Sample records for analogue space surgery

  1. Anesthesia and critical-care delivery in weightlessness: A challenge for research in parabolic flight analogue space surgery studies (United States)

    Ball, Chad G.; Keaney, Marilyn A.; Chun, Rosaleen; Groleau, Michelle; Tyssen, Michelle; Keyte, Jennifer; Broderick, Timothy J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.


    BackgroundMultiple nations are actively pursuing manned exploration of space beyond low-earth orbit. The responsibility to improve surgical care for spaceflight is substantial. Although the use of parabolic flight as a terrestrial analogue to study surgery in weightlessness (0 g) is well described, minimal data is available to guide the appropriate delivery of anesthesia. After studying anesthetized pigs in a 0 g parabolic flight environment, our group developed a comprehensive protocol describing prolonged anesthesia in a parabolic flight analogue space surgery study (PFASSS). Novel challenges included a physically remote vivarium, prolonged (>10 h) anesthetic requirements, and the provision of veterinary operating room/intensive care unit (ICU) equivalency on-board an aircraft with physical dimensions of ethical approval, multiple ground laboratory sessions were conducted with combinations of anesthetic, pre-medication, and induction protocols on Yorkshire-cross specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Several constant rate infusion (CRI) intravenous anesthetic combinations were tested. In each regimen, opioids were administered to ensure analgesia. Ventilation was supported mechanically with blended gradients of oxygen. The best performing terrestrial 1 g regime was flight tested in parabolic flight for its effectiveness in sustaining optimal and prolonged anesthesia, analgesia, and maintaining hemodynamic stability. Each flight day, a fully anesthetized, ventilated, and surgically instrumented pig was transported to the Flight Research Laboratory (FRL) in a temperature-controlled animal ambulance. A modular on-board surgical/ICU suite with appropriate anesthesia/ICU and surgical support capabilities was employed. ResultsThe mean duration of anesthesia (per flight day) was 10.28 h over four consecutive days. A barbiturate and ketamine-based CRI anesthetic regimen supplemented with narcotic analgesia by bolus administration offered the greatest prolonged hemodynamic

  2. Space analogue studies in Antarctica (United States)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.


    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  3. Analogue and Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications

    CERN Document Server


    The purpose of AMICSA 2014 (organised in collaboration of ESA and CERN) is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of recent advances in analogue and mixed-signal VLSI design techniques and technologies for space applications.

  4. The Canadian space agency planetary analogue materials suite (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Applin, Daniel M.; Samson, Claire; Kruzelecky, Roman; Glotch, Timothy D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Mertzman, Karen R.; Haltigin, Timothy W.; Fry, Christopher


    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) recently commissioned the development of a suite of over fifty well-characterized planetary analogue materials. These materials are terrestrial rocks and minerals that are similar to those known or suspected to occur on the lunar or martian surfaces. These include: Mars analogue sedimentary, hydrothermal, igneous and low-temperature alteration rock suites; lunar analogue basaltic and anorthositic rock suites; and a generic impactite rock suite from a variety of terrestrial impact structures. Representative thin sections of the materials have been characterized by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Reflectance spectra have been collected in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared, covering 0.2-25 μm. Thermal infrared emission spectra were collected from 5 to 50 μm. Raman spectra with 532 nm excitation, and laser-induced fluorescence spectra with 405 nm excitation were also measured. Bulk chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray fluorescence, with Fe valence determined by wet chemistry. Chemical and mineralogical data were collected using a field-portable Terra XRD-XRF instrument similar to CheMin on the MSL Curiosity rover. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data similar to those measured by ChemCam on MSL were collected for powdered samples, cut slab surfaces, and as depth profiles into weathered surfaces where present. Three-dimensional laser camera images of rock textures were collected for selected samples. The CSA intends to make available sample powders (science community. Aiming to complement existing planetary analogue rock and mineral libraries, the CSA suite represents a new resource for planetary scientists and engineers. We envision many potential applications for these materials in the definition, development and testing of new analytical instruments for use in planetary missions, as well as possible calibration and ground-truthing of remote sensing data sets

  5. Advancing Translational Space Research Through Biospecimen Sharing: Amplified Impact of Studies Utilizing Analogue Space Platforms (United States)

    Staten, B.; Moyer, E.; Vizir, V.; Gompf, H.; Hoban-Higgins, T.; Lewis, L.; Ronca, A.; Fuller, C. A.


    Biospecimen Sharing Programs (BSPs) have been organized by NASA Ames Research Center since the 1960s with the goal of maximizing utilization and scientific return from rare, complex and costly spaceflight experiments. BSPs involve acquiring otherwise unused biological specimens from primary space research experiments for distribution to secondary experiments. Here we describe a collaboration leveraging Ames expertise in biospecimen sharing to magnify the scientific impact of research informing astronaut health funded by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element. The concept expands biospecimen sharing to one-off ground-based studies utilizing analogue space platforms (e.g., Hindlimb Unloading (HLU), Artificial Gravity) for rodent experiments, thereby significantly broadening the range of research opportunities with translational relevance for protecting human health in space and on Earth.

  6. Space & time discontinuities in Liouville theory and its discrete analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Doikou, Anastasia


    We consider the deformed harmonic oscillator as a discrete version of the Liouville theory and study this model in the presence of local integrable defects. From this, the time evolution of the defect degrees of freedom are determined, found in the form of the local equations of motion. We also revisit the continuous Liouville theory, deriving its local integrals of motion and comparing these with previous results from the sine-Gordon point of view.Finally, the generic Backlund type relations are presented, corresponding to the implementation of time-like and space-like impurities in the continuum model.

  7. The International Space Analogue Rock Store (ISAR): A key tool for future planetary exploration. (United States)

    Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Ramboz, C.; Foucher, F.


    In order to prepare the next in situ space missions we have created a « lithothèque » of analogue rocks for calibrating and testing future (and existing) space flight instruments. This rock collection is called the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR) and is hosted in the CNRS and the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en Region Centre (OSUC) in Orléans. For maximum science return, all instruments on a single mission should ideally be tested with the same suite of relevant analogue materials. The ISAR lithothéque aims to fulfill this role by providing suitable materials to instrument teams [1]. The lithothèque is accompanied by an online database of all relevant structural, textural, and geochemical data ( data base will also be available during missions to aid interpretation of data obtained in situ. Mars is the immediate goal for MSL-2011 and the new international Mars 2018 mission. The lithothèque thus presently contains relevant Mars-analogue rock and mineral samples, a preliminary range of which is now available to the scientific community for instrument testing [2]. The preliminary group of samples covers a range of lithologies to be found on Mars, especially those in Noachain/Hesperian terrains where MSL will land (Gale Crater) and where the 2018 landing site will most likely be located. It includes a variety of basalts (tephrite, primitive basalt, silicified basalt; plus cumulates), komatiites, artificially synthesized martian basalts [3], volcanic sands, a banded iron formation, carbonates associated with volcanic lithologies and hydrothermalism, the clay Nontronite, and hydrothermal cherts. Some of the silicified volcanic sands contain traces of early life that are good analogues for potential martian life [4]. [1] Westall F. et al., LPI contribution 1608, 1346, 42nd LPSC, 2011; [2] Bost N. et al., in review (Icarus); [3] Bost N. et al., in review (Meteoritics); [4] Westall et al., 2011, Planetary and Space

  8. Martian Analogue Sample Characterization and Spectral Library Development at the Johnson Space Center (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.


    An extensive collection of Martian analogue samples housed at the Johnson Space Center is the focus of ongoing research by the JSC Mars soil genesis group and their collaborators. Because the major element composition of Martian meteorites and in situ analyses of Martian soils and rocks indicate that Mars is predominantly an iron-rich basaltic world, the focus of active sample collection and analysis is basaltic materials and their hydrolytic (both aqueous and hydrothermal) and sulfatetic alteration products. Described below are the scope of the JSC Mars analogue sample collection, the characterization process, and plans to incorporate the data into spectral libraries for the Mars 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) CRISM missions.

  9. The history of anatomy and surgery of the preperitoneal space. (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Colborn, Gene L; McClusky, David A; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Skandalakis, John E


    Preperitoneal (properitoneal) space is the space between the peritoneum and transversalis fascia. Bogros (1786-1825) described a triangular space in the iliac region between the iliac fascia, transversalis fascia, and parietal peritoneum. In the modern concept, this space lies between the peritoneum and posterior lamina of the transversalis fascia. In 1858, Retzius described the homonymous space, situated anterior and lateral to the urinary bladder (prevesical space). In 1975, Fowler reported that the preperitoneal fascia of the groin is distinct from the transversalis fascia. Preperitoneal herniorrhaphy may be subdivided into 2 approaches: transperitoneal and inguinal. We present herein the evolution of approaches to the preperitoneal space from use of the transperitoneal (or posterior) to use of the anterior preperitoneal and posterior preperitoneal approaches. As anatomic knowledge has increased, the evolution of laparoscopic surgery has paralleled that of open procedures.

  10. Photometry's bright future: Detecting Solar System analogues with future space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hippke, Michael


    Time-series transit photometry from the Kepler space telescope has allowed for the discovery of thousands of exoplanets. We explore the potential of yet improved future missions such as PLATO 2.0 in detecting solar system analogues. We use real-world solar data and end-to-end simulations to explore the stellar and instrumental noise properties. By injecting and retrieving planets, rings and moons of our own solar system, we show that the discovery of Venus- and Earth-analogues transiting G-dwarfs like our Sun is feasible at high S/N after collecting 6yrs of data, but Mars and Mercury will be difficult to detect due to stellar noise. In the best cases, Saturn's rings and Jupiter's moons will be detectable even in single transit observations. Through the high number (>1bn) of observed stars by PLATO 2.0, it will become possible to detect thousands of single-transit events by cold gas giants, analogue to our Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Our own solar system aside, we also show, through signal injection a...

  11. Detection of Macromolecules in Desert Cyanobacteria Mixed with a Lunar Mineral Analogue After Space Simulations (United States)

    Baqué, Mickael; Verseux, Cyprien; Rabbow, Elke; de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Billi, Daniela


    In the context of future exposure missions in Low Earth Orbit and possibly on the Moon, two desert strains of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, strains CCMEE 029 and 057, mixed or not with a lunar mineral analogue, were exposed to fractionated fluencies of UVC and polychromatic UV (200-400 nm) and to space vacuum. These experiments were carried out within the framework of the BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) project, which aims at broadening our knowledge of mineral-microorganism interaction and the stability/degradation of their macromolecules when exposed to space and simulated Martian conditions. The presence of mineral analogues provided a protective effect, preserving survivability and integrity of DNA and photosynthetic pigments, as revealed by testing colony-forming abilities, performing PCR-based assays and using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In particular, DNA and pigments were still detectable after 500 kJ/m2 of polychromatic UV and space vacuum (10-4 Pa), corresponding to conditions expected during one-year exposure in Low Earth Orbit on board the EXPOSE-R2 platform in the presence of 0.1 % Neutral Density (ND) filter. After exposure to high UV fluencies (800 MJ/m2) in the presence of minerals, however, altered fluorescence emission spectrum of the photosynthetic pigments were detected, whereas DNA was still amplified by PCR. The present paper considers the implications of such findings for the detection of biosignatures in extraterrestrial conditions and for putative future lunar missions.

  12. An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground-Analogue Design Concept (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.


    The design concept of a modular and extensible hypergravity facility is presented. Several benefits of this facility are described including that the facility is suitable as a full-scale artificial-gravity space-settlement ground analogue for humans, animals, and plants for indefinite durations. The design is applicable as an analogue for on-orbit settlements as well as those on moons, asteroids, and Mars. The design creates an extremely long-arm centrifuge using a multi-car hypergravity vehicle travelling on one or more concentric circular tracks. This design supports the simultaneous generation of multiple-gravity levels to explore the feasibility and value of and requirements for such space-settlement designs. The design synergizes a variety of existing technologies including centrifuges, tilting trains, roller coasters, and optionally magnetic levitation. The design can be incrementally implemented such that the facility can be operational for a small fraction of the cost and time required for a full implementation. Brief concept of operation examples are also presented.

  13. Martian Feeling: An Analogue Study to Simulate a Round-Trip to Mars using the International Space Station (United States)

    Felix, C. V.; Gini, A.

    When talking about human space exploration, Mars missions are always present. It is clear that sooner or later, humanity will take this adventure. Arguably the most important aspect to consider for the success of such an endeavour is the human element. The safety of the crew throughout a Martian mission is a top priority for all space agencies. Therefore, such a mission should not take place until all the risks have been fully understood and mitigated. A mission to Mars presents unique human and technological challenges in terms of isolation, confinement, autonomy, reliance on mission control, communication delays and adaptation to different gravity levels. Analogue environments provide the safest way to simulate these conditions, mitigate the risks and evaluate the effects of long-term space travel on the crew. Martian Feeling is one of nine analogue studies, from the Mars Analogue Path (MAP) report [1], proposed by the TP Analogue group of ISU Masters class 2010. It is an integrated analogue study which simulates the psychological, physiological and operational conditions that an international, six-person, mixed gender crew would experience on a mission to Mars. Set both onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and on Earth, the Martian Feeling study will perform a ``dress rehearsal'' of a mission to Mars. The study proposes to test both human performance and operational procedures in a cost-effective manner. Since Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is more accessible than other space-based locations, an analogue studies in LEO would provide the required level of realism to a simulated transit mission to Mars. The sustained presence of microgravity and other elements of true spaceflight are features of LEO that are neither currently feasible nor possible to study in terrestrial analogue sites. International collaboration, economics, legal and ethical issues were considered when the study was proposed. As an example of international collaboration, the ISS would

  14. Mount Everest: a space analogue for speech monitoring of cognitive deficits and stress. (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip; Morey, Angie; Hochstadt, Jesse; Larson, Mara; Mather, Sandra


    In deep-space missions, the basal ganglia and hippocampus, subcortical structures of the brain that play critical roles in motor activity, cognition, and memory, will be vulnerable to damage from cosmic rays. These metabolically active structures are also sensitive to damage arising from the low oxygen content of air at extreme altitudes. We have, therefore, used Mount Everest as an analogue for deep space, where astronauts will be subject to danger and stress as well as neural damage. We can ethically obtain data because our climber-subjects already intend to climb Mt. Everest. We record speech and test cognitive and linguistic performance before, during, and after exposure to hypoxic conditions. From these data we have derived and validated computer-implemented acoustic voice measures that track slight as well as profound cognitive impairment. Vowel duration and speech motor sequencing errors increase as climbers ascend, reflecting degraded basal ganglia activity. These metrics detect deficits in language comprehension and the ability to change plans in changing circumstances. Preliminary analyses also reveal memory deficits reflecting hippocampal damage. Our speech metrics are unobtrusive and do not reveal the content of a verbal message; they could be derived automatically, allowing space crews to detect subtle motor and cognitive deficits and invoke countermeasures before performance is profoundly impaired. In future work we will be validating the voice metrics of stress in collaboration with the Dinges NSBRI laboratory study of task-induced stress. Our procedures can also be applied in general aviation and in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, and other neurological disorders.

  15. Transoral Robotic Surgery in Retrostyloid Parapharyngeal Space Schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohssen Ansarin


    Full Text Available Parapharyngeal space (PPS tumors are very rare, representing about 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. An external surgical approach is mainly used. Several recent papers show how transoral robotic surgery (TORS excision could be a prospective tool to remove mainly benign lesions in PPS; no cases of neurogenic tumors from the retrostyloid space treated with TORS have been reported. We present two cases which underwent TORS for schwannomas from the retrostyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space. Clinical diagnosis of schwannoma was performed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In the first case a 6 cm neurogenic tumor arose from the vagus nerve and in the second case a 5 cm mass from the sympathetic chain was observed. Both cases were treated successfully by the TORS approach using a new “J”-shaped incision through the mucosa and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Left vocal cord palsy and the Claude Bernard Horner syndrome, respectively, were observed as expected postsurgical sequelae. In case 1 the first bite syndrome developed after three months, while no complications were observed in case 2. Both patients regained a normal swallowing function. TORS seems to be a feasible mini-invasive procedure for benign PPS masses including masses in the poststyloid space.

  16. Probing Seismic Solar Analogues Through Observations With The NASA Kepler Space Telescope and Hermes High-Resolution Spectrograph (United States)

    Beck, P. G.; Salabert, D.; Garcia, R. A.; do Nascimento, J., Jr.; Duarte, T. S. S.; Mathis, S.; Regulo, C.; Ballot, J.; Egeland, R.; Castro, M.; Pérez-Herńandez, F.,; Creevey, O.; Tkachenko, A.; van Reeth, T.; Bigot, L.; Corsaro, E.; Metcalfe, T.; Mathur, S.; Palle, P. L.; Allende Prieto, C.; Montes, D.; Johnston, C.; Andersen, M. F.; van Winckel, H.


    Stars similar to the Sun, known as solar analogues, provide an excellent opportunity to study the preceding and following evolutionary phases of our host star. The unprecedented quality of photometric data collected by the Kepler NASA mission allows us to characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology and study diagnostics of stellar evolution, such as variation of magnetic activity, rotation and the surface lithium abundance. In this project, presented in a series of papers by Salabert et al (2016ab) and Beck et al. (2016ab), we investigate the link between stellar activity, rotation, lithium abundance and oscillations in a group of 18 solar-analogue stars through space photometry, obtained with the NASA Kepler space telescope and from currently 50+ hours of ground-based, high-resolution spectroscopy with the Hermes instrument. In these proceedings, we first discuss the selection of the stars in the sample, observations and calibrations and then summarise the main results of the project. By investigating the chromospheric and photospheric activity of the solar analogues in this sample, it was shown that for a large fraction of these stars the measured activity levels are compatible to levels of the 11-year solar activity cycle 23. A clear correlation between the lithium abundance and surface rotation was found for rotation periods shorter than the solar value. Comparing the lithium abundance measured in the solar analogues to evolutionary models with the Toulouse-Geneva Evolutionary Code (TGEC), we found that the solar models calibrated to the Sun also correctly describe the set of solar/stellar analogs showing that they share the same internal mixing physics. Finally, the star KIC3241581 and KIC10644353 are discussed in more detail.

  17. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón


    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.

  18. Crystallization of proteinase K complexed with substrate analogue peptides on US space missions STS-91 and STS-95 (United States)

    Eschenburg, Susanne; Degenhardt, Michael; Moore, Karen; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Peters, Klaus; Fittkau, Siegfried; Weber, Wolfgang; Betzel, Christian


    Crystals of proteinase K in complex with synthetic substrate analogues have been grown under microgravity on the US space shuttle missions STS-91 and STS-95 using the vapor diffusion apparatus (c-VDA) supplied by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The crystals obtained under microgravity are compared with those grown simultanously on ground in identical c-VDA reactors and in conventional hanging-drop set-ups. The diffraction quality of space- and ground-grown crystals has been assessed by collecting complete data sets with a conventional X-ray source and with synchrotron radiation. Crystals grown in microgravity are clearly superior to those grown in the identical hardware on earth in terms of crystal habit and diffraction power. In comparison to best terrestrial crystals obtained in conventional hanging-drop set-ups the differences in crystal size and diffraction quality are less, but still confirm the benefit of microgravity for the crystallization of proteinase K-substrate analogue complexes.

  19. Probing seismic solar analogues through observations with the NASA Kepler space telescope and HERMES high-resolution spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, P G; García, R A; Nascimento,, J do; Duarte, T S S; Mathis, S; Regulo, C; Ballot, J; Egeland, R; Castro, M; Pérez-Herńandez, F; Creevey, O; Tkachenko, A; van Reeth, T; Bigot, L; Corsaro, E; Metcalfe, T; Mathur, S; Palle, P L; Prieto, C Allende; Montes, D; Johnston, C; Andersen, M F; van Winckel, H


    Stars similar to the Sun, known as solar analogues, provide an excellent opportunity to study the preceding and following evolutionary phases of our host star. The unprecedented quality of photometric data collected by the \\Kepler NASA mission allows us to characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology and study diagnostics of stellar evolution, such as variation of magnetic activity, rotation and the surface lithium abundance. In this project, presented in a series of papers by Salabert et al. (2016a,b) and Beck et al (2016a,b), we investigate the link between stellar activity, rotation, lithium abundance and oscillations in a group of 18 solar-analogue stars through space photometry, obtained with the NASA Kepler space telescope and from currently 50+ hours of ground-based, high-resolution spectroscopy with the Hermes instrument. In these proceedings, we first discuss the selection of the stars in the sample, observations and calibrations and then summarise the main results of the project. By invest...

  20. Cosmetic Surgery in Integral Homology $L$-Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhongtao


    Let $K$ be a non-trivial knot in $S^3$, and let $r$ and $r'$ be two distinct rational numbers of same sign, allowing $r$ to be infinite; we prove that there is no orientation-preserving homeomorphism between the manifolds $S^3_r(K)$ and $S^3_{r'}(K)$. We further generalize this uniqueness result to knots in arbitrary integral homology L-spaces.

  1. Operator analogue of the Krein-Milman theorem in the generalized state spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    We discuss the Krein-Milman-type problems in the C-convexity theory for the generalized state space SCn(A) of C-algebra A. The main results are that every BW-compact, C-convex subset of SCn(A) possesses a C-extreme point and every BW-compact, C-convex subset of SCn(A) is the C -convex hull of its C -extreme points.

  2. Surgery (United States)

    ... the hospital, sometimes in an intensive care unit (ICU). Direct discharge home A person being sent home ... from surgery should occur gradually. Some people need rehabilitation , which involves special exercises and activities, to improve ...

  3. Predictors of Behavior and Performance in Extreme Environments: The Antarctic Space Analogue Program (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Gunderson, E K. Eric; Holland, A. W.; Miller, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey C.


    To determine which, if any, characteristics should be incorporated into a select-in approach to screening personnel for long-duration spaceflight, we examined the influence of crewmember social/ demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station physical environments on performance measures in 657 American men who spent an austral winter in Antarctica between 1963 and 1974. During screening, subjects completed a Personal History Questionnaire which obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, the Deep Freeze Opinion Survey which assessed 5 different personality traits, and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale which measured 6 dimensions of interpersonal needs. Station environment included measures of crew size and severity of physical environment. Performance was assessed on the basis of combined peer-supervisor evaluations of overall performance, peer nominations of fellow crewmembers who made ideal winter-over candidates, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Social/demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station environments collectively accounted for 9-17% of the variance in performance measures. The following characteristics were significant independent predictors of more than one performance measure: military service, low levels of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low desire for affection from others. These results represent an important first step in the development of select-in criteria for personnel on long-duration missions in space and other extreme environments. These criteria must take into consideration the characteristics of the environment and the limitations they place on meeting needs for interpersonal relations and task performance, as well as the characteristics of the individuals and groups who live and work in these environments.

  4. Third-space fluid shift in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: Part II: nursing assessment. (United States)

    Wotton, Karen; Redden, Maurine


    Third-space fluid shift is the mobilisation of body fluid to a non-contributory space rendering it unavailable to the circulatory system. It is a recurrent clinical phenomenon requiring swift identification to minimise deleterious effects. Nurses experience difficulties however in its early identification, diagnosis and subsequent treatment because of the lack of consensual and consistent information regarding third-spacing. This article, part II, building on the previous article, explores the clinical validly and reliability of signs and symptoms of both phases of third-space fluid shift. In addition it reinforces the use multiple patient assessment cues if nurses are to differentiate between, and accurately respond to, the various causes of both hypovolaemia and hypervolaemia. It assists nurses to increase their knowledge and uderstanding of third-space fluid shift in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

  5. Radiolysis of amino acids by heavy and energetic cosmic ray analogues in simulated space environments: α-glycine zwitterion form (United States)

    Portugal, Williamary; Pilling, Sergio; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Andrade, Diana P. P.


    In this work, we studied the stability of the glycine molecule in the crystalline zwitterion form, known as α-glycine (+NH3CH2COO-), under the action of heavy cosmic ray analogues. The experiments were conducted in a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), in Caen, France. The samples were bombarded at two temperatures (14 and 300 K) by 58Ni11+ ions of 46 MeV, up to a final fluence of 1013 ion cm-2. The chemical evolution of the sample was evaluated in situ using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). The bombardment at 14 K produced several daughter species, such as OCN-, CO, CO2 and CN-. The results also suggest the appearance of peptide bonds during irradiation, but this must be confirmed by further experiments. The half-life of glycine in the interstellar medium was estimated to be 7.8 × 103 yr (300 K) and 2.8 × 103 yr (14 K). In the Solar system, the values were 8.4 × 102 yr (300 K) and 3.6 × 103 yr (14 K). It is believed that glycine could be present in space environments that suffered aqueous changes, such as the interiors of comets, meteorites and planetesimals. This molecule is present in the proteins of all living beings. Therefore, studying its stability in these environments will provide further understanding of the role of this species in prebiotic chemistry on Earth.

  6. Correlation between the Pharyngeal Airway Space and Head Posture after Surgery for Mandibular Prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chen


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the pharyngeal airway space and head posture after mandibular setback surgery for mandibular prognathism. Materials and Methods. Serial lateral cephalograms of 37 patients with mandibular prognathism who underwent intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO were evaluated before (T1 and immediately (T2, between 6 weeks and 3 months (T3, and more than 1 year (T4 after surgery. Paired t-tests and Pearson’s correlation analysis were used to evaluate the postoperative changes in all cephalometric parameters, including the mandible, hyoid, head posture (craniocervical angle, and pharyngeal airway space. Results. The mandible and hyoid were set back by 12.8 mm and 4.9 mm, respectively, at T2. Furthermore, the hyoid showed significant inferior movement of 10.7 mm, with an 8 mm increase in the tongue depth. The upper oropharyngeal airway (UOP shortened by 4.1 mm, the lower oropharyngeal airway (LOP by 1.7 mm, and the laryngopharyngeal airway by 2 mm. The craniocervical angle showed a significant increase of 2.8°. UOP and LOP showed a significant correlation with the craniocervical angle at T2 and T4. Conclusions. Our findings conclude that the oropharyngeal airway space is significantly decreased and correlated with a change in the head posture after mandibular setback surgery.

  7. Lessons Learned from Biosphere 2: When Viewed as a Ground Simulation/Analogue for Long Duration Human Space Exploration and Settlement (United States)

    MacCallum, T.; Poynter, J.; Bearden, D.

    A human mission to Mars, or a base on the Moon or Mars, is a longer and more complex mission than any space endeavor undertaken to date. Ground simulations provide a relevant, analogous environment for testing technologies and learning how to manage complex, long duration missions, while addressing inherent mission risks. Multiphase human missions and settlements that may preclude a rapid return to Earth, require high fidelity, end-to-end, at least full mission duration tests in order to evaluate a system's ability to sustain the crew for the entire mission and return the crew safely to Earth. Moreover, abort scenarios are essentially precluded in many mission scenarios, though certain risks may only become evident late in the mission. Aging and compounding effects cannot be simulated through accelerated tests for all aspects of the mission. Until such high fidelity long duration simulations are available, and in order to help prepare those simulations and mission designs, it is important to extract as many lessons as possible from analogous environments. Possibly the best analogue for a long duration space mission is the two year mission of Biosphere 2. Biosphere 2 is a three-acre materially closed ecological system that supported eight crewmembers with food, air and water in a sunlight driven bioregenerative system for two years. It was designed for research applicable to environmental management on Earth and the development of human life support for space. A brief overview of the two-year Biosphere 2 mission is presented, followed by select data and lessons learned that are applicable to the design and operation of a long duration human space mission, settlement or test bed. These lessons include technical, programmatic, and psychological issues

  8. Towards a Radio-guided Surgery with $\\beta^{-}$ Decays: Uptake of a somatostatin analogue (DOTATOC) in Meningioma and High Grade Glioma

    CERN Document Server

    Collamati, Francesco; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Cremonesi, Marta; De Lucia, Erika; Ferrari, Mahila; Frallicciardi, Paola M; Grana, Chiara M; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Patera, Vincenzo; Piersanti, Luca; Recchia, Luigi; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Voena, Cecilia; Faccini, Riccardo


    A novel radio guided surgery (RGS) technique for cerebral tumors using $\\beta^{-}$ radiation is being developed. Checking the availability of a radio-tracer that can deliver a $\\beta^{-}$ emitter to the tumor is a fundamental step in the deployment of such technique. This paper reports a study of the uptake of 90Y labeled (DOTATOC) in the meningioma and the high grade glioma (HGG) and a feasibility study of the RGS technique in these cases.

  9. Quantum analogue computing. (United States)

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J


    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  10. Modular Extended-Stay HyperGravity Facility Design Concept: An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground Analogue (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.


    This document defines the design concept for a ground-based, extended-stay hypergravity facility as a precursor for space-based artificial-gravity facilities that extend the permanent presence of both human and non-human life beyond Earth in artificial-gravity settlements. Since the Earth's current human population is stressing the environment and the resources off-Earth are relatively unlimited, by as soon as 2040 more than one thousand people could be living in Earthorbiting artificial-gravity habitats. Eventually, the majority of humanity may live in artificialgravity habitats throughout this solar system as well as others, but little is known about the longterm (multi-generational) effects of artificial-gravity habitats on people, animals, and plants. In order to extend life permanently beyond Earth, it would be useful to create an orbiting space facility that generates 1g as well as other gravity levels to rigorously address the numerous challenges of such an endeavor. Before doing so, developing a ground-based artificial-gravity facility is a reasonable next step. Just as the International Space Station is a microgravity research facility, at a small fraction of the cost and risk a ground-based artificial-gravity facility can begin to address a wide-variety of the artificial-gravity life-science questions and engineering challenges requiring long-term research to enable people, animals, and plants to live off-Earth indefinitely.

  11. Cephalometric evaluation of the pharyngeal airway space after orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis of the jaw bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganapathy Sriram


    Full Text Available Objective: Orthognathic surgeries and distraction osteogenesis (DO of the jaw bones cause a change in the pharyngeal airway space (PAS. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of changes occurring in the pharyngeal airway after mandibular set-back surgeries and DO of maxilla/mandible. Materials and Methods: The study undertaken was a retrospective cephalometric study. Subjects included in our study had undergone mandibular set-back surgery or DO of maxilla/mandible. Lateral cephalograms of the subjects taken pre-operatively (T0, immediate post-operatively (T1 and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months (T2 were studied. The cephalograms were traced manually and the following parameters were evaluated: Surface area of the PAS, pharyngeal airway width at the level of the base of the tongue, position of the hyoid bone and the tongue. Repeated measure ANOVA test was done to assess the presence of any significant changes in the proposed parameters at T0, T1 and T2. A correlation analysis was made between the mandibular/maxillary movements and the corresponding changes in the PAS. Results: Surgical movements of maxilla and mandible do have an effect on the pharyngeal airway. Conclusion: It was clearly evident that the effects of mandibular movements on the PAS and the hyoid bone is more significant than the maxillary movements.

  12. Analogue computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Welbourne, D


    Analogue Computing Methods presents the field of analogue computation and simulation in a compact and convenient form, providing an outline of models and analogues that have been produced to solve physical problems for the engineer and how to use and program the electronic analogue computer. This book consists of six chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction to analogue computation and discusses certain mathematical techniques. The electronic equipment of an analogue computer is covered in Chapter 2, while its use to solve simple problems, including the method of scaling is elaborat

  13. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren


    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  14. Image to physical space registration of supine breast MRI for image guided breast surgery (United States)

    Conley, Rebekah H.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.


    Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a desirable option for many women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and involves a lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy. However, approximately 50% of eligible women will elect for mastectomy over BCT despite equal survival benefit (provided margins of excised tissue are cancer free) due to uncertainty in outcome with regards to complete excision of cancerous cells, risk of local recurrence, and cosmesis. Determining surgical margins intraoperatively is difficult and achieving negative margins is not as robust as it needs to be, resulting in high re-operation rates and often mastectomy. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) can provide detailed information about tumor margin extents, however diagnostic images are acquired in a fundamentally different patient presentation than that used in surgery. Therefore, the high quality diagnostic MRIs taken in the prone position with pendant breast are not optimal for use in surgical planning/guidance due to the drastic shape change between preoperative images and the common supine surgical position. This work proposes to investigate the value of supine MRI in an effort to localize tumors intraoperatively using image-guidance. Mock intraoperative setups (realistic patient positioning in non-sterile environment) and preoperative imaging data were collected from a patient scheduled for a lumpectomy. The mock intraoperative data included a tracked laser range scan of the patient's breast surface, tracked center points of MR visible fiducials on the patient's breast, and tracked B-mode ultrasound and strain images. The preoperative data included a supine MRI with visible fiducial markers. Fiducial markers localized in the MRI were rigidly registered to their mock intraoperative counterparts using an optically tracked stylus. The root mean square (RMS) fiducial registration error using the tracked markers was 3.4mm. Following registration, the average closest point distance between the MR

  15. Interprofessional communication between surgery trainees and nurses in the inpatient wards: Why time and space matter. (United States)

    Fernando, Oshan; Coburn, Natalie G; Nathens, Avery B; Hallet, Julie; Ahmed, Najma; Conn, Lesley Gotlib


    Optimal interprofessional communication (IPC) is broadly viewed as a prerequisite to providing quality patient care. In this study, we explored the enablers and barriers to IPC between surgical trainees and ward nurses with a view towards improving IPC and the quality of surgical patient care. We conducted an ethnography in two academic centres in Canada totalling 126 hours of observations and 32 semi-structured interviews with trainees and nurses. Our findings revealed constraints on IPC between trainees and nurses derived from contested meanings of space and time. Trainees experienced the contested spatial boundaries of the surgical ward when they perceived nurses to project a sense of territoriality. Nurses expressed difficulty getting trainees to respond and attend to pages from the ward, and to have a poor understanding of the nurses' role. Contestations over time spent in training and patient care were found in trainee-nurse interactions, wherein trainees perceived seasoned nurses to devalue their clinical knowledge on the ward. Nurses viewed the limited time that trainees spent in clinical rotation in the ward as adversely affecting communication. This study underscores that challenges to enhancing IPC at academic health centres are rooted in team and professional cultures. Efforts to improve IPC should therefore: identify and target the social and cultural dimensions of healthcare team member relations; recognise how power is deployed and experienced in ways that negatively impact IPC; and enhance an understanding and appreciation in the temporal and spatial dimensions of IPC.

  16. Carcinogenicity of insulin analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, Sebastiaan Johannes ter


    There is epidemiological evidence that the use of some insulin analogues by diabetic patients is correlated with an increased cancer risk. In vitro exposure experiments revealed that insulin glargine (LANTUS) was the only commercial insulin analogue with an increased mitogenic potential. In the huma

  17. Survey of analogue spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt


    Analogue spacetimes, (and more boldly, analogue models both of and for gravity), have attracted significant and increasing attention over the last decade and a half. Perhaps the most straightforward physical example, which serves as a template for most of the others, is Bill Unruh's model for a dumb hole, (mute black hole, acoustic black hole), wherein sound is dragged along by a moving fluid --- and can even be trapped behind an acoustic horizon. This and related analogue models for curved spacetimes are useful in many ways: Analogue spacetimes provide general relativists with extremely concrete physical models to help focus their thinking, and conversely the techniques of curved spacetime can sometimes help improve our understanding of condensed matter and/or optical systems by providing an unexpected and countervailing viewpoint. In this introductory chapter, I shall provide a few simple examples of analogue spacetimes as general background for the rest of the contributions.

  18. Description of Causes and Treatment Types Made in Teeth with Biological Space Invasion and/or in Need of Pre-Prosthetic Surgery: Case series


    Machón, Lourdes; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Hernández, Morena; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Hidalgo de Andrade, Laura Elena; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Andrade Acevedo, Roberto Antonio; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador


    Background: The decision to rehabilitate or extract a tooth is determined by the knowledge of the causes of dental destruction affecting treatment plan and prognosis. Aim: Describe indications, surgical periodontal therapy prior to dental restoration, most affected teeth and age of the patients with invasion of biological space (IBS) and/or pre-prosthetic surgery. Methods: This is a case series report of 162 patients, male and female, who were treated at the predoctoral dental program of Univ...

  19. Synthesis of Tonghaosu Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai; LIN Yingjie; WU Yulin; WU Yikang


    Several new analogues of natural antifeedant tonghaosu were synthesized via m-CPBA (m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid) oxidation of corresponding 3-(a-furyl)propanols, Luche reduction of the resulting enone, epoxidation, acid-mediated spiroketalization, and radical mediated dehydration.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  1. Plastic Surgery (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  2. Nose Surgery (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Nose Surgery Nose Surgery Patient Health Information News media interested ... high a priority as appearance. Can Cosmetic Nasal Surgery Create A "Perfect" Nose? Aesthetic nasal surgery (rhinoplasty) ...

  3. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul


    of GIP and GLP-1 receptors, the incretin effect is essential for normal glucose tolerance. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus it turns out that the incretin effect is severely impaired or abolished. The explanation seems to be that both the secretion of GLP-1 and the effect of GIP are impaired...... (whereas both the secretion of GIP and the effect of GLP-1 are near normal). The impaired GLP-1 secretion is probably a consequence of diabetic metabolic disturbances. The known genetic variations in the GIP receptor sequence are not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but a defective insulinotropic...... and its analogues are attractive as therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus, analogues of GIP are unlikely to be effective. On the other hand, GIP seems to play an important role in lipid metabolism, promoting the disposal of ingested lipids, and mice with a targeted deletion of the GIP receptor...

  4. Aspartame and Its Analogues (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.


    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  5. Analogue Methods in Palaeoecology: Using the analogue Package


    Simpson, Gavin L.


    Palaeoecology is an important branch of ecology that uses the subfossil remains of organisms preserved in lake, ocean and bog sediments to inform on changes in ecosystems and the environment through time. The analogue package contains functions to perform modern analogue technique (MAT) transfer functions, which can be used to predict past changes in the environment, such as climate or lake-water pH from species data. A related technique is that of analogue matching, which is concerned with i...

  6. Cataract Surgery (United States)

    ... and Videos: What Do Cataracts Look Like? Cataract Surgery Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elena M ... how they work. What to expect with cataract surgery Before surgery: Your ophthalmologist will measure your eye ...

  7. Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzmán, Cecilia; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel; Yamada, Yasuhiro


    We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing

  8. Feasibility study for image-guided kidney surgery: Assessment of required intraoperative surface for accurate physical to image space registrations (United States)

    Benincasa, Anne B.; Clements, Logan W.; Herrell, S. Duke; Galloway, Robert L.


    A notable complication of applying current image-guided surgery techniques of soft tissue to kidney resections (nephrectomies) is the limited field of view of the intraoperative kidney surface. This limited view constrains the ability to obtain a sufficiently geometrically descriptive surface for accurate surface-based registrations. The authors examined the effects of the limited view by using two orientations of a kidney phantom to model typical laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy views. Point-based registrations, using either rigidly attached markers or anatomical landmarks as fiducials, served as initial alignments for surface-based registrations. Laser range scanner (LRS) obtained surfaces were registered to the phantom’s image surface using a rigid iterative closest point algorithm. Subsets of each orientation’s LRS surface were used in a robustness test to determine which parts of the surface yield the most accurate registrations. Results suggest that obtaining accurate registrations is a function of the percentage of the total surface and of geometric surface properties, such as curvature. Approximately 28% of the total surface is required regardless of the location of that surface subset. However, that percentage decreases when the surface subset contains information from opposite ends of the surface and∕or unique anatomical features, such as the renal artery and vein. PMID:18841875

  9. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  10. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan


    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  11. Vorticity in analogue gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cropp, Bethan; Turcati, Rodrigo


    In the analogue gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in a curved spacetime. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric which depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity free. In this work we provide an straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged --- relativistic and non-relativistic --- Bose--Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d'Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on a flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  12. Feasibility study for image guided kidney surgery: assessment of required intraoperative surface for accurate image to physical space registrations (United States)

    Benincasa, Anne B.; Clements, Logan W.; Herrell, S. Duke; Chang, Sam S.; Cookson, Michael S.; Galloway, Robert L.


    Currently, the removal of kidney tumor masses uses only direct or laparoscopic visualizations, resulting in prolonged procedure and recovery times and reduced clear margin. Applying current image guided surgery (IGS) techniques, as those used in liver cases, to kidney resections (nephrectomies) presents a number of complications. Most notably is the limited field of view of the intraoperative kidney surface, which constrains the ability to obtain a surface delineation that is geometrically descriptive enough to drive a surface-based registration. Two different phantom orientations were used to model the laparoscopic and traditional partial nephrectomy views. For the laparoscopic view, fiducial point sets were compiled from a CT image volume using anatomical features such as the renal artery and vein. For the traditional view, markers attached to the phantom set-up were used for fiducials and targets. The fiducial points were used to perform a point-based registration, which then served as a guide for the surface-based registration. Laser range scanner (LRS) obtained surfaces were registered to each phantom surface using a rigid iterative closest point algorithm. Subsets of each phantom's LRS surface were used in a robustness test to determine the predictability of their registrations to transform the entire surface. Results from both orientations suggest that about half of the kidney's surface needs to be obtained intraoperatively for accurate registrations between the image surface and the LRS surface, suggesting the obtained kidney surfaces were geometrically descriptive enough to perform accurate registrations. This preliminary work paves the way for further development of kidney IGS systems.

  13. Lung surgery (United States)

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using a ... clot from the pulmonary artery ( pulmonary embolism ) Treat complications of tuberculosis Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be used to treat many of these ...

  14. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.


    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  15. Efficacy of somatostatin analogues in combination with surgery in patients with acromegaly:a review of 23 cases%长效生长抑素类似物联合手术治疗肢端肥大症疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑晶; 顾锋; 金自孟; 伍学焱; 朱惠娟; 李乃适; 茅江峰; 段炼; 岳欣


    Objective To study the efficacy of somatostatin analogues (SSA) with surgery combined in patients with acromegaly. Methods We performed a retrospective study on the clinical profiles in 23 patients with pathologic ally-confirmed acromegaly who were treated with presurgical SSA in combination with transsphenoidal tumor resection and underwent long-term followed-ups in the department of endocrinology, Peking Union Hospital between January 1st,2005 and December 31 st,2008. Results Treatment with SSA in patients with acromegaly for >3 months led to marked reduction in the nadir of growth hormone (GH) (P < 0. 01) and shrinking of tumor volume ( P = 0. 012). Biochemically controlled group ( GH < 0. 047 nmol/L) yielded considerbly smaller tumor size than uncontrolled group (GH ≥0. 047 nmol/L) (P = 0. 015) prior to the surgery. In addition,both initial and final GH nadirs were reduced postoperatively (P=0. 002 and 0. 018.respectively) . Conclusion SSAs in patients with acromegaly may be associated with improved efficacy of surgery as a result of reduced GH level and shrinked tumor volume prior to surgery. Preoperative detection of GH nadir via OGTT may be applied to assess the prognosis of patients with acromegaly.%目的 评价初始长效生长抑素类似物联合手术治疗肢端肥大症的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析2005-2008年在北京协和医院内分泌科收治并定期随访的初始长效生长抑素类似物(SSA)治疗联合经蝶手术切除垂体腺瘤并经病理证实的23例肢端肥大症患者病历资料.结果 肢端肥大症患者长效SSA治疗(≥3个月)后生长激素(GH)谷值明显降低(P<0.01),肿瘤体积缩小(P=0.012).术前生化控制组(GH<0.047 nmol/L)较未控制组(GH≥0.047 nmol/L)肿瘤体积小(P=0.015),术后初次(P=0.002)及末次随访(P=0.018)GH谷值低.结论 肢端肥大症患者术前应用长效SSA治疗可降低术前GH水平、缩小肿瘤体积,是提高手术疗效的原因之一;术前口服葡

  16. Analogue cosmology in a hadronic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilić Neven


    Full Text Available Analog gravity models of general relativity seem promising routes to providing laboratory tests of the foundation of quantum field theory in curved space-time. In contrast to general relativity, where geometry of a spacetime is determined by the Einstein equations, in analog models geometry and evolution of analog spacetime are determined by the equations of fluid mechanics. In this paper we study the analogue gravity model based on massless pions propagating in a expanding hadronic fluid. The analog expanding spacetime takes the form of an FRW universe, with the apparent and trapping horizons defined in the standard way.

  17. Human Factor Studies on a Mars Analogue During Crew 100b International Lunar Exploration Working Group EuroMoonMars Crew: Proposed New Approaches for Future Human Space and Interplanetary Missions. (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep


    Knowing the risks, costs, and complexities associated with human missions to Mars, analogue research can be a great (low-risk) tool for exploring the challenges associated with the preparation for living, operating, and undertaking research in interplanetary missions. Short-duration analogue studies, such as those being accomplished at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), offer the chance to study mission operations and human factors in a simulated environment, and therefore contribute to exploration of the Moon and Mars in planned future missions. This article is based upon previously published articles, abstracts, and presentations by a series of independent authors, human factor studies performed on mars analogue station by Crew 100B. The MDRS Crew 100B performed studies over 15 days providing a unique insight into human factor issues in simulated short-duration Mars mission. In this study, 15 human factors were evaluated and analyzed by subjective and objective means, and from the summary of results it was concluded that optimum health of an individual and the crew as a whole is a necessity in order to encourage and maintain high performance and the satisfaction of project goals.

  18. Basic entwinements: unassuming analogue inserts in basic digital modeling (courses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesner, Thomas


    to diverse inter-active discussions and a more conscious re-plays of material transcending the dichotomies of digital/analogue. Keywords Simple didactics, analogue sketching, cognitive space awareness, digital modelling, bachelor first year, morphology of body and space, pataphysics...... between the various intentions and the student’s actual grasp of the many basic architectural element’s interplays of form and space can become apparent. To alleviate, calibrate and cognitively fine-tune the potential for more acute and lasting cognitive understandings of (scaled) body and space...... of options for speedily produced material for various attuned and conscious, supplementary oblique architectural assessments. The simple procedure(s) advance a certain amount of beneficial cognitive complementarities: Beneficial interplay-changes between right and left brain concentrations; Change...

  19. After Surgery (United States)

    ... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

  20. Turbinate surgery (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or part of the lower turbinate is taken out. This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  1. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Near Subsurface Electromagnetic Techniques and Analysis (United States)

    Boivin, A.; Samson, C.; Holladay, J. S.; Cloutis, E. A.; Ernst, R. E.


    As part of the Canadian Space Agency's Mars Methane Analogue Mission, a micro-rover mission, an Electromagnetic Induction Sounder (EMIS) was used with the goal of demonstrating its value as a potential science instrument onboard future rovers.

  2. Heart Surgery Terms (United States)

    ... Patients Choosing Wisely® Adult Cardiac Surgery What is Pediatric Heart Disease? What is Risk Adjustment? Valve Repair/Replacement Surgery Esophageal Surgery Lung/Thoracic Surgery Aneurysm Surgery Arrhythmia Surgery Other Types of Surgery Clinical ...

  3. Analogue Hawking Radiation in a dc-SQUID Array Transmission Line (United States)

    Nation, P. D.; Blencowe, M. P.; Rimberg, A. J.; Buks, E.


    We propose the use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of direct-current superconducting quantum interference devices for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. Being a fundamentally quantum mechanical device, this setup allows for investigations of quantum effects such as backreaction and analogue space-time fluctuations on the Hawking process.

  4. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee


    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  5. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon (United States)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    Human exploration of the Moon is a target by 2020 with an initial lunar outpost planned in polar regions. Current architectures maintain a capability for sorties to other latitudes for science activities. In the early stages of design of lunar outpost infrastructure and science activity planning, it has been recognized that analogue missions could play a major role in Moon mission design. Analogue missions, as high fidelity simulations of human and robotic surface operations, can help field scientists and engineers develop and test strategies as well as user requirements, as they provide opportunities to groundtruth measurements, and for the team to share understanding of key science needs and key engineering trades. These types of missions also provide direct training in planning science operations, and in team building and communication. The Canadian Space Agency's Exploration Core Program targets the development of technology infrastructure elements in key areas of science, technology and robotics in preparation for its role in the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. Within this Program, Analogue Missions specifically target the operations requirements and lessons learned that will reduce costs and lower the risk of planetary surface missions. Analogue missions are simulations of planetary surface operations that take place at analogue sites on Earth. A terrestrial analogue site resembles in some key way: eg. geomorphologically or geochemically, a surface environment of another planet. An analogue mission can, therefore, be defined as an integrated set of activities that represent (or simulate) entire mission designs or narrowly focus on specific aspects of planned or potential future planetary exploration missions. Within the CSA's Exploration Core Program, Analogue Missions facilitate the maturation of science instruments and mission concepts by integrating ongoing space instrument and technology development programs with science and analogue elements. As

  6. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A


    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  7. Analogue Methods in Palaeoecology: Using the analogue Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin L. Simpson


    Full Text Available Palaeoecology is an important branch of ecology that uses the subfossil remains of organisms preserved in lake, ocean and bog sediments to inform on changes in ecosystems and the environment through time. The analogue package contains functions to perform modern analogue technique (MAT transfer functions, which can be used to predict past changes in the environment, such as climate or lake-water pH from species data. A related technique is that of analogue matching, which is concerned with identifying modern sites that are floristically and faunistically similar to fossil samples. These techniques, and others, are increasingly being used to inform public policy on environmental pollution and conservation practices. These methods and other functionality in analogue are illustrated using the Surface Waters Acidification Project diatom:pH training set and diatom counts on samples of a sediment core from the Round Loch of Glenhead, Galloway, Scotland. The paper is aimed at palaeoecologists who are familiar with the techniques described but not with R.

  8. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun


    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  9. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery: A comment for moving forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hong; Zhong; Tian; Yang; Bang-De; Xiang; Le-Qun; Li; Liang; Ma


    Recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma remains quite high even after surgery,and no postoperative therapies have been definitively shown to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.A previous study showed that therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues given to such patients after surgery significantly improved survival.However,many questions still exist about the usage of nucleos(t)ide analogues for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery.

  10. Measuring Mental Imagery with Visual Analogue Scales. (United States)

    Quilter, Shawn M.; Band, Jennie P.; Miller, Gary M.


    Investigates some of the psychometric characteristics of the results from visual-analogue scales used to measure mental imagery. Reports that the scores from visual-analogue scales are positively related to scores from longer pencil-and-paper measures of mental imagery. Implications and limitations for the use of visual-analogue scales to measure…

  11. Thyroid Surgery (United States)

    ... etc.). Surgery is also an option for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease or a “toxic nodule” (see Hyperthyroidism brochure ), for large and multinodular goiters and for any goiter that may be causing ... MEANS OF TREATMENT? Surgery is definitely indicated to remove nodules suspicious ...

  12. Choosing surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstensson, Carina; Lohmander, L; Frobell, Richard


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand patients' views of treatment after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and their reasons for deciding to request surgery despite consenting to participate in a randomised controlled trial (to 'cross-over'). METHODS: Thirty-four in......-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18-35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed...... before surgery, and 11 were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. To provide additional information, 12 patients were interviewed before randomisation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach. RESULTS: Strong preference for surgery was commonplace...

  13. Neuronal Analogues of Conditioning Paradigms (United States)


    Although the mechanisms of interneuronal communication have been well established, the changes underlying most forms of learning have thus far eluded...stimulating electrodes on one of the connectives was adjusted so as to produce a small excitatory postsynaptic potential ( EPSP ) in the impaled cell...two stimuli would constitute a neuronal analogue of conditioning by producing an increased EPSP in response to the test stimulus alone. If so, then

  14. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery]. (United States)

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Mensa, José; Trilla, Antoni; Cainzos, Miguel


    Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery refers to a very brief course of an antimicrobial agent initiated just before the start of the procedure. The efficacy of antimicrobials to prevent postoperative infection at the site of surgery (incisional superficial, incisional deep, or organ/space infection) has been demonstrated for many surgical procedures. Nevertheless, the majority of studies centering on the quality of preoperative prophylaxis have found that a high percentage of the antimicrobials used are inappropriate for this purpose. This work discusses the scientific basis for antimicrobial prophylaxis, provides general recommendations for its correct use and specific recommendations for various types of surgery. The guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis are based on results from well-designed studies, whenever possible. These guidelines are focussed on reducing the incidence of infection at the surgical site while minimizing the contribution of preoperative administration of antimicrobials to the development of bacterial resistance.

  15. Novel acetylcholine and carbamoylcholine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Christensen, Jeppe K.;


    A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity for this ......A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity...... for this subtype over alpha 3beta 4, alpha 4beta 4, and alpha 7 nAChRs. The high nAChR activity of carbamoylcholine analogue 5d was found to reside in its R-enantiomer, a characteristic most likely true for all other compounds in the series. Interestingly, the pronounced alpha 4beta 2 selectivities exhibited......AChR agonists published to date. Ligand-protein docking experiments using homology models of the amino-terminal domains of alpha 4beta 2 and alpha 3beta 4 nAChRs identified residues Val111(beta 2)/Ile113(beta 4), Phe119(beta 2)/Gln121(beta 4), and Thr155(alpha 4)/Ser150(alpha 3) as possible key determinants...

  16. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremler, K.E.


    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  17. The Algebra of a q-Analogue of Multiple Harmonic Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Takeyama


    Full Text Available We introduce an algebra which describes the multiplication structure of a family of q-series containing a q-analogue of multiple zeta values. The double shuffle relations are formulated in our framework. They contain a q-analogue of Hoffman's identity for multiple zeta values. We also discuss the dimension of the space spanned by the linear relations realized in our algebra.

  18. Outpatient Surgery (United States)

    ... thirds of all operations are performed in outpatient facilities, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outpatient surgery provides patients with the convenience of recovering at home, and can cost less. ...

  19. Brain surgery (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  20. Laparoscopic Surgery (United States)

    ... surgeon’s perspective, laparoscopic surgery may allow for easier dissection of abdominal scar tissue (adhesions), less surgical trauma, ... on Facebook About ACG ACG Store ACG Patient Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos ...

  1. [Aesthetic surgery]. (United States)

    Bruck, Johannes C


    The WHO describes health as physical, mental and social well being. Ever since the establishment of plastic surgery aesthetic surgery has been an integral part of this medical specialty. It aims at reconstructing subjective well-being by employing plastic surgical procedures as described in the educational code and regulations for specialists of plastic surgery. This code confirms that plastic surgery comprises cosmetic procedures for the entire body that have to be applied in respect of psychological exploration and selection criteria. A wide variety of opinions resulting from very different motivations shows how difficult it is to differentiate aesthetic surgery as a therapeutic procedure from beauty surgery as a primarily economic service. Jurisdiction, guidelines for professional conduct and ethical codes have tried to solve this question. Regardless of the intention and ability of the health insurances, it has currently been established that the moral and legal evaluation of advertisements for medical procedures depends on their purpose: advertising with the intent of luring patients into cosmetic procedures that do not aim to reconstruct a subjective physical disorder does not comply with a medical indication. If, however, the initiative originates with the patient requesting the amelioration of a subjective disorder of his body, a medical indication can be assumed.

  2. [Robotic surgery]. (United States)

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín


    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: - Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. - Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. - Allowing depth perception (3D images). - Magnifying strength and movement limits. - Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era.

  3. Innovations in Bariatric Surgery. (United States)

    Zhu, Catherine; Pryor, Aurora D


    Surgery has consistently been demonstrated to be the most effective long-term therapy for the treatment of obesity. However, despite excellent outcomes with current procedures, most patients with obesity- and weight-related comorbidities who meet criteria for surgical treatment choose not to pursue surgery out of fear of operative risks and complications or concerns about high costs. Novel minimally invasive procedures and devices may offer alternative solutions for patients who are hesitant to pursue standard surgical approaches. These procedures may be used for primary treatment of obesity, early intervention for patients approaching morbid obesity, temporary management prior to bariatric surgery, or revision of bypass surgery associated with weight regain. Novel bariatric procedures can in general be divided into four categories: endoluminal space-occupying devices, gastric suturing and restrictive devices, absorption-limiting devices, and neural-hormonal modulating devices. Many of these are only approved as short-term interventions, but these devices may be effective for patients desiring low-risk procedures or a transient effect. We will see the expansion of indications and alternatives for metabolic surgery as these techniques gain approval.

  4. Tennis elbow surgery (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is usually an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be given ...

  5. Active postoperative acromegaly: sustained remission after discontinuation of somatostatin analogues (United States)

    Cardenas-Salas, Jersy


    Summary In patients with active acromegaly after pituitary surgery, somatostatin analogues are effective in controlling the disease and can even be curative in some cases. After treatment discontinuation, the likelihood of disease recurrence is high. However, a small subset of patients remains symptom-free after discontinuation, with normalized growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) levels. The characteristics of patients most likely to achieve sustained remission after treatment discontinuation are not well understood, although limited evidence suggests that sustained remission is more likely in patients with lower GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on an MRI scan and/or in patients who receive long-term treatment. In this report, we describe the case of a 56-year-old female patient treated with lanreotide Autogel for 11 years. Treatment was successfully discontinued, and the patient is currently disease-free on all relevant parameters (clinical, biochemical and tumour status). The successful outcome in this case adds to the small body of literature suggesting that some well-selected patients who receive long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues may achieve sustained remission. Learning points: The probability of disease recurrence is high after discontinuation of treatment with somatostatin analogues. Current data indicate that remission after treatment discontinuation may be more likely in patients with low GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on MRI, and/or in patients receiving prolonged treatment. This case report suggests that prolonged treatment with somatostatin analogues can be curative in carefully selected patients. PMID:27933171

  6. 经鼻内镜治疗累及蝶窦的中颅底占位性病变%The management of space-occupying lesion of middle skull base involving sphenoid sinus by transnasal endoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹丹; 韩红蕾; 刘洋; 张秋航


    Objective:To investigate the diagnosis and therapy of space-occupying lesion of middle skull base involving sphenoid sinus.Method:A retrospective analysis was performed. Eighteen patients with extradural space-occupying lesion of middle skull base involving sphenoid sinus underwent transnasal endoscopic surgery.Result:One case of primary empty sella turcica was misdiagnosed as sphenoidal sinus cyst. One case of fibrous dysplasia and one case of meningioma were all misdiagnosed as mycotic sphenoiditis. Total rate of misdiagnosis was 16.7%.Among the 18 cases, 17 cases underwent complete resection of the lesion, and only 1 case underwent major resection of the lesion. The amount of blood loss during surgery ranged between 100 ml and 2500 ml.One case had bacterial meningitis which was cured after corresponding treatment. One case was blind in both eyes. And the other case died of pulmonary embolism.Conclusion:Transnasal endoscopic surgery is feasible and practical to treat benign space-occupying lesion of sphenoidal sinus and extradural lesion of middle skull base involving sphenoidal sinus. Definite diagnosis, accurate location and careful operation are important to complete the surgery successfully.%目的:探讨累及蝶窦的中颅底占位性病变的诊断治疗方法.方法:对18例累及蝶窦的中颅底硬膜外占位病变患者施行经鼻内镜手术.结果:1例原发性空蝶鞍误诊为蝶窦囊肿,1例骨纤维异常增殖、1例脑膜瘤误诊为真菌性蝶窦炎,误诊率为16.7%.17例全部切除病变,1例大部分切除肿瘤.术中出血量100~2500 ml.15例治愈,无并发症;1例并发细菌性脑膜炎治愈;1例双眼失明;1例因肺栓塞死亡.结论:经鼻内镜治疗蝶窦和累及蝶窦的中颅底硬膜外良性占位性病变可行.术前明确诊断、术中准确定位和仔细操作是手术成功的重要保证.

  7. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti. (United States)

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T


    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs."

  8. Antimicrobial evaluation of mangiferin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S


    Full Text Available The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethylenomangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N,N-diphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and R f value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

  9. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Mangiferin Analogues (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Kumar, Y.; Kumar, S. Sadish; Sharma, V. K.; Dua, K.; Samad, A.


    The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethyleno)mangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N, N-diphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno) mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and Rf value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. PMID:20490307

  10. A graphical approach to analogue behavioural modelling


    Moser, Vincent; Nussbaum, Pascal; Amann, Hans-Peter; Astier, Luc; Pellandini, Fausto


    In order to master the growing complexity of analogue electronic systems, modelling and simulation of analogue hardware at various levels is absolutely necessary. This paper presents an original modelling method based on the graphical description of analogue electronic functional blocks. This method is intended to be automated and integrated into a design framework: specialists create behavioural models of existing functional blocks, that can then be used through high-level selection and spec...

  11. Non-robust numerical simulations of analogue extension experiments (United States)

    Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne


    Numerical and analogue models of lithospheric deformation provide significant insight into the tectonic processes that lead to specific structural and geophysical observations. As these two types of models contain distinct assumptions and tradeoffs, investigations drawing conclusions from both can reveal robust links between first-order processes and observations. Recent studies have focused on detailed comparisons between numerical and analogue experiments in both compressional and extensional tectonics, sometimes involving multiple lithospheric deformation codes and analogue setups. While such comparisons often show good agreement on first-order deformation styles, results frequently diverge on second-order structures, such as shear zone dip angles or spacing, and in certain cases even on first-order structures. Here, we present finite-element experiments that are designed to directly reproduce analogue "sandbox" extension experiments at the cm-scale. We use material properties and boundary conditions that are directly taken from analogue experiments and use a Drucker-Prager failure model to simulate shear zone formation in sand. We find that our numerical experiments are highly sensitive to numerous numerical parameters. For example, changes to the numerical resolution, velocity convergence parameters and elemental viscosity averaging commonly produce significant changes in first- and second-order structures accommodating deformation. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations to small parameter changes likely reflects a number of factors, including, but not limited to, high angles of internal friction assigned to sand, complex, unknown interactions between the brittle sand (used as an upper crust equivalent) and viscous silicone (lower crust), highly non-linear strain weakening processes and poor constraints on the cohesion of sand. Our numerical-analogue comparison is hampered by (a) an incomplete knowledge of the fine details of sand failure and sand

  12. Orthognathic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard Larsen, Marie; Thygesen, Torben Henrik


    The literature shows that the indications for orthognathic surgery (OS) are often functional problems and unsatisfactory facial esthetics. This study investigated the esthetic outcomes and overall satisfaction following OS. Somatosensory change is a relatively common complication and its influence...... on the level of satisfaction was studied. The social-networking web site Facebook was used to identify the study population. An online questionnaire was performed using the website SurveyMonkey. In all, 105 (9%) respondents from the Danish Facebook group about OS, called Kaebeoperation (jaw surgery), were...... in beauty than women (P = 0.030). Sixty-four percent replied that their attractiveness had been increased after OS. Eighty-six percent were happy with the results and 89% would recommend the surgery to others in need. No significant differences in esthetic results and satisfaction were seen with regard...

  13. What Can We Learn From Analogue Experiments?

    CERN Document Server

    Thebault, Karim P Y


    In 1981 Unruh proposed that fluid mechanical experiments could be used to probe key aspects of the quantum phenomenology of black holes. In particular, he claimed that an analogue to Hawking radiation could be created within a fluid mechanical `dumb hole', with the event horizon replaced by a sonic horizon. Since then an entire sub-field of `analogue gravity' has been created. In 2016 Steinhauer reported the experimental observation of quantum Hawking radiation and its entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate analogue black hole. What can we learn from such analogue experiments? In particular, in what sense can they provide evidence of novel phenomena such as black hole Hawking radiation?

  14. Uncovering mass segregation with galaxy analogues in dark-matter simulations (United States)

    Joshi, Gandhali D.; Parker, Laura C.; Wadsley, James


    We investigate mass segregation in group and cluster environments by identifying galaxy analogues in high-resolution dark-matter simulations. Subhaloes identified by the Amiga's Halo Finder (AHF) and ROCKSTAR halo finders have similar mass functions, independent of resolution, but different radial distributions due to significantly different subhalo hierarchies. We propose a simple way to classify subhaloes as galaxy analogues. The radial distributions of galaxy analogues agree well at large halocentric radii for both AHF and ROCKSTAR but disagree near parent halo centres where the phase-space information used by ROCKSTAR is essential. We see clear mass segregation at small radii (within 0.5 rvir) with average galaxy analogue mass decreasing with radius. Beyond the virial radius, we find a mild trend where the average galaxy analogue mass increases with radius. These mass segregation trends are strongest in small groups and dominated by the segregation of low-mass analogues. The lack of mass segregation in massive galaxy analogues suggests that the observed trends are driven by the complex accretion histories of the parent haloes rather than dynamical friction.

  15. 计算机辅助外科中手术与计划空间标定以及视觉空间的误差校正%Calibration Between Operation Space and Plan Space and Error Correction of Visual Space in Computer-aided Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锥; 周宇; 席文明


    In computer-aided surgery (CAS) system,many space integrates in together,in order to improve the precision of the system operation,the effective calibration method to correct the error between the space is needed. Using the robot characteristics motion errors in visual space of navigation system to establish the mapping of visual space and robot space,and to recursion correction the local transformation matrix of visual space and robot space. Using local transformation matrix to establish optimization equatipn.and then obtaining global optimal transformation matrix. This method for all the static and dynamic error correction. According to the coupling error exists in the operation and plan space,using the designed special structure force sensor and calibration piece of decoupling to calibration its error, and according to the transformation matrix to adjust the objects position and orientation in the plan space to ensure that the objects in the plan space have the same pose with it in the operation space. The experimental results show that the dynamic calibration method can make the visual space global error reduced to 5 pixels,and the force control calibration method can make the position error is reduced to 0. 25 mm and the posture error reduced to 0. 1%计算机辅助外科(CAS)系统中,多空间集成在一起,为了提高系统的操作精度,需要有效的标定方法校正空间之间的误差.利用机器人上特征在导航系统中视觉空间的运动误差,建立视觉空间与机器人空间的映射关系,递归校正两空间之间的局部转换矩阵.利用局部转换矩阵建立优化方程,求取全局最优转换矩阵.该方法对所有动态、静态误差进行校正.针对手术与计划空间中存在的耦合误差,利用设计的特殊结构力传感器和标定块解耦标定其误差,并根据求取的转换矩阵,调整计划空间中对象的位姿,保证计划空间与手术空间中的对象位姿一致.实验结果表明,动

  16. [Geriatric surgery]. (United States)

    Paulino-Netto, Augusto


    Modern medicine, which is evidence-based and overly scientific, has forgotten its artistic component, which is very important for surgery in general and for geriatric surgery in particular. The surgeon treating an old patient must be a politician more than a technician, more an artist than a scientist. Like Leonardo da Vinci, he or she must use scientific knowledge with intelligence and sensitivity, transforming the elderly patient's last days of life into a beautiful and harmonious painting and not into something like an atomic power station which, while no doubt useful, is deprived of beauty and sometimes very dangerous.

  17. Establishment of antenna membrane states FEM on analogue method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wen-hui; CAO Xi-bin; ZHAO Yang


    On the basis of choosing the basic element as the bar and choosing the basic mesh as the triangle as well as supposing the conditions of the element,the membrane states of an antenna reflector were researched by the analogue method,because the membrane effect Was not omitted during the ending deployment process of the radial rib antenna.The expressions of the bar element's section area and density were obtained.while the expression of the stress state during the ending deployment process of antenna was attained.During the establishment process of the analogue method,the analysis method of the net shell structure was employed.Moreover,during the backward deduction of membrane stress,the continuation method Was adopted.Because the expression of the membrane stress state can realize the analysis on the antenna membrane state.this research has great significance of theoretical direction to the normal operation of the space deployable antenna.

  18. Geoscience in Support of a Mars Methane Analogue Mission (United States)

    Boivin, Alexandre

    The Mars Methane Analogue Mission, funded by the Canadian Space Agency through its Analogue Missions program, simulates a Mars rover mission whose purpose is to detect, analyse, and determine the source of methane emissions on the planet's surface. As part of this project, both an electromagnetic induction sounder (EMIS) and a high-resolution triangulation-based 3D laser scanner were tested in the field to demonstrate the benefit of including these instruments on future rover missions. EMIS data was inverted in order to derive information on the conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of the near subsurface. 3D laser scanner data was processed with fracture detection as a goal in order to simplify the search for areas of potential methane seepage. Both instruments were found to be very valuable for future rover missions of this type.

  19. The Valles natural analogue project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McConnell, V. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.


    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  20. Carotid artery surgery (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  1. Strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to effectively improve numerical prediction level by using current models and data, the strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction (DAP) is deeply studied in the present paper. A new idea to predict the prediction errors of dynamical model on the basis of historical analogue information is put forward so as to transform the dynamical prediction problem into the estimation problem of prediction errors. In terms of such an idea, a new prediction method of final analogue correction of errors (FACE) is developed. Furthermore, the FACE is applied to extra-seasonal prediction experiments on an operational atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model. Prediction results of summer mean circulation and total precipitation show that the FACE can to some extent reduce prediction errors, recover prediction variances, and improve prediction skills. Besides, sensitive experiments also show that predictions based on the FACE are evidently influenced by the number of analogues, analogue-selected variables and analogy metric.

  2. The future of somatostatin analogue therapy. (United States)

    Stewart, P M; James, R A


    Since its discovery almost 30 years ago, the mode of action and therapeutic applications of somatostatin have been defined. In particular the cloning and characterization of somatostatin receptor subtypes has facilitated the development of high affinity analogues. In the context of pituitary disease, long-acting somatostatin analogues (octreotide, lanreotide) have been used to treat a variety of pituitary tumours but are most efficacious for the treatment of GH and TSH-secreting adenomas. In patients with acromegaly, depot preparations of these analogues are administered intramuscularly every 10-28 days and provide consistent suppression of GH levels to < 5 mU/l in approximately 50-65% of all cases. Even more specific somatostatin receptor analogues are under development. Finally, radiolabelled somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and, in larger doses, therapy, are now established tools in the evaluation and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

  3. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery (United States)

    ... Disease Lung Carcinoid Tumor Treating Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery to Treat Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery is the ... be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat (and ...

  4. Preparing for Surgery (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  5. Pediatric heart surgery (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... outside the heart. Some heart defects may need surgery right after the baby is born. For others, ...

  6. Scoliosis surgery - child (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  7. What Is Refractive Surgery? (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  8. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery (United States)

    ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ...

  10. Dental Implant Surgery (United States)

    ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ...

  11. Facial Cosmetic Surgery (United States)

    ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ...

  12. Transoral Robotic Surgery. (United States)

    Yee, Shokjean


    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is a technique used to treat oral, throat, and skull base cancers using a minimally invasive robotic approach through the mouth and throat. The TORS procedure allows deeper access and dissection of suspicious lesions and neoplastic growths in the oral cavity and those that extend from the throat to the base of the skull. Robotic surgery allows the surgeon to operate in tight spaces without a large open incision. This article discusses symptoms and risk factors of oral, throat, and skull base cancers; types of procedures that can be performed using the TORS approach; specialized instrumentation; patient selection; surgical advantages and disadvantages; patient benefits; and the role of the surgical team in preparing to intraoperatively care for the TORS patient.

  13. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N


    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...... to rise as the population ages, this review summarises the evidence on which such guidance is based, and provides information about how anaesthetists might participate in audit and research aimed at improving local and national outcomes for these most vulnerable of patients....

  14. Antifibrinolytics in liver surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalpa Makwana


    Full Text Available Hyperfibrinolysis, a known complication of liver surgery and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, plays a significant role in blood loss. This fact justifies the use of antifibrinolytic drugs during these procedures. Two groups of drug namely lysine analogues [epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA and tranexamic acid (TA] and serine-protease-inhibitors (aprotinin are frequently used for this purpose. But uniform data or guidelines on the type of antifibrinolytic drugs to be used, their indications and correct dose, is still insufficient. Antifibrinolytics behave like a double-edged sword. On one hand, there are benefits of less transfusion requirements but on the other hand there is potential complication like thromboembolism, which has been reported in several studies. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Cochrane Library, and we included studies wherein antifibrinolytic drugs (EACA, TA, or aprotinin were compared with each other or with controls/placebo. We analysed factors like intraoperative red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma requirements, the perioperative incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis, venous thromboembolic events and mortality. Among the three drugs, EACA is least studied. Use of extensively studied drug like aprotinin has been restricted because of its side effects. Haemostatic effect of aprotinin and tranexamic acid has been comparable. However, proper patient selection and individualized treatment for each of them is required. Purpose of this review is to study various clinical trials on antifibrinolytic drugs and address the related issues like benefits claimed and associated potential complications.

  15. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson


    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  16. Active postoperative acromegaly: sustained remission after discontinuation of somatostatin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alvarez-Escola


    Full Text Available In patients with active acromegaly after pituitary surgery, somatostatin analogues are effective in controlling the disease and can even be curative in some cases. After treatment discontinuation, the likelihood of disease recurrence is high. However, a small subset of patients remains symptom-free after discontinuation, with normalized growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1 levels. The characteristics of patients most likely to achieve sustained remission after treatment discontinuation are not well understood, although limited evidence suggests that sustained remission is more likely in patients with lower GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on an MRI scan and/or in patients who receive long-term treatment. In this report, we describe the case of a 56-year-old female patient treated with lanreotide Autogel for 11 years. Treatment was successfully discontinued, and the patient is currently disease-free on all relevant parameters (clinical, biochemical and tumour status. The successful outcome in this case adds to the small body of literature suggesting that some well-selected patients who receive long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues may achieve sustained remission.

  17. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  18. Skeletally Dugundji spaces



    We introduce and investigate the class of skeletally Dugundji spaces as a skeletal analogue of Dugundji space. The main result states that the following conditions are equivalent for a given space $X$: (i) $X$ is skeletally Dugundji; (ii) Every compactification of $X$ is co-absolute to a Dugundji space; (iii) Every $C^*$-embedding of the absolute $p(X)$ in another space is strongly $\\pi$-regular; (iv) $X$ has a multiplicative lattice in the sense of Shchepin \\cite{s76} consisting of skeletal ...

  19. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit


    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal


    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  1. Sulfur analogues of psychotomimetic agents. Monothio analogues of mescaline and isomescaline. (United States)

    Jacob, P; Shulgin, A T


    Two monothio analogues of mescaline and three monothio analogues of 2,3,4-trimethoxyphenethylamine (isomescaline) have been synthesized and characterized. Only the two mescaline analogues (3-and 4-thiomescaline) were found to be psychotomimetics in man, being 6 and 12 times more potent than mescaline, respectively. All five compounds can serve as substrates for bovine plasma monoamine oxidase in vitro, but no positive correlation is apparent between the extent of enzymatic degradation and human psychotomimetic potency.

  2. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents. (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep


    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties.

  3. Total Synthesis of the Analogue of Icogenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Jie HOU; Peng XU; Liang ZHOU; De Quan YU; Ping Sheng LEI; Chuan Chun ZOU


    One of the analogues of icogenin, a natural furostanol saponin showing strong cytotoxic effect on cancer cell, was first synthesized via convergent strategy by using diosgenin and available monosaccharides as starting materials,

  4. Second-Generation Fluorescent Quadracyclic Adenine Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumat, Blaise; Bood, Mattias; Wranne, Moa S.;


    Fluorescent base analogues comprise a group of increasingly important molecules for the investigation of nucleic acid structure, dynamics, and interactions with other molecules. Herein, we report on the quantum chemical calculation aided design, synthesis, and characterization of four new putativ...

  5. A finite element model and electronic analogue of pipeline pressure transients with frequency-dependent friction

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun


    A finite element model and its equivalent electronic analogue circuit of hydraulic transmission lines have been developed. Basic equations are approximated to be a set of ordinary differential equations that can be represented in state space form. The accuracy of the model is demonstrated by comparison with the method of characteristics.

  6. The structure activity relationship of discodermolide analogues. (United States)

    Shaw, Simon J


    The marine polyketide discodermolide is a member of a class of natural products that stabilize microtubules. Many analogues have been synthesized suggesting that few changes can be made to the internal carbon backbone. Both ends of the molecule, however, can be modified. The majority of analogues have been generated via modification of the lactone region. This suggests that significant simplifications can be made in this region provided that the lactone moiety is maintained.

  7. Thermal conductivity determination of cometary and asteroid material analogues (United States)

    Banaszkiewicz, M.; Seweryn, K.; Wawrzaszek, R.

    Measurements of physical properties of surface and subsurface layers of planetary bodies often provide important information about the structure of the medium and processes that occur there Thermal properties of cometary nuclues subsurface material are crucial in determining the heat and gas transport Similarly asteroid s regolith is a buffering zone in heat transfer from to surface to from interior of a body There are space experiments planned to perform temperature and thermal conductivity measurements on a comet ROSETTA and one can easily foresee such measurements carried out by future robotic missions on Mars planetary satellites and asteroids In the paper we present the results of measurements carried out with a new type of thermal sensors The elementary cylindrical sensor is made of platinum wire resistance thermometer and isotan wire heating element that can operate independently By choosing these materials the problems of temperature measurement calibration and constant heating power are resolved We confront the results of measurements made for a number of sensors combined into a long cylinder in delrin basalt ice-dust mixture comet analogue and regolith-like material with models and show that agreement is very good Therefore we can recommend both the sensors and the method of data interpretation for the thermal conductivity determination as very useful tools in future space missions and in laboratory experiments on cometary and asteroid material analogues

  8. Identifying climate analogues for precipitation extremes for Denmark based on RCM simulations from the ENSEMBLES database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Funder, S. G.; Madsen, H.


    change over time. The study focuses on assessing climate analogues for Denmark based on current climate data set (E-OBS) observations as well as the ENSEMBLES database of future climates with the aim of projecting future precipitation extremes. The local present precipitation extremes are assessed......Climate analogues, also denoted Space-For-Time, may be used to identify regions where the present climatic conditions resemble conditions of a past or future state of another location or region based on robust climate variable statistics in combination with projections of how these statistics...

  9. Multivariate and matrix-variate analogues of Maxwell-Boltzmann and Raleigh densities (United States)

    Mathai, A. M.; Princy, T.


    The Maxwell-Boltzmann and Raleigh densities are basic densities in many problems in Physics. A multivariate analogue and a rectangular matrix-variate analogue of these densities are explored in this article. The results may become useful in extending the usual theories, where these densities for the real scalar variable case occur, to multivariate and matrix variable situations. Various properties are studied and connection to the volumes of parallelotopes determined by p linearly independent random points in Euclidean n-space, n ≥ p, is also established. Structural decompositions of these random determinants and pathway extensions of Maxwell-Boltzmann and Raleigh densities are also considered.

  10. [Minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery: surgery 4.0?]. (United States)

    Feußner, H; Wilhelm, D


    Surgery can only maintain its role in a highly competitive environment if results are continuously improved, accompanied by further reduction of the interventional trauma for patients and with justifiable costs. Significant impulse to achieve this goal was expected from minimally invasive surgery and, in particular, robotic surgery; however, a real breakthrough has not yet been achieved. Accordingly, the new strategic approach of cognitive surgery is required to optimize the provision of surgical treatment. A full scale integration of all modules utilized in the operating room (OR) into a comprehensive network and the development of systems with technical cognition are needed to upgrade the current technical environment passively controlled by the surgeon into an active collaborative support system (surgery 4.0). Only then can the true potential of minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery be exploited.

  11. Science Data Management During Real-Time Geological Lunar Analogue Missions to the Sudbury and Mistastin Lake Impact Structures: Recommendations for Future Ground Data Systems (United States)

    Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E.; Beauchamp, M.; Clayton, J.; Marion, C. L.; Moores, J.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Ilsr Team


    Simulating planetary missions on Earth can help test data management procedures and help identify needs and gaps in current ground data systems. We present lessons learned from three lunar analogue missions funded by the Canadian Space Agency.

  12. Who Needs Heart Surgery? (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is used to treat ... will work with you to decide whether you need heart surgery. A cardiologist specializes in diagnosing and ...

  13. Laser surgery - skin (United States)

    Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

  14. Gastric Sleeve Surgery (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Gastric Sleeve Surgery Print A ... buying healthy food ) continue Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  15. Surgery for Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  16. Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer (United States)

    ... of the Tumor Pancreatic Cancer Treating Pancreatic Cancer Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer Two general types of surgery ... how far the cancer has spread. Potentially curative surgery Studies have shown that removing only part of ...

  17. Cavus Foot Surgery (United States)

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A ... problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to reduce ...

  18. Smoking and surgery (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Smokers who have surgery have a higher chance than nonsmokers of blood clots forming in their legs. These clots may travel to and ...

  19. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (United States)

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  20. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  1. Open heart surgery (United States)

    Heart surgery - open ... lung machine is used in most cases during open heart surgery. While the surgeon works on the ... with these procedures, the surgeon may have to open the chest to do the surgery.

  2. Plastic Surgery Statistics (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  3. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Soft Tissue Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Obstructive Sleep Apnea TMJ and Facial Pain Treatment of Facial Injury Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral ...

  4. Ear Plastic Surgery (United States)

    ... receive light-weight earrings. Does Insurance Pay for Cosmetic Ear Surgery? Insurance usually does not cover surgery solely for ... republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. Ears Cosmetic Surgery, Facelift, Rhinoplasty, Blepharoplasty ... Get Involved Professional Development Practice ...

  5. Carotid artery surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol . 2011 Feb 22;57( ... 21288680 . Kinlay S, Bhatt DL. Treatment of noncoronary obstructive ... Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 63.

  6. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Surgery Types of Surgery Gastric Bypass ... or intestines removed due to ulcers or cancer tended to lose a lot of weight after ...

  7. Single incision laparoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Prasad


    As a complement to standard laparoscopic surgery and a safe alternative to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery,single incision laparoscopic surgery is gaining popularity.There are expensive ports,disposable hand instruments and flexible endoscopes that have been suggested to do this surgery and would increase the cost of operation.For a simple surgery like laparoscopic cholecystectomy,these extras are not needed and the surgery can be performed using standard ports,instruments and telescopes.Tri...

  8. Robotic mitral valve surgery. (United States)

    Kypson, Alan P; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph


    A renaissance in cardiac surgery has begun. The early clinical experience with computer-enhanced telemanipulation systems outlines the limitations of this approach despite some procedural success. Technologic advancements, such as the use of nitinol U-clips (Coalescent Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) instead of sutures requiring manual knot tying, have been shown to decrease operative times significantly. It is expected that with further refinements and development of adjunct technologies, the technique of computer-enhanced endoscopic cardiac surgery will evolve and may prove to be beneficial for many patients. Robotic technology has provided benefits to cardiac surgery. With improved optics and instrumentation, incisions are smaller. The ergometric movements and simulated three-dimensional optics project hand-eye coordination for the surgeon. The placement of the wristlike articulations at the end of the instruments moves the pivoting action to the plane of the mitral annulus. This improves dexterity in tight spaces and allows for ambidextrous suture placement. Sutures can be placed more accurately because of tremor filtration and high-resolution video magnification. Furthermore, the robotic system may have potential as an educational tool. In the near future, surgical vision and training systems might be able to model most surgical procedures through immersive technology. Thus, a "flight simulator" concept emerges where surgeons may be able to practice and perform the operation without a patient. Already, effective curricula for training teams in robotic surgery exist. Nevertheless, certain constraints continue to limit the advancement to a totally endoscopic computer-enhanced mitral valve operation. The current size of the instruments, intrathoracic instrument collisions, and extrathoracic "elbow" conflicts still can limit dexterity. When smaller instruments are developed, these restraints may be resolved. Furthermore, a working port incision is still required for

  9. Spherical CR geometry and Dehn surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Richard Evan


    This book proves an analogue of William Thurston's celebrated hyperbolic Dehn surgery theorem in the context of complex hyperbolic discrete groups, and then derives two main geometric consequences from it. The first is the construction of large numbers of closed real hyperbolic 3-manifolds which bound complex hyperbolic orbifolds--the only known examples of closed manifolds that simultaneously have these two kinds of geometric structures. The second is a complete understanding of the structure of complex hyperbolic reflection triangle groups in cases where the angle is small. In an accessible

  10. Geomagnetic properties of Proxima Centauri b analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I


    The recent discovery of a planet around the closest star, Proxima Centauri, could represent a quantum leap on the testability of models in exoplanet sciences. Unlike any other discovered exoplanet, models of planetary processes in Proxima b could be contrasted against near future telescopic observations and far future in-situ measurements. In this paper we study the geomagnetic properties of Proxima b analogues, namely, solid planets with masses close but larger than Earth's mass, periods of rotation of several days and habitable surface conditions. Assuming different planetary masses, bulk compositions and periods of rotations, we calculate for each planetary analogue its radius, heat flux, time of inner core formation, dynamo lifetime and minimum dipole magnetic moment. We find that most ($\\gtrsim$70\\%) Proxima b analogues develop intrinsic dynamos that last at least 3 Gyr, although only half of them are older than the present age of the host star ($4-6$ Gyr). Relying in our planetary evolution models, we p...

  11. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem


    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  12. Benzoylphenylurea sulfur analogues with potent antitumor activity. (United States)

    Hallur, Gurulingappa; Jimeno, Antonio; Dalrymple, Susan; Zhu, Tao; Jung, M Katherine; Hidalgo, Manuel; Isaacs, John T; Sukumar, Saraswati; Hamel, Ernest; Khan, Saeed R


    A novel series of BPU analogues were synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity. In particular, BPU sulfur analogues 6n and 7d were shown to possess up to 10-fold increased potency, when compared to 1 (NSC-639829), against cancer cell lines. 6n was more effective than 1 in causing apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. When compared to other drugs with a similar mechanism of action, 6n retained significant ability to inhibit tubulin assembly, with an IC(50) of 2.1 microM.

  13. q-exponentials on quantum spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Sektion Physik, Muenchen (Germany)


    We present explicit formulae for q-exponentials on quantum spaces which could be of particular importance in physics, i.e. the q-deformed Minkowski space and the q-deformed Euclidean space with two, three or four dimensions. Furthermore, these formulae can be viewed as 2-, 3- or 4-dimensional analogues of the well-known q-exponential function. (orig.)

  14. Gastric bypass surgery (United States)

    ... Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... bypass surgery is not a quick fix for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. After this surgery, you must eat healthy foods, control portion sizes of ...

  15. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ...

  16. Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975

    CERN Document Server

    Small, James S


    We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.

  17. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido


    , models accommodated initial shortening by a forward- and a backward-verging thrust. Further shortening was taken up by in-sequence formation of forward-verging thrusts. In all experiments, boundary stresses created significant drag of structures along the sidewalls. We therefore compared the surface slope and the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in sections through the central part of the model. All models show very similar cross-sectional evolutions demonstrating reproducibility of first-order experimental observations. Nevertheless, there are significant along-strike variations of structures in map view highlighting the limits of interpretations of analogue model results. These variations may be related to the human factor, differences in model width and/or differences in laboratory temperature and especially humidity affecting the mechanical properties of the granular materials. GeoMod2008 Analogue Team: Susanne Buiter, Caroline Burberry, Jean-Paul Callot, Cristian Cavozzi, Mariano Cerca, Ernesto Cristallini, Alexander Cruden, Jian-Hong Chen, Leonardo Cruz, Jean-Marc Daniel, Victor H. Garcia, Caroline Gomes, Céline Grall, Cecilia Guzmán, Triyani Nur Hidayah, George Hilley, Chia-Yu Lu, Matthias Klinkmüller, Hemin Koyi, Jenny Macauley, Bertrand Maillot, Catherine Meriaux, Faramarz Nilfouroushan, Chang-Chih Pan, Daniel Pillot, Rodrigo Portillo, Matthias Rosenau, Wouter P. Schellart, Roy Schlische, Andy Take, Bruno Vendeville, Matteo Vettori, M. Vergnaud, Shih-Hsien Wang, Martha Withjack, Daniel Yagupsky, Yasuhiro Yamada

  18. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue. (United States)

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H


    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine.

  19. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes. (United States)

    Unruh, W G


    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  20. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus (United States)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  1. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra


    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While mol

  2. Transitive spaces of operators

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, K R; Radjavi, H


    We investigate algebraic and topological transitivity and, more generally, k-transitivity for linear spaces of operators. In finite dimensions, we determine minimal dimensions of k-transitive spaces for every k, and find relations between the degree of transitivity of a product or tensor product on the one hand and those of the factors on the other. We present counterexamples to some natural conjectures. Some infinite dimensional analogues are discussed. A simple proof is given of Arveson's result on the weak-operator density of transitive spaces that are masa bimodules.

  3. Robotics in pediatric surgery: perspectives for imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Adrien J.; Klein, Michael D. [Stuart Frankel Foundation Computer-Assisted Robot-Enhanced Surgery Program, Children' s Research Center of Michigan, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Langenburg, Scott E. [Stuart Frankel Foundation Computer-Assisted Robot-Enhanced Surgery Program, Children' s Research Center of Michigan, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, 3901 Beaubien, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)


    Robotic surgery will give surgeons the ability to perform essentially tremorless microsurgery in tiny spaces with delicate precision and may enable procedures never before possible on children, neonates, and fetuses. Collaboration with radiologists, engineers, and other scientists will permit refinement of image-guided technologies and allow the realization of truly remarkable concepts in minimally invasive surgery. While robotic surgery is now in clinical use in several surgical specialties (heart bypass, prostate removal, and various gastrointestinal procedures), the greatest promise of robotics lies in pediatric surgery. We will briefly review the history and background of robotic technology in surgery, discuss its present benefits and uses and those being explored, and speculate on the future, with attention to the current and potential involvement of imaging modalities and the role of image guidance. (orig.)

  4. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1. (United States)

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W


    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment.

  5. Toward the analogue of thermally generated electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Osano, Bob


    Magnetic and vorticity fields evolution equations are known to obey the same equation when effects of dissipation and sources terms are negligible. We investigate the analogy between the two fields for non-vanishing dissipation and sources. In addition to the Reynolds (Re)and Prandtl (Pr_M) numbers, we define a new number (S_M) that is given by the ratio of the diffusive term to the Biermann battery term and which allows for a different classification of magnetised fluid behaviour. Numerical simulations of the two fields are then carried out given a parameter space made of Reynolds, Prandtl and Source numbers. We find it appropriate to present and discuss the findings against Prandtl numbers given that these provide the link between viscous and magnetic diffusion. Our simulations indicate that there exists a range of Prandtl numbers for which the fields remain analogues which raises the important question of how far the analogy goes.

  6. Anisotropic metamaterial as an analogue of a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Núñez, Isabel


    Propagation of light in a metamaterial medium which mimics curved spacetime and acts like a black hole is studied. We show that in a particular type of spacetimes, the time and space metric coefficients may correspond to different properties of the medium. For a TE wave, the time dilation appears as dielectric permittivity, while the spatial curvature manifests as magnetic permeability, and vice versa for a TM wave. We obtain the optical analogue to the relativistic Hamiltonian which determines the ray paths (null geodesics) in the anisotropic metamaterial. By applying the formalism to the Schwarzschild metric, we compare the ray paths with full-wave simulations in the effective medium and obtain a very good correspondence. As an interesting feature we find that light does not propagate in the direction of the wave normal, there is an angle between the wave velocity and the ray velocity.

  7. An Analog Analogue of a Digital Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, E; Farhi, Edward; Gutmann, Sam


    We solve a problem, which while not fitting into the usual paradigm, can be viewed as a quantum computation. Suppose we are given a quantum system described by an N dimensional Hilbert space with a Hamiltonian of the form $E |w >$ is an unknown (normalized) state. We show how to discover $| w >$ by adding a Hamiltonian (independent of $| w >$) and evolving for a time proportional to $N^{1/2}/E$. We show that this time is optimally short. This process is an analog analogue to Grover's algorithm, a computation on a conventional (!) quantum computer which locates a marked item from an unsorted list of N items in a number of steps proportional to $N^{1/2}$.

  8. A q-analogue of the four functions theorem


    Christofides, Demetres


    In this article we give a proof of a q-analogue of the celebrated four functions theorem. This analogue was conjectured by Bjorner and includes as special cases both the four functions theorem and also Bjorner's q-analogue of the FKG inequality.

  9. Tryptophan analogues. 1. Synthesis and antihypertensive activity of positional isomers. (United States)

    Safdy, M E; Kurchacova, E; Schut, R N; Vidrio, H; Hong, E


    A series of tryptophan analogues having the carboxyl function at the beta-position was synthesized and tested for antihypertensive activity. The 5-methoxy analogue 46 exhibited antihypertensive activity in the rat via the oral route and was much more potent than the normal tryptophan analogue. The methyl ester was found to be a critical structural feature for activity.

  10. Analogue VLSI for probabilistic networks and spike-time computation. (United States)

    Murray, A


    The history and some of the methods of analogue neural VLSI are described. The strengths of analogue techniques are described, along with residual problems to be solved. The nature of hardware-friendly and hardware-appropriate algorithms is reviewed and suggestions are offered as to where analogue neural VLSI's future lies.

  11. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobs R


    Full Text Available Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1 exact staging as well as (2 safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed.

  12. Interactivity, from art to surgery to space!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Currently the way we interact with computers can be done much more naturally with touchless technologies powered by new hardware and computer vision. A good example is the Microsoft Kinect, that changed not only the way we can play games at our homes but also how we can experiment a work of art. I am presenting some of these technologies and what they can be used for, in the hope that there might be use cases at CERN that could use these solutions.

  13. Infections in outpatient surgery. (United States)

    Nazarian Mobin, Sheila S; Keyes, Geoffrey R; Singer, Robert; Yates, James; Thompson, Dennis


    In the plastic surgery patient population, outpatient surgery is cost effective and will continue to grow as the preferred arena for performing surgery in healthy patients. Although there is a widespread myth that outpatient surgery centers may suffer from increased infection rates due to lax infection control, the data presented from American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities-accredited facilities prove the contrary. There is a lack of data investigating infection prevention in the perioperative period in plastic surgery patients. As data collection becomes more refined, tracking the postoperative care environment should offer additional opportunities to lower the incidence of postoperative infections.

  14. Heart bypass surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  15. LASIK Eye Surgery (United States)

    ... are nearsighted. You may need another refractive surgery (enhancement surgery) within a year to remove more tissue. ... may happen due to certain conditions, such as abnormal wound healing, hormonal imbalances or pregnancy. Visual loss ...

  16. Heart valve surgery (United States)

    ... techniques are used: Percutaneous surgery (through the skin) Robot-assisted surgery If your surgeon can repair your ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery) (United States)

    ... By Mayo Clinic Staff Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the shape, position ... age 5 — through adulthood. In some cases, the surgery is done as early as age 3. If ...

  18. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  19. Cosmetic ear surgery (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  20. Weight Loss Surgery (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  1. Hip fracture surgery (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis-hip ... You may receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means ... spinal anesthesia. With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  2. Laparoscopic Spine Surgery (United States)

    ... Exhibit Opportunities Sponsorship Opportunities Log In Laparoscopic Spine Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a SAGES Surgeon Laparoscopic Spine Surgery Your spine surgeon has determined that you need ...

  3. Types of Heart Surgery (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Heart Surgery Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Coronary artery bypass grafting ( ... TAHs) might be used to treat these patients. Surgery To Place Ventricular Assist Devices or Total Artificial ...

  4. Breast Reduction Surgery (United States)

    ... breastfeeding: A systematic review. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. 2010;63:1688. Kerrigan CL, et al. Evidence-based medicine: Reduction mammoplasty. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2013;132: ...

  5. General Dermatologic Surgery Information (United States)

    ... all dermatologic surgeons perform both medically necessary and cosmetic surgery procedures to maintain the health, function and appearance ... and refinement of many of today’s therapeutic and cosmetic surgery procedures. Great strides in minimally invasive techniques and ...

  6. Bariatric Surgery Procedures (United States)

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by ... Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic ...

  7. Bariatric Surgery Misconceptions (United States)

    ... from depression or anxiety and to have lower self-esteem and overall quality of life than someone who ... is a Candidate for Bariatric Surgery? Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Find a Provider Benefits of Bariatric Surgery ...

  8. Surgery for Testicular Cancer (United States)

    ... Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Surgery is typically the first treatment for all ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  9. Optimization of propafenone analogues as antimalarial leads. (United States)

    Lowes, David J; Guiguemde, W Armand; Connelly, Michele C; Zhu, Fangyi; Sigal, Martina S; Clark, Julie A; Lemoff, Andrew S; Derisi, Joseph L; Wilson, Emily B; Guy, R Kiplin


    Propafenone, a class Ic antiarrythmic drug, inhibits growth of cultured Plasmodium falciparum. While the drug's potency is significant, further development of propafenone as an antimalarial would require divorcing the antimalarial and cardiac activities as well as improving the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. A small array of propafenone analogues was designed and synthesized to address the cardiac ion channel and PK liabilities. Testing of this array revealed potent inhibitors of the 3D7 (drug sensitive) and K1 (drug resistant) strains of P. falciparum that possessed significantly reduced ion channel effects and improved metabolic stability. Propafenone analogues are unusual among antimalarial leads in that they are more potent against the multidrug resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum compared to the 3D7 strain.

  10. Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Datson, Juliet; Portinari, Laura


    Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims. This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48,000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods. The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar ...

  11. Holographic Fluids with Vorticity and Analogue Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Robert G; Petropoulos, P Marios


    We study holographic three-dimensional fluids with vorticity in local equilibrium and discuss their relevance to analogue gravity systems. The Fefferman-Graham expansion leads to the fluid's description in terms of a comoving and rotating Papapetrou-Randers frame. A suitable Lorentz transformation brings the fluid to the non-inertial Zermelo frame, which clarifies its interpretation as moving media for light/sound propagation. We apply our general results to the Lorentzian Kerr-AdS_4 and Taub-NUT-AdS_4 geometries that describe fluids in cyclonic and vortex flows respectively. In the latter case we associate the appearance of closed timelike curves to analogue optical horizons. In addition, we derive the classical rotational Hall viscosity of three-dimensional fluids with vorticity. Our formula remarkably resembles the corresponding result in magnetized plasmas.

  12. Confirmation via Analogue Simulation: A Bayesian Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dardashti, Radin; Thebault, Karim P Y; Winsberg, Eric


    Analogue simulation is a novel mode of scientific inference found increasingly within modern physics, and yet all but neglected in the philosophical literature. Experiments conducted upon a table-top 'source system' are taken to provide insight into features of an inaccessible 'target system', based upon a syntactic isomorphism between the relevant modelling frameworks. An important example is the use of acoustic 'dumb hole' systems to simulate gravitational black holes. In a recent paper it was argued that there exists circumstances in which confirmation via analogue simulation can obtain; in particular when the robustness of the isomorphism is established via universality arguments. The current paper supports these claims via an analysis in terms of Bayesian confirmation theory.

  13. Polyamine analogues targeting epigenetic gene regulation. (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Marton, Laurence J; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A


    Over the past three decades the metabolism and functions of the polyamines have been actively pursued as targets for antineoplastic therapy. Interactions between cationic polyamines and negatively charged nucleic acids play a pivotal role in DNA stabilization and RNA processing that may affect gene expression, translation and protein activity. Our growing understanding of the unique roles that the polyamines play in chromatin regulation, and the discovery of novel proteins homologous with specific regulatory enzymes in polyamine metabolism, have led to our interest in exploring chromatin remodelling enzymes as potential therapeutic targets for specific polyamine analogues. One of our initial efforts focused on utilizing the strong affinity that the polyamines have for chromatin to create a backbone structure, which could be combined with active-site-directed inhibitor moieties of HDACs (histone deacetylases). Specific PAHAs (polyaminohydroxamic acids) and PABAs (polyaminobenzamides) polyamine analogues have demonstrated potent inhibition of the HDACs, re-expression of p21 and significant inhibition of tumour growth. A second means of targeting the chromatin-remodelling enzymes with polyamine analogues was facilitated by the recent identification of flavin-dependent LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1). The existence of this enzyme demonstrated that histone lysine methylation is a dynamic process similar to other histone post-translational modifications. LSD1 specifically catalyses demethylation of mono- and di-methyl Lys4 of histone 3, key positive chromatin marks associated with transcriptional activation. Structural and catalytic similarities between LSD1 and polyamine oxidases facilitated the identification of biguanide, bisguanidine and oligoamine polyamine analogues that are potent inhibitors of LSD1. Cellular inhibition of LSD1 by these unique compounds led to the re-activation of multiple epigenetically silenced genes important in tumorigenesis. The use of

  14. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode


    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.


    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  15. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Rossi


    Full Text Available A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues.

  16. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.


    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  17. Synthesis of a Cyclic Analogue of Galardin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马大为; 吴问根; 钱静; 郎深慧; 叶其壮


    A cyclic analogue 4 of galardin,a known MMP inhibitor,is designed to improve its selectivity.The synthesis of 4starts from dimethyl(S)-malate using diaselective alkylation and subsequent cyclization and amide formation as key steps.The compound 4 showed MMP inhibitory activity on all MMPs tested with IC50 ranging from 20.1 μM to 104 μM.

  18. Thymidine analogues for tracking DNA synthesis. (United States)

    Cavanagh, Brenton L; Walker, Tom; Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B


    Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in "tagging DNA synthesis" is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using 'Huisgen's reaction' (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or 'click chemistry'). This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other "unnatural bases". These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored.

  19. Thymidine Analogues for Tracking DNA Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton L. Cavanagh


    Full Text Available Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in “tagging DNA synthesis” is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU. The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using ‘Huisgen’s reaction’ (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or ‘click chemistry’. This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other “unnatural bases”. These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored.

  20. Comparison of visual analogue scale and faces rating scale in measuring acute postoperative pain. (United States)

    Fadaizadeh, Lida; Emami, Habib; Samii, Kamran


    Several pain assessment tools have been proposed for use in different settings, but neither have been validated for all patients, especially Iranians. We conducted this study to compare the accuracy of two most commonly used tools for evaluation of pain intensity in a group of postoperative Iranian patients. All postoperative patients admitted to the surgical wards of Masih Daneshvari and Rasoul Akram Hospitals, Tehran, Iran were studied. During a two-month period, patients were evaluated for pain intensity within 24 hours of operation. Visual analogue scale and faces rating scale were used for this purpose. Eighty-two patients were enrolled into the study. Forty-eight patients underwent obstetrics and 34 had general surgeries. Using Spearman analysis, we found a linear correlation between the results of the two methods (P=0.952). Using multivariate analysis, we found that none of the variables such as age, gender, and education level had significant effects on correlation between visual analogue scale and faces rating scale. Visual analogue scale and faces rating scale are two pain assessment tools that can be used interchangeably for evaluation of acute postoperative pain.

  1. The debris disc of solar analogue τ Ceti: Herschel observations and dynamical simulations of the proposed multiplanet system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawler, S.M.; Di Francesco, J.; Kennedy, G.M.; Sibthorpe, B.; Booth, M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Matthews, B.C.; Holland, W.S.; Greaves, J.; Wilner, D.J.; Tuomi, M.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; de Vries, B.L.; Dominik, C.; Fridlund, M.; Gear, W.; Heras, A.M.; Ivison, R.; Olofsson, G.


    τ Ceti is a nearby, mature G-type star very similar to our Sun, with a massive Kuiper Belt analogue and possible multiplanet system that has been compared to our Solar system. We present Herschel Space Observatory images of the debris disc, finding the disc is resolved at 70 μm and 160 μm, and margi

  2. Theoretical Basis and Application of an Analogue-Dynamical Model in the Lorenz System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hongli; CHOU Jifan; HUANG Jianping; ZHANG Peiqun


    The theoretical basis and application of an analogue-dynamical model (ADM) in the Lorenz system is studied. The ADM can effectively combine statistical and dynamical methods in which the small disturbance of the current initial value superimposed on the historical analogue reference state can be regarded as a prediction objective. Primary analyses show that under the condition of appending disturbances in model parameters, the model errors of ADM are much smaller than those of the pure dynamical model (PDM).The characteristics of predictability on the ADM in the Lorenz system are analyzed in phase space by conducting case studies and global experiments. The results show that the ADM can quite effectively reduce prediction errors and prolong the valid time of the prediction in most situations in contrast to the PDM, but when model errors are considerably small, the latter will be superior to the former. To overcome such a problem, the multi-reference-state updating can be applied to introduce the information of multi-analogue and update analogue and can exhibit exciting performance in the ADM.

  3. Conformational preferences of proline derivatives incorporated into vasopressin analogues: NMR and molecular modelling studies. (United States)

    Sikorska, Emilia; Sobolewski, Dariusz; Kwiatkowska, Anna


    In this study, arginine vasopressin analogues modified with proline derivatives - indoline-2-carboxylic acid (Ica), (2S,4R)-4-(naphthalene-2-ylmethyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (Nmp), (2S,4S)-4-aminopyroglutamic acid (APy) and (2R,4S)-4-aminopyroglutamic acid, (Apy) - were examined using NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling methods. The results have shown that Ica is involved in the formation of the cis peptide bond. Moreover, it reduces to a great extent the conformational flexibility of the peptide. In turn, incorporation of (2S,4R)-Nmp stabilizes the backbone conformation, which is heavily influenced by the pyrrolidine ring. However, the aromatic part of the Nmp side chain exhibits a high degree of conformational freedom. With analogues IV and V, introduction of the 4-aminopyroglumatic acid reduces locally conformational space of the peptides, but it also results in weaker interactions with the dodecylphosphocholine/sodium dodecyl sulphate micelle. Admittedly, both analogues are adsorbed on the micelle's surface but they do not penetrate into its core. With analogue V, the interactions between the peptide and the micelle seem to be so weak that conformational equilibrium is established between different bound states.

  4. Surgery Videos: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... Winston-Salem, NC, 1/15/2009) Weight Loss Surgery Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery (University of Miami Hospital ... Boston, Boston, MA, 6/08/2010) Weight Loss Surgery Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery (University of Miami Hospital ...

  5. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue Converters (ADCs and DACs): A Review Update

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, J


    This is a review paper updated from that presented for CAS 2004. Essentially, since then, commercial components have continued to extend their performance boundaries but the basic building blocks and the techniques for choosing the best device and implementing it in a design have not changed. Analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters are crucial components in the continued drive to replace analogue circuitry with more controllable and less costly digital processing. This paper discusses the technologies available to perform in the likely measurement and control applications that arise within accelerators. It covers much of the terminology and 'specmanship' together with an application-oriented analysis of the realisable performance of the various types. Finally, some hints and warnings on system integration problems are given.

  6. Effect of Cryotherapy after Spine Surgery (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Ida, Kazunori; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Toshihiko


    Study Design Historical controlled trial. Purpose To clarify the usefulness of cryotherapy after spine surgery. Overview of Literature Cryotherapy has generally been performed subsequent to surgery on joints and in this application its clinical effects are well understood. However, cryotherapy has yet to be used following spine surgery. Its clinical efficacy in this context is unknown. Methods Thirty six patients had undergone one level microendoscopic surgery. Sixteen were enrolled into the cooling group, with the remaining 20 making up the no postoperative cryotherapy control group. Cryotherapy was performed at 5℃ using an icing system. A silicone balloon catheter with a thermo sensor on the tip was placed in the surgical wound. The temperature in the wound was recorded every 30 minutes until the next morning. The relationship between the depth of the sensor and the temperature in the wound were investigated using simple linear regression analysis. Laboratory data, visual analogue scale (VAS) for wound pain and postoperative bleeding were investigated. Results The mean temperature in the surgical wound was 37.0 in the control group and 35.0℃ in the cooling group (p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the depth of the thermo sensor and the temperature in the wound in the cooling group (y=0.91x+30.2, r=0.67, p=0.004). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of laboratory data, VAS or postoperative bleeding. Conclusions The temperature in the wound was decreased significantly by spinal surgery cryotherapy. PMID:25558317

  7. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann


    retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss......Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent...... of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We...

  8. Learning Curves in Robotic Rectal Cancer Surgery: A literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery offers several advantages over open surgery, including quicker recovery, shorter hospital stay and improved cosmesis. However, laparoscopic rectal surgery is technically difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The last decade has seen the emergence of robotic rectal cancer surgery. In contrast to laparoscopy, robotic surgery offers stable 3D views with advanced dexterity and ergonomics in narrow spaces such as the pelvis. Whether this translates into a shorter learning curve is still debated. The aim of this literature search is to ascertain the learning curve of robotic rectal cancer surgery. Methods This review analyses the literature investigating the learning curve of robotic rectal cancer surgery. Using the Medline database a literature search of articles investigating the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery was performed. All relevant articles were included. Results Twelve original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The current literature suggests that the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery varies between 15 and 44 cases and is probably shorter to that of laparoscopic rectal surgery. Conclusions There are only a few studies assessing the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery and they possess several differences in methodology and outcome reporting. Nevertheless, current evidence suggests that robotic rectal surgery might be easier to learn than laparoscopy. Further well designed studies applying CUSSUM analysis are required to validate this motion.

  9. Platonic solids generate their four-dimensional analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe


    In this paper, we show how regular convex 4-polytopes - the analogues of the Platonic solids in four dimensions - can be constructed from three-dimensional considerations concerning the Platonic solids alone. Via the Cartan-Dieudonne theorem, the reflective symmetries of the Platonic solids generate rotations. In a Clifford algebra framework, the space of spinors generating such three-dimensional rotations has a natural four-dimensional Euclidean structure. The spinors arising from the Platonic Solids can thus in turn be interpreted as vertices in four-dimensional space, giving a simple construction of the 4D polytopes 16-cell, 24-cell, the F_4 root system and the 600-cell. In particular, these polytopes have `mysterious' symmetries, that are almost trivial when seen from the three-dimensional spinorial point of view. In fact, all these induced polytopes are also known to be root systems and thus generate rank-4 Coxeter groups, which can be shown to be a general property of the spinor construction. These cons...

  10. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  11. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J. [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)] [and others


    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  12. Technical Considerations in Magnetic Analogue Models

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Patrick W M


    The analogy between vorticity and magnetic fields has been a subject of interest to researchers for a considerable period of time, mainly because of the structural similarities between the systems of equations that govern the evolution of the two fields. We recently presented the analysis of magnetic fields and hydrodynamics vorticity fields and argued for a formal theory of analogue magnetism. This article provides in depth technical details of the relevant considerations for the simulation procedures and extends the analyses to a range of fluids.

  13. Analogues of Euler and Poisson Summation Formulae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Rane


    Euler–Maclaurin and Poisson analogues of the summations $\\sum_{a < n ≤ b}(n)f(n), \\sum_{a < n ≤ b}d(n) f(n), \\sum_{a < n ≤ b}d(n)(n) f(n)$ have been obtained in a unified manner, where (()) is a periodic complex sequence; () is the divisor function and () is a sufficiently smooth function on [, ]. We also state a generalised Abel's summation formula, generalised Euler's summation formula and Euler's summation formula in several variables.

  14. Satellite television analogue and digital reception techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Herve


    Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV. Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of tec

  15. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  16. The evolving application of single-port robotic surgery in general surgery. (United States)

    Qadan, Motaz; Curet, Myriam J; Wren, Sherry M


    Advances in the field of minimally invasive surgery have grown since the original advent of conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery. The recent development of single incision laparoscopic surgery remains a relatively novel technique, and has had mixed reviews as to whether it has been associated with lower pain scores, shorter hospital stays, and higher satisfaction levels among patients undergoing procedures through cosmetically-appeasing single incisions. However, due to technical difficulties that arise from the clustering of laparoscopic instruments through a confined working space, such as loss of instrument triangulation, poor surgical exposure, and instrument clashing, uptake by surgeons without a specific interest and expertise in cutting-edge minimally invasive approaches has been limited. The parallel use of robotic surgery with single-port platforms, however, appears to counteract technical issues associated with single incision laparoscopic surgery through significant ergonomic improvements, including enhanced instrument triangulation, organ retraction, and camera localization within the surgical field. By combining the use of the robot with the single incision platform, the recognized challenges of single incision laparoscopic surgery are simplified, while maintaining potential advantages of the single-incision minimally invasive approach. This review provides a comprehensive report of the evolving application single-port robotic surgery in the field of general surgery today.

  17. Ergonomics in laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe Avinash


    Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comfortable in the operating room but also reduce physical strains on surgeon.

  18. Ergonomics in Laparoscopic Surgery


    Supe Avinash; Kulkarni Gaurav; Supe Pradnya


    Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comf...

  19. Unfavourable results in craniofacial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Craniofacial surgery is one of the newer subspecialties of plastic surgery and owes its birth to the pioneering work of Paul Tessier in the late sixties. Since then this challenging specialty work has been taken up by many centres around the word including India. Initial reports in late eighties and early nineties showed morbidity and mortality ranging from 1.6% to 4.3%. However over past few decades, with improved instrumentations, safer anaesthesia and cumulative experience of surgeons the morbidity and mortality has been brought down to as low as 0.1% in many centres in USA. In our centre at Post-graduate Institute, Chandigarh, the mortality rate is about 0.8% (4 out of 480 cases. The learning curve in this surgery is rather steep but with experience and a well-coordinated team work, results in this complex subspecialty can be improved. The infection is a major cause for worry but can be easily prevented by sound surgical principles and placing a vascularised tissue barrier between the extradural space and the nasopharynx/sinus mucosa.

  20. Current advances in liver surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Melissa Chan


    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary surgery has taken a big step forward in recent decades especially in the minimally invasive approach for hepatectomy. From being sceptical at the beginning of the 1990s when laparoscopic surgery had become prevalent, to now, where laparoscopic hepatectomy has been well-established, especially in minor hepatectomies; this new technique has evolved rapidly over the past 20-years demonstrating better short-term outcomes and equivalent oncological outcomes in selected patients and in expert hands. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is indeed, more difficult to master than the open procedure with restrictions in working space, difficulty in haemostasis and the potential risk of gas embolism. However, with better visibility of the operative field around the liver, especially beneath the costal margin, the magnified view and theoretical advantage of pneumoperitoneum acting as haemostatic pressure have made laparoscopic hepatectomy increasingly popular. Another important advancement is the new surgical technique of associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS. This procedure induces more rapid liver hypertrophy within a median period of 9-days, allowing resection to be performed in candidates with borderline functional liver remnant and at an earlier date. However, studies have shown that ALPPS is associated with a relatively higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it remains a highly controversial treatment option and more studies have to be performed to establish its usefulness and define its role in liver surgery.

  1. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin. (United States)

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia


    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity.

  2. Dynamic Analogue Initialization for Ensemble Forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shan; RONG Xingyao; LIU Yun; LIU Zhengyu; Klaus FRAEDRICH


    This paper introduces a new approach for the initialization of ensemble numerical forecasting:Dynamic Analogue Initialization (DAI).DAI assumes that the best model state trajectories for the past provide the initial conditions for the best forecasts in the future.As such,DAI performs the ensemble forecast using the best analogues from a full size ensemble.As a pilot study,the Lorenz63 and Lorenz96 models were used to test DAI's effectiveness independently.Results showed that DAI can improve the forecast significantly.Especially in lower-dimensional systems,DAI can reduce the forecast RMSE by ~50% compared to the Monte Carlo forecast (MC).This improvement is because DAI is able to recognize the direction of the analysis error through the embedding process and therefore selects those good trajectories with reduced initial error.Meanwhile,a potential improvement of DAI is also proposed,and that is to find the optimal range of embedding time based on the error's growing speed.

  3. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  4. Surgery center joint ventures. (United States)

    Zasa, R J


    Surgery centers have been accepted as a cost effective, patient friendly vehicle for delivery of quality ambulatory care. Hospitals and physician groups also have made them the vehicles for coming together. Surgery centers allow hospitals and physicians to align incentives and share benefits. It is one of the few types of health care businesses physicians can own without anti-fraud and abuse violation. As a result, many surgery center ventures are now jointly owned by hospitals and physician groups. This article outlines common structures that have been used successfully to allow both to own and govern surgery centers.

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B


    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems....

  6. Complications of strabismus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Olitsky


    Full Text Available All surgeries carry risks of complications, and there is no way to avoid ever having a complication. Strabismus surgery is no different in this regard. There are methods to reduce the risk of a complication during or after surgery, and these steps should always be taken. When a complication occurs, it is important to first recognize it and then manage it appropriately to allow for the best outcome possible. This article will discuss some of the more common and/or most devastating complications that can occur during or after strabismus surgery as well as thoughts on how to avoid them and manage them should they happen.

  7. Integrated bariatric surgery residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltorai AE


    Full Text Available Adam EM Eltorai Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, RI, USA Abstract: Obesity is a major public health concern. Given its lasting efficacy for improving obesity and obesity-related diseases, bariatric surgery is an increasingly common treatment option. As the implementation of the Affordable Care Act progresses, the impending physician shortage will become more severe. Thus there will be an even greater need for doctors specialized in the management and treatment of obese patients. The development of integrated bariatric surgery residency programs could be considered and is discussed herein. Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, integrated residency, surgery education

  8. Hyperoxaluria and Bariatric Surgery (United States)

    Asplin, John R.


    Bariatric surgery as a means to treat obesity is becoming increasingly common in the United States. An early form of bariatric surgery, the jejunoileal bypass, had to be abandoned in 1980 due to numerous complications, including hyperoxaluria and kidney stones. Current bariatric procedures have not been systematically evaluated to determine if they cause hyperoxaluria. Presented here are data showing that hyperoxaluria is the major metabolic abnormality in patients with bariatric surgery who form kidney stones. Further studies are needed to assess the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in all patients with bariatric surgery.

  9. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid Christine; Neumann, Gudrun


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) with respect to initial clinical findings, methods of surgery, and perioperative treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective follow-up study. Setting: All hospitals in Jutland. Sample: 163 women diagnosed with AGCT. Methods: Follow......-up by hospital data files, general practitioner, death certificate, and autopsy report. Revision of histopathology by a single pathologist. Main outcome measures: Survival and relapse by clinical data, stage, and type of surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of AGCT was 1.37 per year per 100,000 women (95% CI: 1.08, 1...... in postmenopausal women was associated with surgery including hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy (psurgery. Endometrial carcinoma was found 138 times (95% CI: 48, 275) more prevalent than the expected rate. CONCLUSION...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study and compare the efficacy of peri bulbar anaesthesia with para bulbar anaesthesia in patients undergoing manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS. METHODS: Two hundred patients were randomized to peri bulbar and para bulbar groups. All surgeries were performed by same surgeons. Pain during administration of anaesthesia, 1 hour after surgery and 6 hours after surgery was graded on a visual analogue pain scale and compared for both the techniques. The ocular akinesia after anaesthesia was compared for both the techniques. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in pain between both the groups during anaesthesia, 1hour after anaesthesia and 6 hours after anaesthesia. There was no significant difference in the ocular akinesia between both the groups. CONCLUSION: Subtenon's technique for administration of anaesthesia during MSICS is as safe and effective as the peri bulbar technique giving equally good analgesia during and after the surgery.

  11. C*-Algebras over Topological Spaces: The Bootstrap Class

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ralf


    We carefully define and study C*-algebras over topological spaces, possibly non-Hausdorff, and review some relevant results from point-set topology along the way. We explain the triangulated category structure on the bivariant Kasparov theory over a topological space. We introduce and describe an analogue of the bootstrap class for C*-algebras over a finite topological space.

  12. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Updated:Sep 16,2016 If you've had ... degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) you have. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Angioplasty Also known as Percutaneous Coronary Interventions [PCI], ...

  13. [Robotic surgery in gynecology]. (United States)

    Csorba, Roland


    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods.

  14. [Cognitive deterioration after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.


    Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...

  15. Synthesis of an Orthogonal Topological Analogue of Helicene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wixe, Torbjörn; Wallentin, Carl‐Johan; Johnson, Magnus T.


    The synthesis of an orthogonal topological pentamer analogue of helicene is presented. This analogue forms a tubular structure with its aromatic systems directed parallel to the axis of propagation, which creates a cavity with the potential to function as a host molecule. The synthetic strategy r...

  16. Functional Analysis: The Use of Analogues in Applied Settings. (United States)

    Stichter, Janine Peck


    This article suggests possible applications of experimental analyses using analogues to empirically verify results of functional assessments in classrooms for students with autism and related disabilities. Analogue assessments involve creating conditions in which antecedents and consequences are held constant and specific variables suspected to…

  17. Black Hole Analogue in Bose–Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tangmei He


    We have proposed a black hole analogue in a Bose–Einstein condensation. By introducing the Painlevé co-ordinates and using K–G equations, we have obtained the critical temperature of the black hole analogue in a Bose–Einstein condensation.

  18. Dipeptide analogues containing 4-ethoxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Masood; Kringelum, Henriette; Murray, A.;


    Pyrrolidine-2,4-diones (1) are naturally occurring analogues of amino acids. We herein present a facile synthesis of N-acylated, O-alkylated pyrrolin-2-ones (2) in high yield and excellent enantiopurity. Molecular mechanics calculations suggest that the resulting dipeptide analogues adopt a linea...

  19. Insulin analogues and severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P L; Hansen, L S; Jespersen, M J


    The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control is well-documented, whereas the effect on avoidance of severe hypoglycaemia remains tentative. We studied the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin analogues, human insulin, or mixed...


    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana


    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  1. Homogeneous Poisson Structures on Loop Spaces of Symmetric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Pickrell


    Full Text Available This paper is a sequel to [Caine A., Pickrell D., Int. Math. Res. Not., to appear, arXiv:0710.4484], where we studied the Hamiltonian systems which arise from the Evens-Lu construction of homogeneous Poisson structures on both compact and noncompact type symmetric spaces. In this paper we consider loop space analogues. Many of the results extend in a relatively routine way to the loop space setting, but new issues emerge. The main point of this paper is to spell out the meaning of the results, especially in the SU(2 case. Applications include integral formulas and factorizations for Toeplitz determinants.

  2. Topics in Banach space theory

    CERN Document Server

    Albiac, Fernando


    This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...

  3. Tren-based analogues of bacillibactin: structure and stability. (United States)

    Dertz, Emily A; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N


    Synthetic analogues were designed to highlight the effect of the glycine moiety of bacillibactin on the overall stability of the ferric complex as compared to synthetic analogues of enterobactin. Insertion of a variety of amino acids to catecholamide analogues based on a Tren (tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) backbone increased the overall acidity of the ligands, causing an enhancement of the stability of the resulting ferric complex as compared to TRENCAM. Solution thermodynamic behavior of these siderophores and their synthetic analogues was investigated through potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. X-ray crystallography, circular dichroism, and molecular modeling were used to determine the chirality and geometry of the ferric complexes of bacillibactin and its analogues. In contrast to the Tren scaffold, addition of a glycine to the catechol chelating arms causes an inversion of the trilactone backbone, resulting in opposite chiralities of the two siderophores and a destabilization of the ferric complex of bacillibactin compared to ferric enterobactin.

  4. Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))


    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

  5. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    CERN Document Server

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I


    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinary strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as electronic diode function is provided by a nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differing by a factor of 65.

  6. New pentamidine analogues in medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Porcheddu, A; Giacomelli, G; De Luca, L


    Sixty years after its introduction, 1,5-bis(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (Pentamidine) is still one of the most used drugs for the treatment of the first stage of Human African trypanosomiasis and other neglected diseases such as malaria and leishmaniasis. These protozoan infections are prevalent in the poorest world areas such as sub-saharian and developing countries, however the increasing immigration from these countries to the richest part of the world and the overlap of HIV with parasitic infections result in a growing number of cases in developed nations. A great effort has been made to develop new generations of diamidines for the treatment of these infections transmitted by insects. This review summarises the synthesis and evaluation of pentamidine analogues reported in the last years in the effort to find new drugs with better pharmaceutical activity, higher lipophilicity and lower citotoxycicty.

  7. Derivatisable Cyanobactin Analogues: A Semisynthetic Approach. (United States)

    Oueis, Emilia; Adamson, Catherine; Mann, Greg; Ludewig, Hannes; Redpath, Philip; Migaud, Marie; Westwood, Nicholas J; Naismith, James H


    Many natural cyclic peptides have potent and potentially useful biological activities. Their use as therapeutic starting points is often limited by the quantities available, the lack of known biological targets and the practical limits on diversification to fine-tune their properties. We report the use of enzymes from the cyanobactin family to heterocyclise and macrocyclise chemically synthesised substrates so as to allow larger-scale syntheses and better control over derivatisation. We have made cyclic peptides containing orthogonal reactive groups, azide or dehydroalanine, that allow chemical diversification, including the use of fluorescent labels that can help in target identification. We show that the enzymes are compatible and efficient with such unnatural substrates. The combination of chemical synthesis and enzymatic transformation could help renew interest in investigating natural cyclic peptides with biological activity, as well as their unnatural analogues, as therapeutics.

  8. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun-Ichiro Setsune


    Expanded porphyrin analogues with unique figure-eight conformation were prepared by way of useful pyrrole intermediates such as bis(azafulvene)s and 2-borylpyrrole. Supramolecular chirogenesis of cyclooctapyrrole O1 with 32-cycloconjugation was successfully applied to determine absolute configuration of chiral carboxylic acids. Dinuclear CuII complex of cyclooctapyrrole O2 with interrupted -conjugation was resolved by HPLC into enantiomers and their helical handedness was determined by theoretical simulation of their CD spectral pattern. Enantioselective induction of helicity in the metal helicate formation in the presence of a chiral promoter was demonstrated by using ()-(+)-1-(1-phenyl)ethylamine that favoured , helicity. Dinuclear CoII complexes of cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3 were found to be substitution labile and pick up amino acid anions in water. Those amino acid complexes of O3Co2 were rendered to adopt a particular unidirectional helical conformation preferentially depending on the ligated amino acid anion.

  9. Onboard Detection of Active Canadian Sulfur Springs: A Europa Analogue (United States)

    Castano, Rebecca; Wagstaff, Kiri; Gleeson, Damhnait; Pappalardo, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Moghaddam, Baback; Tang, Benyang; Bue, Brian; Doggett, Thomas; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart


    We discuss a current, ongoing demonstration of insitu onboard detection in which the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft detects surface sulfur deposits that originate from underlying springs by distinguishing the sulfur from the ice-rich glacial background, a good analogue for the Europan surface. In this paper, we describe the process of developing the onboard classifier for detecting the presence of sulfur in a hyperspectral scene, including the use of a training/testing set that is not exhaustively labeled, i.e.not all true positives are marked, and the selection of 12, out of 242, Hyperion instrument wavelength bands to use in the onboard detector. This study aims to demonstrate the potential for future missions to capture short-lived science events, make decisions onboard, identify high priority data for downlink and perform onboard change detection. In the future, such capability could help maximize the science return of downlink bandwidth-limited missions, addressing a significant constraint in all deep-space missions.

  10. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.


    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  11. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)


    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  12. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzmann Harald G


    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions.

  13. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)


    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  14. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.


    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  15. Gamma knife surgery for craniopharyngioma. (United States)

    Prasad, D; Steiner, M; Steiner, L


    We present our results of Gamma Knife surgery for craniopharyngioma in nine patients. The current status of surgery, radiation therapy, intracavitary instillation of radionucleides and Gamma Knife surgery in the management of craniopharyngiomas is discussed.

  16. Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery (United States)

    ... Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery Your surgeon can help you know what to ... The plan for follow-up Costs Understanding your surgery costs Health insurance policies often cover most or ...

  17. Tests and visits before surgery (United States)

    Before surgery - tests; Before surgery - doctor visits ... Pre-op is the time before your surgery. It means "before operation." During this time, you will meet with one of your doctors. This may be your surgeon or primary care ...

  18. Cancer Surgery: Physically Removing Cancer (United States)

    ... in cancer diagnosis, staging, treatment and symptom relief. Robotic surgery. In robotic surgery, the surgeon sits away from the operating table ... to maneuver surgical tools to perform the operation. Robotic surgery helps the surgeon operate in hard-to-reach ...

  19. Intracranial Hypertension: Medication and Surgery (United States)

    ... Intracraneal en Espanol. STORE Shop the IHRF Store Medication and Surgery Medication and Surgery Both drugs and surgery are used ... to treat the headache that accompanies chronic IH. Medications for chronic headache like tricyclic anti-depressants, beta- ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Schanaider


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze critically the effectiveness and value of bibliometric indicators in journals of Surgery or Cardiovacular Surgery in the context of the postgraduate programs of CAPES Medicine III. Methods: A sampling with 16 academic programs and one professional master of Medicine III, encompassing the General and Digestive System Surgery, Cardiovascular Surgery and Multidisciplinary courses with such contents, was evaluated. Thomson Reuters/ISI (JCR, Elsevier/Scopus (SJR, and also Scielo databases were used. Results: Only in seven programs, the teachers had an average of Qualis A1 articles greater than the others strata. Eleven journals in the surgical area are in stratum A1 (5% and it reaches 25% in Cardiovascular Surgery. Among the six journals with the largest number of publications Qualis A1 in area Medicine III, five are from non-specific areas. The Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira represented 58% of the publications in the stratum A2. There are some obstacles in the Qualis classification with little uniformity among the Medicine areas I, II and III. Conclusions: A permanent committee should be set to update the Qualis, composed by the three medical areas. It should be considered using other index databases and the unification of the Qualis criteria for journals in medicine. Rating criteria of multi and transdisciplinary journals need to be reviewed. It is essential an institutional financial support for national journals chosen by peers aiming to provide a full computerization process and a professional reviewer of the English language, in order to increase the impact factor.

  1. Patient reported outcome measures in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse in Denmark, 2006-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Hansen, Jesper Kjær


    surgery for urinary incontinence (UI) or pelvic organ prolapse (POP) from 2006 to 2011. Using frequency of symptoms and a visual analogue scale (VAS) both pre- and postoperatively, their severity of symptoms and quality of life were measured by questionnaires. RESULTS: During the study period, 20...

  2. Influence of timing on the effect of continuous extradural analgesia with bupivacaine and morphine after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Hansen, B L; Hjortsø, N C;


    differences between the groups in pain scores (visual analogue scale or verbal) during rest or ambulation at any time of measurement. These results do not suggest that timing of analgesia with a conventional extradural regimen is of major clinical importance in patients undergoing colonic surgery....

  3. Recent advances on micro-invasive glaucoma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jin Zuo


    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second major causes of blindness after cataract. The conventional trabeculectomy and shunt implantation is still the most common surgical procedure in treatment of glaucoma. However, the limitations of the treatments are the security and failure rate. Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery(MIGSis an emerging category which shares the following five characteristics compared with traditional glaucoma surgery:(1an interno microincision,(2micro-invasion,(3definite curative effect,(4high safety, and(5rapid recovery. moreover, it can also reduce the use of glaucoma medication after operation. This kind of surgery can be conducted in three different space, such as Schlemm canal, the suprachoroidal space, and the subconjunctival space. This article reviews briefly the new techniques of micro-invasive glaucoma surgery.

  4. Analogues of uracil nucleosides with intrinsic fluorescence (NIF-analogues): synthesis and photophysical properties. (United States)

    Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha


    Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.

  5. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue (AD/DA) Conversion Techniques: An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The basic ideas behind modern Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue (AD/DA) conversion methods will be introduced: a general view of the importance of these devices will be given, along with the digital representation of time-varying, real-world analogue signals. Some CERN applications will be outlined. The variety of conversion methods, their limitations, error sources and measurement methods will form the major part of this presentation. A review of the technological progress in this field over the last 30 years will be presented, concluding with the present 'state of the art' and a quick look at what is just around the corner. This Technical Training Seminar is in the framework of the FEED-2002 Lecture Series, and it is a prerequisite to attending to any of the FEED-2002 Terms. FEED-2002 is a two-term course that will review the techniques dealing with closed loop systems, focussing on time-invariant linear systems. (free attendance, no registration required) More information on the FEED-2002 ...

  6. The Effect of Sutureless Surgery on Postoperative Pain and Swelling Following Mandibular Third Molar Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Kazemian


    Full Text Available Introduction: surgeons have always sought to use techniques to decrease pain and swelling. One of the solutions that can minimize these complications is closing the wound with the minimum number of sutures or sutureless technique. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of sutureless technique in decreasing pain and swelling after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Methods: nineteen patients with bilaterally mandibular impacted third molars (one side as control and the other as the case entered the study. A single surgeon performed the surgery using a single protocol. After removing each tooth, the flap on the control side was sutured, while on the study side, it was handled sutureless. Post-operative pain evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS at first, third and seventh days after surgery. Inflammation evaluated with measuring the distance between tragus and oral commissure in the same distance. Result: In our study, in all patients, the average mean pain score increased from the first to the third day and decreased from third to seventh day and the difference in the average of pain scores in the aforementioned three days was significantly different(p

  7. Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue (United States)

    Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark


    As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls

  8. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav


    LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...... potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions...

  9. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan


    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. There have been some extraordinary accomplishments in that time, which have led to enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source that surveys surgery theory and its applications. Indeed, no one person could write such a survey. The sixtieth birthday of C. T. C. Wall, one of the leaders of the founding generation of surgery theory, provided an opportunity to rectify the situation and produce a

  10. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan


    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. The sixtieth birthday (on December 14, 1996) of C.T.C. Wall, a leading member of the subject''s founding generation, led the editors of this volume to reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of surgery theory as well as its current enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source surveying surgery theory and its applications. Because no one person could write such a survey, the editors ask

  11. Chair in Pediatric Surgery


    Graña, Francisco; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú


    Inaugural lecture of the course of 1922, Department of Paediatric Surgery, by Dr. Francisco Grana, Professor of Pediatric Surgery and Orthopedics at the Faculty of Medicine of Lima, the National Academy of Medicine, of the Peruvian Society of Surgery. Lección inaugural del curso de 1922, Cátedra de Cirugía Infantil, por el Dr. Francisco Graña, Catedrático de Cirugía Infantil y Ortopedia en la Facultad de Medicina de Lima, de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, de la Sociedad Peruana de Cirug...

  12. Oral benzodiazepine premedication in minor gynaecological surgery. (United States)

    Male, C G; Johnson, H D


    Clobazam 20 mg, diazepam 10 mg, lorazepam 2 mg and oxazepam 30 mg were compared in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial as oral premedication for 150 patients undergoing minor gynaecological surgery. All drugs and placebo significantly decreased anxiety when assessed by the patient on a 10-cm linear analogue rating scale 60 min after premedication. Diazepam 10 mg induced significantly more drowsiness when assessed by a trained observer 60 min after premedication than clobazam 20 mg, oxazepam 30 mg and placebo (P less than 0.01). Lorazepam 2 mg caused significantly more drowsiness 2 h (P less than 0.001) and 4 h (P less than 0.01) after operation, and significantly impaired psychomotor function after operation compared with the other four agents. The data suggest that clobazam 20 mg, diazepam 10 mg, oxazepam 30 mg or placebo offer advantages over lorazepam 2 mg for oral premedication in minor gynaecological surgery where early discharge after operation is preferred.

  13. Treating Postlaparoscopic Surgery Shoulder Pain with Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gur Kreindler


    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acupuncture on postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP which is a common side effect in patients undergoing abdominal laparoscopic surgery. Methods. Patients with moderate to severe PLSP in spite of analgesic treatment, which were referred by the medical staff to the Complementary-Integrative Surgery Service (CISS at our institution, were provided with acupuncture treatment. The severity of PLSP and of general pain was assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS from 0 to 10. Pain assessment was conducted prior to and two hours following acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture treatment was individualized based on traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis. Results. A total of 25 patients were evaluated during a 14-month period, from March 2011 to May 2012. A significant reduction in PLSP (mean reduction of 6.4±2.3  P<0.0001 and general pain (mean reduction 6.4±2.1  P<0.0001 were observed, and no significant side effects were reported. Conclusion. Individualized acupuncture treatments according to traditional Chinese medicine principles may improve postlaparoscopic shoulder pain and general pain when used in conjunction with conventional therapy. The primary findings of this study warrant verification in controlled studies.

  14. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  15. Pain Medications After Surgery (United States)

    ... aspx?id=23897. Accessed Dec. 16, 2013. Winn HR. Youmans Neurological Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders ... Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a ...

  16. Surgery for pancreatic cancer (United States)

    ... using a tiny video camera) or using a robot depends on: The extent of the surgery The ... Procedure Meet with your doctor to make sure medical problems, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and ...

  17. Retrosternal thyroid surgery (United States)

    ... page: // Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  18. Septoplasty and Turbinate Surgery (United States)

    ... nose. Surgery on the septum can lead to stretching or injury to these nerves. This can lead ... a painless procedure that is performed in our office. A small endoscope is used to visualize the ...

  19. Abdominal wall surgery (United States)

    ... pregnancy. Skin and muscle cannot regain its normal tone. This can be a problem for very overweight people who lost a lot of weight. Tummy tuck is major surgery. It is important to read about the procedure before having it. ...

  20. Blood donation before surgery (United States)

    ... page: // Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most common source of blood given during ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Detailed preoperative laryngostroboscopic examination is a prerequisite for phonosurgical correction of organic dysphonia. Although suspension microlaryngoscopic surgery has proved its value in the past, it excludes functional control during the removal of vocal fold swellings. Using an indirect mic

  2. Robotics in Colorectal Surgery (United States)

    Weaver, Allison; Steele, Scott


    Over the past few decades, robotic surgery has developed from a futuristic dream to a real, widely used technology. Today, robotic platforms are used for a range of procedures and have added a new facet to the development and implementation of minimally invasive surgeries. The potential advantages are enormous, but the current progress is impeded by high costs and limited technology. However, recent advances in haptic feedback systems and single-port surgical techniques demonstrate a clear role for robotics and are likely to improve surgical outcomes. Although robotic surgeries have become the gold standard for a number of procedures, the research in colorectal surgery is not definitive and more work needs to be done to prove its safety and efficacy to both surgeons and patients. PMID:27746895

  3. Knee microfracture surgery (United States)

    Cartilage regeneration - knee ... Three types of anesthesia may be used for knee arthroscopy surgery: Medicine to relax you, and shots of painkillers to numb the knee Spinal (regional) anesthesia General anesthesia (you will be ...

  4. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R


    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  5. Is day surgery safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majholm, Birgitte; Engbæk, J; Bartholdy, Jens


    Day surgery is expanding in several countries, and it is important to collect information about quality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and unanticipated hospital visits 0-30 days post-operatively in a large cohort.......Day surgery is expanding in several countries, and it is important to collect information about quality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and unanticipated hospital visits 0-30 days post-operatively in a large cohort....

  6. Complications of pancreatic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Andrén-Sandberg


    Full Text Available Many diseases, including pancreatitis benign tumors and cancer, may require pancreas surgery. Pancreatic resection can lead to a prolonged survival in pancreatic cancer and even a potential chance for cure. However, the pancreatic surgery can result in complications, and high postoperative morbidity rates are still presence. This article reviews the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011, which involves the more common complications, their prevention and treatment.

  7. Future of cosmetic surgery. (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert Alan


    Changes in cosmetic surgery will be driven by several key forces. The patient's self-image, and perceived place in society, will continue to drive patients to the cosmetic surgeon as well as to demand newer and better treatments. Technological advances, especially those based on an enhanced understanding of cellular and tissue physiology, promise enhanced tools other than the scalpel for the surgeon. Conceptual advances in our understanding of beauty and patient psychology will lead to a more integrative approach to cosmetic surgery.

  8. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.


    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in

  9. Photobiomodulation in laser surgery (United States)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Rong, Dong-Liang; Huang, Jin; Deng, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Song-Hao


    Laser surgery provides good exposure with clear operating fields and satisfactory preliminary functional results. In contrast to conventional excision, it was found that matrix metalloproteinases and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases -1 mRNA expression is higher, myofibroblasts appeared and disappeared slower in laser excision wounds. It has been suggested that the better anatomical and functional results achieved following laser cordectomy may be explained by the fact that such procedures result in better, more rapid healing processes to recover vocal cord for early glottic tumors and better. In this paper, the role of photobiomodulation in laser surgery will be discussed by the cultured monolayer normal human skin fibroblast model of the photobiomodulation of marginal irradiation of high intensity laser beam, the photobiomodulation related to the irradiated tissue, the biological information model of photobiomodulation and the animal models of laser surgery. Although high intensity laser beam is so intense that it destroys the irradiated cells or tissue, its marginal irradiation intensity is so low that there is photobiomodulation on non-damage cells to modulate the regeneration of partly damaged tissue so that the surgery of laser of different parameters results in different post-surgical recovery. It was concluded that photobiomodulation might play an important role in the long-term effects of laser surgery, which might be used to design laser surgery.

  10. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooma Sinha


    Full Text Available FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon′s console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over.

  11. Bariatric surgery: assessing opportunities for value innovation. (United States)

    Tarantino, David P; Smith, Darlene B


    Obesity has been increasing over the past two decades, and the amount of medical and media attention given to bariatric surgery as a promising option for morbidly obese individuals is growing. The growth of bariatric surgery also has been attributed to improved surgical technique, the increase in surgeons trained in laparoscopic procedures, as well increased public awareness with celebrities having successfully undergone surgery. The number of surgeons and hospitals offering bariatric services is increasing. How then does a surgeon or a hospital develop a competitive strategy? The first step is to understand the health-care industry. The key forces are rivalry among present competitors, and the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers. While bariatric surgery currently is in a growth phase, time and competition will force practitioners to compete on the basis of price, unless they find true competitive advantage. Value innovation, is a means of creating new marketing space by looking across the conventionally defined boundaries of business--across substitute industries, across strategic groups, across buyer groups, across complementary product and service offerings, and across the functional-emotional orientation of an industry. One can compete by offering similar services focusing primarily on cost efficiencies as the key to profitability. Alternatively, one can break free from the pack by innovating and focusing on delivering superior value to the customer. As the market for bariatric surgery becomes increasingly overcrowded, profitable growth is not sustainable without developing a clear differential advantage in the market. Value innovation allows you to develop that advantage.

  12. Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel (United States)

    ... How it Works Digestive Diseases A-Z Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel What is ostomy surgery of the bowel? Ostomy surgery of the bowel, ... It Works . Why does a person need ostomy surgery of the bowel? A person may need ostomy ...

  13. Laparoscopic Surgery - What Is It? (United States)

    ... Surgery - What is it? Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? | ASCRS WHAT IS LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY? Laparoscopic or “minimally ... information about the management of the conditions addressed. It should be recognized that these brochures should not ...

  14. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Email Print What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  15. A positive Grassmannian analogue of the permutohedron

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Lauren K


    The classical permutohedron Perm is the convex hull of the points (w(1),...,w(n)) in R^n where w ranges over all permutations in the symmetric group. This polytope has many beautiful properties -- for example it provides a way to visualize the weak Bruhat order: if we orient the permutohedron so that the longest permutation w_0 is at the "top" and the identity e is at the "bottom," then the one-skeleton of Perm is the Hasse diagram of the weak Bruhat order. Equivalently, the paths from e to w_0 along the edges of Perm are in bijection with the reduced decompositions of w_0. Moreover, the two-dimensional faces of the permutohedron correspond to braid and commuting moves, which by the Tits Lemma, connect any two reduced expressions of w_0. In this note we introduce some polytopes Br(k,n) (which we call bridge polytopes) which provide a positive Grassmannian analogue of the permutohedron. In this setting, BCFW bridge decompositions of reduced plabic graphs play the role of reduced decompositions. We define Br(k,...

  16. Insulin, insulin analogues and diabetic retinopathy. (United States)

    Chantelau, Ernst; Kimmerle, Renate; Meyer-Schwickerath, Rolf


    Insulin is absolutely vital for living beings. It is not only involved in metabolism, but also in the regulation of growth factors, e.g. IGF-1. In this review we address the role insulin has in the natural evolution of diabetic retinopathy. On the one hand, chronic deficiency of insulin and IGF-1 at the retina is thought to cause capillary degeneration, with subsequent ischaemia. On the other hand, acute abundance of (exogenously administered) insulin and IGF-1 enhances ischaemia-induced VEGF expression. A critical ratio of tissue VEGF-susceptibility: VEGF-availability triggers vascular proliferation (i.e. of micro-aneurysms and/or abnormal vessels). The patent-protected insulin analogues Lispro, Glulisine, Aspart, Glargine and Detemir are artificial insulin derivatives with altered biological responses compared to natural insulin (e.g. divergent insulin and /or IGF-1 receptor-binding characteristics, signalling patterns, and mitogenicity). Their safety profiles concerning diabetic retinopathy remain to be established by randomised controlled trials. Anecdotal reports and circumstantial evidence suggest that Lispro and Glargine might worsen diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Developing Skin Analogues for a Robotic Octopus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou; Richard H.C.Bonser; George Jeronimidis


    In order to fabricate a biomimetic skin for an octopus inspired robot,a new process was developed based on mechanical properties measured from real octopus skin.Various knitted nylon textiles were tested and the one of 10-denier nylon was chosen as reinforcement.A combination of Ecoflex 0030 and 0010 silicone rubbers was used as matrix of the composite to obtain the right stiffness for the skin-analogue system.The open mould fabrication process developed allows air bubble to escape easily and the artificial skin produced was thin and waterproof.Material properties of the biomimetic skin were characterised using static tensile and instrumented scissors cutting tests.The Young's moduli of the artificial skin are 0.08 MPa and 0.13 MPa in the longitudinal and transverse directions,which are much lower than those of the octopus skin.The strength and fracture toughness of the artificial skin,on the other hand are higher than those of real octopus skins.Conically-shaped skin prototypes to be used to cover the robotic arm unit were manufactured and tested.The biomimetic skin prototype was stiff enough to maintain it conical shape when filled with water.The driving force for elongation was reduced significantly compared with previous prototypes.

  18. Causality and Borromean linking in twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Robert J, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Engineering Science, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)


    We consider the notion of the Borromean triple from classical linking theory, and develop an analogue of it in the case of linking of skies in twistor space. I would like to dedicate this paper to Roger Penrose, on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  19. A q-Analogue of the Dirichlet L-Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Son


    In this paper, we will treat some interesting formulae which are slightly different from Kim's results by more or less the same method in [4-9]. At first, we consider a new definition of a q-analogue of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials.We construct a q-analogue of the Riemann ζ-function, Hurwitz ζ-function, and Dirichlet L-series. Also, we investigate the relation between the q-analogue of generalized Bernoulli numbers and the generalized Euler numbers. As an application, we prove that the q-analogue of Bernoulli numbers occurs in the coefficients of some Stirling type series for the p-adic analytic q-log-gamma function.

  20. Current prodrug strategies for improving oral absorption of nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxi Zhang


    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues are first line chemotherapy in various severe diseases: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, cytomegalovirus infections, cancer, etc. However, many nucleoside analogues exhibit poor oral bioavailability because of their high polarity and low intestinal permeability. In order to get around this drawback, prodrugs have been utilized to improve lipophilicity by chemical modification of the parent drug. Alternatively, prodrugs targeting transporters present in the intestine have been applied to promote the transport of the nucleoside analogues. Valacyclovir and valganciclovir are two classic valine ester prodrugs transported by oligopeptide transporter 1. The ideal prodrug achieves delivery of a parent drug by attaching a non-toxic moiety that is stable during transport, but is readily degraded to the parent drug once at the target. This article presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral absorption of nucleoside analogues.

  1. Insulin analogues in pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa


    in the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses exposed to insulin analogues (lispro, aspart, glargine or detemir) compared with those exposed to human insulin or Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin. The total prevalence of congenital anomalies was not increased for foetuses exposed to insulin analogues. The small...... included 1286 foetuses of mothers using short-acting insulin analogues with 1089 references of mothers using human insulin and 768 foetuses of mothers using long-acting insulin analogues with 685 references of mothers using long-acting human insulin (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn). The congenital anomaly rate...... samples in the included studies provided insufficient statistical power to identify a moderate increased risk of specific congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  2. Synthesis of Novel Isoxazole-contained Analogues of Losartan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of novel isoxazole-contained analogues of Losartan were designed and synthesized with 1,3-DC reaction. The regioselectivity of the reaction was discussed and the compounds are potential antihypertensive.

  3. Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue from Penicillium solitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Lange, Lene; Schnorr, Kirk


    Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue, has been isolated from Penicillium solitum using a UV-guided strategy. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute stereochemistry was determined by chemical degradation...

  4. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue (United States)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.


    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  5. Automated Layout Generation of Analogue and Mixed-Signal ASIC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Rene

    The research and development carried out in this Ph.D. study focusses on two key areas of the design flow for analogue and mixed-signal integrated circuit design, the mixed-signal floorplanning and the analogue layout generation.A novel approach to floorplanning is presented which provides true...... flow.A new design flow for automated layout generation of general analogue integrated circuits is presented. The design flow provides an automated design path from a sized circuit schematic to the final layout containing the placed, but unrouted, devices of the circuit. The analogue circuit layout...... interactive floorplanning capabilities due to a new implementation variant of a Genetic Algorithm. True interactive floorplanning allows the designer to communicate with existing floorplans during optimization. By entering the "ideas" and expertise of the designer into the optimization algorithm the automated...

  6. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Finazzi, Stefano


    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which...

  7. Doing it with Mirrors Classical analogues for Black Hole radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, K


    We construct analogues for the quantum phenomena of black hole radiation in the context of {\\it classical field theory}. Hawking radiation from a (radially) collapsing star is mathematically equivalent to radiation from a mirror moving along a specific trajectory in Minkowski spacetime. We construct a classical analogue for this quantum phenomenon and use it to construct a classical analogue for black hole radiation. The radiation spectrum in quantum field theory has the power spectrum as its classical analogue. Monochromatic light is continually reflected off a moving mirror or the silvered surface of a collapsing star.The reflected light is fourier analysed by the observer and the power spectrum is constructed. For a mirror moving along the standard black hole trajectory,it is seen that the power spectrum has a ``thermal'' nature. Mirror-observer configurations like an inertial mirror observed in an accelerated observer's frame and an accelerated mirror observed in a Rindler frame are investigated and condi...

  8. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey? (United States)

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood


    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful?

  9. Cell-cycle analyses using thymidine analogues in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Anda

    Full Text Available Thymidine analogues are powerful tools when studying DNA synthesis including DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, these analogues have been reported to have severe effects on cell-cycle progression and growth, the very processes being investigated in most of these studies. Here, we have analyzed the effects of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU and 5-Chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU using fission yeast cells and optimized the labelling procedure. We find that both analogues affect the cell cycle, but that the effects can be mitigated by using the appropriate analogue, short pulses of labelling and low concentrations. In addition, we report sequential labelling of two consecutive S phases using EdU and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU. Furthermore, we show that detection of replicative DNA synthesis is much more sensitive than DNA-measurements by flow cytometry.

  10. Cell-cycle analyses using thymidine analogues in fission yeast. (United States)

    Anda, Silje; Boye, Erik; Grallert, Beata


    Thymidine analogues are powerful tools when studying DNA synthesis including DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, these analogues have been reported to have severe effects on cell-cycle progression and growth, the very processes being investigated in most of these studies. Here, we have analyzed the effects of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 5-Chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) using fission yeast cells and optimized the labelling procedure. We find that both analogues affect the cell cycle, but that the effects can be mitigated by using the appropriate analogue, short pulses of labelling and low concentrations. In addition, we report sequential labelling of two consecutive S phases using EdU and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Furthermore, we show that detection of replicative DNA synthesis is much more sensitive than DNA-measurements by flow cytometry.

  11. Synthesis, modelling and NK1 antagonist evaluation of a non-rigid cyclopropane-containing analogue of CP-99,994. (United States)

    Aitken, D J; Ongeri, S; Vallée-Goyet, D; Gramain, J C; Husson, H P


    A non-rigid cyclopropane-containing diamine analogue of CP-99,994 was synthesised and was found to have only moderate NK1 receptor binding affinity. Molecular dynamics calculations of the conformational space of the former compound gave good correlation between observed activity and a recently published pharmacophore model, lending predictive value to the latter.

  12. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation


    Ghaly, Peter E.; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M.; Churchill, Cassandra D. M.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; West, F. G.


    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and t...

  13. Analogue and digital linear modulation techniques for mobile satellite (United States)

    Whitmarsh, W. J.; Bateman, A.; Mcgeehan, J. P.


    The choice of modulation format for a mobile satellite service is complex. The subjective performance is summarized of candidate schemes and voice coder technologies. It is shown that good performance can be achieved with both analogue and digital voice systems, although the analogue system gives superior performance in fading. The results highlight the need for flexibility in the choice of signaling format. Linear transceiver technology capable of using many forms of narrowband modulation is described.

  14. An azumamide C analogue without the zinc-binding functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jesper; Kitir, Betül; Wich, Kathrine;


    + - coordinating moiety. Herein, we describe the synthesis of an azumamide analogue lacking its native Zn 2+ -binding group and evaluation of its inhibitory activity against recombinant human HDAC1 – 11. Furthermore, kinetic investigation of the inhibitory mechanism of both parent natural product and synthetic...... analogue against HDAC3-NCoR2 is reported as well as their activity against Burkitt's lymphoma cell proliferation....

  15. Adjuvant properties of a simplified C32 monomycolyl glycerol analogue. (United States)

    Bhowruth, Veemal; Minnikin, David E; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter; Bramwell, Vincent W; Perrie, Yvonne; Besra, Gurdyal S


    A simplified C(32) monomycolyl glycerol (MMG) analogue demonstrated enhanced immunostimulatory activity in a dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA)/Ag85B-ESAT-6 formulation. Elevated levels of IFN-gamma and IL-6 were produced in spleen cells from mice immunised with a C(32) MMG analogue comparable activity to the potent Th1 adjuvant, trehalose 6,6'-di-behenate (TDB).

  16. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  17. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1996-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997....

  18. Semisynthesis of salviandulin E analogues and their antitrypanosomal activity. (United States)

    Aoyagi, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Koji; Yamazaki, Akira; Sugawara, Naoko; Yano, Reiko; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Hitotsuyanagi, Yukio; Takeya, Koichi; Ishiyama, Aki; Iwatsuki, Masato; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Haruki; Ōmura, Satoshi


    A series of analogues of salviandulin E, a rearranged neoclerodane diterpene originally isolated from Salvia leucantha (Lamiaceae), were prepared and their in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei was evaluated with currently used therapeutic drugs as positive controls. One of the 19 compounds prepared and assayed in the present study, butanoyl 3,4-dihydrosalviandulin E analogue was found to be a possible candidate for an antitrypanosomal drug with fairly strong antitrypanosomal activity and lower cytotoxicity.

  19. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery



    Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differ...

  20. Surgery versus prolonged conservative treatment for sciatica: 5-year results of a randomised controlled trial


    Lequin, Michiel B.; Verbaan, Dagmar; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Brand, Ronald; Gerrit J. Bouma; Vandertop, William P.; Peul, Wilco C; ,


    Objective This study describes the 5 years’ results of the Sciatica trial focused on pain, disability, (un)satisfactory recovery and predictors for unsatisfactory recovery. Design A randomised controlled trial. Setting Nine Dutch hospitals. Participants Five years’ follow-up data from 231 of 283 patients (82%) were collected. Intervention Early surgery or an intended 6 months of conservative treatment. Main outcome measures Scores from Roland disability questionnaire, visual analogue scale (V...

  1. The relevance of analogue studies for understanding obsessions and compulsions. (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Fabricant, Laura E; Taylor, Steven; Deacon, Brett J; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A


    Analogue samples are often used to study obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and related phenomena. This approach is based on the hypothesis that results derived from such samples are relevant to understanding OC symptoms in individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Two decades ago, Gibbs (1996) reviewed the available literature and found initial support for this hypothesis. Since then there have been many important advances addressing this issue. The purpose of the present review was to synthesize various lines of research examining the assumptions of using analogue samples to draw inferences about people with OCD. We reviewed research on the prevalence of OC symptoms in non-clinical populations, the dimensional (vs. categorical) nature of these symptoms, phenomenology, etiology, and studies on developmental and maintenance factors in clinical and analogue samples. We also considered the relevance of analogue samples in OCD treatment research. The available evidence suggests research with analogue samples is highly relevant for understanding OC symptoms. Guidelines for the appropriate use of analogue designs and samples are suggested.

  2. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakilam Satishkumar


    Full Text Available Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxytris(dimethylaminophosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL, T-cell lymphoma (TCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  3. Cardiac surgery 2015 reviewed. (United States)

    Doenst, Torsten; Strüning, Constanze; Moschovas, Alexandros; Gonzalez-Lopez, David; Essa, Yasin; Kirov, Hristo; Diab, Mahmoud; Faerber, Gloria


    For the year 2015, almost 19,000 published references can be found in PubMed when entering the search term "cardiac surgery". The last year has been again characterized by lively discussions in the fields where classic cardiac surgery and modern interventional techniques overlap. Lacking evidence in the field of coronary revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery has been added. As in the years before, CABG remains the gold standard for the revascularization of complex stable triple-vessel disease. Plenty of new information has been presented comparing the conventional to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) demonstrating similar short- and mid-term outcomes at high and low risk, but even a survival advantage with transfemoral TAVI at intermediate risk. In addition, there were many relevant and interesting other contributions from the purely operative arena. This review article will summarize the most pertinent publications in the fields of coronary revascularization, surgical treatment of valve disease, heart failure (i.e., transplantation and ventricular assist devices), and aortic surgery. While the article does not have the expectation of being complete and cannot be free of individual interpretation, it provides a condensed summary that is intended to give the reader "solid ground" for up-to-date decision-making in cardiac surgery.

  4. Percutaneous forefoot surgery. (United States)

    Bauer, T


    Percutaneous methods can be used to perform many surgical procedures on the soft tissues and bones of the forefoot, thereby providing treatment options for all the disorders and deformities seen at this site. Theoretical advantages of percutaneous surgery include lower morbidity rates and faster recovery with immediate weight bearing. Disadvantages are the requirement for specific equipment, specific requirements for post-operative management, and lengthy learning curve. At present, percutaneous hallux valgus correction is mainly achieved with chevron osteotomy of the first metatarsal, for which internal fixation and a minimally invasive approach (2 cm incision) seem reliable and reproducible. This procedure is currently the focus of research and evaluation. Percutaneous surgery for hallux rigidus is simple and provides similar outcomes to those of open surgery. Lateral metatarsal malalignment and toe deformities are good indications for percutaneous treatment, which produces results similar to those of conventional surgery with lower morbidity rates. Finally, fifth ray abnormalities are currently the ideal indication for percutaneous surgery, given the simplicity of the procedure and post-operative course, high reliability, and very low rate of iatrogenic complications. The most commonly performed percutaneous techniques are described herein, with their current indications, main outcomes, and recent developments.

  5. Robotic surgery in gynecology. (United States)

    Alkatout, Ibrahim; Mettler, Liselotte; Maass, Nicolai; Ackermann, Johannes


    Robotic surgery is the most dynamic development in the sector of minimally invasive operations currently. It should not be viewed as an alternative to laparoscopy, but as the next step in a process of technological evolution. The advancement of robotic surgery, in terms of the introduction of the Da Vinci Xi, permits the variable use of optical devices in all four trocars. Due to the new geometry of the "patient cart," an operation can be performed in all spatial directions without re-docking. Longer instruments and the markedly narrower mechanical elements of the "patient cart" provide greater flexibility as well as access similar to those of traditional laparoscopy. Currently, robotic surgery is used for a variety of indications in the treatment of benign gynecological diseases as well as malignant ones. Interdisciplinary cooperation and cooperation over large geographical distances have been rendered possible by telemedicine, and will ensure comprehensive patient care in the future by highly specialized surgery teams. In addition, the second operation console and the operation simulator constitute a new dimension in advanced surgical training. The disadvantages of robotic surgery remain the high costs of acquisition and maintenance as well as the laborious training of medical personnel before they are confident with using the technology.

  6. Photoreactivity of condensed species on Titan's aerosols analogues (United States)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Gudipati, Murthy; Carrasco, Nathalie


    Titan's aerosols formation is initiated in the upper atmospheric layers at about 1000 km by the dissociation and the ionization of N2 and CH4 by the VUV solar photons [1]. Then, they aggregate and sediment to the surface. The temperatures of the stratosphere and the troposphere [3] (measured by the HASI instrument onboard the Huygens probe [2]) allow the condensation of many volatile organics on the solid aerosols, forming organic ice coating on the aerosol polymers. We will present an experimental study simulating this process and discuss the photoreactivity of condensed species on Titan's aerosols analogues in the atmosphere and on the surface. We demonstrated experimentally that the organic aerosols, which cover the Titan's surface, drive the photoreactivity of condensed species such as acetylene when they are irradiated with long wavelength photons (λ > 300 nm). This result highlights that Titan's surface remains active despite the absorption of the most energetic photons by the atmosphere.AcknowledgmentsThis work is supported by NASA Solar System Workings grant " Photochemistry in Titan's Lower Atmosphere". The research work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NC acknowledges the European Research Council for their financial support (ERC Starting Grant PRIMCHEM, grant agreement n°636829).References[1] Waite, J. H., et al., The process of Tholin formation in Titan's upper atmosphere, (2007), Science 316, 870-875.[2] Fulchignoni, M., et al., In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment, (2005), Nature 438, 785-791[3] Lavvas, P., et al., Condensation in Titan's atmosphere at the Huygens landing site, (2011), Icarus 215, 732-750.

  7. Molecular Biodynamers: Dynamic Covalent Analogues of Biopolymers (United States)


    Conspectus Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials. Implementation of CDC in biopolymer science leads to the generation of constitutionally dynamic analogues of biopolymers, biodynamers, at the molecular level (molecular biodynamers) through DCC or at the supramolecular level (supramolecular biodynamers) via DNCC. Therefore, biodynamers are prepared by reversible covalent polymerization or noncovalent polyassociation of biorelevant monomers. In particular, molecular biodynamers, biodynamers of the covalent type whose monomeric units are connected by reversible covalent bonds, are generated by reversible polymerization of bio-based monomers and can be seen as a combination of biopolymers with DCC. Owing to the reversible covalent bonds used in DCC, molecular biodynamers can undergo continuous and spontaneous constitutional modifications via incorporation/decorporation and exchange of biorelevant monomers in response to internal or external stimuli. As a result, they behave as adaptive materials with novel properties, such as self-healing, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunable mechanical and optical character. More specifically, molecular biodynamers combine the biorelevant characters (e.g., biocompatibility, biodegradability, biofunctionality) of bioactive monomers with the dynamic features of reversible covalent bonds (e.g., changeable, tunable, controllable, self-healing, and stimuli-responsive capacities), to realize synergistic properties in one system. In addition

  8. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease (United States)

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann; Petersen, Michael Mørk


    Abstract Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss), demographic (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologist score [ASA score], and Karnofsky score), and disease-specific (primary cancer) variables. An association with 30-day mortality was addressed using univariate and multivariable analyses and calculation of odds ratio (OR). All patients were included in the analysis. ASA score 3 + 4 (OR 4.16 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.80–10.85], P = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance status below 70 (OR 7.34 [95% CI 3.16–19.20], P < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality in univariate analysis. This did not change in multivariable analysis. No parameters describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality. PMID:27082592

  9. Novel purine nucleoside analogues for hematological malignancies. (United States)

    Korycka, Anna; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Robak, Tadeusz


    Recently, the search for more effective and safer antineoplastic agents has led to synthesis and introduction into preclinical and clinical studies of a few new purine nucleoside analogues (PNA). Three of them: clofarabine (CAFdA), nelarabine, and forodesine (immucillin H, BCX-1777), despite belonging to the same group of drugs such as PNA, have shown some differences concerning their active forms, metabolic properties and mechanism of action. However, all these drugs have demonstrated promising activity in patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). CAFdA was approved for the therapy of relapsed or refractory ALL in the third line of treatment. It has proved promising in pediatric patients as well as in some patients who are able to proceed to allogenic hematopietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Moreover, the drug exhibits an efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BP) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Nelarabine is recommended for T-ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) with the overall response rates ranging from 11 to 60%. However, the use of the drug is limited by potentially severe neurotoxicity. Forodesine is a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) inhibitor and it has shown activity in relapsed and refractory T- and B-cells leukemias as well as in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Recently patented, a few of inventions in the field of pharmaceutical preparation of new PNA have also been published. Great hopes are currently set on the use of these drugs in the treatment of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies in adult and in pediatric patients, however ongoing studies will help to define their role in the standard therapy.

  10. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues (United States)

    Foing, Bernard


    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  11. Harmonic analysis on symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Terras, Audrey

    This text explores the geometry and analysis of higher rank analogues of the symmetric spaces introduced in volume one. To illuminate both the parallels and differences of the higher rank theory, the space of positive matrices is treated in a manner mirroring that of the upper-half space in volume one. This concrete example furnishes motivation for the general theory of noncompact symmetric spaces, which is outlined in the final chapter. The book emphasizes motivation and comprehensibility, concrete examples and explicit computations (by pen and paper, and by computer), history, and, above all, applications in mathematics, statistics, physics, and engineering. The second edition includes new sections on Donald St. P. Richards’s central limit theorem for O(n)-invariant random variables on the symmetric space of GL(n, R), on random  matrix theory, and on advances in the theory of automorphic forms on arithmetic groups.

  12. Weak Orlicz space and its applications to the martingale theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper,the weak Orlicz space wL Φ is introduced and its applications to the martingale theory are discussed.In particular,a series of martingale inequalities including the maximal function inequality in weak Orlicz spaces are established;the relationships between these spaces are investigated.Moreover,the boundedness of several sublinear operators from one weak Orlicz space to another is proved;their vector-valued analogues are also considered.

  13. Viscoless microincision cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sallet


    Full Text Available Guy SalletDepartment of Opthamology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, BelgiumAbstract: A cataract surgery technique is described in which incisions, continuous circular capsulorhexis and hydrodissection are made without the use of any viscoelastics. Two small incisions are created through which the different parts of the procedure can take place, maintaining a stable anterior chamber under continuous irrigation. Subsequent bimanual phacoemulsification can be done through these microincisions. At the end of the procedure, an intraocular lens can be inserted through the self-sealing incision under continuous irrigation. 50 consecutive cataract patients were operated on without the use of viscoelastics and then compared with a group of 50 patients who had been helped with viscoelastics. No difference in outcome, endothelial cell count or pachymetry was noted between the two groups. No intraoperative complication was encountered. Viscoless cataract surgery was a safe procedure with potential advantages.Keywords: ophthalmic visco-surgical device, viscoless cataract surgery, microincision

  14. Robotic aortic surgery. (United States)

    Duran, Cassidy; Kashef, Elika; El-Sayed, Hosam F; Bismuth, Jean


    Surgical robotics was first utilized to facilitate neurosurgical biopsies in 1985, and it has since found application in orthopedics, urology, gynecology, and cardiothoracic, general, and vascular surgery. Surgical assistance systems provide intelligent, versatile tools that augment the physician's ability to treat patients by eliminating hand tremor and enabling dexterous operation inside the patient's body. Surgical robotics systems have enabled surgeons to treat otherwise untreatable conditions while also reducing morbidity and error rates, shortening operative times, reducing radiation exposure, and improving overall workflow. These capabilities have begun to be realized in two important realms of aortic vascular surgery, namely, flexible robotics for exclusion of complex aortic aneurysms using branched endografts, and robot-assisted laparoscopic aortic surgery for occlusive and aneurysmal disease.

  15. [Indication for bariatric surgery]. (United States)

    Hanusch-Enserer, Ursula; Enserer, Christian; Rosen, Harald R; Prager, Rudolf


    Morbid obesity is defined as obesity with body mass index (BMI) > or = 40 kg/m2 with secondary serious diseases. Conservative treatment generally fails to produce long-term weight loss in these patients, since several bariatric surgical techniques have been developed which are based on gastric restriction and/or gastric malabsorption resulting in permanent weight loss over years. Preoperative evaluation might detect suitable patients and reduce both non-surgical and surgical complications. Postoperative follow-up in a multidisciplinary program, including specialists in various fields of medicine, e.g. surgery, internal medicine, radiology, paediatrics and nutritional surveillance are mandatory in the treatment of patients after obesity surgery. Bariatric surgery results in a major weight loss, with amelioration of most obesity-associated conditions. The most serious side effect of some surgical procedere is malnutrition.

  16. [IMSS in numbers. Surgeries]. (United States)


    Surgery occupies a priority place within the organization of health services. In the IMSS around 1.4 million surgeries are performed annually and 3934 take place each day. A great part of the resources goes to obstetric interventions, since 222,928 caesarean sections were performed in 2004, and along with curettages, tubal occlusions and hysterectomies, they sum 37.6% of the surgeries performed in 2004. Abdominal deliveries (caesarean sections) were done in 39% of the pregnancies delivered in the IMSS and 8.3% were done in adolescents. Simple surgical interventions were also important. Cholecystectomies were 6 times more frequent in women aged 20 to 59 years old than in men the same age. Among the main interventions we also describe hernioplasty, appendicectomies, amygdalectomies, rhinoplasties, biopsies and circumcisions. Scarce data on complications are registered and no data is available for infections of surgical wounds. Surgical procedures are more frequent in women and in certain specialities.

  17. Stereolithography for craniofacial surgery. (United States)

    Sinn, Douglas P; Cillo, Joseph E; Miles, Brett A


    Advances in computer technology have aided in the diagnostic and clinical management of complex congenital craniofacial deformities. The use of stereolithographic models has begun to replace traditional milled models in the treatment of craniofacial deformities. Research has shown that stereolithography models are highly accurate and provide added information in treatment planning for the correction of craniofacial deformities. These include the added visualization of the complex craniofacial anatomy and preoperative surgical planning with a highly accurate three-dimensional model. While the stereolithographic process has had a beneficial impact on the field of craniofacial surgery, the added cost of the procedure continues to be a hindrance to its widespread acceptance in clinical practice. With improved technology and accessibility the utilization of stereolithography in craniofacial surgery is expected to increase. This review will highlight the development and current usage of stereolithography in craniofacial surgery and provide illustration of it use.

  18. Modelling Parsing Constraints with High-Dimensional Context Space. (United States)

    Burgess, Curt; Lund, Kevin


    Presents a model of high-dimensional context space, the Hyperspace Analogue to Language (HAL), with a series of simulations modelling human empirical results. Proposes that HAL's context space can be used to provide a basic categorization of semantic and grammatical concepts; model certain aspects of morphological ambiguity in verbs; and provide…

  19. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori


    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon’s hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor. PMID:26822625

  20. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease. (United States)

    Yamashita, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori


    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon's hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor.

  1. Aesthetic satisfaction scoring - introducing an aesthetic numeric analogue scale (ANA-scale). (United States)

    Funk, Wolfgang; Podmelle, Fred; Guiol, Claudia; Metelmann, Hans Robert


    To objectively and reproducibly assess the outcome of aesthetic procedures remains one of the major, unmet challenges in maxillo-facial and plastic surgery. Frequently employed scoring systems for the evaluation of aesthetic procedures are confounded by observer bias, be it that of the patient or of the surgeon. A new approach of pragmatic and simple scoring is the ANA [Aesthetic Numeric Analogue] scale, which facilitates the objective, reproducible, standardized and internationally uniform evaluation of aesthetic procedure outcome by converting all ratings for any kind of aesthetic procedures from a subjective value to an objective figure. The intention of the ANA-scale is to relate aesthetic satisfaction from wording to figures and by this create a rating system. The study is arranging matching pairs of verbal description and figures to finally queue up generating a scale. The clinical feasibility of this rating system is demonstrated in a surgical case. As a detail of the results the influence of the viewer's age to the aesthetic benefit assessment is obvious. In summary the ANA-scale looks to be a tool useful in individual treatment protocols as well as analysis of different techniques of aesthetic surgery for rating of the pure aesthetic satisfaction of the patients.

  2. Robotic retroauricular thyroid surgery (United States)

    Alabbas, Haytham; Bu Ali, Daniah


    Surgery is the gold standard treatment for patients with thyroid cancer or nodules suspicious for cancer. Open conventional approach is the standard surgical approach. However, a visible neck incision could be a concern for most young female patients, especially for patients with a history of healing with keloid or hypertrophic scars. Robotic remote access approaches have evolved into a safe and feasible approach in selected patients, providing a hidden scar with good patient satisfaction. This review will focus on the performance and safety of robotic retroauricular thyroid surgery. PMID:28149806

  3. [Bariatric surgery in Denmark.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P.; Iversen, M.G.; Kehlet, H.


    INTRODUCTION: In 2005 the National Board of Health (NBH) published guidelines on bariatric surgery in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the national bariatric effort in relation to these guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on extraction of the following......, a tendency which was attributable to the activities of one of the private clinics. CONCLUSION: The frequency with which bariatric surgery is performed follows a strongly increasing trend and the procedures are only performed at the public departments selected by the National Board of Health...

  4. Surgery in Amphibians. (United States)

    Chai, Norin


    Amphibian surgery has been especially described in research. Since the last decade, interest for captive amphibians has increased, so have the indications for surgical intervention. Clinicians should not hesitate to advocate such manipulations. Amphibian surgeries have no overwhelming obstacles. These patients heal well and tolerate blood loss more than higher vertebrates. Most procedures described in reptiles (mostly lizards) can be undertaken in most amphibians if equipment can be matched to the patients' size. In general, the most difficult aspect would be the provision of adequate anesthesia.

  5. Surgery for Congenital Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yorston FRCS FRCOphth


    Full Text Available The management of congenital cataract is very different to the treatment of a routine age-related cataract. In adults, surgery may be delayed for years without affecting the visual outcome. In infants, if the cataract is not removed during the first year of life, the vision will never be fully regained after surgery. In adults, if the aphakia is not corrected immediately, it can be corrected later. In young children, if the aphakia is not corrected, the vision will never develop normally.

  6. Update on obesity surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Eisenberg; Andrew J Duffy; Robert L Bell


    The prevalence of obesity in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. With more than 30 million Americans clinically obese, the younger population has also been affected. Surgical therapy should be offered to the severely obese patient who is refractory to nonsurgical therapy, as established by the 1991 NIH Consensus Conference on Gastrointestinal Surgery for Severe Obesity. Surgery is currently the most effective therapy for weight loss. It is far more effective than any other treatment modality, both in terms of the amount of weight loss and in terms of durability in maintaining weight loss.

  7. Laparoendoscopic single site in pelvic surgery. (United States)

    Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Clavijo, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Sotelo, Rene


    Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) has recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access surgery. Our aim is to describe the current status of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) in pelvic surgery. A comprehensive revision of the literature in LESS pelvic surgery was performed. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-01 to 30-11-11. References outside the search period were obtained selected manuscript΄s bibliography. Search terms included: pelvic anatomy, less in gynecology, single port colectomy, urological less, single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. 314 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 46 manuscripts were selected based in their pelvic anatomy or surgical content; including experimental experience, clinical series and literature reviews. LESS drastically limit the surgeon's ability to perform in the operative field and the latter becomes hardened by the lack of space in anatomical location like the pelvis. Potential advantages of LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. Pelvic surgical procedures related to colorectal surgery, gynecology and urology have been performed with LESS technique and information available is mostly represented by case reports and short case series. Comparative series remain few. LESS pelvic surgery remain in its very beginning and due to the very specific anatomical conditions further development of LESS surgery in the mentioned area can be clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology. Standardization ad reproducibility of techniques are mandatory to further develop LESS in the surgical arena..

  8. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.


    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  9. A Preoperative Planning Algorithm Based on Dexterity and Collaboration Space for the Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery%基于协作空间与灵巧度的机器人辅助微创手术术前规划算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 王伟东; 董为; 杜志江; 孙永平


    机器人辅助微创外科手术的术前准备工作相对于传统微创手术更加复杂和关键。为了提高手术执行效率,充分利用机器人特性,本文以机械臂的运动学性能和器械间的协作能力作为优化目标,相应地提出了机械臂灵巧度指标IICV与体内协作空间指标IICS,设计了一套基于NSGA-II的多目标术前规划方法,将微创手术介入位置选择与机械臂初始位姿优化两类术前规划问题作为统一整体优化。最后,将由术前规划算法优化得到的系统性能指标与医生凭借经验给出的结果进行比较。实验结果表明,由优化算法得到的术前规划方案优势明显,能够为机器人辅助微创手术操作提供一个相对理想的手术执行环境。%Compared with the traditional minimally invasive surgery, the preoperative preparation of the robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery is more critical and complex. For the purposes of improving the operation efficiency and making full use of the characteristics of the robot, the kinematic performance of the manipulator as well as the collaborative capability between instruments are taken as the optimization objectives, and a new dexterity index named IICV for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery and the internal collaboration space index named IICS are proposed. A set of multi-objective preoperative optimization methods based on NSGA-II are designed to optimize the incision placement and initialize the pose of the manipulator as a unified whole. Finally, a comparison between the preoperative planning schemes generated by the optimization algorithm and recommended by an experienced surgeon is performed. The experimental result shows that the preoperative planning scheme obtained by the optimization algorithm is effective, and it can provide a relatively superior operating environment for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery.

  10. Incorporation of tryptophan analogues into the lantibiotic nisin. (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Shao, Jinfeng; Li, Qian; van Heel, Auke J; de Vries, Marcel P; Broos, Jaap; Kuipers, Oscar P


    Lantibiotics are posttranslationally modified peptides with efficient inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the original modifications, incorporation of non-canonical amino acids can render new properties and functions to lantibiotics. Nisin is the most studied lantibiotic and contains no tryptophan residues. In this study, a system was constructed to incorporate tryptophan analogues into nisin, which included the modification machinery (NisBTC) and the overexpression of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS). Tryptophan and three different tryptophan analogues (5-fluoroTrp (5FW), 5-hydroxyTrp (5HW) and 5-methylTrp (5MeW)) were successfully incorporated at four different positions of nisin (I1W, I4W, M17W and V32W). The incorporation efficiency of tryptophan analogues into mutants I1W, M17W and V32W was over 97 %, while the mutant I4W showed relatively low incorporation efficiency (69-93 %). The variants with 5FW showed relatively higher production yield, while 5MeW-containing variants showed the lowest yield. The dehydration efficiency of serines or threonines was affected by the tryptophan mutants of I4W and V32W. The affinity of the peptides for the cation-ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography columns was significantly reduced when 5HW was incorporated. The antimicrobial activity of IIW and its 5FW analogue both decreased two times compared to that of nisin, while that of its 5HW analogue decreased four times. The 5FW analogue of I4W also showed two times decreased activity than nisin. However, the mutant M17W and its 5HW analogue both showed 32 times reduced activity relative to that of nisin.

  11. Insulin analogues and cancer: a note of caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A.M.J.L. eJanssen


    Full Text Available Abstract In view of the lifelong exposure and large patient populations involved, insulin analogues with an increased mitogenic effect in comparison to human insulin may potentially constitute a major health problem, since these analogues may possibly induce the growth of pre-existing neoplasms. At present, the available data suggest that insulin analogues are safe. In line with these findings, we observed that serum of diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues, compared to that of diabetic patients treated with human insulin, did not induce an increased phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR. However, the classical model of the IGF-IR signaling may be insufficient to explain (all mitogenic effects of insulin analogues since also non-canonical signaling pathways of the IGF-IR may play a major role in this respect. Although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the IGF-IR is generally considered to be the initial activation step within the intracellular IGF-IR signaling pathway, it has been found that cells undergo a signaling switch under hyperglycemic conditions. After this switch, a completely different mechanism is utilized to activate the mitogenic (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways of the IGF-IR that is independent from tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-IR. At present it is unknown whether activation of this alternative intracellular pathway of the IGF-IR occurs during hyperglycemia in vivo and whether it is stronger in patients treated with (some insulin analogues than in patients treated with human insulin. In addition, it is unknown whether the insulin receptors (IRs also undergo a signaling switch during hyperglycemia. This should be investigated in future studies. Finally, relative overexpression of IR isoform A (IR-A in (pre cancer tissues may play a key role in the development and progression of human cancers during treatment with insulin (analogues. Further

  12. Dihydrobenzofuran analogues of hallucinogens. 4. Mescaline derivatives. (United States)

    Monte, A P; Waldman, S R; Marona-Lewicka, D; Wainscott, D B; Nelson, D L; Sanders-Bush, E; Nichols, D E


    hallucinogens, that such compounds must be full agonists at the 5-HT2A receptor subtype. In contrast to the 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines, where rigidification of the methoxy groups had no deleterious effect on activity, the loss of activity in the 3,4,5-trioxygenated mescaline analogues may suggest that the 3 and 5 methoxy groups must remain conformationally mobile to enable receptor activation.

  13. Terrestrial research in Mars analogue environments (United States)

    Osipov, G.

    Fatty acids (FA) content was measured by GC-MS SIM technique in Sulfide ores of present day (Mid-Atlantic Ridge and others) and ancient (Ural Paleocene, Russia) black smokers; Early Proterozoic kerites of Volyn; Siberian, Canadian and Antarctic permafrosts and also in rocks of East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement. Analysis was shown presence those and only those fatty acids which are specific to microorganisms. FA with 12 up 19 of carbon atoms are thought to be a bacterial biomass sign. 3-Hydroxy fatty acids also found in samples and are strong specific markers of gram-negative bacteria. Cultivation yield living bacteria in some cases. The East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement rocks opened by Vorotilov Deep Well (VDW) drilled through Puchezh-Katunski impact structure were studied within depths 2575 - 2805 m. 34 microbial lipid markers were detected by GC-MS and 22 species were identified. Bacteria of g. Bacillus reached 6,8 % in subsurface communities. However, members of gg. Clostridium (37,1 - 33,2 %) and Rhodococcus (27,6 - 33,7 %) were absolute dominants within studied depth interval. Some lipid patterns of kerite samples could be assessed to definite genera or, in special cases, to species of contemporary microorganisms. For instance, 2-hydroxylauric acid is specific to Pseudomonas putida group or Acinetobacter spp., and hydroxymyristic together with hydroxypalmitic are specific to P.cepacea and cyanobacteria. 3-hydroxystearic acid was known as component of Acetobacter diazothrophycus and Gloebacter violaceous cyanobacterium. 10-hydroxystearic acid associated with Nocardia spp., which oxidizes oleic acid in organic substrates. 10-methylhexadecanoic (10Me16) acid together with 10Me14, 10Me15 and 10Me17 analogues are markers of actinomycetes. Significant part of Black Smokers organic matter is probably biogenic. Fatty acid features strongly assigns it to bacterial, microeucariotic and planta cells. Par example 3-hydroxy acids are

  14. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue (United States)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.


    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  15. The Quest for Rheological Similarity in Analogue Models: new Data on the Rheology of Highly Filled Silicon Polymers (United States)

    Boutelier, D. A.; Schrank, C.; Cruden, A. R.


    The selection of appropriate analogue materials is a central consideration in the design of realistic physical models. Hence, information on the rheology of materials and potential materials is essential to evaluate their suitability as rock analogues. Silicon polymers have long been used to model ductile rocks that deform by diffusion or dislocation creep. Temperature and compositional variations that control the effective viscosity and density of rocks in the crust and mantle are simulated in the laboratory by multiple layers of various silicon polymers mixed with granular fillers, plasticines or bouncing putties. Since dislocation creep is a power law, strain rate-softening flow mechanism, we have been investigating the rheology of highly filled silicon polymers as suitable new analogue materials with similar deformation behavior. The materials actually exhibit strain rate softening behavior but with increasing amounts of filler the mixtures also become non-linear. We report the rheological properties of the analogue materials as functions of the filler content. For the linear viscous materials the flow laws are presented (viscosity coefficient and power law exponent). For non-linear materials the relative importance of strain and strain-rate softening/hardening has been investigated doing multiple creep tests that allow mapping of the effective viscosity in the stress-strain space. Our study reveals that most of the currently used silicon-based analogue materials have a linear or quasi-linear rheology but are also Newtonian or nearly-Newtonian viscous fluid, which makes them more appropriate for simulating natural rocks deforming by diffusion creep.

  16. Improvements in Cataract Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne Maria


    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in the elderly. It involves lens opacification due to biochemical changes in the lens. Cataract surgery provides restoration of good vision by removal of the opaque lens, followed by implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) in the rem

  17. Thromboprophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Struijk-Mulder


    This thesis describes the use of thromboprophylatic modalities after total hip and total knee arthroplasty by Dutch orthopedic departments over a period of ten years and several uncertainties regarding thromboprophylaxis in other areas of orthopedic surgery. In this thesis some of these uncertaintie

  18. Cataract surgery - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // Cataract surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide ... 5 Overview The lens of an eye is normally clear. A cataract is when the lens becomes cloudy as you ...

  19. Urogenital Reconstructive Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte Kaasgaard

    Urogenital reconstructive surgery Lotte Kaasgaard Jakobsen1 Professor Henning Olsen1 Overlæge Gitte Hvistendahl1 Professor Karl-Erik Andersson2 1 – Dept. of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital 2 – Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University hospital Background: Congenital obstruction...

  20. Femoroacetabular impingement surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, Michael P; Thorborg, Kristian


    Femoroacetabuler impingement (FAI) is becoming increasingly recognised as a potential pathological entity for individuals with hip pain. Surgery described to correct FAI has risen exponentially in the past 10 years with the use of hip arthroscopy. Unfortunately, the strength of evidence supporting...

  1. Cataract Surgery in Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Agrawal


    Full Text Available Cataract surgery in uveitic eyes is often challenging and can result in intraoperative and postoperative complications. Most uveitic patients enjoy good vision despite potentially sight-threatening complications, including cataract development. In those patients who develop cataracts, successful surgery stems from educated patient selection, careful surgical technique, and aggressive preoperative and postoperative control of inflammation. With improved understanding of the disease processes, pre- and perioperative control of inflammation, modern surgical techniques, availability of biocompatible intraocular lens material and design, surgical experience in performing complicated cataract surgeries, and efficient management of postoperative complications have led to much better outcome. Preoperative factors include proper patient selection and counseling and preoperative control of inflammation. Meticulous and careful cataract surgery in uveitic cataract is essential in optimizing the postoperative outcome. Management of postoperative complications, especially inflammation and glaucoma, earlier rather than later, has also contributed to improved outcomes. This manuscript is review of the existing literature and highlights the management pearls in tackling complicated cataract based on medline search of literature and experience of the authors.

  2. Mitral valve surgery - open (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2012:chap 61. Otto CM, Bonow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Heart Valve Diseases Mitral Valve Prolapse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  3. Heart valve surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: executive summary: a report of the American College ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Heart Valve Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  4. Aortic valve surgery - open (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2012:chap 61. Otton CM, Bowow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Heart Valve Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  5. Ghrelin and Metabolic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios J. Pournaras


    Full Text Available Metabolic surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. Ghrelin has been implicated to play a role in the success of these procedures. Furthermore, these operations have been used to study the gut-brain axis. This article explores this interaction, reviewing the available data on changes in ghrelin levels after different surgical procedures.

  6. American Board of Surgery (United States)

    ... Suite 860 Philadelphia, PA 19103 215.568.4000 Facebook Twitter Site Map © 2003-2017 American Board of Surgery, Inc. All rights reserved. Training & Certification Toggle navigation arrow Becoming Certified Dates & Fees Taking a Computer Exam International Training & Visas For Residency & Fellowship Programs ...

  7. Nutrition & Pancreatic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.


    The aim of the first part of this thesis was to determine the optimal feeding strategy after pancreatoduodenectomy. The available nutritional guidelines give conflicting recommendations and are all based on studies after major gastrointestinal surgery for cancer in general. We systematically reviewe

  8. [DRG and gastrointestinal surgery]. (United States)

    Leardi, S; Altilia, F; Pietroletti, R; Risetti, A; Schietroma, M; Simi, M


    The diagnosis-related-groups (DRG) is the cost-based system for hospital reimbursement. However, the proceeds does not coincide with the costs. Aim of the study was to identify the profit, which we could gained with 147, 155, 158, 162, 165, 198 gastrointestinal surgery DRG. 30 consecutive patients, undergone to surgery in Clinica Chirurgica of L'Aquila University, had been studied. We had calculated the daily costs of medical and nursing practice, diagnostic tests, drugs, hospitalization, surgical instruments for every patient's therapy. The DRG-proceeds had been correlated with the DRG-costs. The "major gastrointestinal surgery" had not profit (147 DRG: anterior resection of rectum = -354428 Pounds, Miles = -94020 Pounds; 155 DRG: total gastrectomy = -1920641 Pounds). On the contrary, "minimal surgery" had good profits (158 DRG: hemorroidectomy with local anestesia = 1469605 Pounds;162 DRG: sutureless groin hernioplasty = 1561200 Pounds; 198 DRG: videolaparochole-cystectomy: 1208807 Pounds). The study seems to demonstrate the disparity of the reimbursement system related to DRG. However, the surgeons, as managers, must employ warily the resources for producing DRG.

  9. Robotics in gynecologic surgery. (United States)

    Frick, A C; Falcone, T


    Robotic surgery has evolved from an investigational surgical approach to a clinically useful adjunct in multiple surgical specialties over the past decade. Advocates of robotic-assisted gynecologic surgery revere the system's wristed instrumentation, ergonomic positioning, and three-dimensional high-definition vision system as significant improvements over laparoscopic equipment's four degrees of freedom and two-dimensional laparoscope that demand the surgeon stand throughout a procedure. The cost, lack of haptic feedback, and the bulky size of the equipment make robotics less attractive to others. Studies evaluating outcomes in robotic-assisted gynecologic surgery are limited. Multiple small retrospective studies demonstrate the safety and feasibility of robotic hysterectomy. With increased surgeon experience, operative times are similar to, or shorter than, laparoscopic cases. Robotic assistance can facilitate suturing in laparoscopic myomectomies, and is associated with decreased blood loss and a shorter hospital stay, although may require longer operative times. Robotic assistance has also been applied to multiple procedures in the subspecialties of infertility, urogynecology and gynecologic oncology with good success and relatively low morbidity. However, further research is warranted to better evaluate the relative benefits and costs of robotic assisted gynecologic surgery.

  10. Cataract surgery and anticoagulants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; VanRij, G


    A questionnaire was sent to 240 members of the Netherlands Intraocular implant Club (NIOIC) to register their policy followed in 1993 with regard to anticoagulant therapy (ACT) and the use of aspirin in patients having cataract surgery. Ninety-one (32%) forms were suitable for analysis. Most eye sur

  11. Decreasing strabismus surgery (United States)

    Arora, A; Williams, B; Arora, A K; McNamara, R; Yates, J; Fielder, A


    Aim: To determine whether there has been a consistent change across countries and healthcare systems in the frequency of strabismus surgery in children over the past decade. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on all strabismus surgery performed in NHS hospitals in England and Wales, on children aged 0–16 years between 1989 and 2000, and between 1994 and 2000 in Ontario (Canada) hospitals. These were compared with published data for Scotland, 1989–2000. Results: Between 1989 and 1999–2000 the number of strabismus procedures performed on children, 0–16 years, in England decreased by 41.2% from 15 083 to 8869. Combined medial rectus recession with lateral rectus resection decreased from 5538 to 3013 (45.6%) in the same period. Bimedial recessions increased from 489 to 762, oblique tenotomies from 43 to 121, and the use of adjustable sutures from 29 to 44, in 2000. In Ontario, operations for squint decreased from 2280 to 1685 (26.1%) among 0–16 year olds between 1994 and 2000. Conclusion: The clinical impression of decrease in the frequency of paediatric strabismus surgery is confirmed. In the authors’ opinion this cannot be fully explained by a decrease in births or by the method of healthcare funding. Two factors that might have contributed are better conservative strabismus management and increased subspecialisation that has improved the quality of surgery and the need for re-operation. This finding has a significant impact upon surgical services and also on the training of ophthalmologists. PMID:15774914

  12. Surgery for Bone Cancer (United States)

    ... be amputated mid-thigh, the lower leg and foot can be rotated and attached to the thigh bone. The old ankle joint becomes the new knee joint. This surgery is called rotationplasty (roh-TAY-shun-PLAS-tee). A prosthesis is used to make the new leg the ...

  13. Type 1 and 2 gastric carcinoid tumors: long-term follow-up of the efficacy of treatment with a slow-release somatostatin analogue. (United States)

    Manfredi, Sylvain; Pagenault, Mael; de Lajarte-Thirouard, Anne-Sophie; Bretagne, Jean-François


    Little is known about the long-term results of treating gastric carcinoid tumors with a slow-release somatostatin analogue. We report three patients with type 1 and 2 gastric carcinoid tumors who were treated in the above mentioned way and followed for 27-50 months. In all cases, alternative endoscopic or surgical management was considered but deemed inappropriate. Treatment with a slow-release somatostatin analogue was begun in light of a favorable recent report. The result was regression or complete disappearance of macroscopic fundal tumors. No side-effects were reported and, most notably, none of the patients developed gallstones. This small study may help define the optimal duration, dose, and administration interval of the treatment. Slow-release somatostatin analogue is a safe and efficacious treatment for type 1 and 2 gastric carcinoid tumors, and can be used when tumors are growing rapidly. Slow-release somatostatin analogue represents an alternative to repeated endoscopic treatment or high-risk surgery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available One feature of the famous Sharkovsky’s theorem is that it can be proved using digraphs of a special type (the so–called Markov graphs. The most general definition assigns a Markov graph to every continuous map from the topological graph to itself. We show that this definition is too broad, i.e. every finite digraph can be viewed as a Markov graph of some one–dimensional dynamical system on a tree. We therefore consider discrete analogues of Markov graphs for vertex maps on combinatorial trees and characterize all maps on trees whose discrete Markov graphs are of the following types: complete, complete bipartite, the disjoint union of cycles, with every arc being a loop.

  15. Engineering of insulin receptor isoform-selective insulin analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Glendorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insulin receptor (IR exists in two isoforms, A and B, and the isoform expression pattern is tissue-specific. The C-terminus of the insulin B chain is important for receptor binding and has been shown to contact the IR just adjacent to the region where the A and B isoforms differ. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the C-terminus of the B chain in IR isoform binding in order to explore the possibility of engineering tissue-specific/liver-specific insulin analogues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insulin analogue libraries were constructed by total amino acid scanning mutagenesis. The relative binding affinities for the A and B isoform of the IR were determined by competition assays using scintillation proximity assay technology. Structural information was obtained by X-ray crystallography. Introduction of B25A or B25N mutations resulted in analogues with a 2-fold preference for the B compared to the A isoform, whereas the opposite was observed with a B25Y substitution. An acidic amino acid residue at position B27 caused an additional 2-fold selective increase in affinity for the receptor B isoform for analogues bearing a B25N mutation. Furthermore, the combination of B25H with either B27D or B27E also resulted in B isoform-preferential analogues (2-fold preference even though the corresponding single mutation analogues displayed no differences in relative isoform binding affinity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have discovered a new class of IR isoform-selective insulin analogues with 2-4-fold differences in relative binding affinities for either the A or the B isoform of the IR compared to human insulin. Our results demonstrate that a mutation at position B25 alone or in combination with a mutation at position B27 in the insulin molecule confers IR isoform selectivity. Isoform-preferential analogues may provide new opportunities for developing insulin analogues with improved clinical benefits.

  16. Patch in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Alizadeh Ghavidel


    Full Text Available Introduction: Excessive bleeding presents a risk for the patient in cardiovascular surgery. Local haemostatic agents are of great value to reduce bleeding and related complications. TachoSil (Nycomed, Linz, Austria is a sterile, haemostatic agent that consists of an equine collagen patchcoated with human fibrinogen and thrombin. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of TachoSil compared to conventional technique.Methods: Forty-two patients scheduled for open heart surgeries, were entered to this study from August 2010 to May 2011. After primary haemostatic measures, patients divided in two groups based on surgeon’s judgment. Group A: 20 patients for whom TachoSil was applied and group B: 22 patients that conventional method using Surgicel (13 patients or wait and see method (9 cases, were performed in order to control the bleeding. In group A, 10 patients were male with mean age of 56.95±15.67 years and in group B, 9 cases were male with mean age of 49.95±14.41 years. In case group 70% (14/20 of the surgeries were redo surgeries versus 100% (22/22 in control group.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. In TachoSil group 75% of patients required transfusion versus 90.90% in group B (P=0.03.Most transfusions consisted of packed red blood cell; 2±1.13 units in group A versus 3.11±1.44 in group B (P=0.01, however there were no significant differences between two groups regarding the mean total volume of intra and post-operative bleeding. Re-exploration was required in 10% in group A versus 13.63% in group B (P=0.67.Conclusion: TachoSil may act as a superior alternative in different types of cardiac surgery in order to control the bleeding and therefore reducing transfusion requirement.

  17. Advances in mucogingival surgery. (United States)

    Prato, G P


    The term Mucogingival Surgery was proposed by Friedman in 1957 to indicate any surgery "designed to preserve attached gingiva, to remove frena or muscle attachment, and to increase the depth of the vestibule". The aim of this type of surgery was to maintain an adequate amount of attached gingiva and to prevent continuous loss of attachment. This philosophy was supported by many horizontal observations in humans that confirmed the need for a certain band of attached gingiva to maintain periodontal tissue in a healthy state. Subsequently, clinical and experimental studies by Wennström and Lindhe (1983) demonstrated that as long as plaque buildup is kept under careful control there is no minimum width of keratinised gingiva necessary to prevent the development of periodontal disease. These observations reduce the importance of Mucogingival Surgery. Surgical techniques are used mostly to solve aesthetic problems, since the term "Periodontal Plastic Surgery" has been suggested to indicate surgical procedures performed to correct or eliminate anatomical, developmental or traumatic deformities of the gingiva or alveolar mucosa. More recently the Consensus Report of the American Academy of Periodontology (1996) defines Mucogingival Therapy as "non surgical and surgical correction of the defects in morphology, position and/or amount of soft tissue and underlying bone". This assigns importance to non-surgical therapy and to the bone condition because of its influence on the morphology of the defects. In this respect the Mucogingival Therapy includes: Root coverage procedures, Gingival augmentation, Augmentation of the edentulous ridge, Removing of the aberrant frenulum, Prevention of ridge collapse associated with tooth extraction, Crown lengthening, Teeth that are not likely to erupt, Loss of interdental papilla which presents an aesthetic and/or phonetic problem.

  18. Central effects of angiotensin II, its fragment and analogues. (United States)

    Georgiev, V P; Klousha, V E; Petkov, V D; Markovska, V L; Svirskis, S V; Mountsinietse, R K; Anouans, Z E


    The effects of the octapeptide angiotensin II (AT II), its fragment Ile8 AT3-8 and the analogues Sar1 Ala8 AT II, Ala8 AT II and Ile8 AT II were studied with respect to: the level of biogenic amines (DA, 5-HT and their metabolites HVA and 5-HIAA) in the forebrain; the behaviour of the animals--haloperidol catalepsy, apomorphine stereotypy, unconditioned jumping reaction (UJR), convulsive threshold. Good correlation was found between the biochemical and behavioural effects. The fragment of AT II where phenylalanine is substituted at the C-terminal by Ile reduces the haloperidol-increased content of HVA, potentiates apomorphine stereotypy and reduces catalepsy, whereas the AT II analogues (where the C-terminal phenylalanine is substituted by Ala, and the N-terminal--by Sar) potentiate the effect of haloperidol increasing the HVA content, reduce apomorphine stereotypy and potentiate catalepsy; saralasine independently applied induces brief catalepsy; AT II, its fragment and analogues inhibit UJR, in combination with amphetamine and PTZ this effect becomes deeper; the duration of hexobarbital sleep is increased. The peptides investigated increase the convulsive threshold. The results show that the hexapeptide fragment has preserved the effects of AT II, whereas in the analogues (with changed C- and N-terminals) they are changed. The results obtained may be explained with the modulating influence of AT II-receptors on the DA-ergic receptors in the brain structures with which AT II and its fragment and analogues enter in contact.

  19. Anaesthesia for robotic gynaecological surgery. (United States)

    Gupta, K; Mehta, Y; Sarin Jolly, A; Khanna, S


    Robotic surgery is gaining widespread popularity due to advantages such as reduced blood loss, reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and better visualisation of fine structures. Robots are being used in urological, cardiac, thoracic, orthopaedic, gynaecological and general surgery. Robotic surgery received US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in gynaecological surgery in 2005. The various gynaecological robotic operations being performed are myomectomy, total and supracervical hysterectomy, ovarian cystectomy, sacral colpopexy, tubal reanastomosis, lymph node dissection, surgery of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy, Moskowitz procedure and endometriosis surgery. The anaesthetic considerations include difficult access to the patient intraoperatively, steep Trendelenburg position, long surgical duration and the impact of pneumoperitoneum. We highlight the complications encountered in these surgeries and methods to prevent these complications. Robotic gynaecological surgery can be safely performed after considering the physiological effects of the steep Trendelenburg position and of pneumoperitoneum. The benefits of the surgical procedure should be weighed against the risks in patients with underlying cardiorespiratory problems.

  20. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  1. Contemporary oral and maxillofacial surgery. (United States)

    Pavel, F; Machado, L


    This article provides a panoramic view of the nine major areas of subspecialty in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery: facial trauma, surgical pathology, dentoalveolar surgery, rehabilitation of the cleft lip/palate patient, temporomandibular joint surgery, preprosthetic and implant rehabilitation, surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea, correction of jaw deformities and cosmetic+ surgery. Clinical cases are used to illustrate the most recent advances in each of these nine areas.

  2. AdS and dS black hole solutions in analogue gravity: The relativistic and non-relativistic cases

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Ramit; Turcati, Rodrigo


    We show that Schwarzschild black hole solutions in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) and de Sitter (dS) spaces may, up to a conformal factor, be reproduced in the framework of analogue gravity. The aforementioned derivation is performed using relativistic and non-relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates. In addition, we demonstrate that the (2+1) planar AdS black hole can be mapped into the non-relativistic acoustic metric. Given that AdS black holes are extensively employed in the gauge/gravity duality, we then comment on the possibility to study the AdS/CFT correspondence and gravity/fluid duality from an analogue gravity perspective.

  3. Robot-assisted endoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurda, J.P.


    During the last three years, robot-assisted surgery systems are increasingly being applied in endoscopic surgery. They were introduced with the objective to overcome the challenges of standard endoscopic surgery. With the improvements in manipulation and visualisation that robotic-assistance offers,

  4. Timing of surgery for sciatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peul, Wilco C.


    The frequently diagnosed lumbar disc herniation can disappear by natural course, but still leads to high low back surgery rates. The optimal period of conservative care, before surgery is executed, was unknown. It is surprising that scientific evidence was lacking which justified “early” surgery. Su

  5. Thurston norm and cosmetic surgeries

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Yi


    Two Dehn surgeries on a knot are called cosmetic if they yield homeomorphic manifolds. For a null-homologous knot with certain conditions on the Thurston norm of the ambient manifold, if the knot admits cosmetic surgeries, then the surgery coefficients are equal up to sign.

  6. The effect of conventional surgery and piezoelectric surgery bone harvesting techniques on the donor site morbidity of the mandibular ramus and symphysis. (United States)

    Altiparmak, N; Soydan, S S; Uckan, S


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity following bone harvesting at two different intraoral donor sites, mandibular symphysis and ramus, and to determine the effects of piezoelectric and conventional surgical graft harvesting techniques on donor site morbidity. Intraoral block bone grafts were harvested from the symphysis (n=44) and ramus (n=31). The two donor site groups were divided into two subgroups according to the surgical graft harvesting method used (conventional or piezoelectric surgery). Intraoperative and postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Donor site morbidity and the harvesting techniques were compared statistically. Of 290 teeth evaluated in the symphysis group, four needed root canal treatment after surgery. The incidence of transient paresthesia in the mucosa was significantly higher in the symphysis group than in the ramus group (P=0.004). In the symphysis group, the incidence of temporary skin and mucosa paresthesia was lower in the piezoelectric surgery subgroup than in the conventional surgery subgroup (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively). No permanent anaesthesia of any region of the skin was reported in either donor site group. VAS scores did not differ between the ramus and symphysis harvesting groups, or between the piezoelectric and conventional surgery subgroups. When the symphysis was chosen as the donor site, minor sensory disturbances of the mucosa and teeth were recorded. The use of piezoelectric surgery during intraoral harvesting of bone blocks, especially from the symphysis, can reduce these complications.

  7. Spectral Characterization of Mars Analogues From the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.


    Several well-recognized Martian soil analogues have been classified and studied in the past years. The JSC Mars-1, collected and distributed under control of the NASA Johnson Space Center, originates from Puú Nene cinder cone in Hawaii, USA. It is a palagonitic tephra (glassy volcanic ash altered at low temperatures), whose spectral features resemble the bright regions on Mars. The Salten Skov, coming from a subsurface deposit in the Midjutland region of Denmark, is a Fe-oxide precipitate with a dark red color, composed mainly of goethite, hematite and maghemite, with mineralogical and magnetic close to those of the martian soil. Montmorillonite and palagonite are other natural materials commonly referred as Martian soil analogues. We present and discuss the emissivity spectra of these analogue minerals from the Berlin Emissivity Database spectral library. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) currently contains also emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from < 25 to 250 μm. The current main setup at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR consist of an emissivity device built at DLR coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) equipped with both a cooled MTC detector and a room temperature DTGS detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm- 1. The combination of detectors and spectrometer allows a unique wavelength coverage encompassing the whole thermal radiation range measured by spacecraft instruments. The emissivity device is currently purged with dry air, while the spectrometer is evacuated. In a future upgrade of the facility the emissivity device will be replaced by a planetary simulation chamber which can be evacuated and which

  8. The Immucillins: Design, Synthesis and Application of Transition- State Analogues. (United States)

    Evans, Gary B; Schramm, Vern L; Tyler, Peter C


    Transition-state analysis based on kinetic isotope effects and computational chemistry provides electrostatic potential maps to serve as blueprints for the design and chemical synthesis of transition-state analogues. The utility of these molecules is exemplified by potential clinical applications toward leukemia, autoimmune disorders, gout, solid tumors, bacterial quorum sensing and bacterial antibiotics. In some cases, transition-state analogues have chemical features that have allowed them to be repurposed for new indications, including potential antiviral use. Three compounds from this family have entered clinical trials. The transition-state analogues bind to their target proteins with high affinity and specificity. The physical and structural properties of binding teach valuable and often surprising lessons about the nature of tight-binding inhibitors.

  9. Gold Nanoparticles Decorated with Mannose-6-phosphate Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Combemale


    Full Text Available Herein, the preparation of neoglycoconjugates bearing mannose-6-phosphate analogues is described by: (a synthesis of a cyclic sulfate precursor to access the carbohydrate head-group by nucleophilic displacement with an appropriate nucleophile; (b introduction of spacers on the mannose-6-phosphate analogues via Huisgen’s cycloaddition, the Julia reaction, or the thiol-ene reaction under ultrasound activation. With the resulting compounds in hand, gold nanoparticles could be functionalized with various carbohydrate derivatives (glycoconjugates and then tested for angiogenic activity. It was observed that the length and flexibility of the spacer separating the sugar analogue from the nanoparticle have little influence on the biological response. One particular nanoparticle system substantially inhibits blood vessel growth in contrast to activation by the corresponding monomeric glycoconjugate, thereby demonstrating the importance of multivalency in angiogenic activity.

  10. Analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of human acute myeloid leukemia. (United States)

    Hofmann, Susanne; Mead, Andrew; Malinovskis, Aleksandrs; Hardwick, Nicola R; Guinn, Barbara-Ann


    The use of peptide vaccines, enhanced by adjuvants, has shown some efficacy in clinical trials. However, responses are often short-lived and rarely induce notable memory responses. The reason is that self-antigens have already been presented to the immune system as the tumor develops, leading to tolerance or some degree of host tumor cell destruction. To try to break tolerance against self-antigens, one of the methods employed has been to modify peptides at the anchor residues to enhance their ability to bind major histocompatibility complex molecules, extending their exposure to the T-cell receptor. These modified or analogue peptides have been investigated as stimulators of the immune system in patients with different cancers with variable but sometimes notable success. In this review we describe the background and recent developments in the use of analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia describing knowledge useful for the application of analogue peptide treatments for other malignancies.

  11. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of semisynthetic zearalenone analogues. (United States)

    Tadpetch, Kwanruthai; Kaewmee, Benyapa; Chantakaew, Kittisak; Kantee, Kawalee; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak


    Zearalenone is a β-resorcylic acid macrolide with various biological activities. Herein we report the synthesis and cytotoxic activities of 34 zearalenone analogues against human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells as well as noncancerous Vero cells. Some zearalenone analogues showed moderately enhanced cytotoxic activities against the two cancer cell lines. We have discovered the potential lead compounds with diminished or no cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the double bond at the 1' and 2' positions of zearalenone core was crucial for cytotoxic activities on both cell lines. In addition, for zearalenol analogues, the unprotected hydroxyl group at C-2 and an alkoxy substituent at C-4 played key roles on cytotoxic effects of both cell lines.

  12. Conception, synthesis, and biological evaluation of original discodermolide analogues. (United States)

    de Lemos, Elsa; Agouridas, Evangelos; Sorin, Geoffroy; Guerreiro, Antonio; Commerçon, Alain; Pancrazi, Ange; Betzer, Jean-François; Lannou, Marie-Isabelle; Ardisson, Janick


    Due to its intriguing biological activity profile and potential chemotherapeutic application discodermolide (DDM) proved to be an attractive target. Therefore, notable efforts have been carried out directed toward its total synthesis and toward the production and evaluation of synthetic analogues. Recently, we achieved the total synthesis of DDM. At the present, guided by the knowledge gained during our DDM total synthesis and by the requirement of keeping the bioactive "U" shape conformation, we report the convergent preparation of five original analogues. Three types of changes were realized through modification of the terminal (Z)-diene moiety, of the methyl group at the C14-position, and the lactone region. All analogues were active in the nanomolar range and two of them turned out to be equipotent to DDM.

  13. Ensemble meteorological reconstruction using circulation analogues of 1781–1785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiou


    Full Text Available This paper uses a method of atmospheric flow analogues to reconstruct an ensemble of atmospheric variables (namely sea-level pressure, surface temperature and wind speed between 1781 and 1785. The properties of this ensemble are investigated and tested against observations of temperature. The goal of the paper is to assess whether the atmospheric circulation during the Laki volcanic eruption (in 1783 and the subsequent winter were similar to the conditions that prevailed in the winter 2009/2010 and during spring 2010. We find that the three months following the Laki eruption in June 1783 barely have analogues in 2010. The cold winter of 1783/1784 yields circulation analogues in 2009/2010. Our analysis suggests that it is unlikely that the Laki eruption was responsible for the cold winter of 1783/1784, of the relatively short memory of the atmospheric circulation.

  14. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel curcumin analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Zhang; Yao Fu; Hao Wei Wang; Tao Gong; Yong Qin; Zhi Rong Zhang


    Five novel curcumin analogues bearing different substituents at 4-position of phenyl group were synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by NMR and HRMS spectrum. Their cytotoxic activities against six tumor cell lines were tested by the standard MTT assay in vitro. The results indicated that four analogues (1A-1C, 1E) with solubilizing moieties showed selective potent cytotoxicity against HepG2, HeLa and CT26 cell lines, and analogue 1A and 1C exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than curcumin against CT26 cell line. It was suggested that introduction of appropriate substituents to 4-position of phenyl group might be a potential option for structural modification of curcumin.

  15. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New (-)-Englerin Analogues. (United States)

    López-Suárez, Laura; Riesgo, Lorena; Bravo, Fernando; Ransom, Tanya T; Beutler, John A; Echavarren, Antonio M


    We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of (-)-englerin A analogues obtained along our previously reported synthetic route based on a stereoselective gold(I) cycloaddition process. This synthetic route is a convenient platform to access analogues with broad structural diversity and has led us to the discovery of unprecedented and easier-to-synthesize derivatives with an unsaturation in the cyclopentyl ring between C4 and C5. We also introduce novel analogues in which the original isopropyl motif has been substituted with cyclohexyl, phenyl, and cyclopropyl moieties. The high selectivity and growth-inhibitory activity shown by these new derivatives in renal cancer cell lines opens new ways toward the final goal of finding effective drugs for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

  16. Controlled analogue experiments on propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qinghua


    This study presented a method of laboratory analogue experiments based on a geographical scaling model and a waveguide model to investigate the characteristics of the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals in the crust and the atmosphere. Some controlled experiments were done to evaluate the possible influence on the experimental results from the background electromagnetic field, geographical conditions, boundary effects, the source of electromagnetic signals (position, magnitude, and frequency), and media conductivity. The reliability and the extensibility of the above analogue experimental method were also investigated. This study indicated that such kind of analogue experimental method provided an intuitionistic way of studying the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals, which is one of the most difficult research topics in seismo-electro- magnetism.

  17. Largazole Analogues Embodying Radical Changes in the Depsipeptide Ring: Development of a More Selective and Highly Potent Analogue. (United States)

    Almaliti, Jehad; Al-Hamashi, Ayad A; Negmeldin, Ahmed T; Hanigan, Christin L; Perera, Lalith; Pflum, Mary Kay H; Casero, Robert A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga


    A number of analogues of the marine-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor largazole incorporating major structural changes in the depsipeptide ring were synthesized. Replacing the thiazole-thiazoline fragment of largazole with a bipyridine group gave analogue 7 with potent cell growth inhibitory activity and an activity profile similar to that of largazole, suggesting that conformational change accompanying switching hybridization from sp(3) to sp(2) at C-7 is well tolerated. Analogue 7 was more class I selective compared to largazole, with at least 464-fold selectivity for class I HDAC proteins over class II HDAC6 compared to a 22-fold selectivity observed with largazole. To our knowledge 7 represents the first example of a potent and highly cytotoxic largazole analogue not containing a thiazoline ring. The elimination of a chiral center derived from the unnatural amino acid R-α-methylcysteine makes the molecule more amenable to chemical synthesis, and coupled with its increased class I selectivity, 7 could serve as a new lead compound for developing selective largazole analogues.

  18. Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System (United States)

    ... Surgery and the Endocrine System Fact Sheet Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System February, 2012 Download PDFs ... Morton, MD Marzieh Salehi, MD What is bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery helps people who are very obese ...

  19. Heart Surgery: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon? (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish Patient Handouts Aortic valve surgery - open (Medical Encyclopedia) ... Spanish Open heart surgery (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish ... heart surgery Pediatric heart surgery - discharge Sternal exploration or closure Related ...

  20. Synthesis of daidzin analogues as potential agents for alcohol abuse. (United States)

    Gao, Guang-Yao; Li, Dian-Jun; Keung, Wing Ming


    Daidzin, the active principle of an herbal remedy for 'alcohol addiction', has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in all laboratory animals tested to date. Correlation studies using structural analogues of daidzin suggests that it acts by raising the monoamine oxidase (MAO)/mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity ratio (J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 4169). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the 7-O-substituted analogues of daidzin have revealed structural features important for ALDH-2 and MAO inhibition (J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 3320). We here evaluated effects of substitutions at 2, 5, 6, 8, 3' and 4' positions of daidzin on its potencies for ALDH-2 and MAO inhibition. Results show that analogues with 4'-substituents that are small, polar and with hydrogen bonding capacities are most potent ALDH-2 inhibitors, whereas those that are non-polar and with electron withdrawing capacities are potent MAO inhibitors. Analogues with a 5-OH group are less potent ALDH-2 inhibitors but are more potent MAO inhibitors. All the 2-, 6-, 8- and 3'-substituted analogues tested so far do not inhibit ALDH-2 and/or have decreased potencies for MAO inhibition. This, together with the results obtained from previous studies, suggests that a potent antidipsotropic analogue would be a 4',7-disubstituted isoflavone. The 4'-substituent should be small, polar, and with hydrogen bonding capacities such as, -OH and -NH(2); whereas the 7-substituent should be a straight-chain alkyl with a terminal polar function such as -(CH(2))(n)-OH with 2 or =4.

  1. [Hand surgery training]. (United States)

    Moutet, F; Haloua, J P


    Training of the hand surgeon HAND SURGEON A CONCEPT: The hand surgeon is supposed to be in charge of all the hand lesions regarding, skeleton, muscles, tendons, nerves and vessels. He has to be able to insure reparation and coverage of all of them. So he is involved in all the structures, which insure integrity and function of the hand. PURPOSE AND WAYS OF TRAINING: To obtain the asked ability, the hand surgeon training has to be global and sustained by two underlying surgical specialities: orthopedic surgery and plastic and reconstructive surgery. From 2000 after many years of dealings, a Right to the Title in Hand Surgery was born. This Right to the Title wants to be the formal recognition of the specific training of the hand surgeon. For the well-recognized ancient hand surgeons they need to be confirmed by one's peers. Now a day the hand surgeon has to satisfy to this specific training: Passed the complete training and exam of the Orthopedic or Plastic surgery board. Spent at least 6 months as resident in the other underlying specialty. Passed a microsurgery examination. Passed one of the four national Hand Surgery diplomas (DIU/Inter-Universitary Diploma). The examinations have been harmonized. A common formation is delivered regarding hand surgery, the way of examination is the same and the formation is 2 years long. The final exam is presented in front of board of examiners where a teacher of one of the other three national diplomas is present. Spent at least 2 years in a formative hand surgery unit, listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons, as senior surgeon. Those requirements are heavy to assume and need a heavy personal involvement. That seems to be necessary to have an ability level as high as possible. Emergency surgery practice is absolutely necessary in this training. All the 17 university formative hand surgery units listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons are members of the FESUM (European Federation of the Emergency Hand Units

  2. Synthesis of Novel 1,3-Dioxolane Nucleoside Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡冬梅; 林昆华; 李明宗; 温集武; 李鸿艳; 尤田耙


    Novel 1,3-dioxolane C-nucleoside analogues of tiazofurin 2-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxamide as well as N-nucleoside analogues of substituted imidazoles 1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4-nitroimidazole and 1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4,5-dicyanoimidazole were synthesized frommethyl acrylate through a multistep procedure. Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental analysis.

  3. Analogue Building Blocks Based on Digital CMOS Gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucha, Igor


    Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility with the......Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility...

  4. Five new discodermolide analogues from the marine sponge Discodermia species. (United States)

    Gunasekera, Sarath P; Paul, Gopal K; Longley, Ross E; Isbrucker, Richard A; Pomponi, Shirley A


    Discodermolide (1) and five new discodermolide analogues trivially named 2-epi-discodermolide (2), 2-des-methyldiscodermolide (3), 5-hydroxymethyldiscodermolate (4), 19-des-aminocarbonyldiscodermolide (5), and 9(13)-cyclodiscodermolide (6) have been isolated from marine sponges belonging to the genus Discodermia collected from the Caribbean Sea. The isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activities of 2-6 are described. The natural analogues, which were isolated in trace amounts, exhibited significant variation of cytotoxicity against the cultured murine P-388 leukemia and A-549 human adenocarcinoma cells and suggested the importance of the C(7) through C(17) moiety for potency against cultured tumor cell lines.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of heterocyclic analogues of bromoxynil. (United States)

    Cutulle, Matthew A; Armel, Gregory R; Brosnan, James T; Best, Michael D; Kopsell, Dean A; Bruce, Barry D; Bostic, Heidi E; Layton, Donovan S


    One attractive strategy to discover more active and/or crop-selective herbicides is to make structural changes to currently registered compounds. This strategy is especially appealing for those compounds with limited herbicide resistance and whose chemistry is accompanied with transgenic tools to enable herbicide tolerance in crop plants. Bromoxynil is a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor registered for control of broadleaf weeds in several agronomic and specialty crops. Recently at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville several analogues of bromoxynil were synthesized including a previously synthesized pyridine (2,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyridine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), a novel pyrimidine (4,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyrimidine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), and a novel pyridine N-oxide (2,6-dibromo-1-oxidopyridin-1-ium-4-carbonitrile). These new analogues of bromoxynil were also evaluated for their herbicidal activity on soybean (Glycine max), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and pitted morningglory ( Ipomoea lacunose ) when applied at 0.28 kg ha(-1). A second study was conducted on a glyphosate-resistant weed (Amaranthus palmeri) with the compounds being applied at 0.56 kg ha(-1). Although all compounds were believed to inhibit PSII by binding in the quinone binding pocket of D1, the pyridine and pyridine-N-oxide analogues were clearly more potent than bromoxynil on Amaranthus retroflexus. However, application of the pyrimidine herbicide resulted in the least injury to all species tested. These variations in efficacy were investigated using molecular docking simulations, which indicate that the pyridine analogue may form a stronger hydrogen bond in the pocket of the D1 protein than the original bromoxynil. A pyridine analogue was able to control the glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri with >80% efficacy. The pyridine analogues of bromoxynil showed potential

  6. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.


    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  7. Analogue Kerr-like geometries in a MHD inflow

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, Sousuke; Takahashi, Masaaki


    We present a model of the analogue black hole in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow. For a two dimensional axisymmetric stationary trans-magnetosonic inflow with a sink, using the dispersion relation of the MHD waves, we introduce the effective geometries for magnetoacoustic waves propagating in the MHD flow. Investigating the properties of the effective potentials for magnetoacoustic rays, we find that the effective geometries can be classified into five types which include analogue spacetimes of the Kerr black hole, ultra spinning stars with ergoregions and spinning stars without ergoregions. We address the effects of the magnetic pressure and the magnetic tension on each magnetoacoustic geometries.

  8. Cataract Surgery Tool (United States)


    The NASA-McGannon cataract surgery tool is a tiny cutter-pump which liquefies and pumps the cataract lens material from the eye. Inserted through a small incision in the cornea, the tool can be used on the hardest cataract lens. The cutter is driven by a turbine which operates at about 200,000 revolutions per minute. Incorporated in the mechanism are two passages for saline solutions, one to maintain constant pressure within the eye, the other for removal of the fragmented lens material and fluids. Three years of effort have produced a design, now being clinically evaluated, with excellent potential for improved cataract surgery. The use of this tool is expected to reduce the patient's hospital stay and recovery period significantly.

  9. [Cosmetic eyelid surgery]. (United States)

    Ruban, J-M; Barbier, J; Malet, T; Baggio, E


    Cosmetic eyelid surgery is becoming increasingly popular. It can rejuvenate the patient's appearance with relatively minor side effects. Its risk/benefit ratio is one of the best in facial cosmetic surgery. However, the patient does not always accurately assess the aesthetic appearance of his or her eyelids. This underscores the importance of clinical examination in order to determine the patient's wishes, and then make an accurate diagnosis and potential surgical plan. We currently oppose, in general, surgical techniques involving tissue removal (skin-muscle and/or fat) in favor of those involving tissue repositioning and grafting (autologous fat pearl transposition, obtained by liposuction, and lipostructure). Furthermore, the place of adjuvant therapies to blepharoplasty is steadily increasing. They mainly include surface treatments (peels and lasers), dermal fillers and anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections. They are also increasingly used in isolation in novel ways. In all cases, a perfect knowledge of anatomy and relevant skills and experience remain necessary.

  10. Use of somatostatin analogue scintigraphy in the localization of recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, L.; Catafau, A.; Mari, C.; Flotats, A.; Martin, J.C.; Estorch, M.; Carrio, I. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Chico, A.; Mato, E. [Department of Endocrinology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Matias-Guiu, X. [Department of Pathology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, C. [Department of Oncology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Mora, J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. [Department of Biochemistry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Mauricio, D. [Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain)


    Detection of recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) remains a diagnostic problem. Increased serum tumour marker levels frequently indicate recurrence while conventional imaging techniques (CIT) are non-diagnostic. In this study, we performed indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and CIT in a series of 20 patients with MTC presenting with elevated serum tumour markers after surgery. {sup 111}In-octreotide whole-body studies detected 15 pathological uptake foci in 11 of the 20 patients studied and CIT detected 17 lesions in 11 of the 20 patients. Ten patients underwent reoperation, five of them with positive {sup 111}In-octreotide scintigraphy and CIT and two with positive isotopic exploration and negative CIT. Surgical findings demonstrated that the results of isotopic study and CIT had been false-positive for MTC in one case (sarcoidosis). The six patients with true-positive {sup 111}In-octreotide studies had significantly higher basal calcitonin (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels than the patients with negative isotopic studies. The expression of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes by PC-PCR could be investigated in four cases with a positive isotopic study. Among the three cases with a true-positive study, SSTR2, the SSTR subtype that preferentially binds to the somatostatin analogue octreotide, was detected in two, SSTR5 was demonstrated in the three, and SSTR3 was detected in one. No subtype of SSTR was detected in the case with a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis. We conclude that {sup 111}In-octreotide has limited sensitivity in detecting recurrence in patients with MTC, although its sensitivity may improve with high serum CT levels. This radionuclide imaging technique should be employed when conventional imaging techniques are negative or inconclusive or when the presence of somatostatin receptors may provide the basis for treatment with somatostatin analogues. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 29 refs.

  11. [Glaucoma and retinal surgery]. (United States)

    Müller, M; Geerling, G; Zierhut, M; Klink, T


    In the therapeutic approach to complex glaucomas different initial situations were considered: pre-existing glaucoma, induction of glaucoma after vitreoretinal surgery and antiglaucomatous procedures. In pre-existing glaucoma and after filtering surgery maintenance of the filtering bleb requires a vitreoretinal approach for conjunctiva preservation with techniques such as pneumatic retinopexy or small gauge vitrectomy. After vitreoretinal surgery an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) is common. Secondary glaucoma may occur after scleral buckling and after vitrectomy with or without gas or silicone oil tamponade as well as after application of steroids. Angle closure glaucoma after scleral buckling develops because of congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body. Vitreous tamponades with expansive or saturated gases may cause angle-closure glaucoma with or without pupillary blockage and may critically shorten ocular perfusion. Postoperative checks, immediate action and a ban on boarding aircraft over the period of intraocular gas tamponade prevent permanent damage to the eye. The majority of secondary glaucomas can effectively be controlled by topical medication and adequate postoperative posture of the patient. Besides the temporary use of systemic antiglaucomatous medication or laser therapy, very rarely in cases of massive swelling or overfill, a direct intervention, such as partial gas or silicone oil removal is required. A prophylactic inferior peripheral iridectomy prevents pupillary blockage in aphakic eyes with intraocular tamponade. In cases of heavy silicone oil use, the peripheral iridectomy is placed in the superior position. Nd:YAG laser application will regulate IOP in cases of occlusion. Secondary glaucoma due to silicone oil emulsification overload is treated by trabecular meshwork aspiration and lavage. In refractory glaucoma repetitive cyclophotocoagulation and drainage implants represent an approved method for long-term IOP regulation

  12. Port Access Cardiac Surgery. (United States)

    Viganó, Mario; Minzioni, Gaetano; Spreafico, Patrizio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Pasquino, Stefano; Ceriana, Piero; Locatelli, Alessandro


    The port-access technique for cardiac surgery was recently developed at Stanford University in California as a less invasive method to perform some cardiac operations. The port-access system has been described in detail elsewhere. It is based on femoral arterial and venous access for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and on the adoption of a specially designed triple-lumen catheter described originally by Peters, and subsequently modified and developed in the definitive configuration called the endoaortic clamp.

  13. [Aesthetic surgery, psychic preparation]. (United States)

    Feiss, R


    The aesthetic surgery impacts the psychological picture of the body. The candidate must be prepared to this change in appearance. If not, the surgeon must suggest the psychological preparation, evaluating the risk of dissatisfaction, in order to allow the surgical and narcissistic success of his operation. The author, a psychiatric, beneficiary in a strong experience of a surgical assistance, develops the interest of such a preparation upon a period of about 15 years (1988-2002).

  14. Cell response to surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, Niamh


    OBJECTIVES: To describe the profound alterations in host immunity that are produced by major surgery as demonstrated by experimental and clinical studies, and to evaluate the benefits of therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating perioperative immune dysfunction. DATA SOURCES: A review of the English-language literature was conducted, incorporating searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane collaboration databases to identify laboratory and clinical studies investigating the cellular response to surgery. STUDY SELECTION: Original articles and case reports describing immune dysfunction secondary to surgical trauma were included. DATA EXTRACTION: The results were compiled to show outcomes of different studies and were compared. DATA SYNTHESIS: Current evidence indicates that the early systemic inflammatory response syndrome observed after major surgery that is characterized by proinflammatory cytokine release, microcirculatory disturbance, and cell-mediated immune dysfunction is followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome, which predisposes the patient to opportunistic infection, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and death. Because there are currently no effective treatment options for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, measures to prevent its onset should be initiated at an early stage. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that targeted therapeutic strategies involving immunomodulatory agents such as interferon gamma, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, the prostaglandin E(2) antagonist, indomethacin, and pentoxifylline may be used for the treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome to prevent the onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical trauma produces profound immunological dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies directed at restoring immune homeostasis should aim to redress the physiological proinflammatory-anti-inflammatory cell imbalance associated with major surgery.

  15. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean eBouquet De Jolinière


    Full Text Available Abstract Minimally invasive surgery (MIS can be considered as the greatest surgical innovation over the past thirty years. It revolutionized surgical practice with well-proven advantages over traditional open surgery: reduced surgical trauma and incision-related complications, such as surgical-site infections, postoperative pain and hernia, reduced hospital stay, and improved cosmetic outcome. Nonetheless, proficiency in MIS can be technically challenging as conventional laparoscopy is associated with several limitations as the two-dimensional (2D monitor reduction in-depth perception, camera instability, limited range of motion and steep learning curves. The surgeon has a low force feedback which allows simple gestures, respect for tissues and more effective treatment of complications.Since 1980s several computer sciences and robotics projects have been set up to overcome the difficulties encountered with conventional laparoscopy, to augment the surgeon's skills, achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery and facilitate widespread of MIS. Surgical instruments are guided by haptic interfaces that replicate and filter hand movements. Robotically assisted technology offers advantages that include improved three- dimensional stereoscopic vision, wristed instruments that improve dexterity, and tremor canceling software that improves surgical precision.

  16. [Bariatric surgery: an update]. (United States)

    Moreno Esteban, B; Zugasti Murillo, A


    The indication of bariatric surgery as therapeutic procedure for morbid obese patients requires the application of selection criteria which deal with the degree of obesity, associated complications and previous failure of conventional therapy. Alcohol or drug addiction and concomitant serious disease are contraindications for bariatric surgery. Before operation, a full assessment is needed to identify possible eating behaviour disturbances and associated comorbidity such as cardiovascular disease, sleep apnoea, metabolic and psychiatric alterations which might induce intra and postoperative complications. Surgical techniques can be classified as restrictive, malabsortive and mixed procedures. Gastroplasty and adjustable gastric banding are restrictive techniques, which are indicated in obese patients with body mass index less than 45 kg/m2. Mixed techniques are the most used procedures. They include gastric by-pass which causes a reduction of 60-70% of weight excess, biliopancreatic diversion and duodenal switch which can eliminate a 75% of body weight excess. Following bariatric surgery a dramatic improvement in associated comorbidity can be demonstrated, specially in what refers to diabetes, hypertension, dislipidaemia and apnoea. Postoperative mortality is around 1-2%. Peritonitis and venous thromboembolism are the most serious complications. Postoperative follow-up should be lifelong and requires a progressive nutrition planning and vitamin supplementation.

  17. Art and epilepsy surgery. (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Hunter, Gary; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco


    The impact of health and disease has led many artists to depict these themes for thousands of years. Specifically, epilepsy has been the subject of many famous works, likely because of the dramatic and misunderstood nature of the clinical presentation. It often evokes religious and even mythical processes. Epilepsy surgical treatment has revolutionized the care of selected patients and is a relatively recent advance. Epilepsy surgery has been depicted in very few artistic works. The first portrait showing a potential surgical treatment for patients with epilepsy was painted in the 12th century. During the Renaissance, Bosch famously provided artistic commentary on traditional beliefs in "The stone of madness". Several of these works demonstrate a surgeon extracting a stone from a patient's head, at one time believed to be the source of all "folly", including epileptic seizures, psychosis, intellectual disability, depression, and a variety of other illnesses. There are some contemporary art pieces including themes around epilepsy surgery, all of them depicting ancient Inca Empire procedures such as trepanning. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with epilepsy surgery and also its historical context at the time the work was produced. We also present a painting from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino that represents the patient's journey through refractory epilepsy, investigations, and ultimately recovery. Through this work, the artist intends to communicate hope and reassurance to patients going through this difficult process.

  18. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sijo J Parekattil; Ahmet Gudeloglu


    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy,unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques.This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology.Today,we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology.Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields,such as ophthalmology,hand surgery,plastics and reconstructive surgery.The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor,improved stability,surgeon ergonomics,scalability of motion,multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views,enhanced magnification,and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously.This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery.It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures,such as vasectomy reversal,subinguinal varicocelectomy,targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE).

  19. Pregnancy Management After Bariatric Surgery. (United States)

    Badreldin, Nevert; Kuller, Jeffrey; Rhee, Eleanor; Brown, Laura; Laifer, Steven


    Obesity is a source of major morbidity and mortality and is a growing concern worldwide. Maternal obesity is associated with increased maternal and fetal risks during pregnancy. Bariatric surgery has emerged as one of the most sustainable treatments for severe obesity and its comorbidities. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery often experience drastic improvements in hypertension and diabetes. It is not surprising, therefore, that the incidence of bariatric surgery is increasing, particularly in women of childbearing age. In fact, many women undergoing bariatric surgery plan to become pregnant in the future. Bariatric surgery may have a beneficial effect on rates of fetal macrosomia, gestational diabetes, hypertension, and preeclampsia. Conversely, studies have showed that bariatric surgery may increase the risk of small for gestational age infants and preterm birth. Given its rising incidence, it is important that physicians be able to thoroughly and accurately counsel and treat patients who plan to, or do, become pregnant after bariatric surgery.

  20. The Orléans-Lithothèque - an analogue rockstore for in situ missions (United States)

    Bost, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Ramboz, Claire


    The Orléans-Lithothèque - an analogue rockstore for in situ missions Nicolas Bost, Frances Westall, Claire Ramboz, Axelle Hubert, Derek Pullan, Beda Hofmann, Elisabeth Vergès, Michel Viso, Jorge Vago, Christelle Briois, Bruno Scaillet, Michel Tagger Instruments for in-situ missions to extraterrestrial bodies should ideally be cross calibrated using a common suite of relevant materials. Such multi-instrument calibration would enable a better comparison of instrument performances during the mission, as well as aid in the interpretation of the in-situ measurements. At the CNRS in Orléans, the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de la region Centre is creating a collection of well-characterised rocks that will be available for testing and calibrating instruments to be flown on space missions. The characteristics of the collection's analogue materials will be described in an online database. In view of the upcoming 2018 ExoMars rover mission, we are concentrating initially on materials of direct relevance to Mars. The initial collection includes basalts (ultramafic, weathered, andesitic, hydrothermally-silicified); sediments (volcanic, biolaminated, banded iron formation); and minerals (silica, evaporites, clays, Fe oxides). This set of samples will be augmented with time. All samples will be characterised petrographically, petrologically, and geochemically using the types of analyses likely to be performed during an in-situ mission: hand specimen description, optical microscopy, mineralogical analysis (XRD, Raman and IR spectrometry), elemental analysis (EDX, microprobe, ICP) and organics analysis (Raman, pyr-GCMS).

  1. Identifying climate analogues for precipitation extremes for Denmark based on RCM simulations from the ENSEMBLES database. (United States)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K; Funder, S G; Madsen, H


    Climate analogues, also denoted Space-For-Time, may be used to identify regions where the present climatic conditions resemble conditions of a past or future state of another location or region based on robust climate variable statistics in combination with projections of how these statistics change over time. The study focuses on assessing climate analogues for Denmark based on current climate data set (E-OBS) observations as well as the ENSEMBLES database of future climates with the aim of projecting future precipitation extremes. The local present precipitation extremes are assessed by means of intensity-duration-frequency curves for urban drainage design for the relevant locations being France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Denmark. Based on this approach projected increases of extreme precipitation by 2100 of 9 and 21% are expected for 2 and 10 year return periods, respectively. The results should be interpreted with caution as the best region to represent future conditions for Denmark is the coastal areas of Northern France, for which only little information is available with respect to present precipitation extremes.

  2. Modified uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery in children. (United States)

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Seims, Aaron D


    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been traditionally performed by a multi-port approach, but uniportal VATS is gaining popularity among thoracic surgeons. The use of only one intercostal space may result in less pain, but competition among camera and operating instruments may be a disadvantage. In children, the limited space in the thorax makes the uniportal VATS difficult to accomplish. We present a modification of the uniportal VATS, using a single skin incision but placing the thoracoscope in the superior or inferior intercostal space relative to the working instruments to increase instrument range of motion within a single intercostal space.

  3. Modified uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery in children (United States)

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Seims, Aaron D.


    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been traditionally performed by a multi-port approach, but uniportal VATS is gaining popularity among thoracic surgeons. The use of only one intercostal space may result in less pain, but competition among camera and operating instruments may be a disadvantage. In children, the limited space in the thorax makes the uniportal VATS difficult to accomplish. We present a modification of the uniportal VATS, using a single skin incision but placing the thoracoscope in the superior or inferior intercostal space relative to the working instruments to increase instrument range of motion within a single intercostal space. PMID:27251823

  4. Effect of submucosal application of tramadol on postoperative pain after third molar surgery. (United States)

    Gönül, Onur; Satılmış, Tülin; Bayram, Ferit; Göçmen, Gökhan; Sipahi, Aysegül; Göker, Kamil


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of submucosal application of tramadol, for acute postoperative facial pain, following the extraction of impacted third molar teeth. This prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled study included 60 ASA I-II patients undergoing impacted third molar surgery under local anaesthesia. Following the surgical procedure, patients were randomly divided into two groups; group T (1 mg/kg tramadol) and group S (2-mL saline). Treatments were applied submucosally after surgery. Pain after extraction was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS) 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. The time at which the first analgesic drug was taken, the total analgesic dose used, and adverse tissue reactions were also evaluated. In group T, postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower compared to that in group S (p third molar surgery.

  5. Subjective assessment of facial aesthetics after maxillofacial orthognathic surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea. (United States)

    Islam, Shofiq; Aleem, Fahd; Ormiston, Ian W


    We aimed to evaluate the subjective perception of facial appearance by patients after maxillofacial surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and explored the possible correlation between satisfaction and surgical outcome. A total of 26 patients, 24 men and 2 women (mean (SD) age 45 (7) years), subjectively assessed their facial appearance before and after operation using a visual analogue scale (VAS). To investigate a possible association between postoperative facial appearance and surgical outcome, we analysed postoperative scores for the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Postoperatively, 14 (54%) indicated that their facial appearance had improved, 4 (15%) recorded a neutral score, and 8 (31%) a lower score. The rating of facial appearance did not correlate with changes in the AHI or ESS following surgery. This study supports the view that most patients are satisfied with their appearance after maxillofacial orthognathic surgery for OSA. The subjective perception of facial aesthetics was independent of the surgical outcome.

  6. Ibuprofen timing for hand surgery in ambulatory care (United States)

    Giuliani, Enrico; Bianchi, Anna; Marcuzzi, Augusto; Landi, Antonio; Barbieri, Alberto


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pre-operative administration of ibuprofen on post-operative pain control vs. early post-operative administration for hand surgery procedures performed under local anaesthesia in ambulatory care. METHODS: Candidates to trigger finger release by De Quervain tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel operation under local anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Group A received 400 mg ibuprofen before the operation and placebo after the procedure; group B received placebo before the operation and ibuprofen 400 mg at the end of the procedure; both groups received ibuprofen 400 mg every 6h thereafter. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was measured at fixed times before and every 6h after surgery, for a total follow-up of 18h. RESULTS: Groups were similar according to age, gender and type of surgery. Median VAS values did not produce any statistical significance, while there was a statistically significant difference on pre-operative and early post-operative VAS values between groups (A -8.53 mm vs. B 3.36 mm, p=0.0085). CONCLUSION: Average pain levels were well controlled by local anesthesia and post-operative ibuprofen analgesia. Pre-operative ibuprofen administration can contribute to improve early pain management. Level of Evidence II, Therapeutic Studies. PMID:26327799

  7. [Macro surgery: a merge of minimal invasive surgery, membrane anatomy, and industry]. (United States)

    Gong, Jianping


    Minimal invasive surgery (MIS), which is presented by laparoscopy, has developed for more than a quarter of century. More and more surgical operations can be finished by laparoscopy, not only for cholecystectomy, but also for some complex operations, even radical operation for gastrointestinal cancer, such as radical rectectomy, D3 colectomy, D2 gastrectomy. These operations have small incisions only, but with extensive injury and bleeding in the abdomen. Meanwhile, total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer and complete mesocolic excision (CME) for colon cancer have been proposed by surgeons in the field of open surgery. During those procedures, they suggested that it is very important to find out a "space", then expand it to a "holly plane", to achieve resection en bloc and less bleeding, namely "plane surgery". In fact, the "plane" is consisted of two membranes under laparoscopy, that is the membranes (fascia or serous) which come from the mesentery in broad sense(or tissue bloc) and its bed. Understanding of the membrane anatomy we proposed, which includes the mesentery in broad sense(or tissue bloc) and the mesentery bed, will help the surgeons identify the correct anatomy or plane intentionally or accurately, and perform operations more easily, more precisely with less bleeding, more radically and less side injury. However, It is not easy to identify the membrane anatomy by naked eyes or traditional laparoscopy. It is not only dependent on the development of knowledge of membrane anatomy, but also the instruments developed by industry. Now, it seems to become possible when industry of optic or glass developed some instruments, such as 3D laparoscopy, binocular loupe, which have the proper magnifying power and high density resolution, and can identify the membrane anatomy at macro level (not micro level). Wearing these instruments, based on the membrane anatomy(macro anatomy), the classical operations, which include traditional laparoscopy or open

  8. The HERMES solar atlas and the spectroscopic analysis of the seismic solar analogue KIC 3241581 (United States)

    Beck, P. G.; Allende Prieto, C.; Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Raskin, G.; van Winckel, H.; do Nascimento, J.-D., Jr.; Salabert, D.; Corsaro, E.; García, R. A.


    Context. Solar-analogue stars provide an excellent resource to study the Sun's evolution, i.e. the changes with time in stellar structure, activity, or rotation for solar-like stars. The unparalleled photometric data from the NASA space telescope Kepler allows us to study and characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental parameter and chromospheric activity of solar analogues and twins, based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph and combine them with asteroseismology. Therefore, we need to build a solar atlas for the spectrograph, to provide accurate calibrations of the spectroscopically determined abundances of solar- and late-type stars observed with this instrument and thus perform differential spectroscopic comparisons. Methods: We acquire high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectroscopy to construct three solar reference spectra by observing the reflected light of the asteroids Vesta and Victoria and the jovian moon Europa (100 ≲ S/N ≲ 450) with the HERMES spectrograph. We then observe the Kepler solar analogue KIC 3241581 (S/N ~ 170). For this star, the fundamental spectral parameters are extracted using a differential analysis. Sufficient S/N in the near ultraviolet allows us to investigate the chromospheric magnetic activity in both objects. Results: We constructed three solar spectrum atlases from 385 to 900 nm, obtained with the HERMES spectrograph from observations of two bright asteroids and a jovian moon. A comparison between our solar spectra atlas to the Kurucz and HARPS solar spectrum shows an excellent agreement. KIC 3241581 was found to be a long-periodic binary system. The fundamental parameter for the stellar primary component are Teff = 5689 ± 11 K, log g = 4.385 ± 0.005, [Fe/H] = + 0.22 ± 0.01, being in agreement with the published global seismic values, which confirms its status as solar analogue. The chromospheric activity level is

  9. A highly efficient synthesis of itraconazole intermediates and their analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chong Il; Myoung, Young Chan; Choi, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Jin [Agency for Technology and Standards, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Itraconazole is an important drug for oral treatment of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. Itraconazole has been the targets of many synthetic efforts due to their diverse antifungal activities. In this study, an efficient synthetic route for Itraconazole intermediates has been developed using new procedures. Also, Itraconazole analogues introducing 2- and 3-methoxy group instead of Itraconazole intermediates with 4-methoxy group were synthesized.

  10. Vitamin D analogues: Potential use in cancer treatment. (United States)

    Duffy, Michael J; Murray, Alyson; Synnott, Naoise C; O'Donovan, Norma; Crown, John


    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the thyroid-steroid family of nuclear transcription factors. Following binding of the active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3 (also known as calcitriol) and interaction with co-activators and co-repressors, VDR regulates the expression of several different genes. Although relatively little work has been carried out on VDR in human cancers, several epidemiological studies suggest that low circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with both an increased risk of developing specific cancer types and poor outcome in patients with specific diagnosed cancers. These associations apply especially in colorectal and breast cancer. Consistent with these findings, calcitriol as well as several of its synthetic analogues have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro and in diverse animal model systems. Indeed, some of these vitamin D analogues with low calcemic inducing activity (e.g., EB1089, inecalcitol, paricalcitol) have progressed to clinical trials in patients with cancer. Preliminary results from these trials suggest that these vitamin D analogues have minimal toxicity, but clear evidence of efficacy remains to be shown. Although evidence of efficacy for mono-treatment with vitamin D analogues is currently lacking, several studies have reported that supplementation with calcitriol or the presence of high endogenous circulating levels of vitamin D enhances response to standard therapies.

  11. Block-level Bayesian diagnosis of analogue electronic circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, S.; Doornbos, K.D.; Brand, R.; Kerkhoff, H.G.


    Daily experience with product designers, test and diagnosis engineers it is realized that the depth of interaction among them, ought be high for sucessfull diagnosis of analogue circuits. With this knowledge in mind, a responsibility was undertaken to choose a popular diagnostic method and define a

  12. Synthesis of pyrophosphonic acid analogues of farnesyl pyrophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, A.R.P.M.; Berg, O. van den; Marel, G.A. van der; Cohen, L.H.; Boom, J.H. van


    The synthesis of four new analogues (i.e. 3-6) of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which may function as inhibitor of squalene synthase, is described. Compounds 3 and 4 were readily accessible by reaction of farnesal with diethyl phosphite or dimethyl lithiomethylphosphonate, respectively, followed by

  13. Design and Synthesis of Muramyl Dipeptide Cyclic Analogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new conformationally restricted cyclic analogue of muramyl dipeptide was designed and manually synthesized by our "Meshed-Bag Gathered-Bunch" method with a combination of Fmoc, allyl and N-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclo-hexylidene)ethyl chemical protection strategy.

  14. Reproducibility along a 10 cm vertical visual analogue scale.


    Dixon, J. S.; Bird, H A


    Reproducibility along a vertical 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was investigated. Eight normal volunteers attempted to duplicate a set of marked VAS. There was a tendency to estimate too high on the scale, and reproducibility was found to be variable along its length. This indicates that the error involved in the use of VASs is even more complex than previously thought.

  15. Click-based synthesis and proteomic profiling of lipstatin analogues


    Ngai, Mun H.; Yang, Peng-Yu; Liu, Kai; Shen, Yuan; Wenk, Markus R; Yao, Shao Q.; Lear, Martin J.


    Using click chemistry to enable both structural diversity and proteome profiling within a natural product derived library, two out of nineteen lipstatin analogues showed similar activity to Orlistat against fatty acid synthase (FAS), but with an improved ability to induce tumour cell death.

  16. Solution-phase synthesis of a muramyl dipeptide analogue MDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Zhao; Yao Ma; Gang Liu


    The solution-phase synthesis of a muramyl dipeptide (MDP) analogue of Nα- [4-chlorocinnamoyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl]-L-lysine (MDA, 2) is reported that possesses the features of easy feasibility, safety and low cost in large scale of synthesis.

  17. Direct neutron decay of analogue resonances in 105Rh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Bi-Tao; P.P.Zarubin; U.U.Juravlev


    A new method, while takes into account the contribution of direct neutron decay of analogue resonances to the isomeric ratio resulting from (p,n) reaction, is used to analyse the published experimental data for the reaction 104Ru(p,n)104Rh and also estimate a minimum probability of direct decay.

  18. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential (United States)

    Dunlap, Richard A.


    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  19. Nucleic Acid Analogue Induced Transcription of Double Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    RNA is transcribed from a double stranded DNA template by forming a complex by hybridizing to the template at a desired transcription initiation site one or more oligonucleic acid analogues of the PNA type capable of forming a transcription initiation site with the DNA and exposing the complex...

  20. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés


    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…

  1. Are Structural Analogues to Bisphenol A Safe Alternatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Dybdahl, Marianne; Pedersen, Mikael;


    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical with widespread human exposure suspected of causing low-dose effects. Thus, a need for developing alternatives to BPA exists. Structural analogues of BPA have already been detected in foods and humans. Due to the structural analogy of the alternatives...

  2. Treatment with insulin (analogues) and breast cancer risk in diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Ter Braak, Bas; Karlstad, Øystein


    : A systematic literature search was performed on breast cell-line, animal and human studies using the key words 'insulin analogue' and 'breast neoplasia' in MEDLINE at PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases. A quantitative and qualitative review was performed on the epidemiological data; due...

  3. Synthesis and Antioxidant Properties of Novel Silybin Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Eight novel silybin analogues (7a-h) were synthesized and their antioxidant properties including the capability of scavenging superoxide anion free radicals and the inhibitory effect on DPPH free radicals were determined. Several synthetic compounds showed comparable antioxidative effect to that of quercetin.

  4. The influence of no fault found in analogue CMOS circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Jinbo; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    The most difficult fault category in electronic systems is the “No Fault Found” (NFF). It is considered to be the most costly fault category in, for instance, avionics. The relatively few papers in this area rarely deal with analogue integrated systems. In this paper a simple simulation model has be

  5. Aromaticity in Polyacene Analogues of Inorganic Ring Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Chattaraj, P K; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar; Roy, Debesh Ranjan


    The aromaticity in the polyacene analogues of several inorganic ring compounds (BN-acenes, CN-acenes, BO-acenes and Na6-acenes) is reported here for the first time. Conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors and the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) values are used in this analysis.

  6. Rubrene analogues with the aggregation-induced emission enhancement behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger; Fu, Xiaowei;


    In the light of the principle of aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE), the rubrene analogue with orange light-emitting properties is designed and synthesized by substituting the phenyl side groups of rubrene with thienyl groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report...

  7. Design and Synthesis of Muramyl Dipeptide Cyclic Analogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuoDeZHANG; GangLIU; 等


    A new conformationalloy restricted cyclic analogue of muramyl dipeptide was designed and manually synthesized by our “Meshed-Bag Gathered-Bunch” method with a combination of Fmoc,ally and N-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclo-hexylidene) ethyl chemical protection strategy.

  8. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yang [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Niu, Hua-Ying [Jinan Dachpharm Development Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)


    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method.

  9. Combined treatment of somatostatin analogues with pegvisomant in acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Franck; A. Muhammad; A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)


    textabstractTreatment of acromegaly with monotherapy long-acting somatostatin analogues (LA-SSA) as primary treatment or after neurosurgery can only achieve complete normalization of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in roughly 40 % of patients. Recently, one of the acromegaly consensus groups ha

  10. Concise synthesis of new bridged-nicotine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Hooyberghs, Geert; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard


    This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively....

  11. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P


    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were ac

  12. Analogue Electrical Circuit for Simulation of the Duffing-Holmes Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaseviciute, E.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.;


    An extremely simple second order analogue electrical circuit for simulating the two-well Duffing-Holmes mathematical oscillator is described. Numerical results and analogue electrical simulations are illustrated with the snapshots of chaotic waveforms, phase portraits (Lissajous figures...

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of the Tetrazole Analogues of α-Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Min HUO; Gen Hu LEI; Yin Mao WEI; Xiao Hui ZHENG


    The tetrazole analogues have been synthesized from fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)protected amino acids by three steps. The structures of the analogues were characterized by HPLC-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  14. Robotics and telemanipulation technologies for endoscopic surgery. A review of the ARTEMIS project. Advanced Robotic Telemanipulator for Minimally Invasive Surgery. (United States)

    Schurr, M O; Buess, G; Neisius, B; Voges, U


    In endoscopic surgery, the ability to guide the instrument is significantly decreased compared with open surgery. Rigid laparoscopic instruments offer only four of the six degrees of freedom required for the free handling of objects in space. Robotics technology can be used to restore full mobility of the endoscopic instrument. Therefore, we designed a master-slave manipulator system (ARTEMIS) for laparoscopic surgery as a prototype. The system consists of two robotic arms holding two steerable laparoscopic instruments. These two work units are controlled from a console equipped with two master arms operated by the surgeon. The systems and its components were evaluated experimentally. Laparoscopic manipulations were feasible with the ARTEMIS system. The placement of ligatures and sutures and the handling of catheters were possible in phantom models. The surgical practicability of the system was demonstrated in animal experiments. We conclude that robotic manipulators are feasible for experimental endoscopic surgery. Their clinical application requires further technical development.

  15. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery. (United States)

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie


    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Energy systems in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Miloš


    Full Text Available Introduction. The systems of energy in surgery are applied in order to achieve better and more effective performing of procedures. Whereas various energy sources, including electricity, ultrasound, laser and argon gas, may be used, the fundamental principle involves tissue necrosis and hemostasis by heating. Electro Surgery. Electro Surgery is a surgical technique by which surgical procedures are performed by focused heating of the tissue using devices based on high-frequency currents. It represents one of the most frequently used energy systems in laparoscopy. Ultrasound Energy. The basic principle of operation of the ultrasound surgical instruments is the usage of low-frequency mechanic vibrations (ultrasound energy within the range of 20-60 kHz for cutting and coagulation of tissue. Laser. Laser is the abbreviation for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, aimed at increasing light by stimulated emission of radiation and it is the name of the instrument which generates coherent beam of light. Argon Plasma Coagulation. It has been in use since 1991 for endoscopic hemostasis. It uses highfrequency electric current and ionized gas argon. The successful application of devices depends on the type of surgical procedure, training of the surgeon and his knowledge about the device. Surgeons do not agree on the choice of device which would be optimal for a certain procedure. Conclusion. The whole team in the operating room must have the basic knowledge of the way an energy system works so as to provide a safe and effective treatment of patients. The advantages and shortcomings of different systems of energy have to be taken into account while we use a special mode.

  18. Anesthesia for thoracoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conacher I


    Full Text Available Anesthesia for thoracoscopy is based on one lung ventilation. Lung separators in the airway are essential tools. An anatomical shunt as a result of the continued perfusion of a non-ventilated lung is the principal intraoperative concern. The combination of equipment, technique and process increase risks of hypoxia and dynamic hyperinflation, in turn, potential factors in the development of an unusual form of pulmonary edema. Analgesia management is modelled on that shown effective and therapeutic for thoracotomy. Perioperative management needs to reflect the concern for these complex, and complicating, processes to the morbidity of thoracoscopic surgery.

  19. [Robotics in pediatric surgery]. (United States)

    Camps, J I


    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  20. Cutaneous mucormycosis postcosmetic surgery (United States)

    Al-Tarrah, Khaled; Abdelaty, Mahmoud; Behbahani, Ahmad; Mokaddas, Eman; Soliman, Helmy; Albader, Ahdi


    Abstract Background: Mucormycosis is a rare, aggressive, and life-threatening infection that is caused by organisms belonging to the order Mucorales. It is usually acquired through direct means and virtually always affects immunocompromised patients with the port of entry reflecting the site of infection, in this case, cutaneous. Unlike other mucormycoses, patients affected by Apophysomyces elegans (A elegans) are known to be immunocompetent. This locally aggressive disease penetrates through different tissue plains invading adjacent muscles, fascia, and even bone causing extensive morbidity and may prove fatal if treated inadequately. Cutaneous mucormycosis is associated with disruption of cutaneous barriers such as trauma. However, rarely, it may be iatrogenic. No cases have been previously reported postcosmetic surgery, especially one that is so commonly performed, lipofilling. Case Report: The patient is a, previously healthy, 41-year-old middle-eastern female who was admitted to the plastic surgery department 17 days after undergoing cosmetic surgery. She suffered from extensive tissue inflammation and necrosis in both gluteal regions. Following admission, she was initially started on empirical antimicrobial therapy which was changed to an antifungal agent, voriconazole, when preliminary microbiological results showed filamentous fungi. This was discontinued and liposomal amphotericin B was commenced when further mycological analysis identified A elegans. Furthermore, she underwent a total of 10 sessions of extensive debridement to the extent that portions of the sacrum and left femoral head became exposed. Her clinical status and wounds improved with the appropriate management and she remained an inpatient for 62 days. Subsequently, she had defects in both gluteal regions which required reconstructive surgery. Conclusion: A elegans is an uncommon cause of iatrogenic cutaneous mucormycosis. A high index of clinical suspicion is required, especially in the

  1. Robotics in colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Hance, J; Rockall, T; Darzi, A


    Minimally invasive surgery has been shown to offer many advantages to general surgical patients but has not been widely adopted for colorectal disease. Initial fears surrounding the oncological safety of laparoscopic colectomies have largely subsided but the technical challenges still remain. Surgical robots or telemanipulators present the laparoscopic surgeon with unrivaled dexterity and vision, which may allow colonic resections to be completed with greater ease. Although initial studies suggest promising results using currently available systems, it will take further time for patient benefits to be proven, therefore justifying the greater expense of operating with this new technology.

  2. Rabbit orthopedic surgery. (United States)

    Rich, Gregory A


    Orthopedic surgery in rabbits poses several unique parameters for the veterinary surgeon. It is imperative for the veterinarian to be knowledgeable about the anatomic features of the surgical repair site and to become familiar with a rabbit's pain and discomfort often associated with orthopedic injuries. Handling the perioperative and postoperative pain and potential GI disturbances are crucial for a successful outcome of the surgical case. This article is designed to help the veterinary surgeon prepare for the orthopedic surgical procedure and the peripheral physiologic needs of the rabbit from presentation through recovery.

  3. Monitoring in microvascular surgery. (United States)

    Furnas, H; Rosen, J M


    The importance of monitoring in microvascular surgery is underscored by the high reported salvage rates of failing free flaps and replants. In this overview, we begin by defining the physiology of ischemic tissue with emphasis given to the no-reflow phenomenon and the secondary critical ischemia times. Based on the physiological changes accompanying ischemia, several variables are defined that can be monitored to reflect the vascular state of a free flap or replant. Multifarious monitoring systems are then reviewed, including clinical observation, temperature, isotope clearance, ultrasonic Doppler, laser Doppler, transcutaneous oxygen tension, reflection plethysmography, dermofluorometry, pH, electromagnetic flowmetry, serial hematocrits, interstitial fluid pressure, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Recovery Following Orthognathic Surgery (United States)


    USAF Chief Administration 13. ABSTRACT (Mlaxomum 200 words ) Acaesslon For WTTS CPA&t DTIC TAB [1 Unlnlnounced 3)¶’rt QUTALIT 32CT! By~i~’bt f Ditiu~tif...cardiovascular physiology. Int J Adult Orthod Orthognath Surg 1986;1:133-159. 3. Zimmer B, Schwestka R, Kubein-Meesenburg D: Changes in mandibu- lar...mobility after different procedures of orthoganthic surgery. Eur J Orthod 1992;14:188-197. 4. Aragon SB, Van Sickels JE: Mandibular range of motion with

  5. The HERMES Solar Atlas and the spectroscopic analysis of the seismic solar analogue KIC3241581

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, P G; Van Reeth, T; Tkachenko, A; Raskin, G; van Winckel, H; Nascimento, J -D do; Salabert, D; Corsaro, E; Garcia, R A


    Solar-analog stars provide an excellent opportunity to study the Sun's evolution, i.e. the changes with time in stellar structure, activity, or rotation for solar-like stars. The unparalleled photometric data from the NASA space telescope Kepler allows us to study and characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology. We aim to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental parameter and chromospheric activity of solar analogues and twins, based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph and combine them with asteroseismology. Therefore, we need to build a solar atlas for the spectrograph, to provide accurate calibrations of the spectroscopically determined abundances of solar and late type stars observed with this instrument and thus perform differential spectral comparisons. We acquire high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy to construct three solar reference spectra by observing the reflected light of Vesta and Victoria asteroids and Europa (100

  6. Exploring the biological consequences of conformational changes in aspartame models containing constrained analogues of phenylalanine. (United States)

    Mollica, Adriano; Mirzaie, Sako; Costante, Roberto; Carradori, Simone; Macedonio, Giorgia; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Dvoracsko, Szabolcs; Novellino, Ettore


    The dipeptide aspartame (Asp-Phe-OMe) is a sweetener widely used in replacement of sucrose by food industry. 2',6'-Dimethyltyrosine (DMT) and 2',6'-dimethylphenylalanine (DMP) are two synthetic phenylalanine-constrained analogues, with a limited freedom in χ-space due to the presence of methyl groups in position 2',6' of the aromatic ring. These residues have shown to increase the activity of opioid peptides, such as endomorphins improving the binding to the opioid receptors. In this work, DMT and DMP have been synthesized following a diketopiperazine-mediated route and the corresponding aspartame derivatives (Asp-DMT-OMe and Asp-DMP-OMe) have been evaluated in vivo and in silico for their activity as synthetic sweeteners.

  7. Delayed elective surgery in a major teaching hospital in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajja I


    Full Text Available Isaac Kajja,1 Cees Th Smit Sibinga21Department of Orthopedics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2ID Consulting for International Development of Transfusion Medicine (IDTM, Groningen, The NetherlandsBackground: A number of factors come into play in determining the timing of an elective surgical intervention, particularly in the developing world. The present study explores the factors that contribute to the timing of elective surgery and patients' opinions on their quality of life as they wait for surgery.Methods: We followed adult patients with delayed elective surgical interventions (n=204. The causes for the delay and, particularly, the influence of blood shortage on the timing of the procedure were noted. Patients' perceptions on their quality of life as they waited for surgery were also noted.Results: We were able to establish a cause for delayed elective surgery in 133 patients. Shortage of operating space was the leading cause of surgery delay in 44 patients, while blood shortage followed closely in 40 patients. The higher the amount of blood ordered for use in the perioperative time, the longer the delay to surgery (P=0.001. Patients waiting for surgery had a low opinion of their in-hospital quality of life. Here, the key indicators included the threat of losing a job, limited family time, and an increase in day-to-day living costs.Conclusion: Blood shortage is the second most common cause of the delayed performance of elective surgical interventions in our institution. The patients have a low opinion on their quality of life as they wait for surgery.Keywords: blood shortage, delayed elective surgery, quality of life

  8. The Application of Topical Anesthesia Combined with Subconjunctival Anesthesia for Glaucoma Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengsong Huang; Minbin Yu; Jie Lian; Min Fan; Changyu Qiu


    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, reliability and analgesia effect of topical anesthesia combined with subconjunctival anesthesia in anti-glaucomatous surgery.Methods: Two hundred and four cases (357 eyes) underwent anti-glaucomatous surgeries under topical anesthesia with 0.5% Alcaine eye drops combined with subconjunctival anesthesia with 2% Lidocaine. The analgesic effect was analysed with visual analogue pain scale.Results: Among all of 357 eyes, 62 eyes underwent peripheral iridectomy, 67 eyes underwent simple trabeculectomy, 167 eyes underwent compound brabeculectomy and 12 eyes nonpenetrating trabecular surgery. The effects of anesthesia were as follows: 304 eyes(85.2%) were painless (Grade I ), 50 eyes (14.0%) were slight painful (Grade Ⅱ ), and 3 eyes (0.8%) were more painful (Grade Ⅲ ) during surgery. And no severe complications were observed in all the cases during surgery and postoperatively. Amaurosis fugax was not observed in the glaucoma patients at the late stage with narrow visual fields and poor visual ability.Conclusion: Topical anesthesia combined with subconjunctival anesthesia is effective,safe and simple anesthesia alternative in routine anti-glaucomatous surgery, especially for the glaucoma patients at the late stage with narrow visual fields and poor visual ability. It is worthy of being applied widely.

  9. Homology of locally semialgebraic spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Delfs, Hans


    Locally semialgebraic spaces serve as an appropriate framework for studying the topological properties of varieties and semialgebraic sets over a real closed field. This book contributes to the fundamental theory of semialgebraic topology and falls into two main parts. The first dealswith sheaves and their cohomology on spaces which locally look like a constructible subset of a real spectrum. Topics like families of support, homotopy, acyclic sheaves, base-change theorems and cohomological dimension are considered. In the second part a homology theory for locally complete locally semialgebraic spaces over a real closed field is developed, the semialgebraic analogue of classical Bore-Moore-homology. Topics include fundamental classes of manifolds and varieties, Poincare duality, extensions of the base field and a comparison with the classical theory. Applying semialgebraic Borel-Moore-homology, a semialgebraic ("topological") approach to intersection theory on varieties over an algebraically closed field of ch...

  10. Robotic surgery of the pancreas (United States)

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew


    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  11. Robotic Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert DeBernardo


    Full Text Available Robotic surgery for the management of gynecologic cancers allows for minimally invasive surgical removal of cancer-bearing organs and tissues using sophisticated surgeon-manipulated, robotic surgical instrumentation. Early on, gynecologic oncologists recognized that minimally invasive surgery was associated with less surgical morbidity and that it shortened postoperative recovery. Now, robotic surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional laparotomy. Since its widespread adoption, minimally invasive surgery has become an option not only for the morbidly obese but for women with gynecologic malignancy where conventional laparotomy has been associated with significant morbidity. As such, this paper considers indications for robotic surgery, reflects on outcomes from initial robotic surgical outcomes data, reviews cost efficacy and implications in surgical training, and discusses new roles for robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer management.

  12. Robotic surgery - advance or gimmick? (United States)

    De Wilde, Rudy L; Herrmann, Anja


    Robotic surgery is increasingly implemented as a minimally invasive approach to a variety of gynaecological procedures. The use of conventional laparoscopy by a broad range of surgeons, especially in complex procedures, is hampered by several drawbacks. Robotic surgery was created with the aim of overcoming some of the limitations. Although robotic surgery has many advantages, it is also associated with clear disadvantages. At present, the proof of superiority over access by laparotomy or laparoscopy through large randomised- controlled trials is still lacking. Until results of such trials are present, a firm conclusion about the usefulness of robotic surgery cannot be drawn. Robotic surgery is promising, making the advantages of minimally invasive surgery potentially available to a large number of surgeons and patients in the future.

  13. Pregnancy management following bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Uzoma, A; Keriakos, R


    Bariatric surgery is gaining in popularity, due to globally increasing rates of obesity. In the UK, this has manifested as a 14-fold increase in bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2010, making it necessary to develop strategies to manage women who become pregnant following bariatric surgery. This review paper has explored all the current evidence in the literature and provided a comprehensive management strategy for pregnant women following bariatric surgery. The emphasis is on a multidisciplinary team approach to all aspects of care. Adequate pre-conception and antenatal and postnatal care is essential to good pregnancy outcomes with emphasis on appropriate nutritional supplementation. This is especially important following malabsorptive procedures. There is no evidence to suggest that pregnancy outcome is worse after bariatric surgery, though women who remain obese are prone to obesity-related risks in pregnancy. Neonatal outcome post-bariatric surgery is no different from the general population.

  14. Terephthalamide-containing analogues of TREN-Me-3,2-HOPO. (United States)

    Jurchen, Kristy M Clarke; Raymond, Kenneth N


    A series of terephthalamide-containing analogues based on TREN-Me-3,2-HOPO have been prepared. These analogues contain one, two, or three bidentate 2,3-dihydroxyterephthalamide (TAM) units in place of the 3,2-hydroxypyridinone (HOPO) units on the parent hexadentate ligand. One representative ligand in the series, TRENHOPOTAM2, and its gallium complex have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. TRENHOPOTAM2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with cell parameters a = 16.0340(17) A, b = 17.0609(18) A, c = 16.0695(17) A, beta = 113.837(2) degrees, and Z = 4. Ga[TRENHOPOTAM2] also crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, with cell parameters a = 16.3379(14) A, b = 15.2722(13) A, c = 19.4397(17) A, beta = 91.656(2) degrees, and Z = 4. The conformation of the TRENHOPOTAM2 ligand structure suggests that the ligand is predisposed for metal ion binding. The aqueous protonation and ferric ion coordination chemistry of all ligands in the series were examined using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods, giving log formation constants of 34.6(2) (beta110) and 38.8(2) (beta111) for the ferric TRENHOPO2TAM complexes, 41.0(3) (beta110) and 45.4(3) (beta111) for the ferric TRENHOPOTAM2 complexes, and 45.2(2) (beta110) and 50.9(2) (beta111) for the ferric TRENTAM3 complexes. These thermodynamic data confirm that adding terephthalamide units to a hydroxypyridinone-containing ligand tends to increase the stability of the resulting iron complex. The ferric TRENTAM3 complex is one of the most stable iron complexes yet reported.

  15. New Trends in General Surgery


    Bautista Iturrizaga, Juan; Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú


    Currently, with the advance of science, more and more basic disciplines are associated with surgery exerting some influence and giving rise to the concept of Medical-Surgical Science. Besides that, surgery has evolved in paralel with immunology (in the field of transplants), interventional radiology and diagnostic-therapeutic endoscopy. Indeed, many of changes in surgery, such as the use of new diagnostic tools, approaches with shorter incisions, and the colaboration -still in an evaluative p...

  16. Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery. (United States)

    Kutcipal, Elizabeth


    Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery is rarely seen as a separate entity from adult oral and maxillofacial surgery. Many procedures are similar on adults and children; however, children have unique behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic considerations. Children also have a propensity for certain injuries and pathologic lesions. Children born with congenital anomalies may also have a special subset of needs. This article is a brief review of oral and maxillofacial surgery on the pediatric population.

  17. Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer (United States)


    TITLE: Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Principal Investigator: John I. Loewenstein MD Co-Investigator: Bonnie A...AND SUBTITLE Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0531 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery

  18. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik


    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  19. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hartman


    Full Text Available Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  20. Future of robotic surgery. (United States)

    Lendvay, Thomas Sean; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M


    In just over a decade, robotic surgery has penetrated almost every surgical subspecialty and has even replaced some of the most commonly performed open oncologic procedures. The initial reports on patient outcomes yielded mixed results, but as more medical centers develop high-volume robotics programs, outcomes appear comparable if not improved for some applications. There are limitations to the current commercially available system, and new robotic platforms, some designed to compete in the current market and some to address niche surgical considerations, are being developed that will change the robotic landscape in the next decade. Adoption of these new systems will be dependent on overcoming barriers to true telesurgery that range from legal to logistical. As additional surgical disciplines embrace robotics and open surgery continues to be replaced by robotic approaches, it will be imperative that adequate education and training keep pace with technology. Methods to enhance surgical performance in robotics through the use of simulation and telementoring promise to accelerate learning curves and perhaps even improve surgical readiness through brief virtual-reality warm-ups and presurgical rehearsal. All these advances will need to be carefully and rigorously validated through not only patient outcomes, but also cost efficiency.

  1. Surgery, sterilization and sterility. (United States)

    Green, V W


    The history of sterilization was not linked from the first with surgery. Surgery came first, fully 600 years before the principles of asepsis and anesthesia were even introduced in the middle of the 1800s. Also in the 1800s, the beginnings of thermal sterilization were being developed in the food industry. The basic principles of antisepsis and prevention of wound suppuration, including the destruction of germs on instruments, dressings, the hands of the surgeon and his assistants, and everything else in contact with the wound were clearly elucidated by Lister in the 1870s and remain the inviolate principles of surgical asepsis today. In general, the marriage between the surgeons and the sterilizers was a successful one; the major handicap to eternal bliss and harmony, however, was an incompatibility between the partners. As in many marriages, the partners made unwarranted demands upon each other, and became frustrated when these demands were unfulfilled. The field of surgical sterilization and surgical safety is less confused by technical inconsistencies than it is by semantic nightmares, such that we will never reach a universal definition of sterility. However, we do not really need a universal definition of sterility. Rather we should learn how to translate sterility tests in terms of the real world infections hazards.

  2. [Erythropoietin in plastic surgery]. (United States)

    Günter, C I; Rezaeian, F; Harder, Y; Lohmeyer, J A; Egert, S; Bader, A; Schilling, A F; Machens, H-G


    EPO is an autologous hormone, which is known to regulate erythropoiesis. For 30 years it has been used for the therapy of diverse forms of anaemia, such as renal anaemia, tumour-related anaemias, etc. Meanwhile, a multitude of scientific publications were able to demonstrate its pro-regenerative effects after trauma. These include short-term effects such as the inhibition of the "primary injury response" or apoptosis, and mid- and long-term effects for example the stimulation of stem cell recruitment, growth factor production, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. Known adverse reactions are increases of thromboembolic events and blood pressure, as well as a higher mortality in patients with tumour anaemias treated with EPO. Scientific investigations of EPO in the field of plastic surgery included: free and local flaps, nerve regeneration, wound healing enhancement after dermal thermal injuries and in chronic wounds.Acute evidence for the clinical use of EPO in the field of plastic surgery is still not satisfactory, due to the insufficient number of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-conform clinical trials. Thus, the initiation of more scientifically sound trials is indicated.

  3. Leadership in cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos


    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance.

  4. [Ethics in aesthetic surgery]. (United States)

    de Fontaine, S


    The use of aesthetic medicine and surgery is increasingly popular, and becomes a true phenomenon of society. Many women and men are asking for such treatments. A large proportion of the population carry the idea that this branch of medicine is a true consumer product. The acts of aesthetic medicine and surgery are not without consequences. They produce important changes in the human body, and carry risks of complications that must be taken into account. The overrated media interest of this subject produce commercial drifts that act against the general health of the patients. The invasive acts of medical aesthetics must be placed in a precise legal and ethical framework to protect the patients. A project of a new Belgian law is on the way, awaiting for publication in "Le Moniteur": this law (proposed by Senator Dominique Tilmans) clarifies the competences required for performing non-surgical aesthetic treatments and specific aesthetic invasive treatments. Other projects of law are being studied, and will concern publicity, information of the public, and rules of private clinics where aesthetic invasive acts are performed. Recent international news have shown, with the PIP breast prosthesis scandal, that surveillance of the medical aesthetic field is mandatory. To provide a better protection of patients, the legislator has decided legislate over the subject.

  5. Robotics for surgery. (United States)

    Howe, R D; Matsuoka, Y


    Robotic technology is enhancing surgery through improved precision, stability, and dexterity. In image-guided procedures, robots use magnetic resonance and computed tomography image data to guide instruments to the treatment site. This requires new algorithms and user interfaces for planning procedures; it also requires sensors for registering the patient's anatomy with the preoperative image data. Minimally invasive procedures use remotely controlled robots that allow the surgeon to work inside the patient's body without making large incisions. Specialized mechanical designs and sensing technologies are needed to maximize dexterity under these access constraints. Robots have applications in many surgical specialties. In neurosurgery, image-guided robots can biopsy brain lesions with minimal damage to adjacent tissue. In orthopedic surgery, robots are routinely used to shape the femur to precisely fit prosthetic hip joint replacements. Robotic systems are also under development for closed-chest heart bypass, for microsurgical procedures in ophthalmology, and for surgical training and simulation. Although results from initial clinical experience is positive, issues of clinician acceptance, high capital costs, performance validation, and safety remain to be addressed.

  6. Attitudes and preferences in patients with acromegaly on long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Follin


    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with acromegaly can be treated with surgery, medical therapy and/or radiation therapy. For the patients not being cured with surgery, treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSAs is the primary therapy. SSA can be taken by self- or partner-administered injections in addition to being given by a nurse at a clinic. The aim was to assess if patients with acromegaly prefer self-injections and to investigate their attitudes towards long-term medical therapy. Method: All patients in the southern medical region of Sweden with a diagnosis of acromegaly and treated with SSA were eligible for the study (n = 24. The study is based on a questionnaire asking about the patients’ attitudes and preferences for injections with SSA, including their attitudes towards self-injection with SSA. Results: The patients’ (23 included median age was 68.5 years and the patients had been treated with SSA for 13 (1–38 years. One patient was currently self-injecting. All of the other patients were receiving injections from a nurse at a clinic. Three patients preferred self-injections, one preferred partner injections and 19 patients did not prefer self- or partner injections. The most frequent arguments to not preferring self-injections were ‘feeling more secure with an educated nurse’ and ‘preferring regular contact with a specialised nurse’. Conclusion: Patients with acromegaly prefer regular contact with the endocrine team to the independence offered by self-injections. These findings might mirror the patients’ desires for continuity and safety. We need to address patients’ concerns regarding injections with SSA and support them in their choices.

  7. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  8. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  9. Aesthetic adjuncts with orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    Mohamed, Waheed V; Perenack, Jon D


    Traditional orthognathic surgery aligns the patient's bony jaws into a desired, more appropriate position but may leave other cosmetic issues unaddressed. Soft tissue deformities may be treated concomitantly with orthognathic surgery, including soft tissue augmentation (fillers), reduction (liposuction), hard tissue augmentation, cosmetic lip procedures, and rhinoplasty. Some cosmetic adjunctive procedures may be performed at a later date after soft tissue edema from orthognathic surgery has resolved to achieve a more predictable outcome. Undesired cosmetic changes may occur months to years after orthognathic surgery and may be addressed by adjunctive cosmetic procedures.

  10. Cosmetic surgery and conscientious objection. (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca


    In this paper, I analyse the issue of conscientious objection in relation to cosmetic surgery. I consider cases of doctors who might refuse to perform a cosmetic treatment because: (1) the treatment aims at achieving a goal which is not in the traditional scope of cosmetic surgery; (2) the motivation of the patient to undergo the surgery is considered trivial; (3) the patient wants to use the surgery to promote moral or political values that conflict with the doctor's ones; (4) the patient requires an intervention that would benefit himself/herself, but could damage society at large.

  11. [Infratentorial hemorrhage following supratentorial surgery]. (United States)

    Tomii, M; Nakajima, M; Ikeuchi, S; Ogawa, T; Abe, T


    Hemorrhage in regions remote from the site of initial intracranial operations is rare, but does occur. We report three cases of cerebellar hemorrhage that developed after supratentorial surgery, all of which had similar clinical findings and CT images. The first case was a 37-year-old man with a craniopharyngioma in the suprasellar lesion. Partial removal of the tumor was performed through frontal craniotomy and the translaminaterminals approach. A large quantity of cerebospinal fluid (CSF) was suctioned from the third ventricle during the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. The second and third cases were 34- and 51-year-old women with unruptured right middle cerebral aneurysms. Clipping of the aneurysms through the pterional approach was performed in both cases. In the second case, CSF was suctioned in large quantity from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern at the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. In the third case, however, only a small volume of CSF was suctioned from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern during the operation, and no marked brain shrinkage was observed. CT scan showed that the hematomas were located mainly in the subdural or the subarachnoid spaces over the cerebellar hemisphere and partially extending into the cerebellar cortex. The mechanism of cerebellar hemorrhage in these series of patients was thought to be multifactorial. The possible etiology for cerebellar hemorrhage in the three cases presented was examined, including the role of CSF suction during surgery and disturbance of venous circulation in the posterior fossa. Suction of the CSF may cause intracranial hypotension. Further reduction of intracranial pressure leads to an increased transluminal venous pressure. There was no episode of hypertension or disturbed blood coagulation during or after the operation. The preoperative angiogram also revealed no abnormality at the region of the posterior fossa. Neuroimaging of infratentorial hemorrhage after

  12. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of peptide-based ebselen analogues. (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, Kandhan; Mugesh, Govindasamy


    A series of di- and tripeptide-based ebselen analogues has been synthesized. The compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy and mass spectral techniques. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like antioxidant activity has been studied by using H(2)O(2) , tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH), and cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) as substrates, and glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate. Although all the peptide-based compounds have a selenazole ring similar to that of ebselen, the GPx activity of these compounds highly depends on the nature of the peptide moiety attached to the nitrogen atom of the selenazole ring. It was observed that the introduction of a phenylalanine (Phe) amino acid residue in the N-terminal reduces the activity in all three peroxide systems. On the other hand, the introduction of aliphatic amino acid residues such as valine (Val) significantly enhances the GPx activity of the ebselen analogues. The difference in the catalytic activity of dipeptide-based ebselen derivatives can be ascribed mainly to the change in the reactivity of these compounds toward GSH and peroxide. Although the presence of the Val-Ala-CO(2) Me moiety facilitates the formation of a catalytically active selenol species, the reaction of ebselen analogues that has a Phe-Ile-CO(2) Me residue with GSH does not generate the corresponding selenol. To understand the antioxidant activity of the peptide-based ebselen analogues in the absence of GSH, these compounds were studied for their ability to inhibit peroxynitrite (PN)-mediated nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123. In contrast to the GPx activity, the PN-scavenging activity of the Phe-based peptide analogues was found to be comparable to that of the Val-based compounds. However, the introduction of an additional Phe residue to the ebselen analogue that had a Val-Ala dipeptide significantly reduced the potency of the parent compound in PN-mediated nitration.

  13. An analogue conceptual rainfall-runoff model for educational purposes (United States)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Riedl, Michael; Schulz, Karsten


    Conceptual rainfall-runoff models, in which runoff processes are modelled with a series of connected linear and non-linear reservoirs, remain widely applied tools in science and practice. Additionally, the concept is appreciated in teaching due to its somewhat simplicity in explaining and exploring hydrological processes of catchments. However, when a series of reservoirs are used, the model system becomes highly parametrized and complex and the traceability of the model results becomes more difficult to explain to an audience not accustomed to numerical modelling. Since normally the simulations are performed with a not visible digital code, the results are also not easily comprehensible. This contribution therefore presents a liquid analogue model, in which a conceptual rainfall-runoff model is reproduced by a physical model. This consists of different acrylic glass containers representing different storage components within a catchment, e.g. soil water or groundwater storage. The containers are equipped and connected with pipes, in which water movement represents different flow processes, e.g. surface runoff, percolation or base flow. Water from a storage container is pumped to the upper part of the model and represents effective rainfall input. The water then flows by gravity through the different pipes and storages. Valves are used for controlling the flows within the analogue model, comparable to the parameterization procedure in numerical models. Additionally, an inexpensive microcontroller-based board and sensors are used to measure storage water levels, with online visualization of the states as time series data, building a bridge between the analogue and digital world. The ability to physically witness the different flows and water levels in the storages makes the analogue model attractive to the audience. Hands-on experiments can be performed with students, in which different scenarios or catchment types can be simulated, not only with the analogue but

  14. Additional Surgery after Breast-Conserving Surgery Varies Widely (United States)

    A study published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of JAMA found that the number of women who have one or more additional surgeries to remove suspected residual tumor tissue (re-excisions) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer varies widely across surgeons and hospitals.

  15. Conditioning techniques and ischemic reperfusion injury in relation to on-pump cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Fredrik Eric Olof; Ottas, Konstantin Alex; Andreasen, Charlotte;


    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the potential protective effects of two conditioning methods, on myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury in relation to cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Totally 68 patients were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 23), a remote ischemic...... preconditioning (RIPC) group (n = 23) or a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue group (n = 22). The RIPC protocol consisted of three cycles of upper limb ischemia. The GLP-1 analogue protocol consisted of intravenous infusion with exenatide. The primary endpoint was postoperative cardiac enzyme release....... The other secondary endpoints were metabolic parameters related to myocardial ischemia, measured using microdialysis technique, as well as other operative- and postoperative data. RESULTS: Postoperative cardiac enzyme release indicated a possible beneficial effect of the interventions, but the difference...

  16. Rigidity of contractions on Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, Tanja


    We study the asymptotic behaviour of contractive operators and strongly continuous semigroups on separable Hilbert spaces using the notion of rigidity. In particular, we show that a "typical" contraction $T$ contains the unit circle times the identity operator in the strong limit set of its powers, while $T^{n_j}$ converges weakly to zero along a sequence $\\{n_j\\}$ with density one. The continuous analogue is presented for isometric ang unitary $C_0$-(semi)groups.

  17. Organic Matter in Space (IAU S251) (United States)

    Kwok, Sun; Sanford, Scott


    Preface; From the local organising committee; Organising committee; Conference participants; Opening address of Symposium 251 C. Cesarsky; Session I. Observations of organic compounds beyond the Solar System William Irvine, Ewine van Dishoeck, Yvonne Pendleton and Hans Olofsson; Session II. Organic compounds within the Solar System Scott Sandford, Ernst Zinner and Dale Cruikshank; Session III. Laboratory analogues of organic compounds in space Max Bernstein and Thomas Henning; Banquet speech; Author index; Object index.

  18. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J. (Univ. of Montana (United States)); Hubbard, A. (Aberystwyth Univ. (United Kingdom)); Ruskeeniemi, T. (Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)) (and others)


    Sub-project A, (SPA), Ice sheet hydrology and subglacial groundwater formation. SPA aims to improve the understanding of ice sheet hydrology (i.e. to assess how an ice sheet impacts groundwater circulation and chemistry in crystalline bedrock) up to, including, and beyond proposed repository depths. The data collected in SPA will be utilized in numerical ice sheet flow and hydrological modelling. SPA focuses on indirect observations of the properties of the basal hydrological system, and on what parts of the ice sheet that contribute water for groundwater infiltration. The latter includes quantification of ice sheet surface water production and how that water is routed from the ice sheet surface to its basal interface. This is achieved through remote-sensing, as well as direct measurements of vertical ice displacement and horizontal velocity fluctuation, and the determination of how these parameters vary in space and time under variable surface meltwater production and routing. Main activities within SPA involve (1) the installation and monitoring of GPS receivers and automatic weather stations on the ice sheet, and (2) air borne- and ground-based radar studies. Sub-project B, (SPB), Subglacial ice sheet hydrology. SPB, like SPA, aims at improving the understanding of ice sheet hydrology. SPB aims at collecting direct observations and measurements of the characteristics of the hydrological system at the base of the ice sheet. The data collected in SPB will be utilized in numerical ice sheet flow and hydrological modelling. The main activity for SPB is drilling through the ice sheet at a number of locations where the ice sheet has been found to be wet-based from the radar surveys in SPA. The purpose of the drilling and borehole monitoring installations is to observe water pressures at the interface between the ice and bedrock. In addition to the ice drilling, collection of remote sensing data of ice-sheet surface conditions are to be carried out. SPB is the core of

  19. Intermediate Captured in the Reaction of Synthesizing Valartan Analogue(Ⅰ)%缬沙坦类似物合成中间产物的捕获(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付大伟; 赵红


    We capture intermediate of Valsartan analogue's synthesis reaction under hydrothermal condition.The crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21/c, and a=1.089 31(18) nm, b=1.914 6(3) nm, c=0.97273(16) nm, β=104.667(3)°, V=1.962 7(6) nm3, Dc=1.581 g·cm-3, Z=4.CCDC:629930.

  20. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji; Nakamori; Kei; Tomihara; Makoto; Noguchi


    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery.Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption,malpositioning,or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation.Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues.Due to developments in medical engineering technology,computed tomography(CT)now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery.Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation,whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve.Multiple factors,including demographic,anatomic,and treatment-related factors,influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar.CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors,such as the absence of cortication between themandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal,prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage.This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery.