WorldWideScience

Sample records for analogue space surgery

  1. Anesthesia and critical-care delivery in weightlessness: A challenge for research in parabolic flight analogue space surgery studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Chad G.; Keaney, Marilyn A.; Chun, Rosaleen; Groleau, Michelle; Tyssen, Michelle; Keyte, Jennifer; Broderick, Timothy J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.

    2010-03-01

    BackgroundMultiple nations are actively pursuing manned exploration of space beyond low-earth orbit. The responsibility to improve surgical care for spaceflight is substantial. Although the use of parabolic flight as a terrestrial analogue to study surgery in weightlessness (0 g) is well described, minimal data is available to guide the appropriate delivery of anesthesia. After studying anesthetized pigs in a 0 g parabolic flight environment, our group developed a comprehensive protocol describing prolonged anesthesia in a parabolic flight analogue space surgery study (PFASSS). Novel challenges included a physically remote vivarium, prolonged (>10 h) anesthetic requirements, and the provision of veterinary operating room/intensive care unit (ICU) equivalency on-board an aircraft with physical dimensions of medication, and induction protocols on Yorkshire-cross specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Several constant rate infusion (CRI) intravenous anesthetic combinations were tested. In each regimen, opioids were administered to ensure analgesia. Ventilation was supported mechanically with blended gradients of oxygen. The best performing terrestrial 1 g regime was flight tested in parabolic flight for its effectiveness in sustaining optimal and prolonged anesthesia, analgesia, and maintaining hemodynamic stability. Each flight day, a fully anesthetized, ventilated, and surgically instrumented pig was transported to the Flight Research Laboratory (FRL) in a temperature-controlled animal ambulance. A modular on-board surgical/ICU suite with appropriate anesthesia/ICU and surgical support capabilities was employed. ResultsThe mean duration of anesthesia (per flight day) was 10.28 h over four consecutive days. A barbiturate and ketamine-based CRI anesthetic regimen supplemented with narcotic analgesia by bolus administration offered the greatest prolonged hemodynamic stability through an IV route (within multiple transport vehicles and differing gravitational environments

  2. Policy issues in space analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  3. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  4. Analogue and Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of AMICSA 2014 (organised in collaboration of ESA and CERN) is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of recent advances in analogue and mixed-signal VLSI design techniques and technologies for space applications.

  5. Small-Space Analogues of Valiant's Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Meena; Rao, B. V. Raghavendra

    In the uniform circuit model of computation, the width of a boolean circuit exactly characterises the “space” complexity of the computed function. Looking for a similar relationship in Valiant’s algebraic model of computation, we propose width of an arithmetic circuit as a possible measure of space. We introduce the class VL as an algebraic variant of deterministic log-space L. In the uniform setting, we show that our definition coincides with that of VPSPACE at polynomial width.

  6. Historical space psychology: Early terrestrial explorations as Mars analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often involved a hazardous trek through unknown territory, flanked by extended, dangerous voyages to and from the exploration sites. Characteristic issues included interpersonal relationships under prolonged stress, stretches of boredom interspersed with intense work demands, the impossibility of rescue, resupply, or other help from home, chronic danger, physical discomfort and lack of privacy, and the crucial role of the leader. Illustrative examples of one important factor, leadership style, are discussed. The examination of such expeditions can help to identify the psychological stressors that are likely to be experienced by Mars explorers, and can also indicate countermeasures to reduce the damaging impact of those stressors.

  7. The Canadian space agency planetary analogue materials suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Applin, Daniel M.; Samson, Claire; Kruzelecky, Roman; Glotch, Timothy D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Mertzman, Karen R.; Haltigin, Timothy W.; Fry, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) recently commissioned the development of a suite of over fifty well-characterized planetary analogue materials. These materials are terrestrial rocks and minerals that are similar to those known or suspected to occur on the lunar or martian surfaces. These include: Mars analogue sedimentary, hydrothermal, igneous and low-temperature alteration rock suites; lunar analogue basaltic and anorthositic rock suites; and a generic impactite rock suite from a variety of terrestrial impact structures. Representative thin sections of the materials have been characterized by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Reflectance spectra have been collected in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared, covering 0.2-25 μm. Thermal infrared emission spectra were collected from 5 to 50 μm. Raman spectra with 532 nm excitation, and laser-induced fluorescence spectra with 405 nm excitation were also measured. Bulk chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray fluorescence, with Fe valence determined by wet chemistry. Chemical and mineralogical data were collected using a field-portable Terra XRD-XRF instrument similar to CheMin on the MSL Curiosity rover. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data similar to those measured by ChemCam on MSL were collected for powdered samples, cut slab surfaces, and as depth profiles into weathered surfaces where present. Three-dimensional laser camera images of rock textures were collected for selected samples. The CSA intends to make available sample powders (science community. Aiming to complement existing planetary analogue rock and mineral libraries, the CSA suite represents a new resource for planetary scientists and engineers. We envision many potential applications for these materials in the definition, development and testing of new analytical instruments for use in planetary missions, as well as possible calibration and ground-truthing of remote sensing data sets

  8. An analogue of the space of conformal blocks in (4k+2)-dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gomi, Kiyonori

    2007-01-01

    Based on projective representations of smooth Deligne cohomology groups, we introduce an analogue of the space of conformal blocks to compact oriented (4k+2)-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with boundary. For the standard (4k+2)-dimensional disk, we compute the space concretely to prove that its dimension is finite.

  9. Measuring sub-Planck structural analogues in chronocyclic phase space

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Dane R.; Witting, Tobias; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    The phase space structure of certain quantum states reveals structure on a scale that is small compared to the Planck area. Using an analog between the wavefunction of a single photon and the electric field of a classical ultrashort optical pulse we show that spectral shearing interferometry enables measurement of such structures directly. Thereby extending the idea of Praxmeyer et al. In particular, we use multiple-shear spectral interferometry to fully characterize a pulse consisting of two...

  10. Space & time discontinuities in Liouville theory and its discrete analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    We consider the deformed harmonic oscillator as a discrete version of the Liouville theory and study this model in the presence of local integrable defects. From this, the time evolution of the defect degrees of freedom are determined, found in the form of the local equations of motion. We also revisit the continuous Liouville theory, deriving its local integrals of motion and comparing these with previous results from the sine-Gordon point of view.Finally, the generic Backlund type relations are presented, corresponding to the implementation of time-like and space-like impurities in the continuum model.

  11. Long-term symptomatic relief of postprandial hypoglycaemia following gastric surgery with a somatostatin analogue.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Cruz, D. P.; Reynard, J.; Tatman, A. J.; Kopelman, P G

    1989-01-01

    Somatostatin has been shown to be effective in the management of the dumping syndrome and there have been reports of the effective use of long acting somatostatin analogue in the management of this condition. However, there have been few reports of the prolonged use of a somatostatin analogue in the late dumping syndrome. We describe a patient in whom this management provided good long term symptomatic relief which was confirmed biochemically.

  12. Relativistic analogue of the phase space and the Liouville theorem of classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different anholonomic subspaces of the general relativistic μ-space (space of states of a free particle in the gravitational field; i.e. the tangent bundle V8=T(V4) on the space time V4) are introduced which, respectively, represent relativistic analogue of the classical phase space or the space on which the classical theory of radiation defines the distribution function of spectral intensity. These subspaces of V8 prove to be holonomic, if the 4-velocity field in V4 the extensions (prolongations) of which are involved in their defining multivector fields is submitted to certain conditions. In this case, from local equations holding for the mapping of sets of points of the subspaces of V8 and describing the development in time of states of particles, laws of conservation in integral form can be derived. (author)

  13. Effect of cAMP analogues on glomerular inulin space of isolated rats renal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, M X P; Szczepańska-Konkel, M; Jastorff, B; Jankowski, M; Angielski, S

    2005-03-01

    Cyclic AMP has been generally recognised as activator of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. However, there is little evidence about role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), in particular izoenzymes PKA-I and PKA-II, in glomeruli contractility. We measured changes of glomerular inulin space (GIS) as a marker of its contractility in the presence of phosphodiesterase resistance cAMP analogues; activators and inhibitors of PKA. Activator of PKA i.e. (Sp) 8-Cl-cAMPS (0.1-100 microM) decreased GIS. (Rp) 8-Cl-cAMPS (0.1-100 microM), inhibitor of PKA, was ineffective but shifted concentration-response curve of (Sp) 8-Cl-cAMPS to right at 50 microM. Specific A site activation by N6-benzoyl-cAMP decreased GIS with maximum at 0.1 microM. Activation of B site by 8-aminobutyloamino-cAMP (0.1-100 microM) had no effect. However, specific activation of both sites on PKA-I or PKA-II by site-selective analogue pairs e.g. 8-aminobutyloamino-cAMP plus 8-piperidino-cAMP or N6-benzoyl-cAMP plus 8-piperidino-cAMP respectively, significantly increased sensitivity of glomeruli to analogues. Our data suggest that activation of PKA-I or PKA-II might have an important role in the regulation of glomerular contractility. PMID:15795479

  14. Photometry's bright future: Detecting Solar System analogues with future space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hippke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Time-series transit photometry from the Kepler space telescope has allowed for the discovery of thousands of exoplanets. We explore the potential of yet improved future missions such as PLATO 2.0 in detecting solar system analogues. We use real-world solar data and end-to-end simulations to explore the stellar and instrumental noise properties. By injecting and retrieving planets, rings and moons of our own solar system, we show that the discovery of Venus- and Earth-analogues transiting G-dwarfs like our Sun is feasible at high S/N after collecting 6yrs of data, but Mars and Mercury will be difficult to detect due to stellar noise. In the best cases, Saturn's rings and Jupiter's moons will be detectable even in single transit observations. Through the high number (>1bn) of observed stars by PLATO 2.0, it will become possible to detect thousands of single-transit events by cold gas giants, analogue to our Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Our own solar system aside, we also show, through signal injection a...

  15. Detection of Macromolecules in Desert Cyanobacteria Mixed with a Lunar Mineral Analogue After Space Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqué, Mickael; Verseux, Cyprien; Rabbow, Elke; de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Billi, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    In the context of future exposure missions in Low Earth Orbit and possibly on the Moon, two desert strains of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, strains CCMEE 029 and 057, mixed or not with a lunar mineral analogue, were exposed to fractionated fluencies of UVC and polychromatic UV (200-400 nm) and to space vacuum. These experiments were carried out within the framework of the BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) project, which aims at broadening our knowledge of mineral-microorganism interaction and the stability/degradation of their macromolecules when exposed to space and simulated Martian conditions. The presence of mineral analogues provided a protective effect, preserving survivability and integrity of DNA and photosynthetic pigments, as revealed by testing colony-forming abilities, performing PCR-based assays and using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In particular, DNA and pigments were still detectable after 500 kJ/m2 of polychromatic UV and space vacuum (10-4 Pa), corresponding to conditions expected during one-year exposure in Low Earth Orbit on board the EXPOSE-R2 platform in the presence of 0.1 % Neutral Density (ND) filter. After exposure to high UV fluencies (800 MJ/m2) in the presence of minerals, however, altered fluorescence emission spectrum of the photosynthetic pigments were detected, whereas DNA was still amplified by PCR. The present paper considers the implications of such findings for the detection of biosignatures in extraterrestrial conditions and for putative future lunar missions.

  16. Cosmetic surgery in L-spaces and nugatory crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Lidman, Tye; Moore, Allison H.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmetic crossing conjecture (also known as the "nugatory crossing conjecture") asserts that the only crossing changes that preserve the oriented isotopy class of a knot in the 3-sphere are nugatory. We use the Dehn surgery characterization of the unknot to prove this conjecture for knots in integer homology spheres whose branched double covers are L-spaces satisfying a homological condition. This includes as a special case all alternating and quasi-alternating knots with square-free dete...

  17. New Insights about Cross-Contamination Procedures for Analogue Missions in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, B.; Selch, F.; Klammer, S.; Groemer, G.; Sipiera, P.

    2007-10-01

    Environments such as the surface of other planets like Mars are subject to contamination processes by human exploration. Therefore, this is a crucial issue for planetary protection which needs to be addressed before investigating possible extraterrestrial life forms. Within AustroMars, the module track & trace assessed the dimension of back- and forward contamination which was verifiable in both directions. Sterile filters which were exposed to the environment during repeated EVAs showed persistent contaminations with bacteria. On-site contamination within the habitat was checked by exposed agar plates which were all positive with cultivable strains. The second module LiMa ("Life on Mars") simulates sterile procedures to collect samples with subsequent cultivation efforts under harsh conditions. These modules have been accomplished under high fidelity conditions and are the first analogue experiments conducted within the background of space exploration.

  18. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón; Diego Fuentes-García; Luis Falcón-Araña; Antonio Rodríguez-Ribó; Carlos García-Palenciano; María José Roca-Calvo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitu...

  19. Martian Feeling: An Analogue Study to Simulate a Round-Trip to Mars using the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, C. V.; Gini, A.

    When talking about human space exploration, Mars missions are always present. It is clear that sooner or later, humanity will take this adventure. Arguably the most important aspect to consider for the success of such an endeavour is the human element. The safety of the crew throughout a Martian mission is a top priority for all space agencies. Therefore, such a mission should not take place until all the risks have been fully understood and mitigated. A mission to Mars presents unique human and technological challenges in terms of isolation, confinement, autonomy, reliance on mission control, communication delays and adaptation to different gravity levels. Analogue environments provide the safest way to simulate these conditions, mitigate the risks and evaluate the effects of long-term space travel on the crew. Martian Feeling is one of nine analogue studies, from the Mars Analogue Path (MAP) report [1], proposed by the TP Analogue group of ISU Masters class 2010. It is an integrated analogue study which simulates the psychological, physiological and operational conditions that an international, six-person, mixed gender crew would experience on a mission to Mars. Set both onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and on Earth, the Martian Feeling study will perform a ``dress rehearsal'' of a mission to Mars. The study proposes to test both human performance and operational procedures in a cost-effective manner. Since Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is more accessible than other space-based locations, an analogue studies in LEO would provide the required level of realism to a simulated transit mission to Mars. The sustained presence of microgravity and other elements of true spaceflight are features of LEO that are neither currently feasible nor possible to study in terrestrial analogue sites. International collaboration, economics, legal and ethical issues were considered when the study was proposed. As an example of international collaboration, the ISS would

  20. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.

  1. Higher Pulmonary Dead Space May Predict Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation After Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Thida; Stuart-Killion, Regan B.; Daniel, Brian M.; Presnell, Laura B.; Zhuo, Hanjing; Matthay, Michael A; Liu, Kathleen D

    2009-01-01

    Children undergoing congenital heart surgery are at risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. We investigated the prognostic value of pulmonary dead space fraction as a non-invasive, physiologic marker in this population. In a prospective, cross-sectional study, we measured pulmonary dead space fraction in 52 intubated, pediatric patients within 24 hr postoperative from congenital heart surgery. Measurements were obtained with a bedside, non-invasive cardiac outpu...

  2. Cosmetic Surgery in Integral Homology $L$-Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhongtao

    2009-01-01

    Let $K$ be a non-trivial knot in $S^3$, and let $r$ and $r'$ be two distinct rational numbers of same sign, allowing $r$ to be infinite; we prove that there is no orientation-preserving homeomorphism between the manifolds $S^3_r(K)$ and $S^3_{r'}(K)$. We further generalize this uniqueness result to knots in arbitrary integral homology L-spaces.

  3. Time-frequency Domain Analogues of Phase Space Sub-Planck Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Praxmeyer, Ludmila; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Radzewicz, Czeslaw; Wodkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We present experimental data of the frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements of light pulses revealing interference features corresponding to sub-Planck structures in phase space. For superpositions of pulses a small, sub-Fourier shift in the carrier frequency leads to a state orthogonal to the initial one, although in the representation of standard time-frequency distributions these states seem to have a nonvanishing overlap.

  4. Endoscopic surgery in weightlessness: the investigation of basic principles for surgery in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. R.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Jennings, R.; Short, D.; Hamilton, D.; Dulchavsky, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performing a surgical procedure in weightlessness, also called 0-gravity (0-g), has been shown to be no more difficult than in a 1-g environment if the requirements for the restraint of the patient, operator, surgical hardware, are observed. The performance of laparoscopic and thorascopic procedures in weightlessness, if feasible, would offer several advantages over the performance of an open operation. Concerns about the feasibility of performing minimally invasive procedures in weightlessness have included impaired visualization from the absence of gravitational retraction of the bowel (laparoscopy) or thoracic organs (thoracoscopy) as well as obstruction and interference from floating debris such as blood, pus, and irrigation fluid. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of performing laparoscopic and thorascopic procedures and the degree of impaired surgical endoscopic visualization in weightlessness. METHODS: From 1993 to 2000, laparoscopic and thorascopic procedures were performed on 10 anesthetized adult pigs weighing approximately 50 kg in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Microgravity Program using a modified KC-135 airplane. The parabolic simulation system for advanced life support was used in this project, and 20 to 40 parabolas were used for laparoscopic or thorascopic investigation, each containing approximately 30 s of 0-g alternating with 2-g pullouts. The animal model was restrained in the supine position on a floor-level Crew Medical Restraint System, and the abdominal cavity was insufflated with carbon dioxide. The intraabdominal and intrathoracic anatomy was visualized in the 1-g, 0-g, and 2-g periods of parabolic flight. Bleeding was created in the animals, and the behavior of the blood in the abdominal and thoracic cavities was observed. In the thoracic cavity, gas insufflation and mechanical retraction was used at times unilaterally to decrease pulmonary ventilation enough to increase the

  5. Predictors of Behavior and Performance in Extreme Environments: The Antarctic Space Analogue Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Gunderson, E K. Eric; Holland, A. W.; Miller, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    To determine which, if any, characteristics should be incorporated into a select-in approach to screening personnel for long-duration spaceflight, we examined the influence of crewmember social/ demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station physical environments on performance measures in 657 American men who spent an austral winter in Antarctica between 1963 and 1974. During screening, subjects completed a Personal History Questionnaire which obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, the Deep Freeze Opinion Survey which assessed 5 different personality traits, and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale which measured 6 dimensions of interpersonal needs. Station environment included measures of crew size and severity of physical environment. Performance was assessed on the basis of combined peer-supervisor evaluations of overall performance, peer nominations of fellow crewmembers who made ideal winter-over candidates, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Social/demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station environments collectively accounted for 9-17% of the variance in performance measures. The following characteristics were significant independent predictors of more than one performance measure: military service, low levels of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low desire for affection from others. These results represent an important first step in the development of select-in criteria for personnel on long-duration missions in space and other extreme environments. These criteria must take into consideration the characteristics of the environment and the limitations they place on meeting needs for interpersonal relations and task performance, as well as the characteristics of the individuals and groups who live and work in these environments.

  6. Correlation between the Pharyngeal Airway Space and Head Posture after Surgery for Mandibular Prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the pharyngeal airway space and head posture after mandibular setback surgery for mandibular prognathism. Materials and Methods. Serial lateral cephalograms of 37 patients with mandibular prognathism who underwent intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO were evaluated before (T1 and immediately (T2, between 6 weeks and 3 months (T3, and more than 1 year (T4 after surgery. Paired t-tests and Pearson’s correlation analysis were used to evaluate the postoperative changes in all cephalometric parameters, including the mandible, hyoid, head posture (craniocervical angle, and pharyngeal airway space. Results. The mandible and hyoid were set back by 12.8 mm and 4.9 mm, respectively, at T2. Furthermore, the hyoid showed significant inferior movement of 10.7 mm, with an 8 mm increase in the tongue depth. The upper oropharyngeal airway (UOP shortened by 4.1 mm, the lower oropharyngeal airway (LOP by 1.7 mm, and the laryngopharyngeal airway by 2 mm. The craniocervical angle showed a significant increase of 2.8°. UOP and LOP showed a significant correlation with the craniocervical angle at T2 and T4. Conclusions. Our findings conclude that the oropharyngeal airway space is significantly decreased and correlated with a change in the head posture after mandibular setback surgery.

  7. The European Space Analogue Rock Collection (ESAR) at the OSUC-Orleans for in situ planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, F.; Pullan, D.; Bost, N.; Ramboz, C.; Foucher, F.; Hofmann, B.; Bridges, J.

    2011-10-01

    The ESAR is a collection of well-characterised planetary analogue rocks and minerals that can be used for testing in situ instrumentation for planetary exploration. An online database of all relevant structural, compositional and geotechnics information is also available to the instrument teams and to aid data interpretation during missions.

  8. Underwater Surface Reconstruction of Narrow Space by Endoscope and Optical Fiber: Application to Minimally Invasive Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Zhongjie; Nagamune, Kouki

    2015-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we propose a system to reconstruct the 3D surface of a synthetic knee using an endoscope and optical fiber under the water. It is able to scan the knee joint’s profile even in narrow operated space and provide surgeons with 3D surface reconstruction in real time, which is very small in size, for the application of Mosaicplasty surgery from the surgical standpoint. Several sets of experiments were carried out to assess the proposed method, and it turned...

  9. Intubation after rapid sequence induction performed by non-medical personnel during space exploration missions: a simulation pilot study in a Mars analogue environment

    OpenAIRE

    Komorowski, Matthieu; Fleming, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background The question of the safety of anaesthetic procedures performed by non anaesthetists or even by non physicians has long been debated. We explore here this question in the hypothetical context of an exploration mission to Mars. During future interplanetary space missions, the risk of medical conditions requiring surgery and anaesthetic techniques will be significant. On Earth, anaesthesia is generally performed by well accustomed personnel. During exploration missions, onboard medica...

  10. Ice in space: surface science investigations of the thermal desorption of model interstellar ices on dust grain analogue surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Daren J; Brown, Wendy A

    2010-06-21

    More than 140 different molecules have been identified in the interstellar medium (ISM) to date. Dust grain particles are also found in the ISM, and some of these molecules freeze out at the cold temperatures (10-20 K) to form molecular ices. Understanding the adsorption and desorption of these ices is crucially important in understanding the processes that lead to star and planet formation, and may even help to lead to an understanding of the origin of life itself. High sensitivity surface science techniques, including temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), are being increasingly used to investigate the interactions between dust grains and interstellar ices. This perspective provides an overview of the current level of understanding of the adsorption and desorption of astrophysically relevant molecules from a range of dust grain analogue surfaces. Whilst the focus of this review is on interstellar ices, the results discussed are equally valid to discussions of cometary and planetary ices. PMID:20520900

  11. Long-term survival and nearly asymptomatic course of carcinoid tumour with multiple metastases (treated by surgery, chemotherapy, 90Y-DOTATATE, and LAR octreotide analogue)- a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinoids are the most common neuroendocrine tumours. They are usually slowly growing, located in the small intestine, secrete serotonin, and are characterized by long survival of patients, so prognosis is generally good. The most frequently encountered clinical presentations of carcinoids are intermittent abdominal pain and carcinoid syndrome (diarrhoea and flushing). Metastases worsen the prognosis and limit the survival of the patients. We report a case of carcinoid tumour with primary focus in the ileum, with an appendix infiltration, in a thirty-two-year-old woman with acute appendicitis symptoms only. Carcinoid was diagnosed postoperatively by histopathological examination. Nowadays, twenty-five years after the surgery, there is evidence of nearly asymptomatic numerous metastases. Only intermittent abdominal pain for about 1-2 years was reported. Partial metastases resection was performed, followed by chemotherapy, 90Y-DOTATATE and then long-acting release octreotide analogue therapy. In the meantime, severe chronic heart failure (NYHA IV) due to tricuspid combined valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed. Combined therapy, typical for chronic heart failure, together with long-acting octreotide analogue highly improved the patient's heart sufficiency and reduced carcinoid syndrome symptoms. The only adverse events of octreotide therapy were hyperbilirubinaemia and itching. Long-term survival is typical for carcinoids, but 30-years survival has not been described in the literature yet. (authors)

  12. MRI Changes of the Spinal Subdural Space after Lumbar Spine Surgeries: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Bhatia, Nitin N.; Miyagi, Ryo; Tamura, Tatsuya; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yasui, Natsuo

    2011-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used to assess the lumbar spine, there are few reports in the medical literature that have evaluated using MRI immediately following spinal surgery. Furthermore, descriptions of the subdural changes after lumbar spine surgery are also infrequent. In this paper, we present two cases with subdural change seen on MRI immediately after lumbar surgery. Both the patients had mild symptoms that resolved spontaneously, and the follow-up MRI scan...

  13. Towards a Radio-guided Surgery with $\\beta^{-}$ Decays: Uptake of a somatostatin analogue (DOTATOC) in Meningioma and High Grade Glioma

    CERN Document Server

    Collamati, Francesco; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Cremonesi, Marta; De Lucia, Erika; Ferrari, Mahila; Frallicciardi, Paola M; Grana, Chiara M; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Patera, Vincenzo; Piersanti, Luca; Recchia, Luigi; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Voena, Cecilia; Faccini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    A novel radio guided surgery (RGS) technique for cerebral tumors using $\\beta^{-}$ radiation is being developed. Checking the availability of a radio-tracer that can deliver a $\\beta^{-}$ emitter to the tumor is a fundamental step in the deployment of such technique. This paper reports a study of the uptake of 90Y labeled (DOTATOC) in the meningioma and the high grade glioma (HGG) and a feasibility study of the RGS technique in these cases.

  14. Lessons Learned from Biosphere 2: When Viewed as a Ground Simulation/Analogue for Long Duration Human Space Exploration and Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, T.; Poynter, J.; Bearden, D.

    A human mission to Mars, or a base on the Moon or Mars, is a longer and more complex mission than any space endeavor undertaken to date. Ground simulations provide a relevant, analogous environment for testing technologies and learning how to manage complex, long duration missions, while addressing inherent mission risks. Multiphase human missions and settlements that may preclude a rapid return to Earth, require high fidelity, end-to-end, at least full mission duration tests in order to evaluate a system's ability to sustain the crew for the entire mission and return the crew safely to Earth. Moreover, abort scenarios are essentially precluded in many mission scenarios, though certain risks may only become evident late in the mission. Aging and compounding effects cannot be simulated through accelerated tests for all aspects of the mission. Until such high fidelity long duration simulations are available, and in order to help prepare those simulations and mission designs, it is important to extract as many lessons as possible from analogous environments. Possibly the best analogue for a long duration space mission is the two year mission of Biosphere 2. Biosphere 2 is a three-acre materially closed ecological system that supported eight crewmembers with food, air and water in a sunlight driven bioregenerative system for two years. It was designed for research applicable to environmental management on Earth and the development of human life support for space. A brief overview of the two-year Biosphere 2 mission is presented, followed by select data and lessons learned that are applicable to the design and operation of a long duration human space mission, settlement or test bed. These lessons include technical, programmatic, and psychological issues

  15. Cephalometric evaluation of the pharyngeal airway space after orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis of the jaw bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganapathy Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Orthognathic surgeries and distraction osteogenesis (DO of the jaw bones cause a change in the pharyngeal airway space (PAS. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of changes occurring in the pharyngeal airway after mandibular set-back surgeries and DO of maxilla/mandible. Materials and Methods: The study undertaken was a retrospective cephalometric study. Subjects included in our study had undergone mandibular set-back surgery or DO of maxilla/mandible. Lateral cephalograms of the subjects taken pre-operatively (T0, immediate post-operatively (T1 and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months (T2 were studied. The cephalograms were traced manually and the following parameters were evaluated: Surface area of the PAS, pharyngeal airway width at the level of the base of the tongue, position of the hyoid bone and the tongue. Repeated measure ANOVA test was done to assess the presence of any significant changes in the proposed parameters at T0, T1 and T2. A correlation analysis was made between the mandibular/maxillary movements and the corresponding changes in the PAS. Results: Surgical movements of maxilla and mandible do have an effect on the pharyngeal airway. Conclusion: It was clearly evident that the effects of mandibular movements on the PAS and the hyoid bone is more significant than the maxillary movements.

  16. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  17. Effects of different orthognathic surgery procedures on pharyngeal airway space: a single center study

    OpenAIRE

    Henzi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to reveal if different surgical procedures of the upper and lower jaw have an effect on the pharyngeal airway space (PAS). PAS is important considering the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), since an enlargement or a reduction of the PAS can influence an existing OSA, or even be a risk factor to create an OSA. Subjects and methods: The sample consisted of pre- and postoperative lateral cephalograms of 18 males and 26 females (mean age 23.25 ± 5.84 years). The incl...

  18. Robotic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  19. Outpatient Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Anesthesia Seniors and Anesthesia Surgery Risks Anesthesia Awareness Obesity and Anesthesia Sleep Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Outpatient Surgery Surgery does ...

  20. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  1. Synthesis of Tonghaosu Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai; LIN Yingjie; WU Yulin; WU Yikang

    2009-01-01

    Several new analogues of natural antifeedant tonghaosu were synthesized via m-CPBA (m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid) oxidation of corresponding 3-(a-furyl)propanols, Luche reduction of the resulting enone, epoxidation, acid-mediated spiroketalization, and radical mediated dehydration.

  2. Biosignature Preservation Vulnerability Associated with Stress Response Metabolic Redox Mode Switching in a Mars Analogue Coupled Microbial Mat Transiting Near-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R.; Ralat, A.

    2016-05-01

    Examination of a coupled microbial mat recovered from Death Valley failed to detect rosickyte, both before and after exposure to near-space conditions; associated redox proxies suggest diagenesis caused by rapid adaptive microbial stress response.

  3. Uncovering Mass Segregation with Galaxy Analogues in Dark Matter Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Gandhali D; Wadsley, James

    2016-01-01

    We investigate mass segregation in group and cluster environments by identifying galaxy analogues in high-resolution dark matter simulations. Subhalos identified by the AHF and ROCKSTAR halo finders have similar mass functions, independent of resolution, but different radial distributions due to significantly different subhalo hierarchies. We propose a simple way to classify subhalos as galaxy analogues. The radial distributions of galaxy analogues agree well at large halo-centric radii for both AHF and ROCKSTAR but disagree near parent halo centres where the phase-space information used by ROCKSTAR is essential. We see clear mass segregation at small radii (within $0.5\\,r_{vir}$) with average galaxy analogue mass decreasing with radius. Beyond the virial radius, we find a mild trend where the average galaxy analogue mass increases with radius. These mass segregation trends are strongest in small groups and dominated by the segregation of low mass analogues. The lack of mass segregation in massive galaxy anal...

  4. Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a number ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face many ...

  5. Nose Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is as high a priority as appearance. Can Cosmetic Nasal Surgery Create A "Perfect" Nose? Aesthetic nasal surgery (rhinoplasty) ... Cover Nasal Surgery? Insurance usually does not cover cosmetic surgery. However, surgery to correct or improve breathing function, ...

  6. Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > Body Image > Cosmetic surgery Body Image Cosmetic surgery ASPS list of inappropriate candidates for surgery ... their appearance. Return to top Additional resources on cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Explore other publications and websites ...

  7. Antifibrinolytics in liver surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jalpa Makwana; Saloni Paranjape; Jyotsna Goswami

    2010-01-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis, a known complication of liver surgery and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), plays a significant role in blood loss. This fact justifies the use of antifibrinolytic drugs during these procedures. Two groups of drug namely lysine analogues [epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) and tranexamic acid (TA)] and serine-protease-inhibitors (aprotinin) are frequently used for this purpose. But uniform data or guidelines on the type of antifibrinolytic drugs to be used, their indica...

  8. Relational Quadrilateralland. Analogues of Isospin and Hypercharge

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    I consider the momenta and conserved quantities for CP^2 interpreted as the space of quadrilaterals. This builds on seminar I and II's kinematics via making use of MacFarlane's work considering the SU(3)-like (and thus particle physics-like) conserved quantities that occur for CP^2. I perform the additional step of further interpreting that as the configuration space of all relational quadrilaterals and thus an interesting toy model for whole-universe, relational and geometrodynamical-analogu...

  9. Using the Moon as a high-fidelity analogue environment to study biological and behavioral effects of long-duration space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roma, Peter G.; De Boever, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Hargens, Alan R.; Loeppky, Jack A.; Evans, Joyce M.; Peter Stein, T.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Reitz, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its proximity to Earth, the Moon is a promising candidate for the location of an extra-terrestrial human colony. In addition to being a high-fidelity platform for research on reduced gravity, radiation risk, and circadian disruption, the Moon qualifies as an isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment suitable as an analog for studying the psychosocial effects of long-duration human space exploration missions and understanding these processes. In contrast, the various Antarctic research outposts such as Concordia and McMurdo serve as valuable platforms for studying biobehavioral adaptations to ICE environments, but are still Earth-bound, and thus lack the low-gravity and radiation risks of space. The International Space Station (ISS), itself now considered an analog environment for long-duration missions, better approximates the habitable infrastructure limitations of a lunar colony than most Antarctic settlements in an altered gravity setting. However, the ISS is still protected against cosmic radiation by the Earth magnetic field, which prevents high exposures due to solar particle events and reduces exposures to galactic cosmic radiation. On Moon the ICE environments are strengthened, radiations of all energies are present capable of inducing performance degradation, as well as reduced gravity and lunar dust. The interaction of reduced gravity, radiation exposure, and ICE conditions may affect biology and behavior - and ultimately mission success - in ways the scientific and operational communities have yet to appreciate, therefore a long-term or permanent human presence on the Moon would ultimately provide invaluable high-fidelity opportunities for integrated multidisciplinary research and for preparations of a manned mission to Mars.

  10. Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  11. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin of ......A in the human body are derived from Cbl....

  12. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  13. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  14. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  15. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  16. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  17. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    and its analogues are attractive as therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus, analogues of GIP are unlikely to be effective. On the other hand, GIP seems to play an important role in lipid metabolism, promoting the disposal of ingested lipids, and mice with a targeted deletion of the GIP...... of GIP and GLP-1 receptors, the incretin effect is essential for normal glucose tolerance. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus it turns out that the incretin effect is severely impaired or abolished. The explanation seems to be that both the secretion of GLP-1 and the effect of GIP are impaired...... (whereas both the secretion of GIP and the effect of GLP-1 are near normal). The impaired GLP-1 secretion is probably a consequence of diabetic metabolic disturbances. The known genetic variations in the GIP receptor sequence are not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but a defective insulinotropic...

  18. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  19. The Palmottu analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)

  20. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  1. Robotic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  2. Laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need. Alternative Names Surgery using a laser Images Laser therapy Lasik eye surgery - series References James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Cutaneous laser surgery. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, ...

  3. Foot Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the toe to maintain realignment. Neuroma Surgery: Neuroma surgery involves removing a benign enlargement of a nerve, usually between the metatarsal heads in the ball of the foot. This soft tissue surgery tends to have a ...

  4. Archaeological analogues and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One solution retained for the management of high-level and long living radioactive wastes is the disposal in deep underground. Among the studies carried out by the Andra for the evaluation this solution, one concerns the research on metals corrosion for the development of reliable containers. Laboratory corrosion tests are in progress and are compared to the corrosion state of archaeological metal specimens of several hundred years old. Gallic or Mesopotamian remnants are some of these archaeological analogues which are analyzed using the most advanced techniques of materials science. (J.S.)

  5. Radionuclide guided surgery in gastroenterology, current aspects and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical probes may seriously guide the surgeon for tumoral surgery. Various probes, which differ by their size and their structure, can be used today. For gastroenterology surgery, monoclonal antibodies have been used, generally after immunoscintigraphy, for per-operative detection with unsettled but encouraging results. As somatostatin analogues become currently available, new applications are possible for carcinoid tumor surgery. At last, an application to hepatic surgery could be proposed using radiolabelled lipiodol. (author)

  6. Radiolabeled somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin is a naturally occurring tetradecapeptide that inhibits the secretion of many hormones. Large numbers of binding sites with high affinity for somatostatin have been reported in a variety of tumors. An octapeptide analogue of somatostatin, octreotide (Sandostatin), is currently used in the treatment of patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumors to limit hormonal hyper secretion. In an effort to utilize the high specificity of octreotide for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, a tyrosine derivative of octreotide was prepared and labeled with the radioactive isotope, I-123. While the early clinical results obtained with this radiopharmaceutical were encouraging, the I-123 labeling procedure proved cumbersome and variable. To circumvent these difficulties, researchers at University Hospital Rotterdam (Holland) and Sandoz Research Institute (Switzerland) developed an In-111 labeled analogue of octreotide. This radiopharmaceutical is easy to prepare and has proven to be even more effective than the I-123 derivative in the scintigraphic imaging of tumors. These radiopharmaceutical developments and clinical observations are discussed in light of their relevance to the generation of new radiolabeled peptides for the diagnosis and potential radiotherapy of cancer. (authors). 30 refs., 5 figs

  7. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  8. Vorticity in analogue gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cropp, Bethan; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    In the analogue gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in a curved spacetime. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric which depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity free. In this work we provide an straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged --- relativistic and non-relativistic --- Bose--Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d'Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on a flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  9. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  10. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  11. Analogue cosmology in a hadronic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilić Neven

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog gravity models of general relativity seem promising routes to providing laboratory tests of the foundation of quantum field theory in curved space-time. In contrast to general relativity, where geometry of a spacetime is determined by the Einstein equations, in analog models geometry and evolution of analog spacetime are determined by the equations of fluid mechanics. In this paper we study the analogue gravity model based on massless pions propagating in a expanding hadronic fluid. The analog expanding spacetime takes the form of an FRW universe, with the apparent and trapping horizons defined in the standard way.

  12. Strabismus Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye socket during strabismus surgery. What is a recession? A recession weakens function by altering the attachment site on ... Sutures in Strabismus Surgery Strabismus Strabismus Measurements What causes strabismus? Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult ...

  13. Heart Surgery Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Choosing Wisely® Adult Cardiac Surgery What is Pediatric Heart Disease? What is Risk Adjustment? Valve Repair/Replacement Surgery Esophageal Surgery Lung/Thoracic Surgery Aneurysm Surgery Arrhythmia Surgery Other Types of Surgery Clinical ...

  14. Documenting the Analogue Past in Marijke van Warmerdam's Film Installations

    OpenAIRE

    Noordegraaf, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dutch visual artist Marijke van Warmerdam is best known for her film-based installations, which present simple settings or actions, such as a girl performing a handstand, in short, 16mm film loops that are projected in the gallery space. In 2011 van Warmerdam took the decision to digitize most of her film installations. From a conservation perspective this is remarkable, since the disappearance of the analogue 16mm projectors from the gallery space significantly alters the experience of van W...

  15. Strabismus Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used. Some surgeons prescribe an antibiotic or combination antibiotic/steroid drop or ointment after surgery. More technical ... Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ...

  16. Quantum Analogue Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us, and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data is encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilb...

  17. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue lowers blood pressure through vasodilation and sodium channel inhibition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, M. A. H.; Pavlov, T. S.; Christain, S. V.; Neckář, Jan; Staruschenko, A.; Gauthier, K. M.; Capdevila, J. H.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, W. B.; Imig, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 7 (2014), s. 463-474. ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : angiotensin II * epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) * epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.598, year: 2014

  18. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  19. The value of CT in diagnosis infection in the disc space after lumbar disc surgery%CT在腰椎间盘手术后椎间隙感染诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任常太

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the CT value in diagnosis of infection in the disc space after lumbar disc surgery. Methods CT data of 9 patients with post-operation disc space infection, who suffered from lumbar disc herniation confirmed by CT, surgery, and follow-up, were retrospectively analyzed in this work. Results 9 cases appeared the reduced disc density, 7 cases showed the disappeared fat space between the psoas muscle and vertebral body, 4 cases presented the vertebral bone destruction, and 1 case appeared the residual gas in the disc space. Conclusion CT assessment possesses a great value in the diagnosis of intervertebral space infection after lumbar disc herniation surgery.%目的 探讨CT在腰椎间盘手术后椎间隙感染诊断中的价值.方法 回顾性分析经CT确诊、手术和随访证实的9例腰椎间盘突出症手术后椎间隙感染患者的CT资料.结果 9例可见椎间盘密度减低,7例示腰大肌与椎体间的脂肪间隙消失,4例可见椎体骨质破坏,1例椎间隙残留气体.结论 CT检查对腰椎间盘突出症术后椎间隙感染的诊断具有重要价值.

  20. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... had surgery to repair a tendon in your elbow . The surgeon made a cut (incision) over the ...

  1. q-Analogue of Wright Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a q-analogues of Wright function and its auxiliary functions as Barnes integral representations and series expansion. The relations between q-analogues of Wright function and some other functions are investigated.

  2. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  3. Novel acetylcholine and carbamoylcholine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Christensen, Jeppe K.;

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity for this ...

  4. Choosing surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstensson, Carina; Lohmander, L; Frobell, Richard; Roos, Ewa; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand patients' views of treatment after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and their reasons for deciding to request surgery despite consenting to participate in a randomised controlled trial (to 'cross-over'). METHODS: Thirty-four in...... traumas; and many described their lack of trust in their knee. Patients believed that surgery would provide joint stability. Despite the ostensible satisfaction with surgery, more detailed exploration showed mixed views. CONCLUSIONS: Participants in a trial of treatments for acute ACL injury express a......-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18-35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed...

  5. Varicocele Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Varicocele Surgery Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY February 24, 2009 Welcome to this "OR Live" Webcast presentation premiering from Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. ...

  6. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plastic surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, and neurosurgeons. If a tumor is large or is in a spot where removing it completely would severely affect the child’s appearance or cause other problems, then surgery may be ...

  7. Varicocele Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Varicocele Surgery Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY February 24, 2009 Welcome to this "OR Live" Webcast presentation premiering from Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. During the ...

  8. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  9. Acne Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Dilworth, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Acne surgery consists of comedone extraction of non-inflamed lesions, triamcinolone acetate injections of some inflamed lesions, and extraction of milia. Prevention is a very important part of comedone treatment, especially avoidance of picking, moisturizers and harsh soaps. Instruments are also very important: even the finest may be too thick and may have to be filed down. Acne surgery is only an adjunct of good medical therapy.

  10. Tennis elbow surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is usually an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be given medicine ( ...

  11. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, ...

  12. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft - CABG) Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart repair Minimally ... Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Patent ...

  13. Tennis elbow surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is usually an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be ...

  14. Antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Dhir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery exerts a significant strain on the blood bank services and is a model example in which a multi-modal blood-conservation strategy is recommended. Significant bleeding during cardiac surgery, enough to cause re-exploration and/or blood transfusion, increases morbidity and mortality. Hyper-fibrinolysis is one of the important contributors to increased bleeding. This knowledge has led to the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents especially in procedures performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Nothing has been more controversial in recent times than the aprotinin controversy. Since the withdrawal of aprotinin from the world market, the choice of antifibrinolytic agents has been limited to lysine analogues either tranexamic acid (TA or epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA. While proponents of aprotinin still argue against its non-availability. Health Canada has approved its use, albeit under very strict regulations. Antifibrinolytic agents are not without side effects and act like double-edged swords, the stronger the anti-fibrinolytic activity, the more serious the side effects. Aprotinin is the strongest in reducing blood loss, blood transfusion, and possibly, return to the operating room after cardiac surgery. EACA is the least effective, while TA is somewhere in between. Additionally, aprotinin has been implicated in increased mortality and maximum side effects. TA has been shown to increase seizure activity, whereas, EACA seems to have the least side effects. Apparently, these agents do not differentiate between pathological and physiological fibrinolysis and prevent all forms of fibrinolysis leading to possible thrombotic side effects. It would seem prudent to select the right agent knowing its risk-benefit profile for a given patient, under the given circumstances.

  15. Status of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is based on the materials for the meeting at the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan held on September 1993. Details are as follows: Alteration of glass as the study of alteration of natural minerals; alteration of uranium minerals, migration of uranium and thorium series radionuclides, alteration of chlorite, fixation of uranium alteration of minerals and migration of uranium as the study of alligator rivers analogue project held at Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. (author)

  16. Visual analogue measurement of pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, W. I.; Lewis, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two separate studies were carried out to determine if three visual analogue scales for various feelings including pain could be marked consistently by patients, without reference to previously completed scales. Sixty patients undergoing extraction of their lower third molars had measurements of acute preoperative anxiety, expected postoperative pain and postoperative perceived pain three times in quick succession. There was no significant difference between the three measurements for any of t...

  17. STUDY OF PLASTIC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Shrutika Sarangi

    2015-01-01

    Plastic surgery is a therapeutic system with the motivation behind modification or restoring the body's type. In spite of the fact that corrective or stylish surgery is the most surely understood sort of plastic surgery, plastic surgery itself is not inexorably considered cosmetic; and incorporates numerous sorts of reconstructive surgery, craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of smolders.

  18. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely......National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...

  19. Cosmetic surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The psychotherapeutic nature of cosmetic surgery is emphasised by outlining the range of symptoms from which patients suffer and by explaining the sequence of psychological reactions which cause them. The principles which govern the selection of patients are defined. A brief account of each of the main cosmetic operations is given together with notes on their limitations and risks.

  20. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... piece of tumor for a biopsy Remove abnormal brain tissue Drain blood or an infection Free a nerve The bone flap is usually replaced after surgery, using small metal ... or if the brain was swollen. (This is called a craniectomy.) The ...

  1. Template polymerization of nucleotide analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the template-directed reactions of the natural D-nucleotides has made it clear that l-nucleotides and nucleotide-like derivatives of other sugars would strongly inhibit the formation of long oligonucleotides. Consequently, attention is focusing on molecules simpler than nucleotides that might have acted as monomers of an information transfer system. We have begun a general exploration of the template directed reactions of diverse peptide analogues. I will present work by Dr. Taifeng Wu on oxidative oligomerization of phosphorothioates and of Dr. Mary Tohidi on the cyclic polymerization of nucleoside and related cyclic pyrophosphates.

  2. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  3. Analogue imprecision in MLP training

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, PJ

    1996-01-01

    Hardware inaccuracy and imprecision are important considerations when implementing neural algorithms. This book presents a study of synaptic weight noise as a typical fault model for analogue VLSI realisations of MLP neural networks and examines the implications for learning and network performance. The aim of the book is to present a study of how including an imprecision model into a learning scheme as a"fault tolerance hint" can aid understanding of accuracy and precision requirements for a particular implementation. In addition the study shows how such a scheme can give rise to significant

  4. 计算机辅助外科中手术与计划空间标定以及视觉空间的误差校正%Calibration Between Operation Space and Plan Space and Error Correction of Visual Space in Computer-aided Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锥; 周宇; 席文明

    2012-01-01

    In computer-aided surgery (CAS) system,many space integrates in together,in order to improve the precision of the system operation,the effective calibration method to correct the error between the space is needed. Using the robot characteristics motion errors in visual space of navigation system to establish the mapping of visual space and robot space,and to recursion correction the local transformation matrix of visual space and robot space. Using local transformation matrix to establish optimization equatipn.and then obtaining global optimal transformation matrix. This method for all the static and dynamic error correction. According to the coupling error exists in the operation and plan space,using the designed special structure force sensor and calibration piece of decoupling to calibration its error, and according to the transformation matrix to adjust the objects position and orientation in the plan space to ensure that the objects in the plan space have the same pose with it in the operation space. The experimental results show that the dynamic calibration method can make the visual space global error reduced to 5 pixels,and the force control calibration method can make the position error is reduced to 0. 25 mm and the posture error reduced to 0. 1%计算机辅助外科(CAS)系统中,多空间集成在一起,为了提高系统的操作精度,需要有效的标定方法校正空间之间的误差.利用机器人上特征在导航系统中视觉空间的运动误差,建立视觉空间与机器人空间的映射关系,递归校正两空间之间的局部转换矩阵.利用局部转换矩阵建立优化方程,求取全局最优转换矩阵.该方法对所有动态、静态误差进行校正.针对手术与计划空间中存在的耦合误差,利用设计的特殊结构力传感器和标定块解耦标定其误差,并根据求取的转换矩阵,调整计划空间中对象的位姿,保证计划空间与手术空间中的对象位姿一致.实验结果表明,动

  5. Establishment of antenna membrane states FEM on analogue method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wen-hui; CAO Xi-bin; ZHAO Yang

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of choosing the basic element as the bar and choosing the basic mesh as the triangle as well as supposing the conditions of the element,the membrane states of an antenna reflector were researched by the analogue method,because the membrane effect Was not omitted during the ending deployment process of the radial rib antenna.The expressions of the bar element's section area and density were obtained.while the expression of the stress state during the ending deployment process of antenna was attained.During the establishment process of the analogue method,the analysis method of the net shell structure was employed.Moreover,during the backward deduction of membrane stress,the continuation method Was adopted.Because the expression of the membrane stress state can realize the analysis on the antenna membrane state.this research has great significance of theoretical direction to the normal operation of the space deployable antenna.

  6. The Valles natural analogue project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McConnell, V. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  7. The Valles natural analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39Ar/4O isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  8. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more. Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the ... more. Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the ...

  9. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  10. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  11. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  12. What Is Refractive Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  13. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the ... Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the ...

  14. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ...

  15. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ...

  16. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  17. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ...

  18. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ...

  19. Application of the Alligator rivers analogue for validation of safety assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural analogues play an important role in validation of performance assessment models by providing the possibility to study processes that have been active over scales in time and space relevant for repositories in the long term. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has initiated a project with the aim of validating performance assessment models based on information and data from the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. This paper describes the initial phases and planning of the work. Some general viewpoints on validation and application of natural analogues are given. Especially the importance of uncertainties is stressed. Integrated with the validation study a scenario development exercise is performed with the purpose to describe possible external conditions for evolution of the analogue. 2 refs

  20. Application of the Alligator Rivers analogue for validation of safety assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural analogues play an important role in validation of performance assessment models by providing the possibility to study processes that have been active over scales in time and space relevant for repositories in the long term. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has initiated a project with the aim of validating performance assessment models based on information and data from the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. This paper describes the initial phases and planning of the work. Some general viewpoints on validation and application of natural analogues are given; the importance of uncertainties is stressed. Integrated with the validation study, a scenario , development exercise is performed with the purpose to describe possible external conditions for evolution of the analogue. 2 refs., 1 fig

  1. Antifibrinolytics in liver surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalpa Makwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperfibrinolysis, a known complication of liver surgery and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, plays a significant role in blood loss. This fact justifies the use of antifibrinolytic drugs during these procedures. Two groups of drug namely lysine analogues [epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA and tranexamic acid (TA] and serine-protease-inhibitors (aprotinin are frequently used for this purpose. But uniform data or guidelines on the type of antifibrinolytic drugs to be used, their indications and correct dose, is still insufficient. Antifibrinolytics behave like a double-edged sword. On one hand, there are benefits of less transfusion requirements but on the other hand there is potential complication like thromboembolism, which has been reported in several studies. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Cochrane Library, and we included studies wherein antifibrinolytic drugs (EACA, TA, or aprotinin were compared with each other or with controls/placebo. We analysed factors like intraoperative red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma requirements, the perioperative incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis, venous thromboembolic events and mortality. Among the three drugs, EACA is least studied. Use of extensively studied drug like aprotinin has been restricted because of its side effects. Haemostatic effect of aprotinin and tranexamic acid has been comparable. However, proper patient selection and individualized treatment for each of them is required. Purpose of this review is to study various clinical trials on antifibrinolytic drugs and address the related issues like benefits claimed and associated potential complications.

  2. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health. Click here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, ... health. Click here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, ...

  3. The chaos machine: analogue computing rediscovered (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ambaum, Maarten H. P.; Harrison, R. Giles

    2011-01-01

    Analogue computers provide actual rather than virtual representations of model systems. They are powerful and engaging computing machines that are cheap and simple to build. This two-part Retronics article helps you build (and understand!) your own analogue computer to simulate the Lorenz butterfly that's become iconic for Chaos theory.

  4. Measuring preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing elective surgery in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlína Homzová; Renáta Zeleníková

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The main aim of the study was to measure preoperative anxiety in patients in the Czech Republic before elective surgery, using the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A). Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methods: The sample consisted of 344 patients undergoing elective surgery. The day before surgery patients completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic data, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and the VAS-A. Spearman correlation was use...

  5. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  6. Strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; HongLi; CHOU; JiFan

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively improve numerical prediction level by using current models and data, the strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction (DAP) is deeply studied in the present paper. A new idea to predict the prediction errors of dynamical model on the basis of historical analogue information is put forward so as to transform the dynamical prediction problem into the estimation problem of prediction errors. In terms of such an idea, a new prediction method of final analogue correction of errors (FACE) is developed. Furthermore, the FACE is applied to extra-seasonal prediction experiments on an operational atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model. Prediction results of summer mean circulation and total precipitation show that the FACE can to some extent reduce prediction errors, recover prediction variances, and improve prediction skills. Besides, sensitive experiments also show that predictions based on the FACE are evidently influenced by the number of analogues, analogue-selected variables and analogy metric.

  7. French radioactive wastes performance assessment and the natural analogues approach: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main difficulties linked to the Radioactive Waste Performance Assessment calculations lies in the scale of time and space underlying these calculations: mechanisms and parameters can directly be affected by time or space dependency. The ''natural analogues'' approach has evident advantages, at least qualitative, to enlighten these aspects. It may also provide confidence in our ability to model partial or overall natural systems. The following paper gives the headlines of the use of the ''natural analogues'' methodology in the French Radioactive Wastes Performance Assessment in the field of waste disposal

  8. Effects of quantum potential on lower dimensional models of analogue gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Supratik; Bhattacharyay, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    We address the issues related to the presence of the quantum potential term in a BEC on the observable analogue gravity systems. We show that the quantum potential term apparently gives rise to massive scalar excitations of length scales of the order O (1 /ξ ) in the lower dimensional space. Since, in "analogue models", there is a window for experimental observations generally in (2 +1 ) or even lower dimensional space, one has to take proper account of the presence of these massive excitations to interpret the results.

  9. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  10. A low-dimensional analogue of holographic baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryons in holographic QCD correspond to topological solitons in the bulk. The most prominent example is the Sakai–Sugimoto model, where the bulk soliton in the five-dimensional spacetime of AdS-type can be approximated by the flat space self-dual Yang–Mills instanton with a small size. Recently, the validity of this approximation has been verified by comparison with the numerical field theory solution. However, multi-solitons and solitons with finite density are currently beyond numerical field theory computations. Various approximations have been applied to investigate these important issues and have led to proposals for finite density configurations that include dyonic salt and baryonic popcorn. Here we introduce and investigate a low-dimensional analogue of the Sakai–Sugimoto model, in which the bulk soliton can be approximated by a flat space sigma model instanton. The bulk theory is a baby Skyrme model in a three-dimensional spacetime with negative curvature. The advantage of the lower-dimensional theory is that numerical simulations of multi-solitons and finite density solutions can be performed and compared with flat space instanton approximations. In particular, analogues of dyonic salt and baryonic popcorn configurations are found and analysed. (paper)

  11. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24918540

  14. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  15. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties. PMID:22721390

  16. Acoustojet: acoustic analogue of photonic jet phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Minin, Igor V

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated for the first time that an existence of acoustic analogue of photonic jet phenomenon, called acoustojet, providing for subwavelength localization of acoustic field in the shadow area of arbitrary 3D penetrable mesoscale particle, is possible.

  17. International video project on natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A natural analogue can be defined as a natural process which has occurred in the past and is studied in order to test predictions about the future evolution of similar processes. In recent years, natural analogues have been used increasingly to test the mathematical models required for repository performance assessment. Analogues are, however, also of considerable use in public relations as they allow many of the principles involved in demonstrating repository safety to be illustrated in a clear manner using natural systems with which man is familiar. The international Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG), organised under the auspices of the CEC, has recognised that such PR applications are of considerable importance and should be supported from a technical level. At the NAWG meeting in Pitlochry, Scotland (June 1990), it was recommended that the possibilities for making a video film on this topic be investigated and Nagra was requested to take the lead role in setting up such a project

  18. Total Synthesis of the Analogue of Icogenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Jie HOU; Peng XU; Liang ZHOU; De Quan YU; Ping Sheng LEI; Chuan Chun ZOU

    2006-01-01

    One of the analogues of icogenin, a natural furostanol saponin showing strong cytotoxic effect on cancer cell, was first synthesized via convergent strategy by using diosgenin and available monosaccharides as starting materials,

  19. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  20. Synthesis of caged Garcinia xanthone analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Woo Cheal

    2009-01-01

    A new synthetic strategy is developed toward the synthesis of the caged Garcinia xanthone analogues. The key to the strategy is a Pd-catalyzed reverse prenylation reaction. This new synthetic approach provides a rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues, including cluvenone which is known to induce apoptosis and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. Evaluation of their growth inhibitory activities also leads to identification of the pharmacophoric motif of...

  1. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Enzmann Harald G; Weise Martina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing aut...

  2. Analogue of the Event Horizon in Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Konig, Friedrich; Philbin, Thomas G.; Kuklewicz, Chris; Robertson, Scott; Hill, Stephen; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    In conclusion, we have developed a theory for artificial event horizons in fibers. Experimentally, light was blue-shifted by a near group velocity-matched pulse. The measured data was explained by the presence of an optical group velocity horizon inside the fiber. A very good agreement between theory and experiment was observed. The blue shifting corresponds to the optical analogue of trans-Planckian frequency shifts in astrophysics (t'Hooft, 1985; Jacobson, 1991). The temperature of analogue...

  3. Newer insulin analogues and inhaled insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Girish C; Manikandan S; Jayanthi M

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease with high prevalence worldwide. Exogenous insulin is used in the management of this condition. The development of human insulin has provided tighter control of glycaemia in diabetic patients. Insulin analogues like insulin lispro and aspart were developed to closely match its profile with physiological secretion. The newer additions to this armamentarium are insulin glulisine, insulin detemir and albulin.Insulin glulisine is a short acting analogue with a rapid...

  4. Somatostatin analogue treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    de Herder, W. W.; van der Lely, A.J.; Lamberts, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    The long-acting analogues of somatostatin have an established place in the medical treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. They act through binding with specific, high-affinity membrane receptors. Somatostatin analogue therapy is an effective and safe treatment for most growth hormone and thyrothropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. The potential therapeutic consequences of the presence of somatostatin receptors on clinically 'nonfunctioning' pituitary tumours are still uncertain. So...

  5. Joint Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Arthritis July 2014 Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family What Is Joint Replacement Surgery? Joint replacement surgery is removing a ...

  6. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Soft Tissue Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Obstructive Sleep Apnea TMJ and Facial Pain Treatment of Facial Injury Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral ...

  7. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receive light-weight earrings. Does Insurance Pay for Cosmetic Ear Surgery? Insurance usually does not cover surgery solely for ... republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. Ears Cosmetic Surgery, Facelift, Rhinoplasty, Blepharoplasty ... Get Involved Professional Development Practice ...

  8. Surgery for pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007649.htm Surgery for pancreatic cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... surgery are used in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer. Whipple procedure: This is the most common surgery ...

  9. A finite element model and electronic analogue of pipeline pressure transients with frequency-dependent friction

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A finite element model and its equivalent electronic analogue circuit of hydraulic transmission lines have been developed. Basic equations are approximated to be a set of ordinary differential equations that can be represented in state space form. The accuracy of the model is demonstrated by comparison with the method of characteristics.

  10. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... 31. Thorne CH. Otoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  11. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...

  12. Spherical CR geometry and Dehn surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Richard Evan

    2007-01-01

    This book proves an analogue of William Thurston's celebrated hyperbolic Dehn surgery theorem in the context of complex hyperbolic discrete groups, and then derives two main geometric consequences from it. The first is the construction of large numbers of closed real hyperbolic 3-manifolds which bound complex hyperbolic orbifolds--the only known examples of closed manifolds that simultaneously have these two kinds of geometric structures. The second is a complete understanding of the structure of complex hyperbolic reflection triangle groups in cases where the angle is small. In an accessible

  13. Hysteroscopic myomectomy outcomes after 3-month treatment with either Ulipristal Acetate or GnRH analogues: a retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Javier Monleón; Delgado, Verónica Serrano de la Cruz; Valero, Maria José Nuñez; Soteras, Marta Gurrea; Amate, Vicente Payá; Carrascosa, Antonio Abad

    2016-03-01

    Ulipristal Acetate (UPA) modifies the endometrium, as well as fibroids, and therefore it might make hysteroscopic surgery more difficult. To confirm that pre-treatment with UPA is as safe and effective an option as pre-treatment with GnRH analogues, considered the gold standard. We present the first series of 26 hysteroscopic myomectomies after 3 months treatment with UPA and we compare the results with a series of 24 cases pretreated with GnRH analogues. This was a retrospective cohort study between July 2013 and May 2015. We analyszed patients with submucous myomas >2.5 in diameter. Hysteroscopic myomectomy was performed after 3 months of treatment with either UPA (5mg daily) or the GnRH agonist (3.75mg/month). Both groups were similar in age, myoma initial size and classification. There were no significant differences between UPA and GnRHa treated groups in terms of percentage of myomas resected (93% vs 98%), duration of surgery (38 vs 37min), fluid deficit (200 vs 350ml) and complications. In the surgeon's subjective opinion, UPA treatment was associated with an easier resection. Based on our experience, previous treatment with UPA does not difficult Hhysteroscopic myomectomy. Endometrial changes have no impact on surgery. Safety and feasibility are comparable to hysteroscopic myomectomies with previous treatment with GnRH analogues. This allows us to take advantage of the reduction in size of fibroids before surgery with less side effects. PMID:26871272

  14. Slime Mould Analogue Models of Space Exploration and Planet Colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, A.; Armstrong, R.; De Lacy Costello, B.; Deng, Y.; Jones, J.; Mayne, R.; Schubert, T.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Zhang, X.

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell that is visible by the unaided eye. When spanning sources of nutrients the slime mould builds a network of protoplasmic tubes which is sometimes considered to be optimal in terms of the minimization of metabolite transportation time and distance away from repellents. Previously we have shown that the slime mould is efficient in imitating the formation of man-made road networks in major countries, where major urban areas are sources of nutrients. We used a similar approach to grow slime mould on a three-dimensional template of the Moon to speculate on potential colonisation scenarios. The slime mould imitated the propagation of colonisation in an exploratory mode, i.e. without any definite targets. Additional transportation hubs/targets were added after the initial network was formed, to imitate the development of colonies in parallel with slime mould growth. We provide analyses of proximity graphs representing colonisation networks and support the findings with Physarum-inspired algorithms to inform supply chain design. We speculate on how living Physarum, or its incorporation into a polymer hybrid material, can be used as a wearable smart wetware based on laboratory experiments interacting with chemical components.

  15. Glucagonlike Peptide 2 Analogue Teduglutide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S.; Basson, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Short bowel syndrome occurs when a shortened intestine cannot absorb sufficient nutrients or fluids. Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide 2 that reduces dependence on parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome by promoting enterocytic proliferation, increasing the absorptive surface area. However, enterocyte function depends not only on the number of cells that are present but also on differentiated features that facilitate nutrient absorption and digestion. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that teduglutide impairs human intestinal epithelial differentiation. DESIGN AND SETTING We investigated the effects of teduglutide in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells at a basic science laboratory. This was an in vitro study using Caco-2 cells, a human-derived intestinal epithelial cell line commonly used to model enterocytic biology. EXPOSURE Cells were exposed to teduglutide or vehicle control. MAINOUTCOMESAND MEASURES We analyzed the cell cycle by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. We used quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to assay the expression of the enterocytic differentiation markers villin, sucrase-isomaltase, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as well as that of the putative differentiation signals schlafen 12 (SLFN12) and caudal-related homeobox intestine-specific transcription factor (Cdx2). Villin promoter activity was measured by a luciferase-based assay. RESULTS The MTS assay demonstrated that teduglutide increased cell numbers by a mean (SD) of 10% (2%) over untreated controls at a maximal 500nM (n = 6, P < .05). Teduglutide increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells vs untreated controls by a mean (SD

  16. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Franca M A; Fanucchi, Olivia; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a "no-touch" technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally invasive

  17. Convergent syntheses of LeX analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of three Lex derivatives from one common protected trisaccharide is reported. These analogues will be used respectively for competitive binding experiments, conjugation to carrier proteins and immobilization on gold. An N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide acceptor was first glycosylated at O-4 with a galactosyl imidate. This coupling was performed at 40 °C under excess of BF3·OEt2 activation and proceeded best if the acceptor carried a 6-chlorohexyl rather than a 6-azidohexyl aglycon. The 6-chlorohexyl disaccharide was then converted to an acceptor and submitted to fucosylation yielding the corresponding protected 6-chlorohexyl Lex trisaccharide. This protected trisaccharide was used as a precursor to the 6-azidohexyl, 6-acetylthiohexyl and 6-benzylthiohexyl trisaccharide analogues which were obtained in excellent yields (70–95%. In turn, we describe the deprotection of these intermediates in one single step using dissolving metal conditions. Under these conditions, the 6-chlorohexyl and 6-azidohexyl intermediates led respectively to the n-hexyl and 6-aminohexyl trisaccharide targets. Unexpectedly, the 6-acetylthiohexyl analogue underwent desulfurization and gave the n-hexyl glycoside product, whereas the 6-benzylthiohexyl analogue gave the desired disulfide trisaccharide dimer. This study constitutes a particularly efficient and convergent preparation of these three Lex analogues.

  18. Newer insulin analogues and inhaled insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease with high prevalence worldwide. Exogenous insulin is used in the management of this condition. The development of human insulin has provided tighter control of glycaemia in diabetic patients. Insulin analogues like insulin lispro and aspart were developed to closely match its profile with physiological secretion. The newer additions to this armamentarium are insulin glulisine, insulin detemir and albulin.Insulin glulisine is a short acting analogue with a rapid onset of action. The antiapoptotic property, mediated through insulin substrate receptor-2 has a favourable protective action on beta cells. Insulin detemir is a long acting analogue, soluble at neutral pH, which reversibly binds to albumin in plasma, prolonging its action. Its lower affinity for insulin receptors necessitates higher doses compared to human insulin. The reduction in body weight is an additional advantage of detemir. A major concern about all newer insulin analogues is their altered mitogenic properties and resultant risk of carcinogenicity on long term use. Albulin is a latest addition of insulin analogue which is under various in vitro and in vivo studies. Inhaled insulin in powder form (Exubera is recently approved by FDA and appears promising.

  19. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem A.

    2016-02-04

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  20. Geomagnetic properties of Proxima Centauri b analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of a planet around the closest star, Proxima Centauri, could represent a quantum leap on the testability of models in exoplanet sciences. Unlike any other discovered exoplanet, models of planetary processes in Proxima b could be contrasted against near future telescopic observations and far future in-situ measurements. In this paper we study the geomagnetic properties of Proxima b analogues, namely, solid planets with masses close but larger than Earth's mass, periods of rotation of several days and habitable surface conditions. Assuming different planetary masses, bulk compositions and periods of rotations, we calculate for each planetary analogue its radius, heat flux, time of inner core formation, dynamo lifetime and minimum dipole magnetic moment. We find that most ($\\gtrsim$70\\%) Proxima b analogues develop intrinsic dynamos that last at least 3 Gyr, although only half of them are older than the present age of the host star ($4-6$ Gyr). Relying in our planetary evolution models, we p...

  1. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  2. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  3. Somatostatin analogues for acute bleeding oesophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Hrobjartsson, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatostatin and its derivatives are sometimes used for emergency treatment of bleeding oesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. OBJECTIVES: To study whether somatostatin or its analogues improve survival or reduce the need for blood transfusions in patients with...... bleeding oesophageal varices. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library were searched (November 2007). Reference lists of publications, contacts with authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised trials comparing somatostatin or analogues with placebo or no treatment in patients suspected of acute or...

  4. Natural analogues in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to validate predictive models of the very long-term processes which effect the performance of radioactive waste repositories, there has been increasing interest in the information which can be obtained from studying similar mechanisms in natural systems. Although such analogues have been studied for many years, performance assessment methodology has now matured to the point where it can enlist the support which analogues can offer. Consequently this book assesses the safety levels attributable to underground depositories for radioactive waste be examining natural depositories to radioactive material and their degree of migration

  5. Robotics in pediatric surgery: perspectives for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robotic surgery will give surgeons the ability to perform essentially tremorless microsurgery in tiny spaces with delicate precision and may enable procedures never before possible on children, neonates, and fetuses. Collaboration with radiologists, engineers, and other scientists will permit refinement of image-guided technologies and allow the realization of truly remarkable concepts in minimally invasive surgery. While robotic surgery is now in clinical use in several surgical specialties (heart bypass, prostate removal, and various gastrointestinal procedures), the greatest promise of robotics lies in pediatric surgery. We will briefly review the history and background of robotic technology in surgery, discuss its present benefits and uses and those being explored, and speculate on the future, with attention to the current and potential involvement of imaging modalities and the role of image guidance. (orig.)

  6. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  7. Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975

    CERN Document Server

    Small, James S

    2013-01-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.

  8. 腰椎术后椎间隙感染切口病灶清除术治疗效果分析%Effect of primary incision debridement on treatment of intervertebral space infections after lumbar spine surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡家美; 乐敏莉; 徐新华; 唐尚权; 熊国相

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究对腰椎术后椎间隙感染患者进行切口病灶清除手术的治疗效果,为临床治疗腰椎术后间隙感染提供一定借鉴。方法对比分析与回顾性分析相结合,调查2006年3月-2013年3月收治的28例腰椎术后间隙感染患者治疗资料,根据其采用的治疗方法进行分组,12例患者采用抗菌药物输液及卧床休息保守治疗方法为A组;16例患者采用切口病灶清除手术治疗为B组,对A、B两组的治疗方法进行分析,并对治疗过程中的相关数据进行比较。结果 A组患者的平均疼痛消失、体温恢复时间分别为13、10周,多于B组患者的7、4周,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);A组患者的平均红细胞沉降率正常时间、C‐反应蛋白转阴时间分别为11、9.5周,多于B组患者的6.5、4周,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组患者平均住院时间2.3个月,长于B组患者的1.1个月,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);A 组患者的住院花费分别为2.77万元,略少于B组患者的3.44万元。结论切口病灶切除手术疗效好、病程短,能够彻底清除病变部位的炎性组织、抑制细菌生长,减少患者由于长期卧床而引起的并发症,临床可推广该方法进行腰椎术后椎间隙感染的治疗。%OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of primary incision debridement on treatment of intervertebral space infections in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery so as to provide guidance for clinical treatment of the post‐operative intervertebral space infections .METHODS By means of comparative analysis combined with retrospec‐tively analysis ,the clinical data of 28 patients who underwent the lumbar spine surgery from Mar 2006 to Mar 2013 and were complicated with postoperative space infections were investigated ,the patients were grouped ac‐cording to the treatment measures the group A with 12 patients was treated with

  9. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido

    2010-05-01

    , models accommodated initial shortening by a forward- and a backward-verging thrust. Further shortening was taken up by in-sequence formation of forward-verging thrusts. In all experiments, boundary stresses created significant drag of structures along the sidewalls. We therefore compared the surface slope and the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in sections through the central part of the model. All models show very similar cross-sectional evolutions demonstrating reproducibility of first-order experimental observations. Nevertheless, there are significant along-strike variations of structures in map view highlighting the limits of interpretations of analogue model results. These variations may be related to the human factor, differences in model width and/or differences in laboratory temperature and especially humidity affecting the mechanical properties of the granular materials. GeoMod2008 Analogue Team: Susanne Buiter, Caroline Burberry, Jean-Paul Callot, Cristian Cavozzi, Mariano Cerca, Ernesto Cristallini, Alexander Cruden, Jian-Hong Chen, Leonardo Cruz, Jean-Marc Daniel, Victor H. Garcia, Caroline Gomes, Céline Grall, Cecilia Guzmán, Triyani Nur Hidayah, George Hilley, Chia-Yu Lu, Matthias Klinkmüller, Hemin Koyi, Jenny Macauley, Bertrand Maillot, Catherine Meriaux, Faramarz Nilfouroushan, Chang-Chih Pan, Daniel Pillot, Rodrigo Portillo, Matthias Rosenau, Wouter P. Schellart, Roy Schlische, Andy Take, Bruno Vendeville, Matteo Vettori, M. Vergnaud, Shih-Hsien Wang, Martha Withjack, Daniel Yagupsky, Yasuhiro Yamada

  10. Human factors research as part of a Mars exploration analogue mission on Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsted, Kim; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Griofa, Marc Ó.; Bishop, Sheryl; Lapierre, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Human factors research is a critical element of space exploration as it provides insight into a crew's performance, psychology and interpersonal relationships. Understanding the way humans work in space-exploration analogue environments permits the development and testing of countermeasures for and responses to potential hazardous situations, and can thus help improve mission efficiency and safety. Analogue missions, such as the one described here, have plausible mission constraints and operational scenarios, similar to those that a real Mars crew would experience. Long duration analogue studies, such as those being conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada, offer an opportunity to study mission operations and human factors in a semi-realistic environment, and contribute to the design of missions to explore the Moon and Mars. The FMARS XI Long Duration Mission (F-XI LDM) was, at four months, the longest designed analogue Mars mission conducted to date, and thus provides a unique insight into human factors issues for long-duration space exploration. Here, we describe the six human factors studies that took place during F-XI LDM, and give a summary of their results, where available. We also present a meta-study, which examined the impact of the human-factors research itself on crew schedule and workload. Based on this experience, we offer some lessons learnt: some aspects (perceived risk and crew motivation, for example) of analogue missions must be realistic for study results to be valid; human factors studies are time-consuming, and should be fully integrated into crew schedules; and crew-ground communication and collaboration under long-term exploration conditions can present serious challenges.

  11. The PAAG group and natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of how OECD/NEA is organized with regard to questions dealing with management of radioactive wastes. The role of the two advisory groups, PAAG and ISAG, to the Radioactive waste management Committee is discussed with specific regard to the use of natural analogues in safety assessments

  12. Second-Generation Fluorescent Quadracyclic Adenine Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumat, Blaise; Bood, Mattias; Wranne, Moa S.;

    2015-01-01

    quadracyclic adenine analogues. The compounds were efficiently synthesized from a common intermediate through a two-step pathway with the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling as the key step. Two of the compounds, qAN1 and qAN4, display brightnesses (epsilon Phi(F)) of 1700 and 2300, respectively, in water and behave as...

  13. Synthesis of C-Arylnucleoside Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Len

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified nucleoside analogues are of great biological importance as antiviral and antitumoral agents. There is special interest in the preparation of C-aryl nucleosides with an aromatic ring in different positions of the glycone for their biological activity. Different chemical synthesis strategies for these targets are described in this review.

  14. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine. PMID:11003150

  15. Somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and tuberculosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy using a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue (111 In-pentetreotide) is useful in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors. But this radiopharmaceutical accumulates also in solid tumours or in inflammatory diseases such as granulomatosis. We present a case of 111 In-pentetreotide uptake in a tuberculous adenopathy. (author)

  16. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14. ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  17. Phosphate analogues in the dissection of mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi J. Korhonen; Conway, Louis P.; Hodgson, David R. W.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoryl group transfer is central to genetic replication, cellular signalling and many metabolic processes. Understanding the mechanisms of phosphorylation and phosphate ester and anhydride cleavage is key to efforts towards biotechnological and biomedical exploitation of phosphate-handling enzymes. Analogues of phosphate esters and anhydrides are indispensable tools, alongside protein mutagenesis and computational methods, for the dissection of phosphoryl transfer mechanisms. Hydrolysable...

  18. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:27301366

  19. Recent advances in topoisomerase I-targeting agents, camptothecin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Kee; Lee, Namkyu

    2002-12-01

    The present review concentrates on camptothecin (CPT) analogues, the most extensively studied topoisomerase I (topo I) inhibitors, and provides concise information on the structural features of human topo I enzyme, mechanisms of interaction of CPT with topo I, structure-activity relationship study of CPT analogues including the influence of lactone stability on antitumor activity, and recent updates of valuable CPT analogues. PMID:12370044

  20. Interactivity, from art to surgery to space!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Currently the way we interact with computers can be done much more naturally with touchless technologies powered by new hardware and computer vision. A good example is the Microsoft Kinect, that changed not only the way we can play games at our homes but also how we can experiment a work of art. I am presenting some of these technologies and what they can be used for, in the hope that there might be use cases at CERN that could use these solutions.

  1. Hip fracture surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; Femoral neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis-hip ... top of the bone) you may have a hip pinning procedure. During this surgery: You lie on ...

  2. Spine surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vertebral interbody fusion - discharge; Posterior spinal fusion - discharge; Arthrodesis - discharge; Anterior spinal fusion - discharge; Spine surgery - spinal fusion - discharge Images Spinal surgery -- cervical - series References Agrawal BM, Zeidman SM, Rhines L, ...

  3. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Keane JF, Lock JE, Fyler DC, eds. Nadas' Pediatric Cardiology . 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO; WB Saunders; ...

  4. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jaw Surgery Download Download the ebook for further information Corrective jaw, or orthognathic, surgery is performed by ... your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  5. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education and training. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, ...

  6. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Higdon KK. Reduction mammoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 8. ... Gabriel A. Breast augmentation. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 2.

  7. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  8. Bariatric Surgery Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from depression or anxiety and to have lower self-esteem and overall quality of life than someone who ... is a Candidate for Bariatric Surgery? Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Find a Provider Benefits of Bariatric Surgery ...

  9. Cataract surgery - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataract surgery usually works very well. The operation has few risks, the pain and recovery period are short, ... improved. Ninety-five percent or more of all cataract surgeries result in improved vision.

  10. Toward the analogue of thermally generated electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Osano, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic and vorticity fields evolution equations are known to obey the same equation when effects of dissipation and sources terms are negligible. We investigate the analogy between the two fields for non-vanishing dissipation and sources. In addition to the Reynolds (Re)and Prandtl (Pr_M) numbers, we define a new number (S_M) that is given by the ratio of the diffusive term to the Biermann battery term and which allows for a different classification of magnetised fluid behaviour. Numerical simulations of the two fields are then carried out given a parameter space made of Reynolds, Prandtl and Source numbers. We find it appropriate to present and discuss the findings against Prandtl numbers given that these provide the link between viscous and magnetic diffusion. Our simulations indicate that there exists a range of Prandtl numbers for which the fields remain analogues which raises the important question of how far the analogy goes.

  11. Measurement of stimulated Hawking emission in an analogue system

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurtner, Silke; Penrice, Matthew C J; Unruh, William G; Lawrence, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    There is a mathematical analogy between the propagation of fields in a general relativistic space-time and long (shallow water) surface waves on moving water. Hawking argued that black holes emit thermal radiation via a quantum spontaneous emission. Similar arguments predict the same effect near wave horizons in fluid flow. By placing a streamlined obstacle into an open channel flow we create a region of high velocity over the obstacle that can include wave horizons. Long waves propagating upstream towards this region are blocked and converted into short (deep water) waves. This is the analogue of the stimulated emission by a white hole (the time inverse of a black hole), and our measurements of the amplitudes of the converted waves demonstrate the thermal nature of the conversion process for this system. Given the close relationship between stimulated and spontaneous emission, our findings attest to the generality of the Hawking process.

  12. Complications in Eyelid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimnejad, Kaveh; Walen, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Eyelid surgery consists of challenging reconstructive and cosmetic procedures. Because of the complex anatomy and corresponding vital functions of the upper and lower eyelids, the avoidance of eyelid complications is of vital importance. Complications after eyelid surgery include basic complications (infection, granuloma) and vision-threatening complications. Preoperative history, physical examination, surgical planning, and meticulous surgical technique must be undertaken to prevent complications after eyelid surgery. In addition, patient knowledge, expectations, and motivations must be determined before surgery is performed. PMID:27105805

  13. MOCK SURGERIES IN AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Bali Yogitha

    2012-01-01

    The present trend is very well aware of mock tests, exams and even the mock surgeries that are very common in healthcare and play an important role in providing the surgeons, the necessary practical knowledge and expertise in their specialized field. In addition, patients also get benefited by the mock surgeries by having the complete knowledge before they undergo any surgery. The same concept of mock or the experimental surgeries can be found explained centuries ago by Susrutha, father of bo...

  14. Development of plastic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body c...

  15. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  16. Laparoscopic Surgery - What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery - What is it? Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? | ASCRS Alternate Titles: Trocar Used in Surgery WHAT ... addressed by the topics covered in these brochures. It should be recognized that these brochures should not ...

  17. Effect of Oral Pregabalin as Preemptive Analgesic in Patients Undergoing Lower Limb Orthopedic Surgeries under Spinal Anaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Bon; Nelamangala, Kiran; Krishnamurthy, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conquering postoperative pain which has significant impact on the surgery outcome can be challenging for the clinicians. Pregabalin is a GABA analogue used for various neuropathic pain syndromes. Very few studies are there with the use of pregabalin as a preemptive analgesic for orthopedic surgeries. Aim To compare pregabalin 150 mg with placebo for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing elective lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anaesthesia and to assess any side effects. Materials and Methods A randomized double blinded prospective study was undertaken. Ninety patients with ASA physical status I, II, aged between 18–50 years were enrolled in the study. One hour prior to spinal anaesthesia Group C - received colour matched empty capsules, Group P – received 150mg of oral pregabalin. Spinal anaesthesia was administered in sitting position in L3-L4 space with Inj. Bupivacaine heavy (0.5%) at a dose of 0.3mg/kg body weight with 20 mg being the maximum dose using 25 gauge spinal needle. Rescue analgesia was provided with using Inj. Diclofenac 1.5 mg/kg intramuscular. Results Time for rescue analgesia (VAS score >3) was significantly increased in Group P than in Group C. The total dose of diclofenac required in the 24 hour postoperative period was significantly lower in Group P than in Group C. The sedation scores and patient satisfaction scores were also more in Group P than in Group C. Conclusion Preemptive pregabalin in an oral dose of 150 mg offers good postoperative analgesia in lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anaesthesia.

  18. [Insulin analogues: modifications in the structure, molecular and metabolic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Romero, E

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has provided insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, with an efficacy and safety that has improved the treatment of this disease. We briefly review the principal characteristics of the insulin analogues currently available. Both rapid-acting (lispro, aspart and glulisine) and long acting (glargine and determir) insulin analogues are included in this review. We describe the pharmacology of each insulin analogue, their differences with the human insulin, the administration, indication, efficacy and safety. In addition we discussed the main controversies of the use of these insulin analogues. In particular, those related with the risk of cancer and retinopathy, and their use in pregnant women. PMID:23517895

  19. Confirmation via Analogue Simulation: A Bayesian Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dardashti, Radin; Thebault, Karim P Y; Winsberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Analogue simulation is a novel mode of scientific inference found increasingly within modern physics, and yet all but neglected in the philosophical literature. Experiments conducted upon a table-top 'source system' are taken to provide insight into features of an inaccessible 'target system', based upon a syntactic isomorphism between the relevant modelling frameworks. An important example is the use of acoustic 'dumb hole' systems to simulate gravitational black holes. In a recent paper it was argued that there exists circumstances in which confirmation via analogue simulation can obtain; in particular when the robustness of the isomorphism is established via universality arguments. The current paper supports these claims via an analysis in terms of Bayesian confirmation theory.

  20. Holographic Fluids with Vorticity and Analogue Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Robert G; Petropoulos, P Marios

    2012-01-01

    We study holographic three-dimensional fluids with vorticity in local equilibrium and discuss their relevance to analogue gravity systems. The Fefferman-Graham expansion leads to the fluid's description in terms of a comoving and rotating Papapetrou-Randers frame. A suitable Lorentz transformation brings the fluid to the non-inertial Zermelo frame, which clarifies its interpretation as moving media for light/sound propagation. We apply our general results to the Lorentzian Kerr-AdS_4 and Taub-NUT-AdS_4 geometries that describe fluids in cyclonic and vortex flows respectively. In the latter case we associate the appearance of closed timelike curves to analogue optical horizons. In addition, we derive the classical rotational Hall viscosity of three-dimensional fluids with vorticity. Our formula remarkably resembles the corresponding result in magnetized plasmas.

  1. Design and synthesis of new fluconazole analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, Vandana S; Agalave, Sandip G; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, Praveen K; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad I

    2015-06-21

    We have synthesized new fluconazole analogues containing two different 1,2,3-triazole units in the side chain. The synthesis of new amide analogues using a variety of acids is also described. All the compounds showed very good antifungal activity. A hemolysis study of the most active compounds 6e and 13j showed that both compounds did not cause any hemolysis at the dilutions tested. These compounds did not exhibit any toxicity to L929 cells at MIC and lower concentrations. In the docking study, the overall binding mode of 6e and 13j appeared to be reasonable and provided a good insight into the structural basis of inhibition of Candida albicans Cyp51 by these compounds. PMID:25975803

  2. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included

  3. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  4. Acremolin : : Synthesis, Structural Revision and Analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Januar, Lawrence Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the total synthesis of the natural product acremolin and its structural reassignment along with attempts towards synthesizing analogues of natural product. Acremolin is a natural product reported as a 1H- azirine-containing guanine derivative isolated from Acremonium strictum. Due to the known structural instability of 1H-azirines systems, the original assignment is highly improbable. Two alternative structures were proposed based on the evaluation of spectroscopic data r...

  5. Analogue memories for high speed detectors signals

    CERN Document Server

    Caponetto, L H

    2000-01-01

    An analogue memory chip family has been developed as a switched capacitor cell array. The family is an ongoing prototyping project within the readout system of the silicon drift detectors for the Inner Tracker System of the ALICE experiment. All chips consist of several capturing channels whose cells number is varying within the family. Chips design choices and performances are briefly discussed here. (5 refs).

  6. SYNTHESIS AND BIOEVALUATION OF KETOCONAZOLE THIOSEMICARBAZONE ANALOGUES

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Murti

    2011-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KTZ) is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Resistance to ketoconazole has been observed in a number of clinical fungal isolates, including C. albicans. Thus new effective agents with less toxicity against fungal infection are urgently required. With this view, ketoconazole thiosemicarbazone analogues (Compounds 1-10) were synthesized wherein condensation of different thiosemic...

  7. Analogues of a transformation formula of Ramanujan

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Atul

    2009-01-01

    We derive two new analogues of a transformation formula of Ramanujan involving the Gamma and Riemann zeta functions present in the Lost Notebook. Both involve infinite series consisting of Hurwitz zeta functions and yield modular relations. As a special case of the first formula, we obtain an identity involving polygamma functions given by Andrew P. Guinand and as a limiting case of the second formula, we derive the transformation formula of Ramanujan.

  8. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary

  9. Analogue cosmology in a hadronic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Bilic, N

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of hadronic matter that takes place immediately after a heavy ion collision has certain similarity with the cosmological expansion. We study the analogue geometry of the expanding hadronic fluid, using the the formalism of relativistic acoustic geometry. We show that the propagation of massless pions provides a geometric analog of expanding spacetime equivalent to an open (k=-1)FRW cosmology. Here, we study general conditions for the formation of a trapped region with the inner boundary as a marginally trapped surface.

  10. Applying Acylated Fucose Analogues to Metabolic Glycoengineering

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Rosenlöcher; Verena Böhrsch; Michael Sacharjat; Véronique Blanchard; Christoph Giese; Volker Sandig; Christian P R Hackenberger; Stephan Hinderlich

    2015-01-01

    Manipulations of cell surface glycosylation or glycan decoration of selected proteins hold immense potential for exploring structure-activity relations or increasing glycoprotein quality. Metabolic glycoengineering describes the strategy where exogenously supplied sugar analogues intercept biosynthetic pathways and are incorporated into glycoconjugates. Low membrane permeability, which so far limited the large-scale adaption of this technology, can be addressed by the introduction of acylated...

  11. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  12. Instructional influences on analogue functional analysis outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Northup, John; Kodak, Tiffany; Grow, Laura; Lee, Jennifer; Coyne, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Analogue assessments were conducted with a common contingency (escape from tasks) that varied only by three different instructions describing the contingency. In one condition, the contingency was described as "taking a break," in another condition it was described as "time-out," and no description of the contingency was provided in a third condition. The participant was a typically developing 5-year-old child with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rates of inappropriat...

  13. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  14. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue Converters (ADCs and DACs): A Review Update

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, J

    2015-01-01

    This is a review paper updated from that presented for CAS 2004. Essentially, since then, commercial components have continued to extend their performance boundaries but the basic building blocks and the techniques for choosing the best device and implementing it in a design have not changed. Analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters are crucial components in the continued drive to replace analogue circuitry with more controllable and less costly digital processing. This paper discusses the technologies available to perform in the likely measurement and control applications that arise within accelerators. It covers much of the terminology and 'specmanship' together with an application-oriented analysis of the realisable performance of the various types. Finally, some hints and warnings on system integration problems are given.

  15. Spectral Characterization of Phobos Analogues Under Simulated Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Glotch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.

    2014-12-01

    The surface of Phobos holds many keys for understanding its formation and evolution as well as the history and dynamics of the Mars-Phobos system. Visible to near infrared (VNIR) observations suggests that Phobos' surface is compositionally heterogeneous with 'redder' and 'bluer' units that both appear to be anhydrous in nature. Lunar highland spectra have been identified as spectral analogues for the 'redder' and 'bluer' units while thermally metamorphosed CI/CM chondrites, lab-heated carbonaceous chondrites and highly space weathered mafic mineral assemblages have been identified as the best analogues for the 'bluer' surface units. Additionally, thermal infrared emissivity spectra indicate that if Phobos' surface is optically mature it may be rich in feldspar, which is consistent with VNIR observations of Phobos' surface being spectrally similar to lunar highland spectra. While remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces, a fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements. However recent lab measurements of carbonaceous chondrites demonstrated that simulated asteroid conditions do not affect the resulting emissivity spectra to the degree observed in lunar soils and is highly dependent on composition. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured and indicate that the near surface environment of all airless bodies do not

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B; Olsen, P S; Perko, M J; Agerskov, Kim; Røder, O; Lorentzen, Jørgen Ewald

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 55......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems.......The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553...

  17. The evolving application of single-port robotic surgery in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadan, Motaz; Curet, Myriam J; Wren, Sherry M

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the field of minimally invasive surgery have grown since the original advent of conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery. The recent development of single incision laparoscopic surgery remains a relatively novel technique, and has had mixed reviews as to whether it has been associated with lower pain scores, shorter hospital stays, and higher satisfaction levels among patients undergoing procedures through cosmetically-appeasing single incisions. However, due to technical difficulties that arise from the clustering of laparoscopic instruments through a confined working space, such as loss of instrument triangulation, poor surgical exposure, and instrument clashing, uptake by surgeons without a specific interest and expertise in cutting-edge minimally invasive approaches has been limited. The parallel use of robotic surgery with single-port platforms, however, appears to counteract technical issues associated with single incision laparoscopic surgery through significant ergonomic improvements, including enhanced instrument triangulation, organ retraction, and camera localization within the surgical field. By combining the use of the robot with the single incision platform, the recognized challenges of single incision laparoscopic surgery are simplified, while maintaining potential advantages of the single-incision minimally invasive approach. This review provides a comprehensive report of the evolving application single-port robotic surgery in the field of general surgery today. PMID:24124130

  18. [Single Port Thoracic Surgery and Reduced Port Thoracic Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Ken; Noda, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    Single port thoracic surgery, reduced port surgery and needlescopic surgery attract attention as one of the minimally invasive surgery in thoracic surgery recently. Single port thoracic surgery was advocated by Rocco in 2004, it was reported usefulness of single port thoracic surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. The surgical procedure as single (or reduced) port thoracic surgery is roughly divided into the following. One is operated with instruments inserted from the single extended incision, and the other is operated with instruments punctured without extending incision. It is not generally complicated procedures in single port thoracic surgery. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax and biopsy for lung and pleura are considered the surgical indication for single (or reduced) port surgery. It is revealed that single port surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax is less invasive than conventional surgery. Single port and reduced port thoracic surgery will spread furthermore in the future. PMID:27440029

  19. Safety in cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of safety in cardiac surgery is a complex process, which involves many clinical, practical, methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this thesis was to measure and to compare safety in cardiac surgery in The Netherlands using the Netherlands Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (NVT) database. The safety of care is usually measured using patient outcomes. If outcomes are not available, the process and structure of care may be used. Outcomes should be adjusted ...

  20. Ergonomics in laparoscopic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Supe Avinash; Kulkarni Gaurav; Supe Pradnya

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comf...

  1. Energy systems in surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelić Miloš; Ljikar Jelena; Devečerski Gordana; Karadžić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The systems of energy in surgery are applied in order to achieve better and more effective performing of procedures. Whereas various energy sources, including electricity, ultrasound, laser and argon gas, may be used, the fundamental principle involves tissue necrosis and hemostasis by heating. Electro Surgery. Electro Surgery is a surgical technique by which surgical procedures are performed by focused heating of the tissue using devices base...

  2. Robotic transaxillary thyroid surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Aidan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to a rapid progress in endocrine surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, increased patient satisfaction, improved visualization, arms articulations, eliminating surgeon’s natural tremor, thereby increasing precision. The main disadvant...

  3. New considerations on Hilbert action and Einstein equations in anisotropic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu, Nicoleta

    2009-01-01

    We find the generalization of Einstein equations to Finsler spaces by variational means and, based on the invariance of the Finslerian Hilbert action to infinitesimal transformations, we find the analogue of the energy- momentum conservation law in these spaces.

  4. Complications of strabismus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Olitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All surgeries carry risks of complications, and there is no way to avoid ever having a complication. Strabismus surgery is no different in this regard. There are methods to reduce the risk of a complication during or after surgery, and these steps should always be taken. When a complication occurs, it is important to first recognize it and then manage it appropriately to allow for the best outcome possible. This article will discuss some of the more common and/or most devastating complications that can occur during or after strabismus surgery as well as thoughts on how to avoid them and manage them should they happen.

  5. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  6. The integral intertwining operators and quantum homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invariant partial differential equations in the quantum homogeneous spaces are considered. The Dirichlet problem is solved, and the q-analogue of the Cauchy-Segue formula for the unit ball is obtained. 7 refs

  7. The cyclotomic trace and the K-theoretic analogue of Novikov's conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bökstedt, M; Hsiang, W C; Madsen, I

    1989-11-01

    A trace construction, the cyclotomic trace, is given. It associates to algebraic K-theory of a group ring, or better to Waldhausen's A-theory, equivariant stable homotopy classes of the free-loop space of its classifying space. The cyclotomic trace detects the Borel classes in algebraic K-theory of the integers. It is used to prove, for a wide class of groups, that the K-theory assembly map is rationally injective. This is the K-theoretic analogue of Novikov's conjecture. PMID:16594081

  8. A low-dimensional analogue of holographic baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Baryons in holographic QCD correspond to topological solitons in the bulk. The most prominent example is the Sakai-Sugimoto model, where the bulk soliton in the five-dimensional spacetime of AdS-type can be approximated by the flat space self-dual Yang-Mills instanton with a small size. Recently, the validity of this approximation has been verified by comparison with the numerical field theory solution. However, multi-solitons and solitons with finite density are currently beyond numerical field theory computations. Various approximations have been applied to investigate these important issues and have led to proposals for finite density configurations that include dyonic salt and baryonic popcorn. Here we introduce and investigate a low-dimensional analogue of the Sakai-Sugimoto model, in which the bulk soliton can be approximated by a flat space sigma model instanton. The bulk theory is a baby Skyrme model in a three-dimensional spacetime with negative curvature. The advantage of the lower-dimensional theor...

  9. Platonic solids generate their four-dimensional analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we show how regular convex 4-polytopes - the analogues of the Platonic solids in four dimensions - can be constructed from three-dimensional considerations concerning the Platonic solids alone. Via the Cartan-Dieudonne theorem, the reflective symmetries of the Platonic solids generate rotations. In a Clifford algebra framework, the space of spinors generating such three-dimensional rotations has a natural four-dimensional Euclidean structure. The spinors arising from the Platonic Solids can thus in turn be interpreted as vertices in four-dimensional space, giving a simple construction of the 4D polytopes 16-cell, 24-cell, the F_4 root system and the 600-cell. In particular, these polytopes have `mysterious' symmetries, that are almost trivial when seen from the three-dimensional spinorial point of view. In fact, all these induced polytopes are also known to be root systems and thus generate rank-4 Coxeter groups, which can be shown to be a general property of the spinor construction. These cons...

  10. Insulin analogues in pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa;

    2016-01-01

    Insulin analogues are commonly used in pregnant women with diabetes. It is not known if the use of insulin analogues in pregnancy is associated with any higher risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring compared with use of human insulin. We performed a literature search for studies of pregnant...... women with pregestational diabetes using insulin analogues in the first trimester and information on congenital anomalies. The studies were analysed to compare the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses of mothers using insulin analogues with foetuses of mothers using human insulin. Of 29 studies, we...... included 1286 foetuses of mothers using short-acting insulin analogues with 1089 references of mothers using human insulin and 768 foetuses of mothers using long-acting insulin analogues with 685 references of mothers using long-acting human insulin (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn). The congenital anomaly rate...

  11. Effect of homoeopathy on pain and other events after acute trauma: placebo controlled trial with bilateral oral surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Lökken, P.; Straumsheim, P. A.; Tveiten, D.; Skjelbred, P.; Borchgrevink, C F

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether homoeopathy has any effect on pain and other inflammatory events after surgery. DESIGN--Randomised double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial with "identical" oral surgical procedures performed on two separate occasions in 24 patients. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment started 3 hours after surgery with either homoeopathy or placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Postoperative pain and preference for postoperative course assessed by patients on visual analogue scales. Meas...

  12. Anomalous isobaric analogue resonance in 71As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1971 G. M. Temmer et al., reported observing five anomalous substructures in a spin 1/2+ isobaric analogue resonance in 71As at E/sub p/ = 5.05 MeV. They suggested that these substructures could be interpreted as ''hallway states'' coupling a ''doorway state'' to compound nuclear states. Although doorway states are well established interpretations of isobaric analogue resonances, hallway states have no such acreditation. The case investigated in this paper was the first reported evidence suggesting the existence of hallway states in an isobaric analogue resonance. In this work the validity of the hallway state interpretation was ascertained for two of the five substructures. The spin and parity of these two substructures were determined to be 5/2+; therefore, their interpretation as hallway states is incorrect since it would not conserve angular momentum. The spins and parities of all the substructures were determined by measuring the analyzing power of the elastic reaction 70Ge(p(pol),p0) from an energy E/sub p/ = 4.92 MeV to an energy E/sub p/ = 5.23 MeV in 10 keV steps. The analyzing power was then remeasured over the last two substructures at E = 5.05 MeV and E = 5.14 MeV in 5 keV steps. These last two substructures also decayed strongly to the 2+ first excited state in 70Ge. The angular correlation between the first inelastic proton and the subsequently emitted gamma ray was measured in the Goldfarb--Seyler geometry and was then expanded in terms of cosine functions. The expansion coefficients implied that the spins of these two resonances were greater than or equal to 5/2, in agreement with the analyzing power measurements

  13. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  14. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J. [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  15. Relativistic analogues of nonrelativistic integrals in R-matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic analogues of integrals are applied to the nonrelativistic R-matrix code to demonstrate the possibilities of the method. An expression for the relativistic analogue of the multipole integral is obtained. Energy levels and electron impact excitation cross sections for transitions in C2+, Fe22+ and W70+, calculated with different codes, are compared. It is found that the relativistic analogues of integrals method shows good agreement with results calculated using a relativistic code. (letter to the editor)

  16. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  17. Digital and analogue industrial radiography, application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reusable phosphor screens for computer radiography (CR), amorphous selenium screens for direct radiography (DR), film digitalisation (FD) constitute imaging methods accepted by industry and are used for non-destructive radiographic testing (RT). Economic pressures are involving and affecting digital RT technology. Standards and codes for film radiography and radioscopy qualification do no longer cover the wide range of digital RT applications. It will be our task to optimise the performance of digital RT characterisation and to create appropriate examination methods to use all these new and existent technologies. In the meantime, an increasing automation and control of manual methods of analogue radiography can as well be expected. (author)

  18. Technical Considerations in Magnetic Analogue Models

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Patrick W M

    2016-01-01

    The analogy between vorticity and magnetic fields has been a subject of interest to researchers for a considerable period of time, mainly because of the structural similarities between the systems of equations that govern the evolution of the two fields. We recently presented the analysis of magnetic fields and hydrodynamics vorticity fields and argued for a formal theory of analogue magnetism. This article provides in depth technical details of the relevant considerations for the simulation procedures and extends the analyses to a range of fluids.

  19. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  20. Materials analogue of zero-stiffness structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2011-04-01

    Anglepoise lamps and certain tensegrities are examples of zero-stiffness structures. These structures are in a state of neutral equilibrium with respect to changes in configuration of the system. Using Eshelby's example of an edge dislocation in a thin plate that can bend, we report the discovery of a non-trivial new class of material structures as an analogue to zero-stiffness structures. For extended positions of the edge dislocation in these structures, the dislocation experiences a zero image force. Salient features of these material structures along with the key differences from conventional zero-stiffness structures are pointed out.

  1. Analogues of Euler and Poisson Summation Formulae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Rane

    2003-08-01

    Euler–Maclaurin and Poisson analogues of the summations $\\sum_{a < n ≤ b}(n)f(n), \\sum_{a < n ≤ b}d(n) f(n), \\sum_{a < n ≤ b}d(n)(n) f(n)$ have been obtained in a unified manner, where (()) is a periodic complex sequence; () is the divisor function and () is a sufficiently smooth function on [, ]. We also state a generalised Abel's summation formula, generalised Euler's summation formula and Euler's summation formula in several variables.

  2. Phonon analogue of topological nodal semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Kane and Lubensky proposed a mapping between bosonic phonon problems on isostatic lattices to chiral fermion systems based on factorization of the dynamical matrix [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014)]. The existence of topologically protected zero modes in such mechanical problems is related to their presence in the fermionic system and is dictated by a local index theorem. Here we adopt the proposed mapping to construct a two-dimensional mechanical analogue of a fermionic topological nodal semimetal that hosts a robust bulk node in its linearized phonon spectrum. Such topologically protected soft modes with tunable wavevector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.

  3. Electronic analogue simulator of radio cardiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various parameters of the heart pump and of the blood circulation can be determined by radio-cardio-graphical techniques. The curves thus obtained can be more easily used in radiocardiography if the electronic analogue simulator described here is employed. The experimental and simulated radio-cardiograms are made to coincide by varying the electrical parameters of the simulator. Using simple charts it is possible to obtain directly the actual original physiological parameters from these electrical parameters. Some examples are given showing the excellent accuracy obtained in the determination of ejection indices by the simulator. (authors)

  4. Satellite television analogue and digital reception techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Herve

    1999-01-01

    Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV. Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of tec

  5. Humans in Space &Space Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legner, Klaus

    Inevitably, members of the human species will again walk on the face of the moon and ultimately establish a permanently occupied lunar base. Also, inevitably, humans will venture to the planets within the solar system, most likely beginning with Mars or the Martian satellite, Phobos. These missions will take place because the species that contemplates them is driven by an insatiable desire for knowledge and understanding and because the technical means to accomplish these objectives are possible. There is no question that humans will establish outposts on Earth's moon and make interplanetary journeys. The only uncertainties concern when and how these expeditions are to be made. Just as a 90- or 120-day tour onboard an international space station is fundamentally different from a brief space shuttle mission; a one-year lunar base tour or a two- or three-year mission to Mars will be unique. Despite superficial similarities to other space missions and analogues, the extended durations and astronomical distances involved in lunar and Martian missions will make these activities far more difficult and dangerous. Crowded conditions, language and cultural differences, logistics problems, radiation concerns, communications lag times, workloads, and a variety of additional issues will conspire to impair the performance and affect the behaviour of long duration crew personnel. Above all stressors, however, the durations of the missions will impose the greatest burdens and extract the most severe tolls on the humans involved. On long-duration space missions, time will be the factor that can compound all issues, however trivial, into serious problems.

  6. Scintigraphy with labelled analogues of the somatostatin; Scintigraphie aux analogues marques de la somatostatine (octreoscan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duet, M.; Ajzenberg, C.; Warnet, A.; Mundler, O. [Hopital Lariboisiere, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-02-01

    The receptors of the somatostatin have been localized in a big number of tumors, whom a great number are neuro-endocrine tumors. However, some tumors that have not this differentiation (breast cancer, lymphomas, cerebral tumors) possess them as well. Analogues of somatostatin, labelled with isotopes having a gamma emission, allow from now their detection in vivo. (N.C.)

  7. Revision Knee Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Revision Knee Surgery Featuring the Zimmer® NexGen® LCCK System. Zimmer, Inc. Indio, California March 31, 2010 Welcome to this ... surgery, demonstrating the role of the NexGen LCCK Knee Revision System. If we could go to the ...

  8. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  9. [Cognitive deterioration after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...

  10. Short- and long-term effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue, lanreotide (SR-L) on metastatic gastrinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztambide, S; Vazquez, J A

    1999-02-01

    Medical treatment is the elective therapy for patients with gastrinoma when the tumor is not found at surgery or is unresectable or when there is a metastatic disease. H2-blockers and omeprazol are able to control gastric acid secretion and, in addition, somatostatin analogues decrease gastrin levels. A new long-acting and slow release formulation of a somatostatin analogue (lanreotide, SR-L) has been developed. We treated two patients suffering from gastrinoma, total gastrectomy and hepatic metastases with 30 mg intramuscular injections of SR-L every 15 and 10 days, respectively, for a seven-month period. After the treatment, gastrin levels decreased from 35,494 and 15,086 ng/l to 3,211 and 167 ng/l (92 and 98% below pre-treatment levels) in case 1 and 2 respectively, with a relief of symptoms and no side effects. PMID:10195383

  11. A Method for the Static Characterisation of the CMS Tracker Analogue Optical Links

    CERN Document Server

    Cervelli, Giovanni; Gill, Karl; Grabit, Robert; Mommaert, Chantal; Stefanini, Giorgio

    1998-01-01

    Analogue optical links are being developed for the CMS-Tracker. The large envisaged number of physical channels ( over 50.000) imposes semi-automated test procedures and efficient evaluation criteria to compare different link solutions, to optimise their performance, and to confirm their compliance with specifications when commissioning the system. In addition, self-triggered calibration schemes need to be developed to maintain the readout chain accuracy during the detector lifetime ( 10 years). In this paper we present a method for the static characterisation of the CMS analogue optical links, relying on an automated setup for gain, rms-noise and linearity measurements, and on a software program for off line processing of the test data. We propose a set of evaluation criteria and describe a compact representation of the results in the operational parameter space ( working point, operating range). This representation allows to quantify and compare the performance of links based on different components, as wel...

  12. Identifying climate analogues for precipitation extremes for Denmark based on RCM simulations from the ENSEMBLES database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Funder, S. G.; Madsen, H.

    2015-01-01

    change over time. The study focuses on assessing climate analogues for Denmark based on current climate data set (E-OBS) observations as well as the ENSEMBLES database of future climates with the aim of projecting future precipitation extremes. The local present precipitation extremes are assessed......Climate analogues, also denoted Space-For-Time, may be used to identify regions where the present climatic conditions resemble conditions of a past or future state of another location or region based on robust climate variable statistics in combination with projections of how these statistics...... by means of intensity-duration-frequency curves for urban drainage design for the relevant locations being France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Denmark. Based on this approach projected increases of extreme precipitation by 2100 of 9 and 21% are expected for 2 and 10 year...

  13. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity. PMID:27010713

  14. Alligator Rivers Analogue project - Geologic Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this volume the author synthesizes the results of the investigations carried over more than 20 years in the Koongarra area. It describes its regional geologic setting, geological evolution and the exploration activities carried out to date. The secondary ore of the Koongarra No. 1 uranium orebody provides a natural analogue suitable for validation of models for radionuclide transport. Although the primary uranium mineralisation occurs as uraninite veins and veinlets in fractures and brecciated zones that cross cut the steeply dipping (55 deg.C) host schists, weathering and dispersion of uranium within the zone of weathered schists has formed this secondary ore. The interaction of the weathering processes with the mineralogy and geochemistry of the unweathered host schists, and the primary hydrothermal alteration halo with and around the primary uranium mineralisation, has also been critical in the development of the secondary ore. This secondary ore natural analogue being at a shallow depth, plus the availability of open boreholes and drill core/borehole samples, has facilitated groundwater and rock investigations. 49 refs., 4 tabs., 42 figs

  15. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  16. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C; Neumann, Gudrun; Cleemann, Line; Rosgaard, Anni; Jørgensen, Annemette; Vandborg, Mai; Jakobsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) with respect to initial clinical findings, methods of surgery, and perioperative treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective follow-up study. Setting: All hospitals in Jutland. Sample: 163 women diagnosed with AGCT. Methods: Follow...

  17. Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery. Cleft Lip / Palate and Craniofacial Surgery This type of surgery is ... the carefully orchestrated, multiple-stage correctional program for cleft lip and palate patients. The goal is to help restore the ...

  18. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... findings, and we go through the pros and cons of an open surgery versus a laparoscopic surgery, including the pros and cons or robotic laparoscopic surgery. And I remember talking ...

  19. Using your shoulder after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulder surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder surgery - after ... You had surgery on your shoulder to repair a muscle, tendon, or cartilage tear. The surgeon may have removed damaged tissue. You will need to know how ...

  20. Patient reported outcome measures in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse in Denmark, 2006-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Hansen, Jesper Kjær;

    2012-01-01

    surgery for urinary incontinence (UI) or pelvic organ prolapse (POP) from 2006 to 2011. Using frequency of symptoms and a visual analogue scale (VAS) both pre- and postoperatively, their severity of symptoms and quality of life were measured by questionnaires. RESULTS: During the study period, 20...

  1. Initial Experience with Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery by Use of a Homemade Transumbilical Port in Urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Young; Kim, Yong Tae; Park, Hae Young; Lee, Tchun Yong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We present our initial experience with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) by a single surgeon in the urologic field. Materials and Methods From May 2009 to April 2010, 30 consecutive patients underwent LESS including seven cases of nephrectomy, five cases of nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision, four cases of ureterolithotomy, eight cases of marsupialization, and six cases of varicocelectomy. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of the above patients. The single port was made with a surgical glove and an Alexis® wound retractor (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA, USA). The wound retractor was put into the peritoneal space through an umbilical incision, and a laparoscopic triangle was secured by crossing both instruments. All operations were performed by the transperitoneal approach. Results Mean patient age was 54.8 years. Mean operative time was 171.2±109.1 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 265.0±395.5 ml. Mean incision length was 3.2±1.4 cm. Mean length of hospitalization was 5.2±2.9 days. There was one laparoscopic conversion and two open conversions. There were two cases of transient ileus that improved with conservative treatment. Mean visual analogue pain scales on the operative day and first postoperative day were 6.3/10 and 3.1/10, respectively. Conclusions In our experience, LESS for urologic surgery is feasible, safe, and clinically applicable. We consider the homemade single-port device to be a relatively cost-effective and convenient device. If surgical instruments for LESS and appropriate ports specified for LESS are developed, LESS would be a surgical treatment technique that could be used as an alternative to the conventional types of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:20856645

  2. Insulin analogues and severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P L; Hansen, L S; Jespersen, M J;

    2012-01-01

    The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control is well-documented, whereas the effect on avoidance of severe hypoglycaemia remains tentative. We studied the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin analogues, human insulin, or mixed...

  3. Black Hole Analogue in Bose–Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tangmei He

    2014-09-01

    We have proposed a black hole analogue in a Bose–Einstein condensation. By introducing the Painlevé co-ordinates and using K–G equations, we have obtained the critical temperature of the black hole analogue in a Bose–Einstein condensation.

  4. A q-Analogue of Rucinski-Voigt Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto B. Corcino; Charles B. Montero

    2012-01-01

    A q-analogue of Rucinski-Voigt numbers is defined by means of a recurrence relation, and some properties including the orthogonality and inverse relations with the q-analogue of the limit of the differences of the generalized factorial are obtained.

  5. Somatostatin analogue in short term management of hyperinsulinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, J M; Di Silvio, L; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Five infants with hypoglycaemia due to hyperinsulinism were treated for between three and 11 days with a somatostatin analogue, which raised the mean blood glucose concentration and lowered the glucose requirements in all. Somatostatin analogue appears to be useful in the short term management of these patients.

  6. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. There have been some extraordinary accomplishments in that time, which have led to enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source that surveys surgery theory and its applications. Indeed, no one person could write such a survey. The sixtieth birthday of C. T. C. Wall, one of the leaders of the founding generation of surgery theory, provided an opportunity to rectify the situation and produce a

  7. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. The sixtieth birthday (on December 14, 1996) of C.T.C. Wall, a leading member of the subject''s founding generation, led the editors of this volume to reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of surgery theory as well as its current enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source surveying surgery theory and its applications. Because no one person could write such a survey, the editors ask

  8. Treating Postlaparoscopic Surgery Shoulder Pain with Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gur Kreindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acupuncture on postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP which is a common side effect in patients undergoing abdominal laparoscopic surgery. Methods. Patients with moderate to severe PLSP in spite of analgesic treatment, which were referred by the medical staff to the Complementary-Integrative Surgery Service (CISS at our institution, were provided with acupuncture treatment. The severity of PLSP and of general pain was assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS from 0 to 10. Pain assessment was conducted prior to and two hours following acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture treatment was individualized based on traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis. Results. A total of 25 patients were evaluated during a 14-month period, from March 2011 to May 2012. A significant reduction in PLSP (mean reduction of 6.4±2.3  P<0.0001 and general pain (mean reduction 6.4±2.1  P<0.0001 were observed, and no significant side effects were reported. Conclusion. Individualized acupuncture treatments according to traditional Chinese medicine principles may improve postlaparoscopic shoulder pain and general pain when used in conjunction with conventional therapy. The primary findings of this study warrant verification in controlled studies.

  9. Automated Layout Generation of Analogue and Mixed-Signal ASIC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Rene

    The research and development carried out in this Ph.D. study focusses on two key areas of the design flow for analogue and mixed-signal integrated circuit design, the mixed-signal floorplanning and the analogue layout generation.A novel approach to floorplanning is presented which provides true...... flow.A new design flow for automated layout generation of general analogue integrated circuits is presented. The design flow provides an automated design path from a sized circuit schematic to the final layout containing the placed, but unrouted, devices of the circuit. The analogue circuit layout is...... generated using a full-custom layout style and is based on a library of CMOS process independent device generators. The placement for the analogue circuit is derived using the interactive floorplan optimization algorithm described above. This ensures that a high degree of user control is implemented in the...

  10. Development of new mitomycin C and porfiromycin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, B S; Lin, H J; Cheng, L; Remers, W A; Bradner, W T

    1981-08-01

    New mitomycin C and porfiromycin analogues were prepared by treating mitomycin A and N-methylmitomycin A with a variety of amines, including aziridines, allylamines, propargylamines, chloroalkylamines, hydroxyalkylamines, glycine derivatives, aralkylamines, and heterocyclic amines. All analogues were evaluated against P-388 murine leukemia and selected ones were examined for their leukopenic properties. Certain analogues were found to be superior to mitomycin C in potency, efficacy, and therapeutic ratio in the P-388 assay. The most active substituents at the mitosane 7 position included aziridine, 2-methylaziridine, propargylamine, furfurylamine, methyl glycinate, and 3-aminopyridine. Mitomycin A and the 7-aziridino, 7-(2-methylaziridino), and 3-aminopyridine analogues were less leukopenic than mitomycin C. Certain other analogues, including propargylamino and methyl glycinate, were highly leukopenic. The three compounds tested against B-16 melanoma in mice were significantly more effective than mitomycin C in this assay. Previously established structure--activity relationships were found inadequate to account for all of the new data. PMID:7328599

  11. The development of somatostatin analogues mediated tumor targeting and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide labelled somatostatin analogues have been widely used in the detection of neuro-endocrine tumors. Till now, most of somatostatin analogues only have high affinity to somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), further clinical applications was limitted. A new generation of somatostatin analogues such as 1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclodocecane-N, N', N'', N''' -tetaraacetic acid-Na 13- octertide (DOTA-NOC) etc, binding to somatostatin receptors not only SSTR2 but other subtypes has been used mainly in preclinical study. In this review, we discussed these new somatostatin analogues, chelating agent, and their new labelled compounds, these new radionuclide labelled somatostatin analogues may hold great promise for the receptor-mediated tumor imaging and treatments. (authors)

  12. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    CERN Document Server

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinary strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as electronic diode function is provided by a nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differing by a factor of 65.

  13. Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-07-22

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

  14. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun-Ichiro Setsune

    2012-11-01

    Expanded porphyrin analogues with unique figure-eight conformation were prepared by way of useful pyrrole intermediates such as bis(azafulvene)s and 2-borylpyrrole. Supramolecular chirogenesis of cyclooctapyrrole O1 with 32-cycloconjugation was successfully applied to determine absolute configuration of chiral carboxylic acids. Dinuclear CuII complex of cyclooctapyrrole O2 with interrupted -conjugation was resolved by HPLC into enantiomers and their helical handedness was determined by theoretical simulation of their CD spectral pattern. Enantioselective induction of helicity in the metal helicate formation in the presence of a chiral promoter was demonstrated by using ()-(+)-1-(1-phenyl)ethylamine that favoured , helicity. Dinuclear CoII complexes of cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3 were found to be substitution labile and pick up amino acid anions in water. Those amino acid complexes of O3Co2 were rendered to adopt a particular unidirectional helical conformation preferentially depending on the ligated amino acid anion.

  15. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  16. SYNTHESIS AND BIOEVALUATION OF KETOCONAZOLE THIOSEMICARBAZONE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Murti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole (KTZ is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Resistance to ketoconazole has been observed in a number of clinical fungal isolates, including C. albicans. Thus new effective agents with less toxicity against fungal infection are urgently required. With this view, ketoconazole thiosemicarbazone analogues (Compounds 1-10 were synthesized wherein condensation of different thiosemicarbazides substituted by different cyclic and aromatic amines with the KTZ was done. Investigation of in-vitro antifungal activity of compounds was done by broth microdilution assay method against five pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. Ketoconazole was used as reference for inhibitory activity against fungi. All the compounds were found potent antifungal agents, while compounds 8, 9 and 10 exhibited excellent in-vitro antifungal activity showing importance of halogenated compounds.

  17. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  18. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Jupiter analogues and planets of active stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Combined results are now available from a 15 year long search for Jupiter analogues around solar-type stars using the ESO CAT + CES, ESO 3.6 m + CES, and ESO 3.6 m + HARPS instruments. They comprise planet (co-discoveries (ι Hor and HR 506 and confirmations (three planets in HR 3259 as well as non-confirmations of planets (HR 4523 and ɛ Eri announced elsewhere. A long-term trend in ɛ Ind found by our survey is probably attributable to a Jovian planet with a period >30 yr, but we cannot fully exclude stellar activity effects as the cause. A 3.8 year periodic variation in HR 8323 can be attributed to stellar activity.

  20. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues. PMID:27195798

  1. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH)2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  2. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  3. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity. PMID:19778048

  4. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  5. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses

  6. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  7. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  8. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzmann Harald G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions.

  9. Onboard Detection of Active Canadian Sulfur Springs: A Europa Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Rebecca; Wagstaff, Kiri; Gleeson, Damhnait; Pappalardo, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Moghaddam, Baback; Tang, Benyang; Bue, Brian; Doggett, Thomas; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a current, ongoing demonstration of insitu onboard detection in which the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft detects surface sulfur deposits that originate from underlying springs by distinguishing the sulfur from the ice-rich glacial background, a good analogue for the Europan surface. In this paper, we describe the process of developing the onboard classifier for detecting the presence of sulfur in a hyperspectral scene, including the use of a training/testing set that is not exhaustively labeled, i.e.not all true positives are marked, and the selection of 12, out of 242, Hyperion instrument wavelength bands to use in the onboard detector. This study aims to demonstrate the potential for future missions to capture short-lived science events, make decisions onboard, identify high priority data for downlink and perform onboard change detection. In the future, such capability could help maximize the science return of downlink bandwidth-limited missions, addressing a significant constraint in all deep-space missions.

  10. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Hand Surgery Anesthesia Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... in to name and customize your collection. DESCRIPTION Anesthesia is a way to control pain during a ...

  11. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Morabito A. Long-term prevention of mortality in morbid obesity through bariatric surgery: A systematic review and meta- ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21245741 . Richards WO. Morbid obesity. In: Townsend Jr. CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, ...

  12. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  13. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We Are News Videos Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral ...

  14. Expectations of Sinus Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of ... a prescription for pain medication to help you control pain during your recovery from surgery. Patients who ...

  15. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  16. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available AAOMS - Oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who ... surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and ...

  17. INDIRECT MICROLARYNGOSTROBOSCOPIC SURGERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAHIEU, HF; DIKKERS, FG

    1992-01-01

    Detailed preoperative laryngostroboscopic examination is a prerequisite for phonosurgical correction of organic dysphonia. Although suspension microlaryngoscopic surgery has proved its value in the past, it excludes functional control during the removal of vocal fold swellings. Using an indirect mic

  18. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second day and can sometimes be managed with acetaminophen (Tylenol). Many children behave differently after heart surgery. ... Tiredness all the time Bluish or grayish skin Dizziness, fainting, or heart palpitations Feeding problems or reduced ...

  19. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features ... vessels. Several sources of blood are described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  20. Carpal Tunnel Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... carried out for the condition of carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a neuropathy where the median nerve gets ... of the hand. The surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome consists of a release of the transverse carpal ...

  1. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000437.htm Smoking and surgery To use the sharing features on ... you succeed. There Are Many Reasons to Quit Smoking Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can ...

  2. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye, face or brain, nasal polyps (See Figure, black arrows) , impaired sense of smell, tumors of the ... second opinion from another surgeon. What is endoscopic skull base surgery? Over the course of the last ...

  3. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may be dramatically enhanced ... make the lips meet without straining Chronic mouth breathing Sleep apnea (breathing problems when sleeping, including snoring) ...

  4. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy while ... uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, like ...

  5. Types of Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or heart wall with a patch or graft. Heart Transplant A heart transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased heart ... a healthy heart from a deceased donor. Most heart transplants are done on patients who have end-stage ...

  6. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... choose to use a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which you later receive if you need a transfusion during or after surgery. You can have blood ...

  7. Knee microfracture surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartilage regeneration - knee ... Three types of anesthesia may be used for knee arthroscopy surgery: Medicine to relax you, and shots of painkillers to numb the knee Spinal (regional) anesthesia General anesthesia (you will be ...

  8. Hip fracture surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/20837683 . Weinlein JC. Fractures and dislocations of the hip. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may ...

  10. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000657.htm Tennis elbow surgery - discharge To use the sharing features ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed ...

  11. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have sex. But if both testicles are removed, sperm cells cannot be produced and a man becomes ... sparing surgery with their doctors, as well as sperm banking (freezing and storing sperm cells obtained before ...

  12. Pancreatic Cancer: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but the goal is not to try to cure the cancer. Staging laparoscopy To determine which type of surgery ... the planned operation would be very unlikely to cure the cancer and could still lead to major side effects. ...

  13. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevents symptoms but it is not expected to cure the cancer. The type of operation usually depends on what ... in the stomach, even if it does not cure the cancer. Because the goal of this surgery is not ...

  14. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLAP repair - discharge; Acromioplasty - discharge; Bankart - discharge; Shoulder repair - discharge; Shoulder arthroscopy - discharge ... You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your shoulder joint. The surgeon may have used a tiny ...

  15. Nose surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100070.htm Nose surgery - series To use the sharing features on ... 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview The nose is made up of bone and cartilage. The ...

  16. Homogeneous Poisson Structures on Loop Spaces of Symmetric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Pickrell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a sequel to [Caine A., Pickrell D., Int. Math. Res. Not., to appear, arXiv:0710.4484], where we studied the Hamiltonian systems which arise from the Evens-Lu construction of homogeneous Poisson structures on both compact and noncompact type symmetric spaces. In this paper we consider loop space analogues. Many of the results extend in a relatively routine way to the loop space setting, but new issues emerge. The main point of this paper is to spell out the meaning of the results, especially in the SU(2 case. Applications include integral formulas and factorizations for Toeplitz determinants.

  17. Tourniquets in orthopedic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jai Prakash Sharma; Rashmi Salhotra

    2012-01-01

    Tourniquets are commonly used in limb surgeries, be it orthopedic or plastic surgeries. But the inflation pressures, the duration, and release guidelines are still not clear. According to a survey, majority of orthopedic surgeons inflate the tourniquet to fixed pressures for the upper and the lower limbs without considering the baseline blood pressure of the patient on whom the tourniquets are being applied. This review was designed to recall and review the safe use of tourniquets and the var...

  18. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decre...

  19. Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, P. Michael

    2000-01-01

    To reduce the risk, trauma, and expense of intrathoracic surgical treatments, minimally invasive procedures performed with the assistance of fiberoptic video technology have been developed for thoracic and bronchial surgeries. The surgical treatment of nearly every intrathoracic condition can benefit from a video-assisted approach performed through a few small incisions. Video-assisted thoracoscopic and rigid-bronchoscopic surgery have improved the results of thoracic procedures by decreasing...

  20. Complications of pancreatic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2011-01-01

    Many diseases, including pancreatitis benign tumors and cancer, may require pancreas surgery. Pancreatic resection can lead to a prolonged survival in pancreatic cancer and even a potential chance for cure. However, the pancreatic surgery can result in complications, and high postoperative morbidity rates are still presence. This article reviews the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011, which involves the more common complications, their prevention and treatment.

  1. Robotics in General Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, James; Chandra, Venita; Krummel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In summary, robotics has made a significant contribution to General Surgery in the past 20 years. In its infancy, surgical robotics has seen a shift from early systems that assisted the surgeon to current teleoperator systems that can enhance surgical skills. Telepresence and augmented reality surgery are being realized, while research and development into miniaturization and automation is rapidly moving forward. The future of surgical robotics is bright. Researchers are working to address th...

  2. Outpatient anorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwell, S J; Friend, W G

    1979-10-01

    Over a period of 16 months, three-fourths of the proctologic surgery performed by our clinic was done on an outpatient basis. By doing so, 1,200 patient visits and approximately 300 histories, physicals, and discharge summaries are eliminated, while obviously benefiting patients and reducing health care costs. Thus, we can conclude that hospitalization is not necessary for the majority of proctologic surgery patients. PMID:527434

  3. Is day surgery safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majholm, Birgitte; Engbæk, J; Bartholdy, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    Day surgery is expanding in several countries, and it is important to collect information about quality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and unanticipated hospital visits 0-30 days post-operatively in a large cohort.......Day surgery is expanding in several countries, and it is important to collect information about quality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and unanticipated hospital visits 0-30 days post-operatively in a large cohort....

  4. Complications of pancreatic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases, including pancreatitis benign tumors and cancer, may require pancreas surgery. Pancreatic resection can lead to a prolonged survival in pancreatic cancer and even a potential chance for cure. However, the pancreatic surgery can result in complications, and high postoperative morbidity rates are still presence. This article reviews the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011, which involves the more common complications, their prevention and treatment.

  5. Surgery for Congenital Cataract

    OpenAIRE

    David Yorston FRCS FRCOphth

    2004-01-01

    The management of congenital cataract is very different to the treatment of a routine age-related cataract. In adults, surgery may be delayed for years without affecting the visual outcome. In infants, if the cataract is not removed during the first year of life, the vision will never be fully regained after surgery. In adults, if the aphakia is not corrected immediately, it can be corrected later. In young children, if the aphakia is not corrected, the vision will never develop normally.

  6. Topics in Banach space theory

    CERN Document Server

    Albiac, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...

  7. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooma Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon′s console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over.

  8. Robotic surgery in gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  9. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-01

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques. PMID:27147588

  10. Recovery after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kokki, Hannu; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja

    2016-04-01

    Cataract surgery is the most common ophthalmological surgical procedure, and it is predicted that the number of surgeries will increase significantly in the future. However, little is known about the recovery after surgery. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, severity and duration of pain and other ocular discomfort symptoms experienced after cataract surgery. The other objectives were to identify the factors associated with lower postoperative patient satisfaction and to measure the effect of cataract surgery on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and visual function in everyday life. The study design was a prospective follow-up study. The course of the recovery and the presence of ocular symptoms were evaluated by interviewing the patients via a questionnaire at 1 day, 1 week, 6 weeks and one year after surgery The visual functioning in everyday life was measured with Visual Functioning Index VF-7 and Catquest-9SF-questionnaires and furthermore the HRQoL was measured with the 15D-instrument before surgery and at 12 months after surgery. The patients returned the questionnaires by mail and were interviewed in the hospital on the day of the surgery. The same patients filled-in all the questionnaires. The patient reports were used to collect the data on medical history. A total of 303 patients were approached at Kuopio University Hospital in 2010-2011 and of these 196 patients were eligible and willing to participate, with postoperative data being available from 186 (95%) patients. A systematic review article was included in the study procedure and it revealed the wide range in the reported incidence of postoperative ocular pain. Some of the identified randomized controlled studies reported no or only minor pain whereas in some studies significant pain or pain lasting for several weeks has been described in more than 50% of the study patients. In the present study setting, pain was reported by 34% during the first

  11. Bariatric surgery: assessing opportunities for value innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, David P; Smith, Darlene B

    2005-03-01

    Obesity has been increasing over the past two decades, and the amount of medical and media attention given to bariatric surgery as a promising option for morbidly obese individuals is growing. The growth of bariatric surgery also has been attributed to improved surgical technique, the increase in surgeons trained in laparoscopic procedures, as well increased public awareness with celebrities having successfully undergone surgery. The number of surgeons and hospitals offering bariatric services is increasing. How then does a surgeon or a hospital develop a competitive strategy? The first step is to understand the health-care industry. The key forces are rivalry among present competitors, and the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers. While bariatric surgery currently is in a growth phase, time and competition will force practitioners to compete on the basis of price, unless they find true competitive advantage. Value innovation, is a means of creating new marketing space by looking across the conventionally defined boundaries of business--across substitute industries, across strategic groups, across buyer groups, across complementary product and service offerings, and across the functional-emotional orientation of an industry. One can compete by offering similar services focusing primarily on cost efficiencies as the key to profitability. Alternatively, one can break free from the pack by innovating and focusing on delivering superior value to the customer. As the market for bariatric surgery becomes increasingly overcrowded, profitable growth is not sustainable without developing a clear differential advantage in the market. Value innovation allows you to develop that advantage. PMID:15846452

  12. Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls

  13. Platonic solids generate their four-dimensional analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Pierre Philippe

    2013-11-01

    This paper shows how regular convex 4-polytopes - the analogues of the Platonic solids in four dimensions - can be constructed from three-dimensional considerations concerning the Platonic solids alone. Via the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem, the reflective symmetries of the Platonic solids generate rotations. In a Clifford algebra framework, the space of spinors generating such three-dimensional rotations has a natural four-dimensional Euclidean structure. The spinors arising from the Platonic solids can thus in turn be interpreted as vertices in four-dimensional space, giving a simple construction of the four-dimensional polytopes 16-cell, 24-cell, the F4 root system and the 600-cell. In particular, these polytopes have `mysterious' symmetries, that are almost trivial when seen from the three-dimensional spinorial point of view. In fact, all these induced polytopes are also known to be root systems and thus generate rank-4 Coxeter groups, which can be shown to be a general property of the spinor construction. These considerations thus also apply to other root systems such as A(1)\\oplus I(2)(n) which induces I(2)(n)\\oplus I(2)(n), explaining the existence of the grand antiprism and the snub 24-cell, as well as their symmetries. These results are discussed in the wider mathematical context of Arnold's trinities and the McKay correspondence. These results are thus a novel link between the geometries of three and four dimensions, with interesting potential applications on both sides of the correspondence, to real three-dimensional systems with polyhedral symmetries such as (quasi)crystals and viruses, as well as four-dimensional geometries arising for instance in Grand Unified Theories and string and M-theory. PMID:24132220

  14. Robotic Surgery for Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical ...

  15. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  16. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  17. Phases and approximations of baryonic popcorn in a low-dimensional analogue of holographic QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The Sakai-Sugimoto model is the most pre-eminent model of holographic QCD, in which baryons correspond to topological solitons in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime. Recently it has been shown that a single soliton in this model can be well approximated by a flat-space self-dual Yang-Mills instanton with a small size, although studies of multi-solitons and solitons at finite density are currently beyond numerical computations. A lower-dimensional analogue of the model has also been studied in ...

  18. Solid-phase synthesis of polyamine toxin analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Hasse; Krikstolaityte, Sonata; Andersen, Anne J; Andersen, Kim; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Egebjerg, Jan; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2002-01-01

    receptors, in particular Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA and kainate receptors. We have previously shown that an analogue of PhTX-433 with one of the amino groups replaced by a methylene group, philanthotoxin-83 (PhTX-83) is a selective and potent antagonist of AMPA receptors. We now describe the solid-phase...... synthesis of analogues of PhTX-83 and the electrophysiological characterization of these analogues on cloned AMPA and kainate receptors. The polyamine portion of PhTX-83 was modified systematically by changing the position of the secondary amino group along the polyamine chain. In another series of...

  19. Recent developments in naturally derived antimalarials: cryptolepine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Colin W

    2007-06-01

    Increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to commonly used antimalarial drugs has made the need for new agents increasingly urgent. In this paper, the potential of cryptolepine, an alkaloid from the West African shrub Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, as a lead towards new antimalarial agents is discussed. Several cryptolepine analogues have been synthesized that have promising in-vitro and in-vivo antimalarial activity. Studies on the antimalarial modes of action of these analogues indicate that they may have different or additional modes of action to the parent compound. Elucidation of the mode of action may facilitate the development of more potent antimalarial cryptolepine analogues. PMID:17637183

  20. Practical visceral surgery. Oncological surgery. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book covers the actual knowledge on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Modern oncological surgery is always interdisciplinary: for every therapeutic decision the surgical, chemotherapeutical and radiotherapeutical principles have to be considered. A fundamental knowledge on the oncogenesis, the molecular, functional and imaging diagnostics are a precondition; supporting therapeutical approaches and a targeting aftercare are contributing to the quality of patient's life. The book covers the basic oncological knowledge, diagnostic and therapeutical methods, a systematical presentation of all carcinomas of visceral organs and neighboring regions. Systematically structured recommendations of excellent experts concerning the method selection are included

  1. Effect of preemptive ketamine administration on postoperative visceral pain after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Qi; Jia, Dong-Lin

    2016-08-01

    The pain following gynecological laparoscopic surgery is less intense than that following open surgery; however, patients often experience visceral pain after the former surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of preemptive ketamine on visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Ninety patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received placebo. Group 2 was intravenously injected with preincisional saline and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. Group 3 was intravenously injected with preincisional ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. A standard anesthetic was used for all patients, and meperidine was used for postoperative analgesia. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for incisional and visceral pain at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, cumulative analgesic consumption and time until first analgesic medication request, and adverse effects were recorded postoperatively. The VAS scores of visceral pain in group 3 were significantly lower than those in group 2 and group 1 at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively (Pketamine may reduce visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. PMID:27465337

  2. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in

  3. Developing Skin Analogues for a Robotic Octopus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou; Richard H.C.Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2012-01-01

    In order to fabricate a biomimetic skin for an octopus inspired robot,a new process was developed based on mechanical properties measured from real octopus skin.Various knitted nylon textiles were tested and the one of 10-denier nylon was chosen as reinforcement.A combination of Ecoflex 0030 and 0010 silicone rubbers was used as matrix of the composite to obtain the right stiffness for the skin-analogue system.The open mould fabrication process developed allows air bubble to escape easily and the artificial skin produced was thin and waterproof.Material properties of the biomimetic skin were characterised using static tensile and instrumented scissors cutting tests.The Young's moduli of the artificial skin are 0.08 MPa and 0.13 MPa in the longitudinal and transverse directions,which are much lower than those of the octopus skin.The strength and fracture toughness of the artificial skin,on the other hand are higher than those of real octopus skins.Conically-shaped skin prototypes to be used to cover the robotic arm unit were manufactured and tested.The biomimetic skin prototype was stiff enough to maintain it conical shape when filled with water.The driving force for elongation was reduced significantly compared with previous prototypes.

  4. Progress in the Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Steering Committee agreed on 1 October 1987 to sponsor the International Alligator Rivers Analogue Project (ARAP) for a three year program with a formal starting date of 1 September 1987. The participants are six organisations from five NEA Member States with ANSTO as the managing participant. A detailed tehnical program was agreed by a Joint Technical Committee and this comprises six main technical sub-projects: modelling of radionuclide migration, hydrogeology at Koongarra, uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies, colloid and groundwater studies, fission product studies and transuranic nuclide studies. A modelling workshop for participants and contractors was held in Sydney in February 1988 and a field visit was undertaken in May 1988. Laboratory studies on samples obtained in previous field visits were carried out from September 1987. Data from the project are being provided for participants as case 8 in the INTRAVAL model validation project coordinated by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. A Joint Technical Committee meeting to approve the technical program and budjet for the second year will be held in Sydney in July 1988

  5. A positive Grassmannian analogue of the permutohedron

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Lauren K

    2015-01-01

    The classical permutohedron Perm is the convex hull of the points (w(1),...,w(n)) in R^n where w ranges over all permutations in the symmetric group. This polytope has many beautiful properties -- for example it provides a way to visualize the weak Bruhat order: if we orient the permutohedron so that the longest permutation w_0 is at the "top" and the identity e is at the "bottom," then the one-skeleton of Perm is the Hasse diagram of the weak Bruhat order. Equivalently, the paths from e to w_0 along the edges of Perm are in bijection with the reduced decompositions of w_0. Moreover, the two-dimensional faces of the permutohedron correspond to braid and commuting moves, which by the Tits Lemma, connect any two reduced expressions of w_0. In this note we introduce some polytopes Br(k,n) (which we call bridge polytopes) which provide a positive Grassmannian analogue of the permutohedron. In this setting, BCFW bridge decompositions of reduced plabic graphs play the role of reduced decompositions. We define Br(k,...

  6. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Groundwater Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this volume is to provide an account of the groundwater sampling and analysis program undertaken at Koongarra, as part of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. Chemical parameters were investigated in groundwaters at various locations and depths in the vicinity of the Koongarra orebody. Measurements of the pH, redox state, conductivity, and bicarbonate alkalinity provided a starting point for interpreting water chemistry. Groundwater samples were obtained using submersible pumps, or, in a few cases, bailers. The concentrations of major cations and anions, such as magnesium and phosphate, were determined using a variety of standard techniques. Numerous elements were routinely analysed using quantitative or semi-quantitative ICPMS. Uranium series radionuclides and environmental isotopes were measured using radiochemical techniques and mass spectrometry. The distributions of isotopes such as deuterium, tritium, 210Pb, 13C and 14C enabled groundwater mixing and flow-paths to be studied. The occurrence and distributions of major species at Koongarra are presented in this volume, using both cross-sections and contour plans. Chemical and isotopic data for groundwater analyses carried out during the project are included in the Appendices. 47 refs., 16 tabs., 58 figs

  7. Spectroscopy analogue-to-digital converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of world trends in the branch of electronic constructions for spectroscopy analogue-to-digital converters (ADC) applied in different fields of nuclear physics and techniques has been done. Data sheets and graphical comparison of main parameters for ADC that have appeared in world literature are also added. Recent methods applied for conversion of voltage pulse amplitude with linear coding scale have been described. Future trends up to year 1990 anticipating the increase of spectroscopy ADC resolution up to 15 bits and the shortening of ADC conversion time down to 1 μs have been presented. The dynamic development of very fast converters with low accuracy has been predicted. Present ADC are capable of sampling pulses from nuclear detectors with repetition rate up to 100 MHz. Examples of different correction methods for deleting ADC measurement errors show that both hardware and software tools may be used. On the ground of these methods one can use for spectroscopy ADC design commercially available integrated circuits with large scale integration. Then good metrology parameters, simplicity of realization and small overall dimensions may be obtained. These correction methods make a compromise between speed and precision of ADC operation possible. 81 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  8. [Robotics and laparoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ramos, Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has completely revolutionized modern surgery. In addition to its advantages, however, this approach also presents significant limitations. The most important are loss of the sense of depth, tactile sensation and resistance, as well as loss of natural hand-eye coordination and manual dexterity. The main motivation for the development of surgical robots is the possibility of eliminating all these limitations. Robots have acquired great potential to improve the operative possibilities of surgeons. Given the continual increase in the use of surgical robots, in the near future the structure and appearance of current operating rooms will change. The present article analyzes the origin and development of robotic systems, as well as the characteristics of the latest generation of robots. Because of the strong interest in robotic surgery and its future prospects, surgeons should be familiar with these emerging and innovative techniques. PMID:17040667

  9. Robotic transaxillary thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Aidan, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Recent technological advances have led to a rapid progress in endocrine surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, increased patient satisfaction, improved visualization, arms articulations, eliminating surgeon's natural tremor, thereby increasing precision. The main disadvantages are longer operative time, and increased cost compared to conventional thyroidectomy, as well as potential injuries to the brachial plexus, skin flap, esophagus, and trachea. Large-scale studies, mainly from South-Korea, have proved that in skilled hands, RATS is a safe alternative to conservative thyroidectomy and should be presented to patients with aesthetic concerns. As with any new emerging technique, careful patient selection is crucial, and further evidence must be sought to confirm its indications. PMID:26425452

  10. Viscoless microincision cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sallet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Guy SalletDepartment of Opthamology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, BelgiumAbstract: A cataract surgery technique is described in which incisions, continuous circular capsulorhexis and hydrodissection are made without the use of any viscoelastics. Two small incisions are created through which the different parts of the procedure can take place, maintaining a stable anterior chamber under continuous irrigation. Subsequent bimanual phacoemulsification can be done through these microincisions. At the end of the procedure, an intraocular lens can be inserted through the self-sealing incision under continuous irrigation. 50 consecutive cataract patients were operated on without the use of viscoelastics and then compared with a group of 50 patients who had been helped with viscoelastics. No difference in outcome, endothelial cell count or pachymetry was noted between the two groups. No intraoperative complication was encountered. Viscoless cataract surgery was a safe procedure with potential advantages.Keywords: ophthalmic visco-surgical device, viscoless cataract surgery, microincision

  11. [Frontal mucocele: open surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, F; Aluffi, P; Borello, G

    1999-06-01

    This work presents 13 cases of frontal mucoceles, 9 with endo-orbital extension. All were treated with 'open surgery': 11 using a fronto-orbital approach, 2 with a bicoronal Cairns-Unterberger approach. Four patients had recurrent mucoceles 1-20 years after the previous surgery. In one case there was an association with frontal osteoma. In 10 cases, conservative treatment was applied through repermeabilization of the infundibular region through an external, endonasal pathway and positioning of a nasal sinus drainage tube (kept in place for 4 weeks). In the remaining 3 cases, the sinus cavity was obliterated with autologous abdominal fat. This choice was made because of the presence of osteomyelitic foci, in one case mucopioceles, or by the widespread dural exposure encountered during the course of surgery. Two cases of post-operative sinus reinfection were encountered: one underwent surgical revision, the other was an orbital site recurrence arising 7 years after previous surgical obliteration of the frontal sinus. The esthetic result was unsatisfactory in 2 patients treated with a trans-facial approach. Ten patients were disease free after an average 56 months of follow-up. Although functional endoscopic surgery undoubtedly makes it possible to achieve excellent results in the treatment of most sinus mucoceles, open surgery remains a valid procedure in frontal mucoceles with orbital and/or endocranial extension and in cases where the district anatomy is unfavorable for a purely endonasal approach. The indications and limitations of open surgery are critically discussed in the light of personal experience and current literature. PMID:10546373

  12. MOCK SURGERIES IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Yogitha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present trend is very well aware of mock tests, exams and even the mock surgeries that are very common in healthcare and play an important role in providing the surgeons, the necessary practical knowledge and expertise in their specialized field. In addition, patients also get benefited by the mock surgeries by having the complete knowledge before they undergo any surgery. The same concept of mock or the experimental surgeries can be found explained centuries ago by Susrutha, father of both the Ancient and Modern surgery in the Susrutha samhitha under the chapter yogya-sutriya. Hence here, an effort was made to explore the same. Further research studies should be focused on the concept explained by Sushrutha to make it valid and applicable to the present day. The ancient surgical science is known as Salya-tantra. Salya-tantra (surgical science embraces all processes aiming at the removal of factors responsible for producing pain or misery to the body or mind. Salya(salya-surgical instrument denotes broken parts of an arrow /other sharp weapons while tantra denotes maneuver. 1 To obtain the complete success in the aimed operating work, practice of similar operations before hand is called yoga and the experiment of such practice is called yogya. An intelligent surgeon, who does experimental surgery methodically, does not lose his presence of mind while doing the actual operations.Therefore, he who wants to be an expert in the use of surgical operations, caustics or thermal cauterizations should practice the same experimentally on similar subjects.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of the incretin axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and gastroinhibitory intestinal peptide constitutes >90% of all the incretin function. Augmentation of GLP-1 results in improvement of beta cell health in a glucose-dependant manner (post-prandial hyperglycemia and suppression of glucagon (fasting hyperglycemia, amongst other beneficial pleiotropic effects. Native GLP-1 has a very short plasma half-life and novel methods have been developed to augment its half life, such that its anti-hyperglycemic effects can be exploited. They can be broadly classified as exendin-based therapies (exenatide, exenatide once weekly, DPP-4-resistant analogues (lixisenatide, albiglutide, and analogues of human GLP-1 (liraglutide, taspoglutide. Currently, commercially available analogues are exenatide, exenatide once weekly, and liraglutide. This review aims to provide an overview of most GLP-1 analogues.

  14. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which...

  15. Generalised insulin oedema after intensification of treatment with insulin analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Adamo, Luigi; Thoelke, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of generalised insulin oedema after intensification of treatment with genetically modified insulin. This is the first case of generalised oedema in response to treatment with insulin analogues in a patient not insulin naive.

  16. Structural analogues of diosgenyl saponins: synthesis and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskiw, Matthew J; Tassotto, Mary Lynn; Mok, Mac; Tokar, Stacey L; Pycko, Roxanne; Th'ng, John; Jiang, Zi-Hua

    2009-11-15

    Saponins display various biological activities including anti-tumor activity. Recently intensive research has been focused on developing saponins for tumor therapies. The diosgenyl saponin dioscin is one of the most common steroidal saponins and exhibits potent anticancer activity in several human cancer cells through apoptosis-inducing pathways. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of several diosgenyl saponin analogues containing either a 2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl residue or an alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl residue with different acyl substituents on the amino group. The cytotoxic activity of these compounds was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells. Structure-activity relationship studies show that the disaccharide saponin analogues are in general less active than their corresponding monosaccharide analogues. The incorporation of an aromatic nitro functionality into these saponin analogues does not exhibit significant effect on their cytotoxic activity. PMID:19819703

  17. Defining Analytical Strategies for Mars Sample Return with Analogue Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Sapers, H. M.; Francis, R.; Pontefract, A.; Tornabene, L. L.; Haltigin, T.

    2016-05-01

    The characterization of biosignatures in MSR samples will require integrated, cross-platform laboratory analyses carefully correlated and calibrated with Rover-based technologies. Analogue missions provide context for implementation and assessment.

  18. A q-Analogue of the Dirichlet L-Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Son

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we will treat some interesting formulae which are slightly different from Kim's results by more or less the same method in [4-9]. At first, we consider a new definition of a q-analogue of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials.We construct a q-analogue of the Riemann ζ-function, Hurwitz ζ-function, and Dirichlet L-series. Also, we investigate the relation between the q-analogue of generalized Bernoulli numbers and the generalized Euler numbers. As an application, we prove that the q-analogue of Bernoulli numbers occurs in the coefficients of some Stirling type series for the p-adic analytic q-log-gamma function.

  19. Practical enantiospecific syntheses of lysobisphosphatidic acid and its analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guowei; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2006-02-01

    We describe a versatile, efficient, and practical method for the preparation of enantiomerically pure lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), bisether analogues, and phosphorothioate analogues of LBPA from solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-oleoyl glycerol with 2-cyanoethyl bis(N,N-diisopropylamino)phosphite, followed by oxidation and deprotection, generated the enantiomers of 2,2'-LBPA. The corresponding phosphorothioate analogues were obtained by oxidation with sulfur. The (R,R) and (S,S) enantiomers of both LBPA and phosphorothioate LBPA were synthesized from (S)- and (R)-solketal, respectively. The ether analogue of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer were synthesized from the same enantiomer (S)-solketal by simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps. PMID:16438504

  20. Trustworthiness and Influence: A Reexamination in an Extended Counseling Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmeier, Rosemarie C.; Dixon, David N.

    1980-01-01

    The study demonstrated that: (1) interviewer trustworthiness can be manipulated in an analogue interview setting; and (2) interviewer trustworthiness is related to interpersonal influence in the interview setting. Findings follow a pattern of outcomes predicted by cognitive dissonance theory. (Author)

  1. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed ...

  2. Endowascular surgery of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well-known variants and above all new valid methods of endovascular surgery in treating chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver tumors are described. The results of the observation of patients in the surgical clinic of the Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology which has the greatest in the USSR experience in the field of endovascular surgery of the liver are summarized. Special attention is given to the role and positive results of a catheter technique in the treatment of advanced stages of the disease as well as extensive liver resection and its conservation for trasplantation

  3. Update on obesity surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Eisenberg; Andrew J Duffy; Robert L Bell

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. With more than 30 million Americans clinically obese, the younger population has also been affected. Surgical therapy should be offered to the severely obese patient who is refractory to nonsurgical therapy, as established by the 1991 NIH Consensus Conference on Gastrointestinal Surgery for Severe Obesity. Surgery is currently the most effective therapy for weight loss. It is far more effective than any other treatment modality, both in terms of the amount of weight loss and in terms of durability in maintaining weight loss.

  4. Cataract surgery in uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazari Ajit; Sangwan Virender

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To study the visual outcome of cataract surgery in eyes with uveitis.Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with uveitis operated for cataract. Results: 106 eyes of 89 patients with uveitis were operated for cataract. In 62.3% eyes (66/106), post -operative follow-up was at least 6 months. There was significant improvement (P<0.001) in visual acuity after cataract surgery. Provided the uveitis was well controlled for three months pre-operatively, additional pre...

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of novel carbocyclic carbohydrate analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Christopher William

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate analogues play an indispensible role in the study of glycan processing enzymes. These compounds have attracted attention as probes of enzyme mechanisms, as chemical tools for the elucidation of enzyme function and as potential pharmaceuticals. The development of organocatalytic aldol chemistry has fundamentally altered the way chemists approach the synthesis of carbohydrate analogues. In this thesis I highlight a novel strategy toward the synthesis of carbocyclic carbohydrate ana...

  6. Biological evaluation of a novel sorafenib analogue, t-CUPM

    OpenAIRE

    Wecksler, Aaron T.; Hwang, Sung Hee; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wettersten, Hiromi I.; Morisseau, Christophe; Wu, Jian; Robert H. Weiss; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Sorafenib (Nexavar®) is currently the only FDA-approved small molecule targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of structural analogues and derivatives of sorafenib has enabled the elucidation of critical targets and mechanism(s) of cell death for human cancer lines. We previously performed a structure-activity relationship study on a series of sorafenib analogues designed to investigate the inhibition overlap between the major targets of sorafenib Raf-1 kinase and VEGF...

  7. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  8. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1996-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997....

  9. Analogue symmetry breaking in superallowed Fermi β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in the Fermi matrix element due to deviations from perfect analogue symmetry has been estimated in a single-particle model with both harmonic oscillator and Saxon-Woods radial wave functions. A limitation of earlier calculations, in which the ground state of the A-1 nucleus was taken as the unique parent, is removed to allow the whole spectrum of parent states to be operative. This improvement leads to slightly larger analogue symmetry breaking effects. (Auth.)

  10. Long Acting Somatostatin Analogue: Clinical Potential for Gastrointestinal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N Fedorak

    1989-01-01

    Name somatostatin is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and has a wide variety of biological actions. Nevertheless, its short biological half-life and limited stability necessitate its use via continuous parenteral infusion and, thus, limits its therapeutic usefulness The development of long acting somatostatin analogues have lead to a re-examination of the therapeutic usefulness of somatostatin in gastrointestinal disease. Somatostatin analogues appear most beneficial tn preventing ...

  11. The effect of intrathecal Neostigmine on control of local back pain after lumbar disc surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Fakhr Tabatabaei SA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As spinal cholinergic receptors exhibit an action against somatic pain, this effect could be potentiated by intrathecal injection of cholinesterase inhibitor-neostigmine. This study was designed to evaluate the role of interathecal neostigmine on local back pain relief after single level lumbar disc surgery. Methods and Materials: In an interventional-expremental study (Imam Khomeini Hospital, Jun. 2000 to sep. 2001, sixty-six patient with unilateral herniated lumbr disc at one lumber space were randomely allocated into two groups including, control (C group and Neostigmine (N group. Both groups underwent fenestration employing same anesthetic techniques. At the end of surgery 2 ml normal saline in groups C and 100 micrograms neostigmine methylsulfate (0.2 ml combined with 1.8 ml normal saline in group N were injected intrathecally postoperative local back pain was measured with 10 cm chart method using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS at 1, 4, 8 and 12 hours. Total dosage of morphine, as an analgesic rescue, used during the first 24 hours following surgery and observed complications were recorded. Results: Mean VAS score postoperatively at 1st and 4th hours were 2.24 (Standard Error Mean, SEM=0.36 and 1.82 (SEM=0.28 in group N and 5.36 (SEM=0.39 and 5.61 (SEM=0.37 in group C respectively. Mean morphine used in the first 24 hours was 0.9 (SEM=0.4 in group N and 4.7 (SEM=0.65 mg in group C. All result were found to be statistically different in the two group (P<0.05. There was no neurologic deficit or CSF leakage in both groups postoperatively. Regarding nausea and vomiting, the difference between two groups C (15 percent and N (24.2 percent were not significant statistically. Conclusion: In this study, we have found that injection of 100 micrograms hyperbaric neostigmine intrathecally is a safe and effective method with minimal complications or side effect for pain relief and curtails postoperative opiate demand.

  12. Space-time reactor kinetics for heterogeneous reactor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to formulate time dependent diffusion equation based on Feinberg-Galanin theory in the from analogue to the classical reactor kinetic equation. Parameters of these equations could be calculated using the existing codes for static reactor calculation based on the heterogeneous reactor theory. The obtained kinetic equation could be analogues in form to the nodal kinetic equation. Space-time distribution of neutron flux in the reactor can be obtained by solving these equations using standard methods

  13. Fock representations of the superalgebra sl(n+1 vertical bar m), its quantum analogue Uq[sl(n+1 vertical bar m)] and related quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fock space representations of the Lie superalgebra sl(n + 1 vertical bar m) and of its quantum analogue Uq[sl(n + 1 vertical bar m)] are written down. The results are based on a description of these superalgebras via creation and annihilation operators. The properties of the underlying statistics are briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakilam Satishkumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxytris(dimethylaminophosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL, T-cell lymphoma (TCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  15. Application of natural analogues in the Yucca Mountain project - overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Analogue Synthesis Report (NASR) [1] provides a compilation of information from analogues that test, corroborate, and add confidence to process models and model predictions pertinent to total system performance assessment (TSPA). The report updated previous work [2] with new literature examples and results of quantitative studies conducted by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate greater understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure of a proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Natural analogues, as used here, refer to either natural or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have occurred over long time periods (decades to millenia) and large spatial scales (up to tens of kilometers). In the past, the YMP has used analogues for testing and building confidence in conceptual and numerical process models in a number of ways. Yucca Mountain mineral alteration phases provided a self-analogue for postclosure alteration [3]. Thermodynamic parameters for silica minerals of the Wairakai, New Zealand geothermal field were added to databases used in geochemical modeling [4]. Scoping calculations of radionuclide transport using the Yucca Mountain TSPA numerical model were conducted for the Peqa Blanca site [5]. Eruption parameters from the Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, were used to verify codes that model ash plume dispersion [6]. Analogues have also been used in supplemental science and performance analyses to provide multiple lines of evidence in support of both analyses and model reports (AMRs) [7]; in screening arguments for inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEP)s in TSPAs; in the quantification of uncertainties [7]; in expert elicitations of volcanic and seismic hazards [8, 9] and in peer reviews [10]. Natural analogues may be applied

  16. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.

  17. Isolation and characterization of propoxyphenyl linked sildenafil and thiosildenafil analogues in health supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Low, Min-Yong

    2012-11-01

    Two new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5) which consist of one sildenafil analogue and one thiosildenafil analogue have been found in heath supplements. The structural properties of these analogues have been elucidated by NMR, high resolution MS, MS(2), UV and IR spectroscopy. The sildenafil analogue is very similar to aildenafil and the thiosildenafil analogue is similar to thioaildenafil, except the ethoxy group bonded to phenyl ring is replaced by a propoxy group. Hence, the sildenafil analogue is named as propoxyphenyl aildenafil or propoxyphenyl methisosildenafil and the thiosildenafil analogue as propoxyphenyl thioaildenafil or propoxyphenyl thiomethisosildenafil. PMID:22840979

  18. Psychological effects of day case surgery compared with inpatient surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, I R; Scaife, J M; Johnstone, J M

    1988-01-01

    Short term psychological disturbance in 70 children undergoing minor surgery was compared in two randomly allocated groups by means of questionnaires answered by their parents. Significantly less psychological disturbance was reported in children undergoing day case surgery compared with children admitted on the day before and discharged on the day after surgery. Children who had day case surgery were less often reported to require extra attention in the first week after discharge home, and a...

  19. The Greenland Analogue Project, Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. The project includes three sub-projects (A-C) with specific individual objectives, which collectively aim at contributing knowledge and input to the overall project aim. Three field campaigns were carried out in SPA during 2009. These campaigns focused on: (1) deployment and maintenance of AWS and GPS stations and to test the deep-look radar equipment; (2) investigating the hydrological processes and feedbacks and testing of passive seismic equipment; (3) downloading of weather station data and GPS data and winterizing the equipment. An extensive archive of real-time satellite remote sensing datasets has been obtained to be able to better constraint the surface elevation and dynamics of basal hydrological mechanisms. From this archive it has been possible to obtain Russell Glacier Cachment (RGC)-wide constraints on annual, seasonal and specific temporal snapshots of surface speed, initial lake and moulin distribution, drainage and network connections along with the temporal

  20. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins and their analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Frans J; Waring, Alan J; Sherman, Mark A; Zasadzinski, Joseph A; Gordon, Larry M

    2007-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and four surfactant-associated proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). Its major function in the lung alveolus is to reduce surface tension at the air-water interface in the terminal airways by the formation of a surface-active film enriched in surfactant lipids, hence preventing cellular collapse during respiration. Surfactant therapy using bovine or porcine lung surfactant extracts, which contain only polar lipids and native SP-B and SP-C, has dramatically improved the therapeutic outcomes of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). One important goal of surfactant researchers is to replace animal-derived therapies with fully synthetic preparations based on SP-B and SP-C, produced by recombinant technology or peptide synthesis, and reconstituted with selected synthetic lipids. Here, we review recent research developments with peptide analogues of SP-B and SP-C, designed using either the known primary sequence and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the native proteins or, alternatively, the known 3D structures of closely homologous proteins. Such SP-B and SP-C mimics offer the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of the respective native proteins, and may allow the design of optimized surfactant formulations for specific pulmonary diseases (e.g., acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)). These synthetic surfactant preparations may also be a cost-saving therapeutic approach, with better quality control than may be obtained with animal-based treatments. PMID:17575474

  1. Remote access thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Kandil, Emad; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2015-10-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  2. Nutrition & Pancreatic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this thesis was to determine the optimal feeding strategy after pancreatoduodenectomy. The available nutritional guidelines give conflicting recommendations and are all based on studies after major gastrointestinal surgery for cancer in general. We systematically reviewe

  3. Evolving endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Paulo; Faintuch, Joel

    2014-06-01

    Since the days of Albukasim in medieval Spain, natural orifices have been regarded not only as a rather repugnant source of bodily odors, fluids and excreta, but also as a convenient invitation to explore and treat the inner passages of the organism. However, surgical ingenuity needed to be matched by appropriate tools and devices. Lack of technologically advanced instrumentation was a strong deterrent during almost a millennium until recent decades when a quantum jump materialized. Endoscopic surgery is currently a vibrant and growing subspecialty, which successfully handles millions of patients every year. Additional opportunities lie ahead which might benefit millions more, however, requiring even more sophisticated apparatuses, particularly in the field of robotics, artificial intelligence, and tissue repair (surgical suturing). This is a particularly exciting and worthwhile challenge, namely of larger and safer endoscopic interventions, followed by seamless and scarless recovery. In synthesis, the future is widely open for those who use together intelligence and creativity to develop new prototypes, new accessories and new techniques. Yet there are many challenges in the path of endoscopic surgery. In this new era of robotic endoscopy, one will likely need a virtual simulator to train and assess the performance of younger doctors. More evidence will be essential in multiple evolving fields, particularly to elucidate whether more ambitious and complex pathways, such as intrathoracic and intraperitoneal surgery via natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), are superior or not to conventional techniques. PMID:24628672

  4. Hair transplantation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Manoj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science.

  5. Conceiving After Tubal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help you get pregnant. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is one treatment that is used. For IVF, your egg and the man's sperm are joined ... decide if surgery or other treatment, such as IVF, is better for you. What are the risks ...

  6. Plastic Surgery for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF), the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC), or the Joint Commission on Accreditation of ... requirements. Informed Consent At the highest level of care, ... physician-patient relationship is one of shared decision-making. This decision- ...

  7. Femoroacetabular impingement surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, Michael P; Thorborg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Femoroacetabuler impingement (FAI) is becoming increasingly recognised as a potential pathological entity for individuals with hip pain. Surgery described to correct FAI has risen exponentially in the past 10 years with the use of hip arthroscopy. Unfortunately, the strength of evidence supportin...

  8. IVF after bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Doblado, Manuel A.; Lewkowksi, Beth M.; Odem, Randall R.; Jungheim, Emily S.

    2010-01-01

    Little data exist regarding in vitro fertilization in women who have undergone bariatric surgery. Our experience with five patients suggests IVF is a safe and effective fertility treatment for these women although special considerations should be made including the type of bariatric procedure the patient underwent and relating this knowledge to symptoms the patient may experience during their IVF cycle.

  9. Revision Knee Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Revision Knee Surgery Featuring the Zimmer® NexGen® LCCK System. Zimmer, Inc. Indio, California March 31, 2010 Welcome ... the role of the NexGen LCCK Knee Revision System. If we could go to the slides, please. ...

  10. Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Lucy; Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I.

    2013-01-01

    Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery is a fundamental component of the repertoire for the management of breast cancer. It facilitates removal of large volumes of breast tissue, and can improve cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction whilst maintaining good oncological principles, reducing re-excision and mastectomy rates and assisting in adjuvant radiotherapy planning.

  11. Cataract surgery and anticoagulants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; VanRij, G

    1996-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 240 members of the Netherlands Intraocular implant Club (NIOIC) to register their policy followed in 1993 with regard to anticoagulant therapy (ACT) and the use of aspirin in patients having cataract surgery. Ninety-one (32%) forms were suitable for analysis. Most eye sur

  12. Hair transplantation surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna Manoj

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science.

  13. [Minilaparoscopic surgery : alternative or supplement to single-port surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, L; Lorenz, D

    2011-05-01

    In recent years scarless surgery (axillo-bilateral-breast aproach [ABBA], natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery [NOTES], single-port surgery) has gained importance in order to improve postoperative outcome in laparoscopic surgery. As part of this effort minilaparoscopic surgery might be a suitable alternative concerning cosmetic outcome without implementing a completely new technique. Due to the definition minilaparoscopic surgery is based on instruments which reduce the total length of trocar incisions to less than 2.5 cm. Nevertheless the total number of incisions is similar to conventional laparoscopic techniques. Most recent indications for minilaparoscopic surgery are cholecystectomy, appendectomy, hernia and colorectal surgery. This article describes the technical aspects and feasibility of minilaparoscopic cholecystectomy and transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair (TAPP).While the trocar positions remain in the original setting the laparoscopic surgeon benefits from experience gained in conventional laparoscopic surgery. Although the cosmetic outcome is not comparable to single-port surgery, in the author's opinion minilaparoscopic surgery is a useful alternative in scarless surgery due to the fact that it is easy to adapt without establishing a completely new technique. PMID:21424297

  14. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ASDS: Log In Forgot your password? ASDS — American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Expertise for the life of ... with new skin cancer screening recommendation The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) is expressing its disappointment ...

  15. Anti-reflux surgery - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach). Problems with these muscles can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This surgery can also be done during a ... Anti-reflux surgery is usually done to treat GERD in children only after medicines have not worked ...

  16. Intraperitoneal wound in abdominal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kahokehr, Arman Adam

    2013-01-01

    The intraperitoneal wound is often forgotten after transperitoneal surgery. This review is a on the peritoneum and the implications of peritoneal injury after surgery. This review will focus on the intraperitoneal wound response after surgical injury.

  17. Limited-Access Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart tumor removal Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair Patent foramen ovale repair Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation As with other kinds of limited-access surgery, robotic-assisted surgery can mean shorter hospital stays and ...

  18. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

  19. Phases and approximations of baryonic popcorn in a low-dimensional analogue of holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sakai–Sugimoto model is the most pre-eminent model of holographic QCD, in which baryons correspond to topological solitons in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime. Recently it has been shown that a single soliton in this model can be well approximated by a flat-space self-dual Yang–Mills instanton with a small size, although studies of multi-solitons and solitons at finite density are currently beyond numerical computations. A lower-dimensional analogue of the model has also been studied in which the Sakai–Sugimoto soliton is replaced by a baby Skyrmion in three spacetime dimensions with a warped metric. The lower dimensionality of this model means that full numerical field calculations are possible, and static multi-solitons and solitons at finite density were both investigated, in particular the baryonic popcorn phase transitions at high densities. Here we present and investigate an alternative lower-dimensional analogue of the Sakai–Sugimoto model in which the Sakai–Sugimoto soliton is replaced by an O(3)-sigma model instanton in a warped three-dimensional spacetime stabilized by a massive vector meson. A more detailed range of baryonic popcorn phase transitions are found, and the low-dimensional model is used as a testing ground to check the validity of common approximations made in the full five-dimensional model, namely approximating fields using their flat-space equations of motion, and performing a leading order expansion in the metric. (paper)

  20. Phases and approximations of baryonic popcorn in a low-dimensional analogue of holographic QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    The Sakai-Sugimoto model is the most pre-eminent model of holographic QCD, in which baryons correspond to topological solitons in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime. Recently it has been shown that a single soliton in this model can be well approximated by a flat-space self-dual Yang-Mills instanton with a small size, although studies of multi-solitons and solitons at finite density are currently beyond numerical computations. A lower-dimensional analogue of the model has also been studied in which the Sakai-Sugimoto soliton is replaced by a baby Skyrmion in three spacetime dimensions with a warped metric. The lower dimensionality of this model means that full numerical field calculations are possible, and static multi-solitons and solitons at finite density were both investigated, in particular the baryonic popcorn phase transitions at high densities. Here we present and investigate an alternative lower-dimensional analogue of the Sakai-Sugimoto model in which the Sakai-Sugimoto soliton is replaced by an O(3)-sigma model instanton in a warped three-dimensional spacetime stabilized by a massive vector meson. A more detailed range of baryonic popcorn phase transitions are found, and the low-dimensional model is used as a testing ground to check the validity of common approximations made in the full five-dimensional model, namely approximating fields using their flat-space equations of motion, and performing a leading order expansion in the metric.

  1. Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, T. J.; Fischer, Uwe R.

    2016-07-01

    Using the coherent state functional integral expression of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high- or low-energy sectors of the dynamics and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low-energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that (1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest-energy mode partially decouples the low- and high-energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wave function to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spacetime and (2) macroscopic occupation of a quantum superposition of two states of the lowest two modes produces an analogue curved spacetime depending on two background flows, with respective weights continuously dependent on the corresponding weights of the superposed quantum states.

  2. A basic introduction to surgery theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript contains extended notes of the lectures presented by the author at the summer school 'High-dimensional Manifold Theory' in Trieste in May/June 2001. It is written not for experts but for talented and well educated graduate students or Ph.D. students who have some background in algebraic and differential topology. Surgery theory has been and is a very successful and well established theory. It was initiated and developed by Browder, Kervaire, Milnor, Novikov, Sullivan, Wall and others and is still a very active research area. The idea of these notes is to give young mathematicians the possibility to get access to the field and to see at least a small part of the results which have grown out of surgery theory. Of course there are other good text books and survey articles about surgery theory, some of them are listed in the references. Chapters 1 and 2 contain interesting and beautiful results such as the s-Cobordism Theorem and the classification of lens spaces including their illuminating proofs. If one wants to start with the surgery machinery immediately, one may skip these chapters and pass directly to Chapters 3, 4 and 5. As an application we present the classification of homotopy spheres in Chapter 6. Chapters 7 and 8 contain material which is directly related to the main topic of the summer school

  3. Weak Orlicz space and its applications to the martingale theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the weak Orlicz space wL Φ is introduced and its applications to the martingale theory are discussed.In particular,a series of martingale inequalities including the maximal function inequality in weak Orlicz spaces are established;the relationships between these spaces are investigated.Moreover,the boundedness of several sublinear operators from one weak Orlicz space to another is proved;their vector-valued analogues are also considered.

  4. Weighted Composition Operators between Hardy Spaces on the Unit Ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUHui-ming; LIUTai-shun

    2004-01-01

    We consider the weighted composition operators between Hardy spaces on the unit ball, and obtain some sufficient and necessary conditions of bounded or compact weighted composition operators. We also prove that the operator from H1 to H1 is compact if and only if it is weakly compact. Meanwhile, we get the analogue on the Bergman spaces.

  5. Thurston norm and cosmetic surgeries

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Two Dehn surgeries on a knot are called cosmetic if they yield homeomorphic manifolds. For a null-homologous knot with certain conditions on the Thurston norm of the ambient manifold, if the knot admits cosmetic surgeries, then the surgery coefficients are equal up to sign.

  6. Timing of surgery for sciatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peul, Wilco C.

    2008-01-01

    The frequently diagnosed lumbar disc herniation can disappear by natural course, but still leads to high low back surgery rates. The optimal period of conservative care, before surgery is executed, was unknown. It is surprising that scientific evidence was lacking which justified “early” surgery. Su

  7. Thurston norm and cosmetic surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    NI, YI

    2011-01-01

    Two Dehn surgeries on a knot are called cosmetic if they yield homeomorphic manifolds. For a null-homologous knot with certain conditions on the Thurston norm of the ambient manifold, if the knot admits cosmetic surgeries, then the surgery coefficients are equal up to sign.

  8. Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch, less often. Each type of surgery has advantages and disadvantages. ​ ​​​​ Bariatric Surgery Benefits Bariatric surgery can ... basic and clinical research into many disorders. ​ Additional Reading Active at Any Size! Binge Eating Disorder Dieting ...

  9. Insulin analogues and cancer: a note of caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A.M.J.L. eJanssen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In view of the lifelong exposure and large patient populations involved, insulin analogues with an increased mitogenic effect in comparison to human insulin may potentially constitute a major health problem, since these analogues may possibly induce the growth of pre-existing neoplasms. At present, the available data suggest that insulin analogues are safe. In line with these findings, we observed that serum of diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues, compared to that of diabetic patients treated with human insulin, did not induce an increased phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR. However, the classical model of the IGF-IR signaling may be insufficient to explain (all mitogenic effects of insulin analogues since also non-canonical signaling pathways of the IGF-IR may play a major role in this respect. Although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the IGF-IR is generally considered to be the initial activation step within the intracellular IGF-IR signaling pathway, it has been found that cells undergo a signaling switch under hyperglycemic conditions. After this switch, a completely different mechanism is utilized to activate the mitogenic (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways of the IGF-IR that is independent from tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-IR. At present it is unknown whether activation of this alternative intracellular pathway of the IGF-IR occurs during hyperglycemia in vivo and whether it is stronger in patients treated with (some insulin analogues than in patients treated with human insulin. In addition, it is unknown whether the insulin receptors (IRs also undergo a signaling switch during hyperglycemia. This should be investigated in future studies. Finally, relative overexpression of IR isoform A (IR-A in (pre cancer tissues may play a key role in the development and progression of human cancers during treatment with insulin (analogues. Further

  10. Incorporation of tryptophan analogues into the lantibiotic nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Shao, Jinfeng; Li, Qian; van Heel, Auke J; de Vries, Marcel P; Broos, Jaap; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-05-01

    Lantibiotics are posttranslationally modified peptides with efficient inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the original modifications, incorporation of non-canonical amino acids can render new properties and functions to lantibiotics. Nisin is the most studied lantibiotic and contains no tryptophan residues. In this study, a system was constructed to incorporate tryptophan analogues into nisin, which included the modification machinery (NisBTC) and the overexpression of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS). Tryptophan and three different tryptophan analogues (5-fluoroTrp (5FW), 5-hydroxyTrp (5HW) and 5-methylTrp (5MeW)) were successfully incorporated at four different positions of nisin (I1W, I4W, M17W and V32W). The incorporation efficiency of tryptophan analogues into mutants I1W, M17W and V32W was over 97 %, while the mutant I4W showed relatively low incorporation efficiency (69-93 %). The variants with 5FW showed relatively higher production yield, while 5MeW-containing variants showed the lowest yield. The dehydration efficiency of serines or threonines was affected by the tryptophan mutants of I4W and V32W. The affinity of the peptides for the cation-ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography columns was significantly reduced when 5HW was incorporated. The antimicrobial activity of IIW and its 5FW analogue both decreased two times compared to that of nisin, while that of its 5HW analogue decreased four times. The 5FW analogue of I4W also showed two times decreased activity than nisin. However, the mutant M17W and its 5HW analogue both showed 32 times reduced activity relative to that of nisin. PMID:26872656

  11. Leadership in plastic surgery today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Arturo; Parada, Francisco

    2010-10-01

    This article was developed after the authors heard young plastic surgeons of their unit ask what attribute makes people want to follow a leader. What people most seek to find in a leader has been constant over time and shared in different countries, genders, and age groups. These qualities include honesty, a forward-looking perspective, inspiration, and competence (Kouzes and Posner, Clin Lab Manage Rev 8:340, 1994). However, the residents and fellows thought differently and told the authors how "they" wanted to be seen when they became leaders. They wanted to viewed as shifting engines pulling forward teams of plastic surgery as hard as possible, leaving space for followers to develop and grow. They also wanted to be seen as having impeccable behavior related to the assumption of obligations, and finally as having the "most" informal authority possible, an authority that is not negotiable because it is given by peers to the leader due to personal qualities and actions. Obtaining formal authority at a very young age is fine, but if a surgeon's associates have not given him or her informal authority, the surgeon is only the "boss" and not the leader of the group. Informal authority is constructed over a time line and given by others to the leader because of what he or she has in values and personal attitudes and because of what the leader has done and can go on doing with sustained credibility and competency. Therefore, it is the authors' opinion that the exercise of leadership in plastic surgery is supported by informal authority and that the leader of leaders will be the one who has the most of this attribute that never is given formally. PMID:20376661

  12. Phosphonate analogues of carboxypeptidase A substrates are potent transition-state analogue inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J E; Kaplan, A P; Bartlett, P A

    1989-07-25

    Analogues of tri- and tetrapeptide substrates of carboxypeptidase A in which the scissile peptide linkage is replaced with a phosphonate moiety (-PO2--O-) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the enzyme. The inhibitors terminated with either L-lactate or L-phenyllactate [designated (O) Ala and (O) Phe, respectively] in the P1' position. Transition-state analogy was shown for a series of 14 tri- and tetrapeptide derivatives containing the structure RCO-AlaP-(O)Ala [RCO-AP(O)A, AP indicates the phosphonic acid analogue of alanine] by the correlation of the Ki values for the inhibitors and the Km/kcat values for the corresponding amide substrates. This correlation supports a transition state for the enzymatic reaction that resembles the tetrahedral intermediate formed upon addition of water to the scissile carbonyl group. The inhibitors containing (O) Phe at the P1' position proved to be the most potent reversible inhibitors of carboxypeptidase A reported to date: the dissociation constants of ZAFP(O)F, ZAAP(O)F, and ZFAP(O)F are 4, 3, and 1 pM, respectively. Because of the high affinity of these inhibitors, their dissociation constants could not be determined by steady-state methods. Instead, the course of the association and dissociation processes was monitored for each inhibitor as its equilibrium with the enzyme was established in both the forward and reverse directions. A phosphonamidate analogue, ZAAPF, in which the peptide linkage is replaced with a -PO2-NH- moiety, was prepared and shown to hydrolyze rapidly at neutral pH (t1/2 = 20 min at pH 7.5). This inhibitor is bound an order of magnitude less tightly than the corresponding phosphonate, ZAAP(O)F, a result that contrasts with the 840-fold higher affinity of phosphonamidates for thermolysin [Bartlett, P. A., & Marlowe, C. K. (1987) Science 235, 569-571], a zinc peptidase with a similar arrangement of active-site catalytic residues. PMID:2790000

  13. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  14. Exceptional cosmetic surgeries on homology spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Ravelomanana, Huygens C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmetic surgery conjecture for hyperbolic knots in integer homology spheres, focusing on exceptional surgeries. We give some restrictions on the slopes of exceptional truly cosmetic surgeries according to the type of surgery.

  15. Terrestrial research in Mars analogue environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, G.

    Fatty acids (FA) content was measured by GC-MS SIM technique in Sulfide ores of present day (Mid-Atlantic Ridge and others) and ancient (Ural Paleocene, Russia) black smokers; Early Proterozoic kerites of Volyn; Siberian, Canadian and Antarctic permafrosts and also in rocks of East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement. Analysis was shown presence those and only those fatty acids which are specific to microorganisms. FA with 12 up 19 of carbon atoms are thought to be a bacterial biomass sign. 3-Hydroxy fatty acids also found in samples and are strong specific markers of gram-negative bacteria. Cultivation yield living bacteria in some cases. The East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement rocks opened by Vorotilov Deep Well (VDW) drilled through Puchezh-Katunski impact structure were studied within depths 2575 - 2805 m. 34 microbial lipid markers were detected by GC-MS and 22 species were identified. Bacteria of g. Bacillus reached 6,8 % in subsurface communities. However, members of gg. Clostridium (37,1 - 33,2 %) and Rhodococcus (27,6 - 33,7 %) were absolute dominants within studied depth interval. Some lipid patterns of kerite samples could be assessed to definite genera or, in special cases, to species of contemporary microorganisms. For instance, 2-hydroxylauric acid is specific to Pseudomonas putida group or Acinetobacter spp., and hydroxymyristic together with hydroxypalmitic are specific to P.cepacea and cyanobacteria. 3-hydroxystearic acid was known as component of Acetobacter diazothrophycus and Gloebacter violaceous cyanobacterium. 10-hydroxystearic acid associated with Nocardia spp., which oxidizes oleic acid in organic substrates. 10-methylhexadecanoic (10Me16) acid together with 10Me14, 10Me15 and 10Me17 analogues are markers of actinomycetes. Significant part of Black Smokers organic matter is probably biogenic. Fatty acid features strongly assigns it to bacterial, microeucariotic and planta cells. Par example 3-hydroxy acids are

  16. Cataract Surgery Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA-McGannon cataract surgery tool is a tiny cutter-pump which liquefies and pumps the cataract lens material from the eye. Inserted through a small incision in the cornea, the tool can be used on the hardest cataract lens. The cutter is driven by a turbine which operates at about 200,000 revolutions per minute. Incorporated in the mechanism are two passages for saline solutions, one to maintain constant pressure within the eye, the other for removal of the fragmented lens material and fluids. Three years of effort have produced a design, now being clinically evaluated, with excellent potential for improved cataract surgery. The use of this tool is expected to reduce the patient's hospital stay and recovery period significantly.

  17. Review of insulin and its analogues in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Krishnappa; Chaluvaraju, Kc; Niranjan, Ms; Zaranappa, Tr; Manjuthej, Tr

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy. Diabetes finally leads to more complications and to prevent these complications insulin and its analogues are used. After more than half a century of treating diabetics with animal insulin's, recombinant DNA technologies and advanced protein chemistry made human insulin preparations available in the early 1980s. As the next step, over the last decade, insulin analogues were constructed by changing the structure of the native protein with the goal of improving the therapeutic properties of it, because the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rapid, intermediate and long-acting preparations of human insulin make it almost impossible to achieve sustained normoglycemia. The first clinically available insulin analogue, lispro, confirmed the hopes by showing that improved glycaemic control can be achieved without an increase in hypoglycaemic events. Two new insulin analogues, insulin glargine and insulin aspart, have recently been approved for clinical use in the United States and several other analogues are being intensively tested. PMID:24826038

  18. On the robustness of entanglement in analogue gravity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the possibility of generating quantum-correlated quasi-particles utilizing analogue gravity systems. The quantumness of these correlations is a key aspect of analogue gravity effects and their presence allows for a clear separation between classical and quantum analogue gravity effects. However, experiments in analogue systems, such as Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) and shallow water waves, are always conducted at non-ideal conditions, in particular, one is dealing with dispersive media at non-zero temperatures. We analyse the influence of the initial temperature on the entanglement generation in analogue gravity phenomena. We lay out all the necessary steps to calculate the entanglement generated between quasi-particle modes and we analytically derive an upper bound on the maximal temperature at which given modes can still be entangled. We further investigate a mechanism to enhance the quantum correlations. As a particular example, we analyse the robustness of the entanglement creation against thermal noise in a sudden quench of an ideally homogeneous BEC, taking into account the super-sonic dispersion relations. (paper)

  19. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecille Gail Sulman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications.

  20. Thromboprophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Büller, H.R.; Verheyen, C C P M; Ettema, H.B.; Struijk-Mulder, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of thromboprophylatic modalities after total hip and total knee arthroplasty by Dutch orthopedic departments over a period of ten years and several uncertainties regarding thromboprophylaxis in other areas of orthopedic surgery. In this thesis some of these uncertainties are addressed: the incidence of venous thromboembolism after arthroscopic cruciate ligament reconstruction, lower extremity amputation, and shoulder arthroplasty and a case of pulmonary embolism ...

  1. Bariatric Surgery in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirensky, Tamar L

    2016-06-01

    Bariatric surgery provides a clinically effective and cost-effective means of achieving sustained weight reduction and management of associated comorbidities and has been met with increasing enthusiasm for application in obese youth. Following trends seen among obese adults, carefully selected obese youth are now undergoing bariatric surgical procedures with excellent short-term and intermediate-term outcomes. Although long-term data are not yet available, the results thus far hold great promise in the management of this population. PMID:27241972

  2. Navigation in surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mezger, Uli; Jendrewski, Claudia; Bartels, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction “Navigation in surgery” spans a broad area, which, depending on the clinical challenge, can have different meanings. Over the past decade, navigation in surgery has evolved beyond imaging modalities and bulky systems into the rich networking of the cloud or devices that are pocket-sized. Discussion This article will review various aspects of navigation in the operating room and beyond. This includes a short history of navigation, the evolution of surgical navigation, as well as t...

  3. Advances in Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Harold D.; Luis O. Vasconez

    1982-01-01

    Recent progress in plastic surgery has been rapid and many new techniques have been developed. Reconstructive procedures have been advanced by a better understanding of the anatomy of the blood supply to skin and muscle, with the subsequent development of the use of axial flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and neurosensory flaps. Burn treatment has advanced greatly, making it possible to successfully treat larger and more complicated burns. The development of microsurgery has made possible free-fl...

  4. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Zoltan Z.; McAlinden, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser (FSL) cataract surgery is in its infancy but is rapidly gaining popularity due to the improved consistency and predictability for corneal incisions and anterior capsulorhexis. It enables subsequently less phacoemulsification energy and time to be employed, which has gains in terms of reduced corneal oedema. In addition, the FSL allows better circularity of the anterior capsulotomy, capsule overlap, intraocular lens (IOL) placement and centration of the IOL. These advantages ...

  5. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cecille Gail Sulman

    2014-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications.

  6. Cell response to surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the profound alterations in host immunity that are produced by major surgery as demonstrated by experimental and clinical studies, and to evaluate the benefits of therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating perioperative immune dysfunction. DATA SOURCES: A review of the English-language literature was conducted, incorporating searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane collaboration databases to identify laboratory and clinical studies investigating the cellular response to surgery. STUDY SELECTION: Original articles and case reports describing immune dysfunction secondary to surgical trauma were included. DATA EXTRACTION: The results were compiled to show outcomes of different studies and were compared. DATA SYNTHESIS: Current evidence indicates that the early systemic inflammatory response syndrome observed after major surgery that is characterized by proinflammatory cytokine release, microcirculatory disturbance, and cell-mediated immune dysfunction is followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome, which predisposes the patient to opportunistic infection, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and death. Because there are currently no effective treatment options for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, measures to prevent its onset should be initiated at an early stage. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that targeted therapeutic strategies involving immunomodulatory agents such as interferon gamma, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, the prostaglandin E(2) antagonist, indomethacin, and pentoxifylline may be used for the treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome to prevent the onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical trauma produces profound immunological dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies directed at restoring immune homeostasis should aim to redress the physiological proinflammatory-anti-inflammatory cell imbalance associated with major surgery.

  7. Astigmatism following cataract surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Reading, V M

    1984-01-01

    The changes in corneal curvature were determined at regular intervals over a one-year period following intracapsular cataract extraction by microsurgical techniques. During the first postoperative month photokeratometric measurements showed rapid changes in astigmatism associated with large changes in the direction of the axis. Thereafter astigmatism against-the-rule predominated. Data from the small group of patients who underwent surgery in which the technique of phacoemulsification was use...

  8. Solo hand surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Michael SG; Reitsma, Bert J

    2005-01-01

    Unassisted hand surgery is being undertaken by necessity for both elective and emergency cases, due to hospital resource restrictions. The authors outline the principles of local anesthesia, surgeon-controlled tourniquet techniques, and a number of new instruments which allow a surgeon to work in comfort and safety, unassisted. The traditional surgical instruments designed for the days when trained surgical assistants were available to hold them are no longer suitable. We are entering a new e...

  9. Robotic Surgery in Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet de Joliniere, Jean; Librino, Armando; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Khomsi, Fathi; Ben Ali, Nordine; Fadhlaoui, Anis; Ayoubi, J M; Feki, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) can be considered as the greatest surgical innovation over the past 30 years. It revolutionized surgical practice with well-proven advantages over traditional open surgery: reduced surgical trauma and incision-related complications, such as surgical-site infections, postoperative pain and hernia, reduced hospital stay, and improved cosmetic outcome. Nonetheless, proficiency in MIS can be technically challenging as conventional laparoscopy is associated with several limitations as the two-dimensional (2D) monitor reduction in-depth perception, camera instability, limited range of motion, and steep learning curves. The surgeon has a low force feedback, which allows simple gestures, respect for tissues, and more effective treatment of complications. Since the 1980s, several computer sciences and robotics projects have been set up to overcome the difficulties encountered with conventional laparoscopy, to augment the surgeon's skills, achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery, and facilitate widespread of MIS. Surgical instruments are guided by haptic interfaces that replicate and filter hand movements. Robotically assisted technology offers advantages that include improved three-dimensional stereoscopic vision, wristed instruments that improve dexterity, and tremor canceling software that improves surgical precision. PMID:27200358

  10. Theatre of paediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Craig A; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    In the 50 years since the first edition of this journal, operative paediatric surgery has undergone radical change. Many of the most common instruments are unchanged, both as a testament to their utility and in recognition of past surgeons remembered eponymously. Surrounding that basic core of instruments, theatre has changed radically as new tools and techniques have arisen. Surgeons have come down from their pedestals, recognising surgery as a team sport rather than a solo performance. More than half of the current paediatric surgical trainees are women, a higher proportion than in any other craft group of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The appearance, and rapid development, of laparoscopy is to many observers the most notable change in surgery over the last 50 years. Placed in its context though, it is simply the most prominent example of a frameshift in surgical thinking. The patient as a whole is now the focus, rather than just the disease. Recent developments are as much about minimising harm to normal tissues as they are about extirpating pathology. As a surgical maxim, 'Primum non nocere' is even more in evidence in 2015 than it was in 1965. PMID:25586851

  11. Cataract surgery in uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazari Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:To study the visual outcome of cataract surgery in eyes with uveitis.Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with uveitis operated for cataract. Results: 106 eyes of 89 patients with uveitis were operated for cataract. In 62.3% eyes (66/106, post -operative follow-up was at least 6 months. There was significant improvement (P<0.001 in visual acuity after cataract surgery. Provided the uveitis was well controlled for three months pre-operatively, additional pre-operative anti-inflammatory medications did not significantly affect (P=0.842 post -operative inflammation. Patients who received extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE or phacoemulsification with posterior chamber IOL (PCIOL obtained better visual acuity at 6 weeks (P=0.009 and P=0.032 respectively than those with only ECCE without IOL. In 37 eyes vision did not improve due to persistent uveitis (23.9%, 16/67, cystoid macular oedeme (20.9%, 14/67, and posterior capsule opacification (14.9%, 10/67. Conclusion: Cataract extraction and PCIOL implantation is safe in eyes with uveitis. Additional preoperative medications may not alleviate post-operative inflammation if uveitis is well controlled for at least three months before surgery.

  12. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean eBouquet De Jolinière

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Minimally invasive surgery (MIS can be considered as the greatest surgical innovation over the past thirty years. It revolutionized surgical practice with well-proven advantages over traditional open surgery: reduced surgical trauma and incision-related complications, such as surgical-site infections, postoperative pain and hernia, reduced hospital stay, and improved cosmetic outcome. Nonetheless, proficiency in MIS can be technically challenging as conventional laparoscopy is associated with several limitations as the two-dimensional (2D monitor reduction in-depth perception, camera instability, limited range of motion and steep learning curves. The surgeon has a low force feedback which allows simple gestures, respect for tissues and more effective treatment of complications.Since 1980s several computer sciences and robotics projects have been set up to overcome the difficulties encountered with conventional laparoscopy, to augment the surgeon's skills, achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery and facilitate widespread of MIS. Surgical instruments are guided by haptic interfaces that replicate and filter hand movements. Robotically assisted technology offers advantages that include improved three- dimensional stereoscopic vision, wristed instruments that improve dexterity, and tremor canceling software that improves surgical precision.

  13. Robotic Surgery in Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet de Joliniere, Jean; Librino, Armando; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Khomsi, Fathi; Ben Ali, Nordine; Fadhlaoui, Anis; Ayoubi, J. M.; Feki, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) can be considered as the greatest surgical innovation over the past 30 years. It revolutionized surgical practice with well-proven advantages over traditional open surgery: reduced surgical trauma and incision-related complications, such as surgical-site infections, postoperative pain and hernia, reduced hospital stay, and improved cosmetic outcome. Nonetheless, proficiency in MIS can be technically challenging as conventional laparoscopy is associated with several limitations as the two-dimensional (2D) monitor reduction in-depth perception, camera instability, limited range of motion, and steep learning curves. The surgeon has a low force feedback, which allows simple gestures, respect for tissues, and more effective treatment of complications. Since the 1980s, several computer sciences and robotics projects have been set up to overcome the difficulties encountered with conventional laparoscopy, to augment the surgeon’s skills, achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery, and facilitate widespread of MIS. Surgical instruments are guided by haptic interfaces that replicate and filter hand movements. Robotically assisted technology offers advantages that include improved three-dimensional stereoscopic vision, wristed instruments that improve dexterity, and tremor canceling software that improves surgical precision. PMID:27200358

  14. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sijo J Parekattil; Ahmet Gudeloglu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy,unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques.This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology.Today,we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology.Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields,such as ophthalmology,hand surgery,plastics and reconstructive surgery.The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor,improved stability,surgeon ergonomics,scalability of motion,multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views,enhanced magnification,and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously.This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery.It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures,such as vasectomy reversal,subinguinal varicocelectomy,targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE).

  15. AdS and dS black hole solutions in analogue gravity: The relativistic and non-relativistic cases

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Ramit; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We show that Schwarzschild black hole solutions in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) and de Sitter (dS) spaces may, up to a conformal factor, be reproduced in the framework of analogue gravity. The aforementioned derivation is performed using relativistic and non-relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates. In addition, we demonstrate that the (2+1) planar AdS black hole can be mapped into the non-relativistic acoustic metric. Given that AdS black holes are extensively employed in the gauge/gravity duality, we then comment on the possibility to study the AdS/CFT correspondence and gravity/fluid duality from an analogue gravity perspective.

  16. Gold Nanoparticles Decorated with Mannose-6-phosphate Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Combemale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the preparation of neoglycoconjugates bearing mannose-6-phosphate analogues is described by: (a synthesis of a cyclic sulfate precursor to access the carbohydrate head-group by nucleophilic displacement with an appropriate nucleophile; (b introduction of spacers on the mannose-6-phosphate analogues via Huisgen’s cycloaddition, the Julia reaction, or the thiol-ene reaction under ultrasound activation. With the resulting compounds in hand, gold nanoparticles could be functionalized with various carbohydrate derivatives (glycoconjugates and then tested for angiogenic activity. It was observed that the length and flexibility of the spacer separating the sugar analogue from the nanoparticle have little influence on the biological response. One particular nanoparticle system substantially inhibits blood vessel growth in contrast to activation by the corresponding monomeric glycoconjugate, thereby demonstrating the importance of multivalency in angiogenic activity.

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New (-)-Englerin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, Laura; Riesgo, Lorena; Bravo, Fernando; Ransom, Tanya T; Beutler, John A; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of (-)-englerin A analogues obtained along our previously reported synthetic route based on a stereoselective gold(I) cycloaddition process. This synthetic route is a convenient platform to access analogues with broad structural diversity and has led us to the discovery of unprecedented and easier-to-synthesize derivatives with an unsaturation in the cyclopentyl ring between C4 and C5. We also introduce novel analogues in which the original isopropyl motif has been substituted with cyclohexyl, phenyl, and cyclopropyl moieties. The high selectivity and growth-inhibitory activity shown by these new derivatives in renal cancer cell lines opens new ways toward the final goal of finding effective drugs for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PMID:27005578

  18. Controlled analogue experiments on propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qinghua

    2005-01-01

    This study presented a method of laboratory analogue experiments based on a geographical scaling model and a waveguide model to investigate the characteristics of the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals in the crust and the atmosphere. Some controlled experiments were done to evaluate the possible influence on the experimental results from the background electromagnetic field, geographical conditions, boundary effects, the source of electromagnetic signals (position, magnitude, and frequency), and media conductivity. The reliability and the extensibility of the above analogue experimental method were also investigated. This study indicated that such kind of analogue experimental method provided an intuitionistic way of studying the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals, which is one of the most difficult research topics in seismo-electro- magnetism.

  19. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel curcumin analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Zhang; Yao Fu; Hao Wei Wang; Tao Gong; Yong Qin; Zhi Rong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Five novel curcumin analogues bearing different substituents at 4-position of phenyl group were synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by NMR and HRMS spectrum. Their cytotoxic activities against six tumor cell lines were tested by the standard MTT assay in vitro. The results indicated that four analogues (1A-1C, 1E) with solubilizing moieties showed selective potent cytotoxicity against HepG2, HeLa and CT26 cell lines, and analogue 1A and 1C exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than curcumin against CT26 cell line. It was suggested that introduction of appropriate substituents to 4-position of phenyl group might be a potential option for structural modification of curcumin.

  20. Radiation Tests of the VELO ECS and Analogue Repeater Mezzanines

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L; Van der Gracht, A; Vollhardt, A

    2006-01-01

    The VELO front-end control system and analogue link is based on commercial components where the radiation tolerance is assured by a radiation qualification procedure. This note reports on the radiation qualification of the components required for the VELO ECS mezzanine and analogue repeater mezzanines. They are located at the VELO vacuum vessel where the expected maximal dose is 73 kRad during 10 years of operation. The qualification was done by irradiating prototype circuits at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen, Switzerland. The ECS mezzanine prototypes were irradiated to a dose of 780 kRad and the analogue driver test channels were irradiated to a dose of 600 kRad. All devices were fully functional after the irradiation and only a small increase in current consumption was observed.

  1. Ensemble meteorological reconstruction using circulation analogues of 1781–1785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a method of atmospheric flow analogues to reconstruct an ensemble of atmospheric variables (namely sea-level pressure, surface temperature and wind speed between 1781 and 1785. The properties of this ensemble are investigated and tested against observations of temperature. The goal of the paper is to assess whether the atmospheric circulation during the Laki volcanic eruption (in 1783 and the subsequent winter were similar to the conditions that prevailed in the winter 2009/2010 and during spring 2010. We find that the three months following the Laki eruption in June 1783 barely have analogues in 2010. The cold winter of 1783/1784 yields circulation analogues in 2009/2010. Our analysis suggests that it is unlikely that the Laki eruption was responsible for the cold winter of 1783/1784, of the relatively short memory of the atmospheric circulation.

  2. Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices of 2-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and its Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gutch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Riot control agent, 2-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS and its analogues have both skin irritating and lacrymating properties. Herein, we report retention indices (RI of CS and its thirteen analogues relative to the homologues n-alkanes series. These values are determined on nonpolar BP-1 and polar BP-10 capillary column under programmed temperature and isothermal chromatographic condition. The analogues differ in substitution at ortho or para position of phenyl ring and retention indices are found to vary according to the nature of the substituent.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.319-323, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1167

  3. Spectral Characterization of Mars Analogues From the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.

    2007-12-01

    Several well-recognized Martian soil analogues have been classified and studied in the past years. The JSC Mars-1, collected and distributed under control of the NASA Johnson Space Center, originates from Puú Nene cinder cone in Hawaii, USA. It is a palagonitic tephra (glassy volcanic ash altered at low temperatures), whose spectral features resemble the bright regions on Mars. The Salten Skov, coming from a subsurface deposit in the Midjutland region of Denmark, is a Fe-oxide precipitate with a dark red color, composed mainly of goethite, hematite and maghemite, with mineralogical and magnetic close to those of the martian soil. Montmorillonite and palagonite are other natural materials commonly referred as Martian soil analogues. We present and discuss the emissivity spectra of these analogue minerals from the Berlin Emissivity Database spectral library. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) currently contains also emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from < 25 to 250 μm. The current main setup at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR consist of an emissivity device built at DLR coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) equipped with both a cooled MTC detector and a room temperature DTGS detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm- 1. The combination of detectors and spectrometer allows a unique wavelength coverage encompassing the whole thermal radiation range measured by spacecraft instruments. The emissivity device is currently purged with dry air, while the spectrometer is evacuated. In a future upgrade of the facility the emissivity device will be replaced by a planetary simulation chamber which can be evacuated and which

  4. A synthetic analogue of melittin aggregates in large oligomers.

    OpenAIRE

    John, E.; Jähnig, F

    1992-01-01

    An analogue of melittin synthesized in the group of E. T. Kaiser (DeGrado, W. F., F. J. Keźdy, and E. T. Kaiser. 1981. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103:679-681) was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy decay. In water, the analogue is completely alpha-helical and aggregates in large oligomers of about 50 monomers. In vesicle membranes, it undergoes orientational fluctuations similar to melittin. The most significant difference from melittin, therefore, is the formation of strai...

  5. Concise synthesis of new bridged-nicotine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Hooyberghs, Geert; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively.......This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively....

  6. Natural analogues, paradigm for manmade repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural analogues are given by nature. They show the results of natural processes which have lasted thousands or millions of years. They provide an excellent example of what could happen in an underground site, offering in the same time the opportunity to test by observation and measurement, many of the geochemical processes that are expected to influence in a realistic and appropriate way, the predicted reliability of the radioactive waste repository over long periods of geological time. The natural analogue studies attempt to understand the multiprocessing complexity of the natural system, which contrasts with the limitations of the laboratory experiments and bring arguments to overcome the difficult time scale issue. By this the natural analogues are a useful paradigm for manmade repository for radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the implicit link in the public mind between natural analogues and manmade waste repository with an accent of the positive impact on public acceptance. It is also discussed the decisive qualities of the natural analogues concerning providing valid long term data and increasing the confidence of the public for manmade repositories. The debate is conducting in terms of sustainable development, having at base high-level principles in order to protect humans and their environment, both now and in the future, from potential hazards arising from such wastes. Safe radwaste management involves the application of technology and resources in a regulated manner so that the public, workers and the environment are protected in accordance with the accepted national and international standards. There are at least seven high-level principles which are mentioned in the paper. It is presented the general concept of the deep geological repository, very important for an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste, what is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Further are introduced natural and archaeological (manufactured) analogue

  7. Synthesis of Conformationally Locked Versions of Puromycin Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneyoshi, Hisao; Michel, Benoît Y.; Choi, Yongseok; Strazewski, Peter; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    Conformationally locked North and South versions of puromycin analogues built on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane pseudosugar template were synthesized. The final assembly of the products was accomplished by the Staudinger-Vilarrasa coupling of the corresponding North (2 and 3) and South (6 and 7) 3′-azidopurine carbanucleosides with the Fmoc-protected 1-hydroxybenzotriazole ester of 4-methoxy-L-tyrosine. North azides 2 and 3 were reported earlier. The 3′-azido intermediates 6 and 7 that are necessary for the synthesis of the South puromycin analogues are described herein for the first time. PMID:18991379

  8. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  9. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included

  10. Concise synthesis of ether analogues of lysobisphosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guowei; Xu, Yong; Falguières, Thomas; Gruenberg, Jean; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2005-09-01

    We describe a versatile, efficient method for the preparation of ether analogues of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer from (S)-solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-octadecenyl glyceryl ether with 2-cyanoethyl bis-N,N-diisopropylamino phosphine and subsequent deprotection generated the bisether LBPA analogues. By simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps, we obtained the (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers of 2,2'-bisether LBPA. An ELISA assay with anti-LBPA monoclonal antibodies showed that the bisether LBPAs were recognized with the same affinity as the natural 2,2'-bisoleolyl LBPA. [reaction: see text] PMID:16119911

  11. Design of a saturated analogue and digital current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project describes the development of a new analogue and digital current transducer, providing a range of new theoretical design methods for these novel devices. The main control feature is the limit cycling operation, and the novel use of the embedded sigma-delta modulator sensor structure to derive a low component count digital sensor. The research programme was initiated into the design, development and evaluation of a novel non-Hall sensing analogue and digital current transducer. These transducers are used for measurement of high currents in power systems applications. The investigation is concerned with a new design which uses a magnetic ferrite core without an air gap for current measurement. The motivation for this work was to design a new control circuit which provides a low component count, and utilises the non-linear properties of the magnetic ferrite core to transmit direct current. The use of a limit cycle control circuit was believed to be particularly suitable for the analogue and digital transducers, for two main reasons: the low component count, and the output signal is directly digital. In line with the motivations outlined above, the outcome of the research has witnessed the design, development and evaluation of a practically realisable analogue and digital current transducer. The design procedure, which is documented in this thesis, is considered to be a major contribution to the field of transducers design and development using a control systems approach. Mathematical models for both analogue and digital transducers were developed and the resulting model based predictions were found to be in good agreement with measured results. Simplification of the new model sensing device was achieved by approximating the non-linear ferrite core using FFT analysis. This is also considered to be a significant contribution. The development analogue and digital current censors employed a sampled data control systems design and utilised limit cycling

  12. Wrong-level surgery: A unique problem in spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Even though a lot of effort has gone into preventing operating at the wrong site and wrong patient, wrong-level surgery is a unique problem in spine surgery. Methods: The current method to prevent wrong level spine surgery performed is mainly relied on intra-operative X-ray. Unfortunately, because of the unique features and anatomy of the spinal column, wrong level spine surgery still happens. There are situations that even with intraoperative X-ray, correct level still cannot be ...

  13. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. Energy systems in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The systems of energy in surgery are applied in order to achieve better and more effective performing of procedures. Whereas various energy sources, including electricity, ultrasound, laser and argon gas, may be used, the fundamental principle involves tissue necrosis and hemostasis by heating. Electro Surgery. Electro Surgery is a surgical technique by which surgical procedures are performed by focused heating of the tissue using devices based on high-frequency currents. It represents one of the most frequently used energy systems in laparoscopy. Ultrasound Energy. The basic principle of operation of the ultrasound surgical instruments is the usage of low-frequency mechanic vibrations (ultrasound energy within the range of 20-60 kHz for cutting and coagulation of tissue. Laser. Laser is the abbreviation for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, aimed at increasing light by stimulated emission of radiation and it is the name of the instrument which generates coherent beam of light. Argon Plasma Coagulation. It has been in use since 1991 for endoscopic hemostasis. It uses highfrequency electric current and ionized gas argon. The successful application of devices depends on the type of surgical procedure, training of the surgeon and his knowledge about the device. Surgeons do not agree on the choice of device which would be optimal for a certain procedure. Conclusion. The whole team in the operating room must have the basic knowledge of the way an energy system works so as to provide a safe and effective treatment of patients. The advantages and shortcomings of different systems of energy have to be taken into account while we use a special mode.

  15. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltan Z; McAlinden, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser (FSL) cataract surgery is in its infancy but is rapidly gaining popularity due to the improved consistency and predictability for corneal incisions and anterior capsulorhexis. It enables subsequently less phacoemulsification energy and time to be employed, which has gains in terms of reduced corneal oedema. In addition, the FSL allows better circularity of the anterior capsulotomy, capsule overlap, intraocular lens (IOL) placement and centration of the IOL. These advantages have resulted in improved visual and refractive outcomes in the short term. Complication rates are low which reduce with surgeon experience. This review article focuses on the Alcon LenSx system. PMID:26605364

  16. Anesthesia for thoracoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conacher I

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthesia for thoracoscopy is based on one lung ventilation. Lung separators in the airway are essential tools. An anatomical shunt as a result of the continued perfusion of a non-ventilated lung is the principal intraoperative concern. The combination of equipment, technique and process increase risks of hypoxia and dynamic hyperinflation, in turn, potential factors in the development of an unusual form of pulmonary edema. Analgesia management is modelled on that shown effective and therapeutic for thoracotomy. Perioperative management needs to reflect the concern for these complex, and complicating, processes to the morbidity of thoracoscopic surgery.

  17. Mixed-reality simulation for orthognathic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Background Mandibular motion tracking system (ManMoS) has been developed for orthognathic surgery. This article aimed to introduce the ManMoS and to examine the accuracy of this system. Methods Skeletal and dental models are reconstructed in a virtual space from the DICOM data of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) recording and the STL data of 3D scanning, respectively. The ManMoS uniquely integrates the virtual dento-skeletal model with the real motion of the dental cast mounted o...

  18. Phases and approximations of baryonic popcorn in a low-dimensional analogue of holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The Sakai-Sugimoto model is the most pre-eminent model of holographic QCD, in which baryons correspond to topological solitons in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime. Recently it has been shown that a single soliton in this model can be well approximated by a flat-space self-dual Yang-Mills instanton with a small size, although studies of multi-solitons and solitons at finite density are currently beyond numerical computations. A lower-dimensional analogue of the model has also been studied in which the Sakai-Sugimoto soliton is replaced by a baby Skyrmion in three spacetime dimensions with a warped metric. The lower dimensionality of this model means that full numerical field calculations are possible, and static multi-solitons and solitons at finite density were both investigated, in particular the baryonic popcorn phase transitions at high densities. Here we present and investigate an alternative lower-dimensional analogue of the Sakai-Sugimoto model in which the Sakai-Sugimoto soliton is replaced by an $O(3...

  19. Robotic Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert DeBernardo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic surgery for the management of gynecologic cancers allows for minimally invasive surgical removal of cancer-bearing organs and tissues using sophisticated surgeon-manipulated, robotic surgical instrumentation. Early on, gynecologic oncologists recognized that minimally invasive surgery was associated with less surgical morbidity and that it shortened postoperative recovery. Now, robotic surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional laparotomy. Since its widespread adoption, minimally invasive surgery has become an option not only for the morbidly obese but for women with gynecologic malignancy where conventional laparotomy has been associated with significant morbidity. As such, this paper considers indications for robotic surgery, reflects on outcomes from initial robotic surgical outcomes data, reviews cost efficacy and implications in surgical training, and discusses new roles for robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer management.

  20. Pregnancy management following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoma, A; Keriakos, R

    2013-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is gaining in popularity, due to globally increasing rates of obesity. In the UK, this has manifested as a 14-fold increase in bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2010, making it necessary to develop strategies to manage women who become pregnant following bariatric surgery. This review paper has explored all the current evidence in the literature and provided a comprehensive management strategy for pregnant women following bariatric surgery. The emphasis is on a multidisciplinary team approach to all aspects of care. Adequate pre-conception and antenatal and postnatal care is essential to good pregnancy outcomes with emphasis on appropriate nutritional supplementation. This is especially important following malabsorptive procedures. There is no evidence to suggest that pregnancy outcome is worse after bariatric surgery, though women who remain obese are prone to obesity-related risks in pregnancy. Neonatal outcome post-bariatric surgery is no different from the general population. PMID:23445128

  1. Delayed elective surgery in a major teaching hospital in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajja I

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Isaac Kajja,1 Cees Th Smit Sibinga21Department of Orthopedics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2ID Consulting for International Development of Transfusion Medicine (IDTM, Groningen, The NetherlandsBackground: A number of factors come into play in determining the timing of an elective surgical intervention, particularly in the developing world. The present study explores the factors that contribute to the timing of elective surgery and patients' opinions on their quality of life as they wait for surgery.Methods: We followed adult patients with delayed elective surgical interventions (n=204. The causes for the delay and, particularly, the influence of blood shortage on the timing of the procedure were noted. Patients' perceptions on their quality of life as they waited for surgery were also noted.Results: We were able to establish a cause for delayed elective surgery in 133 patients. Shortage of operating space was the leading cause of surgery delay in 44 patients, while blood shortage followed closely in 40 patients. The higher the amount of blood ordered for use in the perioperative time, the longer the delay to surgery (P=0.001. Patients waiting for surgery had a low opinion of their in-hospital quality of life. Here, the key indicators included the threat of losing a job, limited family time, and an increase in day-to-day living costs.Conclusion: Blood shortage is the second most common cause of the delayed performance of elective surgical interventions in our institution. The patients have a low opinion on their quality of life as they wait for surgery.Keywords: blood shortage, delayed elective surgery, quality of life

  2. Pre-prosthetic surgery: Mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Veeramalai Naidu Devaki; Kandasamy Balu; Sadashiva Balakrishnapillai Ramesh; Ramraj Jayabalan Arvind; Venkatesan

    2012-01-01

    Pre-prosthetic surgery is that part of oral and maxillofacial surgery which restores oral function and facial form. This is concerned with surgical modification of the alveolar process and its surrounding structures to enable the fabrication of a well-fitting, comfortable, and esthetic dental prosthesis. The ultimate goal of pre-prosthetic surgery is to prepare a mouth to receive a dental prosthesis by redesigning and smoothening bony edges.

  3. Clinical studies in spinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Beate; Kopjar, Branko

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing interest in applying evidence-based approaches also in orthopedic surgery. Despite many challenges to the validity of clinical trials in orthopedic surgery, it is possible to conduct well-designed trials in this field and to produce clinically important findings and reasonably valid conclusions about effectiveness, prognosis and diagnosis in orthopedic surgery. We describe the main principles for conducting clinical trials in this field as well as some of the most common er...

  4. Preoperative erythropoietin in spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Colomina, Maria J.; Bagó, Juan; Pellisé, Ferran; Godet, Carmen; Villanueva, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Spine surgery may be associated with profuse intraoperative bleeding that often requires blood transfusions. In recent years several techniques have been developed to avoid allogenic transfusions and their potential complications to surgical patients. In this study we review and analyse the role of preoperative recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) administration in spine surgery as a blood conservation strategy. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 250 patients scheduled for spine surgery w...

  5. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hartman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  6. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik;

    2014-01-01

    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  7. Oncoplastic breast surgery: current strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Merisa; Peled, Anne Warren; Sbitany, Hani

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of breast cancer has dramatically evolved over the past 20 years, with oncoplastic surgery gaining increased popularity. This field of breast surgery allows for complete resection of tumor, preservation of normal parenchyma tissue, and the use of local or regional tissue for immediate breast reconstruction at the time of partial mastectomy. These techniques extend the options for breast conservation surgery, improve aesthetic outcomes, have high patient satisfaction an...

  8. Analogue fuel manipulator crane and intellectual controller for low temperature nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime structure of analogue fuel manipulator crane is described. It mainly discusses the structure of intellectual controller, operating principle, driving circuits of executive parts and control process of the analogue fuel manipulator crane

  9. Analogue Electrical Circuit for Simulation of the Duffing-Holmes Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaseviciute, E.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.; Bumeliene, S.; Lindberg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    An extremely simple second order analogue electrical circuit for simulating the two-well Duffing-Holmes mathematical oscillator is described. Numerical results and analogue electrical simulations are illustrated with the snapshots of chaotic waveforms, phase portraits (Lissajous figures) and...

  10. On the surgery assembly map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of whether an element of the Wall group is the surgery obstruction of a degree-one normal map of closed manifolds is one of the basic problems in surgery theory. In the present paper we obtain new forbidding invariants in this problem for the case of finite 2-groups with arbitrary orientation. Our approach is based on the conception of iterated Browder-Livesay invariants developed by Hambleton and Kharshiladze jointly with the results on closed manifold surgery problem in oriented case obtained by Hambleton, Milgram, Taylor, and Williams. We consider several examples and give an application of our results to the surgery on filtered manifolds

  11. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  12. National Epilepsy Surgery Support Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are over one million people with drug-resistant epilepsy in India, today, there are only a handful of centers equipped to undertake presurgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery. The only solution to overcome this large surgical treatment gap is to establish comprehensive epilepsy care centers across the country that are capable of evaluating and selecting the patients for epilepsy surgery with the locally available technology and in a cost-effective manner. The National Epilepsy Surgery Support Activity (NESSA aims to provide proper guidance and support in establishing epilepsy surgery programs across India and in neighboring resource-poor countries, and in sustaining them.

  13. The HERMES solar atlas and the spectroscopic analysis of the seismic solar analogue KIC 3241581

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. G.; Allende Prieto, C.; Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Raskin, G.; van Winckel, H.; do Nascimento, J.-D., Jr.; Salabert, D.; Corsaro, E.; García, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Solar-analogue stars provide an excellent resource to study the Sun's evolution, i.e. the changes with time in stellar structure, activity, or rotation for solar-like stars. The unparalleled photometric data from the NASA space telescope Kepler allows us to study and characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental parameter and chromospheric activity of solar analogues and twins, based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph and combine them with asteroseismology. Therefore, we need to build a solar atlas for the spectrograph, to provide accurate calibrations of the spectroscopically determined abundances of solar- and late-type stars observed with this instrument and thus perform differential spectroscopic comparisons. Methods: We acquire high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectroscopy to construct three solar reference spectra by observing the reflected light of the asteroids Vesta and Victoria and the jovian moon Europa (100 ≲ S/N ≲ 450) with the HERMES spectrograph. We then observe the Kepler solar analogue KIC 3241581 (S/N ~ 170). For this star, the fundamental spectral parameters are extracted using a differential analysis. Sufficient S/N in the near ultraviolet allows us to investigate the chromospheric magnetic activity in both objects. Results: We constructed three solar spectrum atlases from 385 to 900 nm, obtained with the HERMES spectrograph from observations of two bright asteroids and a jovian moon. A comparison between our solar spectra atlas to the Kurucz and HARPS solar spectrum shows an excellent agreement. KIC 3241581 was found to be a long-periodic binary system. The fundamental parameter for the stellar primary component are Teff = 5689 ± 11 K, log g = 4.385 ± 0.005, [Fe/H] = + 0.22 ± 0.01, being in agreement with the published global seismic values, which confirms its status as solar analogue. The chromospheric activity level is

  14. Leadership in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-06-01

    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance. PMID:20884217

  15. [Computer-assisted surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The broad range of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) represents the integration of computer technology in surgical procedures for presurgical planning, guiding or manipulation. Surgical robots and surgical endoscopic navigation are the most challenging applications to urology. A surgical robot is defined as a computer-controlled manipulator with artificial sensing which can be programmed to move, and position tools to carry out surgical tasks. In urology, robots have been tested in two areas: endourology and laparoscopy. Surgical navigation allows the surgeon to process data from pre- and intraoperative sources, aiming at purification and presentation of the most relevant information. Image-guided systems (IGS), augmented reality (AR) and navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery represent the three main topics of surgical urological navigation. IGS involve matching the coordinates from medical imaging (preoperative registration) with coordinates from the patient in the operating room (registration and updating images). IGS have become the standard of care in providing navigational assistance during neurosurgery, offering subsurface and functional information to the surgeon. PMID:21452161

  16. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…

  17. Brassinosteroids: Synthesis and activity of some fluoro analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíková, Barbora; Kohout, Ladislav; Buděšínský, Miloš; Swaczynová, Jana; Kasal, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 13 (2008), s. 3979-3984. ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : brassinosteroids * fluoro analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.898, year: 2008

  18. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W; Shears, Stephen B; Veiga, Nicolás; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2016-08-22

    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions. PMID:27460418

  19. Design and Synthesis of Muramyl Dipeptide Cyclic Analogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuoDeZHANG; GangLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new conformationalloy restricted cyclic analogue of muramyl dipeptide was designed and manually synthesized by our “Meshed-Bag Gathered-Bunch” method with a combination of Fmoc,ally and N-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclo-hexylidene) ethyl chemical protection strategy.

  20. Treatment with insulin (analogues) and breast cancer risk in diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Ter Braak, Bas; Karlstad, Øystein;

    2015-01-01

    animal, 2 in vivo human and 29 epidemiological papers were included. Insulin AspB10 showed mitogenic properties in vitro and in animal studies. Glargine was the only clinically available insulin analogue for which an increased proliferative potential was found in breast cancer cell lines. However, the...

  1. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method

  2. Photonic analogue of Zitterbewegung in binary waveguide arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, S.

    2009-01-01

    An optical analogue of Zitterbewegung (ZB), i.e. of the trembling motion of Dirac electrons caused by the interference between positive and negative energy states, is proposed for spatial beam propagation in binary waveguide arrays. In this optical system ZB is simply observable as a quiver spatial oscillatory motion of the beam center of mass around its mean trajectory.

  3. New phosphorus analogues of nitrogen classics--no carbon copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudat, Dietrich

    2014-05-01

    Getting heavy: The recently prepared phosphorus analogues of two old acquaintances, urea and dinitrogen tetroxide, bear some structural resemblance to their archetypes but are no carbon copies. Their syntheses and chemical properties reveal rather certain peculiarities, which back the doctrine that the electronic properties of the heavier elements in a group differ from those of the lightest congener. PMID:24718995

  4. Conformation analysis of Se and Te containing nucleoside analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Rejman, Dominik; Kleinpeter, E.; Pohl, Radek

    Santiago de Compostela : -, 2013. s. 221-221. [SMASH 2013. 22.9.2013-25.9.2013, Santiago de Compostela] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : low-temperature NMR * DFT * nucleoside analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  5. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxinlnu@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yang [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Niu, Hua-Ying [Jinan Dachpharm Development Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: liubinzehao@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-03-15

    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method.

  6. Cyclization of nucleotide analogues as an obstacle to polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. R. Jr; Nord, L. D.; Orgel, L. E.; Robins, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclization of activated nucleotide analogues by intramolecular phosphodiester-bond formation is likely to compete very effectively with template-directed condensation except in the cases of ribo- and arabinonucleotides. This could have excluded derivatives of most sugars from growing polyribonucleotide chains and thus reduced chain-termination in prebiotic polynucleotide synthesis.

  7. Nucleic Acid Analogue Induced Transcription of Double Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    RNA is transcribed from a double stranded DNA template by forming a complex by hybridizing to the template at a desired transcription initiation site one or more oligonucleic acid analogues of the PNA type capable of forming a transcription initiation site with the DNA and exposing the complex to...... displacement of one strand of the DNA locally by the PNA hybridization....

  8. Geochemical modelling of the Broubster natural analogue site Caithness, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a modelling study carried out to improve understanding of speciation and actinide migration mechanisms operating at Broubster (UK) are described. This work is part of the CEC coordinated project Mirage - Second phase (Migration of radionuclides in the geosphere), research area Natural analogues

  9. Cognitive mechanisms and posttraumatic stress disorder: Clinical and analogue research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Engelhard; M. Kindt

    2005-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue "Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry," are driven by influential cognitive theories of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They include clinical and analogue research and address different aspects of PTSD. Two papers focus on the clarificat

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel gramicidin s analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin, A.W.; Palachanis, D.K.; Buizert, A.; Grotenbreg, G.M.; Spalburg, E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of three new analogues of the cyclic cationic antimicrobial peptide Gramicidin S is described. These derivatives contain a modified turn region in which the DPhe-Pro motif has been replaced by a constrained furanoid sugar amino acid or a flexible linear aminoethoxy acetic acid moiety.

  11. Using natural analogue studies in the secondary science curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses an atomic theory unit of a high school chemistry course taught in Nevada. The unit is based on the application of natural analogues to nuclear waste issues. The paper focuses on the students' reactions to the subject material

  12. Analogue Building Blocks Based on Digital CMOS Gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucha, Igor

    1996-01-01

    Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility with the...

  13. Rubrene analogues with the aggregation-induced emission enhancement behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger; Fu, Xiaowei;

    2014-01-01

    In the light of the principle of aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE), the rubrene analogue with orange light-emitting properties is designed and synthesized by substituting the phenyl side groups of rubrene with thienyl groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on...

  14. Vitamin E analogues and immune response in cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Neužil, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 463-491. ISSN 0083-6729 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : vitamin E analogues * inducers of apoptosis * immune surveillance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2007

  15. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Walmagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside, offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis.

  16. Watson's basic analogue of Ramanujan's entry 40 and its generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Dharma P.; David R. Masson

    1993-01-01

    We generalize Watson's $ q $-analogue of Ramanujan's Entry 40 continued fraction by deriving solutions to a $ {}_{10} \\phi_9 $ series contiguous relation and applying Pincherle's theorem. Watson's result is recovered as a special terminating case, while a limit case yields a new continued fraction associated with an $ \\ephis $ series contiguous relation.

  17. Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue from Penicillium solitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Lange, Lene; Schnorr, Kirk;

    2007-01-01

    Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue, has been isolated from Penicillium solitum using a UV-guided strategy. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute stereochemistry was determined by chemical degradation and c...

  18. Combinatorial Solid-Phase Synthesis of Balanol Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Lyngsø, Lars Ole

    1996-01-01

    The natural product balanol has served as a template for the design and synthesis of a combinatorial library using solid-phase chemistry. Using a retrosynthetic analysis, the structural analogues have been assembled from three relatively accessible building blocks. The solid-phase chemistry inclu...

  19. An Electric Analogue to Gravity Induced Vacuum Dominance

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, V K

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that when a strong electric field is turned on as a background in a charged scalar field, the vacuum state of the scalar field becomes exponentially amplified. This is an analogue to gravity induced vacuum amplification, where the vacuum state becomes exponentially amplified for some geometries.

  20. Lysine-vasopressin analogues with glycoconjugates in position 8

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcinkowska, A.; Borovičková, Lenka; Slaninová, Jiřina; Grzonka, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2006), s. 759-766. ISSN 0137-5083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : glycoconjugates * glycopeptides * lysine -vasopressin analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006