatch between very high computational efforts and low simulation fidelity. The drift flux formulation (HIPA) is the viable alternative to the complicated two-fluid model. No existing computer code has the capability of accommodating all important processes in the core geometry of isotope production reactors. Experiments are needed (heat transfer measurements) to provide necessary correlations. It is important for the nuclear community, both in government, industry and universities, to begin to take advantage of modern simulation technologies and equipment. 41 refs

  5. Distribution of Ra isotopes and the 210Pb and 210Po balance in surface seawaters of the mid Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Dobashi, Fumi; Kato, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki

    1998-08-01

    210Po, 210Pb, 228Ra, and 226Ra were measured in surface sea waters along the 1989-1990 global traverse of the oceans using the new R.V. Hakuho-Maru. Where the traverse intersects other expedition routes, the data are generally confirmatory. In the high-productivity regimes like the Red Sea, and the Arabian Sea 210Po is removed from the mixed layer at much faster rates than 210Pb. This fractionation occurs during scavenging presumably because 210Po is strongly sorbed by organic particles, whereas 210Pb is more likely associated with inorganic detritus. The 210Po/ 210Pb activity ratios leaving the mixed layer by particulate transport can be estimated from the steady state balance of 210Pb and 210Po in the surface waters for different oceanic regions, and are compared with those in the literature obtained by sediment-trap experiments. Although this comparison appears to merge, there exist some inconsistencies, which may be attributable to one of the following possibilities: (1) the model-derived atmospheric 210Pb flux is overestimated for the North Pacific and the North Atlantic, or (2) the sediment-trap data do not represent the real 210Po/ 210Pb ratio in the vertical particulate flux due to some experimental artifacts, such as incomplete trapping and size fractionation. Further careful studies of sediment trapping including seasonal variation are needed to resolve this issue. Our Ra data confirmed that strong sources for 228Ra exist in the Bay of Bengal and the Southeast Asian continental shelf zone, whereas the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, though they are surrounded by land, are not effective sources of 228Ra in the surface water.

  6. Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb mineral ages, and strontium, lead, neodymium, and oxygen isotopic compositions for granitic rocks from the Salinian Composite Terrane, California:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, R.W.; Champion, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes new and published age and isotopic data for whole-rocks and minerals from granitic rocks in the Salinian composite terrane, California. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock ages of plutons are in two groups, Early Cretaceous (122 to 100 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (95 to 82 Ma). Early Cretaceous plutons occur in all granitic rock exposures from Bodega Head in the north to those from the Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges in the central part of the terrane. Late Cretaceous plutons have been identified in the Point Reyes Peninsula, the Santa Lucia and the Gabilan Ranges, and in the La Panza Range in the southern part of the terrane. Ranges of initial values of isotopic compositions are 87Sr/86Sr, 0.7046-0.7147, δ18O, +8.5 to +12.5 per mil, 206Pb/204Pb, 18.901-19.860, 207Pb/204Pb, 15.618-15.814, 208Pb/204Pb, 38.569- 39.493, and εNd, +0.9 to -8.6. The initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.706 isopleth is identified in the northern Gabilan Range and in the Ben Lomond area of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in Montara Mountain, in Bodega Head, and to the west of the Farallon Islands on the Cordell Bank. This isotopic boundary is offset about 95 miles (160km) by right-lateral displacements along the San Gregorio-Hosgri and San Andreas fault systems.

  7. Lead, Zn, and Cd in slags, stream sediments, and soils in an abandoned Zn smelting region, southwest of China, and Pb and S isotopes as source tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuangen; Li, Sun; Bi, Xiangyang; Wu, Pan; Liu, Taozhe; Li, Feili; Liu, Congqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang City (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2010-12-15

    Smelting activity produced tons of slags with large quantities of highly toxic metals, resulting in contamination in adjacent soils and sediments as well. This study investigated the fractionation and sources of metals Pb, Zn, and Cd in polluted soils and sediments in a region with once prosperous Zn smelting activities in southwestern China. Soils with varying land uses were of a special concern due to their connection to the food chain. Obtained data would offer a valuable reference to the development of land-use management strategy in this region. In total, 130 soils and 22 stream sediments were sampled in the studied region. After air-dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve, soils and sediments were subjected to a three-step sequential extraction for the fractionation of Pb, Zn, and Cd. Besides, 66 slags were sampled, and acid-digested for the determination of total Pb, Zn, and Cd. Soils/sediments with extremely high Pb, Zn, and Cd concentrations were selected for observation and analysis using a scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Stable lead and sulphur isotope techniques were applied for source tracing of metals in soils and sediments. Data were pooled for analysis of variance together with a post-hoc multiple comparison procedure. High concentrations of Pb ({proportional_to}46,219 mg kg{sup -1} with medians of 846 mg kg{sup -1} in soil, 7,415 mg kg{sup -1} in sediment, and 8,543 mg kg{sup -1} in slag), Zn ({proportional_to}57, 178 mg kg{sup -1} with medians of 1,085 mg kg{sup -1} in soil, 15,678 mg kg{sup -1} in sediment, and 14,548 mg kg{sup -1} in slag), and Cd ({proportional_to}312 mg kg{sup -1} with medians of 29.6 mg kg{sup -1} in soil, 47.1 mg kg{sup -1} in sediment, and 47.9 mg kg{sup -1} in slag) were measured. Soils with no cultivation had greater concentrations of Pb (16,686 mg kg{sup -1} in median), Zn (13,587 mg kg{sup -1} in median), and Cd (44.1 mg kg{sup -1} in median) than those with cultivation. Al

  8. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-08-26

    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) mineralization at Fedj Hassene ore field, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions; Le champ filonien a Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) du district minier de Fedj Hassene (Nord Ouest de la Tunisie): Mineralogie, Elements en traces, Isotopes du Soufre et Inclusions Fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaouil, J.; Bouhlel, S.; Barca, D.; Braham, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Fedj Hassene district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within sub parallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassene, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.11 g/cm{sup 3} and pressure close to 200 bars. Micro thermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194 degree centigrade. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156 degree centigrade and 210 degree centigrade and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The {delta}{sup 3}4S (VCDT) values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6% to 6,4% (average=5,6%). Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the d{delta}{sup 3}4S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassene in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg) vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern

  10. Isotopic footprint: ¿does the forensic analyses improve forest control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Melessa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian market a high percentage of timber from tropical forests is of illegal origin. Illegal acts and infringments along the production chain are more frequent if the concern species is valuable such as mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla and cedar (Cedrela odorata. In this regard, one of the most frequently falsified data is the geographical origin of wood. At date there is no forensic scientific method for determining objectively and independently the geographic source stated in the documentation of traded timber. The analysis of the isotope composition, known as a isotope fingerprint, has a clear special pattern and is feasible for this purpose.From Ecuador samples of mahogany and cedar were contributed to build a geo-referenced database and improve the method to make it more operational to serve in control and surveillance programs. This article explains the problems related to the subject, the method and its potential use. 

  11. Stable isotope analyses of feather amino acids identify penguin migration strategies at ocean basin scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Michael J; Hinke, Jefferson T; Hart, Tom; Santos, Mercedes; Houghton, Leah A; Thorrold, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Identifying the at-sea distribution of wide-ranging marine predators is critical to understanding their ecology. Advances in electronic tracking devices and intrinsic biogeochemical markers have greatly improved our ability to track animal movements on ocean-wide scales. Here, we show that, in combination with direct tracking, stable carbon isotope analysis of essential amino acids in tail feathers provides the ability to track the movement patterns of two, wide-ranging penguin species over ocean basin scales. In addition, we use this isotopic approach across multiple breeding colonies in the Scotia Arc to evaluate migration trends at a regional scale that would be logistically challenging using direct tracking alone. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Why would we use the Sediment Isotope Tomography (SIT) model to establish a 210Pb-based chronology in recent-sediment cores?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abril Hernández, José-María

    2015-01-01

    After half a century, the use of unsupported 210 Pb ( 210 Pb exc ) is still far off from being a well established dating tool for recent sediments with widespread applicability. Recent results from the statistical analysis of time series of fluxes, mass sediment accumulation rates (SAR), and initial activities, derived from varved sediments, place serious constraints to the assumption of constant fluxes, which is widely used in dating models. The Sediment Isotope Tomography (SIT) model, under the assumption of non post-depositional redistribution, is used for dating recent sediments in scenarios in that fluxes and SAR are uncorrelated and both vary with time. By using a simple graphical analysis, this paper shows that under the above assumptions, any given 210 Pb exc profile, even with the restriction of a discrete set of reference points, is compatible with an infinite number of chronological lines, and thus generating an infinite number of mathematically exact solutions for histories of initial activity concentrations, SAR and fluxes onto the SWI, with these two last ranging from zero up to infinity. Particularly, SIT results, without additional assumptions, cannot contain any statistically significant difference with respect to the exact solutions consisting in intervals of constant SAR or constant fluxes (both being consistent with the reference points). Therefore, there is not any benefit in its use as a dating tool without the explicit introduction of additional restrictive assumptions about fluxes, SAR and/or their interrelationship. - Highlights: • The 210 Pb-based method for dating recent sediments is of a widespread use. • Recent results limit the use of the simplifying assumption of constant fluxes. • SIT model claims to solve scenarios where fluxes and SAR independently vary with time. • The paper shows how SIT model lacks of sound physical basis. • A dating tool is only possible by introducing additional restrictive assumptions

  13. Trophic structure of a coastal fish community determined with diet and stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, A J; Collie, J S; Taylor, D L

    2016-09-01

    A combination of dietary guild analysis and nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) stable-isotope analysis was used to assess the trophic structure of the fish community in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds, an area off southern New England identified for offshore wind energy development. In the autumn of 2009, 2010 and 2011, stomach and tissue samples were taken from 20 fish and invertebrate species for analysis of diet composition and δ(15) N and δ(13) C signatures. The food chain in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds comprises approximately four trophic levels within which the fish community is divided into distinct dietary guilds, including planktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and piscivores. Within these guilds, inter-species isotopic and dietary overlap is high, suggesting that resource partitioning or competitive interactions play a major role in structuring the fish community. Carbon isotopes indicate that most fishes are supported by pelagic phytoplankton, although there is evidence that benthic production also plays a role, particularly for obligate benthivores such as skates Leucoraja spp. This type of analysis is useful for developing an ecosystem-based approach to management, as it identifies species that act as direct links to basal resources as well as species groups that share trophic roles. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Stable isotope and radiocarbon analyses at the Stripa test site. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Frape, S.K.; Fontes, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 O and 2 H contents of groundwaters in the Stripa granite document that deep and shallow groundwaters have a different origin and history. The lower heavy isotopes contents of the deep waters suggest recharge during a cooler climate and thus, possibly, an older age. This is supported by radiocarbon data-although it is not possible to deduce from much data definite ages or mean residence times of the deep waters. Widely variable carbon-13 contents in aqueous carbon and fracture calcites attest to the heterogeneous environments which characterize(d) these fracture systems: very negative S 13 C values in DIC and calcites provide strong indications that redox processes are active (bacterially mediated) and that both S 13 C of DIC and S 34 S values of aqueous sulfate are affected. This is relevant for an overall description of the geochemical environment, yet it has not been possible to assign a definite origin to the aqueous sulfate of these waters. Isotope data also demonstrate that it is not possible to ''age-date'' the deep waters on the basis of isotope echange reactions between sulfate and water

  15. Isotope analyses to explore diet and mobility in a medieval Muslim population at Tauste (NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iranzu Guede

    Full Text Available The Islamic necropolis discovered in Tauste (Zaragoza, Spain is the only evidence that a large Muslim community lived in the area between the 8th and 10th centuries. A multi-isotope approach has been used to investigate the mobility and diet of this medieval Muslim population living in a shifting frontier region. Thirty-one individuals were analyzed to determine δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition. A combination of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis indicated that most individuals were of local origin although three females and two males were non-local. The non-local males would be from a warmer zone whereas two of the females would be from a more mountainous geographical region and the third from a geologically-different area. The extremely high δ15N baseline at Tauste was due to bedrock composition (gypsum and salt. High individual δ15N values were related to the manuring effect and consumption of fish. Adult males were the most privileged members of society in the medieval Muslim world and, as isotope data reflected, consumed more animal proteins than females and young males.

  16. Geochronology and Genesis of the Xitian W-Sn Polymetallic Deposit in Eastern Hunan Province, South China: Evidence from Zircon U-Pb and Muscovite Ar-Ar Dating, Petrochemistry, and Wolframite Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recently explored Xitian tungsten-tin (W-Sn polymetallic ore field, located in Hunan province, South China, is one of the largest ore fields in the Nanling Range (NLR. Two major metallogenic types appeared in this ore field, skarn- and quartz vein-type. They are distributed within Longshang, Heshuxia, Shaiheling, Hejiangkou, Goudalan, and so on. Hydrothermal zircons from two altered granites yielded U-Pb ages of 152.8 ± 1.1 Ma, and 226.0 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. Two muscovite samples from ore-bearing quartz vein yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 156.6 ± 0.7 Ma, 149.5 ± 0.8 Ma, respectively. Combined with the geological evidence, two metallogenic events are proposed in the Xitian ore field, with skarn-type W-Sn mineralization in Late Triassic (Indosinian and quartz vein/greisen type W-Sn mineralization in Late Jurassic (Yanshanian. The relatively low Ce/Ce* ratios and high Y/Ho ratios in zircons from two altered granites indicate that the hydrothermal fluids of two metallogenic events are characterized by low oxygen fugacities and enrichment in F. The similar chondrite-normalized patterns between the skarn and Xitian Indosinian granites and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of wolframite suggest that the metal sources for both types W-Sn mineralization are derived from a crustal source.

  17. Geology, mineralization, U-Pb dating and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of intrusive bodies in northeast of Kashmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Almasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Almasi1, Mohammad Hassan Karimpour1*, Khosrow Ebrahimi Nasrabadi1, Behnam Rahimi1, Urs KlÖtzli2 and Jose Francisco Santos3 Introduction The study area is located in central part of the Khaf- Kashmar-Bardeskan belt which is volcano-plutonic belt at the north of the Dorouneh fault in the north of Lut block. The north of the Lut block is affected by tectonic rotation and subduction processes which occur in the east of Iran (Tirrul et al., 1983. The magmatism of Lut block begins in Jurassic and continues in Tertiary (Aghanabati, 1995. Karimpour (Karimpour, 2006 pointed out the Khaf-Kashmar-Bardeskan belt has significant potential for IOCG type mineralization such as Kuh-e-Zar, Tannurjeh, and Sangan (Karimpour, 2006; Mazloumi, 2009. The data gathered on the I-type intrusive rocks include their field geology, petrography, U–Pb zircon dating and Sr–Nd isotope and also alteration and mineralization in the study area. Materials and methods - Preparation of 150 thin sections of rock samples for study of petrography and alteration of the intrusive rocks. - Magnetic susceptibility measuring of intrusive rocks. - U-Pb dating in zircon of I-type intrusive rocks by Laser-Ablation Multi Collector ICP-MS method. - Sr-Nd analysis on 5 samples of I-type intrusive rocks by Multi-Collector Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS VG Sector 54 instrument. - Mineralography and paragenetic studies of ore-bearing quartz veins and geochemical analysis for 28 samples. - Production of the geology, alteration and mineralization maps by scale: 1:20000 in GIS. Results Oblique subduction in southern America initiated an arc-parallel fault and shear zones in the back of continental magmatic arc (Sillitoe, 2003. Because of this event, pull-apart basins were formed and high-K to shoshonitic calc-alkalineI- and A-type magmatism occur (Sillitoe, 2003. Most important deposits accompany with this magmatism are Au-Cu deposits types and Fe-Skarns (Sillitoe, 2003. We have

  18. Reconstruction of the PETM onset from single specimen analyses of foraminiferal stable isotopes at Medford, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, M.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene transition ( 56 Ma) is marked by a global temperature increase of 4-8°C and the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) found ubiquitously in marine and terrestrial realms. However, the mechanisms of warming and overall changes in the ocean-atmosphere system during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) are uncertain. The timing of the PETM onset has been debated suggested by various studies between years to thousands of years and therefore is of particular interest to ascertain the trigger mechanism. One way to resolve this is to study thick cores on the continental margins that have higher sedimentation rates and thus resolution. Stratigraphically more complete in regard to the CIE onset marine PETM sections are found along the U.S. mid-Atlantic margin, New Jersey coastal plain (35-40°N paleolatitude). We present new carbon and oxygen isotopic data of planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the Medford 3A core, drilled on the New Jersey coastal plain in Summer 2016. Medford is the most proximal among the New Jersey coastal plain sites. The Medford 3A core has recovered 4 ft (1.2 m) of the Marlboro Formation, unit that contains the CIE "core" with low stable δ13C values and CIE recovery in other New Jersey cores. The top of the Marlboro Formation is truncated at Medford 3A, but the base is conformable with the underlaying Vincentown Formation. The sharp δ13C decrease appears within the Vincentown/Marlboro transitional lithological interval 1.5 ft (0.5 m) thick allowing a detailed study of the PETM onset. The Medford 3A core recovered sufficient well-preserved foraminifera to establish isotopic changes across the PETM onset. We measure δ13C and δ18O in single specimens of surface dwellers (Morozovella, Acarinina), thermocline dwellers (Subbotina), and benthic foraminifera (Anomalinoides, Cibicidoides) at high resolution to understand the nature of the PETM onset. We compliment previously published single specimen isotopic records from the

  19. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sreenivas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb 204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb 206 and Pb 207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  20. Geochemical, isotopic, and zircon (U-Pb, O, Hf isotopes) evidence for the magmatic sources of the volcano-plutonic Ollo de Sapo Formation, Central Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, P.; Talavera, C.; Bea, F.

    2017-07-01

    The Ollo de Sapo Formation comprises variably metamorphosed felsic peraluminous volcanic rocks and highlevel granites that crop out over some 600km from the Cantabrian coast to central Spain in the northern part of the Central Iberian Zone. The Ollo de Sapo magmatism is not obviously connected with any major tectonic or metamorphic event so its origin is controversial. Some authors, based on trace-elements, have proposed that the Ollo de Sapo magmas originated in a supra-subduction setting but others, based on abnormally high zircon inheritance and field and structural data, favored a rifting environment. Here we present new oxygen and hafnium isotope data from the very characteristic Ollo the Sapo zircons, which in most cases, consist of ca. 485Ma rims and ca. 590-615Ma cores. We found that the Cambrian-Ordovician rims yielded unimodal distributions that cluster around ∂18O = 10, typical of S-type magmas formed from melting of altered crust. The Ediacaran cores, in contrast, cluster around ∂18O = 6.5, consistent with being arc-magmas. Rims and cores have the same average Hf isotope composition, but the rims are considerably more uniform. These data, coupled with existing wholerock element and Sr and Nd isotopic data, indicate that the Ollo de Sapo were S-type magmas that resulted from anatexis of younger-than-600Ma immature sediments mostly derived from different Ediacaran igneous rocks with a wide range of Hf isotope composition.

  1. Geochemical, isotopic, and zircon (U-Pb, O, Hf isotopes) evidence for the magmatic sources of the volcano-plutonic Ollo de Sapo Formation, Central Iberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, P.; Talavera, C.; Bea, F.

    2017-01-01

    The Ollo de Sapo Formation comprises variably metamorphosed felsic peraluminous volcanic rocks and highlevel granites that crop out over some 600km from the Cantabrian coast to central Spain in the northern part of the Central Iberian Zone. The Ollo de Sapo magmatism is not obviously connected with any major tectonic or metamorphic event so its origin is controversial. Some authors, based on trace-elements, have proposed that the Ollo de Sapo magmas originated in a supra-subduction setting but others, based on abnormally high zircon inheritance and field and structural data, favored a rifting environment. Here we present new oxygen and hafnium isotope data from the very characteristic Ollo the Sapo zircons, which in most cases, consist of ca. 485Ma rims and ca. 590-615Ma cores. We found that the Cambrian-Ordovician rims yielded unimodal distributions that cluster around ∂18O = 10, typical of S-type magmas formed from melting of altered crust. The Ediacaran cores, in contrast, cluster around ∂18O = 6.5, consistent with being arc-magmas. Rims and cores have the same average Hf isotope composition, but the rims are considerably more uniform. These data, coupled with existing wholerock element and Sr and Nd isotopic data, indicate that the Ollo de Sapo were S-type magmas that resulted from anatexis of younger-than-600Ma immature sediments mostly derived from different Ediacaran igneous rocks with a wide range of Hf isotope composition.

  2. Isotope analyses for classification of the age and origin of bodies of groundwater in the area of the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.; Batsche, H.; Graf, W.; Rauert, W.; Trimborn, P.; Klarr, K.; Stempel, C. v.

    1994-01-01

    Within the framework of a hydrogeological research project which contributes to the evaluation of the long- time safety of the Asse salt mine large-scale hydrological isotope analyses were made to classify bodies of groundwater by their age and origin. The radioactive isotopes carbon-14 and tritium, and the stable isotopes deuterium, oxygen-18 and carbon- 13 from boring, well and spring groundwater in the area of the Asse salt mine were analyzed. The environmental isotope data obtained were interpreted considering the chemical composition of the groundwater through hydrogeochemical model calculations by use of the PHREEQE program. The results of the study are summarized. (HP) [de

  3. Study on the P-odd asymmetry of longitudinally polarized neutron transmission in 117Sn, 233Th, 239Pu isotopes and natural mixture of Cl and Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Ermakov, O.N.; Karpikhin, I.L.; Krupchitskij, P.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.Eh.; Perepelitsa, V.F.; Petrushin, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of measurements of P-odd helicity dependence of the total cross-section a=(σsub(tot)sup(+)-σsub(tot)sup(-))/(σsub(tot)sup(+)+σsub(tot)sup(-)) for thermal neutrons on several targets are presented. The result for 117 Sn is a=(11.2+-2.6)x10 -6 . The upper limits for a in the region of several units of 10 -6 are obtained for 232 Th, 239 Pu, Cl (natural) and Pb (natural)

  4. Winter diets of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) on a northern feeding ground: integrating stomach contents and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie C.; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    The foraging ecology and diet of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, remain understudied, particularly in peripheral areas of its distribution. We assessed the diet of an aggregation of juvenile green turtles at the northern edge of its range during winter months using two approaches. Stomach content analyses provide a single time sample, and stable isotope analyses integrate diet over a several-month period. We evaluated diet consistency in prey choice over time by comparing the results of these two approaches. We examined stomach contents from 43 juvenile green turtles that died during cold stunning events in St. Joseph Bay, Florida, in 2008 and 2011. Stomach contents were evaluated for volume, dry mass, percent frequency of occurrence, and index of relative importance of individual diet items. Juvenile green turtles were omnivorous, feeding primarily on seagrasses and tunicates. Diet characterizations from stomach contents differed from those based on stable isotope analyses, indicating the turtles are not feeding consistently during winter months. Evaluation of diets during warm months is needed.

  5. The use of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in Great Lakes precipitation as a tool for pollution source attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthropogenic emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals including mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) presents human health and environmental concerns. Although it is known that local and regional sources of these metals contribute to deposition in the Great Lakes region, it ...

  6. Carbon sources and trophic structure in an eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) bed based on stable isotope and fatty acid analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Jaschinski, Sybill; Brepohl, Daniela C.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Multiple stable isotope and fatty acid analyses were applied to examine food web dynamics in an eelgrass Zostera marina L. system in the western Baltic Sea. Samples of eelgrass, epiphytic algae, sand microflora, red algae, phytoplankton and main consumer species were collected in June 2002. delta C-13 values of primary producers ranged from -9.6%. for eelgrass to the most depleted value of -34.9%. for the most abundant red alga, Delesseria sanguinea, Epiphyte delta C-13 (-11.3 parts per thous...

  7. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  8. Controls on Mississippi Valley-Type Zn-Pb mineralization in Behabad district, Central Iran: Constraints from spatial and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Abbas

    2018-04-01

    The Behabad district, located in the central Iranian microcontinent, contains numerous epigenetic stratabound carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb ore bodies. The mineralizations formed as fault, fracture and karst fillings in the Permian-Triassic formations, especially in Middle Triassic dolostones, and comprise mainly non-sulfides zinc ores. These are all interpreted as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) base metal deposits. From an economic geological point of view, it is imperative to recognize the processes that have plausibly controlled the emplacement of MVT Zn-Pb mineralization in the Behabad district. To address the foregoing issue, analyses of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits comprising fry and fractal techniques and analysis of the spatial association of mineral deposits with geological features using distance distribution analysis were applied to assess the regional-scale processes that could have operated in the distribution of MVT Zn-Pb deposits in the district. The obtained results based on these analytical techniques show the main trends of the occurrences are NW-SE and NE-SW, which are parallel or subparallel to the major northwest and northeast trending faults, supporting the idea that these particular faults could have acted as the main conduits for transport of mineral-bearing fluids. The results of these analyses also suggest that Permian-Triassic brittle carbonate sedimentary rocks have served as the lithological controls on MVT mineralization in the Behabad district as they are spatially and temporally associated with mineralization.

  9. Stages of weathering mantle formation from carbonate rocks in the light of rare earth elements (REE) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Weathering mantles are widespread and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual high content of associated trace elements in weathering mantles originating from carbonate rocks, which have been poorly studied, compared to those developing on magmatic bedrocks. For instance, these enrichments can be up to five times the content of the underlying carbonate rocks. However, these studies also showed that the carbonate bedrock content only partially explains the soil enrichment for all the considered major and trace elements. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources. REE distribution patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios have been used because they are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments have been applied to identify mobile phases in the soil system and to yield information on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. All these geochemical informations indicate that the cambisol developing on such a typical weathering mantle ("terra fusca") has been formed through weathering of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl facies. This facies shows compared to average world carbonates important trace element enrichments. Their trace element distribution patterns are similar to those of the soil

  10. Distribution of isotopes produced in superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x and ferroelectric PbZr0.54Ti0.46O3 under irradiation by high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didik, V.A.; Malkovich, R.Sh.; Skoryatina, E.A.; Kozlovskij, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration profiles of transmutation radioactive isotopes, formed in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor and PbZr 0.54 Ti 0.46 O 3 ferroelectric under high-energy proton radiation (with 10 and 15 MeV energy), deuterons (4 MeV), the 3 He and 4 He nuclei (20 MeV), are studied. Two types of the concentration profiles: monotonous ones and profiles with the maximum are identified. It is shown that the isotope profile is determined by the character of energy dependence of the nuclear reaction cross section, leading to formation of the given isotope

  11. C, Sr and Pb isotopic chemostratigraphy in precambrian carbonate sequences in the eastern transversal domain of the Borborema Province, northastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, V. H.; Ferreira, V.P.; Sial, A.N; Babinski, M; Pimentel, M.M

    2001-01-01

    The Transversal Domain, in the Borborema Structural Province, northeastern Brazil, is characterized by a system of NE-trending, left-lateral, transcurrent mega-structure and dextral E-W trending fault zones (Jardim de Sa, 1994). This domain is formed by supracrustal metasedimentary and metavolcansedimentary sequences overlying a gneissic-migmatitic basement. Geological sequences of this domain exhibit distinct lithotectono-stratigraphy that characterize different terranes, separated by shear zones developed during the Cariris Velhos cycle (1.1-0.95 Ga), and that have been reworked during the Brasiliano orogen at the end of the Neoproterozoic (Brito Neves et al., 1995). The objective of this work is to show the results of C, Sr and Pb isotope studies performed in marble lens located near (and in both sides) the proposed boundary between two tectono-stratigraphic terranes (Alto Moxoto and Rio Capibaribe) in the Transversal Domain (au)

  12. Rb/Sr and U/Pb isotopic ages in basement rocks of Mina Gonzalito and Arroyo Salado, Atlantic North-Patagonian Massif, Rio Negro, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Sato, Ana M.; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Isotopic ages from metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Atlantic area of North Patagonian basement indicate that the main crustal tectonic events occurred during the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic times. Rb/Sr and U/Pb data in the 550-470 Ma interval suggest an old tecto-thermal activity during the upper Brazilian Cycle (Rio Doce Orogeny). At regional scale, the comparable Neo proterozoic basement of Ventania and sedimentary for eland cover of Tandilia continues to the Northeast, in the Dom Feliciano Belt. A possible correlation of the North Patagonian basement with igneous-metamorphic relics of Central Argentina (Pampean Ranges of San Luis-Cordoba and at La Pampa province) is also indicated. (author)

  13. Material analyses of foam-based SiC FCI after dynamic testing in PbLi in MaPLE loop at UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Maria, E-mail: maria.gonzalez@ciemat.es [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rapisarda, David; Ibarra, Angel [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Courtessole, Cyril; Smolentsev, Sergey; Abdou, Mohamed [Fusion Science and Technology Center, UCLA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Samples from foam-based SiC FCI were analyzed by looking at their SEM microstructure and elemental composition. • After finishing dynamic experiments in the flowing hot PbLi, the liquid metal ingress has been confirmed due to infiltration through local defects in the protective inner CVD layer. • No direct evidences of corrosion/erosion were observed; these defects could be related to the manufacturing process. - Abstract: Foam-based SiC flow channel inserts (FCIs) developed and manufactured by Ultramet, USA are currently under testing in the flowing hot lead-lithium (PbLi) alloy in the MaPLE loop at UCLA to address chemical/physical compatibility and to access the MHD pressure drop reduction. UCLA has finished the first experimental series, where a single uninterrupted long-term (∼6500 h) test was performed on a 30-cm FCI segment in a magnetic field up to 1.8 T at the temperature of 300 °C and maximum flow velocities of ∼ 15 cm/s. After finishing the experiments, the FCI sample was extracted from the host stainless steel duct and cut into slices. Few of them have been analyzed at CIEMAT as a part of the joint collaborative effort on the development of the DCLL blanket concept in the EU and the US. The initial inspection of the slices using optical microscopic analysis at UCLA showed significant PbLi ingress into the bulk FCI material that resulted in degradation of insulating properties of the FCI. Current material analyses at CIEMAT are based on advanced techniques, including characterization of FCI samples by FESEM to study PbLi ingress, imaging of cross sections, composition analysis by EDX and crack inspection. These analyses suggest that the ingress was caused by local defects in the protective inner CVD layer that might be originally present in the FCI or occurred during testing.

  14. Evidence of early Archean crust in northwest Gondwana, from U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis of detrital zircon, in Ediacaran surpacrustal rocks of northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Thanusha; Zimmermann, Udo; Vervoort, Jeff; Tait, Jenny

    2018-03-01

    The Mora Formation (Narcea Group) is one of the oldest Precambrian supracrustal successions in northern Spain. Here, we use U-Pb and in situ Hf isotope analysis on detrital zircon to determine its age and provenance. The youngest U-Pb dates constrain the maximum depositional age of the Mora Formation at 565 ± 11 Ma. Results indicate: (1) a dominant Ediacaran zircon population (33%; 565-633 Ma, Cadomian) within a spectrum of Neoproterozoic ages (40%; 636-996 Ma); and (2) smaller Mesoproterozoic (5%; 1004-1240 Ma), Palaeoproterozoic (11%; 1890-2476 Ma) and Archean (11%; 2519-3550 Ma) populations. Results here do not point to one specific cratonic source area; instead, detritus may have been derived from the West African craton and Amazonia, or even the concealed Iberian basement. The lack of 1.3-1.8 Ga grains suggests exclusion of the Sahara Craton as a major source, but this is not certain. This mixed composition favours a complex source history with reworking of detritus across terrane/craton boundaries. Hafnium isotope compositions indicate a range of crustal and juvenile sources, with initial ɛHf values between -15.8 and 11.1, and Hf model ages from 0.8 to 3.7 Ga. For Neoproterozoic zircons (80%), juvenile components (ɛHf(i) +10) may be related to Rodinia fragmentation and the onset of an active margin setting leading to the Cadomian orogeny. Palaeoproterozoic to Paleoarchean grains (20%) all have negative ɛHf values and Meso- to Eoarchean Hf model ages. This indicates an early (Archean) sialic crustal component for northwestern Gondwana.

  15. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic constraints on the nature of the mantle sources involved in the genesis of the high-Ti tholeiites from northern Paraná Continental Flood Basalts (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Júnior, Eduardo R. V.; Marques, Leila S.; Babinski, Marly; Nardy, Antônio J. R.; Figueiredo, Ana M. G.; Machado, Fábio B.

    2013-10-01

    There has been little research on geochemistry and isotopic compositions in tholeiites of the Northern region from the Paraná Continental Flood Basalts (PCFB), one of the largest continental provinces of the world. In order to examine the mantle sources involved in the high-Ti (Pitanga and Paranapanema) basalt genesis, we studied Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic systematics, and major, minor and incompatible trace element abundances. The REE patterns of the investigated samples (Pitanga and Paranapanema magma type) are similar (parallel to) to those of Island Arc Basalts' REE patterns. The high-Ti basalts investigated in this study have initial (133 Ma) 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70538-0.70642, 143Nd/144Nd of 0.51233-0.51218, 206Pb/204Pb of 17.74-18.25, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.51-15.57, and 208Pb/204Pb of 38.18-38.45. These isotopic compositions do not display any correlation with Nb/Th, Nb/La or P2O5/K2O ratios, which also reflect that these rocks were not significantly affected by low-pressure crustal contamination. The incompatible trace element ratios and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the PCFB tholeiites are different to those found in Tristan da Cunha ocean island rocks, showing that this plume did not play a substantial role in the PCFB genesis. This interpretation is corroborated by previously published osmium isotopic data (initial γOs values range from +1.0 to +2.0 for high-Ti basalts), which also preclude basalt generation by melting of ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The geochemical composition of the northern PCFB may be explained through the involvement of fluids and/or small volume melts related to metasomatic processes. In this context, we propose that the source of these magmas is a mixture of sublithospheric peridotite veined and/or interlayered with mafic components (e.g., pyroxenites or eclogites). The sublithospheric mantle (dominating the osmium isotopic compositions) was very probably enriched by fluids and/or magmas related to the

  16. Mass spectrometric isotope dilution analyses of palladium, silver, cadmium and tellurium in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, R.D.; Rosman, K.J.R.; De Laeter, J.

    1984-01-01

    The mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique was used to measure the elemental abundances of Pd, Ag, Cd and Te in Orgueil (C1), Ivuna (C1), Murray (C2) and Allende (C3) chondrites. The Pd abundance of 554 ppb for the Cl chondrites is almost identical to the recommended value of Anders and Ebihara (1982); that for Cd (712 ppb) is approximately 5% higher, whereas that for Ag (198 ppb) is approximately 10% lower than the recommended values. A smooth distribution for the abundances of the odd-A nuclides between 65 128 Te and 130 Te to lie approximately 30% above the r-process peak at A = 130, whereas the new value fits smoothly into the general trend. (author)

  17. Isotope Analysis of Uranium by Interferometry; Analyse isotopique de l'uranium par interferometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leicknam, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Among the optical methods which may be used to make isotopic measurements of {sup 235}U interferometry gives promising results. An apparatus is described which has a photomultiplier as receiver; the source must therefore have characteristics (intensity, stability, fineness of emitted rays) which have led to the use of electrode-less discharge tubes whose methods of production and excitation are given. An example of calibration is given. (author) [French] Parmi les methodes optiques permettant le dosage isotopique de l'uranium 235, l'interferometrie est une technique qui donne des resultats prometteurs. On decrit ici un appareil ayant un photo-multiplicateur comme recepteur; la source doit donc avoir des caracteristiques (intensite, stabilite, finesse des raies emises) qui ont conduit a utiliser des tubes a decharge sans electrode dont on indique la fabrication et le mode d'excitation. Un exemple d'etalonnage est enfin donne. (auteur)

  18. U-Pb and K-Ar isotopic dating of Sinec (Rimavica) granites (Kohut zone of veporides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Grachema, T.V.; Makarov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    New results of radiometric dating of Sinec (Rimavica) granites by U-Pb and K-Ar method are presented. The K-Ar method (muscovite and biotite) gives the age of 94 m.y., which can be interpreted by tectonics. The U-Pb dating of zircons gave a concordant age of 350±5 m.y., which is a more reliable age than the one obtained from the same samples by Rb-Sr isochrone. The increased age of the Sinec (Rimavica) granites determined by the Sb-Sr method could be caused by the supply of radiogenic Sr from the surrounding older metamorphic rocks to the granites during retrograde metamorphism synchronous with granite autometasomatism. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs

  19. New zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages and Hf isotope data from the Central Pontides (Turkey): Geological and geodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Okay; Göncüoğlu, M. Cemal; Simonetti, Antonio; Sayit, Kaan

    2018-05-01

    The Central Pontides in northern Anatolia is located on the accretionary complex formed by the closure of Neotethyan Intra-Pontide Ocean between the southern Eurasian margin (Istanbul-Zonguldak Terrane) and the Cimmerian Sakarya Composite Terrane. Among other components of the oceanic lithosphere, it comprises not yet well-dated felsic igneous rocks formed in arc-basin as well as continent margin settings. In-situ U-Pb age results for zircons from the arc-basin system (öangaldağ Metamorphic Complex) and the continental arc (Devrekani Metadiorite and Granitoid) yield ages of 176 ± 6 Ma, 163 ± 9 Ma and 165 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Corresponding in-situ average (initial) 176Hf/177Hf initial ratios are 0.28261 ± 0.00003, 0.28267 ± 0.00002 and 0.28290 ± 0.00004 for these units and indicative of a subduction-modified mantle source. The new U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data from these oceanic and continental arc units together with regional geological constraints support the presence of a multiple subduction system within the Intra-Pontide Ocean during the Middle Jurassic.

  20. Determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Se in sediments slurries by isotopic dilution calibration ICP-MS after chemical vapor generation using an on-line system or retention in an electrothermal vaporizer treated with iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; Dias, Lucia Felicidade; Curtius, Adilson Jose

    2005-01-01

    A method for the determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Se in sediments reference materials by slurry sampling chemical vapor generation (CVG) using isotopic dilution (ID) calibration and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is proposed. Two different systems were used for the investigation: an on-line flow injection system (FI-CVG-ICP-MS) and an off-line system with in situ trapping electrothermal vaporization (CVG-ETV-ICP-MS). About 100 mg of the reference material, ground to a particle size ≤50 μm, was mixed with acid solutions (aqua regia, HF and HCl) in an ultrasonic bath. The enriched isotopes 111 Cd, 198 Hg, 206 Pb and 77 Se were then added to the slurry in an adequate amount in order to produce an altered isotopic ratio close to 1. For the on-line system, a standing time for the slurry of 12 h before measurement was required, while for the batch system, no standing time is needed to obtain accurate results. The conditions for the formation of the analyte vapor were optimized for the evaluated systems. The following altered isotope ratios were measured: 111 Cd/ 114 Cd, 198 Hg/ 199 Hg, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb e 77 Se/ 82 Se. The obtained detection limits in the on-line system, in μg g -1 , were: Cd: 0.15; Hg: 0.09; Pb: 6.0 and Se: 0.03. Similar detection limits were obtained with the system that uses the ETV: 0.21 for Hg, 6.0 for Pb and 0.06 μg g -1 for Se. No signal for Cd was obtained in this system. One estuarine, two marine and two river certified sediments were analyzed to check the accuracy. The obtained values by both systems were generally in agreement with the certified concentrations, according to the t-test for a confidence level of 95%, demonstrating that isotope equilibration was attained in the slurries submitted to a chemical vapor generation procedure and detection by ICP-MS. The relative standard deviations were lower than 10%, adequate for slurry analysis. The almost quantitative analytes extractions to the aqueous phase

  1. Application of carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Oe, Takaaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    Japanese apricot liqueur manufacturers are required to control the quality and authenticity of their liqueur products. Citric acid made from corn is the main acidulant used in commercial liqueurs. In this study, we conducted spiking experiments and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid used as an acidulant in Japanese apricot liqueurs. Our results showed that the δ 13 C values detected exogenous citric acid originating from C 4 plants but not from C 3 plants. The δ 2 H values of citric acid decreased as the amount of citric acid added increased, whether the citric acid originated from C 3 or C 4 plants. Commercial liqueurs with declared added acidulant provided higher δ 13 C values and lower δ 2 H values than did authentic liqueurs and commercial liqueurs with no declared added acidulant. Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses are suitable as routine methods for detecting exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Gulf of Cadiz: Insights from stomach content and stable isotope analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Giménez

    Full Text Available The ecological role of species can vary among populations depending on local and regional differences in diet. This is particularly true for top predators such as the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, which exhibits a highly varied diet throughout its distribution range. Local dietary assessments are therefore critical to fully understand the role of this species within marine ecosystems, as well as its interaction with important ecosystem services such as fisheries. Here, we combined stomach content analyses (SCA and stable isotope analyses (SIA to describe bottlenose dolphins diet in the Gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic Ocean. Prey items identified using SCA included European conger (Conger conger and European hake (Merluccius merluccius as the most important ingested prey. However, mass-balance isotopic mixing model (MixSIAR, using δ13C and δ15N, indicated that the assimilated diet consisted mainly on Sparidae species (e.g. seabream, Diplodus annularis and D. bellottii, rubberlip grunt, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, and common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and a mixture of other species including European hake, mackerels (Scomber colias, S. japonicus and S. scombrus, European conger, red bandfish (Cepola macrophthalma and European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus. These contrasting results highlight differences in the temporal and taxonomic resolution of each approach, but also point to potential differences between ingested (SCA and assimilated (SIA diets. Both approaches provide different insights, e.g. determination of consumed fish biomass for the management of fish stocks (SCA or identification of important assimilated prey species to the consumer (SIA.

  3. Nature and origin of the nonsulfide zinc deposits in the Sierra Mojada District, Coahuila, Mexico: constraints from regional geology, petrography, and isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J. Richard; Ahn, Hyein; Gilg, H. Albert

    2018-02-01

    The Sierra Mojada District comprises multiple types of near-surface mineral concentrations ranging from polymetallic sulfide zones, "nonsulfide Zn" (NSZ) deposits, and a silver-rich Pb carbonate deposit hosted by lower Cretaceous carbonate strata. Hypogene concentrations of Fe-Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag sulfides and sulfosalts are locally preserved and are associated with hydrothermal dolomite and silica. Alteration mineralogy and sulfur isotope data suggest primary Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization from circa 200 °C hydrothermal fluids. The NSZ deposits dominantly consist of smithsonite and hemimorphite associated with local Mn-Fe oxides. The Red Zinc Zone consists of strata-bound zones dominantly of hemimorphite that fills pores in residual and resedimented Fe oxides. The White Zinc Zone shows local dissolution features, including internal sediments interbanded with and cemented by smithsonite. Similar Pb isotopic compositions of smithsonite, hemimorphite, and cerussite to Sierra Mojada galena document that the NSZ deposits originated from polymetallic carbonate-replacement sulfide deposits, with flow of metal-bearing groundwater being controlled by local topography and structural features in this extensional terrane. Oxygen isotope values for Sierra Mojada smithsonite are relatively constant (δ18OVSMOW = 20.9 to 23.3‰) but are unusually low compared to other supergene smithsonites. Using δ18OVSMOW (- 8‰) of modern groundwater at nearby Cuatrociénegas, smithsonite formational temperatures are calculated to have been between 26 to 35 °C. Smithsonite precipitation was favored by near-neutral conditions typical of carbonate terranes, whereas hemimorphite precipitated by reaction with wallrock silica and locally, or episodically, more acidic conditions resulting from sulfide oxidation. Transition to, and stabilization of, the modern desert climate over the past 9000 years from the Late Pleistocene wetter, cooler climate of northern Mexico resulted in episodic drawdown of the water

  4. U/Pb zircon dating and Sr and Nd isotope characteristics of Permian volcanism in the Western Pyrenees: the Ossau and Anayet Massif. Datation U/Pb sur zircon et geochimie isotopique Sr et Nd du volcanisme permien des Pyrenees Occidentales (Ossau et Anayet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briqueu, L [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France); Innocent, C [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1993-03-01

    Several zircon populations have been extracted from a peraluminous rhyolite and from a dacite which are the rock types characteristic of the first two volcanic phases of the Pic du Midi d'Ossau (Eastern Pyrenees). Using a Concordia Diagram, their U/Pb isotopic study confirms that volcanism started in the Autunian age (272 to 278 My). These two volcanic cycles display initial Sr and Nd isotopic signatures which are comparable, and show a strong crustal imprint. Volcanism subsequently evolves towards an increasingly alkaline composition and the corresponding isotopic characteristics are compatible with a depleted asthenospheric mantle source.

  5. Molybdenite Re-Os, zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of the Xiaerchulu Au deposit, Inner Mongolia Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-xin; Nie, Feng-Jun; Zhang, Xue-ni; Jiang, Si-hong

    2016-09-01

    The Xiaerchulu Au deposit, located in the Southern Orogenic Belt (SOB) of Western Inner Mongolia (WIM), is hosted in an Early Permian (271-261 Ma) volcanic-plutonic sequence. Mineralization took place in silicified biotite granites or along the contact zone between the Neoproterozoic Baiyinbaolage Group and the biotite granite. In order to constrain the timing of the Xiaerchulu mineralization and discuss the petrogenesis of the hosting granites, molybdenite Re-Os, and zircon U-Pb and, Lu-Hf, and REE, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic studies were completed in this study. We measured Re-Os isotopes of six molybdenite samples from the main ore body, which yielded a weighted average model age of 261.7 ± 1.5 Ma with a MSWD of 0.55, indicating that the time of mineralization was at ca. 262 Ma. High precision U-Pb dating for the studied granites yields Permian 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 271 to 269 Ma. These age data confirm that both the intrusion and related mineralization were initiated in Early Permian period. These granites are strongly peraluminous with A/CNK = 1.11-1.12, high SiO2-K2O contents, as well as containing biotite and muscovite, indicating a petrogenesis of typical S-type granites, the above consideration is also consistent with the result of discrimination diagrams. The Re contents of molybdenite, εNd(t), and zircon εHf(t), as well as the 176Hf/177Hf values of the granites, fall into the ranges from 1.153 to 2.740 μg/g, - 11.1 to - 9.3, - 8.8 to - 0.9, and 0.282358 to 0.282688, respectively. All of this evidence suggests that the metals were derived from a predominantly crustal source, the granites originated from crust in an extensional setting, and the rejuvenation of the continent may have play an important role during the ore-forming processes of the Early Permian epoch.

  6. Trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the Gulf of Mexico revealed by gut content and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Ross, Steve W.

    2017-01-01

    Mesopelagic fishes represent an important component of the marine food web due to their global distributions, high abundances and ability to transport organic material throughout a large part of the water column. This study combined stable isotope (SIAs) and gut content analyses (GCAs) to characterize the trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, this study examined whether mesopelagic fishes utilized chemosynthetic energy from cold seeps. Specimens were collected (9–25 August 2007) over three deep (>1,000 m) cold seeps at discrete depths (surface to 1,503 m) over the diurnal cycle. GCA classified 31 species (five families) of mesopelagic fishes into five feeding guilds: piscivores, large crustacean consumers, copepod consumers, generalists and mixed zooplanktivores. However, these guilds were less clearly defined based on stable isotope mixing model (MixSIAR) results, suggesting diets may be more mixed over longer time periods (weeks–months) and across co-occurring species. Copepods were likely important for the majority of mesopelagic fishes, consistent with GCA (this study) and previous literature. MixSIAR results also identified non-crustacean prey items, including salps and pteropods, as potentially important prey items for mesopelagic fishes, including those fishes not analysed in GCA (Sternoptyx spp. and Melamphaidae). Salps and other soft-bodied species are often missed in GCAs. Mesopelagic fishes had δ13C results consistent with particulate organic matter serving as the baseline organic carbon source, fueling up to three trophic levels. Fishes that undergo diel vertical migration were depleted in 15N relative to weak migrators, consistent with depth-specific isotope trends in sources and consumers, and assimilation of 15N-depleted organic matter in surface waters. Linear correlations between fish size and δ15N values suggested ontogenetic changes in fish diets for several species. While there was

  7. Analysis of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Fe) in seawater using single batch nitrilotriacetate resin extraction and isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Mi [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Boyle, Edward A., E-mail: eaboyle@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zhang Ruifeng [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Kayser, Richard A. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    A simple and accurate low-blank method has been developed for the analysis of total dissolved copper, cadmium, lead, and iron in a small volume (1.3-1.5 mL per element) of seawater. Pre-concentration and salt-separation of a stable isotope spiked sample are achieved by single batch extraction onto nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-type Superflow chelating resin beads (100-2400 beads depending on the element). Metals are released into 0.1-0.5 M HNO{sub 3}, and trace metal isotope ratios are determined by ICPMS. The benefit of this method compared to our previous Mg(OH){sub 2} coprecipitation method is that the final matrix is very dilute so cone-clogging and matrix sensitivity suppression are minimal, while still retaining the high accuracy of the isotope dilution technique. Recovery efficiencies are sensitive to sample pH, number of resin beads added, and the length of time allowed for sample-resin binding and elution; these factors are optimized for each element to yield the highest recovery. The method has a low procedural blank and high sensitivity sufficient for the analysis of pM-nM open-ocean trace metal concentrations. Application of this method to samples from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study station provides oceanographically consistent Cu, Cd, Pb, and Fe profiles that are in good agreement with other reliable data for this site. In addition, the method can potentially be modified for the simultaneous analysis of multiple elements, which will be beneficial for the analysis of large number of samples.

  8. Analysis of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Fe) in seawater using single batch nitrilotriacetate resin extraction and isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Zhang Ruifeng; Kayser, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and accurate low-blank method has been developed for the analysis of total dissolved copper, cadmium, lead, and iron in a small volume (1.3-1.5 mL per element) of seawater. Pre-concentration and salt-separation of a stable isotope spiked sample are achieved by single batch extraction onto nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-type Superflow chelating resin beads (100-2400 beads depending on the element). Metals are released into 0.1-0.5 M HNO 3 , and trace metal isotope ratios are determined by ICPMS. The benefit of this method compared to our previous Mg(OH) 2 coprecipitation method is that the final matrix is very dilute so cone-clogging and matrix sensitivity suppression are minimal, while still retaining the high accuracy of the isotope dilution technique. Recovery efficiencies are sensitive to sample pH, number of resin beads added, and the length of time allowed for sample-resin binding and elution; these factors are optimized for each element to yield the highest recovery. The method has a low procedural blank and high sensitivity sufficient for the analysis of pM-nM open-ocean trace metal concentrations. Application of this method to samples from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study station provides oceanographically consistent Cu, Cd, Pb, and Fe profiles that are in good agreement with other reliable data for this site. In addition, the method can potentially be modified for the simultaneous analysis of multiple elements, which will be beneficial for the analysis of large number of samples.

  9. Nitrogen Isotope Analyses in Mollusk Shell: Applications to Environmental Sciences and Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, C. F. T.; Bassett, C.; Black, H. D.; Payne, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Several recent studies demonstrate that nitrogen isotope analysis of the organic fraction of mollusk shells can serve as a proxy for anthropogenic environmental impacts, including sewage input into estuaries. Analysis of δ15N in shells from archaeological sites permits construction of time-series proxy data from the present day to pre-industrial times, yielding insight into the history of some human environmental influences such as waste input and land use changes. Most such studies utilize a single bulk analysis per valve, combining shell material grown over time periods of one or more years. However, large, fast-growing species (e.g. some scallops and abalone) may permit sub-annual sampling, potentially yielding insight into seasonal processes. Such sclerochronological sampling of archaeological shells may enable researchers to detect variation at a finer temporal scale than has been attempted to date, which in turn may facilitate analysis of seasonal resource procurement strategies and related actions. This presentation will incorporate new and published data from the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America to assess how sclerochronological δ15N data can be useful to better understand pre-industrial human-environmental interaction and change, and also address diagenesis and other preservational concerns commonly found in archaeological samples.

  10. Point processes statistics of stable isotopes: analysing water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Aleppo pine and Holm oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Comas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding inter- and intra-specific competition for water is crucial in drought-prone environments. However, little is known about the spatial interdependencies for water uptake among individuals in mixed stands. The aim of this work was to compare water uptake patterns during a drought episode in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill., using the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O, δ2H as hydrological marker. Area of study: The study was performed in a mixed stand, sampling a total of 33 oaks and 78 pines (plot area= 888 m2. We tested the hypothesis that both species uptake water differentially along the soil profile, thus showing different levels of tree-to-tree interdependency, depending on whether neighbouring trees belong to one species or the other. Material and Methods: We used pair-correlation functions to study intra-specific point-tree configurations and the bivariate pair correlation function to analyse the inter-specific spatial configuration. Moreover, the isotopic composition of xylem water was analysed as a mark point pattern. Main results: Values for Q. ilex (δ18O = –5.3 ± 0.2‰, δ2H = –54.3 ± 0.7‰ were significantly lower than for P. halepensis (δ18O = –1.2 ± 0.2‰, δ2H = –25.1 ± 0.8‰, pointing to a greater contribution of deeper soil layers for water uptake by Q. ilex. Research highlights: Point-process analyses revealed spatial intra-specific dependencies among neighbouring pines, showing neither oak-oak nor oak-pine interactions. This supports niche segregation for water uptake between the two species.

  11. SIMS analyses of the oldest known assemblage of microfossils document their taxon-correlated carbon isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J. William; Kitajima, Kouki; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B.; Valley, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Analyses by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) of 11 specimens of five taxa of prokaryotic filamentous kerogenous cellular microfossils permineralized in a petrographic thin section of the ˜3,465 Ma Apex chert of northwestern Western Australia, prepared from the same rock sample from which this earliest known assemblage of cellular fossils was described more than two decades ago, show their δ13C compositions to vary systematically taxon to taxon from ‑31‰ to ‑39‰. These morphospecies-correlated carbon isotope compositions confirm the biogenicity of the Apex fossils and validate their morphology-based taxonomic assignments. Perhaps most significantly, the δ13C values of each of the five taxa are lower than those of bulk samples of Apex kerogen (‑27‰), those of SIMS-measured fossil-associated dispersed particulate kerogen (‑27.6‰), and those typical of modern prokaryotic phototrophs (‑25 ± 10‰). The SIMS data for the two highest δ13C Apex taxa are consistent with those of extant phototrophic bacteria; those for a somewhat lower δ13C taxon, with nonbacterial methane-producing Archaea; and those for the two lowest δ13C taxa, with methane-metabolizing γ-proteobacteria. Although the existence of both methanogens and methanotrophs has been inferred from bulk analyses of the carbon isotopic compositions of pre-2,500 Ma kerogens, these in situ SIMS analyses of individual microfossils present data interpretable as evidencing the cellular preservation of such microorganisms and are consistent with the near-basal position of the Archaea in rRNA phylogenies.

  12. SIMS analyses of the oldest known assemblage of microfossils document their taxon-correlated carbon isotope compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J William; Kitajima, Kouki; Spicuzza, Michael J; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Valley, John W

    2018-01-02

    Analyses by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) of 11 specimens of five taxa of prokaryotic filamentous kerogenous cellular microfossils permineralized in a petrographic thin section of the ∼3,465 Ma Apex chert of northwestern Western Australia, prepared from the same rock sample from which this earliest known assemblage of cellular fossils was described more than two decades ago, show their δ 13 C compositions to vary systematically taxon to taxon from -31‰ to -39‰. These morphospecies-correlated carbon isotope compositions confirm the biogenicity of the Apex fossils and validate their morphology-based taxonomic assignments. Perhaps most significantly, the δ 13 C values of each of the five taxa are lower than those of bulk samples of Apex kerogen (-27‰), those of SIMS-measured fossil-associated dispersed particulate kerogen (-27.6‰), and those typical of modern prokaryotic phototrophs (-25 ± 10‰). The SIMS data for the two highest δ 13 C Apex taxa are consistent with those of extant phototrophic bacteria; those for a somewhat lower δ 13 C taxon, with nonbacterial methane-producing Archaea; and those for the two lowest δ 13 C taxa, with methane-metabolizing γ-proteobacteria. Although the existence of both methanogens and methanotrophs has been inferred from bulk analyses of the carbon isotopic compositions of pre-2,500 Ma kerogens, these in situ SIMS analyses of individual microfossils present data interpretable as evidencing the cellular preservation of such microorganisms and are consistent with the near-basal position of the Archaea in rRNA phylogenies.

  13. Isotope geochemistry of xenoliths from East Africa. Implications for development of mantle reservoirs and their interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R S; O' Nions, R K [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Dawson, J B [Sheffield Univ. (UK). Dept. of Geology

    1984-05-01

    Pd, Nd and Sr isotope analyses together with U, Pb, Sm, Nd, Rb and Sr concentrations have been obtained for separated phases of lherzolite and bulk rock mafic granulite xenoliths in Recent volcanics from Tanzania. A garnet lherzolite from the Lashaine vent has yielded the least radiogenic Pb (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/PB=15.55) and Nd (/sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd=0.51127; epsilon/sup 0/sub(Nd)=-26.7) isotope compositions recorded so far for an ultramafic xenolith, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr=0.83604. The Pb isotope compositions of the mafic granulites are variable 15.77Pb//sup 204/Pb<17.50 and some show evidence for depletion of U relative to Pb up to 2.0 Ga ago. Overall the isotope results suggest that the mantle part of the continental lithosphere beneath Tanzania has components that have undergone a complex history that includes major chemical fractionations ca. 2.0 Ga ago. A phlogopite-amphibole vein from the Pello Hill sample has Sr, Nd and Pb isotope compositions similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts, indicating both a young emplacement age for the vein material and a source which had an isotopic signature characteristic of depleted mantle. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotope systematics of ultramafic xenoliths do not conform with those of MORB, particularly in terms of their Pb-Sr, and Nd-Pb relationship. In this regard they are similar to some ocean islands and could be a viable source material for some ocean island basalts at least. The mantle part of the continental lithosphere is as likely to contain recycled components derived from the continental crust as are other regions of mantle. If the mantle part of continental lithosphere is invoked as a source for ocean islands, it does not negate the possibility that substantial recycled components are involved.

  14. Relict zircon U-Pb age and O isotope evidence for reworking of Neoproterozoic crustal rocks in the origin of Triassic S-type granites in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zhao, Zi-Fu; Xia, Xiao-Ping

    2018-02-01

    Granites derived from partial melting of sedimentary rocks are generally characterized by high δ18O values and abundant relict zircons. Such relict zircons are valuable in tracing the source rocks of granites and the history of crustal anatexis. Here we report in-situ U-Pb ages, O isotopes and trace elements in zircons from Triassic granites in the Zhuguangshan and Jiuzhou regions, which are located in the Nanling Range and the Darongshan area, respectively, in South China. Zircon U-Pb dating yields magma crystallization ages of 236 ± 2 Ma for the Zhuguangshan granites and 246 ± 2 Ma to 252 ± 3 Ma for the Jiuzhou granites. The Triassic syn-magmatic zircons are characterized by high δ18O values of 10.1-11.9‰ in Zhuguangshan and 8.5-13.5‰ in Jiuzhou. The relict zircons show a wide range of U-Pb ages from 315 to 2185 Ma in Zhuguangshan and from 304 to 3121 Ma in Jiuzhou. Nevertheless, a dominant age peak of 700-1000 Ma is prominent in both occurrences, demonstrating that their source rocks were dominated by detrital sediments weathered from Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks. Taking previous results for regional granites together, Neoproterozoic relict zircons show δ18O values in a small range from 5 to 8‰ for the Nanling granites but a large range from 5 to 11‰ for the Darongshan granites. In addition, relict zircons of Paleozoic U-Pb age occur in the two granitic plutons. They exhibit consistently high δ18O values similar to the Triassic syn-magmatic zircons in the host granites. These Paleozoic relict zircons are interpreted as the peritectic product during transient melting of the metasedimentary rocks in response to the intracontinental orogenesis in South China. Therefore, the relict zircons of Neoproterozoic age are directly inherited from the source rocks of S-type granites, and those of Paleozoic age record the transient melting of metasedimentary rocks before intensive melting for granitic magmatism in the Triassic.

  15. In-Situ Geochronology: Extending Larims to Pb-Pb Isocrhons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Tom; Anderson, Scott; Levine, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    allow calibration of the isotope ratios. In very preliminary LARIMS spectra obtained for SRM-612, the measured Pb-208 signal-to-baseline noise is over 600:1. This corresponds to a minimum detection limit of 0.12 ppm total Pb. We anticipate improving the signal-to-noise with optimization of TOF voltages and ablation laser intensity. Future Work: We are in the process of measuring an isochron for a sample of Duluth Gabbro and anticipate having results available for the conference. We are also exploring the use of fiber lasers for LARIMS analyses of Pb. Fiber lasers are small, lightweight, and extremely robust, making them ideal for space missions. We are presently developing fiber lasers for our Rb-Sr LARIMS work and we have investigated ways to efficiently combine wavelengths from Er-, Yb-, and Tm-doped fibers to generate both the 283.3 nm wavelength and 600.2 nm wavelength needed for Pb LARIMS. Concepts utilizing wavelengths readily generated in these fibers have been developed. References: F.S. Anderson, J. Levine, and T.J. Whitaker, Rapid Comm. in Mass Spect., 2015, 29, 191-204. F.S. Anderson, J. Levine, T.J. Whitaker, Rapid Comm. in Mass Spect., 2015, 29, 1457-1464. R.W. Hinton and J V Long, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett 1979, 45, 309-325.

  16. OIB signatures in basin-related lithosphere-derived alkaline basalts from the Batain basin (Oman) - Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar ages and Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Jung, S.; Pfänder, J. A.; Romer, R. L.; Mayer, B.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.

    2017-08-01

    Tertiary rift-related intraplate basanites from the Batain basin of northeastern Oman have low SiO2 ( 9.73 wt.%) and moderate to high Cr and Ni contents (Cr > 261 ppm, Ni > 181 ppm), representing near primary magmas that have undergone fractionation of mainly olivine and magnetite. Rare earth element systematics and p-T estimates suggest that the alkaline rocks are generated by different degrees of partial melting (4-13%) of a spinel-peridotite lithospheric mantle containing residual amphibole. The alkaline rocks show restricted variations of 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ranging from 0.70340 to 0.70405 and 0.51275 to 0.51284, respectively. Variations in Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb: 18.59-18.82, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.54-15.56, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.65-38.98) of the alkaline rocks fall in the range of most OIB. Trace element constraints together with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition indicate that assimilation through crustal material did not affect the lavas. Instead, trace element variations can be explained by melting of a lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by an OIB-type magma that was accumulated at the base of the lithosphere sometimes in the past. Although only an area of less than 1000 km2 was sampled, magmatic activity lasted for about 5.5 Ma with a virtually continuous activity from 40.7 ± 0.7 to 35.3 ± 0.6 Ma. During this period magma composition was nearly constant, i.e. the degree of melting and the nature of the tapped source did not change significantly over time.

  17. Measurement of isotopic cross sections of the fission fragments produced in 500 AMeV {sup 208}Pb + p reaction; Etude de la production des fragments de fission issus de la reaction {sup 208}Pb + p a 500 AMeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Dominguez, B

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the fission fragments produced in the spallation reaction {sup 208}Pb + p at 500 AMeV. The fission fragments from Z=23 up to Z=59 have been detected and identified by using the inverse kinematics technique with the high-resolution spectrometer FRS. The production cross sections and the recoil velocities of 430 nuclei have been measured. The measured data have been compared with previous data. The isotopic distributions show a high precision. However, the absolute value of the fission cross section is higher than expected. From the experimental data the characteristics of the average fissioning system have been reconstructed (Z{sub fis}, A{sub fis}, E*{sub fis}). In addition, the number of post-fission neutrons emitted from the fission fragments, v{sub post}, has been determined by using a new method. The experimental data have been compared to the two-steps models describing the spallation reaction. The impact of the model parameters on the observables has been analysed and the reasons Leading to the observed differences between the codes are also presented. This analyse shows a good agreement with the INCL4+ABLA code. (author)

  18. Assessing dissolved carbon transport and transformation along an estuarine river with stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y. Jun

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries play an important role in the dynamics of dissolved carbon from rivers to coastal oceans. However, our knowledge of dissolved carbon transport and transformation in mixing zones of the world's coastal rivers is still limited. This study aims to determine how dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and stable isotopes (δ13CDIC and δ13CDOC) change along an 88-km long estuarine river, the Calcasieu River in Louisiana, southern USA, with salinity ranging from 0.02 to 21.92. The study is expected to elucidate which processes most likely control carbon dynamics in a freshwater-saltwater mixing system, and to evaluate the net metabolism of this estuary. Between May 2015 and February 2016, water samples were collected and in-situ measurements on ambient water conditions were performed during five field trips at six sites from upstream to downstream of the Calcasieu River, which enters the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). The DIC concentration and δ13CDIC increased rapidly with increasing salinity in the mixing zone. The average DIC concentration and δ13CDIC at the site closest to the NGOM (site 6) were 1.31 mM and -6.34‰, respectively, much higher than those at the site furthest upstream (site 1, 0.42 mM and -20.83‰). The DIC concentrations appeared to be largely influenced by conservative mixing, while high water temperature may have played a role in deviating DIC concentration from the conservative line due likely to increased respiration and decomposition. The δ13CDIC values were close to those suggested by the conservative mixing model for May, June and November, but lower than those for July and February, suggesting that an estuarine river can fluctuate from a balanced to a heterotrophic system (i.e., production/respiration (P/R) aquatic photosynthesis from carbon produced by terrestrial photosynthesis in a river-ocean continuum.

  19. Stable isotope analyses of precipitation nitrogen sources in Guiyang, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Song, Wei; Sun, Xin-Chao; Zheng, Xu-Dong; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Koba, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    To constrain sources of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is critical for effective reduction of reactive N emissions and better evaluation of N deposition effects. This study measured δ 15 N signatures of nitrate (NO 3 - ), ammonium (NH 4 + ) and total dissolved N (TDN) in precipitation at Guiyang, southwestern China and estimated contributions of dominant N sources using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. For NO 3 - , the contribution of non-fossil N oxides (NO x , mainly from biomass burning (24 ± 12%) and microbial N cycle (26 ± 5%)) equals that of fossil NO x , to which vehicle exhausts (31 ± 19%) contributed more than coal combustion (19 ± 9%). For NH 4 + , ammonia (NH 3 ) from volatilization sources (mainly animal wastes (22 ± 12%) and fertilizers (22 ± 10%)) contributed less than NH 3 from combustion sources (mainly biomass burning (17 ± 8%), vehicle exhausts (19 ± 11%) and coal combustions (19 ± 12%)). Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 41% in precipitation TDN deposition during the study period. Precipitation DON had higher δ 15 N values in cooler months (13.1‰) than in warmer months (-7.0‰), indicating the dominance of primary and secondary ON sources, respectively. These results newly underscored the importance of non-fossil NO x , fossil NH 3 and organic N in precipitation N inputs of urban environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronology of formation of early solar system solids from bulk Mg isotope analyses of CV3 chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Claydon, Jennifer L.; Elliott, Tim; Coath, Christopher D.; Lai, Yi-Jen; Russell, Sara S.

    2018-04-01

    We have analysed the petrography, major element abundances and bulk Al-Mg isotope systematics of 19 ferromagnesian chondrules from the CV3 chondrites Allende, Mokoia, and Vigarano, together with an Al-rich chondrule and refractory olivine from Mokoia. Co-variations of Al/Mg with Na/Mg and Ti/Mg in our bulk chondrules suggest their compositions are dominantly controlled by reworking of different proportions of chondrule components (e.g. mafic minerals and mesostatis); their precursors are thus fragments from prior generations of chondrules. Our samples show a range in fractionation corrected 26Mg/24Mg (Δ‧26Mg) ∼ 60 ppm, relative to precisions behaviour once 26Al was effectively extinct ((26Al/27Al)0 3.4 ± 0.6 × 10-5. Overall, our samples record a sequence of events from the formation of ferromagnesian objects within 0.5 Ma of CAI to re-equilibration of chondrules and silicate vapour >2 Ma post CAI, assuming an initially homogeneous 26Al/27Al. Metamorphism on the asteroid parent body may have played a subsequent role in affecting Mg isotope composition, but we argue this had a minor influence on the observations here.

  1. Mercury biomagnification in a contaminated estuary food web: Effects of age and trophic position using stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, J.P.; Mieiro, C.L.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A.C.; Pardal, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High trophic magnification potential of mercury in a temperate contaminated estuary. ► The use of age adjusted data provided better fitting to linear regression curves. ► Similar TMFs in other studies suggest stable magnification regardless of lat