WorldWideScience

Sample records for analyses identify ties

  1. Analysing Java Identifier Names

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Identifier names are the principal means of recording and communicating ideas in source code and are a significant source of information for software developers and maintainers, and the tools that support their work. This research aims to increase understanding of identifier name content types - words, abbreviations, etc. - and phrasal structures - noun phrases, verb phrases, etc. - by improving techniques for the analysis of identifier names. The techniques and knowledge acquired can be appl...

  2. Identifying Weak Ties from Publicly Available Social Media Data in an Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prakash Gupta, Jayesh; Menon, Karan; Kärkkäinen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The concept of weak ties was introduced by Granovetter through the seminal paper titled "Strength of weak ties". Since then the role of weak ties in general and their specific role as occupying the structural hole has been explored in many different fields. In this study, we identify actual or po...

  3. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-08-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

  4. Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem.

  5. Time delay and partial coherence analyses to identify cortical connectivities

    CERN Document Server

    Govindan, R B; Deuschl, G; Kopper, F; Raethjen, J

    2005-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated by Albo that partial coherence analysis is sensitive to signal to noise ratio (SNR) and that it will always identify the signal with the highest SNR among the three signals as the main (driving) influence. We propose to use time delay analysis in parallel to partial coherence analysis to identify the connectivities between the multivariate time series. Both are applied to a theoretical model (used by Albo) to analyse the connections introduced in the model. Time delay analysis identifies the connections correctly. We also apply these analyses to the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) of essential tremor patients and EEG of normal subjects while bimanually tapping their index fingers. Biologically plausible cortico-muscular and cortico-cortical connections are identified by these methods.

  6. Binding Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sino-U.S.Strategic Economic Dialogue is an important platform for the healthy development of the two countries’ trade and economic ties The Sino-U.S.Strategic Economic Dialogue(SED)meetings focus mainly on strategic,long-term and upper-level problems in bilateral eco- nomic relations between China and the United States.They serve as a platform for deepening understanding between the two countries and prompting the healthy develop-

  7. Identifying null meta-analyses that are ripe for updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Manchun

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an increasingly large number of meta-analyses are published, quantitative methods are needed to help clinicians and systematic review teams determine when meta-analyses are not up to date. Methods We propose new methods for determining when non-significant meta-analytic results might be overturned, based on a prediction of the number of participants required in new studies. To guide decision making, we introduce the "new participant ratio", the ratio of the actual number of participants in new studies to the predicted number required to obtain statistical significance. A simulation study was conducted to study the performance of our methods and a real meta-analysis provides further evidence. Results In our three simulation configurations, our diagnostic test for determining whether a meta-analysis is out of date had sensitivity of 55%, 62%, and 49% with corresponding specificity of 85%, 80%, and 90% respectively. Conclusions Simulations suggest that our methods are able to detect out-of-date meta-analyses. These quick and approximate methods show promise for use by systematic review teams to help decide whether to commit the considerable resources required to update a meta-analysis. Further investigation and evaluation of the methods is required before they can be recommended for general use.

  8. The Orphan Receptor Tie1 Controls Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling by Differentially Regulating Tie2 in Tip and Stalk Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Soniya; La Porta, Silvia; Budnik, Annika; Busch, Katrin; Hu, Junhao; Tisch, Nathalie; Korn, Claudia; Valls, Aida Freire; Benest, Andrew V; Terhardt, Dorothee; Qu, Xianghu; Adams, Ralf H; Baldwin, H Scott; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-09-22

    Tie1 is a mechanistically poorly characterized endothelial cell (EC)-specific orphan receptor. Yet, Tie1 deletion is embryonic lethal and Tie1 has been implicated in critical vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. Here, we show that Tie1 does not function independently but exerts context-dependent effects on the related receptor Tie2. Tie1 was identified as an EC activation marker that is expressed during angiogenesis by a subset of angiogenic tip and remodeling stalk cells and downregulated in the adult quiescent vasculature. Functionally, Tie1 expression by angiogenic EC contributes to shaping the tip cell phenotype by negatively regulating Tie2 surface presentation. In contrast, Tie1 acts in remodeling stalk cells cooperatively to sustain Tie2 signaling. Collectively, our data support an interactive model of Tie1 and Tie2 function, in which dynamically regulated Tie1 versus Tie2 expression determines the net positive or negative effect of Tie1 on Tie2 signaling.

  9. Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Peter; Chang, David K; Nones, Katia; Johns, Amber L; Patch, Ann-Marie; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Miller, David K; Christ, Angelika N; Bruxner, Tim J C; Quinn, Michael C; Nourse, Craig; Murtaugh, L Charles; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Manning, Suzanne; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Wani, Shivangi; Fink, Lynn; Holmes, Oliver; Chin, Venessa; Anderson, Matthew J; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Newell, Felicity; Waddell, Nick; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Wilson, Peter J; Cloonan, Nicole; Kassahn, Karin S; Taylor, Darrin; Quek, Kelly; Robertson, Alan; Pantano, Lorena; Mincarelli, Laura; Sanchez, Luis N; Evers, Lisa; Wu, Jianmin; Pinese, Mark; Cowley, Mark J; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Humphris, Jeremy; Chou, Angela; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Pinho, Andreia V; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Rooman, Ilse; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher W; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Moran-Jones, Kim; Jamieson, Nigel B; Graham, Janet S; Duthie, Fraser; Oien, Karin; Hair, Jane; Grützmann, Robert; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Corbo, Vincenzo; Bassi, Claudio; Rusev, Borislav; Capelli, Paola; Salvia, Roberto; Tortora, Giampaolo; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Petersen, Gloria M; Munzy, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Karim, Saadia A; Eshleman, James R; Hruban, Ralph H; Pilarsky, Christian; Morton, Jennifer P; Sansom, Owen J; Scarpa, Aldo; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Bailey, Ulla-Maja Hagbo; Hofmann, Oliver; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Gill, Anthony J; Gibbs, Richard A; Pearson, John V; Waddell, Nicola; Biankin, Andrew V; Grimmond, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.

  10. Identifying paleotsunami deposits in Thailand using geochemical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwhagen, Linda; Jankaew, Kruawun; Kylander, Malin; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Paleotsunami research has received considerable attention following the devastating Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. Specific questions involve the magnitude, frequency and impact of past tsunamis. Phra Thong Island in the eastern Andaman Sea is an ideal location to study paleotsunami deposits in great detail (Jankaew et al., 2008). Apart from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami layer, three more distinct tsunami layers, separated by soil horizons have been identified and dated (Jankaew et al., 2008). In a collaborative project between Stockholm University and Chulalongkorn University, four sites on Phra Thong Island were chosen for detailed geochemical studies and additional AMS 14C dating. Paleotsunami deposits at these sites can be seen as more or less distinct sand layers embedded between the peaty soils. Here we report the initial results of XRF core scanning and loss on ignition analysis, which are supplemented by new 14C dates. The XRF data sets show a good correlation between synchronous tsunami layers along a coast-inland transect. The geochemistry moreover suggests a change in source area for the oldest tsunami layer. Further work will focus on a detailed geochemical characterization of the tsunami and soil layers, and on the influence of soil processes on the geochemical record. Reference: Jankaew, K; Atwater, B; Sawai, Y; Choowong, M; Charoentitirat, T; Martin, M; Prendergast, A, 2008. Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand. Nature 455, 1228-1231.

  11. Kinship analyses identify fish dispersal events on a temperate coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunter, C; Pascual, M; Garza, J C; Raventos, N; Macpherson, E

    2014-06-22

    Connectivity is crucial for the persistence and resilience of marine species, the establishment of networks of marine protected areas and the delineation of fishery management units. In the marine environment, understanding connectivity is still a major challenge, due to the technical difficulties of tracking larvae. Recently, parentage analysis has provided a means to address this question effectively. To be effective, this method requires limited adult movement and extensive sampling of parents, which is often not possible for marine species. An alternative approach that is less sensitive to constraints in parental movement and sampling could be the reconstruction of sibships. Here, we directly measure connectivity and larval dispersal in a temperate marine ecosystem through both analytical approaches. We use data from 178 single nucleotide polymorphism markers to perform parentage and sibship reconstruction of the black-faced blenny (Tripterygion delaisi) from an open coastline in the Mediterranean Sea. Parentage analysis revealed a decrease in dispersal success in the focal area over 1 km distance and approximately 6.5% of the juveniles were identified as self-recruits. Sibship reconstruction analysis found that, in general, full siblings did not recruit together to the same location, and that the largest distance between recruitment locations was much higher (11.5 km) than found for parent-offspring pairs (1.2 km). Direct measurements of dispersal are essential to understanding connectivity patterns in different marine habitats, and show the degree of self-replenishment and sustainability of populations of marine organisms. We demonstrate that sibship reconstruction allows direct measurements of dispersal and family structure in marine species while being more easily applied in those species for which the collection of the parental population is difficult or unfeasible.

  12. Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia) Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia) Patient Health Information ... may be serious in some individuals. When Is Tongue-tie a Problem That Needs Treatment? In Infants ...

  13. 在线社交网络中具有传播价值的弱关系识别研究%Identifying Weak Ties with Value of Dissemination in Online Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹熙成; 朱恒民; 魏静; 马静

    2016-01-01

    [目的/意义]鉴于在线社交网络中的部分弱关系在信息传播中扮演了重要角色,提出定量模型来计算和识别具有传播价值的弱关系,以更好地了解网络中信息传播的关系结构。[方法/过程]基于历史交互数据定义了连边权重,运用PageRank算法思想确定网络中的关键节点,最后对关键节点间的弱关系路径进行重要性评价,以识别具有传播价值的弱关系。[结果/结论]实验表明,弱关系路径使信息能够在以意见领袖为中心的社交团体之间“链式”传播,也从侧面揭示了网络中信息流动的关系结构。%Purpose/Significance] Partial weak ties in online social network play significant roles in the process of information diffusion. This aims to better understand the relationship structure of information dissemination. [ Method/Process] We measured the link strength based on historical interaction records, and identified influential nodes PageRank technology. Finally the importance of paths containing weak ties were evaluated to identify weak ties with value of dissemination in online social networks. [ Result/Conclusion] The experimen-tal result show that the paths containing weak ties make it possible for information to spread between social groups represented by opinion leaders, and these important paths containing weak ties reveal the relational structure of information diffusion as well.

  14. Tie rod insertion test

    CERN Multimedia

    B. LEVESY

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  15. The Orphan Receptor Tie1 Controls Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling by Differentially Regulating Tie2 in Tip and Stalk Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya Savant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tie1 is a mechanistically poorly characterized endothelial cell (EC-specific orphan receptor. Yet, Tie1 deletion is embryonic lethal and Tie1 has been implicated in critical vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. Here, we show that Tie1 does not function independently but exerts context-dependent effects on the related receptor Tie2. Tie1 was identified as an EC activation marker that is expressed during angiogenesis by a subset of angiogenic tip and remodeling stalk cells and downregulated in the adult quiescent vasculature. Functionally, Tie1 expression by angiogenic EC contributes to shaping the tip cell phenotype by negatively regulating Tie2 surface presentation. In contrast, Tie1 acts in remodeling stalk cells cooperatively to sustain Tie2 signaling. Collectively, our data support an interactive model of Tie1 and Tie2 function, in which dynamically regulated Tie1 versus Tie2 expression determines the net positive or negative effect of Tie1 on Tie2 signaling.

  16. Identifying Useful Terms to Retrieve Survival Data Meta-Analyses Publications for Bibliographic Databases Search Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Corneliu LEUCUŢA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality research and quality evidence based medicine practice has an important pillar in a solid bibliographic documentation. Quality bibliographic documentation makes use of search strategies to retrieve articles from search engines of bibliographic databases. The AIM of this study was the identification of useful search terms to be used in search strategies that try to find meta-analyses of survival data. Materials and methods: A qualitative study based on text analysis was undertaken to identify useful terms for search strategies in abstracts of scientific papers. Survival analysis meta-analyses publication type studies, published between 1996 and 2005, were searched in Medline bibliographic database through Pubmed web interface. Each abstract was analysed and each important terms were noted down if they were considered to be useful in the creation of search strategies for analysis of survival data, or meta-analyses. Results: Pubmed search yielded 773 results. From these search results 401 (52% fulfilled inclusion criteria. The terms that were identified as useful in search strategies for meta-analyses of survival data are presented in the paper.

  17. Structural identifiability analyses of candidate models for in vitro Pitavastatin hepatic uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas R B; Chappell, Michael J; Yates, James W T; Evans, Neil D

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a review of the application of four different techniques (a version of the similarity transformation approach for autonomous uncontrolled systems, a non-differential input/output observable normal form approach, the characteristic set differential algebra and a recent algebraic input/output relationship approach) to determine the structural identifiability of certain in vitro nonlinear pharmacokinetic models is provided. The Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) substrate, Pitavastatin, is used as a probe on freshly isolated animal and human hepatocytes. Candidate pharmacokinetic non-linear compartmental models have been derived to characterise the uptake process of Pitavastatin. As a prerequisite to parameter estimation, structural identifiability analyses are performed to establish that all unknown parameters can be identified from the experimental observations available.

  18. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings.

  19. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  20. Genes that affect brain structure and function identified by rare variant analyses of Mendelian neurologic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Ender; Harel, Tamar; Pehlivan, Davut; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Gambin, Tomasz; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Erdin, Serkan; Bayram, Yavuz; Campbell, Ian M.; Hunter, Jill V.; Atik, Mehmed M.; Van Esch, Hilde; Yuan, Bo; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Isikay, Sedat; Yesil, Gozde; Yuregir, Ozge O.; Bozdogan, Sevcan Tug; Aslan, Huseyin; Aydin, Hatip; Tos, Tulay; Aksoy, Ayse; De Vivo, Darryl C.; Jain, Preti; Geckinli, B. Bilge; Sezer, Ozlem; Gul, Davut; Durmaz, Burak; Cogulu, Ozgur; Ozkinay, Ferda; Topcu, Vehap; Candan, Sukru; Cebi, Alper Han; Ikbal, Mevlit; Gulec, Elif Yilmaz; Gezdirici, Alper; Koparir, Erkan; Ekici, Fatma; Coskun, Salih; Cicek, Salih; Karaer, Kadri; Koparir, Asuman; Duz, Mehmet Bugrahan; Kirat, Emre; Fenercioglu, Elif; Ulucan, Hakan; Seven, Mehmet; Guran, Tulay; Elcioglu, Nursel; Yildirim, Mahmut Selman; Aktas, Dilek; Alikaşifoğlu, Mehmet; Ture, Mehmet; Yakut, Tahsin; Overton, John D.; Yuksel, Adnan; Ozen, Mustafa; Muzny, Donna M.; Adams, David R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chung, Wendy K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R

    2015-01-01

    Development of the human nervous system involves complex interactions between fundamental cellular processes and requires a multitude of genes, many of which remain to be associated with human disease. We applied whole exome sequencing to 128 mostly consanguineous families with neurogenetic disorders that often included brain malformations. Rare variant analyses for both single nucleotide variant (SNV) and copy number variant (CNV) alleles allowed for identification of 45 novel variants in 43 known disease genes, 41 candidate genes, and CNVs in 10 families, with an overall potential molecular cause identified in >85% of families studied. Among the candidate genes identified, we found PRUNE, VARS, and DHX37 in multiple families, and homozygous loss of function variants in AGBL2, SLC18A2, SMARCA1, UBQLN1, and CPLX1. Neuroimaging and in silico analysis of functional and expression proximity between candidate and known disease genes allowed for further understanding of genetic networks underlying specific types of brain malformations. PMID:26539891

  1. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.

    1999-04-01

    The robustness of procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses is investigated. These procedures are based on attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in the scatterplots under consideration and involve the identification of (1) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (2) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (3) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (4) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (5) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. The following two topics related to the robustness of these procedures are considered for a sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow: the presence of Type I and Type II errors, and the stability of results obtained with independent Latin hypercube samples. Observations from analysis include: (1) Type I errors are unavoidable, (2) Type II errors can occur when inappropriate analysis procedures are used, (3) physical explanations should always be sought for why statistical procedures identify variables as being important, and (4) the identification of important variables tends to be stable for independent Latin hypercube samples.

  2. Can novel genetic analyses help to identify low-dispersal marine invasive species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Peter R; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Waters, Jonathan M; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2014-07-01

    Genetic methods can be a powerful tool to resolve the native versus introduced status of populations whose taxonomy and biogeography are poorly understood. The genetic study of introduced species is presently dominated by analyses that identify signatures of recent colonization by means of summary statistics. Unfortunately, such approaches cannot be used in low-dispersal species, in which recently established populations originating from elsewhere in the species' native range also experience periods of low population size because they are founded by few individuals. We tested whether coalescent-based molecular analyses that provide detailed information about demographic history supported the hypothesis that a sea squirt whose distribution is centered on Tasmania was recently introduced to mainland Australia and New Zealand through human activities. Methods comparing trends in population size (Bayesian Skyline Plots and Approximate Bayesian Computation) were no more informative than summary statistics, likely because of recent intra-Tasmanian dispersal. However, IMa2 estimates of divergence between putatively native and introduced populations provided information at a temporal scale suitable to differentiate between recent (potentially anthropogenic) introductions and ancient divergence, and indicated that all three non-Tasmanian populations were founded during the period of European settlement. While this approach can be affected by inaccurate molecular dating, it has considerable (albeit largely unexplored) potential to corroborate nongenetic information in species with limited dispersal capabilities.

  3. Correlation analyses of clinical and molecular findings identify candidate biological pathways in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xuefeng B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians have long appreciated the distinct phenotype of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA compared to polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (POLY. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from children with each disease would reveal distinct biological pathways when analyzed for significant associations with elevations in two markers of JIA activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and number of affected joints (joint count, JC. Methods PBMC RNA from SJIA and POLY patients was profiled by kinetic PCR to analyze expression of 181 genes, selected for relevance to immune response pathways. Pearson correlation and Student's t-test analyses were performed to identify transcripts significantly associated with clinical parameters (ESR and JC in SJIA or POLY samples. These transcripts were used to find related biological pathways. Results Combining Pearson and t-test analyses, we found 91 ESR-related and 92 JC-related genes in SJIA. For POLY, 20 ESR-related and 0 JC-related genes were found. Using Ingenuity Systems Pathways Analysis, we identified SJIA ESR-related and JC-related pathways. The two sets of pathways are strongly correlated. In contrast, there is a weaker correlation between SJIA and POLY ESR-related pathways. Notably, distinct biological processes were found to correlate with JC in samples from the earlier systemic plus arthritic phase (SAF of SJIA compared to samples from the later arthritis-predominant phase (AF. Within the SJIA SAF group, IL-10 expression was related to JC, whereas lack of IL-4 appeared to characterize the chronic arthritis (AF subgroup. Conclusions The strong correlation between pathways implicated in elevations of both ESR and JC in SJIA argues that the systemic and arthritic components of the disease are related mechanistically. Inflammatory pathways in SJIA are distinct from those in POLY course JIA, consistent with

  4. Direct targets of the tomato-ripening regulator RIN identified by transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Higuchi, Naoki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    The physiological and biochemical changes in fruit ripening produce key attributes of fruit quality including color, taste, aroma and texture. These changes are driven by the highly regulated and synchronized activation of a huge number of ripening-associated genes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a typical climacteric fruit, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN is one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, required for both ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent pathways. Although we previously identified several direct RIN targets, many additional targets remain unidentified, likely including key ripening-associated genes. Here, we report the identification of novel RIN targets by transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. Transcriptome comparisons by microarray of wild-type and rin mutant tomatoes identified 342 positively regulated genes and 473 negatively regulated genes by RIN during ripening. Most of the positively regulated genes contained possible RIN-binding (CArG-box) sequences in their promoters. Subsequently, we selected six genes from the positively regulated genes and a ripening regulator gene, CNR, and assayed their promoters by quantitative ChIP-PCR to examine RIN binding. All of the seven genes, which are involved in cell wall modification, aroma and flavor development, pathogen defense and transcriptional regulation during ripening, are targets of RIN, suggesting that RIN may control multiple diverse ripening processes. In particular, RIN directly regulates the expression of the ripening-associated transcription factors, CNR, TDR4 and a GRAS family gene, providing an important clue to elucidate the complicated transcriptional cascade for fruit ripening.

  5. INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES TO IDENTIFY M. TUBERCULOSIS ANTIGENS AND EPITOPES USING GENOME-WIDE ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemieke eGeluk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that only a small part of the Mtb expressome has been explored for identification of antigens capable of activating human T-cell responses, which is critically required for the design of better TB vaccination strategies, more emphasis should be placed on innovative ways to discover new Mtb antigens and explore their function at the several stages of infection. Better protective antigens for TB vaccines are urgently needed, also in view of the disappointing results of the MVA85 vaccine which failed to induce additional protection in BCG vaccinated infants [54]. Moreover, immune responses to relevant antigens may be useful to identify TB-specific biomarker signatures. Here we describe the potency of novel tools and strategies to reveal such Mtb antigens. Using proteins specific for different Mtb infection phases, many new antigens of the latency-associated Mtb DosR regulon as well as Rpf proteins, associated with resuscitating TB, were discovered that were recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Furthermore, by employing MHC binding algorithms and bioinformatics combined with high throughput human T-cell screens and tetramers, HLA-class Ia restricted poly-functional CD8+ T-cells were identified in TB patients. Comparable methods, led to the identification of HLA-E-restricted Mtb epitopes recognized by CD8+ T-cells. A genome-wide unbiased antigen discovery approach was applied to analyse the in vivo Mtb gene expression profiles in the lungs of mice, resulting in the identification of IVE-TB antigens, which are expressed during infection in the lung, the main target organ of Mtb. IVE-TB antigens induce strong T cell responses in long-term latently Mtb infected individuals, and represent an interesting new group of TB antigens for vaccination. In summary, new tools have helped expand our view on the Mtb antigenome involved in human cellular immunity and provided new candidates for TB vaccination.

  6. The Ties That Bind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China and the United States prepare for their first Strategic and Economic Dialogue U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner’s China trip from May 31 to June 2 sent a clear message that the two countries plan to establish stronger ties not only in the economic field, but also in other areas where they have com-

  7. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-05-01

    Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], beta = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, P = 2.8 x 10(-73)). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], beta = 0.367, s.e. = 0.059, P = 5.7 x 10(-10); and rs1028936[A], beta = 0.446, s.e. = 0.074, P = 1.3 x 10(-9)) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], beta = 0.333, s.e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.08, P = 1.8 x 10(-8)). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08-1.18, P = 3.6 x 10(-8)) was significantly associated with smoking cessation.

  8. Zika Now Tied to Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160101.html Zika Now Tied to Miscarriage Dutch case finds woman's ... tied to maternal infection with the mosquito-borne Zika virus. The virus is best known for its ...

  9. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Furberg (Helena); Y. Kim (Yunjung); J. Dackor (Jennifer); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); N. Franceschini (Nora); D. Ardissino (Diego); L. Bernardinelli (Luisa); P.M. Mannucci (Pier); F. Mauri (Francesco); P.A. Merlini (Piera); D. Absher (Devin); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); C. Iribarren (Carlos); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); T. Quertermous (Thomas); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.C. Bis (Joshua); T. Haritunians (Talin); B. McKnight (Barbara); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K.D. Taylor (Kent); E.L. Thacker (Evan); P. Almgren (Peter); L. Groop (Leif); C. Ladenvall (Claes); M. Boehnke (Michael); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); S.J. Hwang; D. Levy (Daniel); S.R. Preis; R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); J. Duan (Jubao); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); A.R. Sanders (Alan); J. Shi (Jianxin); E.H. Lips (Esther); J.D. McKay (James); A. Agudo (Antonio); L. Barzan (Luigi); V. Bencko (Vladimir); S. Benhamou (Simone); X. Castellsagué (Xavier); C. Canova (Cristina); D.I. Conway (David); E. Fabianova (Eleonora); L. Foretova (Lenka); V. Janout (Vladimir); C.M. Healy (Claire); I. Holcátová (Ivana); K. Kjaerheim (Kristina); P. Lagiou; J. Lissowska (Jolanta); R. Lowry (Ray); T.V. MacFarlane (Tatiana); D. Mates (Dana); L. Richiardi (Lorenzo); P. Rudnai (Peter); N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska (Neonilia); D. Zaridze; A. Znaor (Ariana); M. Lathrop (Mark); P. Brennan (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); J.R.B. Perry (John); D. Altshuler (David); R. Elosua (Roberto); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); G. Lucas (Gavin); O. Melander (Olle); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.H. Smit (Johannes); N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); J.M. Vink (Jacqueline); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); F. Gu (Fangyi); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); D. Hunter (David); A. Hofman (Albert); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); S. Walter (Stefan); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); B.M. Everett (Brendan); G. Pare (Guillaume); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Li (Ming); H.H. Maes (Hermine); J. Audrain-Mcgovern (Janet); D. Posthuma (Danielle); L.M. Thornton (Laura); C. Lerman (Caryn); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); J.E. Rose (Jed); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); P. Kraft (Peter); D.Y. Lin (Dan); P.F. Sullivan (Patrick); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractConsistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (

  10. Water and Tie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小诗

    1999-01-01

    A tourist got separated from his tour group in the Sahara. He begged apassing nomad (游牧部落的人) for water." Sorry," said the tribesman (部落男子), "I have no water, but I do have some lovely neckties I’ll sell you." "Youmust be crazy," the tourist mumbled (喃喃而语). Nearly dead from thirst, hespied (发现) another man." Water!" the tourist gasped. "Please, give mewater. ""I have no water," came the reply, "only these handsome ties, which Iwill happily sell you."

  11. Identifying neural correlates of visual consciousness with ALE meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisenius, Sandrine; Trapp, Sabrina; Neumann, Jane; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2015-11-15

    Neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been a topic of study for nearly two decades. In functional imaging studies, several regions have been proposed to constitute possible candidates for NCC, but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature on NCC has been done. The question whether single (striate or extrastriate) regions or a network consisting of extrastriate areas that project directly to fronto-parietal regions are necessary and sufficient neural correlates for visual consciousness is still highly debated [e.g., Rees et al., 2002, Nat Rev. Neurosci 3, 261-270; Tong, 2003, Nat Rev. Neurosci 4, 219-229]. The aim of this work was to elucidate this issue and give a synopsis of the present state of the art by conducting systematic and quantitative meta-analyses across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using several standard paradigms for conscious visual perception. In these paradigms, consciousness is operationalized via perceptual changes, while the visual stimulus remains invariant. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was performed, representing the best approach for voxel-wise meta-analyses to date. In addition to computing a meta-analysis across all paradigms, separate meta-analyses on bistable perception and masking paradigms were conducted to assess whether these paradigms show common or different NCC. For the overall meta-analysis, we found significant clusters of activation in inferior and middle occipital gyrus; fusiform gyrus; inferior temporal gyrus; caudate nucleus; insula; inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri; precuneus; as well as in inferior and superior parietal lobules. These results suggest a subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network rather than a single region that constitutes the necessary NCC. The results of our exploratory paradigm-specific meta-analyses suggest that this subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network might be differentially activated as a function of the

  12. Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine risk factors for childhood overweight that can be identified during the first year of life to facilitate early identification and targeted intervention. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Search strategy Electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CAB Abstracts. Eligibility criteria Prospective observational studies following up children from birth for at least 2 years. Results Thirty prospective studies were identified. Significant and strong ind...

  13. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Mateo Leach, Irene; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with se

  14. Analyses of the xylem sap proteomes identified candidate Fusarium virguliforme proteinacious toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilwala S Abeysekara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudden death syndrome (SDS caused by the ascomycete fungus, Fusarium virguliforme, exhibits root necrosis and leaf scorch or foliar SDS. The pathogen has never been identified from the above ground diseased foliar tissues. Foliar SDS is believed to be caused by host selective toxins, including FvTox1, secreted by the fungus. This study investigated if the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants contains secreted F. virguliforme-proteins, some of which could cause foliar SDS development. RESULTS: Xylem sap samples were collected from five biological replications of F. virguliforme-infected and uninfected soybean plants under controlled conditions. We identified five F. virguliforme proteins from the xylem sap of the F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants by conducting LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These five proteins were also present in the excreted proteome of the pathogen in culture filtrates. One of these proteins showed high sequence identity to cerato-platanin, a phytotoxin produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani to cause canker stain disease in the plane tree. Of over 500 soybean proteins identified in this study, 112 were present in at least 80% of the sap samples collected from F. virguliforme-infected and -uninfected control plants. We have identified four soybean defense proteins from the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000873. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that a few F. virguliforme proteins travel through the xylem, some of which could be involved in foliar SDS development. We have identified five candidate proteinaceous toxins, one of which showed high similarity to a previously characterized phytotoxin. We have also shown the presence of four soybean defense proteins in the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants. This study laid the foundation for studying the molecular basis of foliar SDS

  15. Integrating genetic, transcriptional, and functional analyses to identify 5 novel genes for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinner, Moritz F; Tucker, Nathan R; Lunetta, Kathryn L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects >30 million individuals worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of stroke, heart failure, and death. AF is highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for the arrhythmia remains incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify new AF......-related genes, we used a multifaceted approach, combining large-scale genotyping in 2 ethnically distinct populations, cis-eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci) mapping, and functional validation. Four novel loci were identified in individuals of European descent near the genes NEURL (rs12415501; relative...... risk [RR]=1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.23; P=6.5×10(-16)), GJA1 (rs13216675; RR=1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; P=2.2×10(-8)), TBX5 (rs10507248; RR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P=5.7×10(-11)), and CAND2 (rs4642101; RR=1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; P=9.8×10(-9)). In Japanese, novel loci were identified...

  16. Multistage genome-wide association meta-analyses identified two new loci for bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Choi, Hyung Jin; Estrada, Karol; Leo, Paul J; Li, Jian; Pei, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Yinping; Lin, Yong; Shen, Hui; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Liu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yingchun; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yu-ping; Han, Yingying; Ran, Shu; Hai, Rong; Zhu, Xue-Zhen; Wu, Shuyan; Yan, Han; Liu, Xiaogang; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Yan-fang; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Xiangding; Tan, Lijun; Zhang, Lishu; Deng, Fei-Yan; Deng, Hongyi; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Duncan, Emma L; Lee, Jong Young; Han, Bok Ghee; Cho, Nam H; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; McCloskey, Eugene; Eastell, Richard; Prince, Richard L; Eisman, John A; Jones, Graeme; Reid, Ian R; Sambrook, Philip N; Dennison, Elaine M; Danoy, Patrick; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Hu, Tian; Xiang, Shuanglin; Papasian, Christopher J; Brown, Matthew A; Shin, Chan Soo; Uitterlinden, André G; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2014-04-01

    Aiming to identify novel genetic variants and to confirm previously identified genetic variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD), we conducted a three-stage genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis in 27 061 study subjects. Stage 1 meta-analyzed seven GWA samples and 11 140 subjects for BMDs at the lumbar spine, hip and femoral neck, followed by a Stage 2 in silico replication of 33 SNPs in 9258 subjects, and by a Stage 3 de novo validation of three SNPs in 6663 subjects. Combining evidence from all the stages, we have identified two novel loci that have not been reported previously at the genome-wide significance (GWS; 5.0 × 10(-8)) level: 14q24.2 (rs227425, P-value 3.98 × 10(-13), SMOC1) in the combined sample of males and females and 21q22.13 (rs170183, P-value 4.15 × 10(-9), CLDN14) in the female-specific sample. The two newly identified SNPs were also significant in the GEnetic Factors for OSteoporosis consortium (GEFOS, n = 32 960) summary results. We have also independently confirmed 13 previously reported loci at the GWS level: 1p36.12 (ZBTB40), 1p31.3 (GPR177), 4p16.3 (FGFRL1), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 5q14.3 (MEF2C), 6q25.1 (C6orf97, ESR1), 7q21.3 (FLJ42280, SHFM1), 7q31.31 (FAM3C, WNT16), 8q24.12 (TNFRSF11B), 11p15.3 (SOX6), 11q13.4 (LRP5), 13q14.11 (AKAP11) and 16q24 (FOXL1). Gene expression analysis in osteogenic cells implied potential functional association of the two candidate genes (SMOC1 and CLDN14) in bone metabolism. Our findings independently confirm previously identified biological pathways underlying bone metabolism and contribute to the discovery of novel pathways, thus providing valuable insights into the intervention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  17. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations, 2. Robustness of Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1999-03-24

    Procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses are described and illustrated. These procedures attempt to detect increasingly complex patterns in scatterplots and involve the identification of (i) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (ii) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (iii) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (iv) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (v) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. A sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow illustrates how the individual procedures can differ in the variables that they identify as having effects on particular model outcomes. The example analyses indicate that the use of a sequence of procedures is a good analysis strategy and provides some assurance that an important effect is not overlooked.

  18. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify three loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Invernizzi, Pietro; Lu, Yue; Kosoy, Roman; Lu, Yan; Bianchi, Ilaria; Podda, Mauro; Xu, Chun; Xie, Gang; Macciardi, Fabio; Selmi, Carlo; Lupoli, Sara; Shigeta, Russell; Ransom, Michael; Lleo, Ana; Lee, Annette T; Mason, Andrew L; Myers, Robert P; Peltekian, Kevork M; Ghent, Cameron N; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Zuin, Massimo; Rosina, Floriano; Borghesio, Elisabetta; Floreani, Annarosa; Lazzari, Roberta; Niro, Grazia; Andriulli, Angelo; Muratori, Luigi; Muratori, Paolo; Almasio, Piero L; Andreone, Pietro; Margotti, Marzia; Brunetto, Maurizia; Coco, Barbara; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria C; Marra, Fabio; Pisano, Alessandro; Rigamonti, Cristina; Colombo, Massimo; Marzioni, Marco; Benedetti, Antonio; Fabris, Luca; Strazzabosco, Mario; Portincasa, Piero; Palmieri, Vincenzo O; Tiribelli, Claudio; Croce, Lory; Bruno, Savino; Rossi, Sonia; Vinci, Maria; Prisco, Cleofe; Mattalia, Alberto; Toniutto, Pierluigi; Picciotto, Antonio; Galli, Andrea; Ferrari, Carlo; Colombo, Silvia; Casella, Giovanni; Morini, Lorenzo; Caporaso, Nicola; Colli, Agostino; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Montanari, Renzo; Gregersen, Peter K; Heathcote, E Jenny; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Amos, Christopher I; Gershwin, M Eric; Seldin, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association screen for primary biliary cirrhosis risk alleles was performed in an Italian cohort. The results from the Italian cohort replicated IL12A and IL12RB associations, and a combined meta-analysis using a Canadian dataset identified newly associated loci at SPIB (P = 7.9 × 10–11, odds ratio (OR) = 1.46), IRF5-TNPO3 (P = 2.8 × 10–10, OR = 1.63) and 17q12-21 (P = 1.7 × 10–10, OR = 1.38). PMID:20639880

  19. Comparative Methylome Analyses Identify Epigenetic Regulatory Loci of Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Isabel; Shi, Lei; Keller, Thomas E; Konopka, Genevieve; Preuss, Todd M; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Hu, Enzhi; Zhang, Zhe; Su, Bing; Yi, Soojin V

    2016-11-01

    How do epigenetic modifications change across species and how do these modifications affect evolution? These are fundamental questions at the forefront of our evolutionary epigenomic understanding. Our previous work investigated human and chimpanzee brain methylomes, but it was limited by the lack of outgroup data which is critical for comparative (epi)genomic studies. Here, we compared whole genome DNA methylation maps from brains of humans, chimpanzees and also rhesus macaques (outgroup) to elucidate DNA methylation changes during human brain evolution. Moreover, we validated that our approach is highly robust by further examining 38 human-specific DMRs using targeted deep genomic and bisulfite sequencing in an independent panel of 37 individuals from five primate species. Our unbiased genome-scan identified human brain differentially methylated regions (DMRs), irrespective of their associations with annotated genes. Remarkably, over half of the newly identified DMRs locate in intergenic regions or gene bodies. Nevertheless, their regulatory potential is on par with those of promoter DMRs. An intriguing observation is that DMRs are enriched in active chromatin loops, suggesting human-specific evolutionary remodeling at a higher-order chromatin structure. These findings indicate that there is substantial reprogramming of epigenomic landscapes during human brain evolution involving noncoding regions.

  20. Genomic analyses identify recurrent MEF2D fusions in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaohui; Churchman, Michelle; Roberts, Kathryn; Li, Yongjin; Liu, Yu; Harvey, Richard C.; McCastlain, Kelly; Reshmi, Shalini C.; Payne-Turner, Debbie; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Shao, Ying; Chen, I-Ming; Valentine, Marcus; Pei, Deqing; Mungall, Karen L.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Ma, Yussanne; Moore, Richard; Marra, Marco; Stonerock, Eileen; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Dai, Yunfeng; Wood, Brent; Borowitz, Michael; Larsen, Eric E.; Maloney, Kelly; Mattano Jr, Leonard A.; Angiolillo, Anne; Salzer, Wanda L.; Burke, Michael J.; Gianni, Francesca; Spinelli, Orietta; Radich, Jerald P.; Minden, Mark D.; Moorman, Anthony V.; Patel, Bella; Fielding, Adele K.; Rowe, Jacob M.; Luger, Selina M.; Bhatia, Ravi; Aldoss, Ibrahim; Forman, Stephen J.; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Stock, Wendy; Kornblau, Steven; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Konopleva, Marina; Paietta, Elisabeth; Willman, Cheryl L.; L. Loh, Mignon; P. Hunger, Stephen; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are initiating events in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Here using RNA sequencing of 560 ALL cases, we identify rearrangements between MEF2D (myocyte enhancer factor 2D) and five genes (BCL9, CSF1R, DAZAP1, HNRNPUL1 and SS18) in 22 B progenitor ALL (B-ALL) cases with a distinct gene expression profile, the most common of which is MEF2D-BCL9. Examination of an extended cohort of 1,164 B-ALL cases identified 30 cases with MEF2D rearrangements, which include an additional fusion partner, FOXJ2; thus, MEF2D-rearranged cases comprise 5.3% of cases lacking recurring alterations. MEF2D-rearranged ALL is characterized by a distinct immunophenotype, DNA copy number alterations at the rearrangement sites, older diagnosis age and poor outcome. The rearrangements result in enhanced MEF2D transcriptional activity, lymphoid transformation, activation of HDAC9 expression and sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment. Thus, MEF2D-rearranged ALL represents a distinct form of high-risk leukaemia, for which new therapeutic approaches should be considered. PMID:27824051

  1. Genome-wide association analyses identify new susceptibility loci for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesseur, Corina; Diergaarde, Brenda; Olshan, Andrew F; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Ness, Andrew R; Liu, Geoffrey; Lacko, Martin; Eluf-Neto, José; Franceschi, Silvia; Lagiou, Pagona; Macfarlane, Gary J; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Boccia, Stefania; Polesel, Jerry; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Zaridze, David; Johansson, Mattias; Menezes, Ana M; Curado, Maria Paula; Robinson, Max; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Canova, Cristina; Znaor, Ariana; Castellsagué, Xavier; Conway, David I; Holcátová, Ivana; Mates, Dana; Vilensky, Marta; Healy, Claire M; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Lissowska, Jolanta; Grandis, Jennifer R; Weissler, Mark C; Tajara, Eloiza H; Nunes, Fabio D; de Carvalho, Marcos B; Thomas, Steve; Hung, Rayjean J; Peters, Wilbert H M; Herrero, Rolando; Cadoni, Gabriella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Steffen, Annika; Agudo, Antonio; Shangina, Oxana; Xiao, Xiangjun; Gaborieau, Valérie; Chabrier, Amélie; Anantharaman, Devasena; Boffetta, Paolo; Amos, Christopher I; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer in 6,034 cases and 6,585 controls from Europe, North America and South America. We detected eight significantly associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), seven of which are new for these cancer sites. Oral and pharyngeal cancers combined were associated with loci at 6p21.32 (rs3828805, HLA-DQB1), 10q26.13 (rs201982221, LHPP) and 11p15.4 (rs1453414, OR52N2-TRIM5). Oral cancer was associated with two new regions, 2p23.3 (rs6547741, GPN1) and 9q34.12 (rs928674, LAMC3), and with known cancer-related loci-9p21.3 (rs8181047, CDKN2B-AS1) and 5p15.33 (rs10462706, CLPTM1L). Oropharyngeal cancer associations were limited to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and classical HLA allele imputation showed a protective association with the class II haplotype HLA-DRB1*1301-HLA-DQA1*0103-HLA-DQB1*0603 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.59, P = 2.7 × 10(-9)). Stratified analyses on a subgroup of oropharyngeal cases with information available on human papillomavirus (HPV) status indicated that this association was considerably stronger in HPV-positive (OR = 0.23, P = 1.6 × 10(-6)) than in HPV-negative (OR = 0.75, P = 0.16) cancers.

  2. Genome-wide association analyses identify SPOCK as a key novel gene underlying age at menarche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Zhong Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For females, menarche is a most significant physiological event. Age at menarche (AAM is a trait with high genetic determination and is associated with major complex diseases in women. However, specific genes for AAM variation are largely unknown. To identify genetic factors underlying AAM variation, a genome-wide association study (GWAS examining about 380,000 SNPs was conducted in 477 Caucasian women. A follow-up replication study was performed to validate our major GWAS findings using two independent Caucasian cohorts with 854 siblings and 762 unrelated subjects, respectively, and one Chinese cohort of 1,387 unrelated subjects--all females. Our GWAS identified a novel gene, SPOCK (Sparc/Osteonectin, CWCV, and Kazal-like domains proteoglycan, which had seven SNPs associated with AAM with genome-wide false discovery rate (FDR q<0.05. Six most significant SNPs of the gene were selected for validation in three independent replication cohorts. All of the six SNPs were replicated in at least one cohort. In particular, SNPs rs13357391 and rs1859345 were replicated both within and across different ethnic groups in all three cohorts, with p values of 5.09 x 10(-3 and 4.37 x 10(-3, respectively, in the Chinese cohort and combined p values (obtained by Fisher's method of 5.19 x 10(-5 and 1.02 x 10(-4, respectively, in all three replication cohorts. Interestingly, SPOCK can inhibit activation of MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2, a key factor promoting endometrial menstrual breakdown and onset of menstrual bleeding. Our findings, together with the functional relevance, strongly supported that the SPOCK gene underlies variation of AAM.

  3. Large-scale association analyses identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunkert, Heribert; König, Inke R.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Holm, Hilma; Preuss, Michael; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Barbalic, Maja; Gieger, Christian; Absher, Devin; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Allayee, Hooman; Altshuler, David; Anand, Sonia S.; Andersen, Karl; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Ardissino, Diego; Ball, Stephen G.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Barnes, Timothy A.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berger, Klaus; Bis, Joshua C.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Boerwinkle, Eric; Braund, Peter S.; Brown, Morris J.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Buysschaert, Ian; Carlquist, Cardiogenics, John F.; Chen, Li; Cichon, Sven; Codd, Veryan; Davies, Robert W.; Dedoussis, George; Dehghan, Abbas; Demissie, Serkalem; Devaney, Joseph M.; Do, Ron; Doering, Angela; Eifert, Sandra; El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Ellis, Stephen G.; Elosua, Roberto; Engert, James C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Faire, Ulf de; Fischer, Marcus; Folsom, Aaron R.; Freyer, Jennifer; Gigante, Bruna; Girelli, Domenico; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Halperin, Eran; Hammond, Naomi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Hofman, Albert; Horne, Benjamin D.; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jones, Gregory T.; Jukema, J.Wouter; Kaiser, Michael A.; Kaplan, Lee M.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kong, Augustine; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lambrechts, Diether; Leander, Karin; Lettre, Guillaume; Li, Mingyao; Lieb, Wolfgang; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Loley, Christina; Lotery, Andrew J.; Mannucci, Pier M.; Maouche, Seraya; Martinelli, Nicola; McKeown, Pascal P.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Merlini, Pier Angelica; Mooser, Vincent; Morgan, Thomas; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.; Münzel, Thomas; Musunuru, Kiran; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Olivieri, Oliviero; Patel, Riyaz S.; Patterson, Chris C.; Peters, Annette; Peyvandi, Flora; Qu, Liming; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Rallidis, Loukianos S.; Rice, Catherine; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Rubin, Diana; Salomaa, Veikko; Sampietro, M. Lourdes; Sandhu, Manj S.; Schadt, Eric; Schäfer, Arne; Schillert, Arne; Schreiber, Stefan; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Sivananthan, Mohan; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Smith, Albert; Smith, Tamara B.; Snoep, Jaapjan D.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spertus, John A.; Stark, Klaus; Stirrups, Kathy; Stoll, Monika; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Rij, Andre M.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Wareham, Nick J.; Wells, George A.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wild, Philipp S.; Willenborg, Christina; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Ye, Shu; Zeller, Tanja; Ziegler, Andreas; Cambien, Francois; Goodall, Alison H.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Quertermous, Thomas; März, Winfried; Hengstenberg, Christian; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Hall, Alistair S.; Deloukas, Panos; Thompson, John R.; Stefansson, Kari; Roberts, Robert; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; McPherson, Ruth; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 cases and 64,762 controls of European descent, followed by genotyping of top association signals in 60,738 additional individuals. This genomic analysis identified 13 novel loci harboring one or more SNPs that were associated with CAD at P<5×10−8 and confirmed the association of 10 of 12 previously reported CAD loci. The 13 novel loci displayed risk allele frequencies ranging from 0.13 to 0.91 and were associated with a 6 to 17 percent increase in the risk of CAD per allele. Notably, only three of the novel loci displayed significant association with traditional CAD risk factors, while the majority lie in gene regions not previously implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. Finally, five of the novel CAD risk loci appear to have pleiotropic effects, showing strong association with various other human diseases or traits. PMID:21378990

  4. Coupled biophysical global ocean model and molecular genetic analyses identify multiple introductions of cryptogenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael N; Sen Gupta, Alex; England, Matthew H

    2005-08-23

    The anthropogenic introduction of exotic species is one of the greatest modern threats to marine biodiversity. Yet exotic species introductions remain difficult to predict and are easily misunderstood because knowledge of natural dispersal patterns, species diversity, and biogeography is often insufficient to distinguish between a broadly dispersed natural population and an exotic one. Here we compare a global molecular phylogeny of a representative marine meroplanktonic taxon, the moon-jellyfish Aurelia, with natural dispersion patterns predicted by a global biophysical ocean model. Despite assumed high dispersal ability, the phylogeny reveals many cryptic species and predominantly regional structure with one notable exception: the globally distributed Aurelia sp.1, which, molecular data suggest, may occasionally traverse the Pacific unaided. This possibility is refuted by the ocean model, which shows much more limited dispersion and patterns of distribution broadly consistent with modern biogeographic zones, thus identifying multiple introductions worldwide of this cryptogenic species. This approach also supports existing evidence that (i) the occurrence in Hawaii of Aurelia sp. 4 and other native Indo-West Pacific species with similar life histories is most likely due to anthropogenic translocation, and (ii) there may be a route for rare natural colonization of northeast North America by the European marine snail Littorina littorea, whose status as endemic or exotic is unclear.

  5. Genetic and functional analyses identify DISC1 as a novel callosal agenesis candidate gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbun, Nathan; Li, Jiang; O'Driscoll, Mary C; Strominger, Zoe; Wakahiro, Mari; Rider, Eric; Bukshpun, Polina; Boland, Elena; Spurrell, Cailyn H; Schackwitz, Wendy; Pennacchio, Len A; Dobyns, William B; Black, Graeme C M; Sherr, Elliott H

    2011-08-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital brain malformation that occurs in approximately 1:1,000-1:6,000 births. Several syndromes associated with AgCC have been traced to single gene mutations; however, the majority of AgCC causes remain unidentified. We investigated a mother and two children who all shared complete AgCC and a chromosomal deletion at 1q42. We fine mapped this deletion and show that it includes Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a gene implicated in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, we report a de novo chromosomal deletion at 1q42.13 to q44, which includes DISC1, in another individual with AgCC. We resequenced DISC1 in a cohort of 144 well-characterized AgCC individuals and identified 20 sequence changes, of which 4 are rare potentially pathogenic variants. Two of these variants were undetected in 768 control chromosomes. One of these is a splice site mutation at the 5' boundary of exon 11 that dramatically reduces full-length mRNA expression of DISC1, but not of shorter forms. We investigated the developmental expression of mouse DISC1 and find that it is highly expressed in the embryonic corpus callosum at a critical time for callosal formation. Taken together our results suggest a significant role for DISC1 in corpus callosum development.

  6. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  7. Family Ties and Civic Virtues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I establish a positive relationship between family ties and civic virtues, as captured by disapproval of tax and benefit cheating, corruption, and a range of other dimensions of exploiting others for personal gain. I find that family ties are a complement to social capital, using within country...

  8. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Profile Analyses Identify CTTN as a Potential Prognostic Marker in Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common fatal malignances of the digestive tract. Its prognosis is poor mainly due to the lack of reliable markers for early detection and prognostic prediction. Here we aim to identify the molecules involved in ESCC carcinogenesis and those as potential markers for prognosis and as new molecular therapeutic targets. Methods We performed genome-wide gene expression profile analyses of 10 primary ESCCs and their adjacent normal ti...

  9. Investigation on the Consumption Values of Hong Kong People on Tie Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Mei-yi Leung; Alice Wai-ching Chu; Kit-lun Yick

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the consumption values of Hong Kong people on necktie. Based on the Sheth-Newman-Gross Model of consumption values on consumers' choice decision as conceptual framework, results from the focus group interview, a questionnaire was designed and adopted for conducting the survey. Data collected from 245 respondents were analysed using the Factor Analysis to review the important elements of consumers' decision of purchasing tie products. Implications on the results on the Functional value were reviewed and discussed in details. Interesting elements such as fabric hand-feel were also identified as influential associated in Hong Kong consumers' selection of necktie. Since, both fibre content and fabric handle were also found as major selection criteria for fabric materials, the study was focused on the analysis of functional value of the product and further extended to study the handle preference for Hong Kong customers, in which a subjective handle assessment of a wide range of tie fabrics being newly developed and introduced in the market was conducted and objective fabric physical and mechanical properties were measured. Important fabric handle attributes that influence the consumers' preference on tie fabrics were identified and their objective translation by fabric physical and mechanical properties were also obtained. The investigation provides decision support to necktie manufacturers and retailers through scientific and quantitative recommendations for product development of tie products and material selection.

  10. Tie Content in Professional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga

    resources that senior managers acquire through their network ties, i.e. the tie content, remain heavily understudied. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to answer the following question: What resources flow through informal ties in senior managers’ professional networks, and why? The first chapter......Professional networks of senior managers have indisputable value for them as well as for their organizations. In recent years, much attention has been given to the structure of these networks as it reflects senior managers’ opportunity to access valuable resources. Surprisingly, the actual...... introduces the topic of this dissertation as well as the overall research question. The three next chapters are empirical studies of informal ties in professional networks of Danish senior managers, that together attempt to answer the overall research question. Chapter 2 looks into gender differences...

  11. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Davies, Gail; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Miller, Michael B; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Bergmann, Sven; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Liewald, David C; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stefansson, Kari; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-01-01

    We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (N = 298,420), depressive symptoms (N = 161,460), and neuroticism (N = 170,910). We identified three variants associated with subjective well-being, two with depressive symptoms, and eleven with neuroticism, including two inversion polymorphisms. The two depressive symptoms loci replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings, and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal/pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association. PMID:27089181

  12. Integrative analyses identify osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 as critical pro-metastatic genes for lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Min Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the key regulatory genes associated with lung cancer in order to reduce its occurrence and progress through silencing these key genes. METHODS: To identify the key regulatory genes involved in lung cancer, we performed a combination of gene array and bioinformatics analyses to compare gene transcription profiles in 3 monoclonal cell strains with high, medium or low metastatic abilities, which were separated from the SPC-A-1sci and SPC-A-1 cell lines by limiting dilution monoclone assay. We then analyzed those genes' biological activities by knocking down their expression in SPC-A-1sci cells using siRNA and lenti-viral shRNA vectors, followed by determinations of the invasion and migration capabilities of the resulting cell lines in vitro as well as their potential for inducing occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer in vivo. To examine the clinical relevance of these findings, we analyzed the expression levels of the identified genes in human lung cancer tissues (n = 135 and matched adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC staining. RESULTS: Three monoclonal cell strains characterized with high, medium or low metastatic abilities were successfully selected. Gene array and bioinformatics analyses implied that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 were key genes involved in lung cancer. Knockdown of these genes suppressed human lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Clinical sample analyses indicated that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 protein expression levels were higher in lung cancer patients, compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues, and correlated with lymphatic metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 played important roles in the occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer, thus provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of metastasis and contributing to the therapeutic treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Coupling Human Mobility and Social Ties

    CERN Document Server

    Toole, Jameson L; Schneider, Christian M; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2015-01-01

    Studies using massive, passively data collected from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion, and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographic information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns amongst social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composi...

  14. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted...... genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associated with subjective well-being, 2 variants associated with depressive symptoms, and 11 variants associated...... with neuroticism, including 2 inversion polymorphisms. The two loci associated with depressive symptoms replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings and allow us...

  15. Using intervention time series analyses to assess the effects of imperfectly identifiable natural events: a general method and example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Carolyn

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intervention time series analysis (ITSA is an important method for analysing the effect of sudden events on time series data. ITSA methods are quasi-experimental in nature and the validity of modelling with these methods depends upon assumptions about the timing of the intervention and the response of the process to it. Method This paper describes how to apply ITSA to analyse the impact of unplanned events on time series when the timing of the event is not accurately known, and so the problems of ITSA methods are magnified by uncertainty in the point of onset of the unplanned intervention. Results The methods are illustrated using the example of the Australian Heroin Shortage of 2001, which provided an opportunity to study the health and social consequences of an abrupt change in heroin availability in an environment of widespread harm reduction measures. Conclusion Application of these methods enables valuable insights about the consequences of unplanned and poorly identified interventions while minimising the risk of spurious results.

  16. Genome-wide linkage, exome sequencing and functional analyses identify ABCB6 as the pathogenic gene of dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a genetic disorder of abnormal pigmentation, the molecular basis of dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH had remained unclear until recently when ABCB6 was reported as a causative gene of DUH. METHODOLOGY: We performed genome-wide linkage scan using Illumina Human 660W-Quad BeadChip and exome sequencing analyses using Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon Kits in a multiplex Chinese DUH family to identify the pathogenic mutations and verified the candidate mutations using Sanger sequencing. Quantitative RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry was performed to verify the expression of the pathogenic gene, Zebrafish was also used to confirm the functional role of ABCB6 in melanocytes and pigmentation. RESULTS: Genome-wide linkage (assuming autosomal dominant inheritance mode and exome sequencing analyses identified ABCB6 as the disease candidate gene by discovering a coding mutation (c.1358C>T; p.Ala453Val that co-segregates with the disease phenotype. Further mutation analysis of ABCB6 in four other DUH families and two sporadic cases by Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation (c.1358C>T; p.Ala453Val and discovered a second, co-segregating coding mutation (c.964A>C; p.Ser322Lys in one of the four families. Both mutations were heterozygous in DUH patients and not present in the 1000 Genome Project and dbSNP database as well as 1,516 unrelated Chinese healthy controls. Expression analysis in human skin and mutagenesis interrogation in zebrafish confirmed the functional role of ABCB6 in melanocytes and pigmentation. Given the involvement of ABCB6 mutations in coloboma, we performed ophthalmological examination of the DUH carriers of ABCB6 mutations and found ocular abnormalities in them. CONCLUSION: Our study has advanced our understanding of DUH pathogenesis and revealed the shared pathological mechanism between pigmentary DUH and ocular coloboma.

  17. Senior Managers’ Network Tie Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga; Villeseche, Florence

    While the importance or even necessity to build and maintain resourceful social networks appears as a forthright fact, there is still a lack of certainty as to who benefits from the resources that can be accessed through senior managers’ networks, and under what conditions. In this paper, we...... contribute to answering this puzzle with a sample constituted of senior managers from Denmark and their network ties, and investigate both economic and sociological conditions of senior managers’ tie use. Our results show that the greater the distance between aspiration level and actual firm performance......, the more likely it is that senior managers will use their network ties to access resources that benefit chiefly the individual rather than the organization. In addition, we demonstrate that this rapport is moderated by senior managers’ social identity as a member of the corporate elite, so that a strong...

  18. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...

  19. Identifying Active Faults in Northeast North America Using Hypocenters and Multiscale Edge Wavelet Analyses of Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K.; Horowitz, F.; Ebinger, C. J.; Navarrete, L. C.; Diaz-Etchevehere, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multiscale edge Poisson wavelet analyses of potential field data ("worms") have a physical interpretation as the locations of lateral boundaries in a source distribution that exactly generates the observed field. The worm technique is therefore well-suited to analyses of crustal-scale stuctures that could be reactivated by tectonic stress or by fluid injection processes, providing new tools to analyze existing continental-scale data sets. Northeastern North America (US, Canada) hosts potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes, yet many of the Proterozoic structures are covered by thick sedimentary sequences or dense vegetation, and crustal structure is relatively poorly known.For the purpose of extending basement structure beneath the Appalachian basin and establishing a consistent regional basis for comparison, we use worms to identify steeply dipping structures in compiled gravity and magnetic anomaly data sets. We compare results to intraplate earthquake locations to assess seismic hazards. Clearly, not all locations of lateral boundaries are faults, and we do not expect all faults to have shown activity in the ~50 years of seismic records available. However, proximity statistics between hypocenters and worms are of interest since they assist in the identification and location of a subset of potentially active faults. We compare structures of lateral mass-density or magnetization contrast with locations of earthquake hypocenters cataloged from the ISC, the NEIC, and the ANF from the EarthScope Transportable Array. We develop a GIS based method for calculating hypocenter/worm proximity, and we will show statistics and maps from this method for the region at the meeting.

  20. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...

  1. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  2. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Moor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Family ties in Europe are affected by demographic trends associated with parenting and partnering, such as a decline in fertility, an increase in childlessness, postponement of parenthood and of partnership formation, the rise of "new" relationship forms and divorce rates. It is unclear how the contemporary family structure and composition are associated with people's mental wellbeing. OBJECTIVE This article examines how ties with parents, siblings, a partner and children are associated with depressive mood of men and women in seven Eastern and Western European countries. METHODS To test our hypotheses we made use of data from the Generations and Gender Surveys. We performed logistic regression analyses to study the associations between people's family ties and depressive mood. RESULTS Our research findings show that family ties can diminish people's depressive feelings. Although we find some gender differences in these associations, we do not find support for the argument that family ties are more important for the mental wellbeing of women than of men. Moreover, our findings support the hierarchical model of family relations in which new ties with partner and children in adulthood gain precedence over the original primary ties with parents and siblings. Finally, we find that the association between family ties and depressive mood is quite similar in Eastern and Western Europe, but being married or having a partner more strongly reduces depressive feelings in Eastern than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS Although we did not dispose of longitudinal data, our research results do provide some indications about how demographic changes, for instance, those affecting family size -- the number of children or siblings -- might be associated with mental wellbeing. Our findings also suggest that the demographic trend of increasing partnership dissolution may have larger consequences for people's mental wellbeing in Eastern

  3. The Analysing Children's Creative Thinking Framework: Development of an Observation-Led Approach to Identifying and Analysing Young Children's Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Increased international recognition of the value of supporting creative thinking suggests the value of development of approaches to its identification in children. Development of an observation-led framework, the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) framework, is described, and a case made for the validity of inferring creative thinking…

  4. Deep sequencing and in silico analyses identify MYB-regulated gene networks and signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Shafquat; Zubair, Haseeb; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Zubair, Asif; Ahmad, Aamir; Singh, Seema; Khushman, Moh'd; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-06-29

    We have recently demonstrated that the transcription factor MYB can modulate several cancer-associated phenotypes in pancreatic cancer. In order to understand the molecular basis of these MYB-associated changes, we conducted deep-sequencing of transcriptome of MYB-overexpressing and -silenced pancreatic cancer cells, followed by in silico pathway analysis. We identified significant modulation of 774 genes upon MYB-silencing (p networks by in silico analysis. Further analyses placed genes in our RNA sequencing-generated dataset to several canonical signalling pathways, such as cell-cycle control, DNA-damage and -repair responses, p53 and HIF1α. Importantly, we observed downregulation of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma signaling pathway in MYB-silenced pancreatic cancer cells exhibiting suppression of EGFR and NF-κB. Decreased expression of EGFR and RELA was validated by both qPCR and immunoblotting and they were both shown to be under direct transcriptional control of MYB. These observations were further confirmed in a converse approach wherein MYB was overexpressed ectopically in a MYB-null pancreatic cancer cell line. Our findings thus suggest that MYB potentially regulates growth and genomic stability of pancreatic cancer cells via targeting complex gene networks and signaling pathways. Further in-depth functional studies are warranted to fully understand MYB signaling in pancreatic cancer.

  5. A Rationale for Tying Merchants' Membership of Platforms Serving Independent Markets

    OpenAIRE

    King, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A Rationale for Tying Merchants' Membership of Platforms Serving Independent Markets. This thesis was submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Social Sciences in the Faculty of Humanities by Michael King during September 2010. I analyses the effect of tying sellers' membership of a monopoly platform to membership of another platform, which operates in an otherwise competitive market. Visa's contentious use of the honour-all-cards rule to tie their debit and cr...

  6. Genome-wide gene expression profile analyses identify CTTN as a potential prognostic marker in esophageal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Lu

    Full Text Available AIM: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most common fatal malignances of the digestive tract. Its prognosis is poor mainly due to the lack of reliable markers for early detection and prognostic prediction. Here we aim to identify the molecules involved in ESCC carcinogenesis and those as potential markers for prognosis and as new molecular therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed genome-wide gene expression profile analyses of 10 primary ESCCs and their adjacent normal tissues by cDNA microarrays representing 47,000 transcripts and variants. Candidate genes were then validated by semi quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR, tissue microarrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry (IHC staining. RESULTS: Using an arbitrary cutoff line of signal log ratio of ≥1.5 or ≤-1.5, we observed 549 up-regulated genes and 766 down-regulated genes in ESCCs compared with normal esophageal tissues. The functions of 302 differentially expressed genes were associated with cell metabolism, cell adhesion and immune response. Several candidate deregulated genes including four overexpressed (CTTN, DMRT2, MCM10 and SCYA26 and two underexpressed (HMGCS2 and SORBS2 were subsequently verified, which can be served as biomarkers for ESCC. Moreover, overexpression of cortactin (CTTN was observed in 126/198 (63.6% of ESCC cases and was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.000, pathologic stage (P = 0.000 and poor survival (P<0.001 of ESCC patients. Furthermore, a significant correlation between CTTN overexpression and shorter disease-specific survival rate was found in different subgroups of ESCC patient stratified by the pathologic stage (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Our data provide valuable information for establishing molecules as candidates for prognostic and/or as therapeutic targets.

  7. Roles of Ties in Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Controlling global epidemics in the real world and accelerating information propagation in the artificial world are of great significance, which have activated an upsurge in the studies on networked spreading dynamics. Lots of efforts have been made to understand the impacts of macroscopic statistics (e.g., degree distribution and average distance) and mesoscopic structures (e.g., communities and rich clubs) on spreading processes while the microscopic elements are less concerned. In particular, roles of ties are not yet clear to the academic community. Methodology/Principle Findings: Every edges is stamped by its strength that is defined solely based on the local topology. According to a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model, the steady-state infected density and spreading speed are respectively optimized by adjusting the relationship between edge's strength and spreading ability. Experiments on six real networks show that the infected density is increased when strong ties are favored i...

  8. Dielectric Bow-tie Nanocavity

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Qijing; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie nanocavity consisting of two tip-to-tip opposite triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity from the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8*10^-4 um3 and a high quality factor of 4.9*10^4 (401.3), consequently an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6*10^7 (1.36*10^5), at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm. This dielectric bow-tie nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon source, thresholdless nanolaser, and cavity QED strong coupling experiments.

  9. Classification and Tie2 mutations in spinal and soft tissue vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Jiang, Renbing; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Lisha; Wang, Hua; Li, Wenting; Li, Yiqun; Du, Xiang; Bai, Jingping

    2015-10-15

    Vascular anomalies included hemangiomas and vascular malformations (VMs). VMs are mediated by mutations in the endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 (TEK),which is essential for angiogenesis and vascular stabilization. We identified five types of Tie2 mutations in 80 patients with soft tissue or spinal VMs by PCR including the previously detected missense mutations 2690A>G (Y897C), 2740C>T (L914F), 2743C>T (R915C), and two nonsense mutations 2763G>A, 2688C>T, we identified Tie2 mutation in primary spinal VMs for the first time. Tie2 mutations were found to be absent in 33 patients with hemangiomas and DNA samples of VMs. In addition, we showed that Tie2 mRNA expression in spinal VMs was similar to soft tissue VMs, but obviously lower than infant hemangiomas (PVMs, the association of Tie2 and vascular anomalies needs to be further discussed.

  10. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  11. RELEASE OF TONGUE-TIE IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Raveenthiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, release of tongue tie is the oldest surgical procedure and it is perhaps older than circumcision. According to the Old Testament, the Lord released the tied tongue of Moses and made him speak well. Tongue-tie is pedantically known as ankyloglossia inferior minor. Simplicity of its treatment has earned this malady several etiological attributions such as difficulty of speech and breast feeding. All over the world, lactation consultants refer neonates for release of tongue tie as they believe it to be the cause of maternal nipple pain.Perhaps this is the only indication of tongue tie release in neonates.

  12. Social Ties for Labor Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina;

    in the German labor market after reunification. Modeling inventor migration to West German regions after 1990, we find that Western regions with stronger historically determined social ties across the former East-West border attracted more inventors after the fall of the Iron Curtain than regions without...... such ties. However, mobility decisions made by inventors with outstanding patenting track records (star inventors) were not impacted by social ties. We conclude that social ties support labor market access for migrant inventors and determine regional choices while dependence on these ties is substantially...

  13. Common Values,Strong Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The official visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak to China on June 2-5 is seen as an important step in furthering the strategic and cooperative relationship between the two countries. In an interview with Beijing Review reporter Zhou Jianxiong, Mohamed Jawhar Hassan, Chairman and CEO of the Institute of Strategic and International Studies, a top think tank and consulting institution in Malaysia, outlined why Malaysia made its decision to establish diplomatic ties with China 35 years ago and why it looks forward to the development of this relationship in the future.

  14. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes...... risk (q...

  15. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Robert A.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Montasser, May E.; Luan, Jian'an; Maegi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Rehnberg, Emil; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Yengo, Loic; Lecoeur, Cecile; Shungin, Dmitry; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Johnson, Toby; Mahajan, Anubha; Verweij, Niek; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Shah, Sonia; Smith, Albert V.; Sennblad, Bengt; Gieger, Christian; Salo, Perttu; Perola, Markus; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Wu, Ying; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Hui, Jennie; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Isaacs, Aaron; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tonu; Mihailov, Evelin; Fraser, Ross M.; Fall, Tove; Voight, Benjamin F.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Willems, Sara M.; Chines, Peter S.; Jackson, Anne U.; Kang, Hyun Min; Stringham, Heather M.; Song, Kijoung; Tanaka, Toshiko; Peden, John F.; Goel, Anuj; Hicks, Andrew A.; An, Ping; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Folkersen, Lasse; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Pankow, James S.; North, Kari E.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Hallmans, Goeran; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kong, Augustine; Kumari, Meena; Gigante, Bruna; Herder, Christian; Munroe, Patricia B.; Caulfield, Mark; Antti, Jula; Mangino, Massimo; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Liu, Yongmei; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; James, Alan L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Polasek, Ozren; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Hercberg, Serge; Dimitriou, Maria; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Kovacs, Peter; Lindstrom, Jaana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bandinelli, Stefania; Wild, Sarah H.; Basart, Hanneke V.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Grallert, Harald; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Province, Michael A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Metspalu, Andres; Uusitupa, Matti; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Price, Jackie F.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Meneton, Pierre; Lind, Lars; Boehnke, Michael; Shuldiner, Alan R.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Morris, Andrew D.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Beilby, John P.; Koerner, Antje; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Adair, Linda S.; Smith, George Davey; Spector, Tim D.; Illig, Thomas; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Stefansson, Kari; van der Harst, Pim; Dupuis, Josee; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Sattar, Naveed; Harris, Tamara B.; Cucca, Francesco; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Mohlke, Karen L.; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; McCarthy, Mark I.; Franks, Paul W.; Meigs, James B.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Florez, Jose C.; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga; Barroso, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes ri

  16. Genome-wide meta-analyses of multiancestry cohorts identify multiple new susceptibility loci for refractive error and myopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.M. Verhoeven (Virginie); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); R. Wojciechowski (Robert); Q. Fan (Qiao); J. Guggenheim (Jean); R. Höhn (René); S. MacGregor (Stuart); A.W. Hewit (Alex); A. Nag (Abhishek); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); E. Yonova-Doing (Ekaterina); X. Zhou (Xin); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); G.H.S. Buitendijk (Gabrielle); G. Mcmahon (George); J.P. Kemp (John); B.S. Pourcain (Beate); C.L. Simpson (Claire); M.J. Mäkelä; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); M. Kähönen (Mika); A.D. Paterson (Andrew); M. Hosseini (Mehran); H.S. Wong (Hoi Suen); L. Xu (Liang); J.B. Jonas; O. Pärssinen (Olavi); J. Wedenoja (Juho); S.P. Yip (Shea Ping); D.W.H. Ho (Daniel); C.P. Pang (Chi); L.J. Chen (Li); K.P. Burdon (Kathryn); J.E. Craig (Jamie); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); T. Haller (Toomas); A. Metspalu (Andres); C.C. Khor; E.S. Tai (Shyong); T. Aung (Tin); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); W.-T. Tay (Wan-Ting); V.A. Barathi (Veluchamy); P. Chen (Ping); R. Li (Rui); J. Liao (Jie); Y. Zheng (Yuhui); R.T.H. Ong (Rick Twee-Hee); A. Döring (Angela); D.M. Evans (David); N. Timpson (Nicholas); A. Verkerk; T. Meitinger (Thomas); O. Raitakari (Olli); F. Hawthorne (Felicia); T.D. Spector (Timothy); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); M. Pirastu (Mario); D. Murgia (Daniela); W.Q. Ang (Wei); A. Mishra (Aniket); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); C.E. Pennell (Craig); P. Cumberland (Phillippa); I. Cotlarciuc (Ioana); P. Mitchell (Paul); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); M. Schache (Maria); S. Janmahasathian (Sarayut); R.P. Igo Jr. (Robert); J.H. Lass Jr. (Jonathan); E.Y. Chew (Emily); S.K. Iyengar (Sudha); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); I. Rudan (Igor); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.F. Wright (Alan); O. Polasek (Ozren); Z. Vatavuk (Zoran); J.F. Wilson (James); B. Fleck (Brian); T. Zeller (Tanja); A. Mirshahi (Alireza); C. Müller (Christian); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Oostra (Ben); N. Amin (Najaf); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); J.S. Rahi (Jugnoo); V. Vitart (Veronique); C. Williams (Cathy); P.N. Baird (Paul); T.Y. Wong (Tien); K. Oexle (Konrad); A.F.H. Pfeiffer (Andreas); D.A. Mackey (David); T.L. Young (Terri); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); J.E. Bailey-Wilson (Joan); D.E. Stambolian (Dwight); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); C.J. Hammond (Christopher)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRefractive error is the most common eye disorder worldwide and is a prominent cause of blindness. Myopia affects over 30% of Western populations and up to 80% of Asians. The CREAM consortium conducted genome-wide meta-analyses, including 37,382 individuals from 27 studies of European anc

  17. Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Lisette; Perry, John R B; Chasman, Daniel I; He, Chunyan; Mangino, Massimo; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M; Ernst, Florian; Esko, Tõnu; Franceschini, Nora; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kraft, Peter; McArdle, Patrick F; Porcu, Eleonora; Shin, So-Youn; Smith, Albert V; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhai, Guangju; Zhuang, Wei V; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Aspelund, Thor; Bandinelli, Stefania; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boban, Mladen; Boerwinkle, Eric; Broekmans, Frank J; Burri, Andrea; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Constance; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D; d'Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V Z; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Emilsson, Valur; Eriksson, Johan G; Fauser, Bart C J M; Ferreli, Liana; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fischer, Krista; Folsom, Aaron R; Garcia, Melissa E; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Glazer, Nicole; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hankinson, Susan E; Hass, Merli; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Ingelsson, Erik; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keyzer, Jules; Kiel, Douglas P; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop S E; Lawlor, Debbie A; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M; Louwers, Yvonne V; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Marongiu, Mara; Martin, Nicholas G; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E; Melzer, David; Mooser, Vincent; Navarro, Pau; Newman, Anne B; Nyholt, Dale R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Palotie, Aarno; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peeters, Petra H M; Pistis, Giorgio; Plump, Andrew S; Polasek, Ozren; Pop, Victor J M; Psaty, Bruce M; Räikkönen, Katri; Rehnberg, Emil; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Salumets, Andres; Scuteri, Angelo; Singleton, Andrew; Smith, Jennifer A; Snieder, Harold; Soranzo, Nicole; Stacey, Simon N; Starr, John M; Stathopoulou, Maria G; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Sun, Yan V; Tenesa, Albert; Thorand, Barbara; Toniolo, Daniela; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; Ulivi, Sheila; van Dam, Rob M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; van Gils, Carla H; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M; Visscher, Peter M; Voorhuis, Marlies; Waeber, Gérard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wichmann, H Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Alan F; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Zillikens, M Carola; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Launer, Lenore J; Metspalu, Andres; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Ridker, Paul M; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Völzke, Henry; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M; Visser, Jenny A; Lunetta, Kathryn L

    2012-01-01

    To newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at natural men

  18. Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Stolk (Lisette); J.R.B. Perry (John); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); C. He (Chunyan); M. Mangino (Massimo); P. Sulem (Patrick); M. Barbalic (maja); L. Broer (Linda); E.M. Byrne (Enda); F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); T. Esko (Tõnu); N. Franceschini (Nora); D.F. Gudbjartsson (Daniel); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P. Kraft (Peter); P.F. McArdle (Patrick); E. Porcu (Eleonora); S.-Y. Shin; G.D. Smith; S. van Wingerden (Sophie); G. Zhai (Guangju); W.V. Zhuang; E. Albrecht (Eva); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); T. Aspelund (Thor); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); G. Lauc (Gordan); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); M. Boban (Mladen); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank); A. Burri (Andrea); H. Campbell (Harry); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); C. Chen (Constance); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); T. Corre (Tanguy); A.D. Coviello (Andrea); P. d' Adamo (Pio); G. Davies (Gail); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian); G.V. Dedoussis (George); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); S. Ebrahim (Shanil); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); L. Ferreli (Liana); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); K. Fischer (Krista); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Gasparini (Paolo); C. Gieger (Christian); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P. Hall (Per); T. Haller (Toomas); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); M. Hass (Merli); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew); A. Hofman (Albert); E. Ingelsson (Erik); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Karasik (David); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); J.J. de Keyzer (Jules); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); J. Lahti (Jari); S. Lai (Sandra); T. Laisk (Triin); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J. Liu (Jianjun); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); Y.V. Louwers (Yvonne); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); M. Marongiu (Mara); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I.M. Klaric (Irena Martinovic); C. Masciullo (Corrado); B. McKnight (Barbara); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); D. Melzer (David); V. Mooser (Vincent); P. Navarro (Pau); A.B. Newman (Anne); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); N.C. Onland-Moret (Charlotte); A. Palotie (Aarno); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); P.H.M. Peeters (Petra); G. Pistis (Giorgio); A.S. Plump (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); V. Pop (Victor); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K. R Currency Signikkönen (Katri); E. Rehnberg (Emil); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); I. Rudan (Igor); C. Sala (Cinzia); A. Salumets (Andres); A. Scuteri (Angelo); A. Singleton (Andrew); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); H. Snieder (Harold); N. Soranzo (Nicole); S.N. Stacey (Simon); J.M. Starr (John); M.G. Stathopoulou (Maria G); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); Y.V. Sun (Yan); A. Tenesa (Albert); B. Thorand (Barbara); D. Toniolo (Daniela); L. Tryggvadottir (Laufey); K. Tsui (Kim); S. Ulivi (Shelia); R.M. van Dam (Rob); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); C.H. van Gils (Carla); P.W.M. van Nierop (Peter); J.M. Vink (Jacqueline); P.M. Visscher (Peter); M. Voorhuis (Marlies); G. Waeber (Gérard); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); E. Widen (Elisabeth); C.J.M. Wijnands-Van Gent (Colette J M); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); J.F. Wilson (James); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); A.F. Wright (Alan); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); L. Zgaga (Lina); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M. Zygmunt (Marek); A.M. Arnold (Alice); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); J.E. Buring (Julie); L. Crisponi (Laura); E.W. Demerath (Ellen); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); F.B. Hu (Frank); D. Hunter (David); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A. Metspalu (Andres); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); B.A. Oostra (Ben); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Sanna (Serena); D. Schlessinger (David); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H. Völzke (Henry); A. Murray (Anna); J. Murabito (Joanne); J.A. Visser (Jenny); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTo newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at

  19. Combinatory microarray and SuperSAGE analyses identify pairing-dependently transcribed genes in Schistosoma mansoni males, including follistatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Leutner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a disease of world-wide importance and is caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. These parasites exhibit a unique reproduction biology as the female's sexual maturation depends on a constant pairing-contact to the male. Pairing leads to gonad differentiation in the female, and even gene expression of some gonad-associated genes is controlled by pairing. In contrast, no morphological changes have been observed in males, although first data indicated an effect of pairing also on gene transcription in males. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the influence of pairing on males, we performed a combinatory approach applying SuperSAGE and microarray hybridization, generating the most comprehensive data-set on differential transcription available to date. Of 6,326 sense transcripts detected by both analyses, 29 were significantly differentially transcribed. Besides mutual confirmation, the two methods complemented each other as shown by data comparison and real-time PCR, which revealed a number of genes with consistent regulation across all methods. One of the candidate genes, follistatin of S. mansoni (SmFst was characterized in more detail by in situ hybridization and yeast two-hybrid (Y2H interaction analyses with potential binding partners. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Beyond confirming previously hypothesized differences in metabolic processes between pairing-experienced (EM and pairing-unexperienced males (UM, our data indicate that neuronal processes are involved in male-female interaction but also TGFβ-signaling. One candidate revealing significant down-regulation in EM was the TGFβ-pathway controlling molecule follistatin (SmFst. First functional analyses demonstrated SmFst interaction with the S. mansoni TGFβ-receptor agonists inhibin/activin (SmInAct and bone morphogenic protein (SmBMP, and all molecules colocalized in the testes. This indicates a yet unknown role of the TGF

  20. Identifying consumer segments in health services markets: an application of conjoint and cluster analyses to the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrol, N V; Gagon, J P

    1983-01-01

    Because of increasing competition, it is becoming more important that health care providers pursue consumer-based market segmentation strategies. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and describing consumer segments in health service markets, and demonstrates the use of the methodology by presenting a study of consumer segments in the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

  1. High-resolution linkage analyses to identify genes that influence Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Harris, Jeffrey W; Bourgeois, Lanie; Danka, Robert G; Hunt, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    Varroa mites (V. destructor) are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera) and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving beekeepers with a limited number of alternatives. A non-chemical control method is highly desirable for numerous reasons including lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa populations in bee hives. To identify genes influencing this trait, a study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Individual workers of a backcross family were observed and evaluated for their VSH behavior in a mite-infested observation hive. Bees that uncapped or removed pupae were identified. The genotypes for 1,340 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to construct a high-resolution genetic map and interval mapping was used to analyze the association of the genotypes with the performance of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21) and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (LOD = 1.95). The QTL confidence interval on chromosome 9 contains the gene 'no receptor potential A' and a dopamine receptor. 'No receptor potential A' is involved in vision and olfaction in Drosophila, and dopamine signaling has been previously shown to be required for aversive olfactory learning in honey bees, which is probably necessary for identifying mites within brood cells. Further studies on these candidate genes may allow for breeding bees with this trait using marker-assisted selection.

  2. Trans-ancestry meta-analyses identify rare and common variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendran, Praveen; Drenos, Fotios; Young, Robin

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low-frequency and common genetic variants in up...... to 192,763 individuals and used ∼155,063 samples for independent replication. We identified 30 new blood pressure- or hypertension-associated genetic regions in the general population, including 3 rare missense variants in RBM47, COL21A1 and RRAS with larger effects (>1.5 mm Hg/allele) than common...... variants. Multiple rare nonsense and missense variant associations were found in A2ML1, and a low-frequency nonsense variant in ENPEP was identified. Our data extend the spectrum of allelic variation underlying blood pressure traits and hypertension, provide new insights into the pathophysiology...

  3. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Justin E; Kono, Thomas J Y; Stupar, Robert M; Kantar, Michael B; Morrell, Peter L

    2016-04-07

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections.

  4. Trans-ancestry meta-analyses identify rare and common variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Praveen; Drenos, Fotios; Young, Robin; Warren, Helen; Cook, James P; Manning, Alisa K; Grarup, Niels; Sim, Xueling; Barnes, Daniel R; Witkowska, Kate; Staley, James R; Tragante, Vinicius; Tukiainen, Taru; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Masca, Nicholas; Freitag, Daniel F; Ferreira, Teresa; Giannakopoulou, Olga; Tinker, Andrew; Harakalova, Magdalena; Mihailov, Evelin; Liu, Chunyu; Kraja, Aldi T; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Rasheed, Asif; Samuel, Maria; Zhao, Wei; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Jackson, Anne U; Narisu, Narisu; Swift, Amy J; Southam, Lorraine; Marten, Jonathan; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Stančáková, Alena; Fava, Cristiano; Ohlsson, Therese; Matchan, Angela; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Gjesing, Anette P; Kontto, Jukka; Perola, Markus; Shaw-Hawkins, Susan; Havulinna, Aki S; Zhang, He; Donnelly, Louise A; Groves, Christopher J; Rayner, N William; Neville, Matt J; Robertson, Neil R; Yiorkas, Andrianos M; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kajantie, Eero; Zhang, Weihua; Willems, Sara M; Lannfelt, Lars; Malerba, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Verweij, Niek; Evangelou, Evangelos; Moayyeri, Alireza; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Nelson, Christopher P; Poveda, Alaitz; Varga, Tibor V; Caslake, Muriel; de Craen, Anton J M; Trompet, Stella; Luan, Jian'an; Scott, Robert A; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David C M; Marioni, Riccardo; Menni, Cristina; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hassinen, Maija; Burgess, Stephen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Felix, Janine F; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Malarstig, Anders; Reilly, Dermot F; Hoek, Maarten; Vogt, Thomas F; Lin, Honghuang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Traylor, Matthew; Markus, Hugh S; Highland, Heather M; Justice, Anne E; Marouli, Eirini; Lindström, Jaana; Uusitupa, Matti; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Rolandsson, Olov; Franks, Paul W; Dedoussis, George; Spector, Timothy D; Jousilahti, Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nick J; Brown, Morris J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Connell, John M; Jukema, J Wouter; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Packard, Chris J; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; de Boer, Rudolf A; van der Meer, Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Gambaro, Giovanni; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I W; Numans, Mattijs E; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Petersen, Eva R B; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Oksa, Heikki; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Franks, Steve; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Husemoen, Lise L; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina; Karpe, Fredrik; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Holmen, Oddgeir Lingaas; Hveem, Kristian; Willer, Cristen J; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Groop, Leif; Käräjämäki, AnneMari; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Alam, Dewan S; Majumder, Abdulla Al Shafi; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Chowdhury, Rajiv; McCarthy, Mark I; Poulter, Neil; Stanton, Alice V; Sever, Peter; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ferrières, Jean; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Veronesi, Giovanni; Virtamo, Jarmo; Deloukas, Panos; Elliott, Paul; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Porteous, David J; Hayward, Caroline; Scotland, Generation; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Boehnke, Michael; Stringham, Heather M; Frossard, Philippe; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Tobin, Martin D; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Caulfield, Mark J; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew P; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Samani, Nilesh J; Saleheen, Danish; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Danesh, John; Wain, Louise V; Butterworth, Adam S; Howson, Joanna M M; Munroe, Patricia B

    2016-10-01

    High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low-frequency and common genetic variants in up to 192,763 individuals and used ∼155,063 samples for independent replication. We identified 30 new blood pressure- or hypertension-associated genetic regions in the general population, including 3 rare missense variants in RBM47, COL21A1 and RRAS with larger effects (>1.5 mm Hg/allele) than common variants. Multiple rare nonsense and missense variant associations were found in A2ML1, and a low-frequency nonsense variant in ENPEP was identified. Our data extend the spectrum of allelic variation underlying blood pressure traits and hypertension, provide new insights into the pathophysiology of hypertension and indicate new targets for clinical intervention.

  5. Trans-ancestry meta-analyses identify rare and common variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Daniel R; Witkowska, Kate; Staley, James R; Tragante, Vinicius; Tukiainen, Taru; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Masca, Nicholas; Freitag, Daniel F; Ferreira, Teresa; Giannakopoulou, Olga; Tinker, Andrew; Harakalova, Magdalena; Mihailov, Evelin; Liu, Chunyu; Kraja, Aldi T; Fallgaard Nielsen, Sune; Rasheed, Asif; Samuel, Maria; Zhao, Wei; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Jackson, Anne U; Narisu, Narisu; Swift, Amy J; Southam, Lorraine; Marten, Jonathan; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Stančáková, Alena; Fava, Cristiano; Ohlsson, Therese; Matchan, Angela; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Gjesing, Anette P; Kontto, Jukka; Perola, Markus; Shaw-Hawkins, Susan; Havulinna, Aki S; Zhang, He; Donnelly, Louise A; Groves, Christopher J; Rayner, N William; Neville, Matt J; Robertson, Neil R; Yiorkas, Andrianos M; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kajantie, Eero; Zhang, Weihua; Willems, Sara M; Lannfelt, Lars; Malerba, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Verweij, Niek; Evangelou, Evangelos; Moayyeri, Alireza; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Nelson, Christopher P; Poveda, Alaitz; Varga, Tibor V; Caslake, Muriel; de Craen, Anton JM; Trompet, Stella; Luan, Jian’an; Scott, Robert A; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David CM; Marioni, Riccardo; Menni, Cristina; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hassinen, Maija; Burgess, Stephen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Felix, Janine F; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Malarstig, Anders; Reily, Dermot F; Hoek, Maarten; Vogt, Thomas; Lin, Honghuang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Traylor, Matthew; Markus, Hugh F; Highland, Heather M; Justice, Anne E; Marouli, Eirini; Lindström, Jaana; Uusitupa, Matti; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Rolandsson, Olov; Franks, Paul W; Dedoussis, George; Spector, Timothy D; Jousilahti, Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nick J; Brown, Morris J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Connell, John M; Jukema, J Wouter; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Packard, Chris J; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; de Boer, Rudolf A; van der Meer, Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Gambaro, Giovanni; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; de Bakker, Paul IW; Numans, Mattijs E; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Petersen, Eva RB; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Oksa, Heikki; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Blakemore, Alexandra IF; Franks, Steve; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Husemoen, Lise L; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina; Karpe, Fredrik; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Doney, Alex SF; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin NA; Holmen, Oddgeir Lingaas; Hveem, Kristian; Willer, Cristen J; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Groop, Leif; Käräjämäki, AnneMari; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Alam, Dewan S; Shafi Majumder, Abdulla al; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Chowdhury, Rajiv; McCarthy, Mark I; Poulter, Neil; Stanton, Alice V; Sever, Peter; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ferrières, Jean; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Veronesi, Giovanni; Virtamo, Jarmo; Deloukas, Panos; Elliott, Paul; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Porteous, David; Hayward, Caroline; Scotland, Generation; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Boehnke, Michael; Stringham, Heather M; Frossard, Philippe; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Tobin, Martin D; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Caulfield, Mark J; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew P; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Samani, Nilesh J

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low-frequency and common genetic variants in up to ~192,000 individuals, and used ~155,063 samples for independent replication. We identified 31 novel blood pressure or hypertension associated genetic regions in the general population, including three rare missense variants in RBM47, COL21A1 and RRAS with larger effects (>1.5mmHg/allele) than common variants. Multiple rare, nonsense and missense variant associations were found in A2ML1 and a low-frequency nonsense variant in ENPEP was identified. Our data extend the spectrum of allelic variation underlying blood pressure traits and hypertension, provide new insights into the pathophysiology of hypertension and indicate new targets for clinical intervention. PMID:27618447

  6. Microarray analyses of SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c target genes identify new regulatory pathways in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Rome, Sophie; Lecomte, Virginie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Rieusset, Jennifer; Debard, Cyrille; Euthine, Vanessa; Vidal, Hubert; Lefai, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this study we have identified the target genes of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-1c in primary cultures of human skeletal muscle cells, using adenoviral vectors expressing the mature nuclear form of human SREBP-1a or SREBP-1c combined with oligonucleotide microarrays. Overexpression of SREBP-1a led to significant changes in the expression of 1,315 genes (655 upregulated and 660 downregulated), whereas overexpression of SREBP-1c modifi...

  7. Niche Divergence versus Neutral Processes: Combined Environmental and Genetic Analyses Identify Contrasting Patterns of Differentiation in Recently Diverged Pine Species

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier; Alejandra Ortíz-Medrano; Daniel Piñero

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental ...

  8. Signature of Nonstationarity in Precipitation Extremes over Urbanizing Regions in India Identified through a Multivariate Frequency Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra; Hari, Vittal; Sharma, Tarul; Karmakar, Subhankar; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-04-01

    The statistical assumption of stationarity in hydrologic extreme time/event series has been relied heavily in frequency analysis. However, due to the analytically perceivable impacts of climate change, urbanization and concomitant land use pattern, assumption of stationarity in hydrologic time series will draw erroneous results, which in turn may affect the policy and decision-making. Past studies provided sufficient evidences on changes in the characteristics of Indian monsoon precipitation extremes and further it has been attributed to climate change and urbanization, which shows need of nonstationary analysis on the Indian monsoon extremes. Therefore, a comprehensive multivariate nonstationary frequency analysis has been conducted for the entire India to identify the precipitation characteristics (intensity, duration and depth) responsible for significant nonstationarity in the Indian monsoon. We use 1o resolution of precipitation data for a period of 1901-2004, in a Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) framework. A cluster of GAMLSS models has been developed by considering nonstationarity in different combinations of distribution parameters through different regression techniques, and the best-fit model is further applied for bivariate analysis. A population density data has been utilized to identify the urban, urbanizing and rural regions. The results showed significant differences in the stationary and nonstationary bivariate return periods for the urbanizing grids, when compared to urbanized and rural grids. A comprehensive multivariate analysis has also been conducted to identify the precipitation characteristics particularly responsible for imprinting signature of nonstationarity.

  9. Genome-wide association analyses identify new risk variants and the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheenen, Wouter; Shatunov, Aleksey; Dekker, Annelot M; McLaughlin, Russell L; Diekstra, Frank P; Pulit, Sara L; van der Spek, Rick A A; Võsa, Urmo; de Jong, Simone; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Fogh, Isabella; van Doormaal, Perry Tc; Tazelaar, Gijs H P; Koppers, Max; Blokhuis, Anna M; Sproviero, William; Jones, Ashley R; Kenna, Kevin P; van Eijk, Kristel R; Harschnitz, Oliver; Schellevis, Raymond D; Brands, William J; Medic, Jelena; Menelaou, Androniki; Vajda, Alice; Ticozzi, Nicola; Lin, Kuang; Rogelj, Boris; Vrabec, Katarina; Ravnik-Glavač, Metka; Koritnik, Blaž; Zidar, Janez; Leonardis, Lea; Grošelj, Leja Dolenc; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Salachas, François; Meininger, Vincent; de Carvalho, Mamede; Pinto, Susana; Mora, Jesus S; Rojas-García, Ricardo; Polak, Meraida; Chandran, Siddharthan; Colville, Shuna; Swingler, Robert; Morrison, Karen E; Shaw, Pamela J; Hardy, John; Orrell, Richard W; Pittman, Alan; Sidle, Katie; Fratta, Pietro; Malaspina, Andrea; Topp, Simon; Petri, Susanne; Abdulla, Susanne; Drepper, Carsten; Sendtner, Michael; Meyer, Thomas; Ophoff, Roel A; Staats, Kim A; Wiedau-Pazos, Martina; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Trojanowski, John Q; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Basak, A Nazli; Tunca, Ceren; Hamzeiy, Hamid; Parman, Yesim; Meitinger, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Andres, Christian R; Maurel, Cindy; Bensimon, Gilbert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Brice, Alexis; Payan, Christine A M; Saker-Delye, Safaa; Dürr, Alexandra; Wood, Nicholas W; Tittmann, Lukas; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Amouyel, Philippe; Tzourio, Christophe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Curtis, Charles; Blauw, Hylke M; van der Kooi, Anneke J; de Visser, Marianne; Goris, An; Weber, Markus; Shaw, Christopher E; Smith, Bradley N; Pansarasa, Orietta; Cereda, Cristina; Del Bo, Roberto; Comi, Giacomo P; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Bertolin, Cinzia; Sorarù, Gianni; Mazzini, Letizia; Pensato, Viviana; Gellera, Cinzia; Tiloca, Cinzia; Ratti, Antonia; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Brunetti, Maura; Arcuti, Simona; Capozzo, Rosa; Zecca, Chiara; Lunetta, Christian; Penco, Silvana; Riva, Nilo; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano; Muller, Bernard; Stuit, Robbert Jan; Blair, Ian; Zhang, Katharine; McCann, Emily P; Fifita, Jennifer A; Nicholson, Garth A; Rowe, Dominic B; Pamphlett, Roger; Kiernan, Matthew C; Grosskreutz, Julian; Witte, Otto W; Ringer, Thomas; Prell, Tino; Stubendorff, Beatrice; Kurth, Ingo; Hübner, Christian A; Leigh, P Nigel; Casale, Federico; Chio, Adriano; Beghi, Ettore; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Tortelli, Rosanna; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Powell, John; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Franke, Lude; Pers, Tune H; Brown, Robert H; Glass, Jonathan D; Landers, John E; Hardiman, Orla; Andersen, Peter M; Corcia, Philippe; Vourc'h, Patrick; Silani, Vincenzo; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M; de Bakker, Paul I W; van Es, Michael A; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Lewis, Cathryn M; Breen, Gerome; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H

    2016-09-01

    To elucidate the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and find associated loci, we assembled a custom imputation reference panel from whole-genome-sequenced patients with ALS and matched controls (n = 1,861). Through imputation and mixed-model association analysis in 12,577 cases and 23,475 controls, combined with 2,579 cases and 2,767 controls in an independent replication cohort, we fine-mapped a new risk locus on chromosome 21 and identified C21orf2 as a gene associated with ALS risk. In addition, we identified MOBP and SCFD1 as new associated risk loci. We established evidence of ALS being a complex genetic trait with a polygenic architecture. Furthermore, we estimated the SNP-based heritability at 8.5%, with a distinct and important role for low-frequency variants (frequency 1-10%). This study motivates the interrogation of larger samples with full genome coverage to identify rare causal variants that underpin ALS risk.

  10. Identifying Unique Neighborhood Characteristics to Guide Health Planning for Stroke and Heart Attack: Fuzzy Cluster and Discriminant Analyses Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Ashley; Seaver, William; Odoi, Agricola

    2011-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic factors are known determinants of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) risk. Clustering of these factors in neighborhoods needs to be taken into consideration during planning, prioritization and implementation of health programs intended to reduce disparities. Given the complex and multidimensional nature of these factors, multivariate methods are needed to identify neighborhood clusters of these determinants so as to better understand the unique neighborhood profiles. This information is critical for evidence-based health planning and service provision. Therefore, this study used a robust multivariate approach to classify neighborhoods and identify their socio-demographic characteristics so as to provide information for evidence-based neighborhood health planning for stroke and MI. Methods and Findings The study was performed in East Tennessee Appalachia, an area with one of the highest stroke and MI risks in USA. Robust principal component analysis was performed on neighborhood (census tract) socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, obtained from the US Census, to reduce the dimensionality and influence of outliers in the data. Fuzzy cluster analysis was used to classify neighborhoods into Peer Neighborhoods (PNs) based on their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Nearest neighbor discriminant analysis and decision trees were used to validate PNs and determine the characteristics important for discrimination. Stroke and MI mortality risks were compared across PNs. Four distinct PNs were identified and their unique characteristics and potential health needs described. The highest risk of stroke and MI mortality tended to occur in less affluent PNs located in urban areas, while the suburban most affluent PNs had the lowest risk. Conclusions Implementation of this multivariate strategy provides health planners useful information to better understand and effectively plan for the unique

  11. RNA-Seq and RNA Immunoprecipitation Analyses of the Transcriptome of Streptomyces coelicolor Identify Substrates for RNase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, Marcha L.; Bralley, Patricia; Weil, M. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    RNase III is a key enzyme in the pathways of RNA degradation and processing in bacteria and has been suggested as a global regulator of antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. Using RNA-Seq, we have examined the transcriptomes of S. coelicolor M145 and an RNase III (rnc)-null mutant of that strain. RNA preparations with reduced levels of structural RNAs were prepared by subtractive hybridization prior to RNA-Seq analysis. We initially identified 7,800 transcripts of known and putative protein-coding genes in M145 and the null mutant, JSE1880, along with transcripts of 21 rRNA genes and 65 tRNA genes. Approximately 3,100 of the protein-coding transcripts were categorized as low-abundance transcripts. For further analysis, we selected those transcripts of known and putative protein-coding genes whose levels changed by ≥2-fold between the two S. coelicolor strains and organized those transcripts into 16 functional categories. We refined our analysis by performing RNA immunoprecipitation of the mRNA preparation from JSE1880 using a mutant RNase III protein that binds to transcripts but does not cleave them. This analysis identified ca. 800 transcripts that were enriched in the RNA immunoprecipitates, including 28 transcripts whose levels also changed by ≥2-fold in the RNA-Seq analysis. We compare our results with those obtained by microarray analysis of the S. coelicolor transcriptome and with studies describing the characterization of small noncoding RNAs. We have also used the RNA immunoprecipitation results to identify new substrates for RNase III cleavage. PMID:22389483

  12. Identifying Virulence-Associated Genes Using Transcriptomic and Proteomic Association Analyses of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifeng; Chen, Fengmao; Pan, Hongyang; Ye, Jianren; Dong, Xuejiao; Li, Chunyan; Lin, Fengling

    2016-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (B. mucronatus) isolates that originate from different regions may vary in their virulence, but their virulence-associated genes and proteins are poorly understood. Thus, we conducted an integrated study coupling RNA-Seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic data of highly and weakly virulent B. mucronatus isolates during the pathogenic processes. Approximately 40,000 annotated unigenes and 5000 proteins were gained from the isolates. When we matched all of the proteins with their detected transcripts, a low correlation coefficient of r = 0.138 was found, indicating probable post-transcriptional gene regulation involved in the pathogenic processes. A functional analysis showed that five differentially expressed proteins which were all highly expressed in the highly virulent isolate were involved in the pathogenic processes of nematodes. Peroxiredoxin, fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, and glutathione peroxidase relate to resistance against plant defence responses, while β-1,4-endoglucanase and expansin are associated with the breakdown of plant cell walls. Thus, the pathogenesis of B. mucronatus depends on its successful survival in host plants. Our work adds to the understanding of B. mucronatus’ pathogenesis, and will aid in controlling B. mucronatus and other pinewood nematode species complexes in the future. PMID:27618012

  13. Integrated analyses identify a master microRNA regulatory network for the mesenchymal subtype in serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Sun, Yan; Hu, Limei; Zheng, Hong; Ji, Ping; Pecot, Chad V; Zhao, Yanrui; Reynolds, Sheila; Cheng, Hanyin; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Cogdell, David; Nykter, Matti; Broaddus, Russell; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Liu, Jinsong; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sood, Anil K; Chen, Kexin; Zhang, Wei

    2013-02-11

    Integrated genomic analyses revealed a miRNA-regulatory network that further defined a robust integrated mesenchymal subtype associated with poor overall survival in 459 cases of serous ovarian cancer (OvCa) from The Cancer Genome Atlas and 560 cases from independent cohorts. Eight key miRNAs, including miR-506, miR-141, and miR-200a, were predicted to regulate 89% of the targets in this network. Follow-up functional experiments illustrate that miR-506 augmented E-cadherin expression, inhibited cell migration and invasion, and prevented TGFβ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting SNAI2, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin. In human OvCa, miR-506 expression was correlated with decreased SNAI2 and VIM, elevated E-cadherin, and beneficial prognosis. Nanoparticle delivery of miR-506 in orthotopic OvCa mouse models led to E-cadherin induction and reduced tumor growth.

  14. Identifying Virulence-Associated Genes Using Transcriptomic and Proteomic Association Analyses of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (B. mucronatus isolates that originate from different regions may vary in their virulence, but their virulence-associated genes and proteins are poorly understood. Thus, we conducted an integrated study coupling RNA-Seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic data of highly and weakly virulent B. mucronatus isolates during the pathogenic processes. Approximately 40,000 annotated unigenes and 5000 proteins were gained from the isolates. When we matched all of the proteins with their detected transcripts, a low correlation coefficient of r = 0.138 was found, indicating probable post-transcriptional gene regulation involved in the pathogenic processes. A functional analysis showed that five differentially expressed proteins which were all highly expressed in the highly virulent isolate were involved in the pathogenic processes of nematodes. Peroxiredoxin, fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, and glutathione peroxidase relate to resistance against plant defence responses, while β-1,4-endoglucanase and expansin are associated with the breakdown of plant cell walls. Thus, the pathogenesis of B. mucronatus depends on its successful survival in host plants. Our work adds to the understanding of B. mucronatus’ pathogenesis, and will aid in controlling B. mucronatus and other pinewood nematode species complexes in the future.

  15. Interactional power: observing and identifying power in interaction analyses of adult education situations depending on power notions and data types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Nolda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, various aspects of power have been at the focus of theoretical and empirical adult education research. Despite the actual interest in political and discursive aspects of power, this article emphasizes the importance of interactional studies when observing and identifying power based on various types of data. As for German interaction studies, three phases can be distinguished, characterized by a observations of failed participation based on records of classroom behaviour, b the identification of mutual power negotiation in classroom and counselling situations based on transcriptions, and c the identification of the power of physical settings in adult education classrooms and in counselling sessions based on visual data. It is presumed that observing/identifying power in adult education classrooms and counselling sessions generally depends not only on the notions of power underlying the studies but also on the data types produced and the methods applied for their interpretation. In addition, the question is raised whether the identification of power can be considered a power practice used by adult education researchers.

  16. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  17. Genome-wide analyses of non-syndromic cleft lip with palate identify 14 novel loci and genetic heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanqin; Zuo, Xianbo; He, Miao; Gao, Jinping; Fu, Yuchuan; Qin, Chuanqi; Meng, Liuyan; Wang, Wenjun; Song, Yaling; Cheng, Yong; Zhou, Fusheng; Chen, Gang; Zheng, Xiaodong; Wang, Xinhuan; Liang, Bo; Zhu, Zhengwei; Fu, Xiazhou; Sheng, Yujun; Hao, Jiebing; Liu, Zhongyin; Yan, Hansong; Mangold, Elisabeth; Ruczinski, Ingo; Liu, Jianjun; Marazita, Mary L.; Ludwig, Kerstin U.; Beaty, Terri H.; Zhang, Xuejun; Sun, Liangdan; Bian, Zhuan

    2017-01-01

    Non-syndromic cleft lip with palate (NSCLP) is the most serious sub-phenotype of non-syndromic orofacial clefts (NSOFC), which are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. Here we conduct a GWAS of NSCLP with multiple independent replications, totalling 7,404 NSOFC cases and 16,059 controls from several ethnicities, to identify new NSCLP risk loci, and explore the genetic heterogeneity between sub-phenotypes of NSOFC. We identify 41 SNPs within 26 loci that achieve genome-wide significance, 14 of which are novel (RAD54B, TMEM19, KRT18, WNT9B, GSC/DICER1, PTCH1, RPS26, OFCC1/TFAP2A, TAF1B, FGF10, MSX1, LINC00640, FGFR1 and SPRY1). These 26 loci collectively account for 10.94% of the heritability for NSCLP in Chinese population. We find evidence of genetic heterogeneity between the sub-phenotypes of NSOFC and among different populations. This study substantially increases the number of genetic susceptibility loci for NSCLP and provides important insights into the genetic aetiology of this common craniofacial malformation. PMID:28232668

  18. Multivariate Analyses and Classification of Inertial Sensor Data to Identify Aging Effects on the Timed-Up-and-Go Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique Vervoort

    Full Text Available Many tests can crudely quantify age-related mobility decrease but instrumented versions of mobility tests could increase their specificity and sensitivity. The Timed-up-and-Go (TUG test includes several elements that people use in daily life. The test has different transition phases: rise from a chair, walk, 180° turn, walk back, turn, and sit-down on a chair. For this reason the TUG is an often used test to evaluate in a standardized way possible decline in balance and walking ability due to age and or pathology. Using inertial sensors, qualitative information about the performance of the sub-phases can provide more specific information about a decline in balance and walking ability. The first aim of our study was to identify variables extracted from the instrumented timed-up-and-go (iTUG that most effectively distinguished performance differences across age (age 18-75. Second, we determined the discriminative ability of those identified variables to classify a younger (age 18-45 and older age group (age 46-75. From healthy adults (n = 59, trunk accelerations and angular velocities were recorded during iTUG performance. iTUG phases were detected with wavelet-analysis. Using a Partial Least Square (PLS model, from the 72-iTUG variables calculated across phases, those that explained most of the covariance between variables and age were extracted. Subsequently, a PLS-discriminant analysis (DA assessed classification power of the identified iTUG variables to discriminate the age groups. 27 variables, related to turning, walking and the stand-to-sit movement explained 71% of the variation in age. The PLS-DA with these 27 variables showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 85%. Based on this model, the iTUG can accurately distinguish young and older adults. Such data can serve as a reference for pathological aging with respect to a widely used mobility test. Mobility tests like the TUG supplemented with smart technology could be used in

  19. Pan-genome analyses identify lineage- and niche-specific markers of evolution and adaptation in Epsilonproteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eZhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing availability of complete bacterial genomes has created new opportunities for reconstructing bacterial evolution, but it has also highlighted the difficulty to fully understand the genomic and functional variations occurring among different lineages. Using the class Epsilonproteobacteria as a case study, we investigated the composition, flexibility, and function of its pan-genomes. Models were constructed to extrapolate the expansion of pan-genomes at three different taxonomic levels. The results show that, for Epsilonproteobacteria the seemingly large genome variations among strains of the same species are less noticeable when compared with groups at higher taxonomic ranks, indicating that genome stability is imposed by the potential existence of taxonomic boundaries. The analyses of pan-genomes has also defined a set of universally conserved core genes, based on which a phylogenetic tree was constructed to confirm that thermophilic species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent the most ancient lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria. Moreover, by comparing the flexible genome of a chemoautotrophic deep-sea vent species to 1 genomes of species belonging to the same genus, but inhabiting different environments, and 2 genomes of other vent species, but belonging to different genera, we were able to delineate the relative importance of lineage-specific versus niche-specific genes. This result not only emphasizes the overall importance of phylogenetic proximity in shaping the variable part of the genome, but also highlights the adaptive functions of niche-specific genes. Overall, by modeling the expansion of pan-genomes and analyzing core and flexible genes, this study provides snapshots on how the complex processes of gene acquisition, conservation, and removal affect the evolution of different species, and contribute to the metabolic diversity and versatility of Epsilonproteobacteria.

  20. Stochastic analyses to identify wellfield withdrawal effects on surface-water and groundwater in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric

    2012-12-30

    Several stochastic analyses were conducted in Miami-Dade County, Florida, to evaluate the effects of wellfield withdrawal on aquifer water levels, canal stage, and canal flow. Multiyear data for withdrawals at four water-supply wellfields, water levels at the S-121 canal control structure and groundwater head at a nearby monitoring well were used to determine the interrelation between wellfield withdrawals and water levels in the canal and aquifer. A spectral analysis was performed first on the wellfield withdrawals, showing similar patterns of fluctuations, but no well-defined seasonality. In order to compare water-level response with withdrawals at each wellfield, the intercorrelation effects between wellfields was removed through a 'causal chain' approach where the inter-wellfield correlation is used to isolate the wellfield/water-level correlation. Most computed correlations have magnitudes less than 5 percent, but with statistical significance above 90 percent. Results indicate that withdrawals from the wellfields most distant from the canal had no significant correlation to the canal levels. However the highest correlation was not at the wellfield closest to the canal, but at the two wellfields at the intermediate distance that have higher withdrawal rates. The hydraulic interconnectivity of the canal with the rest of the canal network, covering the study area, allows the canal equalizes with all connected canals. This explains why proximity to a particular canal location does not appear to be as important a factor as the withdrawal rate. Groundwater levels are more highly correlated to a wellfield on the same side of the canal, and to pumping wells in the same wellfield on the same side of the canal. This indicates that canals are an effective barrier and source/sink for the groundwater. Further nonlinear correlation analysis indicates that high withdrawal rates disproportionally affect water levels and are the predominant effect on the canal.

  1. Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Identify ABA-Related Proteins and Signal Pathways in Maize Leaves under Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Yankai; Yang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Wu, Jianyu; Hu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of major factors resulting in maize yield loss. The roles of abscisic acid (ABA) have been widely studied in crops in response to drought stress. However, more attention is needed to identify key ABA-related proteins and also gain deeper molecular insights about drought stress in maize. Based on this need, the physiology and proteomics of the ABA-deficient maize mutant vp5 and its wild-type Vp5 under drought stress were examined and analyzed. Malondialdehyde content increased and quantum efficiency of photosystem II decreased under drought stress in both genotypes. However, the magnitude of the increase or decrease was significantly higher in vp5 than in Vp5. A total of 7051 proteins with overlapping expression patterns among three replicates in the two genotypes were identified by Multiplex run iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods, of which the expression of only 150 proteins (130 in Vp5, 27 in vp5) showed changes of at least 1.5-fold under drought stress. Among the 150 proteins, 67 and 60 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated by drought stress in an ABA-dependent way, respectively. ABA was found to play active roles in regulating signaling pathways related to photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation (mainly related to ATP synthesis), and glutathione metabolism (involved in antioxidative reaction) in the maize response to drought stress. Our results provide an extensive dataset of ABA-dependent, drought-regulated proteins in maize plants, which may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ABA-enhanced tolerance to drought stress in maize.

  2. Strong Ties in a Small World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco); S. Goyal (Sanjeev)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we test the celebrated `Strength of weak ties' theory of Granovetter (1973). We test two hypotheses on the network structure in a data set of collaborating economists. While we find support for the hypothesis of transitivity of strong ties, we reject the hypothesis that wea

  3. Tie Strength Distribution in Scientific Collaboration Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent work have demonstrated a counter-intuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribut...

  4. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  5. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses identify a role for chlorophyll catabolism and phytoalexin during Medicago nonhost resistance against Asian soybean rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao; Gill, Upinder S; Huhman, David; Tang, Yuhong; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2015-08-12

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a devastating foliar disease affecting soybean production worldwide. Understanding nonhost resistance against ASR may provide an avenue to engineer soybean to confer durable resistance against ASR. We characterized a Medicago truncatula-ASR pathosystem to study molecular mechanisms of nonhost resistance. Although urediniospores formed appressoria and penetrated into epidermal cells of M. truncatula, P. pachyrhizi failed to sporulate. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the induction of phenylpropanoid, flavonoid and isoflavonoid metabolic pathway genes involved in the production of phytoalexin medicarpin in M. truncatula upon infection with P. pachyrhizi. Furthermore, genes involved in chlorophyll catabolism were induced during nonhost resistance. We further characterized one of the chlorophyll catabolism genes, Stay-green (SGR), and demonstrated that the M. truncatula sgr mutant and alfalfa SGR-RNAi lines showed hypersensitive-response-like enhanced cell death upon inoculation with P. pachyrhizi. Consistent with transcriptomic analysis, metabolomic analysis also revealed the accumulation of medicarpin and its intermediate metabolites. In vitro assay showed that medicarpin inhibited urediniospore germination and differentiation. In addition, several triterpenoid saponin glycosides accumulated in M. truncatula upon inoculation with P. pachyrhizi. In summary, using multi-omic approaches, we identified a correlation between phytoalexin production and M. truncatula defense responses against ASR.

  6. Niche divergence versus neutral processes: combined environmental and genetic analyses identify contrasting patterns of differentiation in recently diverged pine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental information to clarify species boundaries and relationships of the species complex of Pinus flexilis, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pinus strobiformis. METHODS: Mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences were combined with previously obtained microsatellite data and contrasted with environmental information to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the species complex. Ecological niche models were compared to test if ecological divergence is significant among species. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Separately, both genetic and ecological evidence support a clear differentiation of all three species but with different topology, but also reveal an ancestral contact zone between P. strobiformis and P. ayacahuite. The marked ecological differentiation of P. flexilis suggests that ecological speciation has occurred in this lineage, but this is not reflected in neutral markers. The inclusion of environmental traits in phylogenetic reconstruction improved the resolution of internal branches. We suggest that combining environmental and genetic information would be useful for species delimitation and phylogenetic studies in other recently diverged species complexes.

  7. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) μm³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.

  8. Proteomic analyses of the SMYD family interactomes identify HSP90 as a novel target for SMYD2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Abu-Farha; Sylvain Lanouette; Fred Elisma; Véronique Tremblay; Jeffery Butson; Daniel Figeys; Jean-Francois Couture

    2011-01-01

    The SMYD (SET and MYND domain) family of lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes,including gene expression regulation and DNA damage response.Initially identified as genuine histone methyltransferases,specific members of this family have recently been shown to methylate non-histone proteins such as p53,VEGFR,and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb).To gain further functional insights into this family of KMTs,we generated the protein interaction network for three different human SMYD proteins (SMYD2,SMYD3,and SMYDS).Characterization of each SMYD protein network revealed that they associate with both shared and unique sets of proteins.Among those,we found that HsP90 and several of its co-chaperones interact specifically with the tetratrico peptide repeat (TPR)-containing SMYD2 and SMYD3.Moreover,using proteomic and biochemical techniques,we provide evidence that SMYD2 methylates K209 and K615 on HSP90 nucleotide-binding and dimerization domains,respectively.In addition,we found that each methylation site displays unique reactivity in regard to the presence of HsP90 co-chaperones,pH,and demethylation by the lysine amine oxidase LSD1,suggesting that alternative mechanisms control HsP90 methylation by SMYD2.Altogether,this study highlights the ability of SMYD proteins to form unique protein complexes that may underlie their various biological functions and the SMYD2-mediated methylation of the key molecular chaperone HSP90.%The SMYD (SET and MYND domain) family of lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression regulation and DNA damage response. Initially identified as genuine histone methyltransferases, specific members of this family have recently been shown to methylate non-histone proteins such as p53, VEGFR, and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb). To gain further functional insights into this family of KMTs, we generated the protein interaction

  9. Can hospital audit teams identify case management problems, analyse their causes, identify and implement improvements? A cross-sectional process evaluation of obstetric near-miss case reviews in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borchert Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric near-miss case reviews are being promoted as a quality assurance intervention suitable for hospitals in low income countries. We introduced such reviews in five district, regional and national hospitals in Benin, West Africa. In a cross-sectional study we analysed the extent to which the hospital audit teams were able to identify case management problems (CMPs, analyse their causes, agree on solutions and put these solutions into practice. Methods We analysed case summaries, women’s interview transcripts and audit minutes produced by the audit teams for 67 meetings concerning one woman with near-miss complications each. We compared the proportion of CMPs identified by an external assessment team to the number found by the audit teams. For the latter, we described the CMP causes identified, solutions proposed and implemented by the audit teams. Results Audit meetings were conducted regularly and were well attended. Audit teams identified half of the 714 CMPs; they were more likely to find managerial ones (71% than the ones relating to treatment (30%. Most identified CMPs were valid. Almost all causes of CMPs were plausible, but often too superficial to be of great value for directing remedial action. Audit teams suggested solutions, most of them promising ones, for 38% of the CMPs they had identified, but recorded their implementation only for a minority (8.5%. Conclusions The importance of following-up and documenting the implementation of solutions should be stressed in future audit interventions. Tools facilitating the follow-up should be made available. Near-miss case reviews hold promise, but their effectiveness to improve the quality of care sustainably and on a large scale still needs to be established.

  10. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below.

  11. Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161094.html Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival With ALS Tobacco use ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may speed progression of Lou Gehrig's disease and ...

  12. The self-cohering tied-array

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, P A

    2010-01-01

    Large radio astronomy multi-element interferometers are frequently used as single dishes in a tied-array mode when signals from separate antennas are added. Phase shifts arising during wave propagation through a turbulent atmosphere can significantly reduce the effective area of an equivalent single dish. I aim to give estimates of the impact of the ionosphere and troposphere on the effectiveness of a radio interferometer working in tied-array mode. Statistical estimates of the effective area are calculated and the power-law of turbulent atmosphere irregularities has been used. A simple method of tied-array calibration using optimization techniques is proposed. The impact of phase errors on the effectiveness of tied-arrays are given for low and high frequencies. Computer simulations demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed calibration algorithm.

  13. Expression analyses identify MLL as a prominent target of 11q23 amplification and support an etiologic role for MLL gain of function in myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Bruce; Vandesompele, Jo; Schoch, Claudia; Lindvall, Charlotta; Mrozek, Krzysztof; Bloomfield, Clara D; Beverloo, H Berna; Michaux, Lucienne; Dastugue, Nicole; Herens, Christian; Yigit, Nurten; De Paepe, Anne; Hagemeijer, Anne; Speleman, Frank

    2004-01-01

    MLL amplification was recently recognized as a recurrent aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodys-plastic syndrome (MDS), associated with adverse prognosis and karyotype complexity. Here we present detailed results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and expression analyses of MLL and 5 selected 11q candidate oncogenes (CBL, DDX6, ETS1, FLI1, and PLZF) in 31 patient samples and one cell line with 11q23 gain. FISH analyses revealed that the 11q23 amplicon invariably encompassed MLL, DDX6, ETS1, and FLI1, whereas expression analyses identified MLL and DDX6 as the most differentially expressed genes among samples with and without 11q23 copy gain or amplification. In MLL-amplified samples, a significant transcriptional up-regulation of MEIS1, PROML1, ADAM10, NKG2D, and ITPA was noted. Further analyses, designed to elucidate a possible role of the 11q overexpressed genes (MLL, DDX6, FLI1, and ETS1) in unselected MDS and AML samples, revealed a significant upregulation of MLL in MDS. Our findings confirm the MLL gene as a prominent target of 11q23 amplification and provide further evidence for an etiologic role for MLL gain of function in myeloid malignancies. In addition, our results indicate that the transcriptional program associated with MLL rearrangements and MLL overexpression displays significant similarities.

  14. The Strength of Varying Tie Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    "The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...

  15. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  16. The Role of Social Ties in Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne Duhr; Grønholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article develops consumer segmentation based on the strength of social ties in word-of-mouth (WOM) communication and examines the influence of WOM on behavioral attitude and intention in these segments. Data were collected through a survey among receivers of retail banking WOM. A cluster...... analysis identifies four WOM receiver segments based on the tie strength between the sender and the receiver, and the cluster solution is successfully validated. Each segment shows distinct patterns of tie strength and influence on the receiver’s perception of WOM, behavioral attitude and intention...

  17. Division of tongue tie: review of practice through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, R W

    2012-10-01

    Recent NICE guidance declared that evidence regarding surgical division of tongue tie was adequate to support the use of the procedure, provided that normal arrangements are in place for consent, audit and clinical governance. This work aimed to carry out a retrospective review of those patients who have previously undergone tongue tie division through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service. We further aimed to identify the referral patterns, indications for, and outcomes following, division.

  18. High tie versus low tie in rectal surgery: comparison of anastomotic perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, N.; Slieker, J.; Kort, P. de; Wilt, J.H. de; Harst, E. van der; Coene, P.P.; Gosselink, M.P.; Tetteroo, G.; Graaf, E. de; Beek, T. van; Toom, R. den; Bockel, W. van; Verhoef, C.; Lange, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both "high tie" (HT) and "low tie" (LT) are well-known strategies in rectal surgery. The aim of this study was to compare colonic perfusion after HT to colonic perfusion after LT. METHODS: Patients undergoing rectal resection for malignancy were included. Colonic perfusion was measured with

  19. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  20. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  1. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  2. Assessing lameness in cows kept in tie-stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, K A; Dippel, S; Huber, J; March, S; Winckler, C; Whay, H R

    2009-04-01

    Identifying lame cows and quantifying the prevalence of lameness are important elements of cattle welfare assessment that are generally achieved by methods involving observations of each animal walking. There is no published method for assessing lameness in cows confined in tie-stalls. The objective of this study (carried out within the European Commission's Welfare Quality(R) project) was to develop a suitable method and validate it for lameness detection against a published locomotion score. A series of indicators of lameness visible in tied cows was formalized into a stall assessment protocol. This was validated against a traditional locomotion score and tested for repeatability between 2 observers. A total of 98 cows on 4 farms were assessed. Overall interobserver agreement was 91%. Sensitivity compared with locomotion scoring was 0.54 to 0.77, dependent on observer and threshold definition. Assessment in the stall underestimated the herd prevalence of lameness revealed by locomotion scoring by 11 to 37% (mean 27%). The discrepancy between herd lameness prevalence assessed in the stall and by locomotion scoring was not affected significantly by farm or observer. The cases of lameness that were not detected in the stall tended to be the least severe. The proposed method for lameness detection in tie-stalls could be used for herd-level assessment of lameness and detection of individual lame animals by farmers and their advisors, but it is important to remember that it is less sensitive than locomotion scoring.

  3. Performing statistical analyses on quantitative data in Taverna workflows: An example using R and maxdBrowse to identify differentially-expressed genes from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pocock Matthew R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a dramatic increase in the amount of quantitative data derived from the measurement of changes at different levels of biological complexity during the post-genomic era. However, there are a number of issues associated with the use of computational tools employed for the analysis of such data. For example, computational tools such as R and MATLAB require prior knowledge of their programming languages in order to implement statistical analyses on data. Combining two or more tools in an analysis may also be problematic since data may have to be manually copied and pasted between separate user interfaces for each tool. Furthermore, this transfer of data may require a reconciliation step in order for there to be interoperability between computational tools. Results Developments in the Taverna workflow system have enabled pipelines to be constructed and enacted for generic and ad hoc analyses of quantitative data. Here, we present an example of such a workflow involving the statistical identification of differentially-expressed genes from microarray data followed by the annotation of their relationships to cellular processes. This workflow makes use of customised maxdBrowse web services, a system that allows Taverna to query and retrieve gene expression data from the maxdLoad2 microarray database. These data are then analysed by R to identify differentially-expressed genes using the Taverna RShell processor which has been developed for invoking this tool when it has been deployed as a service using the RServe library. In addition, the workflow uses Beanshell scripts to reconcile mismatches of data between services as well as to implement a form of user interaction for selecting subsets of microarray data for analysis as part of the workflow execution. A new plugin system in the Taverna software architecture is demonstrated by the use of renderers for displaying PDF files and CSV formatted data within the Taverna

  4. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hee-Chung [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee-Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil, E-mail: yslee0425@ewha.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Woman' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  5. HPLC-MS and GC-MS analyses combined with orthogonal partial least squares to identify cytotoxic constituents from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianlan; Zhang, Huan; Li, Zidan; Zhang, Xiaohang; Su, Xin; Li, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Yuan, Yingjin

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the fingerprints of 48 batches of turmeric total extracts (TTE) by HPLC-MS-MS and GC-MS analyses and 43 characteristic peaks (22 constituents from HPLC-MS-MS; 21 from GC-MS) were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. An MTT {3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide} assay was implemented to measure the cytotoxicity of the TTE against HeLa cells. Then we utilized orthogonal partial least squares analysis, which correlated the chemical composition of the TTE to its cytotoxic activity, to identify potential cytotoxic constituents from turmeric. The result showed that 19 constituents contributed significantly to the cytotoxicity. The obtained result was verified by canonical correlation analysis. Comparison with previous reports also indicated some interaction between the curcuminoids and sesquiterpenoids in turmeric.

  6. Integrative analyses of miRNA and proteomics identify potential biological pathways associated with onset of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukunaga, Satoki [Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugade-Naka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-8558 (Japan); Kakehashi, Anna [Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Sumida, Kayo; Kushida, Masahiko; Asano, Hiroyuki [Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugade-Naka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-8558 (Japan); Gi, Min [Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    To determine miRNAs and their predicted target proteins regulatory networks which are potentially involved in onset of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin rat model, we conducted integrative miRNA microarray and iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS proteomic analyses, and evaluated the significance of altered biological functions and pathways. We observed that alterations of miRNAs and proteins are associated with the early phase of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and identified potential target pairs by using ingenuity pathway analysis. Using the data set of these alterations, it was demonstrated that those miRNAs, in association with their predicted target proteins, are potentially involved in canonical pathways reflective of initial epithelial injury and fibrogenic processes, and biofunctions related to induction of cellular development, movement, growth, and proliferation. Prediction of activated functions suggested that lung cells acquire proliferative, migratory, and invasive capabilities, and resistance to cell death especially in the very early phase of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The present study will provide new insights for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. - Highlights: • We analyzed bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the rat. • Integrative analyses of miRNA microarray and proteomics were conducted. • We determined the alterations of miRNAs and their potential target proteins. • The alterations may control biological functions and pathways in pulmonary fibrosis. • Our result may provide new insights of pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Multiple Imputation for Network Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Robert; Huisman, Mark; Steglich, Christian; Snijders, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Missing data on network ties is a fundamental problem for network analyses. The biases induced by missing edge data, even when missing completely at random (MCAR), are widely acknowledged and problematic for network analyses (Kossinets, 2006; Huisman & Steglich, 2008; Huisman, 2009). Although model-

  8. Chemical topology: Tying up some loose ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Edward E.

    2010-03-01

    A linear molecule containing three bipyridine ligands can be wrapped around a single metal-ion template to form an open-knot complex. The loose ends of the knot can be 'tied' together through esterification or olefin-metathesis reactions to form closed knots that do not unravel when the metal template is removed.

  9. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  10. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  11. Weizmann ties with Cambridge in physics contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Siegel, J

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists and students from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and Cambridge University in England have tied for first place in a physics competition aimed at simulating the future functioning of the particle accelerator being built at the European center CERN and due to open in 2007" (1/2 page)

  12. Gonad RNA-specific qRT-PCR analyses identify genes with potential functions in schistosome reproduction such as SmFz1 and SmFGFRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen eHahnel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new strategies to fight schistosomiasis, the unique reproductive biology of Schistosoma mansoni has come into the focus of research. The development of the gonads and the ability of egg production are fundamental not only for continuing the life cycle but also for pathogenicity.Previous studies of schistosome biology demonstrated an influence of pairing on gonad development of the female and on gene expression profiles in both genders. Due to the limited access to specific tissues, however, most of these studies were done at the level of whole worms neglecting individual tissues that may be targets of pairing-dependent processes.Recently, we established a protocol allowing the isolation of testes and ovaries from adult S. mansoni. Here, we describe tissue-specific qRT-PCR analyses comparing transcript levels of selected genes on the basis of RNA from gonads and whole worms. Gene expression in ovary and testes was in some cases found to be significantly influenced by pairing, which was not traceable in whole worms. Among the candidate genes identified as regulated by pairing in gonads were the frizzled homolog SmFz1 and the two fibroblast growth factor receptor homologs SmFGFR-A and SmFGFR-B. First functional characterizations were done, including comparative qRT-PCR analyses, in situ-localization experiments, heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes (SmFGFR-A/B, and inhibitor studies using the Fz/Dvl-pathway inhibitor 3289-8625, or BIBF1120 blocking FGFR-signaling. Besides confirming gonad localization and receptor functions, inhibitor-induced phenotypes were observed in vitro such as decreased egg production as well as drastic effects on gonad differentiation, morphology, embryogenesis, and survival of adult worms.In summary, these results emphasise the usefulness of tissue specific qRT-PCRs for selection of candidate genes with important roles in reproduction, allowing subsequent studies to determine their suitability as

  13. Quantitative in vivo analyses reveal calcium-dependent phosphorylation sites and identifies a novel component of the Toxoplasma invasion motor complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nebl

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites depend on the invasion of host cells for survival and proliferation. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways appear to be essential for micronemal release and gliding motility, yet the target of activated kinases remains largely unknown. We have characterized calcium-dependent phosphorylation events during Toxoplasma host cell invasion. Stimulation of live tachyzoites with Ca²⁺-mobilizing drugs leads to phosphorylation of numerous parasite proteins, as shown by differential 2-DE display of ³²[P]-labeled protein extracts. Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT identified ∼546 phosphorylation sites on over 300 Toxoplasma proteins, including 10 sites on the actomyosin invasion motor. Using a Stable Isotope of Amino Acids in Culture (SILAC-based quantitative LC-MS/MS analyses we monitored changes in the abundance and phosphorylation of the invasion motor complex and defined Ca²⁺-dependent phosphorylation patterns on three of its components--GAP45, MLC1 and MyoA. Furthermore, calcium-dependent phosphorylation of six residues across GAP45, MLC1 and MyoA is correlated with invasion motor activity. By analyzing proteins that appear to associate more strongly with the invasion motor upon calcium stimulation we have also identified a novel 15-kDa Calmodulin-like protein that likely represents the MyoA Essential Light Chain of the Toxoplasma invasion motor. This suggests that invasion motor activity could be regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by the direct binding of calcium ions to this new component.

  14. Description of first germinal mosaic mutation identified in dominant skeletal mutation experiments and considerations about how to deal with this kind of spontaneous mutation in analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, Paul B.; Earhart, Vicki S.; Garrison, Edna M.; Raymer, G. Douglas

    2004-01-12

    Germinal mosaicism is a well-established mechanism by which new spontaneous mutations enter the human population, but it is only rather recently that clusters of mutations arising in that way have been acknowledged and dealt with in specific-locus experiments on male mice. This paper reports the first cluster of germinal mosaic mutations to have been identified in experiments on the induction of dominant skeletal mutations. The mutation was detected in six offspring of a control male from the radiation part of an Assessment-of-Dominant-Damage (ADD) experiment. Reasons are provided to explain why this one litter of six mutants was excluded from the analysis of induction of dominant mutations causing the more common skeletal anomalies, which is reported in another paper. The effects of excluding this litter from that analysis are fully described. There is discussion of why such clusters should be included in some analyses but omitted in others. They should certainly always be reported because, in some cases, they can have a major impact on conclusions. Details on this one cluster of FCGM mutations provide numerous examples of how a dominant skeletal mutation that causes rare effects can also cause many of the more common anomalies.

  15. Genome-wide Meta-analyses of Breast, Ovarian and Prostate Cancer Association Studies Identify Multiple New Susceptibility Loci Shared by At Least Two Cancer Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Siddhartha P.; Beesley, Jonathan; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Lawrenson, Kate; Lindstrom, Sara; Ramus, Susan J.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Kibel, Adam S.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Michael, Agnieszka; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wolk, Alicja; Monteiro, Alvaro; Peixoto, Ana; Kierzek, Andrzej; Cox, Angela; Rudolph, Anja; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Wu, Anna H.; Lindblom, Annika; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ekici, Arif B.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Blomqvist, Carl; Phelan, Catherine; McLean, Catriona; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Vachon, Celine; Cybulski, Cezary; Slavov, Chavdar; Stegmaier, Christa; Maier, Christiane; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Høgdall, Claus K.; Teerlink, Craig C.; Kang, Daehee; Tessier, Daniel C.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Stram, Daniel O.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Neal, David E.; Eccles, Diana; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Wokozorczyk, Dominika; Levine, Douglas A.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Høgdall, Estrid; Song, Fengju; Bruinsma, Fiona; Heitz, Florian; Modugno, Francesmary; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Giles, Graham G.; Olsson, Håkan; Wildiers, Hans; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Pandha, Hardev; Risch, Harvey A.; Darabi, Hatef; Salvesen, Helga B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Gronberg, Henrik; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Song, Honglin; Lim, Hui-Yi; McNeish, Iain; Campbell, Ian; Vergote, Ignace; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubiński, Jan; Stanford, Janet L.; Benítez, Javier; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Permuth, Jennifer B.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Donovan, Jenny L.; Dennis, Joe; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schleutker, Johanna; Hopper, John L.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Park, Jong Y.; Figueroa, Jonine; Clements, Judith A.; Knight, Julia A.; Peto, Julian; Cunningham, Julie M.; Pow-Sang, Julio; Batra, Jyotsna; Czene, Kamila; Lu, Karen H.; Herkommer, Kathleen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Matsuo, Keitaro; Muir, Kenneth; Offitt, Kenneth; Chen, Kexin; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Odunsi, Kunle; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Fitzgerald, Liesel M.; Cook, Linda S.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Hooning, Maartje J.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Luedeke, Manuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Goodman, Marc T.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Riggan, Marjorie; Aly, Markus; Rossing, Mary Anne; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Moisse, Matthieu; Sanderson, Maureen; Southey, Melissa C.; Jones, Michael; Lush, Michael; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hou, Ming-Feng; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Bogdanova, Natalia; Rahman, Nazneen; Le, Nhu D.; Orr, Nick; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Pashayan, Nora; Peterlongo, Paolo; Guénel, Pascal; Brennan, Paul; Paulo, Paula; Webb, Penelope M.; Broberg, Per; Fasching, Peter A.; Devilee, Peter; Wang, Qin; Cai, Qiuyin; Li, Qiyuan; Kaneva, Radka; Butzow, Ralf; Kopperud, Reidun Kristin; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Stephenson, Robert A.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Winqvist, Robert; Ness, Roberta; Milne, Roger L.; Travis, Ruth C.; Benlloch, Sara; Olson, Sara H.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Maia, Sofia; Berndt, Sonja; Lee, Soo Chin; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Pejovic, Tanja; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Dörk, Thilo; Brüning, Thomas; Wahlfors, Tiina; Key, Tim J.; Edwards, Todd L.; Menon, Usha; Hamann, Ute; Mitev, Vanio; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Kristensen, Vessela; Arndt, Volker; Vogel, Walther; Zheng, Wei; Sieh, Weiva; Blot, William J.; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Schumacher, Fredrick; Freedman, Matthew L.; Berchuck, Andrew; Dunning, Alison M.; Simard, Jacques; Haiman, Christopher A.; Spurdle, Amanda; Sellers, Thomas A.; Hunter, David J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hall, Per; Gayther, Simon A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Eeles, Rosalind; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Lambrechts, Diether

    2016-01-01

    Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers are hormone-related and may have a shared genetic basis but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Meta-analyses combining the largest GWA meta-analysis data sets for these cancers totaling 112,349 cases and 116,421 controls of European ancestry, all together and in pairs, identified at P < 10−8 seven new cross-cancer loci: three associated with susceptibility to all three cancers (rs17041869/2q13/BCL2L11; rs7937840/11q12/INCENP; rs1469713/19p13/GATAD2A), two breast and ovarian cancer risk loci (rs200182588/9q31/SMC2; rs8037137/15q26/RCCD1), and two breast and prostate cancer risk loci (rs5013329/1p34/NSUN4; rs9375701/6q23/L3MBTL3). Index variants in five additional regions previously associated with only one cancer also showed clear association with a second cancer type. Cell-type specific expression quantitative trait locus and enhancer-gene interaction annotations suggested target genes with potential cross-cancer roles at the new loci. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of death receptor signaling genes near loci with P < 10−5 in the three-cancer meta-analysis. PMID:27432226

  16. China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua,China and Argentina have agreed to further enhance mutual trust and their strategic partnership as the two emerging economies are playing an increasingly important role in the world arena.“China will work with Argentina to strengthen strategic mutual trust,expand cooperation and coordination within multilateral frameworks in order to promote bilateral ties and benefit the two peoples,” Vice President Xi Jinping told Argentine Foreign Minister Hector Timerman on September 9.

  17. Multi-technique TRF realization with Jason-2 as a space tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulida, Myriam; Pollet, Arnaud; Rebischung, Paul; Coulot, David; Biancale, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In the present approach used to produce the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), observations of the different space geodetic techniques are reduced in independent analyses. The only mean to tie the resulting technique-specific frames into a homogeneous combined frame is then to use local topometric ties between stations of different techniques co-located at the same observatory. However, inconsistencies between these local ties and space geodesy estimates of the station positions are today a major limiting factor of the ITRF accuracy. An alternative way of tying the different space geodetic techniques together is through the use of multitechnique satellites equipped with instruments of more than one technique. But the main challenge of using such a satellite as an inter-technique link resides in the accurate knowledge (or estimation) of the vectors between the satellite's center of mass and the reference points of its different instruments (i.e. space ties). In this study, the results from multi-technique (GPS+SLR+DORIS) analyses involving the Jason-2 satellite are presented and compared to the results from traditional single-technique analyses. We assess in particular the effect of simultaneously processing the observations of the three techniques with Jason-2 as inter-technique link on the resolution of the GPS phase ambiguities, on the estimation of the GPS and Jason-2 satellite orbits and on the estimation of the ground station positions. Moreover, results of the estimation of the Jason-2 space ties will be presented, in order to assess the quality of the presently available values.

  18. Bioabsorbable thread for tight tying of bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K; Tomita, N; Tamai, S; Ikada, Y

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a bioabsorbable thread for tight fixation of fractured bones and to examine its mechanical performance in an in-vitro simulation study. The thread is a blend of bioabsorbable poly(L-lactic acid); (PLLA) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone); (PCL) fibers and can be tightly connected by fusion welding of the PCL fibers. The tying strength of the PLLA-PCL blend thread was 39.7 N, which was comparable to that of stainless steel wire. A testing machine was fabricated to measure the fatigue strength of the tying by simulating bone fixation. The results showed that metal wires always failed because of breakage within 25,000 loading cycles, whereas the blend threads did not fail until 50,000 loading cycles. The looseness of tying for simulated bone fixation by the blend thread was within 1mm even after 50 000 loading cycles. In-vivo testing using rats revealed that the blend thread did not cause any severe inflammatory reaction.

  19. On the Nature, Modeling, and Neural Bases of Social Ties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.A.M. Winden, van (Frans); M. Stallen (Mirre); K.R. Ridderinkhof (Richard)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the nature, formalization, and neural bases of (affective) social ties and discusses the relevance of ties for health economics. A social tie is defined as an affective weight attached by an individual to the well-being of another individual (‘utility interdependence

  20. 49 CFR 195.308 - Testing of tie-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing of tie-ins. 195.308 Section 195.308 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.308 Testing of tie-ins. Pipe associated with tie-ins must be...

  1. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  2. Identification and characterization of a novel peptide ligand of Tie2 for targeting gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghua Wu; Jianren Gu; Zonghai Li; Ming Yao; Huamao Wang; Sumin Qu; Xianlian Chen; Jinjun Li; Ye Sun; Yuhong Xu

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domain-2 (Tie2) has been considered as a rational target for gene therapy in solid tumors. In order to identify a novel peptide ligand of Tie2 for targeted gene therapy, we screened a phage display peptide library and identified a candidate peptide ligand NSLSNASEFRAPY(designated GA5).Binding assays and Scatchard analysis revealed that GA5 could specifically bind to Tie2 with a dissociation constant of 2.1×10-8M.In addition,we showed that GA5 was internalized into tumor cells highly expressing Tie2.In the biodistribution assay.125I-GA5 was mainly accumniated in SPC-A1 xenograft tumors that express Tie2.Ingene delivery studies,GA5-conjugated polyethylenimine vector could achieve greater transgene transduction than non-targeted vectors both in vitro and in vivo.Tumor growth inhibition was observed in SPC-A1 xenograft-bearing mice that received eight intratumoral injections of GA5 polyethylenimine/p53 complexes in 3 weeks.The difference in tumor volume between the experiment and control groups was significant(P<0.05).Our results showed that GA5 is a potentially efficient targeting element for cancer gene or molecular therapy.

  3. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heejung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Kaown, Dugin, E-mail: dugin1@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Lee, Jin-Yong [Department of Geology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200–701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Yunjung [Planning and Management Group, Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 339-007 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Kun [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    } and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified contaminant sources. • Aquifer contamination was affected by land use. • Microbial community in groundwater reflects land use. • Approach is promising for managing water quality in agricultural areas.

  4. Foxtail millet NF-Y families: genome-wide survey and evolution analyses identified two functional genes important in abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Juan eFeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica, an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde (MDA in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5 and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies.

  5. Foxtail Millet NF-Y Families: Genome-Wide Survey and Evolution Analyses Identified Two Functional Genes Important in Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Juan; He, Guan-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Lu, Pan-Pan; Chen, Ming; Gong, Ya-Ming; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC) expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam) NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD, or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC) and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5, and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies.

  6. Power Generation Capabilities of Tie Tube Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Stanley V.; Hedstrom, James; Hundal, Rolv

    1994-07-01

    Second generation nuclear thermal rocket engine designs, employing solid core reactors and expander engine cycles, generally rely on some form of nuclear-driven heater to supply the major portion of thermal energy required to preheat the turbine-drive gases. If adequate heat transfer occurs, not only will efficiency-enhancing turbine-inlet temperatures be realized, but sufficient energy will be available to enable engine operation at chamber pressures ranging to at least 2,000 psia. For the case of reactor cores employing prismatic fuel elements, the utilization of tie tube assemblies, as first employed in the core-support subsystem of the Phoebus II reactor, can provide the basis of an array of propellant (hydrogen) preheaters that offer an ample supply of energy and temperature to enable candidate expander engine cycles over a wide range of operating parameters, without reducing the total enthalpy of the core-exit gas and its attendant effect on specific impulse. By modifying the tie tube design concept set forth in LASL's Nuclear Rocket Engine definition study, a powerful, weight and packaging-effective, preheater assembly can be realized. The design features of these tie tube assemblies reflect their functional objectives, core criticality considerations, and space constraints. Since the core pressure and inertial mass loads are carried by these assemblies, the structural tubular element(s) also provide coolant passage(s) for the hydrogen. The transfer of heat to the coolant surfaces is controlled by the effective thermal conductivity of the filler structure and ``insulating sleeves,'' which surround the tubular elements and are in controlled thermal contact with the surrounding core fuel elements. An option exists to further increase the transported heat to the coolant walls by the selective loading of the filler structure, ``insulating sleeves,'' and the moderator annular element with fissionable material.

  7. Vínculos organizacionais Organizational ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garcez Kramer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é um estudo de caso único, realizado junto a uma organização pública municipal de Curitiba, e tem como objetivo investigar e compreender os vínculos organizacionais. O estudo dos vínculos é feito por meio dos seus elementos constitutivos: a identificação, o sentimento de pertença, a cooperação, a participação, a criação de inimigos, a idealização, o reconhecimento e valorização dos indivíduos, a solidariedade, a integração, o crescimento e desenvolvimento pessoal e profissional e a autonomia. Foram utilizados, como instrumentos de coleta, questionário fechado e análise documental. O resultado dessa pesquisa é a caracterização dos elementos que são importantes na formação e manutenção dos vínculos e, conseqüentemente, para o comprometimento dos empregados com os objetivos, políticas, problemas, desempenho e resultados da organização.This article presents a unique case study of the organizational ties in a public municipal organization in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. The ties are studied through their constitutive elements: identification, sense of belonging, cooperation, participation, creation of enemies, idealization, recognition and appreciation of individuals, solidarity, integration, professional and personal development and growth, and autonomy. Documental analysis and closed questionnaires were used for data collection. The research resulted in the characterization of the elements that are important in making and keeping ties, and consequently committing employees to the organization's objectives, policies, problems, performance and results.

  8. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh, MRCSI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  9. Migrant networks and international migration: testing weak ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    This article examines the role of migrant social networks in international migration and extends prior research by testing the strength of tie theory, decomposing networks by sources and resources, and disentangling network effects from complementary explanations. Nearly all previous empirical research has ignored friendship ties and has largely neglected extended-family ties. Using longitudinal data from the Migration between Africa and Europe project collected in Africa (Senegal) and Europe (France, Italy, and Spain), this article tests the robustness of network theory-and in particular, the role of weak ties-on first-time migration between Senegal and Europe. Discrete-time hazard model results confirm that weak ties are important and that network influences appear to be gendered, but they do not uphold the contention in previous literature that strong ties are more important than weak ties for male and female migration. Indeed, weak ties play an especially important role in male migration. In terms of network resources, having more resources as a result of strong ties appears to dampen overall migration, while having more resources as a result of weaker ties appears to stimulate male migration. Finally, the diversity of resources has varied effects for male and female migration.

  10. Level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery: Low tie preferred over high tie. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Lange (Marilyne); M. Buunen (Mark); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractConsensus does not exist on the level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery. From oncologic considerations, many surgeons apply high tie arterial ligation (level of inferior mesenteric artery). Other strategies include ligation at the level of the superior rectal artery, just cau

  11. To tie or not to tie ridges for water conservation in Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, B.B.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia are characterized by sandy loam soils that have poor fertility and unreliable rainfall conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the potential benefit of rainwater harvesting by tied-ridges and improved soil fertility on maize productivity through field ex

  12. Social ties within school classes : The roles of gender, ethnicity, and having older siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, AR; Kooreman, P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high-school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and

  13. Preservation and Dissolution of the Target Firm's Embedded Ties in Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOur study builds on extant theory on embeddness to concentrate on the process of preservation and dissolution of the target firm’s embedded ties in acquisitions. We identify four critical areas - communication, idiosyncratic investments, inter-personal relations and, personnel turnover –

  14. Newspaper Readership and Community Ties; Precision Journalism: Coming of Age. ANPA News Research Report No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ismach, Arnold H.

    The first of two articles in this report offers a survey of how community ties lead to various psychological needs that are the motivation for newspaper reading. It identifies three distinct audience segments: the traditional audience, with permanent bonds to the community, whose need for information, guidance, and community surveillance leads to…

  15. The Tie Effect in Mental Arithmetic%心算加工中tie effect的加工机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田花; 刘昌

    2011-01-01

    This article is to review the tie effect in simple arithmetic. Tie effect means that simple arithmetic problems with repeated operands (i. e., ties such as 3 + 3,4×4) are solved more quickly and accurately than similar nontie problems (e. g., 3 + 4,4 × 5). Furthermore, problem size and tie effect so interact that latencies on both ties and nonties increase with the problem size, but the increase is much greater in nonties than in ties. There are two possible explanations for the tie effect, i.e., encoding-based and access- based accounts. Encoding-based accounts propose that the tie advantage occurs because repetition of the same physical stimulus results in faster encoding of ties than of nonties. Alternatively, access-based accounts propose that ties may be easier to solve than nonties because of differences in accessibility in memory or differences in the solution processes. Access-based accounts fall into three categories: familiarity, interference, variability in solution approaches. According to familiarity explanations, acee~ibility so varies with practice that the tie effect is related to the frequency with which problems are encountered. Ties receive more practice and the connections between operands and answers in memory are greater. So ties are solved more quickly. According to interference explanations, ties and nonties are defined as separate categories of problems and the interference is greater within categories than between category. Thus, because the tie category includes relatively few problems, ties received less inhibitory input than nonties. According to solution approach explanations, even simple arithmetic is solved not only by direct retrieval from memory but by nov_retrieval procedures. Ties are solved by direct retrieval procedures and nonties are solved by nonretrieval procedures which are slower than direct retrieval. The encoding-account can' t provide reasonable explanations for the tie ~ size interaction. Aceess

  16. Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are frequently faced with the important decision to start or terminate a creative partnership. This process can be influenced by strategic motivations, as early career researchers are pursuers, whereas senior researchers are typically attractors, of new collaborative opportunities. Focusing on the longitudinal aspects of scientific collaboration, we analyzed 473 collaboration profiles using an ego-centric perspective which accounts for researcher-specific characteristics and provides insight into a range of topics, from career achievement and sustainability to team dynamics and efficiency. From more than 166,000 collaboration records, we quantify the frequency distributions of collaboration duration and tie-strength, showing that collaboration networks are dominated by weak ties characterized by high turnover rates. We use analytic extreme-value thresholds to identify a new class of indispensable `super ties', the strongest of which commonly exhibit >50% publication overlap with the central scienti...

  17. Genome-Wide Meta-Analyses of Breast, Ovarian, and Prostate Cancer Association Studies Identify Multiple New Susceptibility Loci Shared by at Least Two Cancer Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kar, Siddhartha P; Beesley, Jonathan; Amin Al Olama, Ali

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers are hormone-related and may have a shared genetic basis, but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Meta-analyses combining the largest GWA meta-analysis data sets for these cancers totaling 112,349...

  18. ANALYSIS OF TIED DATA: AN ALTERNATIVE NON-PARAMETRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. A. OYEKA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-parametric statistical method of analyzing two-sample data that makes provision for the possibility of ties in the data. A test statistic is developed and shown to be free of the effect of any possible ties in the data. An illustrative example is provided and the method is shown to compare favourably with its competitor; the Mann-Whitney test and is more powerful than the latter when there are ties.

  19. China TieTong: Differentiation Paves the Uncommon Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China TieTong has made great achievements since it was founded about six years ago. And the achievements made by China TieTong cannot be separated from the path of differentiation it has stuck to. Zhao Jibin, board chairman of China TieTong has pointed out the company should develop a path of "enlarging the dedicated network and strengthening the regional service" to ensure precise positioning and successful implementation of the development strategy with solid management foundation and improving managem...

  20. Expression and role of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma and its relationship with invasion and metastasis in rectal carcinoma.Materials S-P immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of Tie-2 in 40 cases of rectal carcinoma and 10 cases of normal rectal tissues.Results Tie-2 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of vascular endothelial cells in cancerous tissues and partly in the cytoplasm of some cancerous cells.The expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma was signi...

  1. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987 in the Oraştie River basin (Central-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ioan VINTAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987, identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the mixed broadleaf-needleleaf forests of beech (Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, fir (Abies alba and spruce (Picea abies with Pulmonaria rubra belonging to the Orăştie river basin.The phytocoenoses of these forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  2. FAILURES AND DEFECTS IN THE BUILDING PROCESS – APPLYING THE BOW-TIE APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Function failures, defects, mistakes and poor communication are major problems for the construction sector. A Danish research project focusing on failures and defects in building processes has been carried out over the last 2 years. As the empirical element in the research, a large construction...... site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed. The methodological approach used in this analysis was the bow-tie model from the area of safety research. It combines critical-event analysis for both causes and effects...... with event-tree analysis. The paper describes this analytical approach as an introduction to a new concept for understanding failures and defects in construction. Analysing the many critical events in the building process with the bow-tie model visualises the complexity of causes. This visualisation offers...

  3. Analyses of a Glycine max Degradome Library Identify microRNA Targets and MicroRNAs that Trigger Secondary SiRNA Biogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Hu; Qiyan Jiang; Zhiyong Ni; Rui Chen; Shuo Xu; Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression mainly by guiding cleavage of target mRNAs.In this study,a degradome library constructed from different soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) tissues was deep-sequenced.428 potential targets of small interfering RNAs and 25 novel miRNA families were identified.A total of 211 potential miRNA targets,including 174 conserved miRNA targets and 37 soybeanspecific miRNA targets,were identified.Among them,121 targets were first discovered in soybean.The signature distribution of soybean primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) showed that most pri-miRNAs had the characteristic pattern of Dicer processing.The biogenesis of TAS3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was conserved in soybean,and nine Auxin Response Factors were identified as TAS3 siRNA targets.Twentythree miRNA targets produced secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in soybean.These targets were guided by five miRNAs:gma-miR393,gma-miR1508,gma-miR1510,gma-miR1514,and novel-11.Multiple targets of these secondary siRNAs were detected.These 23 miRNA targets may be the putative novel TAS genes in soybean.Global identification of miRNA targets and potential novel TAS genes will contribute to research on the functions of miRNAs in soybean.

  4. Analyses of a Glycine max degradome library identify microRNA targets and microRNAs that trigger secondary siRNA biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng; Jiang, Qiyan; Ni, Zhiyong; Chen, Rui; Xu, Shuo; Zhang, Hui

    2013-02-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression mainly by guiding cleavage of target mRNAs. In this study, a degradome library constructed from different soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) tissues was deep-sequenced. 428 potential targets of small interfering RNAs and 25 novel miRNA families were identified. A total of 211 potential miRNA targets, including 174 conserved miRNA targets and 37 soybean-specific miRNA targets, were identified. Among them, 121 targets were first discovered in soybean. The signature distribution of soybean primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) showed that most pri-miRNAs had the characteristic pattern of Dicer processing. The biogenesis of TAS3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was conserved in soybean, and nine Auxin Response Factors were identified as TAS3 siRNA targets. Twenty-three miRNA targets produced secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in soybean. These targets were guided by five miRNAs: gma-miR393, gma-miR1508, gma-miR1510, gma-miR1514, and novel-11. Multiple targets of these secondary siRNAs were detected. These 23 miRNA targets may be the putative novel TAS genes in soybean. Global identification of miRNA targets and potential novel TAS genes will contribute to research on the functions of miRNAs in soybean.

  5. Serbian President Vows to Boost Trade Ties with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Serbian President Boris Tadic on August 20 pledged to promote economic and trade ties with China,welcoming Chinese investment.Serbia wanted to maintain highlevel political ties with China and enhance economic exchanges and cooperation,said Tadic at a business forum held by the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT).

  6. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  7. The evolution of prompt reaction to adverse ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowé Ann

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years it has been found that the combination of evolutionary game theory with population structures modelled in terms of dynamical graphs, in which individuals are allowed to sever unwanted social ties while keeping the good ones, provides a viable solution to the conundrum of cooperation. It is well known that in reality individuals respond differently to disadvantageous interactions. Yet, the evolutionary mechanism determining the individuals' willingness to sever unfavourable ties remains unclear. Results We introduce a novel way of thinking about the joint evolution of cooperation and social contacts. The struggle for survival between cooperators and defectors leads to an arms race for swiftness in adjusting social ties, based purely on a self-regarding, individual judgement. Since defectors are never able to establish social ties under mutual agreement, they break adverse ties more rapidly than cooperators, who tend to evolve stable and long-term relations. Ironically, defectors' constant search for partners to exploit leads to heterogeneous networks that improve the survivability of cooperators, compared to the traditional homogenous population assumption. Conclusion When communities face the prisoner's dilemma, swift reaction to adverse ties evolves when competition is fierce between cooperators and defectors, providing an evolutionary basis for the necessity of individuals to adjust their social ties. Our results show how our innate resilience to change relates to mutual agreement between cooperators and how "loyalty" or persistent social ties bring along an evolutionary disadvantage, both from an individual and group perspective.

  8. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Friedlander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved.

  9. Genetic and genome-wide transcriptomic analyses identify co-regulation of oxidative response and hormone transcript abundance with vitamin C content in tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Silva Viviana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-ascorbic acid (AsA; vitamin C is essential for all living plants where it functions as the main hydrosoluble antioxidant. It has diverse roles in the regulation of plant cell growth and expansion, photosynthesis, and hormone-regulated processes. AsA is also an essential component of the human diet, being tomato fruit one of the main sources of this vitamin. To identify genes responsible for AsA content in tomato fruit, transcriptomic studies followed by clustering analysis were applied to two groups of fruits with contrasting AsA content. These fruits were identified after AsA profiling of an F8 Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL population generated from a cross between the domesticated species Solanum lycopersicum and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifollium. Results We found large variability in AsA content within the RIL population with individual RILs with up to 4-fold difference in AsA content. Transcriptomic analysis identified genes whose expression correlated either positively (PVC genes or negatively (NVC genes with the AsA content of the fruits. Cluster analysis using SOTA allowed the identification of subsets of co-regulated genes mainly involved in hormones signaling, such as ethylene, ABA, gibberellin and auxin, rather than any of the known AsA biosynthetic genes. Data mining of the corresponding PVC and NVC orthologs in Arabidopis databases identified flagellin and other ROS-producing processes as cues resulting in differential regulation of a high percentage of the genes from both groups of co-regulated genes; more specifically, 26.6% of the orthologous PVC genes, and 15.5% of the orthologous NVC genes were induced and repressed, respectively, under flagellin22 treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana. Conclusion Results here reported indicate that the content of AsA in red tomato fruit from our selected RILs are not correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. On the contrary, the data

  10. Effects of Weak Ties on Epidemic Predictability in Community Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Panpan; Gong, Kai; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Weak ties play a significant role in the structures and the dynamics of community networks. Based on the susceptible-infected model in contact process, we study numerically how weak ties influence the predictability of epidemic dynamics. We first investigate the effects of different kinds of weak ties on the variabilities of both the arrival time and the prevalence of disease, and find that the bridgeness with small degree can enhance the predictability of epidemic spreading. Once weak ties are settled, compared with the variability of arrival time, the variability of prevalence displays a diametrically opposed changing trend with both the distance of the initial seed to the bridgeness and the degree of the initial seed. More specifically, the further distance and the larger degree of the initial seed can induce the better predictability of arrival time and the worse predictability of prevalence. Moreover, we discuss the effects of weak tie number on the epidemic variability. As community strength becomes ver...

  11. Associations between diet-related diseases and impaired physiological mechanisms: a holistic approach based on meta-analyses to identify targets for preventive nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2013-10-01

    In nutrition research, analyzing the relationship between a diet-related chronic disease and impaired metabolism is a common reductionist approach. Meta-analyses have enabled quantification of these relationships. There is, however, a need for more holistic approaches to determine the sequence of connections between diseases and associated physiological mechanisms. The objective of this exhaustive review was to collect scientific evidence – with priority given to quantitative reviews – published between 1950 and 2011 to assess the relationships between major diet-related chronic diseases and deregulated mechanisms. The results revealed that diabetes and obesity are the key diseases that lead to all other diet-related chronic diseases, while cancer, cardiovascular disease, skeletal disease, and sarcopenia are endpoint diseases. Liver disease, kidney disease, digestive disease, and mental illness are consequences as well as causes of other diet-related chronic diseases. All diseases have multifactorial causes, and most result from decreased antioxidant status, acid-base imbalance, increased inflammatory status, impaired carbohydrate/lipid/one-carbon metabolism, impaired functioning of neurons and DNA transcription, hypertension, and/or modified digestive microflora. Nutritional strategies that focus on the prevention of obesity and diabetes should be prioritized in order to reduce the prevalence of other major chronic diseases.

  12. Compositional variability of ice-rafted debris in Heinrich layers 1 and 2 on the northwest European continental slope identified by environmental magnetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, John; Wadsworth, Emilie; Austin, William E. N.; Peters, Clare; Scourse, James D.; Hall, Ian R.

    2007-02-01

    The composition of ice-rafted debris (IRD) within a sediment core from the European continental slope (core OMEX-2K; 49° 5 N, 13° 26 W) has been examined using environmental magnetic analyses. The data demonstrate compositional variability of the IRD within Heinrich layers 2 (H2) and 1 (H1) and these differences are most readily explained by changes in the contribution of different IRD sources to the core site. Some IRD within the main Heinrich layers show magnetic signatures that are similar to IRD derived from the Laurentide ice sheet found in cores from within the main North Atlantic IRD-belt. In contrast, other IRD-rich layers, both prior to and within the main Heinrich layers, demonstrate different magnetic behaviour, suggesting a contribution from a non-Laurentide sourced IRD, most likely derived from ice streams discharging from northeast Atlantic ice sheets such as the British and Fennoscandian ice sheets. These data are consistent with published compositional data from the same core and, given the rapid, highly sensitive and non-destructive nature of the method, suggest that environmental magnetic analysis has considerable potential for characterising IRD materials within Heinrich layers for the purposes of defining provenance. Copyright

  13. Reduced Representation Libraries from DNA Pools Analysed with Next Generation Semiconductor Based-Sequencing to Identify SNPs in Extreme and Divergent Pigs for Back Fat Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Bovo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that could be associated with back fat thickness (BFT in pigs. To achieve this goal, we evaluated the potential and limits of an experimental design that combined several methodologies. DNA samples from two groups of Italian Large White pigs with divergent estimating breeding value (EBV for BFT were separately pooled and sequenced, after preparation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs, on the Ion Torrent technology. Taking advantage from SNAPE for SNPs calling in sequenced DNA pools, 39,165 SNPs were identified; 1/4 of them were novel variants not reported in dbSNP. Combining sequencing data with Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip genotyping results on the same animals, 661 genomic positions overlapped with a good approximation of minor allele frequency estimation. A total of 54 SNPs showing enriched alleles in one or in the other RRLs might be potential markers associated with BFT. Some of these SNPs were close to genes involved in obesity related phenotypes.

  14. Giant Galápagos tortoises; molecular genetic analyses identify a trans-island hybrid in a repatriation program of an endangered taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant Galápagos tortoises on the island of Española have been the focus of an intensive captive breeding-repatriation programme for over 35 years that saved the taxon from extinction. However, analysis of 118 samples from released individuals indicated that the bias sex ratio and large variance in reproductive success among the 15 breeders has severely reduced the effective population size (Ne. Results We report here that an analysis of an additional 473 captive-bred tortoises released back to the island reveals an individual (E1465 that exhibits nuclear microsatellite alleles not found in any of the 15 breeders. Statistical analyses incorporating genotypes of 304 field-sampled individuals from all populations on the major islands indicate that E1465 is most probably a hybrid between an Española female tortoise and a male from the island of Pinzón, likely present on Española due to human transport. Conclusion Removal of E1465 as well as its father and possible (half-siblings is warranted to prevent further contamination within this taxon of particular conservation significance. Despite this detected single contamination, it is highly noteworthy to emphasize the success of this repatriation program conducted over nearly 40 years and involving release of over 2000 captive-bred tortoises that now reproduce in situ. The incorporation of molecular genetic analysis of the program is providing guidance that will aid in monitoring the genetic integrity of this ambitious effort to restore a unique linage of a spectacular animal.

  15. Analyses of expressed sequence tags from the maize foliar pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis identify novel genes expressed during vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kema Gert HJ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ascomycete fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis is an aggressive foliar pathogen of maize that causes substantial losses annually throughout the Western Hemisphere. Despite its impact on maize production, little is known about the regulation of pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis at the molecular level. The objectives of this study were to generate a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from C. zeae-maydis and evaluate their expression during vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth. Results A total of 27,551 ESTs was obtained from five cDNA libraries constructed from vegetative and sporulating cultures of C. zeae-maydis. The ESTs, grouped into 4088 clusters and 531 singlets, represented 4619 putative unique genes. Of these, 36% encoded proteins similar (E value ≤ 10-05 to characterized or annotated proteins from the NCBI non-redundant database representing diverse molecular functions and biological processes based on Gene Ontology (GO classification. We identified numerous, previously undescribed genes with potential roles in photoreception, pathogenesis, and the regulation of development as well as Zephyr, a novel, actively transcribed transposable element. Differential expression of selected genes was demonstrated by real-time PCR, supporting their proposed roles in vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth. Conclusion Novel genes that are potentially involved in regulating growth, development, and pathogenesis were identified in C. zeae-maydis, providing specific targets for characterization by molecular genetics and functional genomics. The EST data establish a foundation for future studies in evolutionary and comparative genomics among species of Cercospora and other groups of plant pathogenic fungi.

  16. An analysis of the importance of appropriate tie breaking rules in dispatch heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. S. Valente

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the effect of using appropriate tie breaking criteria in dispatch rules. We consider four different dispatch procedures, and for each of these heuristics we compare two versions that differ only in the way ties are broken. The first version breaks ties randomly, while the second uses a criterion that incorporates problem-specific knowledge. The computational results show that using adequate tie breaking criteria improves the performance of the dispatch heuristics. The magnitude of the improvement is different for the four heuristics, and also depends on the characteristics of each specific instance. The use of problem-related knowledge for breaking ties should therefore be given some consideration in the implementation of dispatch rules.Neste artigo é analisado o efeito da utilização de regras de desempate apropriadas na eficácia de regras de despacho. São consideradas quatro regras de despacho diferentes, e para cada uma destas heurísticas são comparadas duas versões que diferem no modo como os empates são resolvidos. A primeira versão resolve os empates de forma aleatória, enquanto a segunda utiliza um critério que incorpora informação relativa ao problema em causa. Os resultados computacionais mostram que a utilização de critérios de desempate adequados melhora o desempenho das regras de despacho. A magnitude da melhoria é diferente para as quatro heurísticas, e depende igualmente das características específicas de cada instância. A utilização de informação relativa ao problema em causa para a resolução de empates deve assim ser considerada na implementação de regras de despacho.

  17. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China... concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') is being, or... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  18. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

    2013-12-01

    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field.

  19. Linkage and association analyses identify a candidate region for apoB level on chromosome 4q32.3 in FCHL families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, Ellen M; Rothstein, Joseph H; Igo, Robert P; Brunzell, John D; Motulsky, Arno G; Jarvik, Gail P

    2010-06-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a complex trait leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Elevated levels and size of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are associated with FCHL, which is genetically heterogeneous and is likely caused by rare variants. We carried out a linkage-based genome scan of four large FCHL pedigrees for apoB level that is independent of LDL: apoB level that is adjusted for LDL level and size. Follow-up included SNP genotyping in the region with the strongest evidence of linkage. Several regions with the evidence of linkage in individual pedigrees support the rare variant model. Evidence of linkage was strongest on chromosome 4q, with multipoint analysis in one pedigree giving LOD = 3.1 with a parametric model, and a log Bayes Factor = 1.5 from a Bayesian oligogenic approach. Of the 293 SNPs spanning the implicated region on 4q, rs6829588 completely explained the evidence of linkage. This SNP accounted for 39% of the apoB phenotypic variance, with heterozygotes for this SNP having a trait value that was approximately 30% higher than that of the high-frequency homozygote, thus identifying and considerably refining a strong candidate region. These results illustrate the advantage of using large pedigrees in the search for rare variants: reduced genetic heterogeneity within single pedigrees coupled with the large number of individuals segregating otherwise-rare single variants leads to high power to implicate such variants.

  20. KAMG: A Tool for Converting Blood Ties and Affinity Ties into Adjacency Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xiong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinship Adjacency Matrix Generator (KAMG is a browser-based software for creating adjacency matrices using the information of kinship ties. Specifically, it is capable of converting the family trees in the format of GEDCOM files into adjacency matrices of blood relationship. With the data of intermarriages between different families, it can further create the adjacency matrix of affinity relationship for the families. The outcomes can be directly used to create networks. KAMG is written in JavaScript and implemented on web browsers. It is completely open source and the source code is publicly available on GitHub.

  1. Transnational Corporate Ties: A Synopsis of Theories and Empirical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nollert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, corporations are not isolated actors in an economic “war of all against all” but members of corporate networks of global reach. Although the literature on globalization emphasizes the increasing economic power of these networks and postulates the formation of a transnational capitalist class, there is still a lack of empirical findings. The article starts with a review of theoretical perspectives (resource dependence, social capital, coordination of markets, financial hegemony, class hegemony, inner circle, and transnational capitalist class which focuses on the functions and structures of corporate interlocks at the national and the transnational level. The subsequent section offers an outline of empirical studies concerning transnational corporate networks. These analyses of corporate ties (interlocking directorates, financial participations and policy group affiliations suggest the emergence of transnational economic elites whose members, however, have not lost their national identity. In the final section, the theoretical perspectives will be assessed and some prospects are sketched out. Finally, it will be argued that the disintegration of the world society, which is considerably driven by rent-seeking corporate networks, can only be restrained if a potential global regulatory agency will be anchored in a post-Washington consensus.

  2. Redoable tie-over dressing using multiple loop silk threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jun Sik; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Kyung Suk; Choi, Jae Hoon

    2013-05-01

    After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tie-over dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  3. Social network ties beyond nonredundancy: an experimental investigation of the effect of knowledge content and tie strength on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Smith, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    Social network research emphasizes the access to nonredundant knowledge content that network ties provide. I suggest that some content is more beneficial than others and that tie strength may affect creativity for reasons other than the associated structure. That is, tie strength may affect how individuals process nonredundant knowledge. I investigate 2 types of knowledge content--information (i.e., facts or data) and frames (i.e., interpretations or impressions)--and explore whether tie strength influences their effect on creativity. Drawing on creativity theory, I employ an experimental design to provide greater theoretical clarity and to isolate causality. According to the results from 2 studies, distinct frames received from contacts facilitate creativity, but the effect of distinct information is more complex. When individuals receive distinct information from strong ties, it constrains creativity compared to distinct frames. Content from weak ties appears to facilitate creativity across all scenarios. The results of mediated moderation analysis indicate the effect of framing versus information for strong ties is driven by decision-making time, as an indicator of cognitive expansion.

  4. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  5. Attention on Weak Ties in Social and Communication Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Lilian; Perra, Nicola; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Granovetter's weak tie theory of social networks is built around two central hypotheses. The first states that strong social ties carry the large majority of interaction events; the second maintains that weak social ties, although less active, are often relevant for the exchange of especially important information (e.g., about potential new jobs in Granovetter's work). While several empirical studies have provided support for the first hypothesis, the second has been the object of far less scrutiny. A possible reason is that it involves notions relative to the nature and importance of the information that are hard to quantify and measure, especially in large scale studies. Here, we search for empirical validation of both Granovetter's hypotheses. We find clear empirical support for the first. We also provide empirical evidence and a quantitative interpretation for the second. We show that attention, measured as the fraction of interactions devoted to a particular social connection, is high on weak ties --- po...

  6. Obstetric Complications Tied to Slightly Upped Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obstetric Complications Tied to Slightly Upped Risk for Autism Study suggests link, but one expert stressed that most complicated pregnancies result in babies without autism To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162666.html High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk Unusual symptoms ... is. But the new findings suggest that pain tolerance might be a factor. Using a standard test ...

  8. Angelina Jolie's Mastectomies Tied to Rise in Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Angelina Jolie's Mastectomies Tied to Rise in Genetic Testing But, researchers did not find a corresponding increase ... Human Services. More Health News on: Breast Cancer Genetic Testing Mastectomy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  9. Sino-Russian Ties Strengthened by Economic Bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The China-Russia strategic partnership has become increasingly successful-intertwined with growing trade and economic ties As the two largest countries on the Eurasian Continent, China and Russia have established stable and coordinated relations through bilat-

  10. Same-Sex Marriage Laws Tied to Fewer Teen Suicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163674.html Same-Sex Marriage Laws Tied to Fewer Teen Suicides Perceived ... A new study links the approval of same-sex marriage in American states to lower rates of ...

  11. Timing of Autism Diagnosis Tied to Choice of Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160279.html Timing of Autism Diagnosis Tied to Choice of Treatment Kids diagnosed ... Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children diagnosed with autism before age 4 are more likely to get ...

  12. Grand Performances: Building Self and Social Ties through Theatrical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie May de Montigny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The stories that individuals tell about their experiences on stage and behind-the-scenes at the Grand Opera House of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, contribute to their knowledge of self and social ties.

  13. Study Ties Inflammation, Gut Bacteria to Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163143.html Study Ties Inflammation, Gut Bacteria to Type 1 Diabetes However, it's not yet ... Italian study finds. Those changes include different gut bacteria and inflammation in the small intestine. The differences ...

  14. Smoking in Pregnancy Tied to Kidney Damage in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162696.html Smoking in Pregnancy Tied to Kidney Damage in Kids ... and about 17 percent of those women continued smoking while pregnant, the study authors said. Children of ...

  15. Study Ties Alcohol Abuse to Increased Heart Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162836.html Study Ties Alcohol Abuse to Increased Heart Risks Association similar to that ... 2009. About 2 percent had been diagnosed with alcohol abuse. The researchers adjusted statistics so they wouldn't ...

  16. More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163755.html More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk Study shows increasing risk of brain blockage ... as people with healthy gums to suffer a stroke, new research suggests. It's not the first study ...

  17. Common Virus May Have Ties to Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162969.html Common Virus May Have Ties to Type 1 Diabetes But ... least some cases of type 1 diabetes. The viruses are known as enteroviruses. These viruses cause a ...

  18. Dual-Frequency Operation of Bow-Tie Microstrip Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺时; 张需溥

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of a single-feed dual-frequency bow-tie microstrip antenna are studied. By using the variation method, simple formulas for resonant frequencies of the bow-tie microstrip antenna are derived. It is shown that the dual-frequency ratio can be controlled easily by choosing the parameters of the antenna. This design gives compact antenna size and simple antenna structure. Experimental results are presented, verifying the validity of the design.

  19. Leaving Libertarianism: : Social Ties in Robert Nozick's New Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Herbjørnsrud, Dag

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY This thesis Leaving Libertarianism: Social Ties in Robert Nozick s New Philosophy challenges the general and most widespread portrayals of the American philosopher Robert Nozick (1938-2002) by studying the notion of social ties in his later philosophy. The point of departure is the present descriptions of Nozick s philosophy. Mostly these depictions are based upon three postulates: That Nozick is an extreme individualist, that the libertarian Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1...

  20. The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

  1. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tieover dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  2. Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

    2009-11-01

    Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs

  3. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-07-01

    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  4. Review of two 1998 Mathematical Appendices Primary to Continuum Theory: Deflection Scattering and Redshift by a Particle-tied Aether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    My development of Continuum Theory rests importantly on two mathematical treatments and calculations which I wrote in 1994 and were published in 1998 as Appendices A and B to my PIRT V paper presented in London in 1996. In view of their continuing scientific relevance, this contribution to the V9 conference proceedings is a republication of those Appendices, subject to minimal re-editing. Appendix B, presented first, tackles our 1959 finding that the daylight sky brightness distribution at high altitude shows the presence of an additional contribution whose intensity and distribution which, on careful analysis, I identified as having come from a deflection scattering mechanism due to transmission by an (atmospheric) `particle-tied aether'. Appendix A shows that redshift is one of the consequences of such transmission. The parameters involved are then used to analyse the 1968 radio ground-wave caesium clock redshift observations of Sadeh et al and to extrapolate them to the intergalactic transmission paths pertinent to the cosmic redshift as a transmission effect, not a velocity. It finds this to be a reasonable evaluation within observational uncertainties, notably those of density and degree of ionization. In that case, there being no Big Bang, the temperature is precisely known from the CMBR, identified as synchrotron-type radiation from the randomly moving aether along the path, but slightly elevated where the path has traversed a heat-generating cluster.

  5. Bow-tie diagrams for risk management in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwick, M D; Merry, A F; Clarke, D M; Taraporewalla, K J; Gibbs, N M

    2016-11-01

    Bow-tie analysis is a risk analysis and management tool that has been readily adopted into routine practice in many high reliability industries such as engineering, aviation and emergency services. However, it has received little exposure so far in healthcare. Nevertheless, its simplicity, versatility, and pictorial display may have benefits for the analysis of a range of healthcare risks, including complex and multiple risks and their interactions. Bow-tie diagrams are a combination of a fault tree and an event tree, which when combined take the shape of a bow tie. Central to bow-tie methodology is the concept of an undesired or 'Top Event', which occurs if a hazard progresses past all prevention controls. Top Events may also occasionally occur idiosyncratically. Irrespective of the cause of a Top Event, mitigation and recovery controls may influence the outcome. Hence the relationship of hazard to outcome can be viewed in one diagram along with possible causal sequences or accident trajectories. Potential uses for bow-tie diagrams in anaesthesia risk management include improved understanding of anaesthesia hazards and risks, pre-emptive identification of absent or inadequate hazard controls, investigation of clinical incidents, teaching anaesthesia risk management, and demonstrating risk management strategies to third parties when required.

  6. Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

  7. BowTieBuilder: modeling signal transduction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Adrian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory proteins react to changing environmental conditions by transducing signals into the cell. These signals are integrated into core proteins that activate downstream target proteins such as transcription factors (TFs. This structure is referred to as a bow tie, and allows cells to respond appropriately to complex environmental conditions. Understanding this cellular processing of information, from sensory proteins (e.g., cell-surface proteins to target proteins (e.g., TFs is important, yet for many processes the signaling pathways remain unknown. Results Here, we present BowTieBuilder for inferring signal transduction pathways from multiple source and target proteins. Given protein-protein interaction (PPI data signaling pathways are assembled without knowledge of the intermediate signaling proteins while maximizing the overall probability of the pathway. To assess the inference quality, BowTieBuilder and three alternative heuristics are applied to several pathways, and the resulting pathways are compared to reference pathways taken from KEGG. In addition, BowTieBuilder is used to infer a signaling pathway of the innate immune response in humans and a signaling pathway that potentially regulates an underlying gene regulatory network. Conclusion We show that BowTieBuilder, given multiple source and/or target proteins, infers pathways with satisfactory recall and precision rates and detects the core proteins of each pathway.

  8. FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Harry T

    2011-10-20

    Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis.

  9. Reciprocity, social ties, and competition in markets for experience goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    Reciprocal customers may disproportionately improve the performance of markets for experience goods. Reciprocal customers reward (punish) firms for providing good (bad) quality by upholding (terminating) the customer relation. This may induce firms to provide good quality which, in turn, may induce...... a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition alone...

  10. ADIEU TO TONGUE TIE. LINGUAL FRENECTOMY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Sanadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Frenum is a fold of mucous membrane, usually with enclosed muscle fibers, that attaches the lips and cheeks to the alveolar mucosa and/or mucosa and underlying periosteum. Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a developmental anomaly of the tongue characterized by an abnormally short, thick lingual frenum resulting in limitation of tongue movement. It causes difficulty in speech articulation due to limitation in tongue movement. In this article we report a case of 24 years old female with Tongue tie, complaining of difficulty in speech. It was surgically treated with uneventful healing and good patient satisfaction.

  11. Localization of the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 on the primary cilia in the female reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan C; Christensen, Søren T

    2005-01-01

    Blood vessel homeostasis and endothelial cell survival depend on proper signalling through angiopoietin receptors such as the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2. We have studied the presence and subcellular localization of these receptors in murine female reproductive organs using confocal...... of immunohistochemical analysis on human ovarian tissues we also observed a unique localization of Tie-2 to the primary cilia of ovarian surface epithelium. These observations are the first to show ciliary localization of angiopoietin receptors. Our results support the hypothesis that cilia of the female reproductive...... organs play a novel and important sensory role in relaying physiochemical changes from the extracellular environment to epithelial cells of the oviduct, the ovary and extra-ovarian tissues....

  12. High-throughput protein expression analysis using tissue microarray technology of a large well-characterised series identifies biologically distinct classes of breast cancer confirming recent cDNA expression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rehim, Dalia M; Ball, Graham; Pinder, Sarah E; Rakha, Emad; Paish, Claire; Robertson, John F R; Macmillan, Douglas; Blamey, Roger W; Ellis, Ian O

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies on gene molecular profiling using cDNA microarray in a relatively small series of breast cancer have identified biologically distinct groups with apparent clinical and prognostic relevance. The validation of such new taxonomies should be confirmed on larger series of cases prior to acceptance in clinical practice. The development of tissue microarray (TMA) technology provides methodology for high-throughput concomitant analyses of multiple proteins on large numbers of archival tumour samples. In our study, we have used immunohistochemistry techniques applied to TMA preparations of 1,076 cases of invasive breast cancer to study the combined protein expression profiles of a large panel of well-characterized commercially available biomarkers related to epithelial cell lineage, differentiation, hormone and growth factor receptors and gene products known to be altered in some forms of breast cancer. Using hierarchical clustering methodology, 5 groups with distinct patterns of protein expression were identified. A sixth group of only 4 cases was also identified but deemed too small for further detailed assessment. Further analysis of these clusters was performed using multiple layer perceptron (MLP)-artificial neural network (ANN) with a back propagation algorithm to identify key biomarkers driving the membership of each group. We have identified 2 large groups by their expression of luminal epithelial cell phenotypic characteristics, hormone receptors positivity, absence of basal epithelial phenotype characteristics and lack of c-erbB-2 protein overexpression. Two additional groups were characterized by high c-erbB-2 positivity and negative or weak hormone receptors expression but showed differences in MUC1 and E-cadherin expression. The final group was characterized by strong basal epithelial characteristics, p53 positivity, absent hormone receptors and weak to low luminal epithelial cytokeratin expression. In addition, we have identified significant

  13. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  14. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobus Fahrenfort

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behaviour in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behaviour even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behaviour to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behaviour may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction - rather than trait empathy - motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum, empathy (anterior insular cortex [AIC] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] as well as altruism and social significance (posterior superior temporal sulcus [pSTS]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behaviour during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance.

  15. Knotcraft the practical and entertaining art of tying knots

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlan, Allan and Paulette

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive reference work explains how to tie hundreds of practical (and decorative) knots in clear illustrations and precisely worded written instructions. Ideal for boaters and campers. Also covers knots in history, knot mystery and magic, and games, stunts and tricks with rope. Introduction. Index. 166 black-and-white illustrations.

  16. Sino-Latin American Trade,Closer Tie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ The financial crisis has provided a new opportunity for Sino-Latin American cooperation.In the past few years,China's economic ties to Latin America have witnessed comparable growth:from 1993 to 2003,China's trade with Latin America increased by 600 percent.

  17. Sound transmission performance on cavity ferrocement panels with ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandaswamy S; Ramachandraiah A

    2003-01-01

    Ferrocement panels have been used in low cost housing construction in developingcountries. This study focuses on the sound transmission performance of cavity ferrocement pan-els with ties. In this study, panels have been cast and tested in transmission loss suite speciallydesigned and constructed for testing their sound transmission performance experimentally. Themeasured results agree well with the theoretical model.

  18. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  19. Maintaining work-related personal ties following retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; Tilburg, T.G. van

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today's social-cultural context. Data

  20. Maintaining work-related personal ties following retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; Tilburg, van T.G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today’s social-cultural conte

  1. Four- year thyroidectomy procedures: Ligasure Vs. clamp & tie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki AR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system is an adjunct to the hemostatic technique, which has been successfully used in many abdominal operation, recently made available to thyroid surgery. The purpose of this was compare the outcomes of new hemostatic technique with traditional method of clamp and tie."n"nMethods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study has been done in surgery's wards of Milad & Rasul- Akram hospitals in Tehran, Iran. During three- year period between 2005-2008 all patients with different kind of pathology that need operation were assessed. Time duration of surgery and hospital stay and post surgery complication in two group, ligasure (n=45 and clamp & tie (n=145 were compared with each others."n"nResults: No difference was seen between two groups in time duration of surgery. Significant difference was seen in hospital stay and complications of surgery. Time of operation in Ligasure group was 132/22 minute and in clamp and tie group was 130/10 minute. There was found significant difference in duration of hospital stay and postoperative complication. Hypocalcemia were seen in two and 24 cases in Ligasure and Clamp & Tie group, respectively (p<0.05. Hospital stay was 2

  2. Kvalitative analyser ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolsen, Merete Watt

    bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse......bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse...

  3. Personal Ties in the Writing of a Doctoral Dissertation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Colombo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of low graduation rates at the graduate level has been linked to the challenges of dissertation work. Given that this is a process of “disciplinary enculturation”, where graduate students acquire the ways of being and doing of each discipline, the social relations of doctoral candidates should be analyzed. Several studies have explored the support provided by social ties within academia but have, nevertheless, ignored other spheres. This qualitative study, based on in-depth interviews, explores the personal-sphere social relations in the dissertation writing process from the point of view of doctoral candidates and recent graduates in the fields of Education and Linguistics. Results indicate that the emotional, financial, economic, and academic support offered by these social ties is a necessary, although not in itself, sufficient condition. Some strategies for increasing institutional support to facilitate the process of writing a dissertation are offered.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of domain walls with cross-ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, M. N.; Zverev, V. V.; Filippov, B. N.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of a domain wall with cross-ties is analyzed on the basis of micromagnetic simulation with exact allowance for all main (exchange, magnetoanisotropic, and magnetostatic) interactions in thin magnetically uniaxial ferromagnetic films with planar anisotropy. It is found that the peculiarities of motion of such domain walls are closely related to the behavior of topological defects in the magnetization distribution (generation, motion, and annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs on the film surface and Bloch points). We observe three different regimes of motion (stationary, periodic, and turbulent regimes), each of which is realized in a certain range of fields oriented along the easy magnetization axis. It is shown that the experimentally observed dynamic bends of the walls with cross-ties are determined by the type of motion of vortices and antivortices. The velocities of domain walls in different regimes are calculated, and the dynamic configurations of the magnetization and existing dynamic transitions between them are investigated.

  5. Coauthorship Ties in the Colombian Congress, 2002-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alemán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines policy connections between Colombian legislators (representatives and senators during Álvaro Uribe’s first presidential term (2002-2006. The analysis draws on information regarding the coauthorship of legislation. The joint sponsorship of a bill by a pair of legislators demonstrates their mutual intent to change the status quo in a specific direction. This cooperative effort to push bills forward reveals the similarities that exist between political actors. Examining the connectedness between different groups and the density within group connections can convey important information about parties and their members’ policy preferences. This article investigates these aspects of the network of coauthorship ties developed in the Colombian lower and upper chambers. In addition to shedding light on the cohesiveness and alignment of legislative parties, the article finds that coauthorship ties appear to be influenced by regional and institutional forces.

  6. Performance traits of dairy cows stabled in tie stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the evaluation of fertility and production traits stabled in tie stalls. 50 pure-bred Holstein cows were monitored and those traits were evaluated: interval of insemination, service period, calving interval, milk yield and content of milk protein and fat. All monitored cows finished standard lactation period (305 days) in year 2012. The evaluation was performed in relation to lactation order. Nearly all of fertility traits were evaluated as bad. The average interval...

  7. Simulation of Local Tie Accuracy on VLBI Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Ulla; Poutanen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new mathematical model to compute the centering parameters of a VLBI antenna. These include the coordinates of the reference point, axis offset, orientation, and non-perpendicularity of the axes. Using the model we simulated how precisely parameters can be computed in different cases. Based on the simulation we can give some recommendations and practices to control the accuracy and reliability of the local ties at the VLBI sites.

  8. The Ties That Bind Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Scientific ties between JINR and CERN date back to 1957, when JINR Vice-Director Marian Danysz, a Polish professor, visited CERN and agreed with CERN Director-General C.J. Bakker on the exchange of scientists and on joint experiments. Political confrontation did not affect extensive contacts between scientists. By the early 1970s, the meetings of the heads of two international centres, JINR and CERN, had become regular occurrences.

  9. Rigid and Flexible Pavement Aircraft Tie-Downs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    mooring point, Stingray anchors. Stingray anchors are similar to Manta Ray anchors, except Stingray tie-downs have a much larger surface area. The...same concerns regarding equipment availability factored into the selection process when considering the specific Manta Ray or Stingray anchor to...conduct testing. The manufacturer of both anchoring systems expressed concerns about the ability of the skid steer to hydraulically drive Stingray

  10. Suicide: the key role of short range ties

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the connection between short-range social ties (i.e. links with close relatives) and the occurrence of suicide. The objective is to discriminate between a model based on social ties and a model based on psychological traumas. Our methodological strategy is to focus on instances characterized by the severance of some social ties. We consider several situations of this kind. (i) Prisoners in the first days after their incarceration. (ii) Prisoners in solitary confinement. (iii) Prisoners who are transferred from one prison to another. (iv) Prisoners in closed versus open prisons. (v) Prisoners in the weeks following their release. (vi) Immigrants in the years following their relocation. (vii) Unmarried versus married people. Furthermore, in order to test the impact of major shocks we consider the responses in terms of suicides to the following shocks. (i) The attack of September 11, 2001 in Manhattan. (ii) The Korean War. (iii) The two world wars. (iv) The Great Depression in the United State...

  11. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara B Aknin

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  12. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

    2011-02-10

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  13. Social ties and short-term self-reported delinquent behaviour of personality disordered forensic outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.H.A. Bouman; C. de Ruiter; A.H. Schene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. In community-based forensic psychiatry, patients' social ties are considered as protective factor in a risk management strategy. However, it is unknown whether these ties actually assist patients to refrain from re-offending. We hypothesised a protective role for social ties in re-offending

  14. 30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface....705-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is performed from the ground, any...

  15. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line...

  16. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties... requirements for the purchase of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties, which contain certain components not... consist of the installation of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties. FRA has received this request from the...

  17. Who Can You Turn to? Tie Activation within Core Business Discussion Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzulli, Linda A.; Aldrich, Howard

    2005-01-01

    We examine the connection between personal network characteristics and the activation of ties for access to resources during routine times. We focus on factors affecting business owners' use of their core network ties to obtain legal, loan, financial and expert advice. Owners rely more on core business ties when their core networks contain a high…

  18. Density and Strength of Ties in Innovation Networks : A Competence and Governance View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.; Gilsing, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account both competence and governance issues, and six dimensions of tie strength, this article argues that in networks for exploration there are good reasons, counter to the thesis of the 'strength of weak ties', for a dense structure of ties that are strong in most dimensions.By contra

  19. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  20. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  1. Tie2基因RNAi慢病毒载体的构建及其干预恶性黑色素瘤细胞的体外研究%Construction of recombinant Ientiviral vector of Tie2-RNAi and its influence on malignant melanoma cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单秀英; 刘照亮; 王彪; 郭国祥; 王美水; 庄福连; 蔡传书; 张明凤; 张彦定

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct lentivector carrying Tie2-Small interfering RNA(SiRNA),so as to study its influence on malignant melanoma cells.Methods Recombinant plasmid pSilencer 1.0-U6-Tie2-siRNA and plasmid pNL-EGFP were digested with Xbal.ligated a target lentiviral transfer plasmid of pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-Ⅰ or pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-Ⅱ,and then the electrophoresis clones was sequenced.Plasmids of pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-1 and pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-Ⅱ were constructed and combined with pVSVG and pHelper,respcectively,to constitute lentiviral vector system of three plasmids.The Lentiviral vector svstem was transfected into 293T cell to produce pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-Ⅰ and pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-Ⅱ lentivirus.Then the supernatant was collected tO determine the titer.Malignant melanoma cells were infected by both lentiviruses and identified by Realtime RT-PCR to assess inhibitory efficiency. Results The recombinant lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi were constructed successfully which were analyzed with restriction enzyme digestion and identified by sequencing.And the titer of lentiviral vector was 8.8×103/ml,which was determined by 293T cell.The results of Reahime RT-PCR demonstrated that the lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi could infect malignant melanoma cells and inhibit the expression of Tie2 genes in malignant melanoma cells(P<0.01).There was no significant difference in the expression level (P>0.05)between the two lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi.Conclusions Lentivector carrying Tie2-SiRNA can be constructed successfully and inhibit the expression of Tie2 gene in vitro significantly.The study will supply the theory basis for the further research on the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo.%目的 构建携带酪氨酸蛋白激酶受体2-小干扰RNA(Tie2-SiRNA)慢病毒载体,观察其对恶性黑色素瘤细胞的干扰作用.方法 将pSilencer 1.0-U6启动子-酪氨酸蛋白激酶受体2-小干扰RNA(pSilencer 1.0-U6-Tie2-siRNA)重组质粒经Xba Ⅰ酶切电泳鉴定后,与经Xba Ⅰ酶

  2. Laboratory study of low-β forces in arched, line-tied magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Fox, W.

    2016-11-01

    The loss-of-equilibrium is a solar eruption mechanism whereby a sudden breakdown of the magnetohydrodynamic force balance in the Sun's corona ejects a massive burst of particles and energy into the heliosphere. Predicting a loss-of-equilibrium, which has more recently been formulated as the torus instability, relies on a detailed understanding of the various forces that hold the pre-eruption magnetic flux rope in equilibrium. Traditionally, idealized analytical force expressions are used to derive simplified eruption criteria that can be compared to solar observations and modeling. What is missing, however, is a validation that these idealized analytical force expressions can be applied to the line-tied, low-aspect-ratio conditions of the corona. In this paper, we address this shortcoming by using a laboratory experiment to study the forces that act on long-lived, arched, line-tied magnetic flux ropes. Three key force terms are evaluated over a wide range of experimental conditions: (1) the upward hoop force; (2) the downward strapping force; and (3) the downward toroidal field tension force. First, the laboratory force measurements show that, on average, the three aforementioned force terms cancel to produce a balanced line-tied equilibrium. This finding validates the laboratory force measurement techniques developed here, which were recently used to identify a dynamic toroidal field tension force that can prevent flux rope eruptions [Myers et al., Nature 528, 526 (2015)]. The verification of magnetic force balance also confirms the low-β assumption that the plasma thermal pressure is negligible in these experiments. Next, the measured force terms are directly compared to corresponding analytical expressions. While the measured and analytical forces are found to be well correlated, the low-aspect-ratio, line-tied conditions in the experiment are found to both reduce the measured hoop force and increase the measured tension force with respect to analytical

  3. The emergence and role of strong ties in time-varying communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In most social, information, and collaboration systems the complex activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. Temporal changes in the network structure and the dynamical processes occurring on its fabric are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset describing the activity of millions of individuals and investigate the temporal evolution of their egocentric networks. We empirically observe a simple statistical law characterizing the memory of agents that quantitatively signals how much interactions are more likely to happen again on already established connections. We encode the observed dynamics in a reinforcement process defining a generative computational network model with time-varying connectivity patterns. This activity-driven network model spontaneously generates the basic dynamic process for the differentiation between strong and weak ties. The model is used to study the effect of time-varyi...

  4. Les prophéties dans Heart of Darkness de Joseph Conrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Guillaume

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur de cet article se propose de réévaluer la composante de l’action dans le roman de Joseph Conrad, pour se pencher sur la mise en valeur de l’instance énonciatrice. Elle met à jour l’importance du verbe prophétique dans le récit du narrateur Charles Marlow, tout en montrant l’impuissance de la parole de ce dernier à expliquer son geste et l’énigme de toute connaissance. A travers une analyse des figures de style, de l’intertextualité à l’œuvre dans les trois figures féminines des « tricoteuses », elle montre les liens étroits qu’entretiennent prophétie et folie.

  5. Dynamic Behavior of Tied-Arch Bridges under the Action of Moving Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lonetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of tied-arch bridges under the action of moving load is investigated. The main aim of the paper is to quantify, numerically, dynamic amplification factors of typical kinematic and stress design variables by means of a parametric study developed in terms of the structural characteristics of the bridge and moving loads. The basic formulation is developed by using a finite element approach, in which refined schematization is adopted to analyze the interaction between the bridge structure and moving loads. Moreover, in order to evaluate, numerically, the influence of coupling effects between bridge deformations and moving loads, the analysis focuses attention on usually neglected nonstandard terms in the inertial forces concerning both centripetal acceleration and Coriolis acceleration. Sensitivity analyses are proposed in terms of dynamic impact factors, in which the effects produced by the external mass of the moving system on the dynamic bridge behavior are evaluated.

  6. Ties That Bind: Creating and sustaining community-academic partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kynna N. Wright

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest among academics and health professionals in finding new ways to study and address complex health and social problems has manifested in recent years with increasing community demands for research and program implementation that is community-based, rather than merely community placed. In the United States, community-based participatory research (CBPR, with its emphasis on the creation and use of community-university or community-academic partnerships, is the prevailing paradigm to address these complex problems, especially those concerning racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. While the need to strengthen the relationship between researchers and the community has been recognised, often from the viewpoint of the university partner, discussions on sustainability of partnerships have been few. The aim of this paper is to share reflections, through the eyes of the community members, on the core elements that tie community and academic members together and the challenges in understanding and nurturing those ties so that the community-academic partnership is sustained over time, and to offer possible recommendations for sustainability. This article speaks from the community’s perspective and reflects on the vital elements/components that tie together community-university partnerships and the challenges that may occur when trying to sustain and grow the partnership. It is based on a research CBPR study that was conducted to (1 evaluate the functioning and future sustainability of the community-university partnership of the Community Child Health Network Study Los Angeles (CCHN-LA community-university partnership, and (2 evaluate the experience and beliefs of the current CCHN-LA community-university partnership members in their understanding of current functioning. Keywords Community-academic partnerships; sustainability; challenges; solutions

  7. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dezio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov of studies about lingual frenum written in English between January 1980 and May 2014. The keywords inserted were “lingual frenum”, “frenectomy”, “laser therapy”. We have analyzed: case series, case reports, clinical studies, and also literature reviews in which embryology, physiology, diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia were described. We excluded laboratory studies, studies based on animal tests and studies about patients with particular syndromes in which we can also find tongue-tie. The selection criteria allowed us to select 42 articles. The treatment options for the releasing of the frenum are surgically represented by frenotomy (i.e. simple horizontal cut of this training and frenectomy (i.e. removal. In both cases, the intervention on the short lingual frenum is simple, short-lasting, and without particular complications. Furthermore, this kind of treatment can be carried out with different devices: with the typical cold blade scalpel or by the use of laser, a new method that shows more advantages over the prior art. Laser-assisted therapy permits to intervene on newborns (from 0 to 20 days, when there are breastfeeding problems without total anesthesia and suture. The Er:YAG, CO2 laser (according to literature data and Diode laser (according to our experience are advantageous, safe and effective in tongue-tie treatment.

  8. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia) according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) of studies about lingual frenum written in English b...

  9. Burstiness and tie reinforcement in time varying social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ubaldi, Enrico; Karsai, Marton; Perra, Nicola; Burioni, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a time-varying network model accounting for burstiness and tie reinforcement observed in social networks. The analytical solution indicates a non-trivial phase diagram determined by the competition of the leading terms of the two processes. We test our results against numerical simulations, and compare the analytical predictions with an empirical dataset finding good agreements between them. The presented framework can be used to classify the dynamical features of real social networks and to gather new insights about the effects of social dynamics on ongoing spreading processes.

  10. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Wei; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social tie density and information flow as a function of the population. We demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population-level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to modularity, specialization, or hierarchy.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Tension Stiffening in RC Ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing application of high-performance materials in civil engineering led to the development of reinforced concrete (RC structures with reduced cross sections and increased spans. In such structures serviceability limit state often becomes the governing condition of the design. Present study investigates the deformation behaviour of high-strength RC ties reinforced with high-grade bars. Experimental investigation was carried out measuring the postcracking stiffness of the specimens at high strain levels. It was found that, despite the reduction in stiffness, a considerable part of the average tensile stresses were carried by the concrete at the advanced loading stages, thus effectively stiffening the RC member.

  12. Spanning Boundaries in an Arizona Watershed Partnership: Information Networks as Tools for Entrenchment or Ties for Collaboration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Wutich

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop successful collaborative strategies is an enduring problem in sustainable resource management. Our goal is to evaluate the relationship between information networks and conflict in the context of collaborative groundwater management in the rapidly growing central highland region of Arizona. In this region, water-management conflicts have emerged because of stakeholders’ differing geographic perspectives and competing scientific claims. Using social network analyses, we explored the extent to which the Verde River Basin Partnership (VRBP, which was charged with developing and sharing scientific information, has contributed to collaboration in the region. To accomplish this, we examined the role that this stakeholder partnership plays in reinforcing or overcoming the geographic, ideological, expert, and power conflicts among its members. Focusing on information sharing, we tested the extent to which several theoretically important elements of successful collaboration were evidenced by data from the VRBP. The structure of information sharing provides insight into ways in which barriers between diverse perspectives might be retained and elucidates weaknesses in the partnership. To characterize information sharing, we examined interaction ties among individuals with different geographic concerns, hierarchical scales of interest, belief systems (about science, the environment, and the role of the partnership, and self-identified expertise types. Results showed that the partnership’s information-sharing network spans most of these boundaries. Based on current theories of collaboration, we would expect the partnership network to be conducive to collaboration. We found that information exchanges are limited by differences in connection patterns across actor expertise and environmental-belief systems. Actors who view scientists as advocates are significantly more likely to occupy boundary-spanning positions, that appear to impede

  13. Determination of the local tie vector between the VLBI and GNSS reference points at Onsala using GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, T.; Haas, R.; Elgered, G.

    2015-07-01

    Two gimbal-mounted GNSS antennas were installed on each side of the radome-enclosed 20 m VLBI radio telescope at the Onsala Space Observatory. GPS data with a 1 Hz sampling rate were recorded for five semi-kinematic and four kinematic observing campaigns. These GPS data were analysed together with data from the IGS station ONSA with an in-house Matlab-based GPS software package, using the double-difference analysis strategy. The coordinates of the GNSS antennas on the telescope were estimated for different observation angles of the telescope, at specific epochs, and used to calculate the geodetic reference point of the telescope. The local tie vector between the VLBI and the ONSA GNSS reference points in a geocentric reference frame was hence obtained. The two different types of observing campaigns gave consistent results of the estimated local tie vector and the axis offset of the telescope. The estimated local tie vector obtained from all nine campaigns gave standard deviations of 1.5, 1.0, and 2.9 mm for the geocentric X, Y, and Z components, respectively. The result of the estimated axis offset of the VLBI telescope shows a difference of 0.3 mm, with a standard deviation of 1.9 mm, with respect to a reference value obtained by two local surveys carried out in 2002 and 2008. Our results show that the presented method can be used as a complement to the more accurate but more labour intensive classical geodetic surveys to continuously monitor the local tie at co-location stations with an accuracy of a few millimetres.

  14. Impact of cross-tie design on the in-plane stiffness and local mode formation of cable networks on cable-stayed bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2016-02-01

    Suppressing unfavorable stay cable vibrations using cross-ties is becoming more popular on cable-stayed bridges though the mechanics of the formed cable network is yet fully understood. In practice, the main task in designing cross-ties or cable networks is to choose the cross-tie installation location, stiffness and number based on the main cable properties in the network. To have a more comprehensive picture of how to choose these design parameters to achieve higher in-plane network stiffness while minimizing the number of excited local modes, it is imperative to examine dynamic behavior of cable networks with general configurations. In the current study, an analytical model of a general cable network consisting of multiple main cables interconnected by multiple lines of transverse flexible cross-ties will be developed. A new term, defined as the local mode cluster, will be introduced to assess the severity of local mode excitation. Criteria for identifying the presence of local mode cluster will be proposed. A parametric study will be conducted to evaluate the impact of cross-tie installation location, stiffness and number on the network modal response. Results obtained from the present study will provide deeper insight into the selection of these system parameters to achieve the combined benefits of increasing network in-plane stiffness and minimizing the excitation of local modes.

  15. COHESIVE TIES AND CHAINS IN GOOD AND POOR CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS’ COMPOSITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Weicheng

    1999-01-01

    This research made comparisons of cohesive ties and chains between the good and poor compo-sitions of twenty eight Grade Four English majors in Zhongshan University to examine the kinds of cohe-sive features that contribute most to good writing.Except for lexical cohesion,none of the other cate-gories of cohesion,as identified by Halliday and Hasan(1976),was used more frequently by the goodwriters than by the poor ones.However,cohesive chains(a series of lexical collocations,reiterations,and their reference pronouns all semantically related to one another)show significant differences in theuse of the diversity and maturity of vocabulary in chains as measured by word frequency in the lexicon asa whole.

  16. Anchoring historical sequences using a new source of astro-chronological tie-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Michael W; Pope, Benjamin J S

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of past spikes in atmospheric radiocarbon activity, caused by major solar energetic particle events, has opened up new possibilities for high-precision chronometry. The two spikes, or Miyake Events, have now been widely identified in tree-rings that grew in the years 775 and 994 CE. Furthermore, all other plant material that grew in these years would also have incorporated the anomalously high concentrations of radiocarbon. Crucially, some plant-based artefacts, such as papyrus documents, timber beams and linen garments, can also be allocated to specific positions within long, currently unfixed, historical sequences. Thus, Miyake Events represent a new source of tie-points that could provide the means for anchoring early chronologies to the absolute timescale. Here, we explore this possibility, outlining the most expeditious approaches, the current challenges and obstacles, and how they might best be overcome.

  17. IVF, same-sex couples and the value of biological ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF-with-ROPA (R......Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF......-with-ROPA allows for do not have any particular value beside the satisfaction of a legitimate wish, because there is no intrinsic value in a biological tie between parents and children; further, I argue that equality within parental projects cannot be achieved by redistributing biological ties....

  18. Studi Tentang Political Tie, Pengaruhnya Terhadap Keputusan Pemberian Kredit Bank di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tjondro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses bank loan data to examine the effect of (political tie between the company and the government to on the assessment of companies financial leverage and profitability in the bank lending decisions in Indonesia. The numbers of samples are 1465 observations. This study uses moderated regression analysis (MRA. The study finds that a political tie affect corporate profitability assessment in bank lending decisions. Firms with lower profitability receive larger bank loan because their political tie (rent-seeking hypothesis. However, this study inds that a political tie does not affect the assessment of financial leverage in bank's lending decisions. This finding also supports Faccio (2010, Fisman (2001, and Backman (2001. Indonesia condition which has a weak institutional regulation and high information asymmetry is beneficial for companies that have a political tie. This leads to more trusted political tie as an indicator of the profitability.

  19. Experimental investigation of Tie6Ale4V titanium alloy and 304L stainless steel friction welded with copper interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. KUMAR; M. BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle of friction welding is intermetallic bonding at the stage of super plasticity attained with self-generating heat due to friction and finishing at upset pressure. Now the dissimilar metal joints are especially popular in defense, aerospace, automobile, bio-medical, refinery and nuclear engineerings. In friction welding, some special alloys with dual phase are not joined successfully due to poor bonding strength. The alloy surfaces after bonding also have metallurgical changes in the line of interfacing. The reported research work in this area is scanty. Although the sound weld zone of direct bonding between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L was obtained though many trials, the joint was not successful. In this paper, the friction welding characteristics between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L into which pure oxygen free copper (OFC) was introduced as interlayer were investigated. BoxeBehnken design was used to minimize the number of experiments to be performed. The weld joint was analyzed for its mechanical strength. The highest tensile strength between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L between which pure copper was used as insert metal was acquired. Micro-structural analysis and elemental analysis were carried out by EDS, and the formation of intermetallic compound at the interface was identified by XRD analysis.

  20. Are steroids really the cause for fish feminization? A mini-review of in vitro and in vivo guided TIEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenk, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Feminization of fish has been reported throughout the world in freshwater and marine systems. While the population impacts are conflictive, enough negative effects warrant additional research into causation. In order to ascertain the identities of specific feminizing agents, variants of toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) have been employed. The majority of these evaluations have utilized in vitro estrogen receptor-based cell-lines to identify chromatographic fractions that possess biological activity from predominately wastewater derived from municipal treatment facilities and have concluded that synthetic and natural estrogens are the primary cause for feminization of fish. This paper will focus on three aquatic systems impacted by wastewater originating from purely domestic, and industrial/domestic secondary treatment systems. Wastewater and sediment extracts were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo biological responses in a TIE fractionation design. While in vitro responses tended to mirror in vivo responses in purely domestic wastewater systems, in vitro responses tended to severely underestimate in vivo estrogenic activity when normalized to estradiol equivalents in more complex systems. TIE fractionation schemes using in vivo biological responses failed to indicate any relationship to steroids in either wastewater or sediment extractions. These data consistently support the view that mechanisms other than direct ER binding and activation by toxicants may be important in the feminization of fish particularly residing in habitats that receive complex wastewater or agricultural effluents.

  1. Strengthening weak ties through on-line gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana Virginia; Kirchner, Kathrin

    On-line gaming became widespread in the last couple of years. The aim of the research presented in the paper is to figure out to what extent does game playing helps to strengthen weak ties and what additional factors influence this process. The approach is rather exploratory – some factors...... are grounded in theory, some are new. These factors are age, gender, place of origin, number of their Facebook connections (friends in Facebook terminology), the amount of time they are on Facebook, the amount of time they keep the Facebook site open, the amount of time they play on-line games, and the reasons...... for starting to play on-line games. Regarding the latter, we chose to focus only on escapist reasons....

  2. Social Ties and Emotions: Evidence from Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Kristina; Gallegos, Luciano; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    The social connections, or ties, individuals create affect their life outcomes, for example, by providing novel information that leads to new jobs or career opportunities. A host of socioeconomic and cognitive factors are believed to affect social interactions, but few of these factors have been empirically validated. In this research work, we extracted a large corpus of data from a popular social media platform that consists of geo-referenced messages, or tweets, posted from a major US metropolitan area. We linked these tweets to US Census data through their locations. This allowed us to measure emotions expressed in tweets posted from a specific area, and also use that area's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics in the analysis. We extracted the structure of social interactions from the people mentioned in tweets from that area. We find that at an aggregate level, areas where social media users engage in stronger, less diverse online social interactions are those where they express more negative em...

  3. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the

  4. Genome wide association and linkage analyses identified three loci-4q25, 17q23.2, and 10q11.21-associated with variation in leukocyte telomere length: the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, J. H.; Cheng, R.; Honig, L. S.;

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length is believed to measure cellular aging in humans, and short leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased risks of late onset diseases, including cardiovascular disease, dementia, etc. Many studies have shown that leukocyte telomere length is a heritable trait......, and several candidate genes have been identified, including TERT, TERC, OBFC1, and CTC1. Unlike most studies that have focused on genetic causes of chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes in relation to leukocyte telomere length, the present study examined the genome to identify variants that may...... contribute to variation in leukocyte telomere length among families with exceptional longevity. From the genome wide association analysis in 4,289 LLFS participants, we identified a novel intergenic SNP rs7680468 located near PAPSS1 and DKK2 on 4q25 (p = 4.7E-8). From our linkage analysis, we identified two...

  5. LOFAR tied-array imaging and spectroscopy of solar S bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Zucca, P.; O'Flannagain, A.; Fallows, R.; Reid, H.; Magdalenić, J.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Kerdraon, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Thidé, B.; Vocks, C.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Eislöffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Munk, H.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Sluman, J.; Tasse, C.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Zarka, P.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission that is often associated with energetic phenomena ranging from nanoflares to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), numerous millisecond duration radio bursts have been reported, such as radio spikes or solar S bursts (where S stands for short). To date, these have neither been studied extensively nor imaged because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims: Here, LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) observations were used to study the spectral and spatial characteristics of a multitude of S bursts, as well as their origin and possible emission mechanisms. Methods: We used 170 simultaneous tied-array beams for spectroscopy and imaging of S bursts. Since S bursts have short timescales and fine frequency structures, high cadence (~50 ms) tied-array images were used instead of standard interferometric imaging, that is currently limited to one image per second. Results: On 9 July 2013, over 3000 S bursts were observed over a time period of ~8 h. S bursts were found to appear as groups of short-lived (<1 s) and narrow-bandwidth (~2.5 MHz) features, the majority drifting at ~3.5 MHz s-1 and a wide range of circular polarisation degrees (2-8 times more polarised than the accompanying Type III bursts). Extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field using the potential field source surface (PFSS) model suggests that S bursts are associated with a trans-equatorial loop system that connects an active region in the southern hemisphere to a bipolar region of plage in the northern hemisphere. Conclusions: We have identified polarised, short-lived solar radio bursts that have never been imaged before. They are observed at a height and frequency range where plasma emission is the dominant emission mechanism, however, they possess some of the characteristics of electron-cyclotron maser emission. A movie associated to Fig. 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    . Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set......When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also nontechnical applications such as identifying possible...

  7. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  8. A study on the dynamic tie points ASI algorithm in the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Guanghua; SU Jie

    2015-01-01

    Sea ice concentration is an important parameter for polar sea ice monitoring. Based on 89 GHz AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System) data, a gridded high-resolution passive microwave sea ice concentration product can be obtained using the ASI (the Arctic Radiation And Turbulence Interaction Study (ARTIST) Sea Ice) retrieval algorithm. Instead of using fixed-point values, we developed ASI algorithm based on daily changed tie points, called as the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm in this study. Here the tie points are expressed as the brightness temperature polarization difference of open water and 100% sea ice. In 2010, the yearly-averaged tie points of open water and sea ice in Arctic are estimated to be 50.8 K and 7.8 K, respectively. It is confirmed that the sea ice concentrations retrieved by the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm can increase (decrease) the sea ice concentrations in low-value (high-value) areas. This improved the sea ice concentrations by present retrieval algorithm from microwave data to some extent. Comparing with the products using fixed tie points, the sea ice concentrations retrieved from AMSR-E data by using the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm are closer to those obtained from MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In 40 selected cloud-free sample regions, 95% of our results have smaller mean differences and 75% of our results have lower root mean square (RMS) differences compare with those by the fixed tie points.

  9. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico... of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to section 732(c)(1)(B) of the Act (19...

  10. The use of nylon cable ties to repair rib fractures in neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Chris; Rodgerson, Dwayne

    2011-03-01

    Commercially available nylon cable ties were used as a method of internal fixation for displaced rib fractures in 8 equine neonates. The procedure was effective, well-tolerated, rapid, and inexpensive. The use of nylon cable ties as internal fixation for displaced rib fractures in foals is an effective surgical procedure.

  11. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal...

  12. The Role of Reciprocity and Directionality of Friendship Ties in Promoting Behavioral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Friendship is a fundamental characteristic of human beings and usually assumed to be reciprocal in nature. Despite this common expectation, in reality, not all friendships by default are reciprocal nor created equal. Here, we show that reciprocated friendships are more intimate and they are substantially different from those that are not. We examine the role of reciprocal ties in inducing more effective peer pressure in a cooperative arrangements setting and find that the directionality of friendship ties can significantly limit the ability to persuade others to act. Specifically, we observe a higher behavioral change and more effective peer-influence when subjects shared reciprocal ties with their peers compared to sharing unilateral ones. Moreover, through spreading process simulation, we find that although unilateral ties diffuse behaviors across communities, reciprocal ties play more important role at the early stages of the diffusion process.

  13. Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties.

  14. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-11-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies - one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants - were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook.

  15. Break the Ties for NEH Heuristic in Solving the Permutation Flow Shop Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shou-wei; LEISTEN Rainer; DAI Yang; ZHANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with the Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (PFSP) based on the maximum completion time (makespan). NEH (the algorithm of Nawaz, Enscore and Ham) is the concluded most efficient constructive method in solving this NP-hard problem. The principal features of its strengths are the initial arrangement of jobs and the job insertion phase. In some instances, ties will occur in both the initial permutation and the partial sequences. The problem of ties breaking may have a significant impact on the NEH performance, but evaluate all the ties will be non-polynomial in the worst case. Several kinds of methods are presented in the paper to break the ties in a quick time. Together with the basic one, all 22 methods are tested on the famous Taillard's benchmarks and the most suitable ties breaking policy is recommended.

  16. Genome wide association and linkage analyses identified three loci -- 4q25, 17q23.2 and 10q11.21 -- associated with variation in leukocyte telomere length: The Long Life Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length is believed to measure cellular aging in humans, and short leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased risks of late onset diseases, including cardiovascular disease, dementia, etc. Many studies have shown that leukocyte telomere length is a heritable trait, and several candidate genes have been identified, including TERT, TERC, OBFC1, and CTC1. Unlike most studies that have focused on genetic causes of chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes in relation to leukocyte telomere length, the present study examined the genome to identify variants that may contribute to variation in leukocyte telomere length among families with exceptional longevity. From the genome wide association analysis in 4,289 LLFS participants, we identified a novel intergenic SNP rs7680468 located near PAPSS1 and DKK2 on 4q25 (p=4.7E-8. From our linkage analysis, we identified two additional loci with HLOD scores exceeding three, including 4.77 for 17q23.2 and 4.36 for 10q11.21. These two loci harbor a number of novel candidate genes with SNPs, and our gene-wise association analysis identified multiple genes, including DCAF7, POLG2, CEP95, and SMURF2 at 17q23.2; and RASGEF1A, HNRNPF, ANF487, CSTF2T, and PRKG1 at 10q11.21. Among these genes, multiple SNPs were associated with leukocyte telomere length, but the strongest association was observed with one contiguous haplotype in CEP95 and SMURF2. We also show that three previously reported genes – TERC, MYNN, and OBFC1 – were significantly associated with leukocyte telomere length at pempirical smaller than 0.05.

  17. Ties that bind: revisiting context, identity, and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Krueger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on group-based features of issue publics and advances the concept of residual group saliency as a way to organize members of issue publics. We accord veterans exemplar or prototype status, and civilians as periphery members of this issue public. As issue public exemplars, veterans anchor the “right” attitudes and behaviors for the veteran issue public, and civilians, especially those with family ties to veterans, gravitate toward those exemplar attitudes. We argue that pressure to conform to these “right” attitudes among civilians who are connected to a veteran is greater when there are more veterans in their environment. However, veterans and civilians who are not connected to a veteran are not responsive to such contextual effects, the former because they are already exemplars, and the latter because there is no motivation to evaluate the self in relation to veterans. We test and find support for these claims using data from the 2010 Cooperative Congressional Election Study. We conclude with an evaluative discussion and suggestions for future research.

  18. Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-11

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  19. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    SLR techniques via the so-called space ties, instead of relying on the terrestrial ties evaluated with ground measurement campaigns at co-located ITRF sites.

  20. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  1. Refinement of Strut-and-Tie Model for Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Panjehpour

    Full Text Available Deep beams are commonly used in tall buildings, offshore structures, and foundations. According to many codes and standards, strut-and-tie model (STM is recommended as a rational approach for deep beam analyses. This research focuses on the STM recommended by ACI 318-11 and AASHTO LRFD and uses experimental results to modify the strut effectiveness factor in STM for reinforced concrete (RC deep beams. This study aims to refine STM through the strut effectiveness factor and increase result accuracy. Six RC deep beams with different shear span to effective-depth ratios (a/d of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were experimentally tested under a four-point bending set-up. The ultimate shear strength of deep beams obtained from non-linear finite element modeling and STM recommended by ACI 318-11 as well as AASHTO LRFD (2012 were compared with the experimental results. An empirical equation was proposed to modify the principal tensile strain value in the bottle-shaped strut of deep beams. The equation of the strut effectiveness factor from AASHTTO LRFD was then modified through the aforementioned empirical equation. An investigation on the failure mode and crack propagation in RC deep beams subjected to load was also conducted.

  2. Resilience by solidary ties (Resiliencia por lazos de solidaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers an empirical approach to the relationships among three well known concepts: “Benevolence” (Schwartz, Solidarity and Resilience ("Subjective wellbeing scale" - SWB. The first concept refers to cultural values, the second one to social networks and the third to the ability to recover from crisis. The measurement of solidarity has been done from the point of view of supportive ties. The baseline hypothesis considers that the presence of a high value in Benevolence contributes to the involvements in solidarity networks. Participation in supportive relationships facilitates recovery from personal crisis. Using data from the European Social Survey (ESS6, we conclude from this structural analysis that the resilience reflected in a society is partly a consequence of the supportive networks shaped by the presence of benevolence values. | Tras introducir teóricamente los conceptos de "Benevolencia" (Schwartz, "Lazos de solidaridad" y "Resiliencia", se presenta su operativización en la Encuesta Social Europea de 2012. La hipótesis de partida plantea que la presencia de un valor alto en Benevolencia influye en la participación en interacciones solidarias y que la participación en redes solidarias facilita el recobrarse de las crisis. A partir de estos datos, y considerando varias sociedades europeas, se han testado dos modelos alternativos, según el efecto de la Benevolencia y los lazos de solidaridad sobre la resiliencia. Se concluye que existe un efecto directo de los valores de Benevolencia sobre la Solidaridad, y de esta sobre la Resiliencia. La influencia de los valores de Benevolencia sobre la Resiliencia se establece de forma indirecta mediante la activación de relaciones solidarias.

  3. Identifying Influential Spreaders of Epidemics on Community Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Shi-Long; Kang, Li

    2016-01-01

    An efficient strategy for the identification of influential spreaders that could be used to control epidemics within populations would be of considerable importance. Generally, populations are characterized by its community structures and by the heterogeneous distributions of weak ties among nodes bridging over communities. A strategy for community networks capable of identifying influential spreaders that accelerate the spread of disease is here proposed. In this strategy, influential spreaders serve as target nodes. This is based on the idea that, in k-shell decomposition, weak ties and strong ties are processed separately. The strategy was used on empirical networks constructed from online social networks, and results indicated that this strategy is more accurate than other strategies. Its effectiveness stems from the patterns of connectivity among neighbors, and it successfully identified the important nodes. In addition, the performance of the strategy remained robust even when there were errors in the s...

  4. Global TIE: Developing a Virtual Network of Robotic Observatories for K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Clark, G.

    2001-11-01

    Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE, http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE provides unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns essentially unused observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the

  5. Parasite-stress promotes in-group assortative sociality: the cases of strong family ties and heightened religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2012-04-01

    Throughout the world people differ in the magnitude with which they value strong family ties or heightened religiosity. We propose that this cross-cultural variation is a result of a contingent psychological adaptation that facilitates in-group assortative sociality in the face of high levels of parasite-stress while devaluing in-group assortative sociality in areas with low levels of parasite-stress. This is because in-group assortative sociality is more important for the avoidance of infection from novel parasites and for the management of infection in regions with high levels of parasite-stress compared with regions of low infectious disease stress. We examined this hypothesis by testing the predictions that there would be a positive association between parasite-stress and strength of family ties or religiosity. We conducted this study by comparing among nations and among states in the United States of America. We found for both the international and the interstate analyses that in-group assortative sociality was positively associated with parasite-stress. This was true when controlling for potentially confounding factors such as human freedom and economic development. The findings support the parasite-stress theory of sociality, that is, the proposal that parasite-stress is central to the evolution of social life in humans and other animals.

  6. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    Due to advances of technology including faster and ubiquitously accessible Internet connection, on-line gaming have grown tremendously in the last couple of years. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether escapist motives for playing games are linked to strengthening of weak ties through on......-line gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separately. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening of weak ties....

  7. Social connection in organizations: the effects of local ties on job engagement and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano de Oliveira Maciel

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the effect of local ties of organizational actors on their degree of job engagement and performance. The study carried out a survey with 249 respondents and analyzed the effect of local ties (i.e., ties of the ego through degrees of intra-organizational social connections. Engagement was measured in physical, cognitive, and emotional dimensions. Performance was represented by the degree of achievement in tasks. The results show that only cognitive engagement and performance are influenced by degrees of intra-organizational social connection. These results are explored in the conclusions of the article.

  8. Hanging Together, Together Hung? Career Implications of Interpersonal Ties Between CEOs and Top Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hilger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Is it good or bad for senior executives to have strong interpersonal ties to the CEO? We argue that a strong relationship with the CEO raises the likelihood that a top manager stays in office or makes an upward career move when the CEO leaves office voluntarily. At the same time, such interpersonal ties also reinforce the negative spillover effects of a dismissal of the CEO on the career prospects of the manager concerned. Our empirical analysis lends support to both arguments. We contribute to managerial succession research by underlining the ambivalence of interpersonal ties within top management teams.

  9. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of pure european beech forests in Oraştie river basin (central-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BURESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Festuco drymejaeFagetum Morariu et al. 1968 (Syn.: Fagetum sylvaticae transylvaticum facies with Festuca drymeja I. Pop et al. 1974, found in the pure European beech forests of the Orăştie river basin, lying in the central-western part of Romania. The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done byselecting the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to the Orăştie river basin. The phytocoenoses of these beech forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  10. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

  11. [Investigation of Predisposition Biomarkers to Identify Risk Factors for Drug-induced Liver Injury in Humans: Analyses of Endogenous Metabolites in an Animal Model Mimicking Human Responders to APAP-induced Hepatotoxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akio; Kondo, Kazuma; Sugai, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a main reason of regulatory action pertaining to drugs, including restrictions to clinical indications and withdrawal from the marketplace. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used and effective analgesic/antipyretic agent and relatively safe drug even in long-term treatment. However, it is known that APAP at therapeutic doses may cause hepatotoxicity in some individuals. Hence great efforts have been made to identify risk factors for APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. We investigated the contribution of undernourishment to susceptibility to APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity using an animal model. We employed daytime restricted fed (RF) rats as a modified-nutritional state model for human APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. RF and ad libitum fed (ALF) rats were given APAP at 0, 300, and 500 mg/kg for 3 months. Plasma and urinary glutathione-related metabolomes and liver function parameters were measured during the dosing period. Endogenous metabolites forming at different levels between the RF and ALF rats could be potential predisposition biomarkers for APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, RF rats were considered a useful model to estimate the contribution of nutritional state of patients to APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. In this article we report our current research focusing on nutritional state as risk factor for APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity and our findings of hepatotoxicity biomarkers.

  12. Poor Diet Tied to Half of U.S. Deaths from Heart Disease, Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diet Tied to Half of U.S. Deaths From Heart Disease, Diabetes Study explores which foods and nutrients may ... HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of all deaths from heart disease, stroke and diabetes in the United States are ...

  13. Sickle Cell Trait Tied to Higher Kidney Failure Risk for Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164005.html Sickle Cell Trait Tied to Higher Kidney Failure Risk for ... HealthDay News) -- Black people with a trait for sickle cell anemia appear to have double the risk of ...

  14. Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver Cancer in Men Fatty deposits in the organ, along ... at increased risk for serious liver disease or liver cancer later in life, and those with diabetes have ...

  15. One long tie bar broken after 3 days because of hydrogen contamination.

    CERN Multimedia

    H. Gerwig

    2000-01-01

    The tie bars have been produced with a high yield strength. As known for these type of high strength bolts, and hydrogen contamination during manufacture or heat treatment could lead to rupture under stress after several days.

  16. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  17. THE RATIONALE BEHIND WEAKLY TIED NETWORKING OF THE BANGLADESHI DIASPORA IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nayeem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploration of the survival strategies of the Bangladeshi Diaspora in Malaysia. To cope with the realities, Bangladeshi migrants develop different forms of survival strategies. As a result intra and inter-ethnic strong and weak ties are formed in the receiving country. Empirical analysis depicts that respondents with weak ties have higher income mobility than those with strong ties. It also demonstrates that the Bangladeshi migrants of the study areas do not restrict themselves only to their close social networks; rather they develop distant networks for higher social mobility. Or in other words, though the ideal socio-cultural model emphasizes community cohesion (something that can be conceptualized as an example of a tightly structured social system, the actual behavior of the Bangladeshi migrants indicates a loosely or disintegrated social system. Migrant's embeddedness in the ongoing social relations and power structures regulates the nature and strength of these ties.

  18. Bow-tie topological features of metabolic networks and the functional significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; TAO Lin; YU Hong; LUO JianHua; GAO ZhiWei; LI YiXue

    2007-01-01

    Exploring the structural topology of genome-based large-scale metabolic network is essential for in vestigating possible relations between structure and functionality. Visualization would be helpful for obtaining immediate information about structural organization. In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. A spread bow-tie model was proposed to give a clear visualization of the bow-tie structure for metabolic networks. The revealed topological pattern helps to design more efficient algorithm specifically for metabolic networks. This coarsegrained graph also visualizes the vulnerable connections in the network, and thus could have important implication for disease studies and drug target identifications. In addition, analysis on the reciprocal links and main cores in the GSC part of bow-tie also reveals that the bow-tie structure of metabolic networks has its own intrinsic and significant features which are significantly different from those of random networks.

  19. Sugary, High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue Previous research has linked higher density to increased ... Western-style diet may develop more dense breast tissue, possibly increasing their risk for breast cancer, Spanish ...

  20. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF HIDDEN GAMMA WEAR PROCESS MODEL FOR SURVIVAL DATA WITH TIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arijit; Chi, Zhiyi; Chen, Ming-Hui

    2015-10-01

    Survival data often contain tied event times. Inference without careful treatment of the ties can lead to biased estimates. This paper develops the Bayesian analysis of a stochastic wear process model to fit survival data that might have a large number of ties. Under a general wear process model, we derive the likelihood of parameters. When the wear process is a Gamma process, the likelihood has a semi-closed form that allows posterior sampling to be carried out for the parameters, hence achieving model selection using Bayesian deviance information criterion. An innovative simulation algorithm via direct forward sampling and Gibbs sampling is developed to sample event times that may have ties in the presence of arbitrary covariates; this provides a tool to assess the precision of inference. An extensive simulation study is reported and a data set is used to further illustrate the proposed methodology.

  1. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

  2. Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Based Phonetic Tied-Mixture HMM in Speech Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiang-hua; ZHU Jie; GUO Qiang

    2005-01-01

    A fuzzy clustering analysis based phonetic tied-mixture HMM(FPTM) was presented to decrease parameter size and improve robustness of parameter training. FPTM was synthesized from state-tied HMMs by a modified fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm. Each Gaussian codebook of FPTM was built from Gaussian components within the same root node in phonetic decision tree. The experimental results on large vocabulary Mandarin speech recognition show that compared with conventional phonetic tied-mixture HMM and state-tied HMM with approximately the same number of Gaussian mixtures, FPTM achieves word error rate reductions by 4.84% and 13.02 % respectively. Combining the two schemes of mixing weights pruning and Gaussian centers fuzzy merging, a significantly parameter size reduction was achieved with little impact on recognition accuracy.

  3. The weakness of strong ties : Collective action failure in a highly cohesive group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Macy, MW

    1996-01-01

    Following Homans, exchange theorists have modeled informal social control as an exchange of peer approval for compliance with group obligations. The exchange model predicts higher compliance in cohesive networks with strong social ties. However, previous specifications failed to incorporate bilatera

  4. Indo-U.S. Ties and the Next Generation of Law Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E. SCHUKOSKE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available India faces a shortage of qualified law teachers. According to the proposed legal education reform agenda, national law schools are due to open in each state and the standards at the existing 900+ law schools will undergo review. Indian law teachers will seek training on participatory learning and on skills teaching. They will seek guidance on research strategies.They will develop new courses of study. The new Indian law pedagogy and research culture will evolve in the Indian context with values shared by U.S. legal educators. India Committee members with knowledge and interest in both Indian and U.S. legal cultures can play a supportive role in developing law teacher training resources as India undertakes legal education reform. Among us are attorneys who negotiate Indo-U.S. business deals and represent families with Indo-U.S. ties. There are faculty who teach international and comparative law and who focus on India as they design student projects and conduct research. Attorneys who supervise legal process outsourcing to India have a vested interest in knowing what Indian law students learn about professional ethics, legal writing and research. This article recaps key features of Bachelor of Laws education in India, identifies certain reforms being planned, and suggests several types of resource development to support the work of the next generation of Indian law teachers.

  5. Welfare assessment of dairy cows housed in a tie-stall system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vučemilo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare assessment methods and techniques developed as a result of great interest of scientific and consumer populations regarding the welfare of animals housed in farms. In view of the fact that welfare by definition includes both physical and mental health, the welfare quality assessment includes an extensive number of measures. Welfare assessment was performed in two stables in which cows are kept in tie-stall by using the specific method described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocol for Cattle. The measures included body condition score, qualitative behaviour assessment and body hygiene. The welfare assessment confirmed the importance of quality housing for ensuring better performance from animals, thus also affecting their health and productivity. It also pointed out the necessity of freeing animals by providing them with the possibility of free movement, whereat they can exhibit their physiological behaviour. It is definitely important to continue research, expand the number of researched measures in order to confirm the most useful indicators for welfare assessment and to identify the factors that within the animals’ physical and social environment affect the increase of their welfare.

  6. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 reverts HCV-induced hepatic stellate cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martín-Vílchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease (CLD and is frequently linked to intrahepatic microvascular disorders. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC is a central event in liver damage, due to their contribution to hepatic renewal and to the development of fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma. During the progression of CLDs, HSC attempt to restore injured tissue by stimulating repair processes, such as fibrosis and angiogenesis. Because HSC express the key vascular receptor Tie2, among other angiogenic receptors and mediators, we analyzed its involvement in the development of CLD. METHODS: Tie2 expression was monitored in HSC cultures that were exposed to media from HCV-expressing cells (replicons. The effects of Tie2 blockade on HSC activation by either neutralizing antibody or specific signaling inhibitors were also examined. RESULTS: Media from HCV-replicons enhanced HSC activation and invasion and upregulated Tie2 expression. Notably, the blockade of Tie2 receptor (by a specific neutralizing antibody or signaling (by selective AKT and MAPK inhibitors significantly reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression and the invasive potential of HCV-conditioned HSC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings ascribe a novel profibrogenic function to Tie2 receptor in the progression of chronic hepatitis C, highlighting the significance of its dysregulation in the evolution of CLDs and its potential as a novel therapeutic target.

  7. The relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Chisato; Mikami, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Reiko; Maeda, Chiho; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence in a prospective longitudinal study. We hypothesized that twins whose tie is close would be more likely to develop a twin language, and these twins would be less likely to develop social competence. In addition, we hypothesize that some environmental factors, such as having an older sibling, preschool attendance, zygosity, and sex are also related to twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence. At baseline in 1999 a mailed questionnaire survey was conducted, and a follow-up questionnaire was distributed in 2004 among 958 mothers. As a result, 516 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used 261 twin pairs aged from 6 to 12 years (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. In the present study, we found that zygosity and sex were associated with twins' close ties. Having an older sibling and preschool attendance did not affect the twins' close tie, twin language, or social competence. One of the most important findings was that social competence was not affected directly by twins' close tie, but was affected when a twin language was found.

  8. Human communication dynamics in digital footsteps: a study of the agreement between self-reported ties and email networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Uzzi, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network" of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions.

  9. Human communication dynamics in digital footsteps: a study of the agreement between self-reported ties and email networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wuchty

    Full Text Available Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network" of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions.

  10. Social Tie Strength and Online Victimization: An Analysis of Young People Aged 15–30 Years in Four Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Keipi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online interaction through the use of social networking sites (SNS continues to be a significant component of the socialization of young people today, yet little research exists toward linking various relational forms to prevalent and much-studied online risks cross-nationally. This article provides a link between relational dynamics and online risks identified in previous research toward a new perspective on how social tie strength is related to experiences of hate victimization and harassment online. The analysis is based on survey data of Finnish (n = 555, American (n = 1033, German (n = 978, and British (n = 999 young people aged 15–30 years. Variables, including age, gender, main activity, SNS use, quantity, and extent of online and offline social networks including social tie strength and online community identification, were analyzed toward finding their associations with online hate victimization and harassment. Results showed that experiences of hate victimization and harassment were similar cross-nationally and that those who were personally harassed online also reported high SNS activity. Furthermore, no association was found between social network size and negative experiences. Notable cross-national differences were also detected in the results. Findings emphasize the importance of understanding variables fostering online risks for young people while providing a new perspective on what aspects of social life may help negate negative effects online.

  11. Risk Analysis on Leakage Failure of Natural Gas Pipelines by Fuzzy Bayesian Network with a Bow-Tie Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline is the major mode of natural gas transportation. Leakage of natural gas pipelines may cause explosions and fires, resulting in casualties, environmental damage, and material loss. Efficient risk analysis is of great significance for preventing and mitigating such potential accidents. The objective of this study is to present a practical risk assessment method based on Bow-tie model and Bayesian network for risk analysis of natural gas pipeline leakage. Firstly, identify the potential risk factors and consequences of the failure. Then construct the Bow-tie model, use the quantitative analysis of Bayesian network to find the weak links in the system, and make a prediction of the control measures to reduce the rate of the accident. In order to deal with the uncertainty existing in the determination of the probability of basic events, fuzzy logic method is used. Results of a case study show that the most likely causes of natural gas pipeline leakage occurrence are parties ignore signage, implicit signage, overload, and design defect of auxiliaries. Once the leakage occurs, it is most likely to result in fire and explosion. Corresponding measures taken on time will reduce the disaster degree of accidents to the least extent.

  12. Homies with aspirations and positive peer network ties: associations with reduced frequent substance use among gang-affiliated Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2015-04-01

    In marginalized urban neighborhoods across the USA, Latino youth are disproportionately represented among the growing number of youth gangs. Substance use among gang-involved youth poses both immediate and long-term health risks and can threaten educational engagement, future socioeconomic stability, and desistance. Conventional assessments of gang-affiliated youth and their peer network overlook the possibility that positive peer ties may exist and can foster health promoting behavior norms. Drawing on a positive deviance framework, in this study, we examine the relationship between positive peer network characteristics tied to post-secondary educational aspirations and frequent alcohol and marijuana use among Latino, gang-affiliated youth from a neighborhood in San Francisco. Using generalized estimating equations regression models across 72 peer network clusters (162 youth), we found that having close friends who plan to go to a 4-year college was associated with a lower odds of frequent marijuana and alcohol use (OR 0.27, p = 0.02; OR 0.29, p = 0.14, respectively) and that this association persisted when adjusting for risk characteristics (OR 0.19, p gang intervention efforts by identifying protective and risk factors associated with non-criminal health outcomes to inform participatory research approaches and asset-based interventions that contribute to building healthy communities.

  13. Transcript-level expression analysis of RNA-seq experiments with HISAT, StringTie and Ballgown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertea, Mihaela; Kim, Daehwan; Pertea, Geo M; Leek, Jeffrey T; Salzberg, Steven L

    2016-09-01

    High-throughput sequencing of mRNA (RNA-seq) has become the standard method for measuring and comparing the levels of gene expression in a wide variety of species and conditions. RNA-seq experiments generate very large, complex data sets that demand fast, accurate and flexible software to reduce the raw read data to comprehensible results. HISAT (hierarchical indexing for spliced alignment of transcripts), StringTie and Ballgown are free, open-source software tools for comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq experiments. Together, they allow scientists to align reads to a genome, assemble transcripts including novel splice variants, compute the abundance of these transcripts in each sample and compare experiments to identify differentially expressed genes and transcripts. This protocol describes all the steps necessary to process a large set of raw sequencing reads and create lists of gene transcripts, expression levels, and differentially expressed genes and transcripts. The protocol's execution time depends on the computing resources, but it typically takes under 45 min of computer time. HISAT, StringTie and Ballgown are available from http://ccb.jhu.edu/software.shtml.

  14. Racial/Ethnic and nativity differences in birth outcomes among mothers in New York City: the role of social ties and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joanna; Mulready-Ward, Candace; Bettegowda, Vani R; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants have lower rates of low birth weight (LBW) and to some extent preterm birth (PTB), than their US-born counterparts. This pattern has been termed the 'immigrant health paradox'. Social ties and support are one proposed explanation for this phenomenon. We examined the contribution of social ties and social support to LBW and PTB by race/ethnicity and nativity among women in New York City (NYC). The NYC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey (2004-2007) data, linked with the selected items from birth certificates, were used to examine LBW and PTB by race/ethnicity and nativity status and the role of social ties and social support to adverse birth outcomes using bivariate and multivariable analyses. SUDAAN software was used to adjust for complex survey design and sampling weights. US- and foreign-born Blacks had significantly increased odds of PTB [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.43, 95 % CI 1.56, 3.77 and AOR = 2.6, 95 % CI 1.66, 4.24, respectively] compared to US-born Whites. Odds of PTB among foreign-born Other Latinas, Island-born Puerto Ricans' and foreign-born Asians' were not significantly different from US-born Whites, while odds of PTB for foreign-born Whites were significantly lower (AOR = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.84). US and foreign-born Blacks' odds of LBW were 2.5 fold that of US-born Whites. Fewer social ties were associated with 32-39 % lower odds of PTB. Lower social support was associated with decreased odds of LBW (AOR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.50, 0.96). We found stronger evidence of the immigrant health paradox across racial/ethnic groups for PTB than for LBW. Results also point to the importance of accurately assessing social ties and social support during pregnancy and to considering the potential downside of social ties.

  15. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  16. Identifying Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Adrian S

    2009-01-01

    Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...

  17. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62−CCR2− (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  18. O "ficar" na adolescência e paradigmas de relacionamento amoroso da contemporaneidade "To stay with" ("ficar" among teenagers and paradigms of love ties nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sterza Justo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O ficar é um relacionamento afetivo bastante popular entre os adolescentes e caracteriza-se por ser breve, passageiro, imediatista, volátil e descompromissado. Análises comparativas demonstram que o ficar obedece à mesma lógica que rege outros relacionamentos. Seu caráter provisório e efêmero está presente, por exemplo, na abreviação dos vínculos empregatícios e na rarefação de relacionamentos outrora sólidos e duradouros tais como os de vizinhança e familiais. Vive-se hoje uma condição de aceleração do tempo, alargamento de espaço e movimentação humana sem precedente, impeditiva de vinculações psicossociais estáveis e prolongadas em todos os planos da vida: do amor ao trabalho."To stay with" someone ("ficar" is a quite popular affective type of relationship among teenagers and it is characterized by being brief, fleeting, immediate, fickle and without commitment. Comparative analyses show that "to stay with"("ficar" follows the same logic which governs fixed ties in other types of relationship. Its particularly provisory and fleeting feature is found, for example, in professional ties in short-term employment, in relationships which were once long-lasting and steady, such as that among neighbours, not to mention family ties. Nowadays, one lives an unprecedented process of time acceleration, space expansion and human rush, which makes it impossible to establish stable and lasting psychosocial ties at all levels of life: from love to work.

  19. A field study investigating the effects of a rebar-tying machine on trunk flexion, tool usability and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vi, Peter

    2006-11-15

    A field study with a before-and-after experimental design was conducted to evaluate the potential reduction in the risk of musculoskeletal injuries to rodworkers when using an automatic rebar-tying machine. Eleven rodworkers participated in this experiment. All dependent variables (trunk posture, rebar-tying time and responses to a usability questionnaire) were first measured before introducing the rebar-tying machine and then after 3 months of usage all dependent variables were measured again. The results of the study indicated that working with a rebar-tying machine significantly reduced the magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure to awkward trunk posture. Tying time was reduced when participants used the machine. The usability questionnaire indicated that most participants preferred to use the rebar-tying machine for ground-level rebar construction. The field study also revealed that the rebar-tying machine is not limited to the reinforcing trade. The machine can be used for other purposes, such as tying electrical conduit and attaching radiant heat tube to steel mesh. Based on trunk posture exposure, rebar-tying time, usability and transferability, it is concluded that the rebar-tying machine can be an effective tool to reduce the frequency and duration of severe trunk flexion, improve usability and increase productivity among concrete reinforcement workers.

  20. 真丝领带的创新设计%Innovative design of silk tie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘重嵘

    2012-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the primary causes for designs and innovation of men's silk ties, the development of domestic men's tie brands and their current situation, and proposes the approaches for the designs and innovation of men's silk tie brands. It deems that the development of modern social and cultural life motivates the innovation of traditional silk tie brands. To satisfy the requirements of careers of men consumers who pursue the life quality, the design of domestic men's silk tie goes towards the direction that integrates emotions and cultural connotation. To have innovative application in the design of modern tie brands, it is necessary for traditional silk ties to break inherent stiff modes, integrate design elements that accord with the aesthetics of modern people based on innovation and beauty, endow modern silk ties with some fashion and emotion as well as improves the taste of silk tie brands so that they can met international tendency of fashion.%概述了男士真丝领带设计创新的根本原因、国内领带品牌的发展及现状,提出了国内男士真丝领带品牌的创新设计途径,认为现代社会文化生活的发展推动了传统真丝领带品牌的创新.为符合当代追求品质生活的男士消费群的职业需求,国内男士真丝领带设计正朝着融入情感化、人文内涵的趋势发展.传统真丝领带要在现代领带品牌设计中有所创新应用,需要打破原有呆板的固有模式,在求新求美中融入符合现代人潮流观的设计元素,赋予现代真丝领带一定的时尚活力与情感,提升真丝领带品牌向高品位、国际化的时尚新趋势接轨.

  1. Quasi-Separatrix Layers and Line-tied Reconnection in Collisionless Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billey, Zachary; Zweibel, Ellen; Finn, John; Daughton, William

    2015-11-01

    Many plasmas undergoing magnetic reconnection have boundaries that have constant magnetic flux on the dynamical timescales of the system, such as coronal loops and planetary magnetospheres. Systems where the boundary magnetic flux is constant are called line-tied systems. We conduct collisionless fully 3D particle-in-cell simulations in slab geometry to study how line-tying changes the dynamics relative non-tied systems. We confirm Quasi-Separatrix Layers (QSLs) as a model for predicting potential reconnection sites in 3D systems. Based on this theory, we use line-integrated diagnostics to investigate the collisionless physics relating to the parallel electric field. Here we find non-gyrotopic terms in the pressure tensor are important at the center of the reconnection layer. We investigate the effect of varying the length of the line-tied plasma on the growth rate and reconnection process and compare oblique modes with equivalent periodic systems. We discuss the extension into collisionless regimes of the geometric width vs tearing width theory, developed to explain line-tied suppression of tearing in MHD reconnection. Work supported by the NSF and U.S. DoE through CMSO.

  2. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks.

  3. Platelet-rich plasma extract prevents pulmonary edema through angiopoietin-Tie2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability contributes to life-threatening pathological conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Current treatments for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema rely on low-tidal volume mechanical ventilation, fluid management, and pharmacological use of a single angiogenic or chemical factor with antipermeability activity. However, it is becoming clear that a combination of multiple angiogenic/chemical factors rather than a single factor is required for maintaining stable and functional blood vessels. We have demonstrated that mouse platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract contains abundant angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and multiple other factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), which potentially stabilize vascular integrity. Here, we show that PRP extract increases tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (Tie2) and attenuates disruption of cell-cell junctional integrity induced by inflammatory cytokine in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Systemic injection of PRP extract also increases Tie2 phosphorylation in mouse lung and prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and the consequent decreases in lung compliance and exercise intolerance resulting from endotoxin challenge. Soluble Tie2 receptor, which inhibits Ang-Tie2 signaling, suppresses the ability of PRP extract to inhibit pulmonary edema in mouse lung. These results suggest that PRP extract prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema mainly through Ang-Tie2 signaling, and PRP extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema and various lung diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability.

  4. Personality Type and Learning Style: The Tie That Binds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Walter, Richard A.; Evanoski, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to provide further insight into the individual education needs of learners within the trade and industry sector of Career and Technical Education (CTE), the authors (a) sought to identify the predominant personality type and learning style distribution of postsecondary automotive technology students, as well as (b) evaluate whether…

  5. Beyond Level 4: Tying HPT to Valuation of Intangible Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayeski, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Considers how human performance technology (HPT) can achieve greater recognition in the mainstream business world by developing interventions that are framed in terms of enhancing the overall valuation of the organization's intangible assets. Discusses a consulting model that can be used with clients and stakeholders to identify barriers to…

  6. The Strength of Friendship Ties in Proximity Sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    such electronic datasets may serve as a valid proxy for real life social interactions. For an observational dataset, gathered using mobile phones, we analyze the problem of identifying transient and non-important links, as well as how to highlight important social interactions. Applying the Bluetooth signal...

  7. Knowledge-based network ties in early rapidly internationalising small firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masango, Shingairai Grace; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to establish the sources of the relationships underpinning Early Rapidly Internationalising Small Firm (ERISF) cross border activities, the main characteristics and specific functions of these relationships, and their process of development. Using interview data from ten South...... African firms, the findings show that the founder’s pre-firm knowledge pools are important in establishing the source of the initial hierarchical knowledge-based interpersonal ties. ERISF internationalisation is enabled by an initial prior interpersonal network tie set, which is composed of predominantly...... a holistic characterisation of the concept of knowledge in ERISF internationalisation. Within their interorganisational relationships, ERISFs are involved in knowledge creation, knowledge transfer and knowledge adoption activities. Network ties developed in existing knowledge pools are extended to new...

  8. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein de Haas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants' intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the likelihood of returning. However, according to alternative theoretical interpretations, return migration can also be the outflow of successful integration in receiving countries. Drawing on a data set of four African immigrant groups in Spain and Italy, this articlereviews these conflicting hypotheses by assessing the effects of integration and transnational ties on return migration intentions. The results of the analysis suggest that socio-cultural integration has a negative effect on return migration intentions, while economic integration and transnational ties have more ambiguous and sometimes positive effects. The results provide mixed support for the different hypotheses but question theoretical perspectives that unequivocally conceptualizereturn migration and transnationalism as causes and/or consequences of "integration failure".

  9. Design and construction of the tensioned ties for UX15 cavern vault

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, R J H

    2002-01-01

    Due to the programme constraints for the UX15 cavern set by CERN, it has been necessary to complete the concrete lining of the vault prior to the excavation of the bench. The vault lining is therefore being temporarily suspended from a number of pre-tensioned high capacity multi-strand tensioned ties. During excavation of the bench, additional loads will be imposed onto the vault lining due to ground displacements. In order to minimise the number of ties, the previously completed linings of the PX14 and PX16 access shafts will be used to support some of the load. Three-dimensional modelling has been undertaken to design the structures and determine the expected behaviour of this complex support system. Geotechnical instrumentation has been installed in the concrete linings and the ground to monitor loads and displacements during construction. After the cavern walls have been completed, the ties will be released.

  10. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  11. caTIES: a grid based system for coding and retrieval of surgical pathology reports and tissue specimens in support of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rebecca S; Castine, Melissa; Mitchell, Kevin; Chavan, Girish; McSherry, Tara; Feldman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the development of the Cancer Tissue Information Extraction System (caTIES)--an application that supports collaborative tissue banking and text mining by leveraging existing natural language processing methods and algorithms, grid communication and security frameworks, and query visualization methods. The system fills an important need for text-derived clinical data in translational research such as tissue-banking and clinical trials. The design of caTIES addresses three critical issues for informatics support of translational research: (1) federation of research data sources derived from clinical systems; (2) expressive graphical interfaces for concept-based text mining; and (3) regulatory and security model for supporting multi-center collaborative research. Implementation of the system at several Cancer Centers across the country is creating a potential network of caTIES repositories that could provide millions of de-identified clinical reports to users. The system provides an end-to-end application of medical natural language processing to support multi-institutional translational research programs.

  12. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    Due to advances of technology including faster and ubiquitously ac-cessible Internet connection, on-line gaming have grown tremendously in the last couple of years. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether escapist mo-tives for playing games are linked to strengthening of weak ties through...... on-line gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separate-ly. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening...

  13. A Synchronization Method for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng;

    2016-01-01

    The controllers of single-phase grid-tied inverters require improvements to enable distribution generation systems to meet the grid codes/standards with respect to power quality and the fault ride through capability. In that case, the response of the selected synchronization technique is crucial...... for the performance of the entire grid-tied inverter. In this paper, a new synchronization method with good dynamics and high accuracy under a highly distorted voltage is proposed. This method uses a Multi-Harmonic Decoupling Cell (MHDC), which thus can cancel out the oscillations on the synchronization signals due...

  14. FAMILIAL ANKYLOGLOSS IA [TONGUE – TIE] – A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Subba Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloglossia or tongue tie is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4 - 5% and characterized by abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality is 2 times more common in males. The pathogenesis of Ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated Ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal domin ant trait in four consecutive generations. The identification of the defective gene (s in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder. This case report elucidates a specific inheritance pattern of tongue tie.

  15. The VEGF system and tie-2 are spatio-temporal expressed during tayassu placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M.A.; Santos, T.C.; Papa, P.C.

    for immunhistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and Tie-2. Results: In the present study the VEGF-system exhibited intense staining in the uterine epithelium, uterine glandular epithelium and trophoblast. The endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the vessels in the maternal...... and fetal compartment were also immunoreactive. Placentae from initial phase of gestation showed weaker staining when compared to middle and late gestation. In late gestation of the tayassu the Tie-2 was co-localized with the VEGF-system in both maternal (intense staining in glandular and uterine epithelium...

  16. United States, Europe and Poland Different Stages of Antitrust Tying War in the New Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz SWORA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion on monopolist practices under the conditions of a fast technological development1 has not really commenced yet. The problems of innovation and development of New Economy undertakings has gained new impetus following Poland’s accession to the European Union. It is a matter of time when the anti-trust law begins to show interest in them. There are some indications that this has already taken place. In the first part of this article the author briefly presents the discussion related to Microsoft III case in the United States insofar as it pertains to New Economy issues. The second and third parts address legal and political aspects of the Microsoft case in the European Union. In the fourth part legal aspects related to tying practices in Poland are presented. The article aims to show that instrumental and mechanical treatment of tying practices used by firms having the market power under conditions of technological progress is not proper. The problem of antitrust analysis of such practices is universal, as universal as these practices are. However, the problem is solved differently in the United States and in Europe and the reasons for such a different approach are rooted in the legal system and policy enforcement. Microsoft antitrust is global. After US and European cases, Korean competition authority has found Microsoft guilty of tying practices2. Regarding Microsoft problems with tying it is necessary to ask the question whether tying practices are

  17. A meta-analysis comparing the outcomes of LigaSure Small Jaw versus clamp-and-tie technique or Harmonic Focus Scalpel in thyroidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Namei; Yang, Xuemei; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: LigaSure (LS) Small Jaw is a surgical hemostasis equipment that is newly introduced in thyroid surgery. The objective of this study is to assess the short-term efficacy and safety outcomes of LS Small Jaw compared with clamp-and-tie technique or Harmonic Focus Scalpel in thyroidectomy. Methods: A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Embase databases (until June 12, 2016) that reported the comparisons between LS Small Jaw and other techniques in thyroidectomy. Quality assessments were performed according to The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool and a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs, respectively. All statistical analyses were conducted using RevMan 5.3. Results: Finally, 7 studies with 813 patients were included into the meta-analysis, and all included studies were comparable with moderate-to-high quality. There was significant reduced operative time in LS Small Jaw, compared with clamp-and-tie (mean difference [MD] = −17.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −22.20 to 12.77, P < 0.00001) or Harmonic Focus Scalpel (MD = −2.29, 95% CI: −3.19 to 1.39, P < 0.00001). Besides, other perioperative outcomes including intraoperative blood loss and postoperative blood loss favored LS Small Jaw compared with clamp-and-tie. In terms of complications, less-temporary hypocalcemia rate was observed in LS Small Jaw compared with clamp-and-tie (odds ratio [OR] = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.27–0.90, P = 0.02), although no significant difference was detected compared with Harmonic Focus Scalpel (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.14–1.56, P = 0.22). Other complications such as length of hospital stay, permanent hypocalcemia, temporary or permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, and hematomas were not significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, LS Small Jaw is more favorable than clamp-and-tie technique or Harmonic Focus Scalpel in thyroidectomy. PMID:28296728

  18. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota.

  19. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  20. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  1. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  2. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  3. The Role of Social Ties in Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne Duhr; Grønholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article develops consumer segmentation based on the strength of social ties in word-of-mouth (WOM) communication and examines the influence of WOM on behavioral attitude and intention in these segments. Data were collected through a survey among receivers of retail banking WOM. A cluster...

  4. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants’ intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the l

  5. Strong and weak family ties revisited: reconsidering European family structures from a network perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mönkediek, B.; Bras, H.

    2014-01-01

    Family systems appear to be an important factor framing people's individual behavior. Thus far, family systems have been primarily addressed on a macro regional level with indirect measures. Revisiting Reher (1998) and the family ties criterion, the main question of this paper is to examine to what

  6. Passivity Enhancement of Grid-Tied Converters by Series LC-Filtered Active Damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2017-01-01

    The series LC-filtered active damper can be used for stabilizing a grid converter tied to the non-ideal grid. Its operation principle is to mimic a damping resistance at the resonance frequencies appearing in the grid. However, the selection of the damping resistance has not been fully analyzed i...

  7. Mexican American Protest, Ethnic Resiliency and Social Capital: The Mobilization Benefits of Cross-Cutting Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Wayne A.; Velez,, Maria B.; Keogh, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Using terms like free spaces and havens, conventional wisdom views social ties by subordinate groups to dominant group members as hindering protest participation. In contrast, we draw on ethnic resiliency and social capital perspectives and argue that there are mobilization benefits to having dominant group members as friends. We offer a unique…

  8. Groupthink and Project Performance: The Influence of Personal Traits and Interpersonal Ties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riccobono, F.; Bruccoleri, M.; Grössler, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether the negative impact of “groupthink concurrence-seeking behavior” (GTB) on business process reengineering (BPR) projects is affected by group members personal traits and interpersonal ties within the group. To this purpose we conduct and present the results of a longitudin

  9. Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

  10. Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and…

  11. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  12. Chinese-Latin American Ties: A Convergence of Security Threats to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    organizations, and corruption within the TBA. Evidence does not implicate the Chinese government in supporting narco -terrorism in the region. However......supporting narco -terrorism in the region. However, expanding China-Latin America ties further complicate the current security environment. iv

  13. A Systematic Method to Synthesize New Transformerless Full-bridge Grid-tied Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hongliang; Burton, Sarah; Liu, Yan-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Many inverter topologies have been proposed to eliminate the leakage current of transformerless Full Bridge Grid-Tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters. These include implementations such as the H5, H6, and HERIC topologies, among others. In this paper, a new full bridge topology synthesis method, call...

  14. Frequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of Grid-Tied Three-Phase PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive control offers an accurate current control scheme for grid-tied converters to feed high quality sinusoidal current into the grid. However, with grid frequency being treated as a constant value, conventional repetitive controller fail to produce high quality feeding current...

  15. Founding a business inspired by close entrepreneurial ties: Does it matter for survival?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.J.; Marsili, O.

    2015-01-01

    Founding a business may be inspired by close entrepreneurial ties, that is, business-owning relatives or friends. We analyze if and when such inspiration is associated with post-entry survival. Drawing on longitudinal data on 942 founders, we find a positive relationship only if founders start by ta

  16. Social Networks and Cultural Mediators: The Multiplexity of Personal Ties in Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heebels, B.; Atzema, O.A.L.C.; van Aalst, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relational and affective aspects of personal ties of cultural mediators by means of in-depth interviews with Dutch book publishers. Through examining the affective side of publishers’ personal networks, we contribute to understanding the role of cultural mediators—those in-be

  17. Any Ties that Bind? Economic Diplomacy on the South Asian Subcontinent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); H. Dorussen; H. Ward (Huge)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe liberal peace emphasizes the importance of commercial ties and shared norms—of which shared democratic institutions have received most attention—for peaceful interstate relations. Ever since the creation of India and Pakistan in 1947, political relations between the two states have b

  18. 'Synthetic Pot' Tied to Risky Sex, Violence and Drug Abuse in Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164060.html 'Synthetic Pot' Tied to Risky Sex, Violence and Drug Abuse in Teens Product has ...

  19. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer–employee dataset from Vietnam the authors find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job...

  20. Performance analysis of new type grid-tied inverter-Aalborg Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Wang, Zhen; Ji, Junhao;

    2014-01-01

    Aalborg Inverter is a grid-tied DC/AC inverter. In order to optimize the design, its power losses are analyzed in detail, combined with a description of the single-phase operating principle and the modulation strategy. A 2 kW / 220 V experimental prototype is constructed to verify the theoretical...

  1. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  2. Single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy using a pre-tied loop ligature in Santa Ines ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Farias Pereira da Câmara Barros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to develop and assess the feasibility, postoperative pain and inflammatory response of the single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy in ewes, using a simple pre-tied loop ligature technique. Pre-tied Meltzer's knot was employed for prophylactic hemostasis of the ovarian pedicle. Slipknot was inserted within the abdominal cavity through a 14-gauge needle and tied surrounding the ovarian pedicle. Mean surgical time, manipulation, ligature and resection of each ovary and anesthesia time were 63±20, 20±10 and 91±26 minutes, respectively. No bleeding occurred during the surgeries. Ewes showed low scores pain (0.5±0.5 at all time-points. Postsurgical plasma fibrinogen was within the normal range for sheep specie at all time-points. The ewes showed a significant weight gain in comparison to the basal scaling (one day before the surgery. Single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy using a pre-tied loop ligature is feasible in the ovine specie and provided minimal postoperative distress and quick weight gain.

  3. Strengthening the ties between university and school - Bilingual geography is the future for our multifarious subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnikel, F.

    2003-04-01

    An incessantly growing interaction between numerous fields of human activity asks for an open-minded approach and interdisciplinarity. No subject matches geography when it comes to bridging the gaps between different aspects of human life. Geography does not only describe, analyse and explain the "natural" state of the world we live in, it does also connect the disciplines within the physical branch of the subject with disciplines in the human or anthropogenic part, which describes the state of the world "as is". Geography is, therefore, in itself multi-disciplinary. Considering the immense importance of geography as the subject dealing with our environment and facing the fact that it is this environment which is already endangered by the multiple forms of human interference, geography and its multi-disciplinary character deserve even increased attention. The growth of the world's population, future climatic change and shortages of natural resources add to the importance of geography as the one subject in school dealing with these problems. In our societies, which are constantly growing together in political and economic issues, the structures of communication additionally mainly rely on an easily accessible and widely spread language like English to serve the needs of modern international contact. In Bavaria, the signs of the times have been recognized quite early. Nearly 8000 pupils at more than 80 high-level secondary schools ("Gymnasien") attend bilingual teaching, a large part of which is performed in geography. The Adolf-Weber-Gymnasium serves as an example, since it has the largest group of pupils instructed in bilingual geography in Munich. Next term, more than 150 boys and girls from five grades will be taught geography in English. Our goal is, in contrast to concepts of bilingual teaching in some other German states, not only to improve the language capability of our pupils. It is more an investment in scientific propaedeutics. It strenghtens the ties

  4. Analysing collaboration among HIV agencies through combining network theory and relational coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nidhi; Marsteller, Jill Ann; Hsu, Yea Jen; Elliott, David L

    2016-02-01

    collaborative ties. These methods together can identify areas that could be targeted to promote closer ties.

  5. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  6. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the..., as amended (``the Act''). The period of investigation (``POI'') is April 1, 2012, through March...

  7. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  8. Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the technology, partnerships, operational capabilities, science applications, and learning opportunities that this powerful virtual observatory network will provide.

  9. Tie2基因RNA干扰慢病毒表达载体的构建与鉴定%Construction and identification of RNAi lentiviral expression vector for Tie2 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑厚兵; 单秀英; 刘照亮; 王彪; 郭国祥; 张炜强; 庄福连

    2011-01-01

    目的 构建并鉴定Tie2基因的RNA干扰慢病毒表达我体.方法 先构建pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-siRNA慢病毒转移质粒,通过Xba I酶切电泳及测序鉴定,再以pNL-EGFP- U6- Tie2-siRNA慢病毒转移质粒,pVSVG包膜质粒和pHelper包装质粒三质粒共转染293T细胞,产生慢病毒,收集病毒上清液并测定病毒滴度.结果 成功构建pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-siRNA慢病毒转移质粒2条,通过Xba I酶切及测序鉴定,Tie2-siRNA核苷酸序列插入正确,利用三质粒慢病毒包装系统生产EGFP-Tie2-siRNA病毒,收集病毒上清,并测得病毒滴度为9×103/μL.结论 成功构建了Tie2基因的RNA干扰慢病毒表达载体.

  10. The weak-ties in advanced business services as a major force of innovation and diffusion; Las Eak-Ties en los servicios avanzados a empresas como factor relevante de la innovacion y su difusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almenar i Llongo, V.; Hernandez Sancho, F.; Solar i Marco, V.

    2012-07-01

    This paper tries to expose the role of weak-ties of advanced business services in both mechanisms which generate innovation as well as allow technological diffusion and transfer of innovations (spillovers). Assuming that the latest information generally flows to agents through weak ties, the Weak-Ties Hypothesis (WTH) is an approach that helps to explain the importance of the relations with the environment in the process of innovation and generation of new knowledge and its implementation and dissemination, evaluating the synergy's resulting from cooperation between agents. (Author) 21 refs.

  11. A bow-tie genetic architecture for morphogenesis suggested by a genome-wide RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Nelson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During animal development, cellular morphogenesis plays a fundamental role in determining the shape and function of tissues and organs. Identifying the components that regulate and drive morphogenesis is thus a major goal of developmental biology. The four-celled tip of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail is a simple but powerful model for studying the mechanism of morphogenesis and its spatiotemporal regulation. Here, through a genome-wide post-embryonic RNAi-feeding screen, we identified 212 components that regulate or participate in male tail tip morphogenesis. We constructed a working hypothesis for a gene regulatory network of tail tip morphogenesis. We found regulatory roles for the posterior Hox genes nob-1 and php-3, the TGF-β pathway, nuclear hormone receptors (e.g. nhr-25, the heterochronic gene blmp-1, and the GATA transcription factors egl-18 and elt-6. The majority of the pathways converge at dmd-3 and mab-3. In addition, nhr-25 and dmd-3/mab-3 regulate each others' expression, thus placing these three genes at the center of a complex regulatory network. We also show that dmd-3 and mab-3 negatively regulate other signaling pathways and affect downstream cellular processes such as vesicular trafficking (e.g. arl-1, rme-8 and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton (e.g. cdc-42, nmy-1, and nmy-2. Based on these data, we suggest that male tail tip morphogenesis is governed by a gene regulatory network with a bow-tie architecture.

  12. UPGRADING TIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Relations between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have matured and currently are the strongest in their history. This assertion comes from Hu Zhengyue, Director General of the Department of Asian Affairs of China's Foreign Ministry, as he sat down with Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei two weeks before the China-ASEAN Commemorative Summit in southwest China's Nanning, Guangxi. Excerpts of the interview follow:

  13. Broken Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2009-01-01

    As the number of people choosing to marry has plunged during recent decades, the tally of children living with one parent and having limited or no contact with the other has soared. Attuned to the hazards that such separations impose upon children but also upon parents who, studies show, fare physically and emotionally better in a thriving…

  14. Secure Ties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joep de Hart; Frans Knol; Cora Maas - de Waal; Theo Roes

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Zekere banden. Discussions about the Netherlands of today often throw up terms such as 'social cohesion', 'social integration', 'liveability' and 'security'. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP has carried out a study of this phenomenon and presents the results in this

  15. Closer Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China and its South Asian neighbors face opportunities and challenges in expanding economic cooperation China gained observer status in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) at the 13th summit of the regional organization held in Dacca, Bangladesh, in November 2005. Detailed discussions on the country's status are scheduled for July. China requested SAARC's observer status in January 2004, when Premier Wen Jiabao conerdtulated the success of the bloc's

  16. Ties Renewed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari’s state visit to China on October 14-17, China and Pakistan enhanced their bilateral relationship by issuing a joint declaration and inking 12 cooperation agreements and MOUs. Before concluding his first overseas trip as president, Zardari sat down with Beijing Review President and Editor in Chief Wang Gangyi and talked about Sino-Pakistani relations, the global financial crisis, antiterrorism and other major regional and international issues.

  17. Can Social Ties be Harmful? Examining the Spread of Suicide in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna S; Abrutyn, Seth; Stockton, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    Durkheim posited that social relationships protect individuals against suicide; however, substantial research demonstrates that suicide can spread through the very ties Durkheim theorized as protective. With this study, we use Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, to investigate whether young adults' suicide attempts and thoughts are in part products of exposure to suicidal behaviors via their social relationships. We find that young adults who have had family members or friends attempt suicide are more likely to report suicide ideation or even suicide attempts, over both the short and long run. This finding is robust to many important controls for risk and protective factors for suicide. Our findings have implications for the sociology of suicide, not the least of which, is that social ties have the power to harm in addition to the power to protect.

  18. Dendrometer bands made easy: using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  19. Social ties and risk for cancer--a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. RESULTS: While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores......BACKGROUND: Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample...... had an increased risk for lung cancer of borderline significance (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.02-4.60). The risks for breast cancer and colorectal cancers were not significantly increased in the same group of women. DISCUSSION: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that social network size...

  20. LOFAR tied-array imaging and spectroscopy of solar S bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Morosan, D E; Zucca, P; O'Flannagain, A; Fallows, R; Reid, H; Magdalenic, J; Mann, G; Bisi, M M; Kerdraon, A; Konovalenko, A A; MacKinnon, A L; Rucker, H O; Thide, B; Vocks, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brouw, W N; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; Eisloffel, J; Falcke, H; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Munk, H; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Scaife, A M M; Sluman, J; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Zarka, P

    2015-01-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission that is often associated with energetic phenomena ranging from nanoflares to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), numerous millisecond duration radio bursts have been reported, such as radio spikes or solar S bursts (where S stands for short). To date, these have neither been studied extensively nor imaged because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims. Here, Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) observations were used to study the spectral and spatial characteristics of a multitude of S bursts, as well as their origin and possible emission mechanisms. Methods. We used 170 simultaneous tied-array beams for spectroscopy and imaging of S bursts. Since S bursts have short timescales and fine frequency structures, high cadence (~50 ms) tied-array images were used instead of standard interferometric imaging, that is currently limited to one image per second. Results. On 9 July 2013, over 3000 S bursts were ob...

  1. An Exploratory Examination of Social Ties and Crime in Mobile Home Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. McCarty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the systemic model of social disorganization, the purpose of this study was to explore the nature of social ties in mobile home communities and examine how that relates to rates of violent and property crime. Interviews with a small sample of mobile home residents, owners, and managers in Omaha, Nebraska, indicate a wide spectrum of communities, from those characterized by an atomized population to those with strong social ties. Fear of crime, ethnically heterogeneous populations, and lax management were cited by respondents as factors that undermined relationships. Proactive management and a desire to help neighbors were cited by respondents as factors that helped strengthen relationships. Violent and property crime rates for the mobile home communities were largely consistent with the interview data, providing support for the importance of social networks and a systemic model of social disorganization. The implications of these findings for research and policy are also explored.

  2. Is use of laser really essential for release of tongue-tie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Vikrant Dilip; Pawar, Sudhir; Modi, Sachin; Saddiwal, Rashmi; Khade, Mayur; Tendulkar, Hrishikesh

    2014-05-01

    Ankyloglossia, or tongue-tie, is a congenital condition characterized by a short, thickened, or abnormally tight lingual frenulum. This anomaly can cause a varying degree of reduced tongue mobility and has been associated with functional limitations including breastfeeding difficulties, atypical swallowing habits, speech articulation problems, mechanical problems such as inability to clean the oral cavity, and psychosocial stress. In this article, we report a 50-year-old female patient with tongue-tie having difficulty in speech and maintenance of oral hygiene due to high attachment of lingual frenum. The patient was managed by frenectomy by conventional method (scalpel and blade) under local anesthesia as an outpatient procedure without any complications. She later required speech therapy lessons for improvement of speech.

  3. Decentralized automatic generation control of interconnected power systems incorporating asynchronous tie-lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem; Hasan, Naimul; Hussein, Arkan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This Paper presents the design of decentralized automatic generation controller for an interconnected power system using PID, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The designed controllers are tested on identical two-area interconnected power systems consisting of thermal power plants. The area interconnections between two areas are considered as (i) AC tie-line only (ii) Asynchronous tie-line. The dynamic response analysis is carried out for 1% load perturbation. The performance of the intelligent controllers based on GA and PSO has been compared with the conventional PID controller. The investigations of the system dynamic responses reveal that PSO has the better dynamic response result as compared with PID and GA controller for both type of area interconnection.

  4. Temporal expression in rats of receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 during early wound healing after tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Kasai, Shuya; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role of Tie2 in regulating wound healing after tooth extraction. Wistar rats underwent maxillary incisor tooth extraction, and immunodetection techniques were used to determine Tie2 expression in the healing wound. The wound was initially filled with blood coagulum containing densely aggregated erythrocytes, leukocytes, fibrin, and endothelial progenitor cells, indicating that blood vessel formation started in the socket. Tie2 was detected on monocytic cell membranes. On day 3, fibroblastic cells proliferated in the coagulum, small vessels appeared by day 5, and new bone formed in the vessel-rich area. Robust woven bone trabeculae were present around vessels by day 7, and woven bone and osteoclast-like giant cells were present on day 10. Woven bone surrounded sinusoidal capillary-like vessels. Full-length (140-160 kDa) Tie2 was not detected at any time, although Tie2 fragments were present in the healing wound. N-terminus- and C-terminus-specific Tie2 antibodies detected 40-kDa and 60-kDa fragments or 70-kDa and 50-kDa fragments, respectively. The levels of these fragments decreased during the first 3 days and started to increase by day 5-10. The Tie2 extracellular domain initially inhibited angiogenesis, and its degradation relieved inhibition of new vessel formation. The onset of vessel formation in the wound may be induced by scattered endothelial progenitor cells.

  5. Circulating angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ludwig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased levels of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 and soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2, but its impact on vascular disease is still unknown. This study aimed to further explore the associations of Ang-2 and sTie-2 with metabolic control and diabetic complications. Methods In a cross-sectional designed study, levels of Ang-2 and sTie-2 as well as their relationships to cardiometabolic parameters were determined in 80 type 2 diabetic subjects (age 65 ± 7 years, female 47.4%. Results After controlling for age and BMI, Ang-2 levels were associated with levels of sTie-2, diastolic blood pressure, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT (all p 1c, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, and liver function parameters (all p 1c, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR (p Conclusions Ang-2 is independently associated with levels of GGT while sTie-2 is independently associated with levels of HbA1c, plasma insulin and HOMA-IR in type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore we suggest that the associations of Ang-2 and sTie-2 with type 2 diabetes are based on different patho-physiological mechanisms.

  6. Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-04-30

    We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation.

  7. LLCL-Filter Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Aalborg Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Feng, Shuangshuang; Ji, Junhao;

    2014-01-01

    The Aalborg Inverter is a new type of high efficient DC/AC grid-tied inverter, where the input DC voltage can vary in a wide range. Compared with the LCL-filter, the LLCL-filter can save the total inductance for the conventional voltage source inverter. In this paper, an LLCL-filter based Aalborg....... Simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the design through an 220 V/50 Hz, 2000 W prototype....

  8. Increase The Absorptive Capacity Of Light Of The Photocells By Embedded In Bow-tie Antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Chenguang [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876 (China); Lang Peilin [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (BUPT), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang Ru, E-mail: napolles@sohu.com

    2011-02-01

    The application of silicon photocells has been widely used in biological and energy field, how to improve the efficiency of silicon photocells has become the research hot spots. The light absorption efficiency is not ideal, only 10% to 20% of solar energy can be transformed into electricity, the paper embeds metal bow-tie antenna in the crystals of silicon, by the field enhancement of the surface plasma, it highly increase the absorptive capacity of light of the silicon photocells.

  9. 10th Anniversary of Friendship City Ties Between Qiqihar and Goyang Of ROK Celebrated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 21, 1998, Qiqihar and Goyang of the ROK formally twinned friendship-city ties. In the past decade, remarkable achievements have been made in the exchanges of high-level visits, nongovernmental cooperation, and exchanges and cooperation in the economic, cultural and other fields between the two cities. On July 20, 2008, grand celebrations of the 10th anniversary of the establishment of friendship-city relations between the two cities were held.

  10. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Dovier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for three months in summer; they were visited three times: (i four weeks before grazing during the indoor period in the stall; (ii about three weeks after the start of grazing; and (iii in the stall, in autumn, at least three weeks after returning from grazing. The other twelve farms kept the animals in tie-stalls all year; they were visited once in autumn. Data were collected following a protocol that considers animal-based measures and structure information on the basis of Quality Welfare Consortium® indications. Data allowed the calculation of both the Animal Needs Index score (ANI 35L and an overall assessment of the cows’ welfare obtained from three general aspects: housing, animal’s physical condition, and animal’s behaviour. Summer grazing had a significant positive effect on injuries, lameness and animal’s rising duration but a negative effect on faeces consistency. Moreover, a reduction of tongue playing was observed. The ANI 35L and the overall assessment did not show significant differences linked to summer grazing, which tended to have a positive but temporary effect on animal behaviour.

  11. 维罗绒仿扎染工艺%Imitation tie dyeing of velours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪红

    2011-01-01

    维罗绒织物厚重挺括,仿扎染工艺采用泼洒染液、喷后压皱,形成自然的冰纹效应;再经高温高压汽蒸,形成以主色调为主,渗透色为辅的色彩斑斓的仿扎染产品.该工艺不受套色限制,将印花、染色、扎染和压皱等方法融合在一起,提高了生产效率.%Imitation tie dyeing of heavy velours is carried out. The colorful velours with tie dyed effect is prepared by spraying dye liquor to the designated location, calendaring for crepe to form natural cracking patterns, steaming at high temperature with high pressure. The innovative process combines printing, dyeing, tie-dyeing and calendaring for crepe techniques together, it features high efficiency, low water consumption and without color limitation.

  12. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks: The role of negative ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Abtahi, Seyed Ebrahim; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-10-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links. In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure. A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature. We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities. In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks. Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k ≥2 ). Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad ++- (hostile-mediator-hostile) is underrepresented, it constitutes a considerable portion of triadic relations among communities. Hence, mediator triads should not be ignored by community detection and clustering algorithms. As a result, if one uses a clustering algorithm that operates merely based on social balance, mesoscopic structure of signed networks significantly remains hidden.

  13. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks - The role of negative ties

    CERN Document Server

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links.In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure.A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature.We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities.In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks.Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k >= 2).Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad + + - (hostile-mediator-hostile)...

  14. Weak Ties: A Subtle Role in the Information Diffusion of Online Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jichang; Xu, Ke

    2010-01-01

    As a social media, online social networks play a vital role in the social information diffusion. However, due to its unique complexity, the mechanism of the diffusion can be different from the ones in other types of networks and remains unclear to us. Meanwhile, few works have been done to reveal the coupled dynamics of both the structure and the diffusion of online social networks. To this end, in this paper, we propose a model to investigate how the structure is coupled with the diffusion in online social networks from the view of weak ties. Through numerical experiments on large-scale online social networks, we find that in contrast to some previous research results, selecting weak ties preferentially to republish cannot make the information diffuse quickly, while random selection can achieve this goal. However, when we remove the weak ties gradually, the coverage of the information will decrease sharply even in the case of random selection. We also give a reasonable explanation for this by extra analysis ...

  15. Design and test of the titanium alloy tie rods for the CMS coil suspension system

    CERN Document Server

    Levesy, B; Kircher, F; Reytier, M

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Thirty titanium alloy tie rods are used to support the 225 tonne weight of the cold mass inside its vacuum vessel and react against the forces generated by potential magnetic misalignment. This paper describes the suspension system and its mechanical analysis in different loading cases corresponding to operating conditions of the magnet. Two grades of titanium alloy are foreseen (Ti 6 Al 4 V ELI and Ti 5 Al 2.5 Sn ELI). Based on mechanical tests at room temperature and at 4.2 K, the safety criteria are analyzed for both materials. Before final installation, all tie rods will be tested at 110% of the maximum load with one end at room temperature and the other one at cryogenic temperature. The test system and the test results of the prototype tie rods are also presented. (4 refs).

  16. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Didouh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, electrical, and technological characteristics of the antennas arrays. The proposed transmission line model showed its interest in the design of different multilayered bow-tie antennas and predicted the correct resonance frequency for different applications in telecommunications. To validate the proposed transmission line model, the simulation results obtained are compared with those obtained by the method of moments. The results of simulations are presented and discussed. Using this transmission line approach, the resonant frequency, input impedance, and return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  17. Onset and Evolution of Magnetic Reconnection in Line-Tied Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, W. S.; Akcay, C.; Billey, Z.; Finn, J.; Zweibel, E.; Gekelman, W. N.

    2014-12-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, current sheets arise spontaneously from the interaction of large-scale flows or magnetic structures. As these current layers approach kinetic scales, they may become unstable to the collisionless tearing instability, resulting in the formation and interaction of magnetic flux ropes. While theoretical treatments of the tearing instability have largely focused on 1D equilibria with periodic boundary conditions, current sheets in nature have a finite spatial extent and are embedded within larger open systems. In many applications, the field boundary conditions are line-tied as in the case of flux ropes on the dayside magnetopause where the ionosphere acts as a conducting surface. To assess the applicability of existing tearing theory to these more realistic configurations, we consider a series of 3D kinetic simulations of initially force-free current layers with line-tied boundary conditions for the fields, and open boundaries for the particles. The geometry and plasma parameters are motivated by a new laboratory experiment on the Large Plasma Device at UCLA. For sufficiently long systems, we demonstrate that key aspects of the theory remain valid, and a threshold condition is derived for the onset of reconnection in line-tied systems. To gain additional insight into the nonlinear evolution, field-line mapping diagnostics are employed to characterize the 3D structure of the magnetic field, the nonlinear reconnection rate and the dominant non-ideal terms in the generalized Ohm's law.

  18. Majority Rules with Random Tie-Breaking in Boolean Gene Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Ourrad, Ouerdia; Lima, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We consider threshold Boolean gene regulatory networks, where the update function of each gene is described as a majority rule evaluated among the regulators of that gene: it is turned ON when the sum of its regulator contributions is positive (activators contribute positively whereas repressors contribute negatively) and turned OFF when this sum is negative. In case of a tie (when contributions cancel each other out), it is often assumed that the gene keeps it current state. This framework has been successfully used to model cell cycle control in yeast. Moreover, several studies consider stochastic extensions to assess the robustness of such a model. Here, we introduce a novel, natural stochastic extension of the majority rule. It consists in randomly choosing the next value of a gene only in case of a tie. Hence, the resulting model includes deterministic and probabilistic updates. We present variants of the majority rule, including alternate treatments of the tie situation. Impact of these variants on the corresponding dynamical behaviours is discussed. After a thorough study of a class of two-node networks, we illustrate the interest of our stochastic extension using a published cell cycle model. In particular, we demonstrate that steady state analysis can be rigorously performed and can lead to effective predictions; these relate for example to the identification of interactions whose addition would ensure that a specific state is absorbing. PMID:23922761

  19. Majority rules with random tie-breaking in Boolean gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Chaouiya

    Full Text Available We consider threshold boolean gene regulatory networks, where the update function of each gene is described as a majority rule evaluated among the regulators of that gene: it is turned ON when the sum of its regulator contributions is positive (activators contribute positively whereas repressors contribute negatively and turned OFF when this sum is negative. In case of a tie (when contributions cancel each other out, it is often assumed that the gene keeps it current state. This framework has been successfully used to model cell cycle control in yeast. Moreover, several studies consider stochastic extensions to assess the robustness of such a model. Here, we introduce a novel, natural stochastic extension of the majority rule. It consists in randomly choosing the next value of a gene only in case of a tie. Hence, the resulting model includes deterministic and probabilistic updates. We present variants of the majority rule, including alternate treatments of the tie situation. Impact of these variants on the corresponding dynamical behaviours is discussed. After a thorough study of a class of two-node networks, we illustrate the interest of our stochastic extension using a published cell cycle model. In particular, we demonstrate that steady state analysis can be rigorously performed and can lead to effective predictions; these relate for example to the identification of interactions whose addition would ensure that a specific state is absorbing.

  20. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the

  1. The blind faith deep water horizontal pipeline tie-in project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John Nicos [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    This presentation will concentrate on the design challenges, experience and learning from the SIT and offshore installation of two deepwater pipeline tie-ins using first-of-its-kind subsea technology and installation methodologies on the 'Blind Faith' project. The Blind Faith Subsea Tie-Ins join the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines with the Canyon Chief gas pipeline and the Mountaineer oil pipeline in 5100 feet of water. Both of the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines are terminated with conventional PLEMs providing a horizontal connector for the tie-in and a vertical connector for a future tie-in connection point. The connectors are ROV operable/installable clamp style connectors. The method of joining to the Canyon Chief oil and gas pipelines and the type of jumper employed are unique to the tie-in. An ROV operable / installable mechanical pipe end connector connects the bare ends of the Canyon Chief and Mountaineer pipelines. The mechanical pipe end connector is fitted with an integral clamp connector hub and rests on an ROV installed mud mat. After installation of the mechanical connector, metrology was performed to create a neutral state horizontal jumper for joining the mechanical connector hub and the Blind Faith PLEM. The neutral state horizontal jumper is a compliant 'Z-Bend' design. During installation the jumper was elastically pre-deformed using a bowstring system. Pre-deformation of the jumper provided installation clearances and facilitated the neutral stress state after installation. Once landed the jumper bowstring was relaxed, allowing the jumper to expand to fit between the hubs. After expansion and make-up, the clamp connectors were tightened via an ROV operated hydraulic torque wrench. A seal test verified the integrity of the connections. After installation the jumper remains in a minimal residual stress state atypical of most horizontal jumpers. The horizontal jumper was chosen over the vertical jumper because it provides a

  2. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable

  3. Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles

  4. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Demir

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate the factors expression. In the new developing mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGF and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all the placental components, while in the stem villi and in the chorionic plate with large vessels only in some components. In the mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGFR-1 and -2, and angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was dominantly observed in the heamangiogenic cells and cells cords, whereas the matured villi showed immunoreactivity only in other components. The ultrastructural findings were higher in respect to the all of the early pregnancy days. The placental samples from all of pregnancies, showed the VEGF and its receptors in optimal expression levels, whereas the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 showed a higher expression levels in respect to other study factors. The receptors protein levels increased from the early days to the advanced days of gestation, but this alteration was not significant. The intensity of the immunolabeling for these proteins were not significant compared to to each other of gestatin days were examined. These findings demonstrated that a dysregulation of the placental expression of the VEGF and its receptors related to the different degrees of the gestational periods. Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi.

  5. Identifying changes in the support networks of end-of-life carers using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital.

  6. Social capital and core network ties: a validation study of individual-level social capital measures and their association with extra- and intra-neighborhood ties, and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Spencer; Bockenholt, Ulf; Daniel, Mark; Frohlich, Katherine; Kestens, Yan; Richard, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    Research on social capital and health has assumed that measures of trust, participation, and perceived cohesion capture aspects of people's neighborhood social connections. This study uses data on the personal networks of 2707 Montreal adults in 300 different neighborhoods to examine the association of socio-demographic and social capital variables with the likelihood of having core ties, core neighborhood ties, and high self-rated health (SRH). Persons with higher household income were more likely to have core ties, but less likely to have core neighborhood ties. Persons with greater diversity in extra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core ties, and persons with greater diversity in intra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core neighborhood ties. Generalized trust, perceived neighborhood cohesion, and extra-neighborhood network diversity were shown associated with high SRH. Conventional measures of social capital may not capture network mechanisms. Findings suggest a critical appraisal of the mechanisms linking social capital and health, and the further delineation of network and psychosocial mechanisms in understanding these links.

  7. Sproglig Metode og Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011......Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011...

  8. Creative benefits from well-connected leaders: leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. Resilience by Structural Entrenchment: Dynamics of Single-Layer and Multiplex Networks Following Sudden Changes to Tie Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Smaldino, Paul E; Maoz, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    We examine a model of network formation in single-layer and multiplex networks in which individuals have positive incentives for social ties, closed triangles, and spillover edges. In particular, we investigate the influence of shocks to the network in which the cost of social ties changes after an initial equilibrium. We highlight the emergence of structural entrenchment, a new concept we define as the persistence of structural features, such as closed triangles and spillover edges, which are formed under historically different conditions from those currently incentivizing the creation of new social ties or the destruction of existing ties. This work has broad implications for understanding path dependence in the structure and dynamics of single-layer and multiplex networks.

  10. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  11. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Keith; Dennis, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identify...

  12. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions. PMID

  13. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Yao, Zhong; Bai, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions.

  14. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology.

  15. Tying Profit to Performance: A Valuable Tool, But Use With Good Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    understood the definition of suc-cess: It was profit. If something made a profit for a business, it was good. If some- thing did not make a profit for a...performance in the final product, or some combination of pa- rameters. This is where we need to be very thoughtful and creative about how we use profit...provide effective motivation to industry and are tied to the goals we value. There is plenty of room for creativity in this area because our business

  16. An LLCL Power Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    . Particularly, it can attenuate the switching-frequency current ripple components much better than an LCL filter, leading to a decrease in the total inductance and volume. Furthermore, by decreasing the inductance of a grid-side inductor, it raises the characteristic resonance frequency, which is beneficial...... to the inverter system control. The parameter design criteria of the proposed LLCL filter is also introduced. The comparative analysis and discussions regarding the traditional LCL filter and the proposed LLCL filter have been presented and evaluated through experiment on a 1.8-kW-single-phase grid-tied inverter...

  17. Effects of Social Ties in Knowledge Diffusion: case study on PLOS ONE

    CERN Document Server

    Eltermann, Felipe; Von Zuben, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    In order to capture the effects of social ties in knowledge diffusion, this paper examines the publication network that emerges from the collaboration of researchers, using citation information as means to estimate knowledge flow. For this purpose, we analyzed the papers published in the PLOS ONE journal finding strong evidence to support that the closer two authors are in the co-authorship network, the larger the probability that knowledge flow will occur between them. Moreover, we also found that when it comes to knowledge diffusion, strong co-authorship proximity is more determinant than geographic proximity.

  18. Outcome of unstable fractures of metacarpal and phalangeal bones treated by bone tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Jagannath B; Jayasheelan, Nikil; Savur, Amaranth; Mathews, Rejith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of the hand need surgical stabilization which should be rigid enough for early active mobilization. Conventional methods of open reduction and stabilization in the form of composite fixation or screws with or without plates have served the purpose but can be definitely improvised addressing both biological and mechanical principles of fixation. Materials and Methods: 34 patients (29 males and 5 females) with an average age of 32 years (range 10–64 years) with unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of hand who were treated with the modified bone tie between June 2009 and June 2013 were included in this study. 42 fractures, involving the 31 metacarpals and 11 phalanges were included. We have not used this technique in fractures involving the terminal phalanges. Thirty nine of the fractures were treated with K-wires along with the modified bone tie, whereas the other two cases were treated with modified bone tie alone and in one case the bone tie has been used along with the external fixator. The nature of injuries were Road Traffic Accident (n = 24), domestic/industrial injuries (n = 8) and blast (n = 2) injuries. Etiology was crush (n = 24), blunt (n = 7) and incised (n = 3) injuries, respectively. Twenty seven patients were involved with single fractures (either metacarpal or the phalanges), 6 patients had two fractures (both metacarpals or phalanges or one each of metacarpal and phalanx), and 1 patient had three fractures in this study. Dominant hand was involved in 14 patients (40%). Results: We achieved excellent to good results in 83% of 42 fractures within an average period of 10 weeks. Postoperative grip strength of 85% was achieved with in an average period of 12 weeks. Twenty six (20 metacarpals and 6 phalanges) of the 42 fractures regained >85% of the total active movements (TAMs) compared to the contralateral side were considered excellent results. All patients were

  19. Printed Modified Bow-Tie Dipole Antenna for DVB/WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chih Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A printed modified bow-tie dipole antenna which consists of asymmetric-feed and inserted slots is presented to apply to the DVB and WLAN systems. This antenna combines omnidirectional radiation pattern, broad bandwidth, and band rejection in an easy way to fabricate. Experimental results of the constructed prototype indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieve 166.7%, 28.57%, and 23.63% at 660 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively.

  20. Much ado about nothing: two millenia of controversy on tongue-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is poorly defined and involves a short, thick, fibrosed, or fixed lingual frenulum. Operative interventions were proposed already in Greek medicine. In the Middle Ages, competition arose between midwives, who used their nails to detach the frenulum, and surgeons, who were allowed to use instruments. During the last century, the justification for frenotomy shifted from improved language to enhanced feeding. Despite the high frequency of the intervention, little research has been performed on its benefit, which remains a controversial topic among different groups of health professionals.

  1. Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, Javad N [Nano-Optics Group, National Center of Competence for Research in Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Eisler, Hans-Juergen [Nano-Optics Group, National Center of Competence for Research in Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pohl, Dieter W [Nano-Optics Group, National Center of Competence for Research in Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pavius, Michael [Center of MicroNanoTechnology (CMI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Flueckiger, Philippe [Center of MicroNanoTechnology (CMI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gasser, Philippe [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Electronics/Metrology Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hecht, Bert [Nano-Optics Group, National Center of Competence for Research in Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-28

    A method for the fabrication of bow-tie optical antennas at the apex of pyramidal Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} atomic force microscopy tips is described. We demonstrate that these novel optical probes are capable of sub-wavelength imaging of single quantum dots at room temperature. The enhanced and confined optical near-field at the antenna feed gap leads to locally enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of single quantum dots. Photoluminescence quenching due to the proximity of metal is found to be insignificant. The method holds promise for single quantum emitter imaging and spectroscopy at spatial resolution limited by the engineered antenna gap width exclusively.

  2. KaTie: for parton-level event generation with k_T-dependent initial states

    CERN Document Server

    van Hameren, A

    2016-01-01

    KaTie is a parton-level event generator for hadron scattering processes that can deal with partonic initial-state momenta with an explicit transverse momentum dependence causing them to be space-like. Provided with the necessary transverse momentum dependent parton density functions, it calculates the off-shell matrix elements and performs the phase space importance sampling to produce weighted events, for example in the Les Houches Event File format. It can deal with arbitrary processes within the Standard Model, for up to four final-state particles and beyond. Furthermore, it can produce events for single-parton scattering as well as for multi-parton scattering.

  3. Mapping the Structure of Directed Networks: Beyond the "Bow-tie" Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, G; Dorogovtsev, S N; Mendes, J F F

    2016-01-01

    We reveal a hierarchical organization of finite directed components---tendrils---around the giant components represented by the celebrated "bow-tie" diagram for directed networks. We develop an efficient algorithm to find tendril layers. It is used together with the message passing technique, generalized to directed graphs, to find the structure and attack tolerance of complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. We introduce a generalized susceptibility characterizing the response of directed networks to damage.

  4. Author Identifiers in Scholarly Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    Bibliometric and usage-based analyses and tools highlight the value of information about scholarship contained within the network of authors, articles and usage data. Less progress has been made on populating and using the author side of this network than the article side, in part because of the difficulty of unambiguously identifying authors. I briefly review a sample of author identifier schemes, and consider use in scholarly repositories. I then describe preliminary work at arXiv to implement public author identifiers, services based on them, and plans to make this information useful beyond the boundaries of arXiv.

  5. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  6. Bayesian calibration of the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Richmond

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a procedure for calibrating a complex computer simulation model having uncertain inputs and internal parameters, with application to the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM. We compare simulated magnetic perturbations with observations at two ground locations for various combinations of calibration parameters. These calibration parameters are: the amplitude of the semidiurnal tidal perturbation in the height of a constant-pressure surface at the TIE-GCM lower boundary, the local time at which this maximises and the minimum night-time electron density. A fully Bayesian approach, that describes correlations in time and in the calibration input space is implemented. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach leads to potential optimal values for the amplitude and phase (within the limitations of the selected data and calibration parameters but not for the minimum night-time electron density. The procedure can be extended to include additional data types and calibration parameters.

  7. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  8. Wavelet Analyses and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeianu, Cristian C.; Landau, Rubin H.; Paez, Manuel J.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a modern extension of Fourier analysis known as wavelet analysis is applied to signals containing multiscale information. First, a continuous wavelet transform is used to analyse the spectrum of a nonstationary signal (one whose form changes in time). The spectral analysis of such a signal gives the strength of the signal in each…

  9. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  10. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    . Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  11. Meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.A.; Luyten, J.W.; Scheerens, J.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Scheerens, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter results of a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analyses of three facets of time effects in education are presented, namely time at school during regular lesson hours, homework, and extended learning time. The number of studies for these three facets of time that could be used

  12. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2017-02-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important.

  13. Possible future HERA analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-01-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing $ep$ collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA programme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-e...

  14. The ties that bind: Maternal kin bias in a multilevel primate society despite natal dispersal by both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Städele, Veronika; Pines, Mathew; Swedell, Larissa; Vigilant, Linda

    2016-07-01

    In many social animals, individuals derive fitness benefits from close social bonds, which are often formed among kin of the philopatric sex. Hamadryas baboons, however, exhibit a hierarchical, multilevel social system where both sexes disperse from their natal one-male-unit (OMU). Although this would seem to hinder maintenance of kin ties, both sexes appear largely philopatric at the higher order band and clan levels, possibly allowing for bonds with same sex kin by both males and females. In order to investigate the possibility of kin bonds in hamadryas baboons, we identified kin dyads in a band without known pedigree information using a large panel of genetic markers: 1 Y-linked, 4 X-linked, and 23 autosomal microsatellites and part of the mitochondrial hypervariable region I. With these data, we performed a kinship analysis while accounting for misclassification rates through simulations and determined kinship among two types of dyads: leader and follower males and female dyads within OMUs. Leader and follower males were maternal relatives more often than expected by chance, suggesting that kinship plays a role in the formation of these relationships. Moreover, maternal female relatives were found in the same OMU more often than expected by chance, indicating that females may be motivated to maintain post-dispersal contact with maternal female kin. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons can recognize maternal kin and that kin selection has contributed to shaping their complex social system. This implies that an ancestral maternal kin bias has been retained in hamadryas society. Am. J. Primatol. 78:731-744, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Possible future HERA analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-15

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  16. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  17. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  18. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.; Buhrmann, J.

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  19. In stressful company – Changes in stress and work ties over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian; Parker, Andrew; Shah, Neha P.

    Recent research on stress and burnout has highlighted the collective aspects of stress symptoms, perceived stress, and coping mechanisms. Much of this work, however, is focused on group and team dynamics rather than how network factors shape individuals’ feelings of stress and burnout. We use...... a stress questionnaire and social network analysis at three time points in a Scandinavian biotechnology company to examine the interactions between stress and relationship development and maintenance over time. We show that individuals tend to form and maintain ties to people who are less stressed than...... they are, indicating that while misery might love company, stress does not. Given the longitudinal nature of the study, we’re able to disentangle the causal effects....

  20. Quantitative spectroscopy on individual wire, slot, bow-tie, rectangular, and square-shaped optical antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnik, Martin; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin

    2013-11-15

    By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 μm wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna's resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna.

  1. Milk yield affects time budget in daiyr cows kept in tie-stalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norring, M.; Valros, A.; Munksgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    compared with multiparous cows. Multiparous cows ruminated more while lying than primiparous cows. High milk yield cows spent a shorter time lying and they fell asleep (lay with neck relaxed) sooner. The degree of daily milk yield was associated with modifications in behavior and cows with high milk......Effective selection in breeding programs and improved management has increased the milk production per cow. However, the effects of the increased yield on behavior have not yet been clarified. We investigated the effect of milk yield on the time budget of 29 Finnish Ayrshire cows in the same stage...... of lactation kept in tie-stalls. The time spent lying, eating, ruminating, lying inactive without ruminating, and lying with the neck muscles relaxed, as well as the milk yield of primiparous and multiparous cows were recorded for 2d. The effects of milk yield and parity on behavior were analyzed with mixed...

  2. Grid tie inverter energy stabilizing in smart distribution grid with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秋野; 李大双; 褚恩辉; 张艺缤

    2014-01-01

    With the growing deployment of smart distribution grid, it has become urgent to investigate the smart distribution grid behavior during transient faults and improve the system stability. The feasibility of segmenting large power grids and multiple smart distribution grids interconnections using energy storage technology for improving the system dynamic stability was studied. The segmentation validity of the large power grids and smart distribution grid inverter output interconnections power system using energy storage technology was proved in terms of theoretical analysis. Then, the influences of the energy storage device location and capacity on the proposed method were discussed in detail. The conclusion is obtained that the ESD optimal locations are allocated at the tie line terminal buses in the interconnected grid, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by simulations in an actual power system.

  3. Structure, date and sources of Hikayat Aceh revisited: The problem of Mughal-Malay literary ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Braginsky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that from the early centuries AD to the nineteenth century India remained an important source of inspiration for creators of traditional Malay culture and Malay men of letters. However, if literary ties between Hindu India and the Malay world, both direct and mediated by Javanese literature, have frequently drawn the attention of researchers, creative stimuli that came to the Malays from Muslim India remain inadequately studied. Yet the role of these stimuli, radiating from major centres of the Muslim, Persianate, India such as Bengal, Gujarat, Deccan, and the Coromandel coast, in the development of Malay literary culture was by no means inferior to the inspiration originating from Hindu India. In this context, cultural and literary contacts of the Sultanate of Aceh with the Mughal Empire in the seventeenth century are a particularly interesting and challenging subject.

  4. Place cells are more strongly tied to landmarks in deep than in superficial CA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiller, Tristan; Fattahi, Mohammad; Choi, June-Seek; Royer, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Environmental cues affect place cells responses, but whether this information is integrated versus segregated in distinct hippocampal cell populations is unclear. Here, we show that, in mice running on a treadmill enriched with visual-tactile landmarks, place cells are more strongly controlled by landmark-associated sensory inputs in deeper regions of CA1 pyramidal layer (CA1d). Many cells in CA1d display several firing fields correlated with landmarks, mapping positions slightly before or within the landmarks. Supporting direct involvement of sensory inputs, their firing fields show instantaneous responses to landmark manipulations, persist through change of context, and encode landmark identity and saliency. In contrast, cells located superficially in the pyramidal layer have single firing fields, are context specific and respond with slow dynamics to landmark manipulations. These findings suggest parallel and anatomically segregated circuits within CA1 pyramidal layer, with variable ties to landmarks, allowing flexible representation of spatial and non-spatial information. PMID:28218283

  5. A fuzzy-clustering analysis based phonetic tied-mixture HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xianghua; ZHU Jie; GUO Qiang

    2005-01-01

    To efficiently decrease the size of parameters and improve the robustness of parameters training, a fuzzy clustering based phonetic tied-mixture model, FPTM, is presented.The Gaussian codebook of FPTM is synthesized from Gaussian components belonging to the same root node in phonetic decision tree. Fuzzy clustering method is further used for FPTM covariance sharing. Experimental results show that compared with the conventional PTM with approximately the same parameters size, FPTM decrease the size of Gaussian weights by 77.59% and increases word accuracy by 7.92%, which proves Gaussian fuzzy clustering is efficient. Compared with FPTM, covariance-shared FPTM decreases word error rate by 1.14% , which proves the combined fuzzy clustering for both Gaussian and covariance is superior to Gaussian fuzzy clustering alone.

  6. Application of Coordinated SOFC and SMES Robust Control for Stabilizing Tie-Line Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wind power causes fluctuations in power systems and introduces issues concerning system stability and power quality because of the lack of controllability of its discontinuous and intermittent resources. This paper presents a coordinated control strategy for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES to match the intermittent wind power generation and compensate for the rapid load changes. An optimal H∞ control method, where the weighting function selection is expressed as an optimization problem, is proposed to mitigate tie-line power fluctuations and the mixed-sensitivity approach is used to deal with the interference suppression. Simulation results show that the proposed method significantly improves the smoothing effect of wind power fluctuations. Compared with the conventional control method, the proposed method has better anti-interference performance in various operating situations.

  7. Easier contagion and weaker ties make anger spread faster than joy in social media

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Rui; Zhao, Jichang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to face-to-face communication in daily life, more and more evidence suggests that human emotion also spread in online social media through virtual interactions. However, the mechanism underlying the emotion contagion, like whether different feelings diffuse unlikely or how the spread is coupled with the social network, is rarely investigated. Indeed, because of the costly expense and spatio-temporal limitations, it is challenging for conventional questionnaires or controlled experiments. While given the instinct of collecting natural affective responses of massive connected individuals, online social media offer us an ideal proxy to tackle this issue from the perspective of computational social science. In this paper, based on the analysis of millions of tweets in Weibo, a Twitter-like service in China, we surprisingly find that anger is more contagious than joy, indicating that it can sparkle more angry follow-up tweets and anger prefers weaker ties than joy for the dissemination in social network, i...

  8. The Limits of Popularity-Based Recommendations, and the Role of Social Ties

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Marco; Panconesi, Alessandro; Raghavan, Prabhakar; Terolli, Erisa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model that captures some of the salient features of recommender systems that are based on popularity and that try to exploit social ties among the users. We show that, under very general conditions, the market always converges to a steady state, for which we are able to give an explicit form. Thanks to this we can tell rather precisely how much a market is altered by a recommendation system, and determine the power of users to influence others. Our theoretical results are complemented by experiments with real world social networks showing that social graphs prevent large market distortions in spite of the presence of highly influential users.

  9. Dynamics of bow-tie shaped bursting: Forced pendulum with dynamic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongray, Thotreithem; Balakrishnan, Janaki

    2016-12-01

    A detailed study is performed on the parameter space of the mechanical system of a driven pendulum with damping and constant torque under feedback control. We report an interesting bow-tie shaped bursting oscillatory behaviour, which is exhibited for small driving frequencies, in a certain parameter regime, which has not been reported earlier in this forced system with dynamic feedback. We show that the bursting oscillations are caused because of a transition of the quiescent state to the spiking state by a saddle-focus bifurcation, and because of another saddle-focus bifurcation, which leads to cessation of spiking, bringing the system back to the quiescent state. The resting period between two successive bursts (Trest) is estimated analytically.

  10. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Understanding spreading dynamics will benefit society as a whole in better preventing and controlling diseases, as well as facilitating the socially responsible information while depressing destructive rumors. In network-based spreading dynamics, edges with different weights may play far different roles: a friend from afar usually brings novel stories, and an intimate relationship is highly risky for a flu epidemic. In this article, we propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Experimental results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored in the spreading process. By comparing with two statistical null models respe...

  11. Survey on welfare of dairy cow in tie-stalls in mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bovolenta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the survey was to study the effect of Alpine pasture and breed on welfare of dairy cattle bred in tie-stalls in mountain area of Friuli Venezia Giulia Region. Twenty-four representative farms were divided into 4 groups following a factorial design: 2 managements (with vs. without summer grazing x 2 breeds (Italian Simmental vs. Italian Brown. Data were collected following a protocol that considers direct animals’ measures or remarks, buildings and equipments information. The results showed that summer grazing affected some physical parameters - BCS, claw conformation and injuries - and some behaviour parameters such as rising movements. In this trial the breed did not seem to markedly influence cows’ welfare, except for BCS and lie down time.

  12. The Chinese Are Coming: The Political Implications of the Growing Sino-Israel Economic Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MERON; MEDZINI

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the State of Israel and the People’s Republic of China offers a fascinating case in modern international relations.Ostensibly there is not much that unites the two countries so different in size and population,in regimes and politics,yet,over the past two decades,these relations have acquired a great deal of importance and significance for both.While it is easy to understand the attraction to China of Israel’s experience,innovation and its exemplary human capital,it is less evident what China is seeking to achieve in deepening its ties with Israel.This paper attempts to assess the state of Sino-Israel bilateral relations and their impact on the future of the two nations.

  13. Molecular ties between the cell cycle and differentiation in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Victor C; Kirschner, Marc W

    2014-07-01

    Attainment of the differentiated state during the final stages of somatic cell differentiation is closely tied to cell cycle progression. Much less is known about the role of the cell cycle at very early stages of embryonic development. Here, we show that molecular pathways involving the cell cycle can be engineered to strongly affect embryonic stem cell differentiation at early stages in vitro. Strategies based on perturbing these pathways can shorten the rate and simplify the lineage path of ES differentiation. These results make it likely that pathways involving cell proliferation intersect at various points with pathways that regulate cell lineages in embryos and demonstrate that this knowledge can be used profitably to guide the path and effectiveness of cell differentiation of pluripotent cells.

  14. Case study installation of a HDPE curtain wall with sheetpile tie-in on both ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, R.M.; Maltese, P.C. [Geo-Con, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The plans for eliminating the off-site migration of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) from a refinery into a nearby river included the installation of a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) curtain wall and an underdrain system. A 640 m (2100 lineal feet) HDPE Curtain Wall was installed along the river boundary, tying into an existing sheet pile wall on both ends. The wall varied from approximately 4.5 m (15 feet) deep at the northern end to about 7 m (23 feet) deep at the southern end, running approximately 3 to 3.6 m (10 to 12 feet) inland of an existing wooden bulkhead. The curtain wall was successfully installed through a slurry supported trench. A 930 m (3050 lineal feet) interception/collection trench was installed parallel to the HDPE Curtain Wall, continuing on beyond the curtain wall on the southern end. The depth of the trench varied from approximately 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 feet) deep. A 20.32 cm (8 inch) diameter perforated HDPE header pipe was placed in the trench to convey groundwater and product to two sumps. The trench is 53.34 cm (21 inches) wide and contained aggregate to approximately 0.9 m (3 feet) below ground. This work was accomplished using the bio-polymer slurry drainage trench (BP Drain) technique. This paper briefly describes the construction methods utilized during this project, specifically HDPE curtain wall installation thru a bentonite slurry and tie-in to the existing sheet pile wall.

  15. Effect of softer flooring in tie stalls on resting behavior and leg injuries of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Haley, D; de Passillé, A M

    2007-08-01

    To test the advantages of softer flooring in tie stalls, we compared the behavior and injuries of dairy cows housed in tie stalls with either soft rubber mats (n = 12) or concrete flooring (n = 12), both lightly covered with straw. Data were collected for 112 d beginning at 14 DIM (+/-4 d). Cows' general activity was observed continuously for 24 h every 28 d. Behavior was also scored by a scan sampling technique every 14 d such that each cow was observed for a period of 3 min every 12 min. We scored the occurrence of leg lesions and other injuries every 7 d throughout the study. Cows on rubber mats had shorter bouts of lying but the frequency of bouts was higher, leading them to tend to spend more time lying compared with cows housed on concrete. Cows on concrete spent more time standing idle, but there was no difference in the time spent eating. There was no effect of stall flooring on the number of minor abrasions to the legs and body. There was a significantly higher incidence of swelling of the carpus joints for cows housed on concrete. Cows housed on soft rubber flooring appeared to be less hesitant to change posture from lying to standing (and vice versa), and as a result changed posture more frequently and spent more time lying than cows on concrete flooring. The decreased incidence of swelling of the carpus joint for cows on soft rubber mats may have important long-term effects in preventing a variety of leg problems.

  16. Angiogenetic axis angiopoietins/Tie2 and VEGF in familial breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, K; Pilato, B; Lacalamita, R; Addati, T; Giotta, F; Bruno, A; Paradiso, A; Tommasi, S

    2013-08-01

    Angiogenesis leads to the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, allowing tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Angiopoietins (Ang-1, Ang-2) have a pivotal role in tumor angiogenesis but few data regarding their role in hereditary breast cancer are available. The aim of the present study was to analyze Ang-1, Ang-2, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Tie2 and VEGF expression and their correlation in a cohort of familial and sporadic breast cancers in order to verify whether the presence of germline mutations in BRCA may have a role in tumor microenvironment regulation. Tumor samples from a cohort of 41 patients with a first diagnosis and a family history of breast cancer and 19 patients with sporadic breast cancers were enrolled. The expression of Tie2, Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Patients harboring BRCA mutations had higher levels of Ang-1 (P=0.05), Ang-2 (P=0.02) and VEGF (P=0.04) mRNA compared with those without BRCA mutations (BRCAX). The same was observed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Moreover, a positive correlation between Ang-2 and VEGF was found in both the familial breast cancer group (BRCA carriers: r=0.83; P<0.0001 and BRCAX: r=0.58; P=0.008) and in TNBC (r=0.62; P=0.007). The higher levels of Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF mRNA found in BRCA carriers and TNBCs suggest that they could be attractive angiogenic therapeutic targets in these breast cancers.

  17. Offset semi-parabolic nanoantenna made of a photonic crystal parabolic mirror and a plasmonic bow-tie antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Haroldo T

    2014-10-10

    In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide.

  18. 8-THP-DHI analogs as potent Type I dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudkins, Robert L; Zulli, Allison L; Underiner, Ted L; Angeles, Thelma S; Aimone, Lisa D; Meyer, Sheryl L; Pauletti, Daniel; Chang, Hong; Fedorov, Elena V; Almo, Steven C; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ruggeri, Bruce A

    2010-06-01

    A novel series of 8-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-12,13-dihydroindazolo[5,4-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles (THP-DHI) was synthesized and evaluated as dual TIE-2 and VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Development of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) with the support of X-ray crystallography led to identification of 7f and 7g as potent, selective dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 inhibitors with excellent cellular potency and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. Compounds 7f and 7g were orally active in tumor models with no observed toxicity.

  19. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1998-03-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for {sup 14}C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent`s indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  20. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells; Aplicacion del metodo de Bow Tie para la evaluacion de seguridad en la practica de perfilaje de pozos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk.

  1. Retorisk analyse af historiske tekster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, rhetoric and the rhetorical tradition has attracted increasing interest from historians, such as, e.g., Quentin Skinner. The paper aims to explain and illustrate what may be understood by a rhetorical analysis (or “rhetorical criticism”) of historical documents, i.e., how those...... scholars who identify themselves as rhetoricians tend to define and conduct such an analysis. It is argued that while rhetoricians would sympathize with Skinner’s adoption of speech act theory in his reading of historical documents, they would generally extend their rhetorical readings of such documents...... to many more features than just the key concepts invoked in them. The paper discusses examples of rhetorical analyses done by prominent contemporary rhetoricians, including Edwin Black, Kenneth Burke, Maurice Charland, and Michael Leff. It relates its view of rhetorical documents to trends in current...

  2. A Synchronization Scheme for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverters Under Harmonic Distortion and Grid Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng;

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization is a crucial aspect in grid-tied systems, including single-phase photovoltaic inverters, and it can affect the overall performance of the system. Among prior-art synchronization schemes, the Multi Harmonic Decoupling Cell Phase-Locked Loop (MHDC-PLL) presents a fast response under...

  3. Transfer validity of laparoscopic knot-tying training on a VR simulator to a realistic environment: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.G.G.; Dankelman, J.; Lange, J.F.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Background- Laparoscopic suturing is one of the most difficult tasks in endoscopic surgery, requiring extensive training. The aim of this study was to determine the transfer validity of knot-tying training on a virtual-reality (VR) simulator to a realistic laparoscopic environment. Methods- Twenty s

  4. A Technology Integration Education (TIE) Model: Millennial Preservice Teachers' Motivations about Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Denise D.; Piper, Randy T.

    2014-01-01

    Nobel laureates Schultz (1971) and Becker (1964, 1993) reinvigorated the analysis of education investments. Human capital investments that improve cognitive skills for elementary and secondary students have important economic implications. An interdisciplinary, 12-construct technology integration education (TIE) model was developed. The sample…

  5. A Multi-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model of a Tie-Tube and Hexagonal Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C. F.; Mireles, O. R.; Stewart, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Capable Cryogenic Thermal Engine (SCCTE) effort considers a nuclear thermal rocket design based around a Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) design fission reactor. The reactor core is comprised of bundled hexagonal fuel elements that directly heat hydrogen for expansion in a thrust chamber and hexagonal tie-tubes that house zirconium hydride moderator mass for the purpose of thermalizing fast neutrons resulting from fission events. Created 3D steady state Hex fuel rod model with 1D flow channels. Hand Calculation were used to set up initial conditions for fluid flow. The Hex Fuel rod uses 1D flow paths to model the channels using empirical correlations for heat transfer in a pipe. Created a 2-D axisymmetric transient to steady state model using the CFD turbulent flow and Heat Transfer module in COMSOL. This model was developed to find and understand the hydrogen flow that might effect the thermal gradients axially and at the end of the tie tube where the flow turns and enters an annulus. The Hex fuel rod and Tie tube models were made based on requirements given to us by CSNR and the SCCTE team. The models helped simplify and understand the physics and assumptions. Using pipe correlations reduced the complexity of the 3-D fuel rod model and is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The 2-D axisymmetric tie tube model can be used as a reference "Virtual test model" for comparing and improving 3-D Models.

  6. The Tie That Binds: Leadership and Liberal Arts Institutions' Civic Engagement Commitment in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Hunter Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Community boundary spanners create ties that bind the campus and its surrounding region for reciprocal relationships. Using community boundary spanning literature as a conceptual framework, this study went beyond existing research on public and 4-year comprehensive universities to examine how university leadership at rural, private liberal arts…

  7. A New LCL -Filter With In-Series Parallel Resonant Circuit for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Sun, Yunjie; Lin, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    When designing a higher order output power filter for a transformerless grid-tied converter using pulsewidth modulation (PWM), the requirements on the leakage current, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise, and the harmonics of the grid-injected current should be addressed. For an LCL-filt...

  8. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  9. Advanced Tie Feature Matching for the Registration of Mobile Mapping Imaging Data and Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jende, P.; Peter, M.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping's ability to acquire high-resolution ground data is opposing unreliable localisation capabilities of satellite-based positioning systems in urban areas. Buildings shape canyons impeding a direct line-of-sight to navigation satellites resulting in a deficiency to accurately estimate the mobile platform's position. Consequently, acquired data products' positioning quality is considerably diminished. This issue has been widely addressed in the literature and research projects. However, a consistent compliance of sub-decimetre accuracy as well as a correction of errors in height remain unsolved. We propose a novel approach to enhance Mobile Mapping (MM) image orientation based on the utilisation of highly accurate orientation parameters derived from aerial imagery. In addition to that, the diminished exterior orientation parameters of the MM platform will be utilised as they enable the application of accurate matching techniques needed to derive reliable tie information. This tie information will then be used within an adjustment solution to correct affected MM data. This paper presents an advanced feature matching procedure as a prerequisite to the aforementioned orientation update. MM data is ortho-projected to gain a higher resemblance to aerial nadir data simplifying the images' geometry for matching. By utilising MM exterior orientation parameters, search windows may be used in conjunction with a selective keypoint detection and template matching. Originating from different sensor systems, however, difficulties arise with respect to changes in illumination, radiometry and a different original perspective. To respond to these challenges for feature detection, the procedure relies on detecting keypoints in only one image. Initial tests indicate a considerable improvement in comparison to classic detector/descriptor approaches in this particular matching scenario. This method leads to a significant reduction of outliers due to the limited availability

  10. A New Design Method for the Passive Damped LCL and LLCL Filter-Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin; Tang, Tianhao;

    2013-01-01

    A higher order passive power filter (LLCL filter) for the grid-tied inverter is becoming attractive for industrial applications due to the possibility to reduce the cost of the copper and the magnetic material. However, similar to the conventional LCL filter, the grid-tied inverter is facing cont...

  11. A hybrid damping method for LLCL-filter based grid-tied inverter with a digital filter and an RC parallel passive damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Lin, Zhe; Sun, Yunjie

    2013-01-01

    Grid-tied inverters have been widely used to inject the renewable energies into the distributed power generation systems. However, a large variation of the grid impedance challenges the stability of the high-order power filter based grid-tied inverter. Many passive and active damping methods have...

  12. Ets motifs are necessary for endothelial cell-specific expression of a 723-bp Tie-2 promoter/enhancer in Hprt targeted transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minami, Takashi; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Evans, Valerie; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Rosenberg, Robert D; Aird, William C

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tie-2 is an endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in the remodeling of blood vessels and angiogenesis. Our goal was to characterize Tie-2 promoter function as a means of providing insight into the mechanisms of endothelial cell-specific gene regulation. METHO

  13. The Strength of Strong Ties for Older Rural Adults: Regional Distinctions in the Relationship between Social Interaction and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Christine A.; Thivierge-Rikard, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    Classic and contemporary sociological theories suggest that social interaction differs in rural and urban areas. Intimate, informal interactions (strong ties) are theorized to characterize rural areas while urban areas may possess more formal and rationalized interactions (weak ties). Aging and social support literature stresses social interaction…

  14. Website-analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    planlægning af de funktionelle og indholdsmæssige aspekter ved websites. Der findes en stor mængde teori- og metodebøger, som har specialiseret sig i de tekniske problemstillinger i forbindelse med interaktion og navigation, samt det sproglige indhold på websites. Den danske HCI (Human Computer Interaction...... hyperfunktionelle websites. Det primære ærinde for HCI-eksperterne er at udarbejde websites, som er brugervenlige. Ifølge deres direktiver skal websites være opbygget med hurtige og effektive navigations- og interaktionsstrukturer, hvor brugeren kan få sine informationer ubesværet af lange downloadingshastigheder...... eller blindgyder, når han/hun besøger sitet. Studier i design og analyse af de visuelle og æstetiske aspekter i planlægning og brug af websites har imidlertid kun i et begrænset omfang været under reflektorisk behandling. Det er baggrunden for dette kapitel, som indleder med en gennemgang af æstetikkens...

  15. Experimental Study on Behavior of Bow-tie Tree Generation by Using Heavy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Wataru; Tsurumaru, Hidekazu

    Bow-tie tree (BTT) generated from contaminant, e.g., metal, carbon, amber(over cured resin) or void in insulator is a significant deterioration factor of XLPE power cable. However, essential role of water in generation and progress of BTT is not yet sufficiently cleared. In order to investigate the role of water we paid attention to difference in chemical properties of light water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O), moreover we evaluated influence of isotopic effect due to hydrogen and deuterium on behavior of BTT generation. In accelerated aging test the number of BTT in XLPE sample, in which copper powder of 500ppm was contaminated as BTT cores, dipped in heavy water (D2O:100wt%) decreased to one third compared with light water(D2O:0wt%). Furthermore, the maximum length of BTT decreased with increase in concentration of heavy water. The experimental results show that heavy water exerted a depression effect on generation and progress of BTT. We considered that the depression effect due to hydrogen isotope appeared by inhibiting ionization and elution of BTT cores, because salt-solubility and ionic mobility of heavy water are about 15 to 20% smaller than those of light water. Therefore, the essential role of water seemed to be production and transport of ions in XLPE.

  16. Influence of Water and Ion Diffusion on Generation and Progress of Bow-tie Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Wataru; Tsurumaru, Hidekazu

    Bow-tie tree(BTT) generated from contaminant, e.g., metal, carbon, amber(over cured resin) or void is a deterioration factor of XLPE cable. In particular, BTT in contact with inner or outer semi-conductive shield could significantly lower residual AC breakdown voltage of HV power cable. To evaluate influence of water and ion diffusion on generation and progress of BTT, we investigated relationship between water content of XLPE and the generation of BTT by various accelerated aging. The number of BTT in XLPE samples with accelerated aging under open condition, involving evaporation of water in which samples were immersed, was very large compared with closed condition. Furthermore, when samples were intermittently immersed in water, the number of BTT in samples was large compared with samples immersed continuously. In these experiments the generation of BTT seemed to have nothing to do with changes in water content before and after accelerated aging. Therefore, it was suggested that diffusion of ions rather than water in XLPE played an important role in the generation of BTT.

  17. Asymptotic theory of time-varying social networks with heterogeneous activity and tie allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaldi, Enrico; Perra, Nicola; Karsai, Márton; Vezzani, Alessandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic of social networks is driven by the interplay between diverse mechanisms that still challenge our theoretical and modelling efforts. Amongst them, two are known to play a central role in shaping the networks evolution, namely the heterogeneous propensity of individuals to i) be socially active and ii) establish a new social relationships with their alters. Here, we empirically characterise these two mechanisms in seven real networks describing temporal human interactions in three different settings: scientific collaborations, Twitter mentions, and mobile phone calls. We find that the individuals’ social activity and their strategy in choosing ties where to allocate their social interactions can be quantitatively described and encoded in a simple stochastic network modelling framework. The Master Equation of the model can be solved in the asymptotic limit. The analytical solutions provide an explicit description of both the system dynamic and the dynamical scaling laws characterising crucial aspects about the evolution of the networks. The analytical predictions match with accuracy the empirical observations, thus validating the theoretical approach. Our results provide a rigorous dynamical system framework that can be extended to include other processes shaping social dynamics and to generate data driven predictions for the asymptotic behaviour of social networks. PMID:27774998

  18. Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Yu; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2013-09-19

    Despite the continued increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in the twenty-first century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Various mechanisms have been proposed for this hiatus in global warming, but their relative importance has not been quantified, hampering observational estimates of climate sensitivity. Here we show that accounting for recent cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific reconciles climate simulations and observations. We present a novel method of uncovering mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing, in addition to radiative forcing, the observed history of sea surface temperature over the central to eastern tropical Pacific in a climate model. Although the surface temperature prescription is limited to only 8.2% of the global surface, our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with correlation coefficient r = 0.97 for 1970-2012 (which includes the current hiatus and a period of accelerated global warming). Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, the winter cooling in northwestern North America and the prolonged drought in the southern USA. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La-Niña-like decadal cooling. Although similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, the multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase.

  19. High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Patrick; Gelfand, Michele; Nau, Dana; Carr, Ryan

    2014-02-07

    As punishment can be essential to cooperation and norm maintenance but costly to the punisher, many evolutionary game-theoretic studies have explored how direct punishment can evolve in populations. Compared to direct punishment, in which an agent acts to punish another for an interaction in which both parties were involved, the evolution of third-party punishment (3PP) is even more puzzling, because the punishing agent itself was not involved in the original interaction. Despite significant empirical studies of 3PP, little is known about the conditions under which it can evolve. We find that punishment reputation is not, by itself, sufficient for the evolution of 3PP. Drawing on research streams in sociology and psychology, we implement a structured population model and show that high strength-of-ties and low mobility are critical for the evolution of responsible 3PP. Only in such settings of high social-structural constraint are punishers able to induce self-interested agents toward cooperation, making responsible 3PP ultimately beneficial to individuals as well as the collective. Our results illuminate the conditions under which 3PP is evolutionarily adaptive in populations. Responsible 3PP can evolve and induce cooperation in cases where other mechanisms alone fail to do so.

  20. A Tie2-driven BAC-TRAP transgenic line for in vivo endothelial gene profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Devi; Huang, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Recent technological innovations including bacterial artificial chromosome-based translating ribosome affinity purification (BAC-TRAP) have greatly facilitated analysis of cell type-specific gene expression in vivo, especially in the nervous system. To better study endothelial gene expression in vivo, we have generated a BAC-TRAP transgenic mouse line where the L10a ribosomal subunit is tagged with EGFP and placed under the control of the endothelium-specific Tie2 (Tek) promoter. We show that transgene expression in this line is widely, but specifically, detected in endothelial cells in several brain regions throughout pre- and postnatal development, as well as in other organs. We also show that this line results in highly significant enrichment of endothelium-specific mRNAs from brain tissues at different stages. This BAC-TRAP line therefore provides a useful genetic tool for in vivo endothelial gene profiling under various developmental, physiological, and pathological conditions. genesis 54:136-145, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Asymptotic theory of time-varying social networks with heterogeneous activity and tie allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaldi, Enrico; Perra, Nicola; Karsai, Márton; Vezzani, Alessandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic of social networks is driven by the interplay between diverse mechanisms that still challenge our theoretical and modelling efforts. Amongst them, two are known to play a central role in shaping the networks evolution, namely the heterogeneous propensity of individuals to i) be socially active and ii) establish a new social relationships with their alters. Here, we empirically characterise these two mechanisms in seven real networks describing temporal human interactions in three different settings: scientific collaborations, Twitter mentions, and mobile phone calls. We find that the individuals’ social activity and their strategy in choosing ties where to allocate their social interactions can be quantitatively described and encoded in a simple stochastic network modelling framework. The Master Equation of the model can be solved in the asymptotic limit. The analytical solutions provide an explicit description of both the system dynamic and the dynamical scaling laws characterising crucial aspects about the evolution of the networks. The analytical predictions match with accuracy the empirical observations, thus validating the theoretical approach. Our results provide a rigorous dynamical system framework that can be extended to include other processes shaping social dynamics and to generate data driven predictions for the asymptotic behaviour of social networks.

  2. Social network ties and inflammation in U.S. adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang Claire; Li, Ting; Frenk, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    The growing evidence linking social connectedness and chronic diseases such as cancer calls for a better understanding of the underlying biophysiological mechanisms. This study assessed the associations between social network ties and multiple measures of inflammation in a nationally representative sample of adults with a history of cancer (N = 1,075) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-94). Individuals with lower social network index (SNI) scores showed significantly greater inflammation marked by C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, adjusting for age and sex. Compared to fully socially integrated individuals (SNI = 4), those who were more socially isolated or had a SNI score of 3 or less exhibited increasingly elevated inflammation burdens. Specifically, the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (95%CI) for SNIs of 3, 2, and 0-1 were 1.49 (1.08, 2.06), 1.69 (1.21, 2.36), and 2.35 (1.62, 3.40), respectively (p < .001). Adjusting for other covariates attenuated these associations. The SNI gradients in the risks of inflammation were particularly salient for the lower socioeconomic status groups and remained significant after adjusting for other social, health behavioral, and illness factors. This study provided initial insights into the immunological pathways by which social connections are related to morbidity and mortality outcomes of cancer in particular and aging-related diseases in general.

  3. The Parametric Study and Fine-Tuning of Bow-Tie Slot Antenna with Loaded Stub

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results. PMID:28114354

  4. Physiology and Mechanism of Phototrophic Fe(II) Oxidation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Newman, D.

    2007-12-01

    Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria use electrons from ferrous iron [Fe(II)] and energy from light to drive reductive CO2 fixation. This metabolism is thought to be ancient in origin, and plays an important role in environmental iron cycling. It has been implicated in the deposition of Banded Iron Formations, a class of ancient sedimentary iron deposits. Consistent with this hypothesis, we discovered that hydrogen gas, a thermodynamically favorable electron donor to Fe(II), in an Archean atmosphere would not have inhibited phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation. To understand this physiology and the connection to BIF formation at the molecular level, the mechanisms of phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation were examined in a model organism Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. Increased expression of a putative decaheme c-type cytochrome, encoded by pioA, was observed when cells were grown under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Two genes located immediately downstream of pioA in the same operon, pioB and pioC, encode a putative outer membrane beta-barrel protein and a putative high potential iron-sulfur protein, respectively. Deletion studies demonstrated that all three genes are involved in phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation. This study provides our first insight into the molecular mechanisms of this metabolism, which will be further characterized by in vitro biochemical studies.

  5. Local search for stable marriage problems with ties and incomplete lists

    CERN Document Server

    Gelain, Mirco; RossI, Francesca; Venable, Kristen Brent; Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    The stable marriage problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools, or more generally to any two-sided market. We consider a useful variation of the stable marriage problem, where the men and women express their preferences using a preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists. In this setting, we study the problem of finding a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. This problem is NP-hard. We tackle this problem using local search, exploiting properties of the problem to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. Experimental results show that this approach is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matc...

  6. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Morosan, D E; Zucca, P; Fallows, R; Carley, E P; Mann, G; Bisi, M M; Kerdraon, A; Konovalenko, A A; MacKinnon, A L; Rucker, H O; Thidé, B; Magdalenić, J; Vocks, C; Reid, H; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Conway, J E; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hassall, T E; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Nelles, A; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pietka, G; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Stewart, A; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, C; Vermeulen, R; van Weeren, R J; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2014-01-01

    The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Here, the combined high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within 5 solar radii of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Over a period of 30 minutes, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high...

  7. POETIC MANNER OF THE TONGUE-TIE: CHERNOMYRDINKIS (CHERNOMYRDIN’S IDIOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Bragina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper I analyze chernomyrdinki (chernomyrdin’s idioms, i.e. the spontaneous public statements of Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin. He was a key figure in Russian politics in the 1990s. The chernomyrdin’s idioms turned to be the most salient feature of the speech portrait of Viktor Chernomyrdin. The chernomyrdin’s idioms are the expressive, subnormal, illogical statements. They break linguistic norms, i.e. stylistic, grammatical, syntax norms of the standard language. The author could be characterized as «“Ego” who creates by intuition, apart fromthe aesthetic reflection and artisticgoals» [Grigor’ev 1986]. The remarkable features of the chernomyrdin’s idioms are discussed in their relationship with such topics as: creativity; aphorisms; paradoxes; tongue-tie; language of power; language of weakness; language game. The chernomyrdin’s idioms in the context of internet-communication are also under consideration. “The explosion of the language silence of the deaf-and-dumb layers of the language” [Grigor’ev 1986] could be carried out in the expressions which were made by the author subconsciously, apart from the special artistic goals. The deviations from the standard language, i.e. slips of the tongue, and mistakes could make free the creative energy and the creative capacity of the language. The experts estimate such expressions as the product of art. This is the reason, why chernomyrdin’s idioms are still very popular. 

  8. The Parametric Study and Fine-Tuning of Bow-Tie Slot Antenna with Loaded Stub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, M M; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Wan Mahadi, Wan Nor Liza

    2017-01-01

    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results.

  9. Asymptotic theory of time-varying social networks with heterogeneous activity and tie allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaldi, Enrico; Perra, Nicola; Karsai, Márton; Vezzani, Alessandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2016-10-24

    The dynamic of social networks is driven by the interplay between diverse mechanisms that still challenge our theoretical and modelling efforts. Amongst them, two are known to play a central role in shaping the networks evolution, namely the heterogeneous propensity of individuals to i) be socially active and ii) establish a new social relationships with their alters. Here, we empirically characterise these two mechanisms in seven real networks describing temporal human interactions in three different settings: scientific collaborations, Twitter mentions, and mobile phone calls. We find that the individuals' social activity and their strategy in choosing ties where to allocate their social interactions can be quantitatively described and encoded in a simple stochastic network modelling framework. The Master Equation of the model can be solved in the asymptotic limit. The analytical solutions provide an explicit description of both the system dynamic and the dynamical scaling laws characterising crucial aspects about the evolution of the networks. The analytical predictions match with accuracy the empirical observations, thus validating the theoretical approach. Our results provide a rigorous dynamical system framework that can be extended to include other processes shaping social dynamics and to generate data driven predictions for the asymptotic behaviour of social networks.

  10. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy and rs9930506 FTO variants on angiopoietin/Tie-2 system in fat expansion and M1 macrophages recruitment in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vega, Nicté; Jordán, Benjamín; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Parra-Laporte, Luis; Garnelo, Serafín; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Angiogenesis in inflammation are hallmarks for adipose tissue expansion in obesity. The role of angiopoietin/Tie-2 system in adipose tissue expansion and immune cell recruitment is unclear. We studied the effect of sleeve gastrectomy and the influence of FTO rs9930506 polymorphism on Tie-2, angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 expression in morbid obesity. Fifteen morbidly obese subjects (4 men and 11 women) aged 24-55 years were followed-up 3 and 6 months after sleeve gastrectomy. Serum sTie-2, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α concentrations were determined by ELISA. Tie-2 and its ligands in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were localized by immunohistochemistry. Tie-2 expression was measured by flow cytometry in circulating monocytes and infiltrated macrophages. Comparisons before and after sleeve gastrectomy were carried out using ANOVA for repeated measures. rs9930506FTO genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Circulating sTie-2 and angiopoietin-2 were higher before sleeve gastrectomy. Tie-2 and angiopoietin-2 mRNA levels were higher in subcutaneous adipose tissue than visceral and both decreased after surgery. Monocytes and infiltrated macrophages showed a pro-inflammatory phenotype, with increased Tie-2 expression that decreased 3 and 6 months after sleeve gastrectomy. Baseline sTie-2 correlated inversely with adiponectin levels. At baseline the rs9930506FTO AG ó GG genotypes carriers had more 34 kg than genotype carriers of rs9930506 AA. Weight and body mass index decreased at 6 months. We found that angiopoietin/Tie-2 system is mainly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue, contributing to expandability, fat accumulation, and monocytes attachment in obesity. Bariatric surgery favorably modifies the pro-angiogenic profile, allowed a reduced angiogenic expression in the circulation and adipose tissue.

  11. Antigen/Antibody Analyses in Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    antibodies in human sera with antigens of protozoan parasites . It was found that enzyme substrate reactions had distinct advantages over typical...autoradiographic procedures. Analyses of various sera identified a number of antigens of protozoan parasites which may be useful in discriminating infections

  12. Supporting analyses and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Supporting analysis and assessments can provide a sound analytic foundation and focus for program planning, evaluation, and coordination, particularly if issues of hydrogen production, distribution, storage, safety, and infrastructure can be analyzed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The overall purpose of this activity is to coordinate all key analytic tasks-such as technology and market status, opportunities, and trends; environmental costs and benefits; and regulatory constraints and opportunities-within a long-term and systematic analytic foundation for program planning and evaluation. Within this context, the purpose of the project is to help develop and evaluate programmatic pathway options that incorporate near and mid-term strategies to achieve the long-term goals of the Hydrogen Program. In FY 95, NREL will develop a comprehensive effort with industry, state and local agencies, and other federal agencies to identify and evaluate programmatic pathway options to achieve the long-term goals of the Program. Activity to date is reported.

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 induced angiogenesis and invasion is mediated through the Tie2 signalling pathway in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajvur Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is a critical early event in inflammatory arthritis, facilitating leukocyte migration into the synovium resulting in invasion and destruction of articular cartilage and bone. This study investigates the effect of TLR2 on angiogenesis, EC adhesion and invasion using microvascular endothelial cells and RA whole tissue synovial explants ex-vivo. METHODS: Microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC and RA synovial explants ex vivo were cultured with the TLR2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (1 µg/ml. Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, Tie2 and TLR2 expression in RA synovial tissue was assessed by immunohistology. HMVEC tube formation was assessed using Matrigel matrix assays. Ang2 was measured by ELISA. ICAM-1 cell surface expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Cell migration was assessed by wound repair scratch assays. ECM invasion, MMP-2 and -9 expression were assessed using transwell invasion chambers and zymography. To examine if the angiopoietin/Tie2 signalling pathway mediates TLR2 induced EC tube formation, invasion and migration assays were performed in the presence of a specific neutralising anti-Tie2mAb (10 ug/ml and matched IgG isotype control Ab (10 ug/ml. RESULTS: Ang2 and Tie2 were localised to RA synovial blood vessels, and TLR2 was localised to RA synovial blood vessels, sub-lining infiltrates and the lining layer. Pam3CSK4 significantly increased angiogenic tube formation (p<0.05, and upregulated Ang2 production in HMVEC (p<0.05 and RA synovial explants (p<0.05. Pam3CSK4 induced cell surface expression of ICAM-1, from basal level of 149±54 (MFI to 617±103 (p<0.01. TLR-2 activation induced an 8.8±2.8 fold increase in cell invasion compared to control (p<0.05. Pam3CSK4 also induced HMVEC cell migration and induced MMP-2 and -9 from RA synovial explants. Neutralisation of the Ang2 receptor, Tie2 significantly inhibited Pam3CSK4-induced EC tube formation and invasion (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: TLR2 activation promotes angiogenesis, cell

  14. Use of safety case to accomplish with Brazilian regulations for drilling units; Uso de caso de seguranca para cumprir com as normas brasileiras para unidades de perfuracao: metodologia Bow Tie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardy, Mariana; Silveira, Paula Dias; Oliveira, Katia [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Risk Advisory

    2012-07-01

    The last accidents on the industry, mainly after BP accident in Texas City and Macondo blowout, showed and increased the importance of safety barriers on prevention of such events. The safety barriers can be identified in risk analysis studies such as Preliminary Hazard Analysis or HAZOP. But, the identification of safety barriers is not enough, it is necessary to maintain their integrity to guarantee that when demanded they work properly as expected. The methodology presented in this document aim to evaluate the integrity condition of safety barriers and their compliance with the project original characteristics using the Bow Tie and an audit process, and searching for actions that can guarantee the barriers integrity when demanded in a proactive way. The Bow Tie diagrams provide a graphic picture of accidental scenarios, join a relational perspective between event, cause, consequence and barriers, and additionally provide a clear view of possible threats and consequences related with events with high damage potential. The application of methodology described in this document is presented based on a case study related to an accidental release of flammable liquid due to dropped objects on the topside of an offshore unit. Among the benefits identified using this proposed methodology it can be highlighted the possibility to form an integrated overview of management system and of factors that can reduce losses. The Bow Tie diagram provides an overview of process accidents, in several different organization levels, and the integration between different areas responsible for management of different barriers groups. Complementing those diagrams with an audit process it can be determined the real image of company management system related to process safety, which make possible the identification of main points for improvement. (author)

  15. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  16. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Frank [The Open University, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  17. A multilevel analysis of social ties and social cohesion among Latinos and their neighborhoods: results from Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joanna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Molnar, Beth E; Subramanian, S V

    2009-09-01

    Research suggests that, among Latinos, there are health benefits associated with living in a neighborhood populated with coethnics. While social networks and social cohesion are the proposed explanation for the salubrious effect and are assumed to be characteristics of Latino immigrant enclaves, evidence for this is limited. We used multilevel regression to test the relative contribution of individual race/ethnicity and neighborhood concentration of Mexican Americans as predictors of social networks and social cohesion. After accounting for personal characteristics, we found a negative association between neighborhood concentration of Mexican Americans and social cohesion. Among Latinos, living in a neighborhood with increased coethnics was associated with increased social ties. Compared to non-Latino whites, Mexican Americans reported more social ties but lower social cohesion. Contrary to the assumption that Mexican immigrant enclaves beget social cohesion, we did not find this to be true in Chicago neighborhoods.

  18. One Hand Washes Another : Informal Ties Between Organized Criminal Groups and Law-Enforcement Agencies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Konnov

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the forms, contents and peculiarities of the existing informal ties between members of organized criminal groups and representatives of law-enforcement agencies in the Tatarstan Republic of Russia. Particular attention is paid to the origins of informal ties; ways how these relations are established, maintained, and utilized by both parts; causes of corruption in the law-enforcement agencies and the possibilities to understand it. The main conclusions are based on the results of ninety-six in-depth interviews with the law-enforcement officers, businessmen, members of organized criminal groups, and journalists conducted in main cities and towns of the Tatarstan Republic under support of the Transnational Crime and Corruption Centre at American University.

  19. Artificial Cooperative Search Algorithm based Load Frequency Control of Interconnected Power Systems with AC-DC Tie-lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramesh kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A maiden effort for optimal tuning of load frequency controller parameters using Artificial Cooperative Search (ACS algorithm for a two area interconnected power system with AC-DC parallel tie-lines has been presented in this paper. ACS is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm developed for solving numerical optimization problems. The swarm intelligence philosophy behind ACS algorithm is based on the migration of two artificial superorganisms as they biologically interact to achieve the global minimum value pertaining to the problem. The HVDC link in parallel with AC tie-line is used as system interconnection to effectively damp the frequency oscillations of the AC system. An integral square error criterion (ISE has been used as performance index to design the optimal parameters. A comparative study of tuned values has been presented to show the effectiveness of the Artificial Cooperative Search algorithm. The results demonstrate the success of ACS algorithm in solving Load frequency control (LFC optimization problem.

  20. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Eom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch.