WorldWideScience

Sample records for analogue sedimentology statistical

  1. The Ardross reservoir gridblock analogue: Sedimentology, statistical representivity, and flow upscaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringrose, P.; Pickup, G.; Jensen, J. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have used a reservoir gridblock-sized outcrop (10m by 100m) of fluvio-deltaic sandstones to evaluate the importance of internal heterogeneity for a hypothetical waterflood displacement process. Using a dataset based on probe permeameter measurements taken from two vertical transacts representing {open_quotes}wells{close_quotes} (5cm sampling) and one {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} sample (exhaustive 1mm-spaced sampling), we evaluate the permeability variability at different lengthscales, the correlation characteristics (structure of the variogram, function), and larger-scale trends. We then relate these statistical measures to the sedimentology. We show how the sediment architecture influences the effective tensor permeability at the lamina and bed scale, and then calculate the effective relative permeability functions for a waterflood. We compare the degree of oil recovery from the formation: (a) using averaged borehole data and no geological structure, and (b) modelling the sediment architecture of the interwell volume using mixed stochastic/deterministic methods. We find that the sediment architecture has an important effect on flow performance, mainly due to bedscale capillary trapping and a consequent reduction in the effective oil mobility. The predicted oil recovery differs by 18% when these small-scale effects are included in the model. Traditional reservoir engineering methods, using averages permeability values, only prove acceptable in high-permeability and low-heterogeneity zones. The main outstanding challenge, represented by this illustration of sub-gridblock scale heterogeneity, is how to capture the relevant geological structure along with the inherent geo-statistical variability. An approach to this problem is proposed.

  2. Analogue Correction Method of Errors by Combining Statistical and Dynamical Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hongli; CHOU Jifan

    2006-01-01

    Based on the atmospheric analogy principle, the inverse problem that the information of historical analogue data is utilized to estimate model errors is put forward and a method of analogue correction of errors (ACE) of model is developed in this paper. The ACE can combine effectively statistical and dynamical methods, and need not change the current numerical prediction models. The new method not only adequately utilizes dynamical achievements but also can reasonably absorb the information of a great many analogues in historical data in order to reduce model errors and improve forecast skill.Furthermore, the ACE may identify specific historical data for the solution of the inverse problem in terms of the particularity of current forecast. The qualitative analyses show that the ACE is theoretically equivalent to the principle of the previous analogue-dynamical model, but need not rebuild the complicated analogue-deviation model, so has better feasibility and operational foreground. Moreover, under the ideal situations, when numerical models or historical analogues are perfect, the forecast of the ACE would transform into the forecast of dynamical or statistical method, respectively.

  3. Attributing the wet Winter season 2013/14 in Southern UK and Northern France using circulation analogues statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovics, Sabine; Hempelmann, Nils; Yiou, Pascal; Vautard, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Winter season 2013/14 was characterised by frequent storms and record breaking seasonal precipitation sums in Southern UK, causing severe flooding. High precipitation anomalies were likewise observed in Northwestern France and Slovenia for example. Assuming that such high impact events occur under specific atmospheric circulation configurations, circulation analogues are studied here. We present a method that consists of analysing distance statistics from the circulation analogue computation and precipitation simulations using observed precipitation (gridded EOBS data and station observations) on analogue days. This method allows to compare the probabilities of finding good circulation analogues for days with heavy precipitation or strong winds during different historic periods using reanalysis data. An increasing probability of finding good analogues for those days over time can then be interpreted as an increase in the probability of occurrence of such events in terms of circulation, whereas a change in precipitation drawn from different historic periods, given a constant probability of finding good circulation analogues, can be attributed to changes in the thermodynamics. The Winter season 2013/14 had an unusually high number of days with high zonal index over the North Atlantic, but no significant trend in the zonal index or its persistence was detected in the reanalysis data. We found no change in the probability of finding good analogues for the winter days 2013/14 over different historic periods. Despite high uncertainties related to the choice of the distance metric and the precipitation resampling methodology, we found consistently higher simulated precipitation when analogues were drawn from more recent years. We found further an increase of precipitation return level for same return times in an ensemble of bias corrected EURO-CORDEX projections for the 21st century under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. We conclude that it is likely that this precipitation event

  4. Recent Trends and Advances in Sedimentology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttner, Lee J.

    1979-01-01

    Briefly surveys recent trends and developments in sedimentology. Includes Clastic sedimentary petrology, petrology of argillaceous rocks, terrigenous depositional environments, and chemical sedimentology. (MA)

  5. The evolution of clastic sedimentology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Oldroyd

    2006-01-01

    @@ This valuable book was first published in Japanese in 2002, under the title Sedimentology: a way to the new discipline of earth sciences. Given the problems that nearly all non-Japanese people have in reading Japanese, its translation into English in an expanded form, accomplished with the help of Professor Kenyon-Smith, is exceedingly welcome, given that it is the first book to provide a history of sedimentology.

  6. Natural analogue study of CO2 storage monitoring using probability statistics of CO2-rich groundwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. K.; Hamm, S. Y.; Kim, S. O.; Yun, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    For confronting global climate change, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several very useful strategies as using capture of greenhouse gases like CO2 spewed from stacks and then isolation of the gases in underground geologic storage. CO2-rich groundwater could be produced by CO2 dissolution into fresh groundwater around a CO2 storage site. As consequence, natural analogue studies related to geologic storage provide insights into future geologic CO2 storage sites as well as can provide crucial information on the safety and security of geologic sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and field operation and monitoring that could be implemented for geologic sequestration. In this study, we developed CO2 leakage monitoring method using probability density function (PDF) by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater. For the study, we used existing data of CO2-rich groundwaters in different geological regions (Gangwondo, Gyeongsangdo, and Choongchungdo provinces) in South Korea. Using PDF method and QI (quantitative index), we executed qualitative and quantitative comparisons among local areas and chemical constituents. Geochemical properties of groundwater with/without CO2 as the PDF forms proved that pH, EC, TDS, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 were effective monitoring parameters for carbonated groundwater in the case of CO2leakage from an underground storage site. KEY WORDS: CO2-rich groundwater, CO2 storage site, monitoring parameter, natural analogue, probability density function (PDF), QI_quantitative index Acknowledgement This study was supported by the "Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2058186)" and the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from KEITI (Project number: 2014001810003).

  7. Virtual screening and statistical analysis in the design of new caffeine analogues molecules with potential epithelial anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Josivan da Silva; Costa, Karina Da Silva Lopes; Cruz, Josiane Viana; Ramosb, Ryan da Silva; Silva, Luciane Barros; Barros Brasilc, Davi Do Socorro; Henrique Tomich de Paula da Silva, Carlos; Santos, Cleydson Breno Rodrigues Dos; Macêdoe, Williams Jorge da Cruz

    2017-07-11

    About 132 thousand cases of melanoma (more severe type of skin cancer) were registered in 2014 according to the world health organization. This type of cancer significantly affects the quality of life of individuals. Caffeine has shown potential inhibitory effect against epithelial cancer. In this study, it was proposed to obtain new caffeine-based molecules with potential epithelial anticancer activity. For this, a training set of 21 molecules was used for pharmacophore perception procedures. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to propose mono-, bi-, tri-, and tetra-parametric models applied in the prediction of the activity. The generated pharmacophore was used to select 350 molecules available at the ZINCpharmer server, followed by reduction to 24 molecules, after selection using the Tanimoto index, yielding 10 molecules after final selection by predicted activity values > 1.5229. These ten molecules had better pharmacokinetic properties than the other ones used as reference and within the clinically significant limits. Only two molecules show minor hits of toxicity and were submitted to molecular docking procedures, showing BFE (binding free energy) values lower than the reference values. Statistical analyses indicated strong negative correlations between BFE and pharmacophoric properties (high influence on BFE lowering) and practically null correlation between BFE and BBB. The two most promising molecules can be indicated as candidates for further in vitro and in vivo analyzes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Automatic and global optimization of the Analogue Method for statistical downscaling of precipitation - Which parameters can be determined by Genetic Algorithms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Pascal; Weingartner, Rolf; Obled, Charles; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The Analogue Method (AM) aims at forecasting a local meteorological variable of interest (the predictand), often the daily precipitation total, on the basis of a statistical relationship with synoptic predictor variables. A certain number of similar situations are sampled in order to establish the empirical conditional distribution which is considered as the prediction for a given date. The method is used in operational medium-range forecasting in several hydropower companies or flood forecasting services, as well as in climate impact studies. The statistical relationship is usually established by means of a semi-automatic sequential procedure that has strong limitations: it is made of successive steps and thus cannot handle parameters dependencies, and it cannot automatically optimize certain parameters, such as the selection of the pressure levels and the temporal windows on which the predictors are compared. A global optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithms was introduced in order to surpass these limitations and to provide a fully automatic and objective determination of the AM parameters. The parameters that were previously assessed manually, such as the selection of the pressure levels and the temporal windows, on which the predictors are compared, are now automatically determined. The next question is: Are Genetic Algorithms able to select the meteorological variable, in a reanalysis dataset, that is the best predictor for the considered predictand, along with the analogy criteria itself? Even though we may not find better predictors for precipitation prediction that the ones often used in Europe, due to numerous other studies which consisted in systematic assessments, the ability of an automatic selection offers new perspectives in order to adapt the AM for new predictands or new regions under different meteorological influences.

  9. 22nd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DavorPavelic; IgorVlahovic; JosipHalamic

    2004-01-01

    The 22nd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology was held in the Convention Centre of the Grand Hotel Adriatic, in a small touristic town Opatija, located on the eastern Adriatic coast where Central Europe and the Mediterranean meet. It was the second IAS Meeting held in Croatia--the first one, 4th IAS Regional Meeting of Sedimentology, was held in Split in 1983. The Meeting in Opatija was organized by the Institute of Geology (Zagreb) and the Croatian Geological Society. The sponsor was Ministry of Science and Technology of the Reoublic of Croatia.

  10. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  11. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  12. Fractal and its application to sedimentology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余继峰; 李增学; 韩美莲

    2002-01-01

    In the paper,the foundation,development,basic conception and general characteristics of fractal and the calculating method of the fractional dimension are expounded briefly, and the current situation and prospect of the fractal application in sedimentology are discussed stressly. Both sedimentary process and sedimentary record behave the fractal feature of the self-similarity structure. External form and internal texture of the sediments and the distribution of the grain-size of the sediments are of fractal feature very well, and the size of the fractional dimension is the quantitative index of the complexity of the background when they are formed. The further analysis on the multi-fractal feature of the sedimentary body is the base of the fractal simulation and forecast, and it is the key of the application of the fractal theory to sedimentology.

  13. BALANOL ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a solid phase methodology for the preparation of a combinatorial library of structural analogues of the natural product balanol (ophiocordin, azepinostatin), which is a protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The method comprises solid-phase s...... be immobilised to the polymer support either as the monoallyl ester or as the internal anhydride. The libraries produced by the method are especially suited for high throughput screening of potential drug candidates for the treatment of mammals, especially humans....

  14. Analogue computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Welbourne, D

    1965-01-01

    Analogue Computing Methods presents the field of analogue computation and simulation in a compact and convenient form, providing an outline of models and analogues that have been produced to solve physical problems for the engineer and how to use and program the electronic analogue computer. This book consists of six chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction to analogue computation and discusses certain mathematical techniques. The electronic equipment of an analogue computer is covered in Chapter 2, while its use to solve simple problems, including the method of scaling is elaborat

  15. Reading and Abstracting Journal Articles in Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Susan Howes

    1991-01-01

    An assignment centered on reading journal articles and writing abstracts is an effective way to improve student reading and writing skills in sedimentology and stratigraphy laboratories. Each student reads two articles and writes informative abstracts from the author's point of view. (PR)

  16. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  17. Modelling approaches in sedimentology: Introduction to the thematic issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Philippe; Teles, Vanessa; Weill, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    As an introduction to this thematic issue on "Modelling approaches in sedimentology", this paper gives an overview of the workshop held in Paris on 7 November 2013 during the 14th Congress of the French Association of Sedimentologists. A synthesis of the workshop in terms of concepts, spatial and temporal scales, constraining data, and scientific challenges is first presented, then a discussion on the possibility of coupling different models, the industrial needs, and the new potential domains of research is exposed.

  18. Taphonomic and sedimentologic characterization of roof-shale floras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldo, R.A.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; DiMichele, W.A. [Auburn University, Auburn, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-31

    Roof-shale floras have been a major source of data for the understanding of Carboniferous vegetation. Early debate on their origin centered around the question of whether these megafloral assemblages are autochthonous or allochthonous. In these discussions, the sedimentological context in which the preserved fossil assemblage (taphoflora) occurred was largely ignored. W.C. Darrah saw the complexity of these issues, presented helpful starting points for further investigations, and influenced the thinking of the next generation. This chapter characterizes the sedimentological and taphonomic features of a spectrum of roof-shale floras. There are three levels at which the preservation of plant parts can be viewed: (1) early taphonomic processes and earliest diagenesis can destroy or preserve plant parts in a given clastic depositional setting; (2) those plant parts that are preserved can be autochthonous, parautochthonour, or allochthonous in relationship to their original place of growth; (3) with respect to a peat layer (coal bed), the overlying clastic material can be deposited in a continuous transition, after a short temporal break (discontinuity), or after a significant hiatus of time. Characterization of roof-shale floras must take into consideration the sedimentological interpretation of the associated lithologies, the stratigraphic sequence, and the taphonomic processes involved in their formation. Characterization is essential before such floras can be used in higher-level interpretations, such as paleoecological reconstructions. 72 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Carcinogenicity of insulin analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, Sebastiaan Johannes ter

    2015-01-01

    There is epidemiological evidence that the use of some insulin analogues by diabetic patients is correlated with an increased cancer risk. In vitro exposure experiments revealed that insulin glargine (LANTUS) was the only commercial insulin analogue with an increased mitogenic potential. In the huma

  20. Survey of analogue spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Analogue spacetimes, (and more boldly, analogue models both of and for gravity), have attracted significant and increasing attention over the last decade and a half. Perhaps the most straightforward physical example, which serves as a template for most of the others, is Bill Unruh's model for a dumb hole, (mute black hole, acoustic black hole), wherein sound is dragged along by a moving fluid --- and can even be trapped behind an acoustic horizon. This and related analogue models for curved spacetimes are useful in many ways: Analogue spacetimes provide general relativists with extremely concrete physical models to help focus their thinking, and conversely the techniques of curved spacetime can sometimes help improve our understanding of condensed matter and/or optical systems by providing an unexpected and countervailing viewpoint. In this introductory chapter, I shall provide a few simple examples of analogue spacetimes as general background for the rest of the contributions.

  1. Synthesis of Tonghaosu Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai; LIN Yingjie; WU Yulin; WU Yikang

    2009-01-01

    Several new analogues of natural antifeedant tonghaosu were synthesized via m-CPBA (m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid) oxidation of corresponding 3-(a-furyl)propanols, Luche reduction of the resulting enone, epoxidation, acid-mediated spiroketalization, and radical mediated dehydration.

  2. Sedimentological evidence for debris-flow formation of Martian gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Hauber, Ernst; Ventra, Dario; Conway, Susan; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Gullies are among the youngest landforms formed by liquid water on Mars, and therefore of critical importance in resolving the planet's recent hydrologic and climatic history. The key to estimating the amount of liquid water involved in gully formation is their formative mechanism. Water-free sediment flows, debris flows and fluvial flows, which all require very different amounts of liquid water, contributed to gully formation but their abundance and effectiveness differs greatly between sites. We show that many gullies dominantly formed by debris flows, based on sedimentological analysis of outcrops in gully-fans rather than surficial debris-flow features, which are often degraded beyond recognition by weathering and wind erosion or masked by ice-dust mantling. This resolves the controversy between previously published morphometric analyses implying debris-flow formation and observations of modified fan surfaces often interpreted to have formed by fluvial flows. Furthermore, it shows that deriving formative processes on gullies from surface characteristics can be highly misleading, which should therefore be inferred from multiple approaches, including sedimentological outcrop and morphometric analyses.

  3. Sedimentology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of Machile Basin, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Kawawa Eddy

    An important environmental problem in arid to semi-arid regions of the world is salinisation of water resources. Moreover, most of these regions are inhabited by poor communities in developing countries, with limited or no financial resources to develop suitable alternatives to meet their basic...... water needs. With increasing world population and increasing effects of climate change, groundwater resources are seen as a suitable alternative. However, the exploitation of groundwater in these regions requires knowledge of aquifer structure and genesis, and mechanisms that control hydrochemistry....... Water resources practioners in arid and semi-arid regions accept that future development of groundwater resources depends largely on the degree and rate of salinisation. This PhD study focuses on investigating the sedimentological and hydro-geochemical conditions that have shaped the groundwater...

  4. Sedimentological context of the continental sabkhas of Abu Dhabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokier, Stephen; Paul, Andreas; Bixiao, Xin

    2017-04-01

    For more than half a century, the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi have been the focus of intensive research focusing on deposition, early diagenesis and the role of microbial communities. Given all of this activity, it is somewhat surprising that their continental counterparts have been largely neglected with only a brief mention in larger-scale regional studies. This study redresses this imbalance by documenting the sedimentological, mineralogical and early diagenetic characteristics of continental sabkhas that are hosted in the Rub al Khali desert of the United Arab Emirates. During reconnaissance surveys it has been established that organic-rich microbial mats and evaporite minerals, both similar to those observed in the coastal sabkha, also occur in these continental sabkha settings. Satellite imagery was utilised to identify potential field locations for surface and shallow sub surface investigation; subsequent field reconnaissance established the validity of sites in terms of anthropogenic disruption and accessibility. At each site, surface features were described in detail, particularly with reference to any microbial communities or evaporite crusts; sample pits were dug in order to document sub-surface facies geometries and to recover both sediment and pore water samples for subsequent analysis. In each pit, a range of environmental parameters was measured over a prolonged period, including surface and sub-surface temperatures, ground water salinity and dissolved oxygen. Sediment samples were subjected to a range of analyses in order to establish and quantify primary sediment composition and any early diagenetic mineral phases. The results of this study are used to build an atlas of sedimentary structures and textures that are associated with continental sabkha settings. These observations allow us to establish the defining sedimentological and early diagenetic characteristics that can be employed to identify similar depositional environments in ancient

  5. SEDIMENTOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE 2010 MENTAWAI TSUNAMI DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhicara Yudhicara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Post tsunami survey of the October 25, 2010, Mentawai tsunami, has been carried out by a collaboration team of Indonesian-German scientists from 20 to 28 November 2010. One activity of the researches were investigation on tsunami deposits along the coast following the event that devastated the islands of Sipora, North Pagai and South Pagai. Sedimentological properties of Mentawai tsunami deposit were explained by this study, from both megascopic and laboratory result. In general, beaches along the study area are underlying by a stretch of reef limestone, sediments mostly composed of white sand while grey sand was found only at Malakopa. Tsunami sediments were taken from 20 locations, start from Betumonga at Sipora Island until Sibaru-baru Island at the southern tip of the study area. The thickness of tsunami deposits are ranged between 1.5 and 22 cm, which are generally composed of fine to coarse sand in irregular boundaries with the underlying soil. Based on grain size analysis, variation of sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits range between phi=-0,5793 and phi=3,3180 or very coarse to very fine sand. Tsunami deposits mostly have multiple layers which described their transport processes, run up at the bottom and back wash at the top. Structural sediments such as graded bedding of fining upward, parallel lamination and soil clast were found. The grain size distribution curves show two types of mode peak, unimodal and multimodal which are indication of different sorting condition representing the source materials. While segment grain size accumulative plot generally shows domination of dilatation and traction transport mechanism rather than suspension. In general, very rare fossils were found from Mentawai tsunami deposit, but those findings gave information on how depth tsunami start to scour the seafloor and transport it landward, such as an abundance of Sponge spicule was found which indicate shallow water environments (20-100 m

  6. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  7. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  8. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    of GIP and GLP-1 receptors, the incretin effect is essential for normal glucose tolerance. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus it turns out that the incretin effect is severely impaired or abolished. The explanation seems to be that both the secretion of GLP-1 and the effect of GIP are impaired...... (whereas both the secretion of GIP and the effect of GLP-1 are near normal). The impaired GLP-1 secretion is probably a consequence of diabetic metabolic disturbances. The known genetic variations in the GIP receptor sequence are not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but a defective insulinotropic...... and its analogues are attractive as therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus, analogues of GIP are unlikely to be effective. On the other hand, GIP seems to play an important role in lipid metabolism, promoting the disposal of ingested lipids, and mice with a targeted deletion of the GIP receptor...

  9. Subtle trap recognition based on seismic sedimentology-A case study from Shengli Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Handong; Zhang Ruwei; Luo Qun; Zhao Di; Peng Yongmin

    2009-01-01

    Seismic sedimentology is the study of sedimentary rocks and facies using seismic data. However, often the sedimentary body features can't be described quantitatively due to the limit of seismic resolution. High resolution inversion offsets this limitation and is applied to seismic sedimentology to identify subtle traps under complex geologic conditions, thereby widening the applicable range of seismic sedimentology. In this paper, based on seismic sedimentology, seismic phase-controlled nonlinear random inversion is used to predict the sandy conglomerate reservoir of Es3 in the Chezhen depression in Shengli Oilfield. Thickness and sedimentary microfacies maps of sandy conglomerate bodies in several stages are presented and several subtle traps were predicted and verified by drilling.

  10. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  11. Quantum analogue computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  12. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochemistry of an underfilled lake basin in the Puna (north-west Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Kowler, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Depositional models of ancient lakes in thin-skinned retroarc foreland basins rarely benefit from appropriate Quaternary analogues. To address this, we present new stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical analyses of four radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Pozuelos Basin (PB; northwest Argentina) that capture the evolution of this low-accommodation Puna basin over the past ca. 43 cal kyr. Strata from the PB are interpreted as accumulations of a highly variable, underfilled lake system represented by lake-plain/littoral, profundal, palustrine, saline lake and playa facies associations. The vertical stacking of facies is asymmetric, with transgressive and thin organic-rich highstand deposits underlying thicker, organic-poor regressive deposits. The major controls on depositional architecture and basin palaeogeography are tectonics and climate. Accommodation space was derived from piggyback basin-forming flexural subsidence and Miocene-Quaternary normal faulting associated with incorporation of the basin into the Andean hinterland. Sediment and water supply was modulated by variability in the South American summer monsoon, and perennial lake deposits correlate in time with several well-known late Pleistocene wet periods on the Altiplano/Puna plateau. Our results shed new light on lake expansion–contraction dynamics in the PB in particular and provide a deeper understanding of Puna basin lakes in general.

  13. The morphodynamics and sedimentology of large river confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Andrew; Sambrook Smith, Greg; Best, James; Bull, Jon; Dixon, Simon; Goodbred, Steven; Sarker, Mamin; Vardy, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Confluences are key locations within large river networks, yet surprisingly little is known about how they migrate and evolve through time. Moreover, because confluence sites are associated with scour pools that are typically several times the mean channel depth, the deposits associated with such scours should have a high potential for preservation within the rock record. However, paradoxically, such scours are rarely observed, and the sedimentological characteristics of such deposits are poorly understood. This study reports results from a physically-based morphodynamic model, which is applied to simulate the evolution and resulting alluvial architecture associated with large river junctions. Boundary conditions within the model simulation are defined to approximate the junction of the Ganges and Jamuna rivers, in Bangladesh. Model results are supplemented by geophysical datasets collected during boat-based surveys at this junction. Simulated deposit characteristics and geophysical datasets are compared with three existing and contrasting conceptual models that have been proposed to represent the sedimentary architecture of confluence scours. Results illustrate that existing conceptual models may be overly simplistic, although elements of each of the three conceptual models are evident in the deposits generated by the numerical simulation. The latter are characterised by several distinct styles of sedimentary fill, which can be linked to particular morphodynamic behaviours. However, the preserved characteristics of simulated confluence deposits vary substantial according to the degree of reworking by channel migration. This may go some way towards explaining the confluence scour paradox; while abundant large scours might be expected in the rock record, they are rarely reported.

  14. Analogue Methods in Palaeoecology: Using the analogue Package

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Gavin L.

    2007-01-01

    Palaeoecology is an important branch of ecology that uses the subfossil remains of organisms preserved in lake, ocean and bog sediments to inform on changes in ecosystems and the environment through time. The analogue package contains functions to perform modern analogue technique (MAT) transfer functions, which can be used to predict past changes in the environment, such as climate or lake-water pH from species data. A related technique is that of analogue matching, which is concerned with i...

  15. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, George

    2017-04-01

    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  16. Sedimentology of Martian Gravels from Mardi Twilight Imaging: Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, James B.; Malin, Michael C.; Minitti, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative sedimentologic analysis of gravel surfaces dominated by pebble-sized clasts has been employed in an effort to untangle aspects of the provenance of surface sediments on Mars using Curiosity's MARDI nadir-viewing camera operated at twilight Images have been systematically acquired since sol 310 providing a representative sample of gravel-covered surfaces since the rover departed the Shaler region. The MARDI Twilight imaging dataset offers approximately 1 millimeter spatial resolution (slightly out of focus) for patches beneath the rover that cover just under 1 m2 in area, under illumination that makes clast size and inter-clast spacing analysis relatively straightforward using semi- automated codes developed for use with nadir images. Twilight images are utilized for these analyses in order to reduce light scattering off dust deposited on the front MARDI lens element during the terminal stages of Curiosity's entry, descent and landing. Such scattering is worse when imaging bright, directly-illuminated surfaces; twilight imaging times yield diffusely-illuminated surfaces that improve the clarity of the resulting MARDI product. Twilight images are obtained between 10-30 minutes after local sunset, governed by the timing of the end of the no-heat window for the camera. Techniques were also utilized to examine data terrestrial locations (the Kau Desert in Hawaii and near Askja Caldera in Iceland). Methods employed include log hyperbolic size distribution (LHD) analysis and Delauney Triangulation (DT) inter-clast spacing analysis. This work extends the initial results reported in Yingst et al., that covered the initial landing zone, to the Rapid-Transit Route (RTR) towards Mount Sharp.

  17. Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R

    1990-01-01

    Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,

  18. Production of Calcareous Nannofossil Ooze for Sedimentological Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buls, Toms; Anderskouv, Kresten; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    on this subject. However, the use of modern calcareous nannofossil ooze as an analogue for Cretaceous ooze is associated with a number of disadvantages such as generally higher noncarbonate content and smaller coccolith size of modern oozes. Here, we document a preparation method for the production of calcareous...... nannofossil ooze for the purpose of physical experiments, based on disaggregation of Upper Cretaceous chalk through repeated freezing and thawing. We further document the textural characteristics of the ooze compared to the original chalk, based on quantitative backscatter scanning electron image analysis...

  19. Insulin analogues in pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    in the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses exposed to insulin analogues (lispro, aspart, glargine or detemir) compared with those exposed to human insulin or Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin. The total prevalence of congenital anomalies was not increased for foetuses exposed to insulin analogues. The small...... included 1286 foetuses of mothers using short-acting insulin analogues with 1089 references of mothers using human insulin and 768 foetuses of mothers using long-acting insulin analogues with 685 references of mothers using long-acting human insulin (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn). The congenital anomaly rate...... samples in the included studies provided insufficient statistical power to identify a moderate increased risk of specific congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Spatiotemporal variability of sedimentology and morphology in the East Frisian barrier island system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Gerald; Winter, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The highly dynamic East Frisian barrier island system (southern North Sea) is characterized by a complex morphology of tidal inlets, ebb-tidal deltas and foreshore beaches that reacts to storms and fair-weather conditions with characteristic patterns of sediment grain-size distributions. The morphological and sedimentological response to varying hydrodynamic conditions yet occurs in short time spans that are not covered by common monitoring strategies with measuring intervals typically of years. This study applies process-based numerical modelling with multiple sediment fractions to interpolate morphological states in time between bathymetrical surveys conducted in the summer months of 2004 and 2006. Morphodynamic simulations driven by real-time boundary conditions of tides, wind and waves are carried out for a representative period of 2 years. The spatiotemporal variability of the nearshore sedimentology and morphology is assessed by graded ranges of bed dynamics (i.e. bed elevation range) and the definition of sediment grain-size variability (i.e. mean diameter range). The effect of storm events and timescales of the sedimentological adaptation after storms to typical fair-weather conditions are exemplified at an ebb-tidal delta lobe where the morphological and sedimentological variability is found to be largest in the study area. The proposed method may serve to identify areas of high sedimentological and morphological activity for system understanding or in the framework of coastal monitoring strategies.

  1. Vorticity in analogue gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cropp, Bethan; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    In the analogue gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in a curved spacetime. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric which depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity free. In this work we provide an straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged --- relativistic and non-relativistic --- Bose--Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d'Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on a flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  2. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  3. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...... of CorA. METHODS: HC-CorA were quantified in paired samples of cord serum from newborns and serum from mothers (n = 69). RESULTS: The CorA-concentration was higher in cord serum (median = 380, range: 41-780 pmol/L) than in serum from the mothers (median = 160, range: 64-330 pmol/L), (p...-analysis showed CorA-peaks with retention times of 13.5, 14,5 and 16.5 min in samples from both the mother and cord serum. The peak with retention time 16.5 min constituted 24% (mother) and 45% (cord serum) of the total amount CorA, and eluted as does dicyanocobinamide. CONCLUSION: Our results support that CorA...

  4. Sedimentology and preservation of aeolian sediments on steep terrains: Incipient sand ramps on the Atacama coast (northern Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventra, Dario; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; de Boer, Poppe L.

    2017-05-01

    The origin of topographically controlled aeolian landforms in high-relief settings is difficult to synthesize under general models, given the dependence of such accumulations on local morphology. Quaternary sand ramps have been linked to palaeoclimate, regional geomorphology and wind patterns; however, controls on the early development and preservation of such landforms are poorly known. This study describes the morphology and sedimentology of complex sedimentary aprons along steep coastal slopes in the Atacama Desert (Chile). Direct slope accessibility and continuous stratigraphic exposures enable comparisons between active processes and stratigraphic signatures. Stratigraphic facies distribution and its links with patterns of aeolian deposition show that the preservation of wind-laid sediments depends on the morphology and processes of specific slope sectors. The spatial organization of runoff depends on bedrock configuration and directly controls the permanence or erosion of aeolian sediment. The occurrence of either water or mass flows depends on the role of aeolian fines in the rheology of flash floods. In turn, the establishment of a rugged surface topography controlled by patterns of mass-flow deposition creates local accommodation for aeolian fines, sustaining the initial aggradation of a colluvial-aeolian system. By contrast, slopes subject to runoff develop a thin, extensive aeolian mantle whose featureless surface is subject mostly to sediment bypass down- and across-slope; the corresponding stratigraphic record comprises almost exclusively thin debris-flow and sheetflood deposits. Slope morphology and processes are fundamental in promoting or inhibiting aeolian aggradation in mountain settings. Long-term sand-ramp construction depends on climate and regional topography, but the initial development is probably controlled by local geomorphic factors. The observed interactions between wind and topography in the study area may also represent a process

  5. Constraining coastal change: A morpho-sedimentological concept to infer sea-level oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Barbara; Shen, Zhixiong

    2016-04-01

    One of the responders to Milankovitch-scale climate changes is sea level which, in turn, is a driver of coastal change. In literature, the sedimentary sequences representing the coastal change are often linked to high sea-level stands, to intermediate sea-level positions or to regressive shorelines. We note apparent contradictions that indicate a lack of concept and inconsistent usage of sea level-related terms. To overcome this, we combine an integrated morpho-sedimentological concept for microtidal, mid-latitudinal coasts with chronologies based on Bayesian statistics. The concept regards the coastal sedimentary system as a depositional complex consisting of shallow-marine, aeolian and alluvial facies. These facies are in juxtaposition and respond simultaneously to external forcing. Bayesian statistics constrains the timing of the sequence based on optical or radiocarbon ages. Here, we present the site Hergla located on the North African coast of the central Mediterranean Sea as a case study to illustrate how the approach helps eliminating contradictions. The site has been cited frequently for confirming the hypothesis of a global two peak sea-level highstand during the last interglacial (MIS 5e). The ~2 km cliff exposure at Hergla was surveyed, mapped, logged and sampled for further describing the sediments and their depositional environment through thin section and Bayesian modelling of optical ages. Using our concept based on sequence stratigraphy tools, the section is interpreted as representing a coastal barrier with two bounding surfaces in the succession. Both surfaces mark the falling sea level of, first, MIS 5e and, second, MIS 5a and hence bound the falling stage system tract of a forced regression. Part of the deposits between the two surfaces are pulled up onto the shoulder of a small rising horst and the associated tectonic event coincided with the MIS 5a sea-level rise enhancing locally the accommodation space for a second foreshore environment. Our

  6. Sedimentology of the Paestum travertines, Salerno, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, E.; Ferreri, V.; D'Argenio, B.

    2009-04-01

    forming the town wall between Porta Sirena and Porta Giustizia (southern-eastern side of Paestum) and in the civil and sacred architecture. The time-space relationships among the above lithofacies associations clearly emerge in the Porta Marina area both in the Greek walls of the ancient town (slope and swamp facies) and in the outcropping travertine substrate (slope and waterfall deposits). Based on the above sedimentological results, it may be inferred that, like other ambient temperature travertine systems studied in southern Italy, the Paestum travertine growth developed over a gentle slope surface (in our case dipping to the west), laterally evolving into rapid and waterfall deposits. At the same time, the aggradational growth of the travertine system resulted in a flattened summit area with widespread swamp and marsh environments. The ruins of Paestum, including the lower parts of sacred and civil buildings as well as town roads and walls, are even today largely covered by recent semi-coherent travertines (tufa), originating from waters that encrusted and then "fossilized" a large part of the town. Inside the town walls, these materials were pedogenized and nowadays are largely cultivated around and within the archeological area. A portion of these deposits was removed during the excavations of the beginning of last century, but traces of them may still be observed in different parts of the ancient town. Like the foundation travertines, the recent deposits are mainly made up of calcareous encrustations. Gastropods, ostracods and other organisms typical of terrestrial humid environments may be found in the phytoclastic textures. Usually, they are weakly cemented and at places incorporate different materials, including brick, wood and coal fragments. These sediments patchy cover the town within the wall perimeter, for a few decimetres in the sacred areas, but reaching over 4 meters downhill and outside the walls: a process of "fossilization" that appears to have been

  7. Statistical foundation of the fluid analogue of the soliton formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    A fully nonlinear analysis is used to develop a general soliton formalism for the description of the nonlinear evolution of soliton fluctuations in both plasmas and classical fluids. From the Navier-Stokes equations for plasmas and compressible fluids of two scales, two equations for the propagation of density waves are derived. A fast soliton field is spontaneously created by rarefaction, and a slow density wave modulates the field intensity as a ponderomotive force. Constitutive properties are demonstrated using a Lagrangian-kinetic formalism of the fluctuation-dissipation theory.

  8. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence

  9. Analogue earthquakes and seismic cycles: experimental modelling across timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, Matthias; Corbi, Fabio; Dominguez, Stephane

    2017-05-01

    Earth deformation is a multi-scale process ranging from seconds (seismic deformation) to millions of years (tectonic deformation). Bridging short- and long-term deformation and developing seismotectonic models has been a challenge in experimental tectonics for more than a century. Since the formulation of Reid's elastic rebound theory 100 years ago, laboratory mechanical models combining frictional and elastic elements have been used to study the dynamics of earthquakes. In the last decade, with the advent of high-resolution monitoring techniques and new rock analogue materials, laboratory earthquake experiments have evolved from simple spring-slider models to scaled analogue models. This evolution was accomplished by advances in seismology and geodesy along with relatively frequent occurrences of large earthquakes in the past decade. This coincidence has significantly increased the quality and quantity of relevant observations in nature and triggered a new understanding of earthquake dynamics. We review here the developments in analogue earthquake modelling with a focus on those seismotectonic scale models that are directly comparable to observational data on short to long timescales. We lay out the basics of analogue modelling, namely scaling, materials and monitoring, as applied in seismotectonic modelling. An overview of applications highlights the contributions of analogue earthquake models in bridging timescales of observations including earthquake statistics, rupture dynamics, ground motion, and seismic-cycle deformation up to seismotectonic evolution.

  10. Uses and misuses of compositional data in sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosana-Delgado, Raimon

    2012-12-01

    This paper serves two goals. The first part shows how mass evolution processes of different nature become undistinguishable once we take a size-limited, noisy sample of its compositional fingerprint: processes of exponential decay, mass mixture and complementary accumulation are simulated, and then samples contaminated with noise are extracted. The aim of this exercise is to illustrate the limitations of typical graphical representations and statistical methods when dealing with compositional data, i.e. data in percentages, concentrations or proportions. The second part presents a series of concepts, tools and methods to represent and statistically treat a compositional data set attending to these limitations. The aim of this second part is to offer a state-of-the-art Compositional Data Analysis. This includes: descriptive statistics and graphics (the biplot); ternary diagrams with confidence regions for the mean; regression and ANalysis-Of-VAriance models to explain compositional variability; and the use of compositional information to predict environmental covariables or discriminate between groups. All these tools share a four-step algorithm: (1) transform compositions with an invertible log-ratio transformation; (2) apply a statistical method to the transformed scores; (3) back-transform the results to compositions; and (4) interpret results in relative terms. Using these techniques, a data set of sand petrographic composition has been analyzed, highlighting that: finer sands are richer in single-crystal grains in relation to polycrystalline grains, and that grain-size accounts for almost all compositional variability; a stronger water flow (river discharge) favors mica grains against quartz or rock fragment grains, possibly due to hydrodynamic sorting effects; a higher relief ratio implies shorter residence times, which may favor survival of micas and rock fragments, relatively more labile grains.

  11. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  12. Menstrual regulation with prostaglandin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenfeldt, K; Bygdeman, M

    1981-01-01

    The development of generally applicable, simple non-surgical methods for menstrual regulation has been desired for a long time. Such an approach to fertility control depends on the availability of a suitable therapeutic agent that should be effective, reliable, simple to administer and free from disturbing side effects. The classical prostaglandins have shown the capability but are unsuitable mainly due to high incidence of side effects. Most of these drawbacks seem to be overcome when prostaglandin analogues are used; however, vaginal administration caused appreciable pain in 10-30% of women, and so severely limits self-administration of these analogues.

  13. Analogue Methods in Palaeoecology: Using the analogue Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin L. Simpson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecology is an important branch of ecology that uses the subfossil remains of organisms preserved in lake, ocean and bog sediments to inform on changes in ecosystems and the environment through time. The analogue package contains functions to perform modern analogue technique (MAT transfer functions, which can be used to predict past changes in the environment, such as climate or lake-water pH from species data. A related technique is that of analogue matching, which is concerned with identifying modern sites that are floristically and faunistically similar to fossil samples. These techniques, and others, are increasingly being used to inform public policy on environmental pollution and conservation practices. These methods and other functionality in analogue are illustrated using the Surface Waters Acidification Project diatom:pH training set and diatom counts on samples of a sediment core from the Round Loch of Glenhead, Galloway, Scotland. The paper is aimed at palaeoecologists who are familiar with the techniques described but not with R.

  14. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  15. Sedimentology and chemostratigraphy of a Valanginian carbonate succession from the Baja Guajira Basin, northern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Ramirez, Catalina; Lara, Mario; Sial,Alcides Nobrega; Trujillo, David; Salazar, Edward

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Kesima Member of the Palanz Formation constitutes the first record of Cretaceous marine sedimentation along the Baja Guajira Basin, northern Colombia. Sedimentologic and petrographic analyses suggest a deposition along a coral reef dominated rimmed carbonate platform. 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.707350 and 0.707400 suggest a Valanginian (136 - 132 Ma) depositional age for the Kesima Member. A positive anomaly on the δ13C values of ~2.2‰ suggests that this rimmed carbon...

  16. 19th International Sedimentological Congress 2014 in Geneva:Theme 12—Palaeogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the forthcoming 19th International Sedimentological Congress(ISC2014)in Geneva,Switzerland,August 18-24,2014,the Editorial Committee of the Journal of Palaeogeography(JoP)will host Theme 12—Palaeogeography.For those who will attend ISC2014,please pay attention to the following information about this theme.1.Conveners:Zhong-Qiang Chen(China University of Geosciences(Wuhan),China.E-mail:zhong.qiang.chen@cug.edu.cn)

  17. First Year Sedimentological Characteristics and Morphological Evolution of an Artificial Berm at Fort Myers Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Harbor in 1992 and 1993 resulted in a nearshore berm disposal in Port Canaveral, Florida, offshore of Cocoa Beach. Bodge (1994) evaluated the...samples. The carbonate grains are mostly shell debris. Table 2 provides an example summary of the sedimentological characteristics across a beach...located a 3-6) and f the berm ine sand, a shell debri . Similar to medium sh ly sorted ve e 11 shows a southeas Profile Sou t the toe of offshore (F

  18. Novel acetylcholine and carbamoylcholine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Christensen, Jeppe K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity for this ...

  19. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  20. Measuring Mental Imagery with Visual Analogue Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilter, Shawn M.; Band, Jennie P.; Miller, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates some of the psychometric characteristics of the results from visual-analogue scales used to measure mental imagery. Reports that the scores from visual-analogue scales are positively related to scores from longer pencil-and-paper measures of mental imagery. Implications and limitations for the use of visual-analogue scales to measure…

  1. Cosmic Statistics of Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Szapudi, I.; Colombi, S.; Bernardeau, F.

    1999-01-01

    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogs are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi (1996) is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly nonlinear to weakly nonlinear scales. The final analytic formu...

  2. Petroacoustic Modelling of Heterolithic Sandstone Reservoirs: A Novel Approach to Gassmann Modelling Incorporating Sedimentological Constraints and NMR Porosity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; Lovell, M.; Davies, S. J.; Pritchard, T.; Sirju, C.; Abdelkarim, A.

    2012-12-01

    Heterolithic or 'shaly' sandstone reservoirs constitute a significant proportion of hydrocarbon resources. Petroacoustic models (a combination of petrophysics and rock physics) enhance the ability to extract reservoir properties from seismic data, providing a connection between seismic and fine-scale rock properties. By incorporating sedimentological observations these models can be better constrained and improved. Petroacoustic modelling is complicated by the unpredictable effects of clay minerals and clay-sized particles on geophysical properties. Such effects are responsible for erroneous results when models developed for "clean" reservoirs - such as Gassmann's equation (Gassmann, 1951) - are applied to heterolithic sandstone reservoirs. Gassmann's equation is arguably the most popular petroacoustic modelling technique in the hydrocarbon industry and is used to model elastic effects of changing reservoir fluid saturations. Successful implementation of Gassmann's equation requires well-constrained drained rock frame properties, which in heterolithic sandstones are heavily influenced by reservoir sedimentology, particularly clay distribution. The prevalent approach to categorising clay distribution is based on the Thomas - Stieber model (Thomas & Stieber, 1975), this approach is inconsistent with current understanding of 'shaly sand' sedimentology and omits properties such as sorting and grain size. The novel approach presented here demonstrates that characterising reservoir sedimentology constitutes an important modelling phase. As well as incorporating sedimentological constraints, this novel approach also aims to improve drained frame moduli estimates through more careful consideration of Gassmann's model assumptions and limitations. A key assumption of Gassmann's equation is a pore space in total communication with movable fluids. This assumption is often violated by conventional applications in heterolithic sandstone reservoirs where effective porosity, which

  3. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...... rate of 0.075mV per second with a 1pF hold capacitor. This is equivalent to a retention time of approximately 1½ minute with 10 bits accuracy, assuming a full scale of +/-3.5V. It is expected that this can be improved by more than an order of magnitude by improving the layout of the hold capacitor...

  4. Across the Gap: Geochronological and Sedimentological Analyses from the Late Pleistocene-Holocene Sequence of Goda Buticha, Southeastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrat, Asfawossen; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Chapon, Cécile; Douville, Eric; Fragnol, Carole; Hernandez, Marion; Hovers, Erella; Leplongeon, Alice; Martin, Loïc; Pleurdeau, David; Pearson, Osbjorn; Puaud, Simon; Assefa, Zelalem

    2017-01-01

    Goda Buticha is a cave site near Dire Dawa in southeastern Ethiopia that contains an archaeological sequence sampling the late Pleistocene and Holocene of the region. The sedimentary sequence displays complex cultural, chronological and sedimentological histories that seem incongruent with one another. A first set of radiocarbon ages suggested a long sedimentological gap from the end of Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 3 to the mid-Holocene. Macroscopic observations suggest that the main sedimentological change does not coincide with the chronostratigraphic hiatus. The cultural sequence shows technological continuity with a late persistence of artifacts that are usually attributed to the Middle Stone Age into the younger parts of the stratigraphic sequence, yet become increasingly associated with lithic artifacts typically related to the Later Stone Age. While not a unique case, this combination of features is unusual in the Horn of Africa. In order to evaluate the possible implications of these observations, sedimentological analyses combined with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were conducted. The OSL data now extend the radiocarbon chronology up to 63 ± 7 ka; they also confirm the existence of the chronological gap between 24.8 ± 2.6 ka and 7.5 ± 0.3 ka. The sedimentological analyses suggest that the origin and mode of deposition were largely similar throughout the whole sequence, although the anthropic and faunal activities increased in the younger levels. Regional climatic records are used to support the sedimentological observations and interpretations. We discuss the implications of the sedimentological and dating analyses for understanding cultural processes in the region. PMID:28125597

  5. Neuronal Analogues of Conditioning Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-24

    Although the mechanisms of interneuronal communication have been well established, the changes underlying most forms of learning have thus far eluded...stimulating electrodes on one of the connectives was adjusted so as to produce a small excitatory postsynaptic potential ( EPSP ) in the impaled cell...two stimuli would constitute a neuronal analogue of conditioning by producing an increased EPSP in response to the test stimulus alone. If so, then

  6. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  7. Microbial-mat Sedimentology: A Young Branch fron Sedimentology%微生物席沉积学:一个年轻的沉积学分支

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅冥相

    2011-01-01

    现代实例和岩石记录的研究表明,微生物席是一个特别的微生物群落,这个特殊的微生物群落就像一个复杂的食物网一样,群落中的每一个组成成员紧密相互依赖,从而构成了地球上形成最早、延续时间最长的生态系.微生物席在沉积岩中留下了丰富而且复杂的记录,在碳酸盐岩中最为典型的产物就是叠层石,在碎屑岩中最具有代表性的产物就是"微生物诱发的沉积构造(MISS)".对这些特殊沉积记录的长期研究和探索,产生了沉积学在地球生物框架下的一个年轻分支--"微生物席沉积学";这个以微生物席为研究对象的年轻的沉积学分支,在研究地球早期生命演变、探索生物圈对水圈和大气圈的长时间影响,具有重要意义.若干的新概念和新思维,赋予这个年轻的沉积学分支强大的生命力,同时也代表了沉积学在近年来的一个重要进展之一.%Lots of studies on the microbial mat from the modern examples to the rock records show that the microbial mat is actually a complex microbial community. Just like a complex food web, microbial mats are communities of micro-organisms in which each member depends and is depended on by others in the community. Importantly, this special microbial community forms abundant and sophisticated records in sedimentary rocks. For these records , the stromatolite is the typical represent of microbial mats in carbonate rocks, and the MISS ( Microbial induced sedimentary structure) is the representative product that is related to microbial mats in siliclastic rocks. Long-term researches on these special records result in a young branch of sedimentology, I. E. " microbial-mat sedimentology" within the framework of geobiology, which plays a key role in the further studies of the evolution of the early life and in the further understanding of the evolutional rules of both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere in the earth. Lots of new concepts and

  8. Facies Architecture And Sequence Stratigraphy of Jurassic Tidal Successions in the Lajas Formation, Neuquen Basin, Argentina; an Outcrop Analogue For the Tilje Formation, Offshore Mid-Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, D.; Flint, S.

    1999-07-01

    A common element of sequence stratigraphic models for ancient shallow marine systems is the switch from wave-dominated shoreface deposition during highstand to tidal/estuarine deposition within incised valleys which provide the necessary amplification of tidal currents, during lowstand/early base level rise. Thus, tide-dominated sedimentation is restricted to specific base level positions, which has important implications for reservoir geometry and quality. The Lajas Formation is studied as an analogue to the Jurassic Tilje Formation. The similar age, tectonic setting, sedimentology and aggradational nature of the tidal succession make the Lajas an ideal analogue with which to study facies architecture and test sequence stratigraphic models. This is especially so, since field data can be tied to geophysical data associated with producing oil fields. The lower Jurassic Lajas Formation of the Neuquen basin comprises 500 m of well-exposed tide-dominated sediments deposited as two low frequency unconformity-bounded sequences which are tide-dominated throughout.

  9. Sedimentological correlation of heterogeneous reservoir rocks: effects of lithology, differential compaction and diagenetic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Erik

    2010-12-15

    Correlation of reservoir rocks is a challenge in many types of reservoirs around the world today. In a time where the focus has slowly shifted away from the giant fields, towards development of smaller, more marginal fields, the importance of addressing these challenges is increasing. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the effects of lithology, diagenesis and differential compaction on correlation of reservoir architecture in a fluviodeltaic reservoir. To be able to address these issues several types of data, including seismic, core sections and petrophysical wireline logs, have been subjected to measurements, calculations and interpretations to be able to construct a sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic framework based on a reservoir reconstruction work flow. First, the regional and local (field wide) geological evolution for the Aare Formation in the Heidrun Field, offshore Mid-Norway, is elucidated, including evolution of the palaeodepositional environment and the prevailing depositional controlling factors. These studies included a facies description of studied wells based on core and wireline log data, and description/ interpretation of the reservoir sequence stratigraphy. From these studies eight facies associations have been identified and described, indicating a fluvial-deltaic depositional environment. A sequence stratigraphic model based on these facies associations is suggested for the studied well data and includes five candidate sequence boundaries and eight flooding surfaces, including a marine flooding surface. Four of these surfaces are interpreted as allogeneic, suggesting regional base level change, whereas the remaining nine surfaces are suggested as resulting from local, autogenic factors. Next, the compact ability of the identified facies associations was quantified in a diagenesis study using optical microscopy, SEM micro-probe measurements and XRD analyses. The para genetic sequence proposed suggests that abundant early

  10. Sedimentological analyses of martian gullies: The subsurface as the key to the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Ventra, Dario; Hauber, Ernst; Conway, Susan J.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2015-09-01

    Gullies are among the youngest landforms formed by liquid water on Mars, and therefore of critical importance in resolving the planets most recent hydrologic and climatic history. Water-free sediment flows, debris flows and fluvial flows have all been identified in gullies. These processes require very different amounts of liquid water, and therefore their relative contribution to gully-formation is of key importance for climatic inferences. We show that many gullies dominantly formed by debris flows, based on sedimentological analysis of outcrops in gully-fans in 51 HiRISE images widely distributed over the southern midlatitudes. The great majority (96%) of outcrop exposures in gully-fans fed by catchments which mainly comprise bedrock and thus host boulders, contain sedimentological evidence for debris-flow formation. These exposures contain many randomly distributed large boulders (>1 m) suspended in a finer matrix and in some cases lens-shaped and truncated layering. Such diagnostic features are rare in gully-fan exposures mainly fed by catchments comprising abundant latitude dependent mantle deposits (LDM; a smooth, often meters-thick deposit consisting mainly of ice and dust), wherein boulders are largely absent. These LDM-fed gullies may have formed by fine-grained debris flows, but this cannot be determined from outcrop sedimentology alone because of the lack of boulders in these systems. The fan surface morphology, in contrast to the subsurface, is dominated by secondary, post-depositional, processes, mainly weathering, wind erosion, and ice-dust mantling. These processes have removed or severely reworked the original, primary, debris-flow morphology over time. This explains the controversy between previously published morphometric analyses implying debris-flow formation and observations of gully-fan surfaces, which are often interpreted as the product of fluvial flows because of the absence of surficial debris-flow morphology. The inferred debris

  11. Sedimentology and Ground-Penetrating Radar Characteristics of a Pleistocene Sandur Deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik; Andreasen, Frank Erik

    1995-01-01

    -upward lithology, terminating with a jökulhlaup episode characterized by large compound dune migration and slack-water draping. Mapping of a more than 200 m long well exposed pitwall and ground-penetrating radar measurements in a 50 × 200 m grid along the pitwall made it possible to outline the three......-dimensional geometry of the jökulhlaup deposit, forming the top part of the succession. The paper describes the sedimentology of the sandur deposits and the application of the ground-penetrating radar technique to sedimentary architecture studies....

  12. Sedimentology and Ground-Penetrating Radar Characteristics of a Pleistocene Sandur Deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik; Andreasen, Frank Erik

    1995-01-01

    -upward lithology, terminating with a jökulhlaup episode characterized by large compound dune migration and slack-water draping. Mapping of a more than 200 m long well exposed pitwall and ground-penetrating radar measurements in a 50 × 200 m grid along the pitwall made it possible to outline the three......-dimensional geometry of the jökulhlaup deposit, forming the top part of the succession. The paper describes the sedimentology of the sandur deposits and the application of the ground-penetrating radar technique to sedimentary architecture studies....

  13. Deltaic Morphology and Sedimentology, with Special Reference to the Indus River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Shatt-al-Arab, and Chao submarine canyon restricts subaqueous delta Phraya (Fig. 10). The role of tides in the Indus development by funneling sediment...D -R I B S 1 9 8 D E L T I C M O R P H O L O G Y A N D S E D I E N T O L O G Y N I T H S P E C I LREFERENCE TO THE INDUS RIVER DELTA(U) LOUISIANA...424 DELTAIC MORPHOLOGY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE INDUS RIVER DELTA J. T. Wells and J. M. Coleman 1985 Marine Geology

  14. Reconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamourou, Ali; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allowed reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim of this research work is to identify the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present time. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 m water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay <2 μm. They broadly present the same sedimentological and mineralogical features. Microscopical observations of petrographic slides allowed identifying six main sedimentary facies. Bulk mineralogical assemblages comprised clay minerals, quartz, calcite, gypsum and K-feldspars were examined. Considerable change was observed in the carbonate content that mimicked the bioclaste abundance and diluted the detrital minerals (clay minerals, quartz and feldspars). The gypsum mainly occurred in the lower sedimentary columns (SC12 and SC9) and in the upper/middle of core SC6. The clay fraction was made of a mixture of kaolinite, illite, smectite and palygorskite with no clear variation through core depth. Both grain-size parameters and magnetic susceptibility profile showed a sharp transition in the upper 2-5 m of the sedimentological columns. Coarse, sandy to gravely sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal were replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies revealed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. However, core-top sediments recorded a littoral marine environment with sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical

  15. Sedimentological Investigations of the Martian Surface using the Mars 2001 Robotic Arm Camera and MECA Optical Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Smith, P. H.; Marshall, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The first microscopic sedimentological studies of the Martian surface will commence with the landing of the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) December 3, 1999. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) has a resolution of 25 um/p which will permit detailed micromorphological analysis of surface and subsurface materials. The Robotic Ann will be able to dig up to 50 cm below the surface. The walls of the trench will also be inspected by RAC to look for evidence of stratigraphic and / or sedimentological relationships. The 2001 Mars Lander will build upon and expand the sedimentological research begun by the RAC on MPL. This will be accomplished by: (1) Macroscopic (dm to cm): Descent Imager, Pancam, RAC; (2) Microscopic (mm to um RAC, MECA Optical Microscope (Figure 2), AFM This paper will focus on investigations that can be conducted by the RAC and MECA Optical Microscope.

  16. Antimicrobial evaluation of mangiferin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethylenomangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N,N-diphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and R f value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

  17. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Mangiferin Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Kumar, Y.; Kumar, S. Sadish; Sharma, V. K.; Dua, K.; Samad, A.

    2009-01-01

    The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethyleno)mangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N, N-diphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno) mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and Rf value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. PMID:20490307

  18. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs."

  19. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions on the Mozambique coast as a tool to understand human evolution: from modern analogues to borehole interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana; Skosey-LaLonde, Elena; Zinsious, Brandon; Gonçalves, Célia; Bicho, Nuno; Raja, Mussa; Cascalheira, João; Haws, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the project "Stone Age Vilankulos: Modern Human Origins Research South of the Rio Save, Mozambique" a geoarchaeological survey was conducted in 2016 aiming to better understand the environmental history and landscape evolution of the study area including the environmental context of human occupation. During the survey, 23 sediment surface samples were collected across a variety of environments, namely: freshwater environment - Elephant River basin in Southwestern Mozambique - and brackish and marine tidal environments - Inhambane coastal area, Southeastern Mozambique. These samples will be used as modern analogues to interpret the sedimentological and paleontological record of 4 cores collected in a mangrove area of the Inhambane estuary and then reconstruct its palaeoenvironmental evolution. All the sampling points were georeferenced and the study area was overflown with a drone to collect photogrammetric data. Both surface and core samples were used for diatom, texture and geochemical analysis. Diatoms will be used as the main palaeontological proxy, because they are unicellular algae with a short-live cycle and largely sensible to environmental variables such as salinity, sediment texture and duration of the tidal inundation. Preliminary data on the modern diatoms analysis showed that diatom diversity is high and the equitability is low in all environments. Cores sedimentological description and dating are also presented. The work was supported by the project PTDC/EPHARQ/4168/2014, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.

  20. A graphical approach to analogue behavioural modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Vincent; Nussbaum, Pascal; Amann, Hans-Peter; Astier, Luc; Pellandini, Fausto

    2007-01-01

    In order to master the growing complexity of analogue electronic systems, modelling and simulation of analogue hardware at various levels is absolutely necessary. This paper presents an original modelling method based on the graphical description of analogue electronic functional blocks. This method is intended to be automated and integrated into a design framework: specialists create behavioural models of existing functional blocks, that can then be used through high-level selection and spec...

  1. What Can We Learn From Analogue Experiments?

    CERN Document Server

    Thebault, Karim P Y

    2016-01-01

    In 1981 Unruh proposed that fluid mechanical experiments could be used to probe key aspects of the quantum phenomenology of black holes. In particular, he claimed that an analogue to Hawking radiation could be created within a fluid mechanical `dumb hole', with the event horizon replaced by a sonic horizon. Since then an entire sub-field of `analogue gravity' has been created. In 2016 Steinhauer reported the experimental observation of quantum Hawking radiation and its entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate analogue black hole. What can we learn from such analogue experiments? In particular, in what sense can they provide evidence of novel phenomena such as black hole Hawking radiation?

  2. Geoarchaeology of Ancient Karnak's harbour (Upper Egypt) : preliminary results derived from sedimentological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper aims to detail the first results of a geomorphological study, led in the western part of the Karnak Temple, Upper Egypt. The geoarchaeological approach privileged here helps to better understand the Nile River dynamics in the neighbourhood of the ancient harbour and of the jetty identified by archaeologists. Based on the study of six stratigraphical profiles, realized by the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities and sixteen manual auger boreholes (up to a maximum depth of 3.50m) drilled in November 2008, the results clearly indicate the continuous presence of Nile River westward of the first Pylon. The boreholes were drilled westward and eastward of the ancient fluvial harbour. Fluvial dynamics characterized by flood events, sandy accretions and large Nile silts depositions are presented and discussed here for later palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The accurate levelling of the different profiles and boreholes, with the help a topographic survey, allow us to get long sedimentological sequences and to correlate the different sedimentary units. Perspectives of research are introduced with the possibility to realize sedimentological analyses which include the grain-size distribution (sieving method employed) and a magnetic susceptibility study of the different sediments described. Finally, in order to obtain chronostratigraphic sequences, it is also proposed to perform radiocarbon dating on charcoal samples.

  3. The Valles natural analogue project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McConnell, V. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  4. Algebraic Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic statistics brings together ideas from algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and combinatorics to address problems in statistics and its applications. Computer algebra provides powerful tools for the study of algorithms and software. However, these tools are rarely prepared to address statistical challenges and therefore new algebraic results need often be developed. This way of interplay between algebra and statistics fertilizes both disciplines. Algebraic statistics is a relativ...

  5. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  6. Towards a quantitative climate reconstruction linking meteorological, limnological and sedimentological datasets: the Lake Sanabria (NW Spain) case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Herrero, María. Teresa; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Vega, José Carlos

    2010-05-01

    limnological towards the sediments. These relationships were studied using a statistical approach, such as ordination analyses (Principal Component and Redundancy Analyses), time series (auto- and cross-correlation funtions) and generalised linear models (glm). The precipitation and temperature oscillations account for more than 75% of the total variance of the Tera River discharge, and only precipitation explained more than the 55%. The lake reacts inmediately to changes in the precipitation as shown by best correlation between the three variables occurring at 0 lag-time. When exploring the possible relationships between meteorological and the limnological and nutrient datasets, it was evidenced that total phosphorous showed the best fit with 28% of the total explained variance. The best correlation was also observed at 0 lag, indicating that the main nutrient input occurs by the Tera River. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the XRF dataset showed that the first eigenvector explained more than 44% of the total variance and it was related mainly to the organic matter changes. Oscillations of this first eigenvector have been interpreted in terms of fluctuations of the primary productivity of Lake Sanabria. The comparison between the reconstructed primary productivity with the total phosphorous highlighted that lakes generally act as a low-pass filters, smoothing the climate signal when transfers it to the sediments. The explained variance between the smoothed reconstructed primary productivity and the total phosphorous is 24%, similar to that between the total phosphorous and the Tera River discharge. This study opens the possibility to a quantitative reconstruction of past climate data (temperature and precipitation) from high-resolution sedimentological datasets.

  7. Identifying climate analogues for precipitation extremes for Denmark based on RCM simulations from the ENSEMBLES database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Funder, S. G.; Madsen, H.

    2015-01-01

    change over time. The study focuses on assessing climate analogues for Denmark based on current climate data set (E-OBS) observations as well as the ENSEMBLES database of future climates with the aim of projecting future precipitation extremes. The local present precipitation extremes are assessed......Climate analogues, also denoted Space-For-Time, may be used to identify regions where the present climatic conditions resemble conditions of a past or future state of another location or region based on robust climate variable statistics in combination with projections of how these statistics...

  8. Insulin analogues in pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Morgan, Margery; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Wang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    Insulin analogues are commonly used in pregnant women with diabetes. It is not known if the use of insulin analogues in pregnancy is associated with any higher risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring compared with use of human insulin. We performed a literature search for studies of pregnant women with pregestational diabetes using insulin analogues in the first trimester and information on congenital anomalies. The studies were analysed to compare the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses of mothers using insulin analogues with foetuses of mothers using human insulin. Of 29 studies, we included 1286 foetuses of mothers using short-acting insulin analogues with 1089 references of mothers using human insulin and 768 foetuses of mothers using long-acting insulin analogues with 685 references of mothers using long-acting human insulin (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn). The congenital anomaly rate was 4.84% and 4.29% among the foetuses of mothers using lispro and aspart. For glargine and detemir, the congenital anomaly rate was 2.86% and 3.47%, respectively. No studies on the use of insulin glulisine and degludec in pregnancy were found. There was no statistically significant difference in the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses exposed to insulin analogues (lispro, aspart, glargine or detemir) compared with those exposed to human insulin or Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin. The total prevalence of congenital anomalies was not increased for foetuses exposed to insulin analogues. The small samples in the included studies provided insufficient statistical power to identify a moderate increased risk of specific congenital anomalies.

  9. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  10. The future of somatostatin analogue therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P M; James, R A

    1999-10-01

    Since its discovery almost 30 years ago, the mode of action and therapeutic applications of somatostatin have been defined. In particular the cloning and characterization of somatostatin receptor subtypes has facilitated the development of high affinity analogues. In the context of pituitary disease, long-acting somatostatin analogues (octreotide, lanreotide) have been used to treat a variety of pituitary tumours but are most efficacious for the treatment of GH and TSH-secreting adenomas. In patients with acromegaly, depot preparations of these analogues are administered intramuscularly every 10-28 days and provide consistent suppression of GH levels to < 5 mU/l in approximately 50-65% of all cases. Even more specific somatostatin receptor analogues are under development. Finally, radiolabelled somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and, in larger doses, therapy, are now established tools in the evaluation and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

  11. Strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively improve numerical prediction level by using current models and data, the strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction (DAP) is deeply studied in the present paper. A new idea to predict the prediction errors of dynamical model on the basis of historical analogue information is put forward so as to transform the dynamical prediction problem into the estimation problem of prediction errors. In terms of such an idea, a new prediction method of final analogue correction of errors (FACE) is developed. Furthermore, the FACE is applied to extra-seasonal prediction experiments on an operational atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model. Prediction results of summer mean circulation and total precipitation show that the FACE can to some extent reduce prediction errors, recover prediction variances, and improve prediction skills. Besides, sensitive experiments also show that predictions based on the FACE are evidently influenced by the number of analogues, analogue-selected variables and analogy metric.

  12. Implications of sedimentological and hydrological processes on the distribution of radionuclides in a salt marsh near Sellafield, Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, A.P.; Blackley, M.W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The report examines sedimentological and hydrological processes affecting a salt marsh in the Ravenglass estuary, which is situated south of the Sellafield nuclear-fuel-reprocessing plant. The results are discussed in the context of the distribution of low-level radioactive effluent at the site.

  13. Bayesian statistics

    OpenAIRE

    新家, 健精

    2013-01-01

    © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved. Article Outline: Glossary Definition of the Subject and Introduction The Bayesian Statistical Paradigm Three Examples Comparison with the Frequentist Statistical Paradigm Future Directions Bibliography

  14. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  15. Sedimentological study of a lagoon through natural radioactivity and 137Cs determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, E. G.; Pérez-Moreno, J. P.; Aguado, J. L.; Bolívar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2003-01-01

    Profiles of artificial fallout (such as 137Cs) and natural radioactivity radionuclides in sediment cores are useful tools to study sedimentological properties of different aquatic environments as well as to evaluate average sedimentation rates. In the Portil lagoon, a small natural reservoir located in Huelva province (southwest of Spain), and through the analysis of 210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs, 238U and 210Po vertical profiles in sediment cores, it is shown how the accumulative or transport character of the collection zones may be inferred. In the accumulation zone of the lagoon the influence of focusing effects has been analysed and an average sedimentation rate has been determined through 210Pb in one sediment core. This 210Pb-sedimentation rate is consistent with sediment dating based on the 137Cs data.

  16. Soil sedimentology at Gusev Crater from Columbia Memorial Station to Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Greeley, R.; Grin, E.A.; Schroder, C.; d'Uston, C.; Weitz, C.; Yingst, R.A.; Cohen, B. A.; Moore, J.; Knudson, A.; Franklin, B.; Anderson, R.C.; Li, R.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 3140 individual particles were examined in 31 soils along Spirit's traverse. Their size, shape, and texture were quantified and classified. They represent a unique record of 3 years of sedimentologic exploration from landing to sol 1085 covering the Plains Unit to Winter Haven where Spirit spent the Martian winter of 2006. Samples in the Plains Unit and Columbia Hills appear as reflecting contrasting textural domains. One is heterogeneous, with a continuum of angular-to-round particles of fine sand to pebble sizes that are generally dust covered and locally cemented in place. The second shows the effect of a dominant and ongoing dynamic aeolian process that redistributes a uniform population of medium-size sand. The texture of particles observed in the samples at Gusev Crater results from volcanic, aeolian, impact, and water-related processes. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders.

  18. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

  19. Sedimentology of gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (1976-1981) of the US DOE has generated a large amount of information on Devonian shale, especially in the western and central parts of the Appalachian Basin (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1980). This report summarizes this information, emphasizing the sedimentology of the shales and how it is related to gas, oil, and uranium. This information is reported in a series of statements each followed by a brief summary of supporting evidence or discussion and, where interpretations differ from our own, we include them. We believe this format is the most efficient way to learn about the gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin and have organized our statements as follows: paleogeography and basin analysis; lithology and internal stratigraphy; paleontology; mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry; and gas, oil, and uranium.

  20. Morphology and sedimentology of the Itaipú Embayment - Niterói/RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVADOR MARCUS VINICIUS S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetric and sedimentological data from water depths between 3 and 28 meters are the basis of a detailed bathymetric map of the Itaipú Embayment and an understanding of its sedimentary dynamics. Shallower than 16 meters the contours are parallel to the shoreline whereas the morphology of the deeper bottom is influenced by the Menina, Mãe, and Pai islands. Medium sand is prevalent, with local variations in more protected or less protected areas. Minor amount of black mud possibly derives from the Itaipú Lagoon. Siliciclastic granules and pebbles may be relict. The Itaipú Embayment's bottom morphology is controlled by stormy waves and the calmer easternmost part of the embayment presents a tendency to accumulate finer sediments.

  1. Spatial and Seasonal Studies of Sedimentological and Neoichnological Characteristics from Mangrove areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Us Saher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to appraise the physicochemical properties of mangrove sediments and their influence on neoichnological properties produced by different crab species from Korangi Creek (S1 and Sandspit backwater areas (S2 and S3, Karachi. The significant spatial, seasonal and tidal differences (p <0.05 were examined in %moisture, %porosity and sorting coefficient Φ.The significant spatial and seasonal variations were observed in total organic matter, mean Φ, skewness Φ and kurtosis Φ of sediment. Neoichnological properties (burrow number, diameter and total burrow opening area were observed with significant differences among the macrohabitat (stations and microhabitat (tidal levels. The correlation analysis indicated that the neoichnological properties are strongly linked with sedimentological properties such as water contents, total organic matter and textural parameters. This study could be employed to distinguish between different paleoenvironmental controlling factors, predicated on similar paleoichnological features made by similar fossil organisms in a mangrove environment.

  2. Harmonic statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-05-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.

  3. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Sunny C.; Mode, Wilfred A.; Ozumba, Berti M.; Yelwa, Nura A.

    2016-09-01

    Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface) and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta) should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should be treated with

  4. Sedimentological reservoir characteristics of the Paleocene fluvial/lacustrine Yabus Sandstone, Melut Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, M. I.; Padmanabhan, E.; Abdullatif, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    Melut Basin in Sudan is regionally linked to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Central and Western African Rift System (CWARS). The Paleocene Yabus Formation is the main oil producing reservoir in the basin. It is dominated by channel sandstone and shales deposited in fluvial/lacustrine environment during the third phase of rifting in the basin. Different scales of sedimentological heterogeneities influenced reservoir quality and architecture. The cores and well logs analyses revealed seven lithofacies representing fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine depositional environments. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately-sorted and sub-angular to sub-rounded, arkosic-subarkosic to sublitharenite. On the basin scale, the Yabus Formation showed variation in sandstone bodies, thickness, geometry and architecture. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies vertically and laterally within Yabus Sandstone where it shows progressive fining upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The lower part of the reservoir showed well-connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to the upper parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenetic changes such as compaction, cementation, alteration, dissolution and kaolinite clays pore fill and coat all have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability. The estimated porosity in Yabus Formation ranges from 2 to 20% with an average of 12%; while permeability varies from 200 to 500 mD and up to 1 Darcy. The understanding of different scales of sedimentological reservoir heterogeneities might contribute to better reservoir quality prediction, architecture, consequently enhancing development and productivity.

  5. Initial India-Asia Collision: Sedimentologic, Paleomagnetic and Paleontologic Evidence From the Ghazij Formation, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, W. C.; Khan, I. H.; Gingerich, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    Initial continental collision between India and Asia is thought to have caused significant changes to global climate and biota, yet its timing and biogeographic consequences are uncertain. Structural and geophysical evidence indicates initial collision during the early Paleogene, but sedimentary evidence of this has been controversial owing to the intense deformation and metamorphism along the suture zone. Modern orders of mammals that appeared abruptly on northern continents coincident with the global warming event marking the Paleocene-Eocene boundary are hypothesized to have originated on the Indian subcontinent, but no relevant paleontologic information has been available to test this idea. Here we present sedimentologic, paleomagnetic, and paleontologic results that show the lower Eocene Ghazij Formation of western Pakistan records continental sedimentation and mammalian dispersal associated with initial India-Asia collision. Sedimentologically, the Ghazij exhibits a clear transition from shallow-marine facies in the lower part, to paralic deltaic facies in the middle part, and continental fluvial facies in the upper part. Paleomagnetic data indicate that Ghazij deposition occurred just before a pronounced decrease in the sea-floor spreading rate of the Indian Ocean. Large fossil mammal assemblages show strong endemism in the middle part of the formation but increasing cosmopolitanism and affiliation with northern continents higher in the formation. Our results support the hypothesis that initial continent-continent contact occurred near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary along the northwest edge of the Indo-Pakistan plate and that subsequent closure occurred diachronously along the rest of the suture. However, it appears that during initial collision, modern orders of mammals dispersed into India rather than out of it.

  6. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeh Sunny C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should

  7. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undertaken in samples collected at the Uatumã River banks (Itapiranga and São Sebastião do Uatumã cities. Lithostratigraphic data shows that Novo Remanso Formation consists of sandstones, with subordinate conglomerates and pelites, characteristic of a meandering fluvial paleosystem, with fluvial channel, point bar, floodplain and crevasse splay facies. The palynoflora retrieved from five samples consists exclusively of continental-origin palynomorphs dominated by angiosperms species. Trilete spores are well represented, while gymnosperms pollen grains are minor components. The presence of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus, Syncolporites poricostatus, Jandufouria seamrogiformis and Polypodiaceoisporites potoniei ensure these deposits fits into the Grimsdalea magnaclavata palynozone (Regali et al. 1974a, b, and the Grimsdalea magnaclavata/Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni palynozones of Jaramillo et al. (2011 considered Middle Miocene age. This age is confirmed by the zonation of Jaramillo et al. (2011, based on the LADs of Bombacacidites baumfalki (11.57Ma and Crototricolpites annemariae (12.91Ma; and the FAD of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus (14.00Ma. With these new data presented herein, it is possible to assume that the Miocene strata represented by the Novo Remanso Formation covers a larger area in the basin than previously considered, and that it may be extended for about 300 km until the Manacapuru village, indicating a Miocene subsidence phase.

  8. Biotic and Sedimentologic Signals Associated with Tempestite Deposition from Baffin Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuise, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    In efforts to determine hurricane frequency prior to historical records, the often used model of counting presumed washover fans as coarse-grained hurricane deposits that interfinger with fine-grained, quiet, lagoon sediments may be oversimplified. The complexities of hurricane depositional events versus the usual dynamic sedimentological processes of barrier island complexes often makes it difficult to distinguish between expected and typical migrating coarse-grained facies from true hurricane deposits. To avoid some of this potential confusion and to better recognize the frequency of strong hurricane events, it is suggested that studies be focused further inland than the washover fans and that in addition to sedimentological indicators, they include biotic and chemical discriminators as well. These results are part of a broader study examining hurricane deposition along the Texas coast. The focus of this study is on slowly accumulating algal mats near Baffin Bay, Texas, that are punctuated by known hurricane deposits. This marginal lagoonal setting is more than 16 miles away from the Padre Island shorefront. Two cores were taken in 1974 that captured sediments from Hurricane Carla (1970) and Hurricane Beulah (1967). Algal mat depositional rates are on the order of 1.25 cm per year whereas the hurricane sediments are on the order of 45 cm per event. Sediments display flood and ebb surge stages for each event. Additional cores in other parts of the coast have similar sediment accumulation rates. In general, periods of relatively quiet deposition are dominated by Cyprideis ovata and Ammonia becarrii which can tolerate the conditions of these euryhaline and algal-floored ponds. In contrast, hurricane deposits show clear evidence of additional bay and shallow marine assemblages along with coarse-grained sediments, shell and shell fragments, and significant amounts of mud settling after the retreat of the storm surge.

  9. Investigation of Sediment Pathways and Concealed Sedimentological Features in Hidden River Cave, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, S.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Reinhardt, E. G.; McNeill-Jewer, C.; Eyles, C.

    2016-12-01

    Hidden River Cave is part of a cave system hydrogeologically related to Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and is a multi-level active cave system with 25km of mapped passages. Upper levels experience flow during flood events and lower levels have continuously flowing water. Improper industrial and domestic waste disposal and poor understanding of local hydrogeology lead to contamination of Hidden River Cave in the early 1940s. Previously used for hydroelectric power generation and as a source of potable water the cave was closed to the public for almost 50 years. A new sewage treatment plant and remediation efforts since 1989 have improved the cave system's health. This project focuses on sedimentological studies in the Hidden River Cave system. Water and sediment transport in the cave are being investigated using sediment cores, surface sediment samples and water level data. An Itrax core scanner is used to analyze sediment cores for elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, radiography, and high resolution photography. Horizons of metal concentrations in the core allow correlation of sedimentation events in the cave system. Thecamoebian (testate amoebae) microfossils identified in surface samples allow for further constraint of sediment sources, sedimentation rates, and paleoclimatic analysis. Dive recorders monitor water levels, providing data to further understand the movement of sediment through the cave system. A general time constraint on the sediment's age is based on the presence of microplastic in the surface samples and sediment cores, and data from radiocarbon and lead-210 dating. The integration of various sedimentological data allows for better understanding of sedimentation processes and their record of paleoenvironmental change in the cave system. Sediment studies and methodologies from this project can be applied to other karst systems, and have important applications for communities living on karst landscapes and their water management policies.

  10. The analogue method for precipitation prediction: finding better analogue situations at a sub-daily time step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Pascal; Obled, Charles; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Analogue methods (AMs) predict local weather variables (predictands) such as precipitation by means of a statistical relationship with predictors at a synoptic scale. The analogy is generally assessed on gradients of geopotential heights first to sample days with a similar atmospheric circulation. Other predictors such as moisture variables can also be added in a successive level of analogy. The search for candidate situations similar to a given target day is usually undertaken by comparing the state of the atmosphere at fixed hours of the day for both the target day and the candidate analogues. This is a consequence of using standard daily precipitation time series, which are available over longer periods than sub-daily data. However, it is unlikely for the best analogy to occur at the exact same hour for the target and candidate situations. A better analogue situation may be found with a time shift of several hours since a better fit can occur at different times of the day. In order to assess the potential for finding better analogues at a different hour, a moving time window (MTW) has been introduced. The MTW resulted in a better analogy in terms of the atmospheric circulation and showed improved values of the analogy criterion on the entire distribution of the extracted analogue dates. The improvement was found to increase with the analogue rank due to an accumulation of better analogues in the selection. A seasonal effect has also been identified, with larger improvements shown in winter than in summer. This may be attributed to stronger diurnal cycles in summer that favour predictors taken at the same hour for the target and analogue days. The impact of the MTW on the precipitation prediction skill has been assessed by means of a sub-daily precipitation series transformed into moving 24 h totals at 12, 6, and 3 h time steps. The prediction skill was improved by the MTW, as was the reliability of the prediction. Moreover, the improvements were greater for days

  11. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  12. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  13. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  14. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  16. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  17. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  18. Histoplasmosis Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Histoplasmosis Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How common is histoplasmosis? In the United States, an estimated 60% to ...

  19. Statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re

  20. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  1. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H., E-mail: jhchao@mx.nthu.edu.t [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chuang, C.Y. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  2. Total Synthesis of the Analogue of Icogenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Jie HOU; Peng XU; Liang ZHOU; De Quan YU; Ping Sheng LEI; Chuan Chun ZOU

    2006-01-01

    One of the analogues of icogenin, a natural furostanol saponin showing strong cytotoxic effect on cancer cell, was first synthesized via convergent strategy by using diosgenin and available monosaccharides as starting materials,

  3. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties.

  4. Second-Generation Fluorescent Quadracyclic Adenine Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumat, Blaise; Bood, Mattias; Wranne, Moa S.;

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent base analogues comprise a group of increasingly important molecules for the investigation of nucleic acid structure, dynamics, and interactions with other molecules. Herein, we report on the quantum chemical calculation aided design, synthesis, and characterization of four new putativ...

  5. Sulfur analogues of psychotomimetic agents. Monothio analogues of mescaline and isomescaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Shulgin, A T

    1981-11-01

    Two monothio analogues of mescaline and three monothio analogues of 2,3,4-trimethoxyphenethylamine (isomescaline) have been synthesized and characterized. Only the two mescaline analogues (3-and 4-thiomescaline) were found to be psychotomimetics in man, being 6 and 12 times more potent than mescaline, respectively. All five compounds can serve as substrates for bovine plasma monoamine oxidase in vitro, but no positive correlation is apparent between the extent of enzymatic degradation and human psychotomimetic potency.

  6. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  7. Statistical Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  8. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  9. The structure activity relationship of discodermolide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Simon J

    2008-03-01

    The marine polyketide discodermolide is a member of a class of natural products that stabilize microtubules. Many analogues have been synthesized suggesting that few changes can be made to the internal carbon backbone. Both ends of the molecule, however, can be modified. The majority of analogues have been generated via modification of the lactone region. This suggests that significant simplifications can be made in this region provided that the lactone moiety is maintained.

  10. Sedimentology, Petrography and Microfacies of the Paleogene Carbonate Sequence - Yaxcopoil-1 Borehole (Chicxulub, Yucatan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Sanchez, E.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-05-01

    Chicxulub crater is one the three largest known impact craters on Earth, formed 66 Ma-old, with multi-ring basin morphology. Crater is located in northwestern Yucatan, southern Gulf of Mexico, with rim diameter of 200 km and crater center at Chicxulub Perto in the coastline. It is buried beneath the carbonate and evaporitic Cenozoic sequence. Study of the structure requires geophysics and drilling, with several boreholes drilled in the peninsula. The Yaxcopoil-1 borehole was drilled south of Merida, about 62 km from center, as part of the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Program. One of the main objectives was to determine the role of the Chicxulub impact event in the K/Pg mass extinction and boundary events. We present a sedimentological and petrological study of the carbonate sequence in the interval from 404 m to 792 m overlying the K/Pg boundary. The well reached a depth of 1510.6 m. In this interval, we identified twelve units marked by different lithological and sedimentological changes, and supplemented by thin section analysis. Facies are composed mainly of marls, argillaceous, limestones, dolomitized limestones, calcareous breccias and calcarenites with shales thin beds. From the microfacies study we observed several major changes in the microfacies. From bottom of the sequence several textural changes cyclic from mudstone to bioclastic planktic foraminiferal wackestone, bioclastic packstone and some bioclastic grainstone. Two textures dominated in the calcareous sequence: bioclastic wackestone and packstone microfacies. From the microfacies study, we derived inferences on stable environmental conditions. We observed benthic and planktic foraminiferal layers. The benthic foraminifera strongly depend on environmental parameters, such as nutrient supply or oxygenation of the sea bottom water in the Paleocene and Eocene. Changes suggest occurrence of a progradational event, with a relative increase in sea level very slowly, with the sediment enough to overcome

  11. Lake sedimentological and plant ecological development across the Early Danian hyperthermal, Boltysh Impact Crater, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David; Andrews, Steven; Kemp, David

    2017-04-01

    Past hyperthermals and associated negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) are inferred to have had significant impact on marine environments; however the formation and changes of terrestrial ecosystems across hyperthermals are less well constrained due to the lack of complete and high-resolution data. The Boltysh impact crater, Ukraine, which formed at the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary at the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean, contains a >400 m thick unique and detailed lacustrine rock record of the Early Danian Dan-C2 hyperthermal. Based on a borehole (hole 42/11) drilled in the central part of the crater, we use a combination of sedimentological, palynological and carbon isotope data to 1) characterise and reconstruct lake formation and associated plant ecosystems, and 2) to assess lake sedimentological and ecological response to climatic variabilities during warming. Based on detailed facies analysis, 3 major gradual stages of lake formation are identified, indicating a strong relationship to carbon isotope shifts and associated climatic trends. Initial pre-excursion sedimentation was controlled by crater morphology and crater rim erosion transporting high amount of sediment into a shallow fresh water lake. During the negative excursion, sediment supply was increasingly characterised by inflow-evaporation ratio variabilities which affected seasonal stratification patterns and longer-term lake levels. An inferred increase in atmospheric pCO2 during the CIE, together with increasing mean annual temperatures, was likely responsible for periodic increases in bioproductivity. Palynological analyses demonstrate a gradual shift from mesic humid dominated vegetation to winterwet savannah-type vegetation at this stage, associated with an increase in mean annual temperatures and decrease in moisture availability. The positive excursion (recovery) and post-excursion stage is characterised by increased abundance of temperate mesic humid taxa. This cooling trend

  12. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    2005-01-01

    In this revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this goal through a coherent mix of mathematical analysis, intuitive discussions and examples.* Ross's clear writin

  13. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    2010-01-01

    In this 3rd edition revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. Concepts are motivated, illustrated and explained in a way that attempts to increase one's intuition. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this

  14. Statistics Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  15. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory H

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  16. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  17. Sedimentology, geochemistry, pollution status and ecological risk assessment of some heavy metals in surficial sediments of an Egyptian lagoon connecting to the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; Draz, Suzanne E O; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Moneer, Abeer A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution of heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn and Fe) was studied on Lake Edku's surface sediments in relation to sedimentology and geochemistry characteristics and their contamination status on the ecological system. Lake Edku's sediments were dominated by sandy silt and silty sand textures and were enriched with carbonate content (9.83-58.46%). Iron and manganese were the most abundant heavy metals with ranges of 1.69 to 8.06 mg g(-1) and 0.88 to 3.27 mg g(-1), respectively. Cobalt and nickel showed a harmonic distribution along the studied sediments. The results were interpreted by the statistical means. The heavy metal pollution status and their ecological risk in Lake Edku was evaluated using the sediment quality guidelines and the contamination assessment methods (geoaccumulation, pollution load and potential ecological risk indices, enrichment factor, contamination degree as well as effect range median (ERM) and probable effect level (PEL) quotients). Amongst the determined heavy metals, zinc had the most ecological risk. Overall, the heavy metals in surface sediments showed ecological effect range from moderate to considerable risk, specially, in the stations in front of the seawater and in drain sources that had the highest toxic priority.

  18. Sedimentological recorders of the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan storm surge from contrasting Philippine coastal landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, J. L.; Switzer, A.; Siringan, F. P.; Pilarczyk, J.; Li, L.

    2016-12-01

    Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 was an extremely intense and fast moving typhoon. It claimed more than 6000 lives, caused widespread damage, and affected more than 16 million people along its path in central Philippines. Overwash associated with the 5 to 8 m storm surge of Typhoon Haiyan also left behind a variety of geomorphic and sedimentological imprints, which provide a valuable dataset for modern storm deposits in different landform settings. Here we only present a synthesis of the sedimentological imprints from sites that span clastic, mixed clastic-carbonate, and non-clastic carbonate coasts, and were affected by contrasting surge mechanisms. On the sheltered clastic coast where overwash was dominated by wind-induced setup surge, the overwash sediments occur as a sand unit of no more than 20 cm near the shore, and then spread into sub-cm thin sandsheet that blanket pre-Haiyan soil surfaces up to 1.6 km inland. Thicker sections of the overwash sand exhibit sharp depositional contacts, planar stratification, and generally coarsen upward and fine landward. On the mixed clastic-carbonate coast, the Typhoon Haiyan deposits are generally thin (coast that was affected by a wave-dominated setup surge, the overwash sediments include two distinct assemblages: carbonate boulders now occupying the reef flat surface, and a sand sheet that blanketed the coastal plain up to 300 m distance inland. On the open coast, inverse modeling of flow velocities derived from boulder dimensions, sediment thickness, and grain size distributions indicate that the storm surge travelled across the wide reef flat and inundated the coast with flow velocities exceeding 4 ms-1. The sediment data support the tsunami-like surge characteristics of Haiyan, and although Haiyan's overwash sediments are clearly representative of Philippine modern storm deposits, they should however be used with caution in the interpretation of the geologic record. This cautionary note highlights the continuing issue of

  19. Sedimentological characteristics of the surficial deposits of the Jal Az-Zor area, Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, D.; Kittaneh, W.; Shublaq, W.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the nature and characteristics of the surface geology of the Jal Az-Zor escarpment and the adjacent area, to better understand the sedimentology of desert landforms, and the main factors controlling depositional and diagenetic processes active in this environment. The oldest outcrops along the face of the escarpment are the sand and sandstone sequences of the Mutla and Jal Az-Zor Formations of the Kuwait Group (Neogene). Gravelly deposits of the upper member of the Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Formation (Pleistocene) are restricted to a few hillocks and ridges in the summit area of the escarpment. The Neogene deposits in most of the study area are overlain by a veneer of unconsolidated Holocene sediments. These were classified, according to their morphological setting and field occurrence, into: coastal deposits (intertidal mud, sabkha deposits, and sand dunes) and inland deposits (sand drifts, slope deposits, wadi fills, residual deposits and playa deposits). Wind-born quartzitic sand is the most common Holocene sediment in the study area indicating the dominance of the aeolian processes. Gypsum and carbonate present as cementing materials or in the form of gypcrete and calcrete, respectively, are characteristic sedimentological features of the pre-Holocene deposits. Gypcrete and gypsum cement are abundant in the upper section of the escarpment and decreases downward, whereas the carbonate (calcrete) shows a reverse pattern, i.e., it becomes more dominant in the lower section of the escarpment. The source of sulphate ions in the groundwater that is responsible for the development of gypcrete is believed to be the evaporites in the lower section of the Neogene sequence. The source of ions for the formation of calcrete and calcite cement is less understood due to the lack of significant primary carbonates in the near-surface deposits. It is believed that the nature and distribution of the chemically precipitated material (gypsum

  20. QSAR Studies of 6-Amino Uracil Base Analogues: A Thymidine Phosphorylase Inhibitor in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash B. N. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of 6-amino uracil base analogue were synthesized. QSAR study was used to relate the selective nonsubstrate inhibitory activity of 6-amino uracil base analogue with various physicochemical descriptors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to find out the correlation between various physicochemical descriptors and biological activity of the compounds by using Openstat 2 version 6.5.1 and valstat statistical software. Out of the several equations developed, the best equation having the highest significance was selected for further study. The equation is able to explain 60% of total variance and are more than 95% significant as revealed by the F value.

  1. SEER Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  2. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  3. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  4. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  5. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  6. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  7. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich

    2007-01-01

    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  8. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  9. The sedimentology of a palaeo ice stream bed: an in-depth analysis of the Wielkopolska (Poland) MSGL field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Phillips, Emrys; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Rea, Brice; Carr, Simon; Ely, Jeremy; Ribolini, Adriano; Szuman, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Ice streams are fast flowing (up to 1000s m per year) corridors of ice within ice sheets. They are the main arteries through which ice sheets lose mass, accounting for up to 90% of Antarctic discharge. Ice streams are also dynamic and can widen, migrate or shut down on decadal timescales. One of the key controlling factors on ice stream behaviour is the interaction with a soft sedimentary bed, but the exact mechanism of this interaction is far from known or well understood. Studies on the sedimentology of ice stream bed are challenging in present-day glaciated regions or in offshore palaeo-settings. However, some good examples of onshore and 'relatively' easy-to-access palaeo ice stream beds do exist. In Europe, one of these settings is in Poland, near the town of Poznan, in the Wielkopolska region. Mega-Scale Glacial Lineations (MSGLs), the characterising landform signature of ice stream beds, have been investigated using state of the art sedimentological techniques. These include, extensive investigation of multiple trenches excavated along the crests and flanks of MSGL and ground penetrating radar profiling of large sections of the MSGL field. Micro-sedimentological characterisation via thin sections, AMS and CT scans, as well as various lab analyses, including granulometry and mineralogy were also undertaken. Results indicate a homogeneous facies (to >3m), across all depths and locations within the palaeo ice stream bed. This has profound implications on the formation of MSGLs and the dynamics of ice stream flow.

  10. Sedimentology and geochemistry of carbonates diagenesis. Application to the Malm of the eastern edge of the Paris basin; Sedimentologie et geochimie de la diagenese des carbonates. Application au Malm de la Bordure Est du Bassin de Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B

    2001-12-01

    The important heterogeneity of neritic carbonates reflects: 1 - the facies characteristics of the initial sediments, linked with the diversity of sedimentation environments, and 2 - the post-sedimentation diagenesis characteristics. The aim of this work is to explore this heterogeneity using the {delta}{sup 18}O isotopic signal. A three step pluri-disciplinary approach with different observation scales is established: 1 - a sedimentology study (facies inventory, paleo-environment variations, stratigraphic cycles), 2 - an inventory and chronology of the diagenesis phases and products which have modified he initial sediments, and 3 - a geochemical approach based on the {delta}{sup 18}O signal. This last step combines ionic microprobe measurements performed on separated phases and measurements performed on the whole rock carbonated phase. The carbonate formations under study correspond to the HTM102 borehole made by the ANDRA in the Malm of the eastern edge of the Paris basin. For the stratigraphic approach, some field analogues have been studied (Pagny-sur-Meuse and Gudmont-Villiers sections). (J.S.)

  11. Critical zone study in Korea: integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kwon, K.; Jo, K. N.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) is the topmost layer of the Earth ranging from the vegetation canopy down to the soil, groundwater, and bedrock that sustains our ecosystem including human life. This CZ is being greatly influenced by the climate change and anthropogenic forces. We introduce the Critical Zone Frontier Research Laboratory (CFRL), a critical zone research lab recently funded by the Korean government for 2015-2020. The objective of CFRL is to unravel the relationships between climate and CZ changes to propose a prediction model for future responses of CZ to climate change. For this ultimate goal, we establish multiple CZ observatories in Kangwon areas and investigate soil, groundwater, and cave environments by integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry. This study will enhance our understanding about CZ and local resolution of a climate change model. This research is financially supported by the Basic Research Laboratory Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

  12. High-resolution sedimentological and subsidence analysis of the Late Neogene, Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, E.; Muller, P.; Toth-Makk, A.; Hamor, T.; Farkas-Bulla, J.; Suto-Szentai, M.; Phillips, R.L.; Ricketts, B.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed sedimentological and paleontological analyses were carried out on more than 13,000 m of core from ten boreholes in the Late Neogene sediments of the Pannonian Basin, Hungary. These data provide the basis for determining the character of high-order depositional cycles and their stacking patterns. In the Late Neogene sediments of the Pannonian Basin there are two third-order sequences: the Late Miocene and the Pliocene ones. The Miocene sequence shows a regressive, upward-coarsening trend. There are four distinguishable sedimentary units in this sequence: the basal transgressive, the lower aggradational, the progradational and the upper aggradational units. The Pliocene sequence is also of aggradational character. The progradation does not coincide in time in the wells within the basin. The character of the relative water-level curves is similar throughout the basin but shows only very faint similarity to the sea-level curve. Therefore, it is unlikely that eustasy played any significant role in the pattern of basin filling. Rather, the dominant controls were the rapidly changing basin subsidence and high sedimentation rates, together with possible climatic factors.

  13. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of lower Eocene San Jose formation, central San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S.G.; Smith, L.N. (New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The lower Eocene San Jose Formation in the central portion of the San Juan basin (Gobernador-Vigas Canyon area) consists of the Cuba Mesa, Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members. Well log data indicate that, from its 100-m thickness, the Cuba Mesa Member thins toward the basin center and pinches out to the northeast by lat. 36{degree}40'N, long. 107{degree}19'W. The Regina Member has the most extensive outcrops in the central basin, and it decreases in sandstone/mud rock ratio to the north. The Llaves and Tapicitos Members occur only at the highest elevations, are thin due to erosion, and are not mappable as separate units. Well log data and 1,275 m of measured stratigraphic section in the Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members indicate these strata are composed of approximately 35% medium to coarse-grained sandstone and 65% fine-grained sandstone and mud rock. Sedimentology and sediment-dispersal patterns indicate deposition by generally south-flowing streams that had sources to the northwest, northeast, and east. Low-sinuosity, sand-bedded, braided( ) streams shifted laterally across about 1 km-wide channel belts to produce sheet sandstones that are prominent throughout the San Jose Formation. Subtle levees separated channel environments from floodplain and local lacustrine areas. Avulsion relocated channels periodically to areas on the floodplain, resulting in the typically disconnected sheet sandstones within muddy overbank deposits of the Regina Member.

  14. Biostratigraphy, sedimentology and paleoenvironments of the northern Danube Basin: Ratkovce 1 well case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybár Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ratkovce 1 well, drilled in the Blatné depocenter of the northern Danube Basin penetrated the Miocene sedimentary record with a total thickness of 2000 m. Biostratigraphically, the NN4, NN5 and NN6 Zones of calcareous nannoplankton were documented; CPN7 and CPN8 foraminifer Zones (N9, 10, 11 of the global foraminiferal zonation; and MMi4a; MMi5 and MMi6 of the Mediterranean foraminiferal zonation were recognized. Sedimentology was based on description of well core material, and together with SP and RT logs, used to characterize paleoenvironmental conditions of the deposition. Five sedimentary facies were reconstructed: (1 fan-delta to onshore environment which developed during the Lower Badenian; (2 followed by the Lower Badenian proximal slope gravity currents sediments; (3 distal slope turbidites were deposited in the Lower and Upper Badenian; (4 at the very end of the Upper Badenian and during the Sarmatian a coastal plain of normal marine to brackish environment developed; (5 sedimentation finished with the Pannonian-Pliocene shallow lacustrine to alluvial plain deposits. The provenance analysis records that the sediment of the well-cores was derived from crystalline basement granitoides and gneisses and from the Permian to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary cover and nappe units of the Western Carpathians and the Eastern Alps. Moreover, the Lower Badenian volcanism was an important source of sediments in the lower part of the sequence.

  15. Sedimentological control on Mn, and other trace elements, in groundwater of the Bengal delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J M; Sikdar, P K; Nath, B; Grassineau, N; Marshall, J D; Banerjee, D M

    2012-01-17

    To reveal what controls the concentration and distribution of possibly hazardous (Mn, U, Se, Cd, Bi, Pb) and nonhazardous (Fe, V, Mo, PO(4)) trace elements in groundwater of the Bengal delta, we mapped their concentrations in shallow groundwater (sedimentology and sources of water. Areas of less negative δ(18)O reveal recharge by sources of evaporated water. Concentrations of Fe, As, Mo, and PO(4) are high in palaeo-channel groundwaters and low in palaeo-interfluvial groundwaters. Concentrations of U, V, and Mn, are low in palaeo-channel groundwaters and high in palaeo-interfluvial groundwaters. Concentrations of Fe and Mn are highest (18 and 6 mg/L respectively) at dual reduction-fronts that form strip interfaces at depth around the edges of palaeo-interfluvial aquifers. The fronts form as focused recharge carries dissolved organic carbon into the aquifer margins, which comprise brown, iron-oxide bearing, sand. At the Mn-reduction front, concentrations of V and Mo reach peak concentrations of 3 μg/L. At the Fe-reduction front, concentrations of PO(4) and As reach concentrations 3 mg/L and 150 μg/L respectively. Many groundwaters contain >10 mg/L of Cl, showing that they are contaminated by Cl of anthropogenic origin and that organic matter from in situ sanitation may contribute to driving reduction.

  16. Sedimentological characters of the mangrove ecosystem of Kali estuary, Karwar, west coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine mangroves give natural support to the protection of the riverbanks, due to their accumulative nature. To study this effect, it is necessary to measure sedimentation rates under estuarine mangroves. Sediment plays an important role in the storage and release of nutrient into the water column, the mineralization of organic carbon deposits by various kinds of microbes. In association with other parameters, the sediment is responsible for the variations in densities of majority of benthic organisms. Regular monthly collections of bottom water and sediment were made for a period thirteen months from January 2008 and January 2009 at five different study sites using the motorized outrigger canoe. The present investigation encompassed collection of data pertaining to various aspects of sedimentology. Sediment temperature varied from 25.100c to 30.450c. The pH ranged between 6.18 to 8.30. Organic carbon Varied between 2.06 to 29.45%, moisture content varied from 20.10% to 41.88. Values of interstitial water content is varied between 1.60% to 30.95%. Wide variation in the percentage composition of sand (28.45% to 80.10%, silt (12.78% to 54.28%, and clay (3.66% to 33.63% was observed.

  17. New interpretation of the Gran Dolina-TD6 bearing Homo antecessor deposits through sedimentological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, I.; Pérez-González, A.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Rosell, J.; Blasco, R.; de Castro, J. M. Bermúdez; Carbonell, E.; Arsuaga, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    Gran Dolina is a cavity infilled by at least 25 m of Pleistocene sediments. This sequence contains the TD6 stratigraphic unit, whose records include around 170 hominin bones that have allowed the definition of a new species, Homo antecessor. This fossil accumulation was studied as a single assemblage and interpreted as a succession of several human home bases. We propose a complete stratigraphic context and sedimentological interpretation for TD6, analyzing the relationships between the sedimentary facies, the clasts and archaeo-palaeontological remains. The TD6 unit has been divided into three sub-units and 13 layers. Nine sedimentary facies have been defined. Hominin remains appear related to three different sedimentary facies: debris flow facies, channel facies and floodplain facies. They show three kinds of distribution: first a group of scattered fossils, then a group with layers of fossils in fluvial facies, and third a group with a layer of fossils in mixed fluvial and gravity flow facies. The results of this work suggest that some of these hominin remains accumulated in the cave by geological processes, coming from the adjacent slope above the cave or the cave entry, as the palaeogeography and sedimentary characteristics of these allochthonous facies suggest.

  18. Geomorphological and sedimentological record of accelerated deglaciation of small mountain glacier, Ragnarbreen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek

    2010-05-01

    Most of the Svalbrad glaciers have been in retreat since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Hence, they give a good opportunity to study the geomorphological and sedimentological record of deglaciation. The aim of the study is to describe main landsystem elements of Ragnar glacier and relate them to different stages of the glacier recession. The Ragnar glacier is located in the Svalbard archipelago, in the central part of the West Spitsbergen Isle, in the north branch of Billefjorden. Ragnar is a small (~ 6 km2), outlet glacier, which current clean ice edge has retreated ca. 1500 m from the position related to the maximum LIA extent. Fieldworks of the study comprised detailed geomorphological mapping and sedimentary works. Four main elements of the landsystem of the Ragnar glacier can be distinguished: 1) Clean glacier surface. Currently, the ice surface of Ragnar glacier is almost completely debris-free and with only several supraglacial streams. 2) Ice-marginal lake. The lake started to form after 1980 year. Since that time, its length has reached 1000 m. Distant (from the ice-edge) part of the lake is shallow (changes in distribution of the sediments and landforms. They also add some premises that in the first stage of deglaciation debris flow and other mass wasting processes are most common. In the later phase glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposition also plays important role in transformation of landforms and sediments.

  19. The 1957 Valencia flood: hydrological and sedimentological reconstruction and comparison to the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Puertes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to improve the knowledge of the flood that took place in Valencia, Spain, in 1957. In other words, the aim is to test if it is possible to explain the flood waves with the incorporation of sediment cycle to a distributed hydrological model. Furthermore, this work aims to be aware of the current consequences of a similar event, taking into account land use changes, particularly, the urban rise in the lower basin, and the current flood defenses of the city. To do this, the hydrological model was implemented in the current basin situation. Once implemented, a reconstruction of precipitation at hourly discretization for the 1957 event was made and the sedimentological sub-model was calibrated. Then, the hydrographs in the chosen points were obtained. Finally, a simulation using the 1957 precipitation in the current basin situation was made, in order to be aware of the current consequences.

  20. Little Ice Age glacial geomorphology and sedimentology of Portage Glacier, South-Central Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Córdova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of glacial landforms and deposits is important, as it isdifficult to observe processes under modern glaciers and ice-sheets. Thus landscapes and sediments that are the product of present glaciation can give insight into processes that occurred during Pleistocene times. This study investigates the genesis of little ice age glacial landforms present in Portage Glacier, South-Central Alaska. The present day moraine morphology and sedimentology in Portage Glacier valley reveals the presence of two types of till and moraines. The clast-rich sandy diamicton present on the 1852 moraine is interpreted to be a basal till indicating this feature is a pushmoraine representing an advance or a standstill position of Portage Glacier in 1852. The moderately sorted gray sandy boulder gravel present on the 1900 and 1922 moraines is interpreted to be an ice-marginal deposit (ablation till with a mixture of supraglacial and glaciofluvial sediments deposited by slumping and stream sortingprocesses. All of these features are interpreted to be ablation moraines representing glacier retreat and moraine building in 1900 and1922.

  1. Tertiary tectonic and sedimentological evolution of the South Carpathians foredeep: tectonic vs eustatic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabagia, T. [Prospectiuni S.A., Hydrocarbon Div., Bucharest (Romania); Matenco, L. [Bucharest Univ., Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-11-01

    A detailed seismic sequence stratigraphy study based on the dense network of seismic profiles is integrated with structural observations from interpreted geological sections to derive a tectonic and sedimentological model for the Miocene-Pliocene evolution of the South Carpathians foredeep (Getic Depression). Following Paleogene and older orogenic phases, the first tectonic event which affected the studied areas was characterised by Early Miocene large scale extension to transtension which is responsible for the opening of the Getic Depression as a dextral pull-apart basin. Further Middle Miocene contraction caused WNW-ESE oriented thrusts and associated piggy-back basins. The last tectonic episode recognised in the studied areas relates to general transpressive deformations during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene interval, a first NW-SE oriented dextral episode is followed by second N-S sinistral deformations. The detailed sequence stratigraphy study allows for the definition of the dominant tectonic control of the sedimentary sequences in foreland basins. A eustatic control may be associated, but has a clear subordinated character. (Author)

  2. Reduced peptide bond pseudopeptide analogues of neurotensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulut, S; Rodriguez, M; Lugrin, D; Vecchini, F; Kitabgi, P; Aumelas, A; Martinez, J

    1992-01-01

    Pseudopeptide analogues of the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin (H-Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH) were obtained by replacing each peptide bond by the reduced peptide bond CH2NH. The resulting analogues were then examined for their ability to inhibit binding of labeled neurotensin to new-born mouse brain membranes and for stimulation of guinea pig ileum contraction. Replacement of the Ile12-Leu13, Tyr11-Ile12, Pro10-Tyr11 and Lys9-Pro10 peptide bonds resulted in about 2000-, 3400-, 200- and 3400-fold losses, respectively, in binding affinity and 400-, 750-, 250- and 300-fold losses, respectively, in biological activity. Replacement of both Arg8 and Arg9 by lysine led to an analogue exhibiting the same pharmacological profile as the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin. Interestingly, replacement of the Lys8-Lys9 peptide bond by the CH2NH bond produced an analogue exhibiting the same affinity for neurotensin receptors, but 10 times more potent in stimulating guinea pig ileum contraction. N-terminal protected analogues (by the Boc group) showed decreased potency as compared with their amino-free corresponding compounds.

  3. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  4. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabl, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

  5. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  6. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  7. AP statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Wissing, Robin

    2012-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

  8. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a

  9. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

  10. Analogue correction method of errors and its applicatim to numerical weather prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Li; Ren Hong-Li; Li Jian-Ping; Chou Ji-Fan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,an analogue correction method of errors (ACE) based on a complicated atmospheric model is further developed and applied to numerical weather prediction (NWP).The analysis shows that the ACE can effectively reduce model errors by combining the statistical analogue method with the dynamical model together in order that the information of plenty of historical data is utilized in the current complicated NWP model.Furthermore.in the ACE.the differences of the similarities between different historical analogues and the current initial state are considered as the weights for estimating model errors.The results of daily,decad and monthly prediction experiments On a complicated T63 atmospheric model show that the performance of the ACE by correcting model errors based on the estimation of the errors of 4 historical analogue predictions is not only better than that of the scheme of only introducing the correction of the errors of every single analogue prediction,but is also better than that of the T63 model.

  11. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem

    2016-02-04

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  12. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Basem A; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-03-15

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines, that is, cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5-10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geomagnetic properties of Proxima Centauri b analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of a planet around the closest star, Proxima Centauri, could represent a quantum leap on the testability of models in exoplanet sciences. Unlike any other discovered exoplanet, models of planetary processes in Proxima b could be contrasted against near future telescopic observations and far future in-situ measurements. In this paper we study the geomagnetic properties of Proxima b analogues, namely, solid planets with masses close but larger than Earth's mass, periods of rotation of several days and habitable surface conditions. Assuming different planetary masses, bulk compositions and periods of rotations, we calculate for each planetary analogue its radius, heat flux, time of inner core formation, dynamo lifetime and minimum dipole magnetic moment. We find that most ($\\gtrsim$70\\%) Proxima b analogues develop intrinsic dynamos that last at least 3 Gyr, although only half of them are older than the present age of the host star ($4-6$ Gyr). Relying in our planetary evolution models, we p...

  14. Sedimentology and chronology of the advance and retreat of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet on the continental shelf west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jared L.; Benetti, Sara; Dunlop, Paul; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Moreton, Steven G.; Wheeler, Andrew J.; Clark, Christopher D.

    2016-05-01

    The last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) had extensive marine-terminating margins and was drained by multiple large ice streams and is thus a useful analogue for marine-based areas of modern ice sheets. However, despite recent advances from investigating the offshore record of the BIIS, the dynamic history of its marine margins, which would have been sensitive to external forcing(s), remain inadequately understood. This study is the first reconstruction of the retreat dynamics and chronology of the western, marine-terminating, margin of the last (Late Midlandian) BIIS. Analyses of shelf geomorphology and core sedimentology and chronology enable a reconstruction of the Late Midlandian history of the BIIS west of Ireland, from initial advance to final retreat onshore. Five AMS radiocarbon dates from marine cores constrain the timing of retreat and associated readvances during deglaciation. The BIIS advanced without streaming or surging, depositing a bed of highly consolidated subglacial traction till, and reached to within ˜20 km of the shelf break by ˜24,000 Cal BP. Ice margin retreat was likely preceded by thinning, grounding zone retreat and ice shelf formation on the outer shelf by ˜22,000 Cal BP. This ice shelf persisted for ≤2500 years, while retreating at a minimum rate of ˜24 m/yr and buttressing a >150-km long, 20-km wide, bathymetrically-controlled grounding zone. A large (˜150 km long), arcuate, flat-topped grounding-zone wedge, termed here the Galway Lobe Grounding-Zone Wedge (GLGZW), was deposited below this ice shelf and records a significant stillstand in BIIS retreat. Geomorphic relationships indicate that the BIIS experienced continued thinning during its retreat across the shelf, which led to increased topographic influence on its flow dynamics following ice shelf break up and grounding zone retreat past the GLGZW. At this stage of retreat the western BIIS was comprised of several discrete, asynchronous lobes that underwent several readvances

  15. Statistics; Tilastot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1997, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1998, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-September 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-September 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products

  16. Statistics; Tilastot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1996, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1997, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products

  17. Statistical Mechancis

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    C. Cercignani: A sketch of the theory of the Boltzmann equation.- O.E. Lanford: Qualitative and statistical theory of dissipative systems.- E.H. Lieb: many particle Coulomb systems.- B. Tirozzi: Report on renormalization group.- A. Wehrl: Basic properties of entropy in quantum mechanics.

  18. Benzoylphenylurea sulfur analogues with potent antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallur, Gurulingappa; Jimeno, Antonio; Dalrymple, Susan; Zhu, Tao; Jung, M Katherine; Hidalgo, Manuel; Isaacs, John T; Sukumar, Saraswati; Hamel, Ernest; Khan, Saeed R

    2006-04-06

    A novel series of BPU analogues were synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity. In particular, BPU sulfur analogues 6n and 7d were shown to possess up to 10-fold increased potency, when compared to 1 (NSC-639829), against cancer cell lines. 6n was more effective than 1 in causing apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. When compared to other drugs with a similar mechanism of action, 6n retained significant ability to inhibit tubulin assembly, with an IC(50) of 2.1 microM.

  19. A selective phenelzine analogue inhibitor of histone demethylase LSD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusevich, Polina; Kalin, Jay H; Ming, Shonoi A; Basso, Manuela; Givens, Jeffrey; Li, Xin; Hu, Jianfei; Taylor, Martin S; Cieniewicz, Anne M; Hsiao, Po-Yuan; Huang, Rong; Roberson, Heather; Adejola, Nkosi; Avery, Lindsay B; Casero, Robert A; Taverna, Sean D; Qian, Jiang; Tackett, Alan J; Ratan, Rajiv R; McDonald, Oliver G; Feinberg, Andrew P; Cole, Philip A

    2014-06-20

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is an epigenetic enzyme that oxidatively cleaves methyl groups from monomethyl and dimethyl Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4Me1, H3K4Me2) and can contribute to gene silencing. This study describes the design and synthesis of analogues of a monoamine oxidase antidepressant, phenelzine, and their LSD1 inhibitory properties. A novel phenelzine analogue (bizine) containing a phenyl-butyrylamide appendage was shown to be a potent LSD1 inhibitor in vitro and was selective versus monoamine oxidases A/B and the LSD1 homologue, LSD2. Bizine was found to be effective at modulating bulk histone methylation in cancer cells, and ChIP-seq experiments revealed a statistically significant overlap in the H3K4 methylation pattern of genes affected by bizine and those altered in LSD1-/- cells. Treatment of two cancer cell lines, LNCaP and H460, with bizine conferred a reduction in proliferation rate, and bizine showed additive to synergistic effects on cell growth when used in combination with two out of five HDAC inhibitors tested. Moreover, neurons exposed to oxidative stress were protected by the presence of bizine, suggesting potential applications in neurodegenerative disease.

  20. Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975

    CERN Document Server

    Small, James S

    2013-01-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.

  1. Sedimentological features of the surge emitted during the August, 2006 pyroclastic eruption at Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet, G.; Goldstein, F.; Lavallee, Y.; Hanson, J. B.; Kueppers, U.; Robin, C.; Ramon, P.

    2009-12-01

    Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, is a stratovolcano, which began a new eruptive phase in 1999. Notable pyroclastic Density Currents (PDC) were generated in July (VEI 2) and August (VEI 3) 2006 and covered its N and W flanks. PDCs and associated lahars represent a major hazard for 20,000 inhabitants and an hydrological dam. The volcano has been monitored by the Instituto Geofisico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional of Quito, since 1988. Field work carried out in 2009 provide information on the behavior of the fine-grained fraction of the PDC (i.e., surge) during transport and deposition. We mapped out the sedimentological characteristics of the deposits and distinguished three depositional environments: 1- The core of the deposit, up to several m in thickness, is confined to valleys and consists of poorly-sorted lapilli scoria and blocks (cm to m scale) and a small fraction of ash matrix. Ongoing analysis of the ash matrix will help to understand the link between the main PDC and the associated surge. 2- On ridges and outer margins of valleys, the deposits total a thickness of 10s to 100s cm and consist of fine- to coarse-grain ashes organized in cm-scale beds. Horizontal to cross bed laminations with 10-cm long wavelength prevail. They are typical of deposition under sustained high-energy current, which we associate with the flow of a surge. 3- In the distal part of surge deposits, we observe fine grained surge deposits with a thickness up to ca. 5 m. The characteristic structures are curved crested dunes, 10s of cm high and up to 10s of m long, with dip angles ranging from 15 to 35° and a strongly asymmetric shape. The steepest side tends to be the upslope face. Dunes show mainly a climbing structure, with beds cm in thickness, but some are more complicated, containing cut and fill structures, interpreted as late-stage pulses of energetic turbulence. No displacement dunes were observed in this area. Using the flow direction given by 100s of dunes, we provide

  2. MOSAIC: An organic geochemical and sedimentological database for marine surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagna, Maria Luisa; Usman, Muhammed; De Avelar, Silvania; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Modern ocean sediments serve as the interface between the biosphere and the geosphere, play a key role in biogeochemical cycles and provide a window on how contemporary processes are written into the sedimentary record. Research over past decades has resulted in a wealth of information on the content and composition of organic matter in marine sediments, with ever-more sophisticated techniques continuing to yield information of greater detail and as an accelerating pace. However, there has been no attempt to synthesize this wealth of information. We are establishing a new database that incorporates information relevant to local, regional and global-scale assessment of the content, source and fate of organic materials accumulating in contemporary marine sediments. In the MOSAIC (Modern Ocean Sediment Archive and Inventory of Carbon) database, particular emphasis is placed on molecular and isotopic information, coupled with relevant contextual information (e.g., sedimentological properties) relevant to elucidating factors that influence the efficiency and nature of organic matter burial. The main features of MOSAIC include: (i) Emphasis on continental margin sediments as major loci of carbon burial, and as the interface between terrestrial and oceanic realms; (ii) Bulk to molecular-level organic geochemical properties and parameters, including concentration and isotopic compositions; (iii) Inclusion of extensive contextual data regarding the depositional setting, in particular with respect to sedimentological and redox characteristics. The ultimate goal is to create an open-access instrument, available on the web, to be utilized for research and education by the international community who can both contribute to, and interrogate the database. The submission will be accomplished by means of a pre-configured table available on the MOSAIC webpage. The information on the filled tables will be checked and eventually imported, via the Structural Query Language (SQL), into

  3. Upper Devonian vertebrate taphonomy and sedimentology from the Klunas fossil site, Tervete Formation, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiļkova, J.; Lukševičs, E.; Stinkulis, Ä.¢.; Zupinš, I.

    2012-04-01

    The deposits of the Tervete Formation, Famennian Stage of Latvia, comprising weakly cemented sandstone and sand intercalated with dolomitic marls, siltstone and clay, have been traditionally interpreted as having formed in a shallow, rather restricted sea with lowered salinity. During seven field seasons the excavations took place in the south-western part of Latvia, at the Klunas site, and resulted in extensive palaeontological and sedimentological data. The taphonomical analysis has been performed, having evaluated the size, sorting, orientation of the fossils, articulation and skeletal preservation as well as the degree of fragmentation and abrasion. The sedimentological analysis involved interpretation of sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent direction reconstruction, grain-size analysis and approximate water depth calculations. The vertebrate assemblage of the Klunas site represents all known taxa of the Sparnene Regional Stage of the Baltic Devonian, comprising placoderms Bothriolepis ornata Eichwald, B. jani Lukševičs, Phyllolepis tolli Vasiliauskas, Dunkleosteus sp. and Chelyophorus sp., sarcopterygians Holoptychius nobilissimus Agassiz, Platycephalichthys skuenicus Vorobyeva, Cryptolepis sp., Conchodus sp., Glyptopomus ? sp., "Strunius" ? sp., and Dipterus sp., as well as an undetermined actinopterygian. Placoderms Bothriolepis ornata and B. jani dominate the assemblage. The fossils are represented in the main by fully disarticulated placoderm plates and plate fragments, sarcopterygian scales and teeth, rarely bones of the head and shoulder girdle, and acanthodian spines and scales. The characteristic feature is the great amount of fragmentary remains several times exceeding the number of intact bones. The horizontal distribution of the bones over the studied area is not homogenous, distinct zones of increased or decreased density of fossils can be traced. Zones of the increased density usually contain many elements of various sizes, whereas zones of the

  4. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and eruptive mechanisms in the tuff cone of El Golfo (Lanzarote, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Geyer, Adelina

    2013-07-01

    The tuff cone of El Golfo on the western coast of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) is a typical hydrovolcanic edifice. Along with other edifices of the same age, it was constructed along a fracture oriented NEE-SWW that coincides with the main structural trend of recent volcanism in this part of the island. We conducted a detailed stratigraphic study of the succession of deposits present in this tuff cone and here interpret them in light of the depositional processes and eruptive dynamics that we were able to infer. The eruptive sequence is represented by a succession of pyroclastic deposits, most of which were emplaced by flow, plus a number of air-fall deposits and ballistic blocks and bombs. We distinguished five different eruptive/depositional stages on the basis of differences in inferred current flow regimes and fragmentation efficiencies represented by the resulting deposits; the different stages may be related to variations in the explosive energy. Eight lithofacies were identified based on sedimentary discontinuities, grain size, components, variations in primary laminations and bedforms. The volcanic edifice was constructed very rapidly around the vent, and this is inferred to have controlled the amount of water that was able to enter the eruption conduit. The sedimentological characteristics of the deposits and the nature and distribution of palagonitic alteration suggest that most of the pyroclastic succession in El Golfo was deposited in a subaerial environment. This type of hydrovolcanic explosive activity is common in the coastal zones of Lanzarote and the other Canary Islands and is one of the main potential hazards that could threaten the human population of this archipelago. Detailed studies of these hydrovolcanic eruptions such as the one we present here can help volcanologists understand the hazards that this type of eruption can generate and provide essential information for undertaking risk assessment in similar volcanic environments.

  5. Dynamics of Late Quaternary sapropel periods documented by micropaleontological and sedimentological data from North Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkaniatsa, Georgia; Kontakiotis, George; Antonarakou, Assimina; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George

    2017-04-01

    . Moreover, using sedimentological observations, we aim to determine the dynamics of sediment delivery, redox conditions and preservation during the formation of these sapropel events.

  6. Sedimentologic Expression of the Cretaceous OAEs in a Tropical Epicontinental Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The acidification and deoxygention of modern oceans are major environmental concerns to the international community. The effects of ocean acidification and deoxigention in the biogeochemical cycles of modern tropical oceans are poorly constrained mainly due to the lack of empirical and quantitative data. The Cretaceous World witnessed several period of potential ocean acidification and deoxygenation, which resulted from the rapid additions of volcanic derived CO2 to the atmosphere. The effects of ocean acidification and deoxygenation on the Cretaceous biogeochemical cycles are evidenced mainly by major global C-isotope anomalies. These anomalies parallel the occurrence of organic rich black shales as well as major decreases in the deposition of shallow marine carbonates worldwide. Here we use detailed C- and Sr- chemostratigraphy as well as published bioestratigraphic information and volcanic zircon U-Pb ages to precisely constrain the geochemical and sedimentologic expression of the Cretaceous OAES along a tropical epicontinental sea, the La Luna Sea. Our multi-pronged approach allows identifying the occurrence of several of the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) in carbonate units paleogeographically located along the northern most part of the La Luna Sea, i.e. Weissert-OAE-(Palanz and Rosablanca Formations), Faraoni-(Rosablanca Formation), AOE1a-(Paja and Fomeque Formations, Cogollo Group), OAE1c-(Cogollo Group), OAE2-(Cogollo Group), OAE3-(La Luna Formation). These events are preserved in highly euxinic - organic rich "black shales" successions deposited along the deepest part of the seaway at the Middle Magdalena Valley and Cundinamarca Basin; Weiser-OAE-(Lutitas de Macanal Formation), OAE1a-(Paja Formation, Fomeque Formation), OAE1C-(San Gil Formation). Regional changes in depositional settings and sedimentary facies preserving the different Cretaceous OAEs were likely the result of the combined action of regional changes in paleogeography and tectonic

  7. Sedimentological effects of tsunamis, with particular reference to impact-generated and volcanogenic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Joanne; Wiberg, Patricia L.

    1988-01-01

    Impulse-generated waves (tsunamis) may be produced, at varying scales and global recurrence intervals (RI), by several processes. Meteorite-water impacts will produce tsunamis, and asteroid-scale impacts with associated mega-tsunamis may occur. A bolide-water impact would undoubtedly produce a major tsunami, whose sedimentological effects should be recognizable. Even a bolide-land impact might trigger major submarine landslides and thus tsunamis. In all posulated scenarios for the K/T boundary event, then, tsunamis are expected, and where to look for them must be determined, and how to distinguish deposits from different tsunamis. Also, because tsunamis decrease in height as they move away from their source, the proximal effects will differ by perhaps orders of magnitude from distal effects. Data on the characteristics of tsunamis at their origin are scarce. Some observations exist for tsunamis generated by thermonuclear explosions and for seismogenic tsunamis, and experimental work was conducted on impact-generated tsunamis. All tsunamis of interest have wave-lengths of 0(100) km and thus behave as shallow-water waves in all ocean depths. Typical wave periods are 0(10 to 100) minutes. The effect of these tsunamis can be estimated in the marine and coastal realm by calculating boundary shear stresses (expressed as U*, the shear velocity). An event layer at the K/T boundary in Texas occurs in mid-shelf muds. Only a large, long-period wave with a wave height of 0(50) m, is deemed sufficient to have produced this layer. Such wave heights imply a nearby volcanic explosion on the scale of Krakatau or larger, or a nearby submarine landslide also of great size, or a bolide-water impact in the ocean.

  8. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  9. Sedimentology and significance of an early syn-rift paleovalley, Wadi Tayiba, Suez Rift, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher Aiden-Lee

    2008-09-01

    Wadi Tayiba is located along the western margin of the Hammam Faraun fault block, western Sinai, Egypt and is generally thought to contain exposures of the 'type-section' for late pre-rift to early syn-rift stratigraphy associated with the Oligo-Miocene Suez Rift. Previous studies have suggested a complex vertical succession of sedimentary facies characterise the late pre-rift to early syn-rift and imply major and abrupt variations in relative sea-level during this time. Detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis of the Wadi Tayiba type-section presented in this study identifies not only a far simpler vertical facies succession than previously suggested but also the development of a major paleovalley system at the base of the early syn-rift succession. It is suggested that this subtle but significant feature is the cause of the complex vertical facies succession previously interpreted. It is concluded that continuous marine sedimentation and only moderate amplitude variations in relative sea-level occurred during the Eocene to Early Oligocene within at least this part of the Suez Rift. A major relative sea-level fall occurred during the middle Oligocene and a regionally developed erosional surface associated with this event marks the contact between late pre-rift and early syn-rift strata. The results of this study have major implications for sub-regional correlations of late pre-rift to early syn-rift stratigraphic units and resultant palaeogeographic reconstructions of the late pre-rift to early syn-rift period.

  10. Seismic Sedimentology Interpretation Method of Meandering Fluvial Reservoir:From Model to Real Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Xianguo Zhang; Chengyan Lin; Jingfeng Yu; Shouxiu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir architecture of meandering river deposition is complex and traditional seismic facies interpretation method cannot characterize it when layer thickness is under seismic vertical reso-lution. In this study, a seismic sedimentology interpretation method and workflow for point bar char-acterization is built. Firstly, the influences of seismic frequency and sandstone thickness on seismic re-flection are analyzed by outcrop detection with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic forward modeling. It is found that (1) sandstone thickness can influence seismic reflection of point bar architec-ture. With the increasing of sandstone thickness from 1/4 wavelength (λ) to λ/2, seismic reflection ge-ometries various from ambiguous reflection,“V”type reflection to“X”type reflection;(2) seismic fre-quency can influence reservoirs’ seismic reflection geometry. Seismic events follow inclined lateral ag-gradation surfaces, which is isochronic depositional boundaries, in high frequency seismic data while the events extend along lithologic surfaces, which are level, in low frequency data. Secondly, strata slice interpretation method for thin layer depositional characterization is discussed with seismic forward modeling. Lastly, a method and workflow based on the above study is built which includes seismic fre-quency analysis, 90º phasing, stratal slicing and integrated interpretation of slice and seismic profile. This method is used in real data study in Tiger shoal, the Gulf of Mexico. Two episodes of meandering fluvial deposition is recognized in the study layer. Sandstone of the lower unit, which is formed in low base level stage, distributes limited. Sandstone distribution dimension and channel sinuosity become larger in the upper layer, which is high base level deposition.

  11. A geochemical and sedimentological perspective of the life cycle of Neapolis harbor (Naples, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delile, H.; Goiran, J.-P.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Arnaud-Godet, F.; Romano, P.; Bravard, J.-P.

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the ancient harbor of Naples in 2004 during construction work on an underground railway, geoarchaeological studies undertaken on the archaeological excavation have revealed the main stratigraphic and paleo-environmental levels of the harbor site near the Piazza Municipio. However, knowledge of the dynamics and paleo-environmental changes in the water column of the harbor, as well as the processes of transport and deposition of sediments that led to siltation and infilling of the harbor basin, has been lacking due to the absence of high-resolution data. To fill these gaps, we have undertaken a three-dimensional study (longitudinal, transverse and vertical) of the harbor deposits by carrying out geochemical and sedimentological analyses of four stratigraphic sections of the archaeological excavation. The results show that after a phase of relative calm during the first half of the 1st c. AD, siltation of the harbor progressed exponentially up to the 5th c. AD, when dredging operations were carried out to obtain a water level sufficient for the development of maritime and harbor activities. We attribute this acceleration of siltation to a combination of climatic, anthropic and volcanic factors. Volcanic activity was responsible for a high-energy, tsunami-type event during the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. From the 5th c. AD onwards, the harbor basin of Neapolis does not appear to have been functional as evidenced by its transformation into a lagoon following coastal progradation. The last stage of infilling was the development of a flood-dominated fan delta under the combined influences of climatic cooling in the Early Medieval Cool Period and agro-pastoral activities in the catchment area of the harbor. Several generations of paleo-channels, containing flash flood deposits, as well as sheet wash from sheet floods, are indicative of high environmental instability in this period.

  12. Evolution of Ganges-Brahmaputra western delta plain: Clues from sedimentology and carbon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Sengupta, S.; McArthur, J. M.; Ravenscroft, P.; Bera, M. K.; Bhushan, Ravi; Samanta, A.; Agrawal, S.

    2009-12-01

    Sedimentology, carbon isotope and sequence stratigraphic analysis of subsurface sediments from western part of Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta plain shows that a Late Quaternary marine clay and fluvial channel-overbank sediments of MIS 5 and 3 highstands are traceable below the Holocene strata. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea-level lowering of >100 m produced a regional unconformity (type 1), represented by palaeosols and incised valley. C4 vegetation expanded on exposed lowstand surface in an ambient dry glacial climate. At ˜9 ka transgression inundated the lowstand surface pushing the coastline and mangrove front ˜100 km inland. Simultaneous intensification of monsoon and very high sediment discharge (˜4-8 times than modern) caused a rapid aggradation of both floodplain and estuarine valley fill deposits between 8 and 7 ka. The Hoogli River remaining along its present drainage possibly acted as the main conduit for transgression and sediment discharge that was subsequently abandoned. C3 vegetation dominated the delta plain during this time. From 7 ka onward progradation of delta plain started and continued till recent. This period experienced a mixed C3-C4 vegetation with localized mangroves in the mid-Holocene to dominant return of C4 vegetation in the late Holocene period. The study indicates that while the initiation of western part of GB delta occurred at least 1 ka earlier than the global mean delta formation age, the progradation started at ˜7 ka, at least 2 ka earlier than thought before. The terrestrial vegetation change was modulated by changes in depositional environment, specific ecological niches and climate rather than pCO 2.

  13. Experimental statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Natrella, Mary Gibbons

    2005-01-01

    Formulated to assist scientists and engineers engaged in army ordnance research and development programs, this well-known and highly regarded handbook is a ready reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for professionals seeking engineering information and quantitative data for designing, developing, constructing, and testing equipment. Topics include characterizing and comparing the measured performance of a material, product, or process; general considerations in planning experiments; statistical techniques for analyzing extreme-value data; use of transformations

  14. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M

    2013-01-01

    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  15. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  16. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  17. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While mol

  18. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine.

  19. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  20. A great disappearing act: the electronic analogue computer

    OpenAIRE

    Bissell, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    One historian of technology has called the analogue computer 'one of the great disappearing acts of the Twentieth Century'. This paper will look briefly at the origins, development and decline of the electronic analogue computer ..

  1. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment.

  2. Depth statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In 1975 John Tukey proposed a multivariate median which is the 'deepest' point in a given data cloud in R^d. Later, in measuring the depth of an arbitrary point z with respect to the data, David Donoho and Miriam Gasko considered hyperplanes through z and determined its 'depth' by the smallest portion of data that are separated by such a hyperplane. Since then, these ideas has proved extremely fruitful. A rich statistical methodology has developed that is based on data depth and, more general...

  3. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, statistical mechanics has been increasingly recognized as a central domain of mathematics. Major developments include the Schramm-Loewner evolution, which describes two-dimensional phase transitions, random matrix theory, renormalization group theory and the fluctuations of random surfaces described by dimers. The lectures contained in this volume present an introduction to recent mathematical progress in these fields. They are designed for graduate students in mathematics with a strong background in analysis and probability. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers interested in modern aspects of probability, conformal field theory, percolation, random matrices and stochastic differential equations.

  4. A 2D hydrodynamic-sedimentological model for gravel-bed rivers. Part I: theory and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Kaless; Mario A. Lenzi; Luca Mao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 2D-depth average model especially developed for gravel-bed rivers, named Lican-Leufú (Lican=pebble and Leufu=river, in Mapuche’s language, the native inhabitants of Central Patagonia, Argentina). The model consists of three components: a hydrodynamic, a sedimentological, and a morphological model. The flow of water is described by the depth-averaged Reynolds equations for unsteady, free-surface, shallow water flows. It includes the standard k-e model for turbulence...

  5. Why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important : an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This presentation explained why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important. The presentation provided an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, located in western Texas. Several illustrations were presented to demonstrate a stratigraphic sequence in black shale. Other topics that were discussed included geologic settings; paleogeography; silled basins; motivation for rock properties research; and factor analysis results. It was concluded that sequence stratigraphic analyses in black shales requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach. The presentation showed that third and fourth order stratigraphic cycles are indicated by the repetition of exotic beds whose composition vary regionally. tabs., figs.

  6. Analogue VLSI for probabilistic networks and spike-time computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A

    2001-02-01

    The history and some of the methods of analogue neural VLSI are described. The strengths of analogue techniques are described, along with residual problems to be solved. The nature of hardware-friendly and hardware-appropriate algorithms is reviewed and suggestions are offered as to where analogue neural VLSI's future lies.

  7. A q-analogue of the four functions theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Demetres

    2009-01-01

    In this article we give a proof of a q-analogue of the celebrated four functions theorem. This analogue was conjectured by Bjorner and includes as special cases both the four functions theorem and also Bjorner's q-analogue of the FKG inequality.

  8. Tryptophan analogues. 1. Synthesis and antihypertensive activity of positional isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdy, M E; Kurchacova, E; Schut, R N; Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1982-06-01

    A series of tryptophan analogues having the carboxyl function at the beta-position was synthesized and tested for antihypertensive activity. The 5-methoxy analogue 46 exhibited antihypertensive activity in the rat via the oral route and was much more potent than the normal tryptophan analogue. The methyl ester was found to be a critical structural feature for activity.

  9. Statistical Neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Gregory Harold

    1982-03-01

    The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better

  10. Topological estimation of cytotoxic activity of some anti-HIV agents: HEPT analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay K Agrawal; Kamlesh Mishra; Ruchi Sharma; P V Khadikar

    2004-03-01

    QSAR studies on anti-HIV cytotoxic activities of a series of HEPT(1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy) methyl]-6-(phenylthio)-thymine) analogues have been discussed. The molecular descriptors used being van der Waals volume () and equalized electronegativity (eq). The in vitro cytotoxicities (50) were modelled using these parameters. It was observed that upon introduction of indicator parameters statistically excellent models are obtained. The predictive power of the models was examined using a cross-validation method.

  11. Coral Patch seamount (NE Atlantic) - a sedimentological and megafaunal reconnaissance based on video and hydroacoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Beuck, L.; Hebbeln, D.

    2013-05-01

    The present study provides new knowledge about the so far largely unexplored Coral Patch seamount which is located in the NE Atlantic Ocean half-way between the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira. For the first time a detailed hydroacoustic mapping (MBES) in conjunction with video surveys (ROV, camera sled) were performed to describe the sedimentological and biological characteristics of this sub-elliptical ENE-WSW elongated seamount. Video observations were restricted to the southwestern summit area of Coral Patch seamount (water depth: 560-760 m) and revealed that this part of the summit is dominated by exposed hard substrate, whereas soft sediment is just a minor substrate component. Although exposed hardgrounds are dominant for this summit area and, thus, offer suitable habitat for settlement by benthic organisms, the benthic megafauna shows rather scarce occurrence. In particular, scleractinian framework-building cold-water corals are apparently rare with very few isolated and small-sized live occurrences of the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. In contrast, dead coral framework and coral rubble are more frequent pointing to a higher abundance of cold-water corals on Coral Patch during the recent past. This is even supported by the observation of fishing lines that got entangled with rather fresh-looking coral frameworks. Overall, long lines and various species of commercially important fish were frequently observed emphasising the potential of Coral Patch as an important target for fisheries that may have impacted the entire benthic community. Hydroacoustic seabed classification covered the entire summit of Coral Patch and its northern and southern flanks (water depth: 560-2660 m) and revealed extended areas dominated by mixed and soft sediments at the northern flank and to a minor degree at its easternmost summit and southern flank. Nevertheless, these data also predict most of the summit area to be dominated by exposed bedrock which would offer

  12. Coral Patch seamount (NE Atlantic) - a sedimentological and macrofaunal reconnaissance based on video and hydroacoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Beuck, L.; Hebbeln, D.

    2012-12-01

    The present study provides new knowledge about the so far largely unexplored Coral Patch seamount which is located in the NE Atlantic Ocean half-way between the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira. For the first time a detailed hydroacoustic mapping (MBES) in conjunction with video surveys (ROV, camera sled) were performed to describe the sedimentological and biological characteristics of this sub-elliptical ENE-WSW elongated seamount. Video observations were restricted to the south-western summit area of Coral Patch seamount (area: ~ 8 km2, water depth: 560-760 m) and revealed that this part of the summit is dominated by exposed hard substrate, whereas soft sediment is just a minor substrate component. Although exposed hardgrounds are dominant for this summit area, and thus, offer suitable habitat for settlement by benthic organisms, the macrofauna shows rather low abundance and diversity. In particular, scleractinian framework-building cold-water corals are apparently rare with very few isolated and small-sized live occurrences of the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. In contrast, dead coral framework and coral rubble are more frequent pointing to a higher abundance of cold-water corals on Coral Patch during the recent past. This is even supported by the observation of fishing lines that got entangled with rather fresh-looking coral frameworks. Overall, long lines and various species of commercially important fish were frequently observed emphasising the potential of Coral Patch as an important target for fisheries that may have impacted the entire benthic community. Hydroacoustic seabed classification covered the entire summit of Coral Patch and its northern and southern flanks (area: 560 km2; water depth: 560-2660 m) and revealed extended areas dominated by mixed and soft sediments at the northern flank and to a minor degree at its easternmost summit and southern flank. Nevertheless, also these data predict most of the summit area to be dominated by

  13. Late Holocene record of sedimentologic and paleooceanographic events in western Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.; Herguera, J. C.; Barron, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Edwards, B. D.; Caress, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Transects of ≤1.5 m-long vibracores obtained with MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts reveal late Holocene sedimentologic and paleooceanographic events in western Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (GOC) (~26.87°N, 111.338°W). Cores were located where layered near-seafloor sediments and subtle bedforms occur in 1793 to 1863 m water depths on the SW flank of the basin using detailed bathymetry and chirp profiles. Color banding was observed in the cores and gamma-density, XRF, grain size, and stable isotope data show that most of the banding is attributed to distal deposition from two turbidities. Distinctive white bands ~4 cm thick are present in three cores dispersed across ~300 m. The white bands are diatom oozes composed primarily of Thalassiothrix longissima as well as lesser abundances of Fragilariopsis doliolus and are probably a result of aggregations of Thalassiothrix-dominated mats that settle through the water column and accumulate on the seafloor. An AMS14C date taken ~3 cm above the white band in one core suggests this event occurred shortly before cal AD 1290±30. The core sites were most likely located beneath an important oceanographic front between nutrient-rich and oligotrophic water masses, probably as the result of well-mixed upper intermediate and surface waters in the mid-GOC and better-stratified tropical waters to the south. This implies the existence of a deeper mixed layer to the N in the mid GOC region most likely controlled by equatorial La Niña events fueled by stronger and more persistent NW winds along the GOC. A substantial reduction in diatom abundance evident by low specimen counts and lack of white bands following this mat-forming event seem to correlate with an abrupt decline in biosiliceous productivity and increases in the abundance of tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates in core MD02-2517 (887 m water depth; western Guaymas Basin slope) at the end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and transition to the Little Ice Age (~AD 1200-1300).

  14. Sedimentological characteristics of lake sediment of the Lake Jelonek (North Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, Mateusz; Filbrandt-Czaja, Anna; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Tjallingii, Rik; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Lake Jelonek is located in Northern Poland (53°45'58N, 18°23'30E). The lake is surrounded by forest, covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. In 2013 and 2014 three overlapping and parallel series of long sediment cores JEL14-A-(1445 cm), JEL14-B-(1430 cm), JEL14-C-(1435 cm) and seven short gravity cores JEL13 (K1-K7) have been recovered from the deepest part of the lake. A continuous composite profile JEL14 covering 1426 cm has been established by correlation based on 28 distinct macroscopic marker layers. The sediment sequence can be divided into 15 (I-XV) lithological units. These units comprise biochemical calcite varves, homogeneous calcite-rich gyttja, homogeneous organic-diatomaceous gyttja, and sandy layers. The chronology established so far is based on 14 AMS 14C dates from terrestrial plant remains and tephrochronology (Askja AD-1875) and covers the interval from the Younger Dryas to present times. Based on the chronology and sedimentological characteristics the composite profile has been correlated to a previous core from which a detailed pollen diagram had been established (Filbrandt-Czaja 2009). Here we present initial results from thin section analyses for two intervals from the new composite record JEL14, (I) the uppermost 0-256 cm and (II) the interval from 768-1296 cm. Intercalated between these two varved interval is a thick section (512 cm) of homogeneous organic-ditomaceous sediments. We present varve micro-facies data in combination with μ-XRF element scanning for comprehensive reconstruction of the sedimentation processes in Lake Jelonek. Preliminary varve counting reveals that the uppermost 256 cm varved sediments comprise ca 925 years (2008-1083 AD), while the lower floating varve interval covers the time period from 1850 - 10500 cal a BP. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association; grant number VH-VI-415. References

  15. Sedimentology, petrography and early diagenesis of a travertine-colluvium succession from Chusang (southern Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijun; Meyer, Michael C.; Hoffmann, Dirk L.

    2016-08-01

    The Chusang travertine is situated in southern Tibet at an altitude of ~ 4200 m asl. in a cold-arid, periglacial environment and is characterized by interbedding of hydrothermal carbonate with colluvium. Here we present sedimentological and petrographical data to elucidate the depositional environment and sedimentary processes responsible for hydrothermal carbonate precipitation and early diagenetic alteration as well as clastic sediment accumulation and provide initial 230Th/U ages to constrain the time-depth of this travertine-colluvium succession. Three main travertine lithofacies have been identified: 1) a dense laminated lithofacies, 2) a porous layered lithofacies and 3) an intraclastic lithofacies that results from erosion of pre-existing hot spring carbonate. The colluvium is composed of cohesive debris flow layers that derived from mass-wasting events from the adjacent hillslopes. Micro-fabric analyses suggest that dense laminated travertine forms via rapid calcite precipitation from hot spring water seasonally subjected to severe winter cooling, while porous layered travertine results from seasonal dilution of hot spring water with rain water during the summer monsoon months, which in turn stimulates biological productivity and gives rise to a porous summer layer. Early diagenesis in the form of recrystallization and extensive formation of pore cements is common in the Chusang travertine, but never eradicates the original crystal fabrics completely. The sedimentary architecture of the deposit is conditioned by (i) the gently dipping (~ 10°) pre-existing terrain on which hot spring water is discharged from multiple travertine mounds causing laterally extensive travertine sheets to precipitate, and (ii) the adjacent much steeper (up to 30°) periglacial hillslopes that are the source area of repeated debris flows that accumulate on the travertine surface. The resulting travertine-colluvium succession has a total thickness of ~ 24 m and 230Th/U dating

  16. Clear Lake sediments: anthropogenic changes in physical sedimentology and magnetic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osleger, David A; Zierenberg, Robert A; Suchanek, Thomas H; Stoner, Joseph S; Morgan, Sally; Adam, David P

    2008-12-01

    We analyzed the sedimentological characteristics and magnetic properties of cores from the three basins of Clear Lake, California, USA, to assess the depositional response to a series of land use changes that occurred in the watershed over the 20th century. Results indicate that distinct and abrupt shifts in particle size, magnetic concentration/mineralogy, and redox conditions occur concurrently with a variety of ecological and chemical changes in lake bed sediments. This coincidence of events occurred around 1927, a datum determined by an abrupt increase in total mercury (Hg) in Clear Lake cores and the known initiation of open-pit Hg mining at the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, confirmed by 210Pb dating. Ages below the 1927 horizon were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry on 14C of coarse organic debris. Calculated sedimentation rates below the 1927 datum are approximately 1 mm/yr, whereas rates from 1927 to 2000 are up to an order of magnitude higher, with averages of approximately 3.5-19 mm/yr. In both the Oaks and Upper Arms, the post-1927 co-occurrence of abrupt shifts in magnetic signatures with color differences indicative of changing redox conditions is interpreted to reflect a more oxygenated diagenetic regime and rapid burial of sediment below the depth of sulfate diffusion. Post-1927 in the Oaks Arm, grain size exhibits a gradual coarsening-upward pattern that we attribute to the input of mechanically deposited waste rock related to open-pit mining activities at the mine. In contrast, grain size in the Upper Arm exhibits a gradational fining-upward after 1927 that we interpret as human-induced erosion of fine-grained soils and chemically weathered rocks of the Franciscan Assemblage by heavy earthmoving equipment associated with a road- and home-building boom, exacerbated by stream channel mining and wetlands destruction. The flux of fine-grained sediment into the Upper Arm increased the nutrient load to the lake, and that in turn catalyzed profuse

  17. Sedimentología y paleontología del yacimiento Finimioceno de La Portera (Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacomba, J. I.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sedimentological and Paleontological charactetristics of La Portera Locality have been studied in this work. Four different asociations of facies belonging to several fluvial environments can be distinguished: a Sandstone and conglomerate channel deposits, showing point bar strutuctures; b Red clays of flood plain deposits; e Lacustrine micrite limestones; d Palustrine carbonaceous marls.
    Molluscs are associated to flood plain deposits, where they have more diversity, with associations or terrestrial as well as acuatic species. In the point bars there are acuatic prosobranchs and bivalves, whereas in the lacustrine limestones only molluscs casts are found.
    Mammals are represented by Rodents (Paraethomys anomalus, Equids (Hipparion sp. l, similar to those found in Venta del Moro locality and Hippopotamids (Hexaprotodon crusafonti. The find or a mandible of Hexaprotodon crusafonti permits uS a new definition of the diagnosis of this specie. On basis of these paleontological data the age of La Portera locality has been stalablished as Ventian (NM 13 MEIN'scale.

    En el presente trabajo se estudian las características sedimentológicas y paleontológicas del yacimiento de La Portera (Cuenca del Cabriel. Valencia. Cuatro asociaciones diferentes de facies pertenecientes a distintos subambientes fluviales pueden definirse: a Areniscas y conglomerados de relleno de canal. con estructuras similares a las de los depósitos de barras de meandro. b Arcillas rojas de llanura de inundación. e Calizas micríticas lacustres. d Margas carbonosas pallustres.
    Los moluscos, escasos, aparecen asociados a las facies de llanura de inundación, donde presentan mayor diversidad y mezcla de espcies acuáticas y terrestres; a las barras de meandro con prosobranquios acuáticos y bivalvos, encontrándose en las calizas lacustres sólo moldes. Los mamíferos están representados por un roedor, Paraethomys anomalus

  18. Constraints on the Dynamics of Seabed Pockmarks: an Integrated Sedimentological, Biostratigraphic, Geophysical, Oceanographic and Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, M.; Hammer, Ø.; Chand, S.; Gisler, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Pockmarks are crater-like seabed depressions commonly resulting from focused fluid escape from soft, fine-grained sediments. Typically measuring 20-50 m across with depths of 2-10 m, these features often occur in extensive fields containing hundreds of them per square kilometre. They are prominent hazards for offshore installations such as oil rigs and pipelines, affecting vast areas worldwide. Besides, they represent a major geological source of methane, and their importance has been pointed out as contributors to the global climate variability.Sedimentological and biostratigraphic analyses of sediment cores were coupled with shallow seismic images to investigate the origin and evolution of a pockmark field in the southwestern Barents Sea, an epicontinental sea part of the Arctic Ocean. The pockmarks formed as a result of reduced sedimentation above active gas seeps near the retreating edge of the Barents Sea ice sheet about 15,000 years ago. The seepage is ascribed to climate change-induced dissociation of methane hydrates. These findings strengthen the case that pockmarks, worldwide, recorded the release of massive quantities of methane from the seafloor into the ocean during the last deglaciation. No evidence was found for current upward methane flux, so the pockmarks in the study area appear as inactive seabed features. Field measurements of currents and sediment fluxes in pockmarks in the Oslofjord, Norway, along with an experimental hydrodynamics study, provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the long-term maintenance of inactive pockmarks. Near-bed currents may control the net sedimentation rate in these depressions by inhibiting the sedimentation from suspended transport. Enhanced turbulence and more intense biological activity suggest that the suspended fines are supported in the water column more easily in the pockmarks than on the surrounding bed, and can be transported away before settling. Moreover, upwelling generated by flow deflection

  19. Sedimentology, sequence-stratigraphy, and geochemical variations in the Mesoproterozoic Nonesuch Formation, northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury Stewart, Esther; Mauk, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    We use core descriptions and portable X-ray fluorescence analyses to identify lithofacies and stratigraphic surfaces for the Mesoproterozoic Nonesuch Formation within the Ashland syncline, Wisconsin. We group lithofacies into facies associations and construct a sequence stratigraphic framework based on lithofacies stacking and stratigraphic surfaces. The fluvial-alluvial facies association (upper Copper Harbor Conglomerate) is overlain across a transgressive surface by the fluctuating-profundal facies association (lower Nonesuch Formation). The fluctuating-profundal facies association comprises a retrogradational sequence set overlain across a maximum flooding surface by an aggradational-progradational sequence set comprising fluctuating-profundal, fluvial-lacustrine, and fluvial-alluvial facies associations (middle Nonesuch through lower Freda Formations). Lithogeochemistry supports sedimentologic and stratigraphic interpretations. Fe/S molar ratios reflect the oxidation state of the lithofacies; values are most depleted above the maximum flooding surface where lithofacies are chemically reduced and are greatest in the chemically oxidized lithofacies. Si/Al and Zr/Al molar ratios reflect the relative abundance of detrital heavy minerals vs. clay minerals; greater values correlate with larger grain size. Vertical facies association stacking records depositional environments that evolved from fluvial and alluvial, to balanced-fill lake, to overfilled lake, and returning to fluvial and alluvial. Elsewhere in the basin, where accommodation was greatest, some volume of fluvial-lacustrine facies is likely present below the transgressive stratigraphic surface. This succession of continental and lake-basin types indicates a predominant tectonic driver of basin evolution. Lithofacies distribution and geochemistry indicate deposition within an asymmetric half-graben bounded on the east by a west-dipping growth fault. While facies assemblages are lacustrine and continental

  20. Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Sand Dunes in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition

  1. A sedimentologic and 14C dating study of five eastern Australian upper continental slope submarine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, S. L.; Hubble, T.; Webster, J.; Airey, D.; De Carli, E.; Ferraz, C.; Reimer, P. J.; Boyd, R.; Keene, J.

    2013-12-01

    Sedimentologic and AMS 14C age data are reported for calcareous hemipelagic mud samples taken from gravity cores collected at sites within, or adjacent to five submarine landslides identified with multibeam bathymetry data on the Nerrang Plateau segment and surrounding canyons of eastern Australia's continental slope (Bribie Bowl, Coolangatta-2, Coolangatta-1, Cudgen and Byron). Sediments are comprised of mixtures of calcareous and terrigenous clay (10-20%), silt (50-65%) and sand (15-40%) and are generally uniform in appearance. Their carbonate contents vary between and 17% and 22% by weight while organic carbon contents are less than 10% by weight. Dating of conformably deposited material identified in ten of the twelve cores indicates a range of sediment accumulation rates between 0.017mka-1 and 0.2 mka-1 which are consistent with previous estimates reported for this area. One slide-adjacent core, and four within-landslide cores present depositional hiatus surfaces located at depths of 0.8 to 2.2 meters below the present-day seafloor and identified by a sharp, colour-change boundary; discernable but small increases in sediment stiffness; and a slight increase in sediment bulk density of 0.1 gcm-3. Distinct gaps in AMS 14C age of at least 20ka are recorded across these boundary surfaces. Examination of sub-bottom profiler records of transects through three of the within-slide core-sites and their nearby landslide scarps available for the Coolangatta-1 and Cudgen slides indicate that: 1) the youngest identifiable sediment layer reflectors upslope of these slides, terminate on and are truncated by slide rupture surfaces; and 2) there is no obvious evidence in the sub-bottom profiles for a post-slide sediment layer draped over or otherwise burying slide ruptures or exposed slide detachment surfaces. This suggests that both these submarine landslides are geologically recent and suggests that the hiatus surfaces identified in Coolangatta-1's and Cudgen's within

  2. Late Cenozoic Uplift of the Chinese South Tian Shan: Insight from Magnetostratigraphy and Sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Chen, H.; Cheng, X. G.; Zhongyue, S.; Lin, X.

    2016-12-01

    The South Tian Shan in the Central Asia is an intracontinental orogeny reactivated in the late Cenozoic by far-field effect of continuous India-Aisa convergence. However, its uplift time and process remains controversial. Here, Magnetostratigraphic and Sedimentological work in the Cenozoic Tierekesazi Profile in the South Tian Shan foreland was taken to figure out these problems. The Cenozoic sediment reveals a section of generally upwardly increasing particle sizes triggered by uplift of Tian Shan. Based on increasing particle size and water power, the Cenozoic succession could be divided into four lithofacies: (i) Paleogene marine lithofacies from the Paleogene Aertashi to Eocene-Oligocene Bashibulake Formation, (ii) lacustrine to fluvial (plain) lithofacies from the early Miocene Keziluoyi Formation to the middle of middle Miocene Pakabulake Formations, (iii) alluvial sand-gravel sheet lithofacies in the upperpart of middle Miocene Pakabulake Formation, and (iv) conglomerate lithofacies from the Neogene Atushi to Quaternary Xiyu Formation. Our magnetostratigraphic results, combined with biostratigraphic correlations, provide the chronologic constraints for each lithofacies and also the sediment accumulation rates (SAR). These results indicate lithofacies (i) aged ca. 65-34 Ma, lithofacies (ii) aged ca. 22.1-12 Ma, lithofacies (iii) aged ca. 12-5.2 Ma, and lithofacies (iv) aged ca. 5.2 Ma-present (?), with SARs increasing from lithofacies (i) to (iv). Regional correlation of SAR from foreland of South Tian Shan has suggested a linkage of the sedimentary event to the tectonic activity along South Tian Shan. We propose that the earliest Miocene event may represent the initial response of the far-field effect of Indian-Eurasian convergence, but more directly and likely marks the initial underthrusting of the Tarim block beneath the South Tian Shan. The mid-Miocene and Mio-Pliocene boundary events have different structural expression in the opposite regions east and

  3. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania between 640 ka and present day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Francke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP, a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points, and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points, respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6

  4. Systems tracts sedimentology in the lagoon of Mayotte associated with the Holocene transgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, J.; Reijmer, J. J. G.; Thomassin, B. A.

    2003-08-01

    Twelve gravity cores from various settings within the Mayotte barrier reef-lagoon complex were studied to determine the sedimentology of the sequence stratigraphic systems tracts that formed during the Holocene transgression. Our studies focussed on the determination of physical, chemical, mineralogical and biological parameters of the sediments from specific systems tracts. These parameters determine the thickness and facies of each systems tracts and are controlled by the rate and amplitude of sea-level rise, lagoonal topography and environmental changes. The lowstand systems tract (LST) (before 11.5 ka BP) comprises ferralitic or organic-rich paleosoils in the proximal and middle lagoon and karstified Pleistocene reefal carbonates in the distal lagoon. The transgressive systems tract (TST) (11.5-7 ka BP) consists of a lower terrigenous and an upper mixed terrigenous-carbonate or carbonate-dominated unit. Locally, mangrove muds were deposited. The highstand systems tract (HST) can be divided into an early highstand (eHST) (7-1 ka BP) and a late highstand systems tract (lHST) (after 1 ka BP). In the proximal lagoonal wedge, the early highstand systems tract consists of terrigenous or mixed terrigenous-carbonate muds to sandy muds. In the middle lagoon, it shows carbonate mud to sandy mud and carbonate gravel to reefal carbonates in the distal lagoons. Terrigenous muds dominate the late highstand systems tract in the proximal lagoonal wedge. In the mid-lagoonal plain, mixed terrigenous-carbonate or carbonate mud to sandy mud dominates, while carbonate gravel to reefal carbonate prevails in the distal lagoon. For the last 9 ka, sedimentation in the lagoon of Mayotte has been spatially divided into a proximal terrigenous and a distal, carbonate-dominated province. Maximum carbonate concentrations between 4 and 1 ka BP coincide with the time of maximum solar insolation. After 1 ka BP, a general decrease in carbonate concentrations can be observed. This coincides with

  5. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 637 ka and the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Just, Janna; Leicher, Niklas; Gromig, Raphael; Baumgarten, Henrike; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Sadori, Laura; Wonik, Thomas; Leng, Melanie J.; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and host more than 300 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m composite depth of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on 11 tephra layers (first-order tie points) and on tuning of bio-geochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (second-order tie points), the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 637 kyr. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilimnion during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparably cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that the most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6, whereas somewhat warmer temperatures can be

  6. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 640 ka and present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Baumgarten, H.; Vogel, H.; Lacey, J. H.; Sadori, L.; Wonik, T.; Leng, M. J.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points), and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points) and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points), respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6 whereas

  7. The Late Pleistocene Duoi U'Oi cave in northern Vietnam: palaeontology, sedimentology, taphonomy and palaeoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Anne-Marie; Demeter, F.; Duringer, P.; Helm, C.; Bano, M.; Vu, The Long; Kim Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Antoine, P.-O.; Thi Mai, Bui; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Dodo, Y.; Chabaux, F.; Rihs, S.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes new fossil materials recovered at the Duoi U'Oi site, in December 2003, by a Vietnamese-French-Japanese team. The Duoi U'Oi cave is located in Man Duc village, 25 km of Hoà Binh city in northern Vietnam. It belongs to a karstic network developed in a dark grey micritic marine limestone dated from the Lower to the Middle Triassic. The sedimentary fill produced a rich mammalian fauna, essentially composed of isolated teeth of middle- to large-sized mammals (Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Carnivora, Rodentia, Primates), and characteristic of Late Pleistocene. The results of the Duoi U'Oi fieldwork are of great interest for the following reasons: (1) the biochronological age of the fauna is consistent with 230Th/ 234U/ 238U dating from the calcitic floors (66±3 ka). The Duoi U'Oi fauna is thus the oldest well-dated modern fauna known for the Southeast Asian mainland; (2) in terms of sedimentology, the analysis of the formation of the fossiliferous breccia and that of the processes of deposits shows a close relation between the karstic deposits inside the cave and the deposits in the alluvial terraces. The observation of three levels of alluvial terraces associated with three caves situated at 62, 10 and 3 m above the present alluvial plain suggests that exokarstic and endokarstic sediments evolved together; (3) in terms of palaeobiogeography, Duoi U'Oi is the continental fauna showing the strongest resemblance with the Late Pleistocene faunas from Indonesian islands (Punung, Gunung Dawung, Lida Ajer, Sibrambang and Djambu caves); this implies that, at the time of Duoi U'Oi, ca 70 ka, the Sundaland was mainly characterised by faunas of modern aspect; (4) the analysis of major taphonomic factors that led to the mammal assemblage reveals a combination of selective agents (selective role of predators and porcupines, selective destruction of age classes for some species, selective preservation of fossils due to the deposition processes in

  8. Confirmation via Analogue Simulation: A Bayesian Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dardashti, Radin; Thebault, Karim P Y; Winsberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Analogue simulation is a novel mode of scientific inference found increasingly within modern physics, and yet all but neglected in the philosophical literature. Experiments conducted upon a table-top 'source system' are taken to provide insight into features of an inaccessible 'target system', based upon a syntactic isomorphism between the relevant modelling frameworks. An important example is the use of acoustic 'dumb hole' systems to simulate gravitational black holes. In a recent paper it was argued that there exists circumstances in which confirmation via analogue simulation can obtain; in particular when the robustness of the isomorphism is established via universality arguments. The current paper supports these claims via an analysis in terms of Bayesian confirmation theory.

  9. Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Datson, Juliet; Portinari, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims. This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48,000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods. The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar ...

  10. Optimization of propafenone analogues as antimalarial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, David J; Guiguemde, W Armand; Connelly, Michele C; Zhu, Fangyi; Sigal, Martina S; Clark, Julie A; Lemoff, Andrew S; Derisi, Joseph L; Wilson, Emily B; Guy, R Kiplin

    2011-11-10

    Propafenone, a class Ic antiarrythmic drug, inhibits growth of cultured Plasmodium falciparum. While the drug's potency is significant, further development of propafenone as an antimalarial would require divorcing the antimalarial and cardiac activities as well as improving the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. A small array of propafenone analogues was designed and synthesized to address the cardiac ion channel and PK liabilities. Testing of this array revealed potent inhibitors of the 3D7 (drug sensitive) and K1 (drug resistant) strains of P. falciparum that possessed significantly reduced ion channel effects and improved metabolic stability. Propafenone analogues are unusual among antimalarial leads in that they are more potent against the multidrug resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum compared to the 3D7 strain.

  11. Holographic Fluids with Vorticity and Analogue Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Robert G; Petropoulos, P Marios

    2012-01-01

    We study holographic three-dimensional fluids with vorticity in local equilibrium and discuss their relevance to analogue gravity systems. The Fefferman-Graham expansion leads to the fluid's description in terms of a comoving and rotating Papapetrou-Randers frame. A suitable Lorentz transformation brings the fluid to the non-inertial Zermelo frame, which clarifies its interpretation as moving media for light/sound propagation. We apply our general results to the Lorentzian Kerr-AdS_4 and Taub-NUT-AdS_4 geometries that describe fluids in cyclonic and vortex flows respectively. In the latter case we associate the appearance of closed timelike curves to analogue optical horizons. In addition, we derive the classical rotational Hall viscosity of three-dimensional fluids with vorticity. Our formula remarkably resembles the corresponding result in magnetized plasmas.

  12. Polyamine analogues targeting epigenetic gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Marton, Laurence J; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2009-11-04

    Over the past three decades the metabolism and functions of the polyamines have been actively pursued as targets for antineoplastic therapy. Interactions between cationic polyamines and negatively charged nucleic acids play a pivotal role in DNA stabilization and RNA processing that may affect gene expression, translation and protein activity. Our growing understanding of the unique roles that the polyamines play in chromatin regulation, and the discovery of novel proteins homologous with specific regulatory enzymes in polyamine metabolism, have led to our interest in exploring chromatin remodelling enzymes as potential therapeutic targets for specific polyamine analogues. One of our initial efforts focused on utilizing the strong affinity that the polyamines have for chromatin to create a backbone structure, which could be combined with active-site-directed inhibitor moieties of HDACs (histone deacetylases). Specific PAHAs (polyaminohydroxamic acids) and PABAs (polyaminobenzamides) polyamine analogues have demonstrated potent inhibition of the HDACs, re-expression of p21 and significant inhibition of tumour growth. A second means of targeting the chromatin-remodelling enzymes with polyamine analogues was facilitated by the recent identification of flavin-dependent LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1). The existence of this enzyme demonstrated that histone lysine methylation is a dynamic process similar to other histone post-translational modifications. LSD1 specifically catalyses demethylation of mono- and di-methyl Lys4 of histone 3, key positive chromatin marks associated with transcriptional activation. Structural and catalytic similarities between LSD1 and polyamine oxidases facilitated the identification of biguanide, bisguanidine and oligoamine polyamine analogues that are potent inhibitors of LSD1. Cellular inhibition of LSD1 by these unique compounds led to the re-activation of multiple epigenetically silenced genes important in tumorigenesis. The use of

  13. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  14. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Rossi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues.

  15. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  16. Synthesis of a Cyclic Analogue of Galardin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马大为; 吴问根; 钱静; 郎深慧; 叶其壮

    2001-01-01

    A cyclic analogue 4 of galardin,a known MMP inhibitor,is designed to improve its selectivity.The synthesis of 4starts from dimethyl(S)-malate using diaselective alkylation and subsequent cyclization and amide formation as key steps.The compound 4 showed MMP inhibitory activity on all MMPs tested with IC50 ranging from 20.1 μM to 104 μM.

  17. Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzmán, Cecilia; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing

  18. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  19. Study on the application of seismic sedimentology in a stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir in central Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yixin; Xia, Zhongmou

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses the research idea of description for stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir based on seismic sedimentology methods. The sandstone reservoir of Jurrassic XiShanyao Formation in Junggar Basin is studied according to the theory and approaches of seismic sedimentology. By making full use of borehole data, the technologies of layer correlation based on the stratigraphic sequence framework, the forward seismic modeling, the stratal slicing and lithologic inversion are applied. It describes the range of denudation line, the distribution characteristics of sedimentary facies of the strata, the vertical and horizontal distribution of sand bodies and the favourable oil-gas bearing prospective area. The results shows that study area are dominated braided delta deposition including underwater distributary channel and distributary bay microfacies, the nip-out lines of the formation are northeast to southwest from north to south, the second Middle Jurassic sand body is the most widely distributed one among three sand bodies, the prospective oil-gas bearing area located in the south part and around the YG2 well area. The study result is effective on the practice of exploration in study area.

  20. Selected contributions from the 9th International Conference on Tidal Sedimentology, November 2015, Puerto Madryn, Patagonia, Argentina: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasso, Roberto A.; Cuitiño, José I.

    2017-08-01

    This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the 9th International Conference on Tidal Sedimentology held on 17-19 November 2015 in Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The guest editors are the conference organizers Roberto A. Scasso and José I. Cuitiño. Gerardo M. Perillo was the head of the Scientific Committee. The conferences on tidal sedimentology have been traditionally held every 4 years. However, only 3 years separated the last conference held in Caen (France, 2012) from this conference. Increasing numbers of contributions and the growing interest in tidal sedimentation have been the reasons for shortening the inter-conference period. The 2015 conference served as a discussion forum focusing on advances in modern and ancient tidal sedimentation at different locations worldwide. The papers presented in this Special Issue provide a selective view of the latest research results, the main topics dealing with tidal hydrodynamics and sediment transport, tidal coastal morphodynamics, modern and ancient tidal sedimentation, geotechnical processes in tidal environments, and tidal basins, facies and reservoirs.

  1. Sedimentological dynamics of the Orlovat loess-paleosol sequence (Northern Serbia) show both local and regional paleoenvironmental fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schulte, Philipp; Hambach, Ulrich; Timar-Gabor, Alida; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The last glacial cycle as recorded in the Orlovat loess section (Northern Serbia) gives insight into both local and regional paleoenvironmental conditions. The Orlovat section is a unique section in the Carpathian Basin and it is characterized by irregularities in sedimentology, magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and other paleoproxies. Therefore the local conditions need to be understood before making claims on a regional scale. Especially the grain size distribution indicates that the Orlovat site was influenced by specific paleoenvironmental conditions. Relatively coarse grained sand was delivered during interglacials, probably from the Deliblato sands by the Košava wind. However, commonly applied methods such as grain size and rock magnetic investigations could not explain the unique situation during the MIS 3, where a paleosol is missing. Therefore, for the first time in the studies of the region, we applied high resolution X-ray fluorescence analysis to trace the changing source areas of sediment material during the Last Glacial. These changes in the provenance of the sediment might be associated with stronger river activities and erosion. This study highlights the importance of a sedimentological understanding for a reliable paleoenvironmental evaluation.

  2. Thymidine analogues for tracking DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Brenton L; Walker, Tom; Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B

    2011-09-15

    Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in "tagging DNA synthesis" is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using 'Huisgen's reaction' (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or 'click chemistry'). This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other "unnatural bases". These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored.

  3. Thymidine Analogues for Tracking DNA Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton L. Cavanagh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in “tagging DNA synthesis” is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU. The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using ‘Huisgen’s reaction’ (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or ‘click chemistry’. This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other “unnatural bases”. These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored.

  4. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  5. Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A

    2012-05-05

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs.

  6. A precision analogue integrator system for heavy current measurement in MFDC resistance spot welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Dian; Xia, Zhen-Xin; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-02-01

    In order to control and monitor the quality of middle frequency direct current (MFDC) resistance spot welding (RSW), precision measurement of the welding current up to 100 kA is required, for which Rogowski coils are the only viable current transducers at present. Thus, a highly accurate analogue integrator is the key to restoring the converted signals collected from the Rogowski coils. Previous studies emphasised that the integration drift is a major factor that influences the performance of analogue integrators, but capacitive leakage error also has a significant impact on the result, especially in long-time pulse integration. In this article, new methods of measuring and compensating capacitive leakage error are proposed to fabricate a precision analogue integrator system for MFDC RSW. A voltage holding test is carried out to measure the integration error caused by capacitive leakage, and an original integrator with a feedback adder is designed to compensate capacitive leakage error in real time. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the new analogue integrator system could constrain both drift and capacitive leakage error, of which the effect is robust to different voltage levels of output signals. The total integration error is limited within  ±0.09 mV s-1 0.005% s-1 or full scale at a 95% confidence level, which makes it possible to achieve the precision measurement of the welding current of MFDC RSW with Rogowski coils of 0.1% accuracy class.

  7. Theoretical Basis and Application of an Analogue-Dynamical Model in the Lorenz System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hongli; CHOU Jifan; HUANG Jianping; ZHANG Peiqun

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical basis and application of an analogue-dynamical model (ADM) in the Lorenz system is studied. The ADM can effectively combine statistical and dynamical methods in which the small disturbance of the current initial value superimposed on the historical analogue reference state can be regarded as a prediction objective. Primary analyses show that under the condition of appending disturbances in model parameters, the model errors of ADM are much smaller than those of the pure dynamical model (PDM).The characteristics of predictability on the ADM in the Lorenz system are analyzed in phase space by conducting case studies and global experiments. The results show that the ADM can quite effectively reduce prediction errors and prolong the valid time of the prediction in most situations in contrast to the PDM, but when model errors are considerably small, the latter will be superior to the former. To overcome such a problem, the multi-reference-state updating can be applied to introduce the information of multi-analogue and update analogue and can exhibit exciting performance in the ADM.

  8. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue Converters (ADCs and DACs): A Review Update

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, J

    2015-01-01

    This is a review paper updated from that presented for CAS 2004. Essentially, since then, commercial components have continued to extend their performance boundaries but the basic building blocks and the techniques for choosing the best device and implementing it in a design have not changed. Analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters are crucial components in the continued drive to replace analogue circuitry with more controllable and less costly digital processing. This paper discusses the technologies available to perform in the likely measurement and control applications that arise within accelerators. It covers much of the terminology and 'specmanship' together with an application-oriented analysis of the realisable performance of the various types. Finally, some hints and warnings on system integration problems are given.

  9. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of Lower Shihezi Formation in Shenguhao area, northern Ordos basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Yongchao; Lin, Zi

    2015-04-01

    The structural location of Shenguhao area locates at the transition zone of Yimeng uplift and Yishan slope of northern Ordos basin, China. The study area is in erosion condition until Late Carboniferous and has deposited Taiyuan Formation (C2t), Shanxi Formation (P1s), Lower Shihezi Formation (P1x), Upper Shihezi Formation (P2s) and Shiqianfeng Formation (P2sh) in succession during Late Paleozoic, which mainly develops transition facies and alluvial plain facies. The fluvial sandstone of Lower Shihezi Formation is the major target layer of gas exploration and development in this area. This study is based on the interpretation of 38 wells and 113 sesmic reflection profiles. Three significant lithofacies were identified with sedimentological analysis of cores from the Shenguhao area: fluvial conglomerates, fluvial sandstone and floodplain mudstone, which represent fluvial depositional environment. Based on sequence stratigraphy methodology, well log patterns and lithofacies analysis, Lower Shihezi Formation can be divided into four depositional sequence cycles (1-4) bounded by fluvial scouring erosional surfaces. Each sequence succession shows the trend of base level rising and overall performs fining-upward feature, which characterized by coarsening-upward lower to upper fluvial sandstone and floodplain mudstone. In ascending order, sequence 1 records the transition from the underlying braided river delta plain fine-grained sediments of Shanxi Formation into the overlying fluvial sandstone of Lower Shihezi Formation and develops scouring erosional unconformity at the base, representing a regression. Sequence 1 consists of a package of progradting thick layer of amalgamated fluvial sandstone at the lower part passing into aggrading thin layer of floodplain mudstone at the upper part, suggesting that accommodation growing rate is gradually greater than deposition supply rate under the background of base level gradual increase. Sequence 2 and 3 record similar

  10. Sedimentology and arsenic pollution in the Bengal Basin: insight into arsenic occurrence and subsurface geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew; McArthur, John

    2014-05-01

    The Bengal delta system is a geologically recent feature overlying a deeply incised palaeo-surface formed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This surface is a series of terraces and valleys created by river incision (Goodbred & Kuehl 2003). The terraces were weathered, forming a thin, indurated laterite deposit (Goodbred & Kuehl 2000) at depths greater than 50 m. McArthur et al. (2008) define this as a palaeosol and have identified it at depths greater than 30 m though out Bangladesh and West Bengal. It has been observed that arsenic concentrations at these sites are lower than the rest of the delta. It has been assumed that the surface morphology at sites where there is a palaeosol are similar and can therefore be characterised by remote sensing, in the form of Google Earth images. Sites were selected in Bangladesh and West Bengal, from work by McArthur et al. (2011); Hoque et al. (2012), where groundwater chemistry and sedimentology data are available making it possible to determine if the subsurface is a palaeo-channel or palaeo-interfluve. Arsenic concentration data have been inputted into Google Earth and the palaeo-channels marked where the arsenic concentration is greater than 10 µg/L, and palaeo-interfluves where arsenic concentration is less than 10 µg/L. The surface morphologies in these domains have been examined for similarities, and it was shown that avulsion scars and abandoned river channels are found where arsenic concentrations are greater than 10 µg/L. Conversely the surrounding areas that are devoid of channel scars have arsenic concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Using the correlation between avulsion features being representative of palaeo-channels and high arsenic concentrations, sites were selected that had a similar surface morphology to the type localities. A comparison of these images and arsenic concentrations showed that the postulate is valid for over 80 percent of cases. Where this is not valid, this could indicate that the subsurface

  11. Sedimentology of cores recovered from the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Saint-Ange, F.; Pohlman, J.; Higgins, J.; Mosher, D. C.; Lorenson, T. D.; Hart, P.

    2011-12-01

    gravelly sandy clay interpreted to be altered hydrothermally. Successions of IRD layers create a thinly- to medium-bedded sequence throughout the lower section. Site 4 (3700 m water depth; central Canada Basin): This core recovered 3.4 m of sediment typified by decimeter-thick sequences of stacked graded beds with erosional basal contacts (Bouma sequences) characteristic of turbidite deposition. Site 5 (2081 m water depth; continental slope west of the Canadian archipelago): This core recovered 4.96 m of sediment of which the upper 2 m is silty clay to clayey silt with dispersed sand and granules. This upper section has an irregular, sharp basal contact with an underlying 16-cm-thick clast-supported massive gravel. The gravel has a scoured basal contact and overlies a monotonous gray clayey silt containing dispersed granules of IRD. Sparse and poorly preserved fauna throughout all the cores make age determination difficult; however, given the paucity of sediment cores in the Arctic Ocean, these samples provide vital geophysical groundtruth and sedimentological information about the basin.

  12. Sedimentological and petrophysical characteristics of Raha Formation at Wadi Tubia, Northern Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Mousa

    2011-06-01

    Statistical analysis of the measured petrophysical data shows that, the dolomitic lithic arenite and fossiliferous bioclastic grainstone microfacies have a good storage capacity in the Raha Formation of Wadi Tubia, Northern Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, Egypt.

  13. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J. [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  14. Fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and hybrid modelling of horizontal visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuba, Zoltán; Bottyán, Zsolt

    2017-02-01

    Forecasting visibility is one of the greatest challenges in aviation meteorology. At the same time, high accuracy visibility forecasts can significantly reduce or make avoidable weather-related risk in aviation as well. To improve forecasting visibility, this research links fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and post-processed numerical weather prediction model outputs in hybrid forecast. Performance of analogue forecasting model was improved by the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process. Then, linear combination of the mentioned outputs was applied to create ultra-short term hybrid visibility prediction which gradually shifts the focus from statistical to numerical products taking their advantages during the forecast period. It gives the opportunity to bring closer the numerical visibility forecast to the observations even it is wrong initially. Complete verification of categorical forecasts was carried out; results are available for persistence and terminal aerodrome forecasts (TAF) as well in order to compare. The average value of Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of examined airports of analogue and hybrid forecasts shows very similar results even at the end of forecast period where the rate of analogue prediction in the final hybrid output is 0.1-0.2 only. However, in case of poor visibility (1000-2500 m), hybrid (0.65) and analogue forecasts (0.64) have similar average of HSS in the first 6 h of forecast period, and have better performance than persistence (0.60) or TAF (0.56). Important achievement that hybrid model takes into consideration physics and dynamics of the atmosphere due to the increasing part of the numerical weather prediction. In spite of this, its performance is similar to the most effective visibility forecasting methods and does not follow the poor verification results of clearly numerical outputs.

  15. Synthesis and study of ceramide analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Školová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of inorganic and organic chemistry Candidate: Mgr. Barbora Školová Supervisor: doc. PharmDr. Kateřina Vávrová, Ph.D. Title of doctoral thesis: Synthesis and study of ceramide analogues Ceramides (Cer) together with free fatty acids and cholesterol form intercellular lamellar space of the uppermost skin layer (stratum corneum, SC). This lipid matrix presents the proper skin barrier - it protects organism against out...

  16. Analogues of Euler and Poisson Summation Formulae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Rane

    2003-08-01

    Euler–Maclaurin and Poisson analogues of the summations $\\sum_{a < n ≤ b}(n)f(n), \\sum_{a < n ≤ b}d(n) f(n), \\sum_{a < n ≤ b}d(n)(n) f(n)$ have been obtained in a unified manner, where (()) is a periodic complex sequence; () is the divisor function and () is a sufficiently smooth function on [, ]. We also state a generalised Abel's summation formula, generalised Euler's summation formula and Euler's summation formula in several variables.

  17. Analogue cosmology in a hadronic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilić Neven

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog gravity models of general relativity seem promising routes to providing laboratory tests of the foundation of quantum field theory in curved space-time. In contrast to general relativity, where geometry of a spacetime is determined by the Einstein equations, in analog models geometry and evolution of analog spacetime are determined by the equations of fluid mechanics. In this paper we study the analogue gravity model based on massless pions propagating in a expanding hadronic fluid. The analog expanding spacetime takes the form of an FRW universe, with the apparent and trapping horizons defined in the standard way.

  18. Technical Considerations in Magnetic Analogue Models

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Patrick W M

    2016-01-01

    The analogy between vorticity and magnetic fields has been a subject of interest to researchers for a considerable period of time, mainly because of the structural similarities between the systems of equations that govern the evolution of the two fields. We recently presented the analysis of magnetic fields and hydrodynamics vorticity fields and argued for a formal theory of analogue magnetism. This article provides in depth technical details of the relevant considerations for the simulation procedures and extends the analyses to a range of fluids.

  19. Satellite television analogue and digital reception techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Herve

    1999-01-01

    Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV. Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of tec

  20. Sedimentology and clast fabric of subaerial debris flow facies in a glacially-influenced alluvial fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, N.; Kocsis, S.

    1988-09-01

    A large alluvial fan (2 km 2), constructed between 11,000 and 7000 years B.P. at the mouth of Cinquefoil Creek in interior British Columbia, Canada, is identified as "glacially-influenced, debris flow-dominated". The fan was rapidly constructed during and immediately after deglaciation when large volumes of glacial debris were resedimented downslope; fans of this type are widespread in the glaciated portion of the North American Cordillera. Diamict facies, deposited as debris flows, account for 48% of the fan volume, sheetflodd gravels 37%, and other facies 15%. Diamicts show three facies types; crudely-bedded facies containing rafts of soft sediment that are attributed to downslope collapse and mixing of heterogeneous glacial deposits. These occur within the core of the fan. Massive and weakly graded (inverse to normal) diamict facies, derived from the downslope flow of weathered volcanic bedrock, occur within a well-defined bed that can be traced across the entire fan. The occurrence of weakly graded facies as lateral equivalents to massive facies within the same bed, implies the partial development of turbulent, high-velocity "streams" within a viscous debris flow moving over a slope of 6°. Clast fabrics in these facies show weakly-clustered a-axes dipping up and downslope comparable to other debris flows and lahars. The Cinquefoil fan, its internal structure and facies, provides a good "modern" analogue for ancient diamictite sequences deposited in areas of active uplift, rifting and glaciation.

  1. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  2. Sedimentological evolution of the Givetian-Eifelian (F3) sand bar of the West Alrar field, Illizi Basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouchi, R. [National Institute for Hydrocarbons and Chemistry, Boumerdes (Algeria); Malla, M.S.; Kechou, F. [Sonatrach, Algiers (Algeria). Exploration Div.

    1998-12-31

    Commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons depend on several factors, among which sedimentological conditions are of prime importance. Such sedimentatological factors are of particular importance in controlling both entrapment and reservoir quality in the western part of the Alrar field, within the F3 sandstone reservoir of Givetian-Eifelian age. Recent well results have shown facies and reservoir quality distribution to be more complex and generally more favourable than previously predicted. A series of tidally influenced litoral bars are now believed to have existed in the Alrar area at the time of deposition of the reservoir, these being elongated in a NW-SE direction in the West Alrar area, with an interbar area in the vicinity of well DZ-1. The highest reservoir quality is largely confined to this bar facies and understanding its distribution is therefore vital to locating development wells. (author)

  3. Isotopic and sedimentological clues to productivity change in Late Riphean Sea: A case study from two intracratonic basins of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P P Chakraborty; A Sarkar; S K Bhattacharya; P Sanyal

    2002-12-01

    Enriched 13C/12 ratios with 13C ∼3‰ (w.r.t PDB) of two Late Riphean (∼700-610Ma) intracratonic carbonate successions viz., Bhander Limestone of Vindhyan Basin and Raipur Limestone of Chattisgarh Basin suggest higher organic productivity during this period. This view is supported by sedimentological evidence of higher biohermal growth and consequent increase in depositional relief in the low gradient ramp settings inferred for these basins. Oxygen isotope analysis of these carbonates show distinct segregation between enriched deeper water carbonate mudstone and depleted shallow water stromatolite facies that received fresh water influx. This shows that facies-specific analyses can be useful in understanding the depositional setting of these sediments.

  4. Sedimentological Analysis of Well Data by the Example of the Dagi Horizon of the Northeastern Shelf of Sakhalin Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Rybal’chenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Well logging methods provide important data on data on sedimentary structures, genesis of sedi-ments, and relations of the facies in sedimentary basins. This paper demonstrates the potential of sedimen-tological interpretation when applied to data from the formation microimagers (FMI. The study is based on the results of the joint project on integrated analysis of wellbore images and core samples of the Neo-gene deposits of the northeastern shelf of Sakhalin Island between “Gazprom”, “Gazprom geologora-zvedka”, and Schlumberger Company. The image log represents 300 m of the well section, when 95 m are characterized by the core. The study included detailed matching of the core data with open hole logs as adjusted for core recovery, lithological description of the well section, structural and textural interpreta-tion of the images, facies analysis, orientation of the paleocurrent direction, and reconstruction of the depositional environments.

  5. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity.

  6. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  7. Dynamic Analogue Initialization for Ensemble Forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shan; RONG Xingyao; LIU Yun; LIU Zhengyu; Klaus FRAEDRICH

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for the initialization of ensemble numerical forecasting:Dynamic Analogue Initialization (DAI).DAI assumes that the best model state trajectories for the past provide the initial conditions for the best forecasts in the future.As such,DAI performs the ensemble forecast using the best analogues from a full size ensemble.As a pilot study,the Lorenz63 and Lorenz96 models were used to test DAI's effectiveness independently.Results showed that DAI can improve the forecast significantly.Especially in lower-dimensional systems,DAI can reduce the forecast RMSE by ~50% compared to the Monte Carlo forecast (MC).This improvement is because DAI is able to recognize the direction of the analysis error through the embedding process and therefore selects those good trajectories with reduced initial error.Meanwhile,a potential improvement of DAI is also proposed,and that is to find the optimal range of embedding time based on the error's growing speed.

  8. Polymorphisms of GLP-1 Receptor Gene and Response to GLP-1 Analogue in Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The relationship between genetic polymorphisms of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R gene and unresponsiveness to GLP-1 analogue treatment in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is unclear. Methods. Thirty-six patients with poorly controlled type 2 DM were enrolled and they received six days of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for this study. After the normalization of blood glucose in the first 3 days, the patients then received a combination therapy with injections of the GLP-1 analogue, exenatide, for another 3 days. All 13 exons and intron-exon boundaries of the GLP1R gene were amplified to investigate the association. Results. The short tandem repeat at 8GA/7GA (rs5875654 had complete linkage disequilibrium (LD, with r2=1 with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs761386. Quantitative trait loci analysis of GLP1R gene variation with clinical response of GLP1 analogue showed the missense rs3765467 and rs761386 significantly associated with changes in the standard deviation of plasma glucose (SDPGbaseline-SDPGtreatment with GLP-1 analogue (P=0.041 and 0.019, resp.. The reported P values became insignificant after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion. The variable response to the GLP-1 analogue was not statistically correlated with polymorphisms of the GLP1R gene in patients with poorly controlled type 2 DM.

  9. Rough Precipitation Forecasts based on Analogue Method: an Operational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Mario; Mercogliano, Paola; Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Guillaume, Bruno; Deandreis, Céline; Castanier, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the Climate KIC partnership, has been funded the project Wat-Ener-Cast (WEC), coordinated by ARIA Technologies, having the goal to adapt, through tailored weather-related forecast, the water and energy operations to the increased weather fluctuation and to climate change. The WEC products allow providing high quality forecast suited in risk and opportunities assessment dashboard for water and energy operational decisions and addressing the needs of sewage/water distribution operators, energy transport & distribution system operators, energy manager and wind energy producers. A common "energy water" web platform, able to interface with newest smart water-energy IT network have been developed. The main benefit by sharing resources through the "WEC platform" is the possibility to optimize the cost and the procedures of safety and maintenance team, in case of alerts and, finally to reduce overflows. Among the different services implemented on the WEC platform, ARIA have developed a product having the goal to support sewage/water distribution operators, based on a gradual forecast information system ( at 48hrs/24hrs/12hrs horizons) of heavy precipitation. For each fixed deadline different type of operation are implemented: 1) 48hour horizon, organisation of "on call team", 2) 24 hour horizon, update and confirm the "on call team", 3) 12 hour horizon, secure human resources and equipment (emptying storage basins, pipes manipulations …). More specifically CMCC have provided a statistical downscaling method in order to provide a "rough" daily local precipitation at 24 hours, especially when high precipitation values are expected. This statistical technique consists of an adaptation of analogue method based on ECMWF data (analysis and forecast at 24 hours). One of the most advantages of this technique concerns a lower computational burden and budget compared to running a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, also if, of course it provides only this

  10. Sedimentological and clay mineral studies in Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, K.M.

    are of sandy sediments (2.9 to 3.05 phi). Interrelationships of size statistical parameters and the CM diagram of the bay sediments suggest a mechanism of slow deposition from quiet water. Montmorillonite is the predominant clay mineral followed by kaolinite...

  11. The Brandeis Dice Problem and Statistical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    van Enk, S J

    2014-01-01

    Jaynes invented the Brandeis Dice Problem as a simple illustration of the MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy) procedure that he had demonstrated to work so well in Statistical Mechanics. I construct here two alternative solutions to his toy problem. One, like Jaynes' solution, uses MaxEnt and yields an analogue of the canonical ensemble, but at a different level of description. The other uses Bayesian updating and yields an analogue of the micro-canonical ensemble. Both, unlike Jaynes' solution, yield error bars, whose operational merits I discuss. These two alternative solutions are not equivalent for the original Brandeis Dice Problem, but become so in what must, therefore, count as the analogue of the thermodynamic limit, $M$-sided dice with $M\\rightarrow\\infty$. Whereas the mathematical analogies between the dice problem and Stat Mech are quite close, there are physical properties that the former lacks but that are crucial to the workings of the latter. Stat Mech is more than just MaxEnt.

  12. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  13. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological variabilit

  14. Toward the validation of visual analogue scale for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, E; Zanette, G; Favero, L; Bacci, C; Sivolella, S; Cavallin, F; Manani, G

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is a relevant problem in dental practice. The Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A), introduced in dentistry in 1988, has not yet been validated in large series. The aim of this study is to check VAS-A effectiveness in more than 1000 patients submitted to implantology. The VAS-A and the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) were administered preoperatively to 1114 patients (459 males and 655 females, age 54.7 ± 13.1 years). Statistical analysis was conducted with Pearson correlation coefficient, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and McNemar tests. A close correlation between DAS and VAS-A was found (r  =  0.57, P < .0001); the VAS-A thresholds of dental anxiety and phobia were 5.1 and 7.0 cm, respectively. Despite a significant concordance of tests in 800 cases (72%), disagreement was found in the remaining 314 cases (28%), and low DAS was associated with high VAS-A (230 cases) or vice versa (84 cases). Our study confirms that VAS-A is a simple, sensitive, fast, and reliable tool in dental anxiety assessment. The rate of disagreement between VAS-A and DAS is probably due to different test sensitivities to different components of dental anxiety. VAS-A can be used effectively in the assessment of dental patients, using the values of 5.1 cm and 7.0 cm as cutoff values for anxiety and phobia, respectively.

  15. Dipeptide analogues containing 4-ethoxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Masood; Kringelum, Henriette; Murray, A.;

    2006-01-01

    Pyrrolidine-2,4-diones (1) are naturally occurring analogues of amino acids. We herein present a facile synthesis of N-acylated, O-alkylated pyrrolin-2-ones (2) in high yield and excellent enantiopurity. Molecular mechanics calculations suggest that the resulting dipeptide analogues adopt a linea...

  16. Black Hole Analogue in Bose–Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tangmei He

    2014-09-01

    We have proposed a black hole analogue in a Bose–Einstein condensation. By introducing the Painlevé co-ordinates and using K–G equations, we have obtained the critical temperature of the black hole analogue in a Bose–Einstein condensation.

  17. A Comparison of Two Types of Counseling Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Subjects' attraction to the counselor, self-reported and physiological anxiety, and susceptibility to persuasion were compared using two types of counseling analogues, quasi-counseling and vicarious-participation. Participants in the quasi-counseling analogue were significantly more attracted to the counselor than were vicarious-participation…

  18. Functional Analysis: The Use of Analogues in Applied Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichter, Janine Peck

    2001-01-01

    This article suggests possible applications of experimental analyses using analogues to empirically verify results of functional assessments in classrooms for students with autism and related disabilities. Analogue assessments involve creating conditions in which antecedents and consequences are held constant and specific variables suspected to…

  19. Synthesis of an Orthogonal Topological Analogue of Helicene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wixe, Torbjörn; Wallentin, Carl‐Johan; Johnson, Magnus T.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of an orthogonal topological pentamer analogue of helicene is presented. This analogue forms a tubular structure with its aromatic systems directed parallel to the axis of propagation, which creates a cavity with the potential to function as a host molecule. The synthetic strategy r...

  20. Insulin analogues and severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P L; Hansen, L S; Jespersen, M J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control is well-documented, whereas the effect on avoidance of severe hypoglycaemia remains tentative. We studied the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin analogues, human insulin, or mixed...

  1. Derivatisable Cyanobactin Analogues: A Semisynthetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueis, Emilia; Adamson, Catherine; Mann, Greg; Ludewig, Hannes; Redpath, Philip; Migaud, Marie; Westwood, Nicholas J; Naismith, James H

    2015-12-01

    Many natural cyclic peptides have potent and potentially useful biological activities. Their use as therapeutic starting points is often limited by the quantities available, the lack of known biological targets and the practical limits on diversification to fine-tune their properties. We report the use of enzymes from the cyanobactin family to heterocyclise and macrocyclise chemically synthesised substrates so as to allow larger-scale syntheses and better control over derivatisation. We have made cyclic peptides containing orthogonal reactive groups, azide or dehydroalanine, that allow chemical diversification, including the use of fluorescent labels that can help in target identification. We show that the enzymes are compatible and efficient with such unnatural substrates. The combination of chemical synthesis and enzymatic transformation could help renew interest in investigating natural cyclic peptides with biological activity, as well as their unnatural analogues, as therapeutics.

  2. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    CERN Document Server

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinary strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as electronic diode function is provided by a nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differing by a factor of 65.

  3. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun-Ichiro Setsune

    2012-11-01

    Expanded porphyrin analogues with unique figure-eight conformation were prepared by way of useful pyrrole intermediates such as bis(azafulvene)s and 2-borylpyrrole. Supramolecular chirogenesis of cyclooctapyrrole O1 with 32-cycloconjugation was successfully applied to determine absolute configuration of chiral carboxylic acids. Dinuclear CuII complex of cyclooctapyrrole O2 with interrupted -conjugation was resolved by HPLC into enantiomers and their helical handedness was determined by theoretical simulation of their CD spectral pattern. Enantioselective induction of helicity in the metal helicate formation in the presence of a chiral promoter was demonstrated by using ()-(+)-1-(1-phenyl)ethylamine that favoured , helicity. Dinuclear CoII complexes of cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3 were found to be substitution labile and pick up amino acid anions in water. Those amino acid complexes of O3Co2 were rendered to adopt a particular unidirectional helical conformation preferentially depending on the ligated amino acid anion.

  4. New pentamidine analogues in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheddu, A; Giacomelli, G; De Luca, L

    2012-01-01

    Sixty years after its introduction, 1,5-bis(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (Pentamidine) is still one of the most used drugs for the treatment of the first stage of Human African trypanosomiasis and other neglected diseases such as malaria and leishmaniasis. These protozoan infections are prevalent in the poorest world areas such as sub-saharian and developing countries, however the increasing immigration from these countries to the richest part of the world and the overlap of HIV with parasitic infections result in a growing number of cases in developed nations. A great effort has been made to develop new generations of diamidines for the treatment of these infections transmitted by insects. This review summarises the synthesis and evaluation of pentamidine analogues reported in the last years in the effort to find new drugs with better pharmaceutical activity, higher lipophilicity and lower citotoxycicty.

  5. Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-07-22

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

  6. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-08-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  7. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  8. MQSA National Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard Statistics (Archived) 2015 ...

  9. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  10. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  11. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzmann Harald G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions.

  12. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  13. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  14. Detailed sedimentology and geomorphology elucidate mechanisms of formation of modern and historical sequences of minor moraines in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Suites of closely-spaced minor moraines may help further understanding of glacier retreat and predict its geomorphological effects through the observations of moraine formation on short timescales. This research is common in lowland, maritime settings (Sharp, 1984; Boulton, 1986; Krüger, 1995; Reinardy et al., 2013), but remains sparse in high-mountain settings (Hewitt, 1967; Ono, 1985; Beedle et al., 2009; Lukas, 2012). This research presents detailed sedimentological and geomorphological research on minor moraines at two high-mountain settings in the Alps: Silvrettagletscher, Switzerland, as a modern setting and Schwarzensteinkees, Austria, as a historical setting. Geomorphological investigations included mapping and measurements through field observations and assessing aerial imagery. Additionally, terrestrial laser scanning and ground-penetrating radar data were collected in the Schwarzensteinkees foreland. Detailed sedimentological investigations followed excavation of seven moraines at Silvrettagletscher and five moraines at Schwarzensteinkees and include multiple scales of observation and measurements to support interpretations of sediment transport and deposition (e.g. Evans and Benn, 2004). The modern moraines at Silvrettagletscher, in the immediately proglacial foreland, have been forming since before 2003. Four mechanisms of formation show distinct sedimentological signatures: formerly ice-cored moraines (e.g. Kjær & Krüger, 2001; Lukas, 2012; Reinardy et al., 2013) , push moraine formation on a reverse bedrock slope (e.g. Lukas, 2012), push moraine formation incorporating sediments deposited in a former proglacial basin, and basal freeze-on (e.g. Andersen & Sollid, 1971; Krüger, 1995; Reinardy et al., 2013). Schwarzensteinkees still exists but is currently restricted to steeply-dipping bedrock slabs above the main valley. This study therefore investigates the moraines in the foreland that formed between approximately 1850 and 1930. The minor

  15. Tren-based analogues of bacillibactin: structure and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dertz, Emily A; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2006-07-10

    Synthetic analogues were designed to highlight the effect of the glycine moiety of bacillibactin on the overall stability of the ferric complex as compared to synthetic analogues of enterobactin. Insertion of a variety of amino acids to catecholamide analogues based on a Tren (tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) backbone increased the overall acidity of the ligands, causing an enhancement of the stability of the resulting ferric complex as compared to TRENCAM. Solution thermodynamic behavior of these siderophores and their synthetic analogues was investigated through potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. X-ray crystallography, circular dichroism, and molecular modeling were used to determine the chirality and geometry of the ferric complexes of bacillibactin and its analogues. In contrast to the Tren scaffold, addition of a glycine to the catechol chelating arms causes an inversion of the trilactone backbone, resulting in opposite chiralities of the two siderophores and a destabilization of the ferric complex of bacillibactin compared to ferric enterobactin.

  16. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue (AD/DA) Conversion Techniques: An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    The basic ideas behind modern Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue (AD/DA) conversion methods will be introduced: a general view of the importance of these devices will be given, along with the digital representation of time-varying, real-world analogue signals. Some CERN applications will be outlined. The variety of conversion methods, their limitations, error sources and measurement methods will form the major part of this presentation. A review of the technological progress in this field over the last 30 years will be presented, concluding with the present 'state of the art' and a quick look at what is just around the corner. This Technical Training Seminar is in the framework of the FEED-2002 Lecture Series, and it is a prerequisite to attending to any of the FEED-2002 Terms. FEED-2002 is a two-term course that will review the techniques dealing with closed loop systems, focussing on time-invariant linear systems. (free attendance, no registration required) More information on the FEED-2002 ...

  17. Analogues of uracil nucleosides with intrinsic fluorescence (NIF-analogues): synthesis and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-02-28

    Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.

  18. A Robust Cramer-Rao Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Department of Computer Science and Statistics, State University of Sao Carlos, S.P., Brazil; H. T. David is Professor of Statistics and Industrial ...4.11). Example 4.1. (N(0,1), ") is regular L1-optimal. .’i 13 REFERENCES ALAMO, J. B. (1964), "Estimacion en Mediana," Trabajos de Estadistica , 15, 93

  19. Sedimentology of seismo-turbidites off the Cascadia and northern California active tectonic continental margins, Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Pastor, Julia; Nelson, Hans; Goldfinger, Chris; Escutia, Carlota

    2013-04-01

    Holocene turbidites from turbidite channel systems along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone (offshore Vancouver Island to Mendocino Triple Junction) and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault (the Triple Junction to San Francisco Bay), have been analyzed for sedimentologic features related to their seismic origin. Centimeter thick silt/sand beds (turbidite base) capped by mud layers (turbidite tail) and interbedded with hemipelagic silty clay intervals with high biogenic content have been characterized by visual core descriptions, grain-size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Along the northern California margin in upstream single tributary canyons and channels, most turbidites are uni-pulsed (classic fining up) whereas downstream below multiple tributary canyon and channel confluences, most deposits are stacked turbidites. Because each set of stacked turbidites has no hemipelagic sediment between each turbidite unit and each unit has a distinct mineralogy from a different tributary canyon, we interpret that a stacked turbidite is deposited by several coeval turbidity currents fed by multiple tributary canyons and channels with synchronous triggering from a single San Andreas Fault earthquake. The Cascadia margin is characterized by individual multi-pulsed turbidites that contain multiple coarse-grained sub-units without hemipelagic sediment between pulses. Because the number and character of multiple coarse-grained pulses for each correlative multi-pulsed turbidite is almost always constant both upstream and downstream in different channel systems for 600 km along the margin,we interpret that the earthquake shaking or aftershock signature is usually preserved, for the much stronger Cascadia (≥9 Mw) compared to weaker California (≥8Mw) earthquakes, which result in upstream uni-pulsed turbidites and downstream stacked turbidites. Consequently, both the strongest (≥9 Mw) great earthquakes and downstream

  20. Applicability of visual-analogue scale in patients with orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Orofacial pain occurs in various disorders of the orofacial region. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine applicability of the visual-analogue scale (VAS in patients with orofacial pain (model of acute and chronic pain. Methods. The study involved 60 patients, aged 18-70 years. The first group consisted of patients with dentin hypersensitivity, and the second group of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. All patients were asked to fill-in a pain questionnaire and to rate pain intensity on the modified visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-10. Air indexing method was performed in the patients with dentin hypersensitivity in order to provoke pain, while the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis underwent CT imaging of paranasal sinuses. Wilcoxon’s test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results. In patients with dentin hypersensitivity provocation increased subjective feeling of pain, but without statistical significance (t=164.5; p>0.05. In patients with chronic rhinosinusitis a significant statistical correlation (r=0.53; p<0.05 was found between subjective pain assessment of VAS and CT findings. Conclusion. Applying VAS in the evaluation of acute and chronic pain can indicate progression or regression of pathological state under clinical conditions. This study showed that VAS, as a method for follow-up of pathological state, is more applicable and efficient when applied in chronic pain evaluation.

  1. Predict! Teaching Statistics Using Informational Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is one of the most widely used topics for everyday life in the school mathematics curriculum. Unfortunately, the statistics taught in schools focuses on calculations and procedures before students have a chance to see it as a useful and powerful tool. Researchers have found that a dominant view of statistics is as an assortment of tools…

  2. The September 16, 2015 Illapel Tsunami - Sedimentology of tsunami deposits at the beaches of La Serena and Coquimbo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, H.; Nentwig, V.; Kreutzer, M.

    2016-12-01

    On September 16, 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of Central Chile, 46 km west of the town of Illapel, the hypocenter was at a depth of 8.7 km in the transition zone from the Chilean flat slab to the central Chilean steep slab subduction geometry, and near the intersection of the Juan Fernandez Ridge with the South America plate. The quake caused a tsunami registered which at Coquimbo and La Serena (c. 30°S) attained wave heights of 4.5 m leading to flooding and destruction of infrastructure. Maximum inundation distance was c. 700 m in Coquimbo Bay with minor flooding at the beaches of La Serena to the N. Tsunami deposits are usually the only observable evidence of past events. In view of a limited preservation potential, it is of paramount importance to undertake detailed studies in the wake of actual events. We report initial field data of a sedimentological post-tsunami field survey undertaken in October 2015. The most comprehensive sedimentological record of this tsunami is preserved at Playa Los Fuertes in La Serena. Along a 30 m long trench perpendicular to the coast we observed a laminated package of tsunami deposits. Above an erosive basal unconformity with an amplitude of up to 50 cm the deposit consists of 6 layers of variable thickness, ranging between dark laminae a few millimeters thick and rich in heavy minerals, and lighter colored sand layers up to 15 cm thick. The sediments are moderately well to well sorted, unimodal with modes between 1.3 and 2.0 Φ (medium sand). Cross-beds in the lower four layers indicate deposition from tsunami inflow, cross bedding in the penultimate layer records outflow. Water escape through small sand volcanoes was coeval to formation of the overlying sediment layer by traction deposition. This simultaneity is indicated by sand issued from the lower layer which has been preserved as a thin plume deformed in the downcurrent, i.e. landward, direction in the newly forming upper layer. Other sectors of the

  3. Cold Disks around Nearby Stars. A Search for Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa, Carlos

    DUNES (DUst disks around NEarby Stars) is a sensitivity-limited survey programme taking advantage of the unique capabilities of Herschel to detect and characterize with cold disks as faint as Ldust/Lstar 10-6 and temperatures of the order of 30 - 40K, i.e., faint exo-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt. DUNES will observe a statistically significant, volume limit 20pc)sample, only constrained by background confusion, of 133 FGK nearby stars. No further biases limit the planets and/or Spitzer-discovered faint debris disks up to larger distances, d < 25pc, are also included in the sample.

  4. 550 years in sedimentological record from a varved type lake (Bolătău, Bukovina, NE Romania - changing storm frequency and climate fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra NEMETH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we introduce lake Bolătău, located in Obcina Feredeului, Eastern Carpathians (Romania, with seasonally controlled sedimentation and significant potential for generating precipitation sensitive proxy record. Two sediment cores were compared against each other in order to achieve a better understanding of the lateral discontinuity of observed microfacies and an accurate interpretation of the sedimentological data.

  5. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  6. Functionalized Congener Approach to Muscarinic Antagonists: Analogues of Pirenzepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Yishai; Bradbury, Barton J.; Baumgold, Jesse; Paek, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine (5,11-dihydro-11-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-6H-pyrido[2,3-b] [1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one) was derivatized to explore points of attachment of functionalized side chains for the synthesis of receptor probes and ligands for affinity chromatography. The analogues prepared were evaluated in competitive binding assays versus [3H]-N-methylscopolamine at four muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1AChR-m4AChR) in membranes from rat heart tissue and transfected A9L cells. 9-(Hydroxymethyl)pirenzepine, 8-(methylthio)pirenzepine, and a series of 8-aminosulfonyl derivatives were synthesized. Several 5-substituted analogues of pirenzepine also were prepared. An alternate series of analogues substituted on the 4-position of the piperazine ring was prepared by reaction of 4-desmethylpirenzepine with various electrophiles. An N-chloroethyl analogue of pirenzepine was shown to form a reactive aziridine species in aqueous buffer yet failed to affinity label muscarinic receptors. Within a series of aminoalkyl analogues, the affinity increased as the length of the alkyl chain increased. Shorter chain analogues were generally much less potent than pirenzepine, and longer analogues (7–10 carbons) were roughly as potent as pirenzepine at m1 receptors, but were nonselective. Depending on the methylene chain length, acylation or alkyl substitution of the terminal amine also influenced the affinity at muscarinic receptors. PMID:2066986

  7. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  8. The end-Permian regression in the western Tethys: sedimentological and geochemical evidence from offshore the Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Naderi-Khujin, Mehrangiz; Seyedmehdi, Zahra

    2017-08-01

    Detailed sedimentological and geochemical records across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) in five offshore wells of the central Persian Gulf served to interpret the end-Permian sea-level change in this region. A decrease in sea level at the PTB was established by petrographical and geochemical study of the boundary. Thin sections showed that Upper Permian strata are composed of dolomite with minor anhydrite, changing into limestone in Lower Triassic sediments. Brine dilution toward the boundary supports sea-level fall in the Permian-Triassic transition, reflected by a decrease in anhydrite content and a shallowing-upward trend from lagoonal to peritidal facies. Isotopic changes at the boundary are in favor of sea-level fall. Changes in both carbon (from about 4 to -1‰) and oxygen (from 2 to -5‰) stable isotopes show negative excursions. The shift in carbon isotope values is a global phenomenon and is interpreted as resulting from carbonate sediment interaction with 12C-rich waters at the end-Permian sea-level fall. However, the oxygen isotope shift is attributed to the effect of meteoric waters with negative oxygen isotope values. The increase in strontium isotope ratios is also consistent with the high rate of terrestrial input at the boundary. The effect of meteoric conditions during diagenesis is evident from vuggy and moldic porosities below the PTB. The following transgression at the base of the Triassic is evident from the presence of reworked fossils and intraclasts resulting from deposition from agitated water.

  9. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of tectonic activity in Sone–Ganga alluvial tract in Middle Ganga Plain, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudarsan Sahu; Dipankar Saha

    2014-08-01

    The basement of the Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is criss-crossed by several faults, dividing the basin into several sub-blocks forming horsts, grabens, or half-grabens. Tectonic perturbations along basement faults have affected the fluvial regime and extent of sediment fill in different parts of the basin during Late Quaternary. The East Patna Fault (EPF) and the West Patna Fault (WPF), located in Sone–Ganga alluvial tract in the southern marginal parts of Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), have remained tectonically active. The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and sedimentologic means) has revealed the existence of yet another fault within the half-graben, referred to as Bishunpur–Khagaul Fault (BKF). Many of the long profile morphological characters (e.g., knick-zone, low width–depth ratio) of the Sone River at its lower reaches can be ascribed to local structural deformation along BKF. These basement faults in MGP lie parallel to each other in NE–SW direction.

  10. A 2D hydrodynamic-sedimentological model for gravel-bed rivers. Part I: theory and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kaless

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel 2D-depth average model especially developed for gravel-bed rivers, named Lican-Leufú (Lican=pebble and Leufu=river, in Mapuche’s language, the native inhabitants of Central Patagonia, Argentina. The model consists of three components: a hydrodynamic, a sedimentological, and a morphological model. The flow of water is described by the depth-averaged Reynolds equations for unsteady, free-surface, shallow water flows. It includes the standard k-e model for turbulence closure. Sediment transport can be divided in different size classes (sand-gravel mixture and the equilibrium approach is used for Exner’s equation. The amour layer is also included in the structure of the model and the surface grain size distribution is also allowed to evolve. The model simulates bank slides that enable channel widening. Models predictions were tested against a flume experiment where a static armour layer was developed under conditions of sediment starvations and general good agreements were found: the model predicted adequately the sediment transport, grain size of transported material, final armour grain size distribution and bed elevation.

  11. Seismic sedimentology of conglomeratic sandbodies in lower third member of Shahejie Formation (Palaeogene) in Shengtuo area, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁勇; 张金亮; 李存磊; 孟宁宁; 李岩

    2014-01-01

    The sand-conglomerate fans are the major depositional systems in the lower third member of Shahejie Formation in Shengtuo area, which formed in the deep lacustrine environment characterized by steep slope gradient, near sources and intensive tectonic activity. This work was focused on the sedimentary feature of the glutenite segment to conduct the seismic sedimentology research. The near-shore subaqueous fans and its relative gravity channel and slump turbidite fan depositions were identified according to observation and description of cores combining with the numerous data of seismic and logging. Then, the depositional model was built depending on the analysis of palaeogeomorphology. The seismic attributes which are related to the hydrocarbon but relative independent were chosen to conduct the analysis, the reservoir area of the glutenite segment was found performing a distribution where the amplitude value is relatively higher, and finally the RMS amplitude attribute was chosen to conduct the attribute predicting. At the same time, the horizontal distribution of the sedimentary facies was analyzed qualitatively. At last, the sparse spike inversion method was used to conduct the acoustic impedance inversion, and the inversion result can distinguish glutenite reservoir which is greater than 5 m. This method quantitatively characterizes the distribution area of the favorable reservoir sand.

  12. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleontology, and paleomagnetism of Pliocene-early Pleistocene lacustrine deposits in two cores from western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.S.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Roberts, A.P.; Buchner, J.; Kelsey, R.; Bracht, C.J.; Forester, R.M.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The paleoclimatic history of western Utah is being investigated as part of the USGS Global Change and Climate History Program studies of long-term climatic changes in the western United States. The initial objective of the study is to document the environmental conditions during the mid-Pliocene period of warmer-than-modern global climates (the focus of the USGS Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping [PRISM] project). The investigation also seeks to determine how and when these conditions gave way to the late Quaternary pattern of climatic variations (in which short periods of very moist climates have been separated by long periods of arid conditions). This is a collaborative project involving specialists from the USGS, Kansas State University, and the University of California-Davis in paleontology (Thompson, Buchner, Forester, Bradbury), stratigraphy and sedimentology (Oviatt, Kelsey, Bracht), and paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism (Roberts). The data presented herein represent preliminary findings of the analyses of two cores of Pliocene and early Pleistocene sediments from the eastern Great Basin.

  13. Sedimentological characteristics of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Adventdalen (Svalbard) - environmental and climatic implications for the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M.; Vieira, G.; Pina, P.; Pereira, P.; Neves, M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2014-09-01

    Ice wedges are widespread periglacial features in the landscape of Adventdalen, Svalbard. The networks of ice wedges have created areas with well-developed polygonal terrains in the lowest fluvial terraces in this valley. We have examined the sedimentological characteristics of the northern and southern banks of the Advent river for palaeoenvironmental purposes. The base of two sedimentary sections reported radiocarbon dates of 3.3 and 3.9 ka BP, respectively. The northern site is constituted by three very different lithostratigraphical units, which suggests that their formation should be related to different environmental and climate conditions. By contrast, the southern section shows a rather homogeneous composition, with no significant variations in grain size and organic matter content. In both cases the uppermost sediments are constituted by a thick aeolian deposit. According to our data, warmer climate conditions may have prevailed during the mid Holocene until 3.3 ka BP with widespread peat formation in the valley bottom. Subsequently, a period with alternating soil formation and aeolian sedimentation took place from 3 to 2.5 ka BP, probably due to increasing climatic severity. During the last millennium a long-term cooling trend has favoured aeolian deposition in the lowest part of Adventdalen.

  14. Sedimentological characteristics of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Adventdalen (Svalbard. Environmental and climatic implications for the Late Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oliva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ice-wedges are widespread periglacial features in the landscape of Adventalen, Svalbard. The networks of ice-wedges have created areas with well-developed polygonal terrains in the lowest fluvial terraces in this valley. We have examined the sedimentological characteristics of the northern and southern banks of the Advent river for palaeoenvironmental purposes. The base of two sedimentary sections reported radiocarbon dates of 3.3 and 3.9 ka cal BP, respectively. The northern site is constituted by three very different lithostratigraphical units, which suggests that their formation should be related to different environmental and climate conditions. By contrast, the southern section shows a rather homogeneous composition, with no significant variations in grain size and organic matter content. In both cases the uppermost sediments are constituted by a thick aeolian deposit. According to our data, warmer climate conditions may have prevailed during the Mid Holocene until 3.3 ka cal BP with widespread peat formation in the valley bottom. Subsequently, a period with alternating soil formation and aeolian sedimentation took place from 3 to 2.5 ka cal BP, probably due to increasing climatic severity. During the last millennium a long-term cooling trend has favoured aeolian deposition in the lowest Adventalen valley.

  15. Sedimentological characteristics of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Adventdalen (Svalbard). Environmental and climatic implications for the Late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M.; Vieira, G.; Pina, P.; Pereira, P.; Neves, M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Ice-wedges are widespread periglacial features in the landscape of Adventalen, Svalbard. The networks of ice-wedges have created areas with well-developed polygonal terrains in the lowest fluvial terraces in this valley. We have examined the sedimentological characteristics of the northern and southern banks of the Advent river for palaeoenvironmental purposes. The base of two sedimentary sections reported radiocarbon dates of 3.3 and 3.9 ka cal BP, respectively. The northern site is constituted by three very different lithostratigraphical units, which suggests that their formation should be related to different environmental and climate conditions. By contrast, the southern section shows a rather homogeneous composition, with no significant variations in grain size and organic matter content. In both cases the uppermost sediments are constituted by a thick aeolian deposit. According to our data, warmer climate conditions may have prevailed during the Mid Holocene until 3.3 ka cal BP with widespread peat formation in the valley bottom. Subsequently, a period with alternating soil formation and aeolian sedimentation took place from 3 to 2.5 ka cal BP, probably due to increasing climatic severity. During the last millennium a long-term cooling trend has favoured aeolian deposition in the lowest Adventalen valley.

  16. Implications of sedimentological and hydrological processes on the distribution of radionuclides: The example of a salt marsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, A. P.; Blackley, M. W. L.

    1986-05-01

    This paper summarizes sedimentological and hydrological studies at a salt marsh site on the north bank of the River Esk near Ravenglass which have a bearing on the fate of the low-level radioactive effluent from the reprocessing facility at Sellafield, Cumbria. A range of techniques has been used including electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) and pore water pressure studies. The results show that: (a) Over a two-year period there were no significant net changes in salt marsh creek level, although shorter-term (probably seasonal) fluctuations, of the order of 2 cm, occurred. These were attributed to expansion of clay particles during the winter months. Nearby, however, there were vertical changes of the order of 1 m due to erosion. (b) Pore water pressures indicated a dynamic situation with very rapid responses both to tidal fluctuations and to rainfall. During neap tides there was clear evidence for water seeping upwards from the underlying clay/sand interface. Shortlived radionuclides ( 95Zr/95Nb and 106Ru) were detected in this zone. (c) Soil polygons, once initiated by desiccation, thereafter provide preferential routes for water (and radionuclides) to the sub-surface sediment. These, and other results, are discussed in the context of previous studies. It is concluded that the complexity of the estuarine environment results in most data being site specific.

  17. Implications of sedimentological and hydrological processes on the distribution of radionuclides: the example of a salt marsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, A.P.; Blackley, M.W.L.

    1986-05-01

    This paper summarizes sedimentological and hydrological studies at a salt marsh site on the north bank of the River Esk near Ravenglass which have a bearing on the fate of the low-level radioactive effluent from the reprocessing facility at Sellafield, Cumbria. A range of techniques has been used including electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) and pore water pressure studies. The results show that: (a) Over a two-year period there were no significant net changes in salt marsh creek level, although shorter-term (probably seasonal) fluctuations, of the order of 2 cm, occurred. These were attributed to expansion of clay particles during the winter months. Nearby, however, there were vertical changes of the order of 1 m due to erosion. (b) Pore water pressures indicated a dynamic situation with very rapid responses both to tidal fluctuations and to rainfall. During neap tides there was clear evidence for water seeping upwards from the underlying clay/sand interface. Shortlived radionuclides (/sup 95/Zr//sup 95/Nb and /sup 106/Ru) were detected in this zone. (c) soil polygons, once initiated by desiccation, thereafter provide preferential routes for water (and radionuclides) to the sub-surface sediment. These, and other results, are discussed in the context of previous studies. It is concluded that the complexity of the estuarine environment results in most data being site specific.

  18. Reconnaissance sedimentology of selected tertiary exposures in the upland region bordering the Yukon Flats basin, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, David L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes reconnaissance sedimentologic and stratigraphic observations made during six days of helicopter-supported fieldwork in 2002 on Tertiary sedimentary rocks exposed in the upland region around the flanks of the Yukon Flats basin in east-central Alaska (fig. 1). This project was a cooperative effort between the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to investigate the geology of the basin in preparation for an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable hydrocarbon resources (Stanley and others, 2004). Field observations and interpretations summarized in this report are reconnaissance level. At most, no more than a few hours were spent on the ground at any location. Measured sections included in this report are sketch sec- tions and thicknesses shown are approximate. Relatively detailed observations were made by the authors at only three locations, including The Mudbank (Hodzana River), Rampart (east bank of the Yukon River), and Bryant Creek (along the Tintina fault near the Canada border). These three locations are described first in relative detail, then followed by general descriptions of other locations.

  19. A 2D hydrodynamic-sedimentological model for gravel bed rivers. Part II, Case study: the Brenta River in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kaless

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2D depth average model has been used to simulate water and sediment flow in the Brenta River so as to interpret channel changes and to assess model predictive capabilities. The Brenta River is a gravel bed river located in Northern Italy. The study reach is 1400 long and has a mean slope of 0.0056. High resolution digital terrain models has been produced combining laser imaging detection and ranging data with colour bathymetry techniques. Extensive field sedimentological surveys have been also carried out for surface and subsurface material. The data were loaded in the model and the passage of a high intense flood (R.I. > 9 years was simulated. The model was run under the hypothesis of a substantial equilibrium between sediment input and transport capacity. In this way, the model results were considered as a reference condition, and the potential trend of the reach was assessed. Low-frequency floods (R.I. » 1.5 years are expected to produce negligible changes in the channel while high floods may focalize erosion on banks instead than on channel bed. Furthermore, the model predicts well the location of erosion and siltation areas and the results promote its application to other reaches of the Brenta River in order to assess their stability and medium-term evolution.

  20. Sedimentology and Chronology of Paleogene Coarse Clastic Rocks in East-Central Tibet and Their Relationship to Early Tectonic Uplift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jiangyu; WANG Jianghai; K. H. BRIAN; A. YIN; M. S. MATTHEW

    2007-01-01

    A systematic sedimentological and chronological study of typical Paleogene basins in eastcentral Tibet suggests that the depositional characteristics of extensively developed huge-bedded,purplish-red coarse clastic rocks formed in a tectonic setting of regional thrusting and strike-slipping represent a typical dry and hot subaerial alluvial fan environment formed in a proximal and rapidaccumulating sediment body in debris flows and a fan-surface braided river. Combining results from basin-fill sequences, sequences of coarse clastic rocks, fauna and sporo-pollen associations and thermochronological data, it is concluded that the coarse clastic rocks formed in the period of 54.2-belt), middle (Batang-Lijiang fault belt), and disintegration of large basins in the southern (LanpingSimao fold belt) segments of Tibet. The widespread massive-bedded coarse clastic rocks, fold thrusting and strike-slip, thrust shortening, and igneous activities in the Paleogene basins of eastcentral Tibet indicate that an early diachronous tectonic uplift might have occurred in the Tibetan Plateau from Middle Eocene to Oligocene, related to the initial stage of collision of the Indian and Asian plates.

  1. Developing Skin Analogues for a Robotic Octopus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou; Richard H.C.Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2012-01-01

    In order to fabricate a biomimetic skin for an octopus inspired robot,a new process was developed based on mechanical properties measured from real octopus skin.Various knitted nylon textiles were tested and the one of 10-denier nylon was chosen as reinforcement.A combination of Ecoflex 0030 and 0010 silicone rubbers was used as matrix of the composite to obtain the right stiffness for the skin-analogue system.The open mould fabrication process developed allows air bubble to escape easily and the artificial skin produced was thin and waterproof.Material properties of the biomimetic skin were characterised using static tensile and instrumented scissors cutting tests.The Young's moduli of the artificial skin are 0.08 MPa and 0.13 MPa in the longitudinal and transverse directions,which are much lower than those of the octopus skin.The strength and fracture toughness of the artificial skin,on the other hand are higher than those of real octopus skins.Conically-shaped skin prototypes to be used to cover the robotic arm unit were manufactured and tested.The biomimetic skin prototype was stiff enough to maintain it conical shape when filled with water.The driving force for elongation was reduced significantly compared with previous prototypes.

  2. A positive Grassmannian analogue of the permutohedron

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Lauren K

    2015-01-01

    The classical permutohedron Perm is the convex hull of the points (w(1),...,w(n)) in R^n where w ranges over all permutations in the symmetric group. This polytope has many beautiful properties -- for example it provides a way to visualize the weak Bruhat order: if we orient the permutohedron so that the longest permutation w_0 is at the "top" and the identity e is at the "bottom," then the one-skeleton of Perm is the Hasse diagram of the weak Bruhat order. Equivalently, the paths from e to w_0 along the edges of Perm are in bijection with the reduced decompositions of w_0. Moreover, the two-dimensional faces of the permutohedron correspond to braid and commuting moves, which by the Tits Lemma, connect any two reduced expressions of w_0. In this note we introduce some polytopes Br(k,n) (which we call bridge polytopes) which provide a positive Grassmannian analogue of the permutohedron. In this setting, BCFW bridge decompositions of reduced plabic graphs play the role of reduced decompositions. We define Br(k,...

  3. Insulin, insulin analogues and diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, Ernst; Kimmerle, Renate; Meyer-Schwickerath, Rolf

    2008-02-01

    Insulin is absolutely vital for living beings. It is not only involved in metabolism, but also in the regulation of growth factors, e.g. IGF-1. In this review we address the role insulin has in the natural evolution of diabetic retinopathy. On the one hand, chronic deficiency of insulin and IGF-1 at the retina is thought to cause capillary degeneration, with subsequent ischaemia. On the other hand, acute abundance of (exogenously administered) insulin and IGF-1 enhances ischaemia-induced VEGF expression. A critical ratio of tissue VEGF-susceptibility: VEGF-availability triggers vascular proliferation (i.e. of micro-aneurysms and/or abnormal vessels). The patent-protected insulin analogues Lispro, Glulisine, Aspart, Glargine and Detemir are artificial insulin derivatives with altered biological responses compared to natural insulin (e.g. divergent insulin and /or IGF-1 receptor-binding characteristics, signalling patterns, and mitogenicity). Their safety profiles concerning diabetic retinopathy remain to be established by randomised controlled trials. Anecdotal reports and circumstantial evidence suggest that Lispro and Glargine might worsen diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Information transport in classical statistical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wetterich, C

    2016-01-01

    In many materials or equilibrium statistical systems the information of boundary conditions is lost inside the bulk of the material. In contrast, we describe here static classical statistical probability distributions for which bulk properties depend on boundary conditions. Such "static memory materials" can be realized if no unique equilibrium state exists. The propagation of information from the boundary to the bulk is described by a classical wave function or a density matrix, which obey generalized Schr\\"odinger or von Neumann equations. For static memory materials the evolution within a subsector is unitary, as characteristic for the time evolution in quantum mechanics. The space-dependence in static memory materials can be used as an analogue representation of the time evolution in quantum mechanics - such materials are "quantum simulators". For example, an asymmetric Ising model represents the time evolution of relativistic fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space.

  5. The foundations of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Leonard J

    1972-01-01

    Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.

  6. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  7. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  8. Algebraic statistics computational commutative algebra in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, Giovanni; Wynn, Henry P

    2000-01-01

    Written by pioneers in this exciting new field, Algebraic Statistics introduces the application of polynomial algebra to experimental design, discrete probability, and statistics. It begins with an introduction to Gröbner bases and a thorough description of their applications to experimental design. A special chapter covers the binary case with new application to coherent systems in reliability and two level factorial designs. The work paves the way, in the last two chapters, for the application of computer algebra to discrete probability and statistical modelling through the important concept of an algebraic statistical model.As the first book on the subject, Algebraic Statistics presents many opportunities for spin-off research and applications and should become a landmark work welcomed by both the statistical community and its relatives in mathematics and computer science.

  9. Automated Layout Generation of Analogue and Mixed-Signal ASIC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Rene

    The research and development carried out in this Ph.D. study focusses on two key areas of the design flow for analogue and mixed-signal integrated circuit design, the mixed-signal floorplanning and the analogue layout generation.A novel approach to floorplanning is presented which provides true...... flow.A new design flow for automated layout generation of general analogue integrated circuits is presented. The design flow provides an automated design path from a sized circuit schematic to the final layout containing the placed, but unrouted, devices of the circuit. The analogue circuit layout...... interactive floorplanning capabilities due to a new implementation variant of a Genetic Algorithm. True interactive floorplanning allows the designer to communicate with existing floorplans during optimization. By entering the "ideas" and expertise of the designer into the optimization algorithm the automated...

  10. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful?

  11. Doing it with Mirrors Classical analogues for Black Hole radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, K

    1998-01-01

    We construct analogues for the quantum phenomena of black hole radiation in the context of {\\it classical field theory}. Hawking radiation from a (radially) collapsing star is mathematically equivalent to radiation from a mirror moving along a specific trajectory in Minkowski spacetime. We construct a classical analogue for this quantum phenomenon and use it to construct a classical analogue for black hole radiation. The radiation spectrum in quantum field theory has the power spectrum as its classical analogue. Monochromatic light is continually reflected off a moving mirror or the silvered surface of a collapsing star.The reflected light is fourier analysed by the observer and the power spectrum is constructed. For a mirror moving along the standard black hole trajectory,it is seen that the power spectrum has a ``thermal'' nature. Mirror-observer configurations like an inertial mirror observed in an accelerated observer's frame and an accelerated mirror observed in a Rindler frame are investigated and condi...

  12. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which...

  13. Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue from Penicillium solitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Lange, Lene; Schnorr, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue, has been isolated from Penicillium solitum using a UV-guided strategy. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute stereochemistry was determined by chemical degradation...

  14. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  15. Analogue and Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of AMICSA 2014 (organised in collaboration of ESA and CERN) is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of recent advances in analogue and mixed-signal VLSI design techniques and technologies for space applications.

  16. Synthesis of Novel Isoxazole-contained Analogues of Losartan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of novel isoxazole-contained analogues of Losartan were designed and synthesized with 1,3-DC reaction. The regioselectivity of the reaction was discussed and the compounds are potential antihypertensive.

  17. A q-Analogue of the Dirichlet L-Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Son

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we will treat some interesting formulae which are slightly different from Kim's results by more or less the same method in [4-9]. At first, we consider a new definition of a q-analogue of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials.We construct a q-analogue of the Riemann ζ-function, Hurwitz ζ-function, and Dirichlet L-series. Also, we investigate the relation between the q-analogue of generalized Bernoulli numbers and the generalized Euler numbers. As an application, we prove that the q-analogue of Bernoulli numbers occurs in the coefficients of some Stirling type series for the p-adic analytic q-log-gamma function.

  18. Current prodrug strategies for improving oral absorption of nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues are first line chemotherapy in various severe diseases: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, cytomegalovirus infections, cancer, etc. However, many nucleoside analogues exhibit poor oral bioavailability because of their high polarity and low intestinal permeability. In order to get around this drawback, prodrugs have been utilized to improve lipophilicity by chemical modification of the parent drug. Alternatively, prodrugs targeting transporters present in the intestine have been applied to promote the transport of the nucleoside analogues. Valacyclovir and valganciclovir are two classic valine ester prodrugs transported by oligopeptide transporter 1. The ideal prodrug achieves delivery of a parent drug by attaching a non-toxic moiety that is stable during transport, but is readily degraded to the parent drug once at the target. This article presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral absorption of nucleoside analogues.

  19. Trustworthiness and Influence: A Reexamination in an Extended Counseling Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmeier, Rosemarie C.; Dixon, David N.

    1980-01-01

    The study demonstrated that: (1) interviewer trustworthiness can be manipulated in an analogue interview setting; and (2) interviewer trustworthiness is related to interpersonal influence in the interview setting. Findings follow a pattern of outcomes predicted by cognitive dissonance theory. (Author)

  20. Cell-cycle analyses using thymidine analogues in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Anda

    Full Text Available Thymidine analogues are powerful tools when studying DNA synthesis including DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, these analogues have been reported to have severe effects on cell-cycle progression and growth, the very processes being investigated in most of these studies. Here, we have analyzed the effects of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU and 5-Chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU using fission yeast cells and optimized the labelling procedure. We find that both analogues affect the cell cycle, but that the effects can be mitigated by using the appropriate analogue, short pulses of labelling and low concentrations. In addition, we report sequential labelling of two consecutive S phases using EdU and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU. Furthermore, we show that detection of replicative DNA synthesis is much more sensitive than DNA-measurements by flow cytometry.

  1. Cell-cycle analyses using thymidine analogues in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Silje; Boye, Erik; Grallert, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Thymidine analogues are powerful tools when studying DNA synthesis including DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, these analogues have been reported to have severe effects on cell-cycle progression and growth, the very processes being investigated in most of these studies. Here, we have analyzed the effects of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 5-Chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) using fission yeast cells and optimized the labelling procedure. We find that both analogues affect the cell cycle, but that the effects can be mitigated by using the appropriate analogue, short pulses of labelling and low concentrations. In addition, we report sequential labelling of two consecutive S phases using EdU and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Furthermore, we show that detection of replicative DNA synthesis is much more sensitive than DNA-measurements by flow cytometry.

  2. PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, REPORTS), (*PROBABILITY, REPORTS), INFORMATION THEORY, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, STATISTICAL PROCESSES, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , DECISION THEORY, MEASURE THEORY, OPTIMIZATION

  3. Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs distributions and their relationship with sedimentological processes in Patras Harbour, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthymiou, H; Papatheodorou, G; Moustakli, A; Christodoulou, D; Geraga, M

    2007-01-01

    Surficial and subsurficial sediment samples derived from gravity cores, selected from the harbour of Patras, Greece, were analyzed for grain size, water content, bulk density, specific gravity, organic carbon content and specific activities of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs. The specific activities of (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were measured radiometrically. The radionuclides (238)U and (232)Th were also analyzed using the INAA. The differences found between the specific activities of the natural radionuclides measured by the two methods are of no statistical significance. The sediment cores selection was based on a detailed bathymetric and marine seismic survey. Through the study of the detailed bathymetric map and the seismic profiles it was shown that ship traffic is highly influential to the harbour bathymetry. The granulometric and geotechnical properties of the sediments and therefore the specific activities of the natural radionuclides and (137)Cs seem to be controlled by the ship traffic. Relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations and granulometric/geotechnical parameters was defined after the treatment of all the analyses using R-mode factor analysis. The natural radionuclide activities are related to the fine fraction and bulk density of the sediments, while (137)Cs is mainly influenced by the organic carbon content. In addition, (238)U and (226)Ra seem to be in close relation with the heavy minerals fraction in coarse-grained sediments with high specific gravity.

  4. Adjuvant properties of a simplified C32 monomycolyl glycerol analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowruth, Veemal; Minnikin, David E; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter; Bramwell, Vincent W; Perrie, Yvonne; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2009-04-01

    A simplified C(32) monomycolyl glycerol (MMG) analogue demonstrated enhanced immunostimulatory activity in a dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA)/Ag85B-ESAT-6 formulation. Elevated levels of IFN-gamma and IL-6 were produced in spleen cells from mice immunised with a C(32) MMG analogue comparable activity to the potent Th1 adjuvant, trehalose 6,6'-di-behenate (TDB).

  5. Semisynthesis of salviandulin E analogues and their antitrypanosomal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Koji; Yamazaki, Akira; Sugawara, Naoko; Yano, Reiko; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Hitotsuyanagi, Yukio; Takeya, Koichi; Ishiyama, Aki; Iwatsuki, Masato; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Haruki; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2014-01-15

    A series of analogues of salviandulin E, a rearranged neoclerodane diterpene originally isolated from Salvia leucantha (Lamiaceae), were prepared and their in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei was evaluated with currently used therapeutic drugs as positive controls. One of the 19 compounds prepared and assayed in the present study, butanoyl 3,4-dihydrosalviandulin E analogue was found to be a possible candidate for an antitrypanosomal drug with fairly strong antitrypanosomal activity and lower cytotoxicity.

  6. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  7. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1996-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997....

  8. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  9. Analogue and digital linear modulation techniques for mobile satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, W. J.; Bateman, A.; Mcgeehan, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The choice of modulation format for a mobile satellite service is complex. The subjective performance is summarized of candidate schemes and voice coder technologies. It is shown that good performance can be achieved with both analogue and digital voice systems, although the analogue system gives superior performance in fading. The results highlight the need for flexibility in the choice of signaling format. Linear transceiver technology capable of using many forms of narrowband modulation is described.

  10. An azumamide C analogue without the zinc-binding functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jesper; Kitir, Betül; Wich, Kathrine;

    2014-01-01

    + - coordinating moiety. Herein, we describe the synthesis of an azumamide analogue lacking its native Zn 2+ -binding group and evaluation of its inhibitory activity against recombinant human HDAC1 – 11. Furthermore, kinetic investigation of the inhibitory mechanism of both parent natural product and synthetic...... analogue against HDAC3-NCoR2 is reported as well as their activity against Burkitt's lymphoma cell proliferation....

  11. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaly, Peter E.; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M.; Churchill, Cassandra D. M.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; West, F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and t...

  12. Debris disks as seen by Herschel: statistics and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J.; Marshall, J. P.; Augereau, J. C.; Eiroa, C.

    2011-10-01

    As leftovers of planet formation, debris disks represent an essential component of planetary systems. We first introduce the latest statistics obtained by the DUNES consortium, who are taking a census of extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt using the Herschel Space Observatory. Then we present a detailed study of the much younger debris disk surrounding the F5.5 star HD 181327. We derive strong constraints on the properties of its dust and we discuss its possible gaseous counterpart.

  13. Molecular Biodynamers: Dynamic Covalent Analogues of Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Conspectus Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials. Implementation of CDC in biopolymer science leads to the generation of constitutionally dynamic analogues of biopolymers, biodynamers, at the molecular level (molecular biodynamers) through DCC or at the supramolecular level (supramolecular biodynamers) via DNCC. Therefore, biodynamers are prepared by reversible covalent polymerization or noncovalent polyassociation of biorelevant monomers. In particular, molecular biodynamers, biodynamers of the covalent type whose monomeric units are connected by reversible covalent bonds, are generated by reversible polymerization of bio-based monomers and can be seen as a combination of biopolymers with DCC. Owing to the reversible covalent bonds used in DCC, molecular biodynamers can undergo continuous and spontaneous constitutional modifications via incorporation/decorporation and exchange of biorelevant monomers in response to internal or external stimuli. As a result, they behave as adaptive materials with novel properties, such as self-healing, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunable mechanical and optical character. More specifically, molecular biodynamers combine the biorelevant characters (e.g., biocompatibility, biodegradability, biofunctionality) of bioactive monomers with the dynamic features of reversible covalent bonds (e.g., changeable, tunable, controllable, self-healing, and stimuli-responsive capacities), to realize synergistic properties in one system. In addition

  14. Molecular Biodynamers: Dynamic Covalent Analogues of Biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Hirsch, Anna K H

    2017-02-21

    Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials. Implementation of CDC in biopolymer science leads to the generation of constitutionally dynamic analogues of biopolymers, biodynamers, at the molecular level (molecular biodynamers) through DCC or at the supramolecular level (supramolecular biodynamers) via DNCC. Therefore, biodynamers are prepared by reversible covalent polymerization or noncovalent polyassociation of biorelevant monomers. In particular, molecular biodynamers, biodynamers of the covalent type whose monomeric units are connected by reversible covalent bonds, are generated by reversible polymerization of bio-based monomers and can be seen as a combination of biopolymers with DCC. Owing to the reversible covalent bonds used in DCC, molecular biodynamers can undergo continuous and spontaneous constitutional modifications via incorporation/decorporation and exchange of biorelevant monomers in response to internal or external stimuli. As a result, they behave as adaptive materials with novel properties, such as self-healing, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunable mechanical and optical character. More specifically, molecular biodynamers combine the biorelevant characters (e.g., biocompatibility, biodegradability, biofunctionality) of bioactive monomers with the dynamic features of reversible covalent bonds (e.g., changeable, tunable, controllable, self-healing, and stimuli-responsive capacities), to realize synergistic properties in one system. In addition, molecular

  15. The relevance of analogue studies for understanding obsessions and compulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Fabricant, Laura E; Taylor, Steven; Deacon, Brett J; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-01

    Analogue samples are often used to study obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and related phenomena. This approach is based on the hypothesis that results derived from such samples are relevant to understanding OC symptoms in individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Two decades ago, Gibbs (1996) reviewed the available literature and found initial support for this hypothesis. Since then there have been many important advances addressing this issue. The purpose of the present review was to synthesize various lines of research examining the assumptions of using analogue samples to draw inferences about people with OCD. We reviewed research on the prevalence of OC symptoms in non-clinical populations, the dimensional (vs. categorical) nature of these symptoms, phenomenology, etiology, and studies on developmental and maintenance factors in clinical and analogue samples. We also considered the relevance of analogue samples in OCD treatment research. The available evidence suggests research with analogue samples is highly relevant for understanding OC symptoms. Guidelines for the appropriate use of analogue designs and samples are suggested.

  16. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakilam Satishkumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxytris(dimethylaminophosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL, T-cell lymphoma (TCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  17. Novel purine nucleoside analogues for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korycka, Anna; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Robak, Tadeusz

    2008-06-01

    Recently, the search for more effective and safer antineoplastic agents has led to synthesis and introduction into preclinical and clinical studies of a few new purine nucleoside analogues (PNA). Three of them: clofarabine (CAFdA), nelarabine, and forodesine (immucillin H, BCX-1777), despite belonging to the same group of drugs such as PNA, have shown some differences concerning their active forms, metabolic properties and mechanism of action. However, all these drugs have demonstrated promising activity in patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). CAFdA was approved for the therapy of relapsed or refractory ALL in the third line of treatment. It has proved promising in pediatric patients as well as in some patients who are able to proceed to allogenic hematopietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Moreover, the drug exhibits an efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BP) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Nelarabine is recommended for T-ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) with the overall response rates ranging from 11 to 60%. However, the use of the drug is limited by potentially severe neurotoxicity. Forodesine is a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) inhibitor and it has shown activity in relapsed and refractory T- and B-cells leukemias as well as in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Recently patented, a few of inventions in the field of pharmaceutical preparation of new PNA have also been published. Great hopes are currently set on the use of these drugs in the treatment of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies in adult and in pediatric patients, however ongoing studies will help to define their role in the standard therapy.

  18. Identifying climate analogues for precipitation extremes for Denmark based on RCM simulations from the ENSEMBLES database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K; Funder, S G; Madsen, H

    2015-01-01

    Climate analogues, also denoted Space-For-Time, may be used to identify regions where the present climatic conditions resemble conditions of a past or future state of another location or region based on robust climate variable statistics in combination with projections of how these statistics change over time. The study focuses on assessing climate analogues for Denmark based on current climate data set (E-OBS) observations as well as the ENSEMBLES database of future climates with the aim of projecting future precipitation extremes. The local present precipitation extremes are assessed by means of intensity-duration-frequency curves for urban drainage design for the relevant locations being France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Denmark. Based on this approach projected increases of extreme precipitation by 2100 of 9 and 21% are expected for 2 and 10 year return periods, respectively. The results should be interpreted with caution as the best region to represent future conditions for Denmark is the coastal areas of Northern France, for which only little information is available with respect to present precipitation extremes.

  19. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  20. Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science.

  1. Lithofacies and spectral gamma-ray analysis of a potential outcrop analogue for a secondary reservoir in the McCully Gas Field, Sussex, NB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keighley, D.; Mohan, D. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Geology

    2006-07-01

    The McCully Gas Field in New Brunswick, comprises a succession of gas-filled sandstone units with organic shale. Core data from the reservoir interval in the gas field indicates that the sandstones are the deposits of lacustrine deltas, shorelines and fluvial systems. This study attempted to provide a more detailed interpretation of the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of outcrops and to better correlate the outcrops with producing horizons in the subsurface. The primary producing horizon in the McCully field is the A-sand, for which an equivalent outcrop analogue has yet to be identified. Overlying secondary targets include sandstone packages that appear to coarsen upward over a scale of several tens of metres. An outcrop of a coarsening upward succession within a roadcut has been identified as potentially correlative. Detailed sedimentological logging and spectral gamma ray data was collected over a 40 m thick interval of the outcrop succession. It appears that sedimentation occurred in a periodically and progressively shallowing wave-dominated lake shoreface. A possible root horizon near the top of the succession could indicate a temporary lowering of lake-level and development of a shallow lagoon. An overlying limestone conglomerate was identified as a storm-beach deposit. Conclusive evidence of fluvial deposition within the succession was not found. Spectral gamma-ray data suggests that radioactive uranium and thorium, as well as potassium all decrease upsection together with an overall increase in grain size.

  2. Statistics using R

    CERN Document Server

    Purohit, Sudha G; Deshmukh, Shailaja R

    2015-01-01

    STATISTICS USING R will be useful at different levels, from an undergraduate course in statistics, through graduate courses in biological sciences, engineering, management and so on. The book introduces statistical terminology and defines it for the benefit of a novice. For a practicing statistician, it will serve as a guide to R language for statistical analysis. For a researcher, it is a dual guide, simultaneously explaining appropriate statistical methods for the problems at hand and indicating how these methods can be implemented using the R language. For a software developer, it is a guide in a variety of statistical methods for development of a suite of statistical procedures.

  3. Sedimentology, conodonts and ostracods of the Devonian - Carboniferous strata of the Anseremme railway bridge section, Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, J.-G.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Seven major carbonate microfacies are defined in the Devonian - Carboniferous (D/C) strata (50 m) of the Anseremme railway bridge section, south of Dinant. They permit recognition of several levels encompassing the Etroeungt and Hastie??re formations. "Bathymetric" sequences range from open marine, below the storm wave base, to semi-restricted lagoon. This sequence records a shallowing-upward trend of the relative sea level, from environments below the storm wave base to strongly eroded supraticial pre-evaporitic environments. Faunal components (echinoderms, brachiopods...) indicate open-marine domain for the first six microfacies located within the dysphoticeuphotic zone in relatively shallow waters. The textures of the rocks (mudstones to rudstones) associated with lamination characteristics indicate the position of the storm (SWB) and the fair-weather (FWWB) wave bases. Microfacies seven suggests a semi-restricted platform with salinity fluctuations from hypersaline brines to brackish waters. Thus, the boundary of the Etroeungt/Hastie??re formations is marked by an abrupt drop in sea level. Carbonate micro-conglomerates recording an important erosive phase and a sedimentary hiatus. The environment is again open marine in the upper part of the Hastie??re Formation. Our conclusion is that the Anseremme section is not a reliable continuous succession for the study of the D/C boundary. This confirms the VAN STEENWINKEL (1988, 1993 hypothesis based on other arguments. Conodont faunas demonstrate that the Devonian sequence spans the five youngest conodont zones, but that two of these zones are not represented. The Epinette Formation is dated as the youngest part of the Middle expansa Zone. Thus, the boundary with the Late praesulcata Zone probably coincides with the sharp sedimentological change at the base of the Etroeungt Formation, which is interpreted to belong entirely to this zone. The disconformably overlying basal bed 159 of the Hastie??re Formation is dated

  4. Geoacoustic character, sedimentology and chronology of a cross-shelf Holocene sediment deposit off Cabo Frio, Brazil (southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ursula; Ayres Neto, Arthur; C. Abuchacra, Rodrigo; Fernandes Barbosa, Cátia; G. Figueiredo, Alberto; C. Gomes, Manoela; Belem, Andre L.; Capilla, Ramsés; S. Albuquerque, Ana Luiza

    2014-08-01

    The Cabo Frio region in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast coast of Brazil, is characterized by a local coastal upwelling system and converging littoral sediment transport systems that are deflected offshore at Cabo Frio, as a consequence of which a thick cross-shelf sediment deposit has developed over time. To investigate the evolution of this muddy deposit, geophysical, sedimentological and geochemical data from four sediment cores (3.8-4.1 m in length) recovered in water depths between 88 and 141 m were analyzed. The high-resolution seismic data show variable sediment thicknesses ranging from 1 to 20 m, comprising two sedimentary units separated by a high-impedance layer at a depth of about 10 m below the seafloor at the coring sites. According to the available age datings, the upper sedimentary unit is late Pleistocene to Holocene in age, whereas the lower unit (not dated) must, by implication, be entirely Pleistocene in age. The boomer-seismic reflection signal can be divided into three echo-types, namely transparent (inner shelf), stratified (middle shelf) and reflective (outer shelf), each type seemingly related to the local sediment composition. The upper 4 m of the upper sedimentary unit is dominated by silty sediment on the middle shelf, and by upward-fining sediments (silty sand to sandy silt) on the inner and outer shelf. The downcore trends of P-wave velocity, gamma-ray density and acoustic impedance are largely similar, but generally reversed to those of water and organic carbon contents. Total organic carbon contents increase with decreasing mean grain size, periodic fluctuations suggesting temporal changes in the regional hydrodynamics and primary productivity fuelled by the local upwelling system. The reconstruction of sedimentation rates in the course of the Holocene is based on 35 AMS age datings of organic material recovered from variable downcore depths. These range from a maximum of 13.3 cm/decade near the base of the inner shelf core (7

  5. Late Quaternary Provenance and Flow Regime Reconstruction through Sedimentologic and Geochemical Evidence from the Bering/Chukchi Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, B. M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Kocis, J. J.; Petsch, S.

    2013-12-01

    The last 20 kyr have been marked by great changes in the Arctic, as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted and led to the submergence of the Bering Land Bridge and the re-opening of the Bering Strait (BS). The BS is a narrow connection (about 85 km wide) between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans averaging less than 50 m in depth, with present-day flow of seawater northward through the BS, from the Pacific to the Arctic. This flow is of vital importance to global ocean circulation through its role in formation and stability of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). An open BS is believed to speed dispersal of North Atlantic freshwater anomalies, both by keeping thermohaline circulation strong, and through reversals of flow through the BS when the North Atlantic is hosed with freshwater. When the BS is closed, these anomalies cannot efficiently dissipate and thermohaline circulation is weakened, which is considered a factor in climate perturbations outside of orbital forcing. Given the period of flux and transition in the Arctic following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the paleoceanographic history of the Bering and Chukchi Seas post-LGM, is important to an understanding of Arctic Ocean circulation, and consequent climate impacts. Today the Arctic is in a period of rapid change, multi-year sea ice is disappearing, and the continuation of climatic stability of the Holocene appears to be at an end. Comprehension of the functioning of the Arctic as a dynamic system is essential to predict future response of the system to change, such as seawater salinity-density changes, lowered sea and land albedo, and rising temperatures. Changes in BS throughflow intensity and direction during deglaciation and submergence of the Bering Land Bridge are proposed and supported in modeling simulations, and are thought to occur during millennial-scale climate changes. We have conducted a coupled sedimentological and geochemical investigation of a suite of marine sediment cores from the Bering and

  6. Sedimentological discontinuties as chances for enhancing process-based palaeo-environmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Kai; Lockot, Gregori; Wünnemann, Bernd; Ramisch, Arne; Diekmann, Bernhard; Yan, Dada

    2014-05-01

    Morpho-stratigraphic approaches in the field of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction are time consuming, have a low temporal resolution and the problem of equifinality in terms of processes or simply the reputation of fuzziness. Nevertheless, investigations of seemingly continuous archives such as lake sediments are more effective if climate driven catchment signals are considered. Lake level data sets provide valuable indices for modelling the palaeoclimatic history and feedback-mechanisms on regional, supra-regional or even hemispherical scales. However, they are frequently used without considering the role of sediment trapping, signal buffering and random events (tectonic, mass-movements, etc.) along related sediment cascades. Moreover, dating inversions, record gaps and unlikely high or low SARs are considered as archive-internal disturbances or simply measurement errors which have to be smoothed by increasingly sophisticated tools of statistics or simply eliminated. This poster examines the value of such discontinuities and random events within continuous lake record for deciphering catchment-wide feedbacks/responses and their related processes. Our first example shows the influence of lake level changes and permafrost uplift on the reservoir effect of Lake Heihai, Northern Tibetan Plateau. A drop in lake level induced the reworking of sediment sequences, which is not identifiable by disturbances of the stratighraphy. This problem only becomes apparent, if several on-shore sediment records and at least two lake cores are compared. Several lake records from Hala Lake, Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibetan Plateau confirm highly diverse stratigraphies and sediment properties, thus underpinning the necessity of data comparison from different locations (within the lake) for a reliable reconstruction of climate-driven hydrological variations within a lake-catchment system. A third example from a large endorheic foreland basin of the Tibetan Plateau (Ejina Basin also

  7. A carbon isotopic and sedimentological record of the latest Devonian (Famennian) from the Western U.S. and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrow, P.M.; Strauss, J.V.; Creveling, J.R.; Sicard, K.R.; Ripperdan, R.; Sandberg, C.A.; Hartenfels, S.

    2011-01-01

    New carbon isotopic data from upper Famennian deposits in the western United States reveal two previously unrecognized major positive isotopic excursions. The first is an abrupt ~. 3??? positive excursion, herein referred to as ALFIE (A Late Famennian Isotopic Excursion), recorded in two sections of the Pinyon Peak Limestone of north-central Utah. Integration of detailed chemostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data suggests that ALFIE is the Laurentian record of the Dasberg Event, which has been linked to transgression in Europe and Morocco. Sedimentological data from the Chaffee Group of western Colorado also record transgression at a similar biostratigraphic position, with a shift from restricted to open-marine lithofacies. ALFIE is not evident in chemostratigraphic data from age-equivalent strata in Germany studied herein and in southern Europe, either because it is a uniquely North American phenomenon, or because the German sections are too condensed relative to those in Laurentia. A second positive carbon isotopic excursion from the upper Chaffee Group of Colorado is recorded in transgressive strata deposited directly above a previously unrecognized paleokarst interval. The age of this excursion, and the duration of the associated paleokarst hiatus, are not well constrained, although the events occurred sometime after the Late Famennian Middle expansa Zone. The high positive values recorded in this excursion are consistent with those associated with the youngest Famennian Middle to Late praesulcata Hangenberg Isotopic Excursion in Europe, the isotopic expression of the Hangenberg Event, which included mass extinction, widespread black shale deposition, and a glacio-eustatic fall and rise. If correct, this would considerably revise the age of the Upper Chaffee Group strata of western Colorado. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy Architecture of the late Pleistocene-Holocene Succession of the Gargaresh Formation, Subratah Basin, NW Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlal, Osama; Bennur, Sami

    2014-05-01

    Gargaresh Formation outcrops is comprises the outcrops between the Misurata (N32o22'18'' E15o12'03'') to the Tripoli(N32o 51'10'' E13o 03'22'') areas is represented by prominent carbonate aeolianite exposed in extensive outcrops along the NW Libyan shoreline. Gargaresh Formation outcrops comprises two Members an upper Kaam Member of Aeolian origin and a lower Karrot Member of marine origin. The study of the Gargaresh Formation can provide useful information on reconstructions of Late Pleistocene-Holocene history of NW Libya and new insights on palaeogeography. It is forming low ridges and cliffs along the coastline of NW Libya and occurs as cliffs continuously attached to the sea tide, and occasionally interrupted by broad wadis or deep-cut embayment. The Gargaresh Formation sediments are dominated by calcarenites with skeletal marine fauna and non-skeletal grains of lithoclasts, aggregate, with oolites. In addition, these rocks are characterized by very well aeolian controlling factors represented by wind blown sediments such as large scale cross lamination (aeolianite) . The majority of palaeocurrent direction was to SE, on the other hand the dune migration was SE also. The sediments of Gargaresh Formation outcrops from Misurata to Tripoli NW Libya mostly allochthonous except the paleosols red-brown unit. Most of its fossils are thanatoconoses. Gargaresh Formation sediments shows that the original aragonite composition of pelecypoda and gastropods fragments are mostly preserved, but partly transformed into granular calcite as pendulous (meniscus) cement texture in response to meteoric fresh-water. Keywords: Sedimentology; Stratigraphic architecture; Aeolian origin; marine origin; Calcarenites; Late Pleistocene-Holocene

  9. Sedimentology and diagenesis of windward-facing fore-reef calcarenites, Late Pleistocene of Barbados, West Indies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, J.D.; Kimbell, T.N.

    1989-03-01

    Late Pleistocene reef terraces in southeastern Barbardos developed extensive fore-reef sand facies during deposition in response to high-energy windward-facing conditions. Sedimentology and diagenesis of these deposits illustrate significant contrasts with previous studies from the leeward west coast. These calcarenites are dominantly skeletal packstones with less common grainstones and wackestones present. The fore-reef sand facies occurs within progradational reef sequences, being conformably overlain by deep-water head coral facies. Medium-bedded, laterally continuous sand sheets retain original depositional slopes, dipping seaward at 10/degrees/-15/degrees/. These fore-reef deposits, in places, are over 30 m thick (average 20 m) and developed rapidly during late Pleistocene glacio-eustatic sea level highstands. Sedimentation rate ranges from 2 to 5 m/1000 years. Areal extent of fore-reef calcarenites in southeastern Barbados is estimated to be 8-10 km/sup 2/. Lithologically, the packstones are composed of an abundance of coralline red algae and the benthic foraminifer Amphistegina sp. Other volumetrically significant allochems include echinoids, mollusks, rhodoliths, peloids, and micritized grains. Micrite in the wackestone and packstone lithologies is likely derived from intense physical/mechanical abrasion of shoal-water reef facies. Diagenesis of these lithologies reflects a complex interplay of meteoric, mixing zone, and marine environments as a result of glacio-eustasy. Differences in diagenetic character are derived from differences in terrace ages, terrace geometry, a paleotopographic control on meteoric ground-water distribution, and high-energy coastal conditions. Diagenetic fabrics include equant, blocky meteoric phreatic calcite; limpid dolomite of mixing zone origin: and peloidal and isopachous fibrous cements from marine precipitation.

  10. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  11. Core Description and a Preliminarily Sedimentology Study of Site 1202D, Leg 195, in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ODP Site 1202 of Leg 195 was designed primarily for a high-resolution study of the paleoceanography of the Kuroshio Current in the southern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. Four holes were drilled in which Hole 1202D is described in detail in this study for an assessment of core quality for paleoceanography study and understanding of sedimentological features, especially turbidite sedimentation and the sediment provenances during the Late Quaternary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Pelagic mud with insignificant silt or sand layers is observed from the core top down to 133 m (mbsf; Marine Isotope Stages 1-3, but the silt-sand layer ratio (SLR: total thickness of silt and sand layers / 1.5 m of core increases gradually from a value of 50 % between 223 and 279 m, followed by decreases to values 250 _ Slate fragments are commonly found in fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals (160 - 280 m, while mica flakes can be observed in the muds throughout the core. The major detrital components were derived primarily from the Miocene slate belt of the pre-collision accretionary prism of the Central Range in northern Taiwan. The occurrence of volcanics could represent submarine volcanic activity in the active-opening Okinawa Trough back-arc basin off NE Taiwan. Shallow-marine fossils including benthic foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks are also found in the fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals. These fossil assemblages could have been deposited in the shallow shelf and then transported to the depositional site along with voluminous terrigenous materials derived from Taiwan, via submarine channels or by slope failures due to frequent earthquakes induced by plate convergence/collision and extension in the southwestern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. It is concluded that the top 133 m of the core is better suited for paleoceanographic reconstruction.

  12. Sedimentology, eruptive mechanism and facies architecture of basaltic scoria cones from the Auckland Volcanic Field (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly

    2016-09-01

    Scoria cones are a common type of basaltic to andesitic small-volume volcanoes (e.g. 10- 1-10- 5 km3) that results from gas-bubble driven explosive eruptive styles. Although they are small in volume, they can produce complex eruptions, involving multiple eruptive styles. Eight scoria cones from the Quaternary Auckland Volcanic Field in New Zealand were selected to define the eruptive style variability from their volcanic facies architecture. The reconstruction of their eruptive and pyroclastic transport mechanisms was established on the basis of study of their volcanic sedimentology, stratigraphy, and measurement of their pyroclast density, porosity, Scanning Electron Microscopy, 2D particle morphology analysis and Visible and Near Visible Infrared Spectroscopy. Collection of these data allowed defining three end-member types of scoria cones inferred to be constructed from lava-fountaining, transitional fountaining and Strombolian type, and explosive Strombolian type. Using the physical and field-based characteristics of scoriaceous samples a simple generalised facies model of basaltic scoria cones for the AVF is developed that can be extended to other scoria cones elsewhere. The typical AVF scoria cone has an initial phreatomagmatic phases that might reduce the volume of magma available for subsequent scoria cone forming eruptions. This inferred to have the main reason to have decreased cone volumes recognised from Auckland in comparison to other volcanic fields evolved dominantly in dry eruptive condition (e.g. no external water influence). It suggests that such subtle eruptive style variations through a scoria cone evolution need to be integrated into the hazard assessment of a potentially active volcanic field such as that in Auckland.

  13. Transition of microbiological and sedimentological features associated with the geochemical gradient in a travertine mound in northern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Chiya; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Okumura, Tomoyo; Takashima, Chizuru; Harijoko, Agung; Kano, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Modern travertines, carbonate deposits in Ca-rich hydrothermal water with high pCO2, often display a changing environment along the water path, with corresponding variability in the microbial communities. We investigated a travertine-bearing hot spring at the Blue Pool in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The thermal water of 62 °C with high H2S (200 μM) and pCO2 ( 1 atm) developed a travertine mound 70 m wide. The concentrations of the gas components H2S and CO2, decrease immediately after the water is discharged, while the dissolved oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation increase in the downstream direction. Responding to the geochemical gradient in the water, the surface biofilms change color from white to pink, light-green, dark-green, and brown as the water flows from the vent; this corresponds to microbial communities characterized by chemolithoautotrophs (Halothiobacillaceae), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae), Anaerolineaceae, and co-occurrence of green non-sulfur bacteria (Chloroflexales)-Cyanobacteria, and green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiales), respectively. In an environment with a certain level of H2S (> 1 μM), sulfur digestion and anoxygenic photosynthesis can be more profitable than oxygenic photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria. The precipitated carbonate mineral consists of aragonite and calcite, with the proportion of aragonite increasing downstream due to the larger Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratio in the water or the development of thicker biofilm. Where the biofilm is well developed, the aragonite travertines often exhibit laminated structures that were likely associated with the daily metabolism of these bacteria. The microbiological and sedimentological features at the Blue Pool may be the modern analogs of geomicrobiological products in the early Earth. Biofilm of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria had the potential to form ancient stromatolites that existed before the appearance of cyanobacteria.

  14. Crime scene investigation involving a large turbidite - a 1h-teaching unit in Limnogeology/Sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilli, Adrian; Kremer, Katrina

    2017-04-01

    In 1996, a dead corpse (named „Brienzi") was found at the banks of the picturesque Lake Brienz in the Bernese Alps/Switzerland. What is the origin of this corpse and which chain of events lead to this crime scene? This is the starting position for a 1h exercise/game for undergraduate students in Earth Sciences/Geosciences.The students are provided with a wealth of evidences like statements from people potentially involved in the case, age data on the human corpse and monitoring data from the lake and its surroundings. The students are guided through the game step by step. After solving a task, the students get a feedback and can check if they were correct with their interpretation. Interestingly for earth science students, a lacustrine mass moment plays an important role in these investigations, but more should not be given at this point. In this exercise, we can also check if the teached content of the previous lessons have been acquired correctly by the students, as it deals with diverse limnogeological and sedimentological aspects. The game is strongly based on a study of Girardclos et al. (2007) and uses their argumentation for the occurrence of a large mass movement in Lake Brienz in 1996. A copy of the game is available by the author upon request. Reference: Girardclos, S., Schmidt, O.T., Sturm, M., Ariztegui, D., Pugin, A. and Anselmetti, F.S., 2007, The 1996 AD delta collapse and large turbidite in Lake Brienz. Marine Geology, 241, pp.137-154. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2007.03.011

  15. Geochemistry and Sedimentology of Jhill Limestone of Gaj Formation,in Cape Monze and Adjoining Area,Karachi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAHINNASEEM; M.QADEERUDDIN; 等

    1996-01-01

    Among several lithostratigraphic subdivisions of the Gaj Formation of Miocene age,the Jhill limestone is entirely different with respect to its colour,texture and structures.This limestone unit has been evaluated to elaborate its geochemical and sedimentological characteristics.The distribution of various elements in the acid-soluble fraction has been studied in order to determine their mineralogy,sedimentary environment,facies and diagenesis.Mineralogy,recrystallization and other diagenetic changes are the main factors affecting the distribution of trace elements and their mutual relationships in the limestones.Samples of the Jhill limestone show depletion in large-sized ions(Sr,Pb & K)and also in the ions that are not compatible with calcite space group.Elements(Fe,Mn,Zn,Cu & Co) having distribution coefficient(D)above unity for natural calcites,are more enriched.Microscopic and X-ray studies revealed nearly complete conversion of aragonite into stable low-Mg calcite. An attempt has also been made to verify the reefal conditions for theese limestones on the basis of geochemical studies.The plots of Sr and oter facies-indicator elements show that the majorits of the beds belong to forereef flank facies with some algal baks.Low Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios suggest that a phreatic diagenetic environment prevailed after the deposition.High concentrations of Cr,Ni,and Co in the Jhill limestone show a positive correlation with a higher amount of insoluble residue,which reflects a relatively high rate of influx of terrigenous material.

  16. Integrated Sedimentological Approach to Assess Reservoir Quality and Architecture of Khuff Carbonates: Outcrop Analog, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mutsim; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    The Permian to Triassic Khuff carbonate reservoirs (and equivalents) in the Middle East are estimated to contain about 38.4% of the world's natural gas reserves. Excellent exposed outcrops in central Saudi Arabia provide good outcrop equivalents to subsurface Khuff reservoirs. This study conduct high resolution outcrop scale investigations on an analog reservoir for upper Khartam of Khuff Formation. The main objective is to reconstruct litho- and chemo- stratigraphic outcrop analog model that may serve to characterize reservoir high resolution (interwell) heterogeneity, continuity and architecture. Given the fact of the limitation of subsurface data and toolsin capturing interwell reservoir heterogeneity, which in turn increases the value of this study.The methods applied integrate sedimentological, stratigraphic petrographic, petrophysical data and chemical analyses for major, trace and rare earth elements. In addition, laser scanning survey (LIDAR) was also utilized in this study. The results of the stratigraphic investigations revealed that the lithofacies range from mudstone, wackestone, packestone and grainstone. These lithofacies represent environments ranging from supratidal, intertidal, subtidal and shoal complex. Several meter-scale and less high resolution sequences and composite sequences within 4th and 5th order cycles were also recognized in the outcrop analog. The lithofacies and architectural analysis revealed several vertically and laterally stacked sequences at the outcrop as revealed from the stratigraphic sections and the lidar scan. Chemostratigraphy is effective in identifying lithofacies and sequences within the outcrop analog. Moreover, different chemical signatures were also recognized and allowed establishing and correlating high resolution lithofacies, reservoir zones, layers and surfaces bounding reservoirs and non-reservoir zones at scale of meters or less. The results of this high resolution outcrop analog study might help to understand

  17. Geomorphological and sedimentological characteristics of cyclone-generated landforms and washover deposits along the coasts of NW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Pint, Anna; Kelletat, Dieter; Scheffers, Anja; Squire, Peter

    2013-04-01

    (tsunamis, cyclone landfalls) of W Australia. Main challenges include dating (14C, OSL) and distinguishing between event and non-event processes, and between event types, based on sedimentology, microfauna, and shell taphonomy.

  18. Terrestrial research in Mars analogue environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, G.

    Fatty acids (FA) content was measured by GC-MS SIM technique in Sulfide ores of present day (Mid-Atlantic Ridge and others) and ancient (Ural Paleocene, Russia) black smokers; Early Proterozoic kerites of Volyn; Siberian, Canadian and Antarctic permafrosts and also in rocks of East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement. Analysis was shown presence those and only those fatty acids which are specific to microorganisms. FA with 12 up 19 of carbon atoms are thought to be a bacterial biomass sign. 3-Hydroxy fatty acids also found in samples and are strong specific markers of gram-negative bacteria. Cultivation yield living bacteria in some cases. The East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement rocks opened by Vorotilov Deep Well (VDW) drilled through Puchezh-Katunski impact structure were studied within depths 2575 - 2805 m. 34 microbial lipid markers were detected by GC-MS and 22 species were identified. Bacteria of g. Bacillus reached 6,8 % in subsurface communities. However, members of gg. Clostridium (37,1 - 33,2 %) and Rhodococcus (27,6 - 33,7 %) were absolute dominants within studied depth interval. Some lipid patterns of kerite samples could be assessed to definite genera or, in special cases, to species of contemporary microorganisms. For instance, 2-hydroxylauric acid is specific to Pseudomonas putida group or Acinetobacter spp., and hydroxymyristic together with hydroxypalmitic are specific to P.cepacea and cyanobacteria. 3-hydroxystearic acid was known as component of Acetobacter diazothrophycus and Gloebacter violaceous cyanobacterium. 10-hydroxystearic acid associated with Nocardia spp., which oxidizes oleic acid in organic substrates. 10-methylhexadecanoic (10Me16) acid together with 10Me14, 10Me15 and 10Me17 analogues are markers of actinomycetes. Significant part of Black Smokers organic matter is probably biogenic. Fatty acid features strongly assigns it to bacterial, microeucariotic and planta cells. Par example 3-hydroxy acids are

  19. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-05-01

    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  20. Dihydrobenzofuran analogues of hallucinogens. 4. Mescaline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, A P; Waldman, S R; Marona-Lewicka, D; Wainscott, D B; Nelson, D L; Sanders-Bush, E; Nichols, D E

    1997-09-12

    hallucinogens, that such compounds must be full agonists at the 5-HT2A receptor subtype. In contrast to the 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines, where rigidification of the methoxy groups had no deleterious effect on activity, the loss of activity in the 3,4,5-trioxygenated mescaline analogues may suggest that the 3 and 5 methoxy groups must remain conformationally mobile to enable receptor activation.

  1. Incorporation of tryptophan analogues into the lantibiotic nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Shao, Jinfeng; Li, Qian; van Heel, Auke J; de Vries, Marcel P; Broos, Jaap; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-05-01

    Lantibiotics are posttranslationally modified peptides with efficient inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the original modifications, incorporation of non-canonical amino acids can render new properties and functions to lantibiotics. Nisin is the most studied lantibiotic and contains no tryptophan residues. In this study, a system was constructed to incorporate tryptophan analogues into nisin, which included the modification machinery (NisBTC) and the overexpression of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS). Tryptophan and three different tryptophan analogues (5-fluoroTrp (5FW), 5-hydroxyTrp (5HW) and 5-methylTrp (5MeW)) were successfully incorporated at four different positions of nisin (I1W, I4W, M17W and V32W). The incorporation efficiency of tryptophan analogues into mutants I1W, M17W and V32W was over 97 %, while the mutant I4W showed relatively low incorporation efficiency (69-93 %). The variants with 5FW showed relatively higher production yield, while 5MeW-containing variants showed the lowest yield. The dehydration efficiency of serines or threonines was affected by the tryptophan mutants of I4W and V32W. The affinity of the peptides for the cation-ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography columns was significantly reduced when 5HW was incorporated. The antimicrobial activity of IIW and its 5FW analogue both decreased two times compared to that of nisin, while that of its 5HW analogue decreased four times. The 5FW analogue of I4W also showed two times decreased activity than nisin. However, the mutant M17W and its 5HW analogue both showed 32 times reduced activity relative to that of nisin.

  2. Insulin analogues and cancer: a note of caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A.M.J.L. eJanssen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In view of the lifelong exposure and large patient populations involved, insulin analogues with an increased mitogenic effect in comparison to human insulin may potentially constitute a major health problem, since these analogues may possibly induce the growth of pre-existing neoplasms. At present, the available data suggest that insulin analogues are safe. In line with these findings, we observed that serum of diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues, compared to that of diabetic patients treated with human insulin, did not induce an increased phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR. However, the classical model of the IGF-IR signaling may be insufficient to explain (all mitogenic effects of insulin analogues since also non-canonical signaling pathways of the IGF-IR may play a major role in this respect. Although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the IGF-IR is generally considered to be the initial activation step within the intracellular IGF-IR signaling pathway, it has been found that cells undergo a signaling switch under hyperglycemic conditions. After this switch, a completely different mechanism is utilized to activate the mitogenic (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways of the IGF-IR that is independent from tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-IR. At present it is unknown whether activation of this alternative intracellular pathway of the IGF-IR occurs during hyperglycemia in vivo and whether it is stronger in patients treated with (some insulin analogues than in patients treated with human insulin. In addition, it is unknown whether the insulin receptors (IRs also undergo a signaling switch during hyperglycemia. This should be investigated in future studies. Finally, relative overexpression of IR isoform A (IR-A in (pre cancer tissues may play a key role in the development and progression of human cancers during treatment with insulin (analogues. Further

  3. Information Geometry and Chaos on Negatively Curved Statistical Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    A novel information-geometric approach to chaotic dynamics on curved statistical manifolds based on Entropic Dynamics (ED) is suggested. Furthermore, an information-geometric analogue of the Zurek-Paz quantum chaos criterion is proposed. It is shown that the hyperbolicity of a non-maximally symmetric 6N-dimensional statistical manifold M_{s} underlying an ED Gaussian model describing an arbitrary system of 3N non-interacting degrees of freedom leads to linear information-geometric entropy growth and to exponential divergence of the Jacobi vector field intensity, quantum and classical features of chaos respectively.

  4. MARKOV GRAPHS OF ONE–DIMENSIONAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR DISCRETE ANALOGUES AND THEIR DISCRETE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIY KOZERENKO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One feature of the famous Sharkovsky’s theorem is that it can be proved using digraphs of a special type (the so–called Markov graphs. The most general definition assigns a Markov graph to every continuous map from the topological graph to itself. We show that this definition is too broad, i.e. every finite digraph can be viewed as a Markov graph of some one–dimensional dynamical system on a tree. We therefore consider discrete analogues of Markov graphs for vertex maps on combinatorial trees and characterize all maps on trees whose discrete Markov graphs are of the following types: complete, complete bipartite, the disjoint union of cycles, with every arc being a loop.

  5. Industrial statistics with Minitab

    CERN Document Server

    Cintas, Pere Grima; Llabres, Xavier Tort-Martorell

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Statistics with MINITAB demonstrates the use of MINITAB as a tool for performing statistical analysis in an industrial context. This book covers introductory industrial statistics, exploring the most commonly used techniques alongside those that serve to give an overview of more complex issues. A plethora of examples in MINITAB are featured along with case studies for each of the statistical techniques presented. Industrial Statistics with MINITAB: Provides comprehensive coverage of user-friendly practical guidance to the essential statistical methods applied in industry.Explores

  6. Statistics For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The fun and easy way to get down to business with statistics Stymied by statistics? No fear ? this friendly guide offers clear, practical explanations of statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, with lots of examples that show you how these concepts apply to your everyday life. Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more.Tracks to a typical first semester statistics cou

  7. Engineering of insulin receptor isoform-selective insulin analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Glendorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insulin receptor (IR exists in two isoforms, A and B, and the isoform expression pattern is tissue-specific. The C-terminus of the insulin B chain is important for receptor binding and has been shown to contact the IR just adjacent to the region where the A and B isoforms differ. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the C-terminus of the B chain in IR isoform binding in order to explore the possibility of engineering tissue-specific/liver-specific insulin analogues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insulin analogue libraries were constructed by total amino acid scanning mutagenesis. The relative binding affinities for the A and B isoform of the IR were determined by competition assays using scintillation proximity assay technology. Structural information was obtained by X-ray crystallography. Introduction of B25A or B25N mutations resulted in analogues with a 2-fold preference for the B compared to the A isoform, whereas the opposite was observed with a B25Y substitution. An acidic amino acid residue at position B27 caused an additional 2-fold selective increase in affinity for the receptor B isoform for analogues bearing a B25N mutation. Furthermore, the combination of B25H with either B27D or B27E also resulted in B isoform-preferential analogues (2-fold preference even though the corresponding single mutation analogues displayed no differences in relative isoform binding affinity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have discovered a new class of IR isoform-selective insulin analogues with 2-4-fold differences in relative binding affinities for either the A or the B isoform of the IR compared to human insulin. Our results demonstrate that a mutation at position B25 alone or in combination with a mutation at position B27 in the insulin molecule confers IR isoform selectivity. Isoform-preferential analogues may provide new opportunities for developing insulin analogues with improved clinical benefits.

  8. Central effects of angiotensin II, its fragment and analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, V P; Klousha, V E; Petkov, V D; Markovska, V L; Svirskis, S V; Mountsinietse, R K; Anouans, Z E

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the octapeptide angiotensin II (AT II), its fragment Ile8 AT3-8 and the analogues Sar1 Ala8 AT II, Ala8 AT II and Ile8 AT II were studied with respect to: the level of biogenic amines (DA, 5-HT and their metabolites HVA and 5-HIAA) in the forebrain; the behaviour of the animals--haloperidol catalepsy, apomorphine stereotypy, unconditioned jumping reaction (UJR), convulsive threshold. Good correlation was found between the biochemical and behavioural effects. The fragment of AT II where phenylalanine is substituted at the C-terminal by Ile reduces the haloperidol-increased content of HVA, potentiates apomorphine stereotypy and reduces catalepsy, whereas the AT II analogues (where the C-terminal phenylalanine is substituted by Ala, and the N-terminal--by Sar) potentiate the effect of haloperidol increasing the HVA content, reduce apomorphine stereotypy and potentiate catalepsy; saralasine independently applied induces brief catalepsy; AT II, its fragment and analogues inhibit UJR, in combination with amphetamine and PTZ this effect becomes deeper; the duration of hexobarbital sleep is increased. The peptides investigated increase the convulsive threshold. The results show that the hexapeptide fragment has preserved the effects of AT II, whereas in the analogues (with changed C- and N-terminals) they are changed. The results obtained may be explained with the modulating influence of AT II-receptors on the DA-ergic receptors in the brain structures with which AT II and its fragment and analogues enter in contact.

  9. Relationship between radionuclides and sedimentological variables in the South Atlantic Continental Margin; Relacoes entre radionuclideos e variaveis sedimentologicas na Margem Continental do Atlantico Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo A.L.; Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: paulo.alves.ferreira@usp.br, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    There is a lack of information regarding marine radioactivity in sediments of the Continental Margin of the South Atlantic. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K radioactivity and sedimentological variables were determined in superficial sediment samples. It was demonstrated that {sup 40}K is a good indicator for sediment granulometry, whilst {sup 137}Cs presents a good correlation with its chemical composition. Moreover, it was identified through the radiometric data the occurrence of input of allochtonous matter to the Brazilian southernmost compartment from the Rio de La Plata estuary, as previously reported in the literature. (author)

  10. Rapid on-site detection of ephedrine and its analogues used as adulterants in slimming dietary supplements by TLC-SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Diya; Cao, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Li, Shujin; Chen, Xiaofei; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Ephedrine and its analogues are in the list of prohibited substance in adulteration to botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for their uncontrollable stimulating side effects. However, they were always adulterated illegally in BDS to promote losing weight. In order to avoid detection, various kinds of ephedrine analogues were added rather than ephedrine itself. This has brought about great difficulties in authentication of BDS. In this study, we put forward for the first time a method which combined thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to directly identify trace adulterant. Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and norephedrine were mixed and used in this method to develop an analytical model. As a result, the four analogues were separated efficiently in TLC analysis, and trace-components and low-background SERS detection was realized. The limit of detection (LOD) of the four analogues was 0.01 mg/mL. Eight common Raman peaks (△υ = 620, 1003, 1030, 1159, 1181, 1205, 1454, 1603 cm(-1)) were extracted experimentally and statistically to characterize the common feature of ephedrine analogues. A TLC-SERS method coupled with common-peak model was adopted to examine nine practical samples, two of which were found to be adulterated with ephedrine analogues. Identification results were then confirmed by UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis. The proposed method was simple, rapid, and accurate and can also be employed to trace adulterant identification even when there are no available reference derivatives on-site or unknown types of ephedrine analogues are adulterated.

  11. Analogues of the Frog-skin Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin 1Tb Exhibit a Wider Spectrum of Activity and a Stronger Antibiofilm Potential as Compared to the Parental Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lucia; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Maccari, Giuseppe; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogues against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogues, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analogue designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies. Both TB analogues displayed a faster and stronger bactericidal activity than the parental peptide, especially against Gram-negative bacteria in planktonic form. Differently from the parental peptide, TB_KKG6A and TB_L1FK were able to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by more than 50% at 12 μM, while only TB_KKG6A prevented the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at 24 μM. A marked antibiofilm activity against preformed biofilms of both bacterial species was observed for the two TB analogues when used in combination with EDTA. Analysis of synergism at the cellular level suggested that the antibiofilm activity exerted by the peptide-EDTA combinations against mature biofilms might be due mainly to a disaggregating effect on the extracellular matrix in the case of S. aureus, and to a direct activity on biofilm-embedded cells in the case of P. aeruginosa. Both analogues displayed a low hemolytic effect at the active concentrations and, overall, TB_L1FK resulted less cytotoxic towards mammalian cells. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrated that subtle changes in the primary sequence of TB may provide TB analogues that, used alone or in combination with adjuvant molecules such as EDTA, exhibit promising features against both planktonic and biofilm cells of medically relevant

  12. CMS Program Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics has developed CMS Program Statistics, which includes detailed summary statistics on national health care, Medicare...

  13. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  14. Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Students' Pages Errata Other Statistical Sites Subjects Inflation & Prices » Consumer Price Index Producer Price Indexes Import/Export Price ... Choose a Subject Employment and Unemployment Employment Unemployment Inflation, Prices, and ... price indexes Consumer spending Industry price indexes Pay ...

  15. Recreational Boating Statistics 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...

  16. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

  17. Mathematical and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, A. Glen

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

  18. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

  19. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the United States are diagnosed with Merkel cell skin cancer each year. Almost all people diagnosed with the ...

  20. Experiment in Elementary Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, P. C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate laboratory exercise in elementary statistics in which students verify empirically the various aspects of the Gaussian distribution. Sampling techniques and other commonly used statistical procedures are introduced. (CP)

  1. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full list of resources ​​. Overweight and Obesity Statistics Page Content About Overweight and Obesity Prevalence of ... adults age 20 and older [ Top ] Physical Activity Statistics Adults Research Findings Research suggests that staying active ...

  2. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  3. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first ... fact sheet provides up-to-date data and statistics on youth violence. Data Sources Indicators of School ...

  4. Recreational Boating Statistics 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...

  5. Eugenol and its synthetic analogues inhibit cell growth of human cancer cells (Part I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco A, H.; Cardona, W. [Universidad Andres Bello, Vina del Mar (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Quimicas]. E-mail: hcarrasco@unab.cl; Espinoza C, L.; Gallardo, C.; Catalan M, K. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Dept. de Quimica; Cardile, V.; Lombardo, L. [University of Catania (Italy). Dept. of Physiological Sciences; Cuellar F, M. [Universidad de Valparaiso (Chile). Facultad de Farmacia; Russo, A. [University of Catania (Italy). Dept. of Biological Chemistry, Medical Chemistry and Molecular Biology

    2008-07-01

    Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) (1) has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties. In an attempt to enhance intrinsic activity of this natural compound, some derivatives were synthesized. Eugenol was extracted from cloves oil and further, the eugenol analogues (2-6) were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Eugenol (1) and its analogues (2-6) were examined by in vitro model of cancer using two human cancer cell lines: DU-145 (androgeninsensitive prostate cancer cells) and KB (oral squamous carcinoma cells). Cell viability, by tetrazolium salts assay, was measured. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release was also investigated to evaluate the presence of cell toxicity as a result of cell disruption, subsequent to membrane rupture. In the examined cancer cells, all compounds showed cell-growth inhibition activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds 5-allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol (3) and 4-allyl- 2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate (5) were significantly (p < 0,001) more active than eugenol, with IC{sub 50} values in DU-145 cells of 19.02 x 10{sup -6} and 21.5 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, respectively, and in KB cells of 18.11 x 10{sup -6} and 21.26 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, respectively, suggesting that the presence of nitro and hydroxyl groups could be important in the activity of these compounds. In addition, our results seem to indicate that apoptotic cell demise appears to be induced in KB and DU-145 cells. In fact, in our experimental conditions, no statistically significant increase in LDH release was observed in cancer cells treated with eugenol and its analogues. (author)

  6. The use of meteorological analogues to account for LAM QPF uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Diomede

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood predictions based on quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs provided by deterministic models do not account for the uncertainty in the outcomes. A probabilistic approach to QPF, one which accounts for the variability of phenomena and the uncertainty associated with a hydrological forecast, seems to be indispensable to obtain different future flow scenarios for improved flood management. A new approach based on a search for analogues, that is past situations similar to the current one under investigation in terms of different meteorological fields over Western Europe and East Atlantic, has been developed to determine an ensemble of hourly quantitative precipitation forecasts for the Reno river basin, a medium-sized catchment in northern Italy. A statistical analysis, performed over a hydro-meteorological archive of ECMWF analyses at 12:00 UTC relative to the autumn seasons ranging from 1990 to 2000 and the corresponding precipitation measurements recorded by the raingauges spread over the catchment of interest, has underlined that the combination of geopotential at 500 hPa and vertical velocity at 700 hPa provides a better estimation of precipitation. The analogue-based ensemble prediction has to be considered not alternative but complementary to the deterministic QPF provided by a numerical model, even when employed jointly to improve real-time flood forecasting. In the present study, the analogue-based QPFs and the precipitation forecast provided by the Limited Area Model LAMBO have been used as different input to the distributed rainfall-runoff model TOPKAPI, thus generating, respectively, an ensemble of discharge forecasts, which provides a confidence interval for the predicted streamflow, and a deterministic discharge forecast taken as an error-affected "measurement" of the future flow, which does not convey any quantification of the forecast uncertainty. To make more informative the hydrological prediction, the ensemble spread

  7. Software for Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzer Pebesma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We give an overview of the papers published in this special issue on spatial statistics, of the Journal of Statistical Software. 21 papers address issues covering visualization (micromaps, links to Google Maps or Google Earth, point pattern analysis, geostatistics, analysis of areal aggregated or lattice data, spatio-temporal statistics, Bayesian spatial statistics, and Laplace approximations. We also point to earlier publications in this journal on the same topic.

  8. Software for Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Edzer Pebesma; Roger Bivand; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    We give an overview of the papers published in this special issue on spatial statistics, of the Journal of Statistical Software. 21 papers address issues covering visualization (micromaps, links to Google Maps or Google Earth), point pattern analysis, geostatistics, analysis of areal aggregated or lattice data, spatio-temporal statistics, Bayesian spatial statistics, and Laplace approximations. We also point to earlier publications in this journal on the same topic.

  9. Ethics in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  10. Controlled analogue experiments on propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qinghua

    2005-01-01

    This study presented a method of laboratory analogue experiments based on a geographical scaling model and a waveguide model to investigate the characteristics of the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals in the crust and the atmosphere. Some controlled experiments were done to evaluate the possible influence on the experimental results from the background electromagnetic field, geographical conditions, boundary effects, the source of electromagnetic signals (position, magnitude, and frequency), and media conductivity. The reliability and the extensibility of the above analogue experimental method were also investigated. This study indicated that such kind of analogue experimental method provided an intuitionistic way of studying the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals, which is one of the most difficult research topics in seismo-electro- magnetism.

  11. Conception, synthesis, and biological evaluation of original discodermolide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Elsa; Agouridas, Evangelos; Sorin, Geoffroy; Guerreiro, Antonio; Commerçon, Alain; Pancrazi, Ange; Betzer, Jean-François; Lannou, Marie-Isabelle; Ardisson, Janick

    2011-08-29

    Due to its intriguing biological activity profile and potential chemotherapeutic application discodermolide (DDM) proved to be an attractive target. Therefore, notable efforts have been carried out directed toward its total synthesis and toward the production and evaluation of synthetic analogues. Recently, we achieved the total synthesis of DDM. At the present, guided by the knowledge gained during our DDM total synthesis and by the requirement of keeping the bioactive "U" shape conformation, we report the convergent preparation of five original analogues. Three types of changes were realized through modification of the terminal (Z)-diene moiety, of the methyl group at the C14-position, and the lactone region. All analogues were active in the nanomolar range and two of them turned out to be equipotent to DDM.

  12. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of semisynthetic zearalenone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadpetch, Kwanruthai; Kaewmee, Benyapa; Chantakaew, Kittisak; Kantee, Kawalee; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak

    2016-08-01

    Zearalenone is a β-resorcylic acid macrolide with various biological activities. Herein we report the synthesis and cytotoxic activities of 34 zearalenone analogues against human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells as well as noncancerous Vero cells. Some zearalenone analogues showed moderately enhanced cytotoxic activities against the two cancer cell lines. We have discovered the potential lead compounds with diminished or no cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the double bond at the 1' and 2' positions of zearalenone core was crucial for cytotoxic activities on both cell lines. In addition, for zearalenol analogues, the unprotected hydroxyl group at C-2 and an alkoxy substituent at C-4 played key roles on cytotoxic effects of both cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New (-)-Englerin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, Laura; Riesgo, Lorena; Bravo, Fernando; Ransom, Tanya T; Beutler, John A; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of (-)-englerin A analogues obtained along our previously reported synthetic route based on a stereoselective gold(I) cycloaddition process. This synthetic route is a convenient platform to access analogues with broad structural diversity and has led us to the discovery of unprecedented and easier-to-synthesize derivatives with an unsaturation in the cyclopentyl ring between C4 and C5. We also introduce novel analogues in which the original isopropyl motif has been substituted with cyclohexyl, phenyl, and cyclopropyl moieties. The high selectivity and growth-inhibitory activity shown by these new derivatives in renal cancer cell lines opens new ways toward the final goal of finding effective drugs for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

  14. Analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of human acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Susanne; Mead, Andrew; Malinovskis, Aleksandrs; Hardwick, Nicola R; Guinn, Barbara-Ann

    2015-11-01

    The use of peptide vaccines, enhanced by adjuvants, has shown some efficacy in clinical trials. However, responses are often short-lived and rarely induce notable memory responses. The reason is that self-antigens have already been presented to the immune system as the tumor develops, leading to tolerance or some degree of host tumor cell destruction. To try to break tolerance against self-antigens, one of the methods employed has been to modify peptides at the anchor residues to enhance their ability to bind major histocompatibility complex molecules, extending their exposure to the T-cell receptor. These modified or analogue peptides have been investigated as stimulators of the immune system in patients with different cancers with variable but sometimes notable success. In this review we describe the background and recent developments in the use of analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia describing knowledge useful for the application of analogue peptide treatments for other malignancies.

  15. New rubrolide analogues as inhibitors of photosynthesis light reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varejão, Jodieh O S; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Ramos, Gabriela Álvarez; Varejão, Eduardo V V; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2015-04-01

    Natural products called rubrolides have been investigated as a model for the development of new herbicides that act on the photosynthesis apparatus. This study comprises a comprehensive analysis of the photosynthesis inhibitory ability of 27 new structurally diverse rubrolide analogues. In general, the results revealed that the compounds exhibited efficient inhibition of the photosynthetic process, but in some cases low water solubility may be a limiting factor. To elucidate their mode of action, the effects of the compounds on PSII and PSI, as well as their partial reaction on chloroplasts and the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were measured. Our results showed that some of the most active rubrolide analogues act as a Hill reaction inhibitors at the QB level by interacting with the D1 protein at the reducing side of PSII. All of the active analogues follow Tice's rule of 5, which indicates that these compounds present physicochemical properties suitable for herbicides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel curcumin analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Zhang; Yao Fu; Hao Wei Wang; Tao Gong; Yong Qin; Zhi Rong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Five novel curcumin analogues bearing different substituents at 4-position of phenyl group were synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by NMR and HRMS spectrum. Their cytotoxic activities against six tumor cell lines were tested by the standard MTT assay in vitro. The results indicated that four analogues (1A-1C, 1E) with solubilizing moieties showed selective potent cytotoxicity against HepG2, HeLa and CT26 cell lines, and analogue 1A and 1C exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than curcumin against CT26 cell line. It was suggested that introduction of appropriate substituents to 4-position of phenyl group might be a potential option for structural modification of curcumin.

  17. The Immucillins: Design, Synthesis and Application of Transition- State Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary B; Schramm, Vern L; Tyler, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Transition-state analysis based on kinetic isotope effects and computational chemistry provides electrostatic potential maps to serve as blueprints for the design and chemical synthesis of transition-state analogues. The utility of these molecules is exemplified by potential clinical applications toward leukemia, autoimmune disorders, gout, solid tumors, bacterial quorum sensing and bacterial antibiotics. In some cases, transition-state analogues have chemical features that have allowed them to be repurposed for new indications, including potential antiviral use. Three compounds from this family have entered clinical trials. The transition-state analogues bind to their target proteins with high affinity and specificity. The physical and structural properties of binding teach valuable and often surprising lessons about the nature of tight-binding inhibitors.

  18. Ensemble meteorological reconstruction using circulation analogues of 1781–1785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a method of atmospheric flow analogues to reconstruct an ensemble of atmospheric variables (namely sea-level pressure, surface temperature and wind speed between 1781 and 1785. The properties of this ensemble are investigated and tested against observations of temperature. The goal of the paper is to assess whether the atmospheric circulation during the Laki volcanic eruption (in 1783 and the subsequent winter were similar to the conditions that prevailed in the winter 2009/2010 and during spring 2010. We find that the three months following the Laki eruption in June 1783 barely have analogues in 2010. The cold winter of 1783/1784 yields circulation analogues in 2009/2010. Our analysis suggests that it is unlikely that the Laki eruption was responsible for the cold winter of 1783/1784, of the relatively short memory of the atmospheric circulation.

  19. Gold Nanoparticles Decorated with Mannose-6-phosphate Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Combemale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the preparation of neoglycoconjugates bearing mannose-6-phosphate analogues is described by: (a synthesis of a cyclic sulfate precursor to access the carbohydrate head-group by nucleophilic displacement with an appropriate nucleophile; (b introduction of spacers on the mannose-6-phosphate analogues via Huisgen’s cycloaddition, the Julia reaction, or the thiol-ene reaction under ultrasound activation. With the resulting compounds in hand, gold nanoparticles could be functionalized with various carbohydrate derivatives (glycoconjugates and then tested for angiogenic activity. It was observed that the length and flexibility of the spacer separating the sugar analogue from the nanoparticle have little influence on the biological response. One particular nanoparticle system substantially inhibits blood vessel growth in contrast to activation by the corresponding monomeric glycoconjugate, thereby demonstrating the importance of multivalency in angiogenic activity.

  20. Largazole Analogues Embodying Radical Changes in the Depsipeptide Ring: Development of a More Selective and Highly Potent Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaliti, Jehad; Al-Hamashi, Ayad A; Negmeldin, Ahmed T; Hanigan, Christin L; Perera, Lalith; Pflum, Mary Kay H; Casero, Robert A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga

    2016-12-08

    A number of analogues of the marine-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor largazole incorporating major structural changes in the depsipeptide ring were synthesized. Replacing the thiazole-thiazoline fragment of largazole with a bipyridine group gave analogue 7 with potent cell growth inhibitory activity and an activity profile similar to that of largazole, suggesting that conformational change accompanying switching hybridization from sp(3) to sp(2) at C-7 is well tolerated. Analogue 7 was more class I selective compared to largazole, with at least 464-fold selectivity for class I HDAC proteins over class II HDAC6 compared to a 22-fold selectivity observed with largazole. To our knowledge 7 represents the first example of a potent and highly cytotoxic largazole analogue not containing a thiazoline ring. The elimination of a chiral center derived from the unnatural amino acid R-α-methylcysteine makes the molecule more amenable to chemical synthesis, and coupled with its increased class I selectivity, 7 could serve as a new lead compound for developing selective largazole analogues.

  1. Selling statistics[Statistics in scientific progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridle, S. [Astrophysics Group, University College London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sarah@star.ucl.ac.uk

    2006-09-15

    From Cosmos to Chaos- Peter Coles, 2006, Oxford University Press, 224pp. To confirm or refute a scientific theory you have to make a measurement. Unfortunately, however, measurements are never perfect: the rest is statistics. Indeed, statistics is at the very heart of scientific progress, but it is often poorly taught and badly received; for many, the very word conjures up half-remembered nightmares of 'null hypotheses' and 'student's t-tests'. From Cosmos to Chaos by Peter Coles, a cosmologist at Nottingham University, is an approachable antidote that places statistics in a range of catchy contexts. Using this book you will be able to calculate the probabilities in a game of bridge or in a legal trial based on DNA fingerprinting, impress friends by talking confidently about entropy, and stretch your mind thinking about quantum mechanics. (U.K.)

  2. Coral Patch seamount (NE Atlantic – a sedimentological and megafaunal reconnaissance based on video and hydroacoustic surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wienberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides new knowledge about the so far largely unexplored Coral Patch seamount which is located in the NE Atlantic Ocean half-way between the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira. For the first time a detailed hydroacoustic mapping (MBES in conjunction with video surveys (ROV, camera sled were performed to describe the sedimentological and biological characteristics of this sub-elliptical ENE-WSW elongated seamount. Video observations were restricted to the southwestern summit area of Coral Patch seamount (water depth: 560–760 m and revealed that this part of the summit is dominated by exposed hard substrate, whereas soft sediment is just a minor substrate component. Although exposed hardgrounds are dominant for this summit area and, thus, offer suitable habitat for settlement by benthic organisms, the benthic megafauna shows rather scarce occurrence. In particular, scleractinian framework-building cold-water corals are apparently rare with very few isolated and small-sized live occurrences of the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. In contrast, dead coral framework and coral rubble are more frequent pointing to a higher abundance of cold-water corals on Coral Patch during the recent past. This is even supported by the observation of fishing lines that got entangled with rather fresh-looking coral frameworks. Overall, long lines and various species of commercially important fish were frequently observed emphasising the potential of Coral Patch as an important target for fisheries that may have impacted the entire benthic community. Hydroacoustic seabed classification covered the entire summit of Coral Patch and its northern and southern flanks (water depth: 560–2660 m and revealed extended areas dominated by mixed and soft sediments at the northern flank and to a minor degree at its easternmost summit and southern flank. Nevertheless, these data also predict most of the summit area to be dominated by exposed bedrock

  3. Coral Patch seamount (NE Atlantic – a sedimentological and macrofaunal reconnaissance based on video and hydroacoustic surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wienberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides new knowledge about the so far largely unexplored Coral Patch seamount which is located in the NE Atlantic Ocean half-way between the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira. For the first time a detailed hydroacoustic mapping (MBES in conjunction with video surveys (ROV, camera sled were performed to describe the sedimentological and biological characteristics of this sub-elliptical ENE-WSW elongated seamount. Video observations were restricted to the south-western summit area of Coral Patch seamount (area: ~ 8 km2, water depth: 560–760 m and revealed that this part of the summit is dominated by exposed hard substrate, whereas soft sediment is just a minor substrate component. Although exposed hardgrounds are dominant for this summit area, and thus, offer suitable habitat for settlement by benthic organisms, the macrofauna shows rather low abundance and diversity. In particular, scleractinian framework-building cold-water corals are apparently rare with very few isolated and small-sized live occurrences of the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. In contrast, dead coral framework and coral rubble are more frequent pointing to a higher abundance of cold-water corals on Coral Patch during the recent past. This is even supported by the observation of fishing lines that got entangled with rather fresh-looking coral frameworks. Overall, long lines and various species of commercially important fish were frequently observed emphasising the potential of Coral Patch as an important target for fisheries that may have impacted the entire benthic community. Hydroacoustic seabed classification covered the entire summit of Coral Patch and its northern and southern flanks (area: 560 km2; water depth: 560–2660 m and revealed extended areas dominated by mixed and soft sediments at the northern flank and to a minor degree at its easternmost summit and southern flank. Nevertheless, also these

  4. Sedimentological evidence for a deforming bed in a late Pleistocene glacial sequence from ANDRILL AND-1B, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, E. A.; Powell, R. D.

    2009-12-01

    A 1,284.87m-long sediment core (AND-1B) was drilled from beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf sector of the Ross Ice Shelf as part of the Antarctic geological drilling program, ANDRILL. Snapshots of diamictite depositional processes and paleoenvironmental conditions have been interpreted from a nested set of samples collected at overlapping scales of observation. Data used for detailed sedimentological analyses include cm-scale core logging based on x-radiographs of the archive halves in addition to the original core description, bulk samples, and oriented 45 x 70mm thin sections of diamictites for micromorphology analysis. The 5.8m-thick interval studied contains a complete glacial advance-retreat sequence that is bracketed by glacial surfaces of erosion (GSE) at 41.9 and 47.7mbsf recording glacial advance over the core site. 4.6m of subglacial till is deposited above the lower GSE represented by a sequence of thin muddy conglomerate with diverse pebble lithologies, massive clast-rich muddy diamicite, and stratified diamictite with clast-rich and clast-free beds. The sand size fraction of bulk samples and thin sections from the till are dominated by aggregate grains, termed till pellets following terminology used by sedimentologists in the Ross Sea. The core of the pellet may be a lithic grain or stiff till with additional clay plastered on the outside forming rounded grains from angular ones. Till pellets are rounded, spherical to prolate in form and are associated with turbate structures and aligned grains in till thin sections - evidence of rotational deformation. The area beneath an ice shelf in front of a grounding line is recorded by a thin bed of granular particles that transitions to silty claystone stratified with granules. Granular layers are thought to be from periodic winnowing by strong currents focused near the grounding line. The sub-ice shelf transition from proximal grounding line to distal is recorded by a gradational contact between stratified silty

  5. Evolution of Çan-Etili (Çanakkale-NW Turkey) lignite basin:Sedimentology, petrology, palynology and lignite characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Bozcu; Funda Akgün; Gülbin Gürdal; Ayşe Bozcu; Sevinç Kapan Yeşilyurt; Öznur Karaca; M. Serkan Akkiraz

    2015-01-01

    abstract This study examines the development and sedimentology of Çan-Etili lignite basin in Biga Peninsula (NW Turkey) along with the palynologic and petrographic properties of the coals in this region. The Çan-Etili lignite basin discordantly overlies Oligocene-aged Çan volcanics. The basin consists of caldera type sedimentation developed by the combined effects of volcanism and tectonics. The volcanic rocks forming the basement of the basin consist of andesitic, dacitic and basaltic lava flows as well as agglomerates, tuff and silicified tuffs, and kaolin which is their alteration product. The basement volcanic rocks cooled from high potassium and calc-alkaline magma. The trace element geochemistry of different rocks within the volcanics reveals that they are from a volcanic arc. The Çan Formation contains lignites and consists of 6 lithofacies representing alluvial, fluvial, marsh and lacustrine environments. These lithofacies are the lower volcanogenic conglomerate, the claystone, the lignite, the laminated organic claystone, the tuff intercalated sandstone–siltstone and the upper volcanogenic conglomerate. The lignite in the basin is limnic and is formed in a non-fluvial marsh and marsh-lake environment. An abundant percentage of vegetation (Engelhardia, Sapotaceae, Cyrillaceae) is compatible with temperate and subtropical climatic conditions in the basin during sedimentation of lignite.The coals of Çan-Etili basin are humic with high sulfur content (6–6.5%average) mostly containing huminite compounds belonging to the class of lignite-low bituminous (C-A) coal. Their coalification rank is between 0.38%and 0.56%Ro. The coals are formed in limnic-limnotelmatic marsh zones based on their microlithotype components. The inorganic components of the coal mostly consist of pyrite and clay. The trace elements, As, Th, U and V, are higher than international coal standards. The coal quality is adversely affected by high sulfur content and sulfur driven trace

  6. Sedimentology and paleoenvironments of the Las Chacritas carbonate paleolake, Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Jurassic), Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.

    2013-02-01

    The Las Chacritas Member is the lower part of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Jurassic). The unit is a completely continental limestone succession with volcanic contributions that were deposited during the development of the Cañadón Asfalto Rift Basin (Chubut province, Patagonia, Argentina). A detailed sedimentological analysis was performed in the Fossati depocenter to determine the paleoenvironments that developed in the context of this rift. The Las Chacritas Member represents a carbonate paleolake system with ramp-shaped margins associated with wetlands that were eventually affected by subaerial exposure and pedogenesis. This process is represented by three main subenvironments: a) a lacustrine setting sensu stricto (lacustrine limestone facies association), represented by Mudstones/Wackestones containing porifera spicules (F1), Intraclastic packstones (F6) and Tabular stromatolites (F10) in which deposition and diagenesis were entirely subaqueous; b) a palustrine setting (palustrine limestone facies association) containing Microbial Mudstones (F2), Intraclastic sandy packstone with ostracode remains (F3), Oncolitic packstone (F5), Brecciated limestone (F7) and Nodular-Mottled limestone (F8) representing shallow marginal areas affected by groundwater fluctuations and minor subaerial exposure; and c) a pedogenic paleoenvironment (pedogenic limestone facies association) including Intraclastic limestone (F4) and Packstones containing Microcodium (F9) facies displaying the major features of subaerial exposure, pedogenic diagenesis and the development of paleosols. The fluvial-palustrine-lacustrine succession shows a general shallow upward trend in which contraction-expansion cycles are represented (delimited by exposure and surface erosion). The variations in the successive formations reflect the responses to fluctuations in a combination of two major controls, the tectonic and local climatic variables. The predominance of the palustrine facies associations was

  7. Sedimentological and Geophysical Signatures of a Relict Tidal Inlet along a Wave-Dominated Barrier, Assateague Island, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminack, C. T.; Buynevich, I. V.; Grimes, Z. T.; Griffis, N.; Goble, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    of beach ridges have developed across the Green Run Bay segment and exhibit signatures of storm erosion in shore-normal GPR profiles. This punctuated barrier progradation took place during the historical period, with optical dates of beach ridge and dune generations ranging from AD 1680 to 1920. Our study demonstrates the need for integrating geomorphological, geophysical, sedimentological, and chronological databases to reconstruct the geological legacy of a relict inlet channel along a wave-dominated barrier coast.

  8. Lake Towuti, Indonesia: First Sedimentological Results of a New Surface Sediment Study during the Icdp-Tdp Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasberg, A. K.; Melles, M.; Vogel, H.; Russel, J.; Bijaksana, S.

    2015-12-01

    A. HASBERG1, M. MELLES1, H. VOGEL2, J. RUSSEL3, S. BIJAKSANA4 and all ICDP field campaign participations 1Institute for Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 49a, 50974 Cologne, Germany, email: hasberga@uni-koeln.de 2Department for Geology, University Bern, Switzerland3Department of Geology, Brown University, USA 4Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia Lake Towuti (2.75°S, 121.5°E), the largest tectonically formed lake (surface area: 561 km²) of the Republic Indonesia, is located in Central Sulawesi. The lake has a high, unique, Fe-reducing bacterial biodiversity and it has an important relevance to evolutionary biology through its location. Furthermore it is part of the Malili lake system, which consists of five lakes. The three largest of these, Matano, Mahalona and Towuti, are connected through a surface outflow today, but the linkage may not have always existed during the past, as indicated by the high level of endemism in each lake and the active tectonic movement of the 'Matano Fault system'. In summer 2015 the ICDP-funded Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) was conducted at Lake Towuti and recovered over 1000 meters of new sediment core. Within the scope of the TDP, lake surface sediments were also collected to investigate the modern terrestrial climate and aquatic environmental conditions, as well as the major sediment input sources from the catchment area. We collected a 1 to 4 km high-resolution grid of 84 surface samples from Lake Towuti and five samples from the Mahalona River, which links the Malili Lakes. These 89 surface samples were analyzed by various, sedimentological methods including smear-slide microscopy, coarse-fraction analyses, grain-size analysis, XRF-powder, and CNS measurements. The results will help to understand the interaction between the present-day lake sedimentation, hydrological and climatic conditions and to evaluate these as proxies for the hydrological

  9. The aeolian sedimentary system in the northern Qilian Shan and Hexi Corridor (N-China) - geomorphologic, sedimentologic and climatic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottebaum, Veit; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Stauch, Georg

    2015-04-01

    The formation of aeolian deposits depends on the influence of climatic factors but also on non-climatic controls, such as local geomorphological setting and tectonic activity. Unravelling the environmental history needs a careful consideration of a set of sections to capture spatial variability and a detailed investigation of depositing processes and chronology. Along the northern margin of the Qilian Shan mountain range 22 OSL-dated loess and aeolian sand sections and additional surface samples reveal the interactions between climatic, geomorphologic and sedimentologic factors. Thin loess covers (~1-2 m) occur in elevations of 2000 to 3800 m asl, which were mainly accumulated during the Holocene. End-member modelling of loess grain size data exhibits three dominant aeolian transport pathways representing local transport from fluvial storages, dust storm contribution and background dust deposition. Their relative contributions show a clear dependence on geomorphological setting, and additionally, synchronous trends throughout the Holocene. Their relative changes allow conclusions about Holocene environmental conditions. Discontinuous archives (aeolian sand, lacustrine, and alluvial deposition) in the lower forelands of the Qilian Shan show a distinct spatial pattern contrasting western and eastern forelands. The comparison of OSL ages exhibits high sediment accumulation (~2 m/ka) in the drier western part during the Late Glacial, while the lack of Holocene ages indicates sediment discharge / deflation. In contrast, moister areas in the eastern foreland yield scattered Holocene ages. This indicates high sediment dynamics, benefiting from fluvial reworking and thus provided sediment availability. Fluvial sediment supply plays an important role in sediment recycling. Meanwhile, western forelands lack efficient sand sources and fluvial reworking agents. The study exemplifies the complex sedimentary systems acting along mountain to foreland transects which often host

  10. Missing evidence for the LGM-asynchronity in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    According to the state of knowledge, the glacial advances in the Eastern Pyrenees were synchronous with the global LGM during the Late Pleistocene (MIS 2), but the glacial advances in the Central Spanish Pyrenees at MIS 3 were asynchron with the global LGM. Whereas in the Eastern Pyrenees the glacial advances are dated in several well agreeing studies by surface exposure dating of boulders from lateral or terminal moraines, the asynchronity of the Central Spanish Pyrenees was postulated mainly by OSL dating on glacial and fluvial sediments and on radiocarbon dating of pollen from lacustrine deposits. The time difference of about 15 ka raises the question if this is a result of (local) climate factors or owed to failures caused by using several dating techniques on different archives. Anyway, if this time lag is correct, post-LGM formation of soils and sediments from the Late Pleistocene should be different between the Eastern Pyrenees and the Central Spanish Pyrenees. We therefore applied a combined approach of geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological investigations to reconstruct the Late Quaternary landscape development in the Aragon- and Gallego Valley of the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Our study reveals that in both valleys the Pre-Holocene geomorphodynamics on the lateglacial deposits show clear analogies with findings from Pleistocene periglacial landscapes in Central Europe. For MIS 4 and early MIS 3 periglacial processes are proven by loess deposition and formation of solifluction sediments. The glacial sediments, which were dated in earlier studies into mid MIS 3 and counted so far as prove for the asynchronous LGM of the Central Spanish Pyrenees, are covered by periglacial deposits of lateglacial age (14 ka to 11 ka). Surprisingly neither the glacial sediments have pedogenic features that indicate lateglacial soil development, nor do the periglacial deposits show indications for lateglacial soil erosion. Therefore we conclude that soil formation

  11. Sedimentology and ichnology of the fluvial reach to inner estuary of the Ogeechee River estuary, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepetkina, Alina; Gingras, Murray K.; Pemberton, S. George

    2016-08-01

    Through the integration of sedimentological and ichnological observations, this paper explores the character of sediments deposited across the fluvio-tidal transition zone of the upper microtidal, mixed-energy, sand-dominated Ogeechee River estuary, Georgia, USA. A transect of tidally influenced to fluvial channel-bars and their facies variability is reported. Field and laboratory methods were employed, including observation of physical and biogenic sedimentary structures on the point-bar surfaces and in trenches, collection of grab samples, suction and box coring, grain size and total organic carbon analyses, optical microscopy, core logging, and daylight photography. The data presented in the paper can help in predicting facies changes across the fluvio-tidal transition of sand-dominated fluvio-tidal deposits in the rock record. The lower inner estuary is characterized by medium-fine and fine-medium sand with planar and trough cross-bedding, small-scale ripple lamination, tidal sedimentary structures (flaser and wavy bedding, herringbone cross-stratification), abundant organic debris, and mud rip-up clasts. Bioturbation of the intertidal point bars is low, but cryptobioturbation is locally observed. Upper inner estuary deposits comprise coarse-medium- and medium-coarse-grained sand, and are characterized by faint high-angle planar and trough cross-bedding. Organic debris, mud rip-up clasts, herringbone and current-ripple lamination are rarely observed. Bioturbation is absent to sparse. The fluvio-tidal transition is represented by very-coarse- to coarse-grained sand and granules. Physical sedimentary structures constitute massive, graded planar and trough cross-bedding with abundant plant detritus. Except for rare Siphonichnus- and Lockeia-like traces, bioturbation is absent. The fluvial setting is characterized by coarse-medium sand with unidirectional cross-bedding, current-ripple lamination, and rare organic-rich mud clasts. Bioturbation is absent. Inner

  12. Sedimentology and High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation Carbonates Outcrops in the Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Abdulghani, Waleed

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the microfacies and sequence stratigraphic frame work of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation in outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study contributes to the efforts to understand and enhance local and regional stratigraphic relationship and correlation of the Jurassic carbonate sequences and their significance to reservoir description and prediction in the subsurcae. The study describes and characterizes the sedimentology, microfacies and the stratigraphy of Dhruma Formation from outcrop sections having a total thickness of 70 m. Detailed microfacies and high-resolution stratigraphical analysis were carried out to determine microfacies, cyclicity, sequences and staking pattern. The study revealed ten lithofacies namely: oolitic grainstone,bioclastic oolitic grainstone, oolitic grapestone, bioclastic grainstone,foraminiferal packstone, echinoderm packstone, peloidal packstone to grainstone,skeletal wackestone to packstone, mudstone, and marlstone.These lithofacies were grouped into five lithofacies associations that deposited on a carbonate ramp setting. The depositional environment ranging from low energy lagoonal setting to high-energy shoals and banks to low energy outer ramp setting. Five high-resolution composite sequences have been defined and each sequence is composed at the bottom of intercalated mudstone/wackestone that passing up into grainstone lithofacies.The composite sequences range in thickness from 7 to 15 m, while the parasequences range from 0.5 to 1.5 m. The composite sequences extend laterally for a distance of more than 350 m. The overall composite section shows a shallowing upward succession of the 4th to the 5th order high-resolution sequences.The dominant lithofacies are the grainy ones, which constitute 30%, 50% and 80% of the studied sections. Furthermore, the parasequences thickness and their bio-components are increasing towards the top. The muddy lithofacies intensively affected the vertical continuity of the

  13. Synthesis of daidzin analogues as potential agents for alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guang-Yao; Li, Dian-Jun; Keung, Wing Ming

    2003-09-01

    Daidzin, the active principle of an herbal remedy for 'alcohol addiction', has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in all laboratory animals tested to date. Correlation studies using structural analogues of daidzin suggests that it acts by raising the monoamine oxidase (MAO)/mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity ratio (J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 4169). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the 7-O-substituted analogues of daidzin have revealed structural features important for ALDH-2 and MAO inhibition (J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 3320). We here evaluated effects of substitutions at 2, 5, 6, 8, 3' and 4' positions of daidzin on its potencies for ALDH-2 and MAO inhibition. Results show that analogues with 4'-substituents that are small, polar and with hydrogen bonding capacities are most potent ALDH-2 inhibitors, whereas those that are non-polar and with electron withdrawing capacities are potent MAO inhibitors. Analogues with a 5-OH group are less potent ALDH-2 inhibitors but are more potent MAO inhibitors. All the 2-, 6-, 8- and 3'-substituted analogues tested so far do not inhibit ALDH-2 and/or have decreased potencies for MAO inhibition. This, together with the results obtained from previous studies, suggests that a potent antidipsotropic analogue would be a 4',7-disubstituted isoflavone. The 4'-substituent should be small, polar, and with hydrogen bonding capacities such as, -OH and -NH(2); whereas the 7-substituent should be a straight-chain alkyl with a terminal polar function such as -(CH(2))(n)-OH with 2 or =4.

  14. Statistics Essentials For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Statistics Essentials For Dummies not only provides students enrolled in Statistics I with an excellent high-level overview of key concepts, but it also serves as a reference or refresher for students in upper-level statistics courses. Free of review and ramp-up material, Statistics Essentials For Dummies sticks to the point, with content focused on key course topics only. It provides discrete explanations of essential concepts taught in a typical first semester college-level statistics course, from odds and error margins to confidence intervals and conclusions. This guide is also a perfect re

  15. Statistics & probaility for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah J

    2013-01-01

    Two complete eBooks for one low price! Created and compiled by the publisher, this Statistics I and Statistics II bundle brings together two math titles in one, e-only bundle. With this special bundle, you'll get the complete text of the following two titles: Statistics For Dummies, 2nd Edition  Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more. Tra

  16. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  17. Business statistics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Score higher in your business statistics course? Easy. Business statistics is a common course for business majors and MBA candidates. It examines common data sets and the proper way to use such information when conducting research and producing informational reports such as profit and loss statements, customer satisfaction surveys, and peer comparisons. Business Statistics For Dummies tracks to a typical business statistics course offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels and provides clear, practical explanations of business statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, w

  18. Nonparametric statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Jean Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Overall, this remains a very fine book suitable for a graduate-level course in nonparametric statistics. I recommend it for all people interested in learning the basic ideas of nonparametric statistical inference.-Eugenia Stoimenova, Journal of Applied Statistics, June 2012… one of the best books available for a graduate (or advanced undergraduate) text for a theory course on nonparametric statistics. … a very well-written and organized book on nonparametric statistics, especially useful and recommended for teachers and graduate students.-Biometrics, 67, September 2011This excellently presente

  19. Statistics in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Boslaugh, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Need to learn statistics for your job? Want help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference for anyone new to the subject. Thoroughly revised and expanded, this edition helps you gain a solid understanding of statistics without the numbing complexity of many college texts. Each chapter presents easy-to-follow descriptions, along with graphics, formulas, solved examples, and hands-on exercises. If you want to perform common statistical analyses and learn a wide range of techniques without getting in over your head, this is your book.

  20. Analogue Kerr-like geometries in a MHD inflow

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, Sousuke; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    We present a model of the analogue black hole in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow. For a two dimensional axisymmetric stationary trans-magnetosonic inflow with a sink, using the dispersion relation of the MHD waves, we introduce the effective geometries for magnetoacoustic waves propagating in the MHD flow. Investigating the properties of the effective potentials for magnetoacoustic rays, we find that the effective geometries can be classified into five types which include analogue spacetimes of the Kerr black hole, ultra spinning stars with ergoregions and spinning stars without ergoregions. We address the effects of the magnetic pressure and the magnetic tension on each magnetoacoustic geometries.

  1. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of heterocyclic analogues of bromoxynil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutulle, Matthew A; Armel, Gregory R; Brosnan, James T; Best, Michael D; Kopsell, Dean A; Bruce, Barry D; Bostic, Heidi E; Layton, Donovan S

    2014-01-15

    One attractive strategy to discover more active and/or crop-selective herbicides is to make structural changes to currently registered compounds. This strategy is especially appealing for those compounds with limited herbicide resistance and whose chemistry is accompanied with transgenic tools to enable herbicide tolerance in crop plants. Bromoxynil is a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor registered for control of broadleaf weeds in several agronomic and specialty crops. Recently at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville several analogues of bromoxynil were synthesized including a previously synthesized pyridine (2,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyridine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), a novel pyrimidine (4,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyrimidine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), and a novel pyridine N-oxide (2,6-dibromo-1-oxidopyridin-1-ium-4-carbonitrile). These new analogues of bromoxynil were also evaluated for their herbicidal activity on soybean (Glycine max), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and pitted morningglory ( Ipomoea lacunose ) when applied at 0.28 kg ha(-1). A second study was conducted on a glyphosate-resistant weed (Amaranthus palmeri) with the compounds being applied at 0.56 kg ha(-1). Although all compounds were believed to inhibit PSII by binding in the quinone binding pocket of D1, the pyridine and pyridine-N-oxide analogues were clearly more potent than bromoxynil on Amaranthus retroflexus. However, application of the pyrimidine herbicide resulted in the least injury to all species tested. These variations in efficacy were investigated using molecular docking simulations, which indicate that the pyridine analogue may form a stronger hydrogen bond in the pocket of the D1 protein than the original bromoxynil. A pyridine analogue was able to control the glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri with >80% efficacy. The pyridine analogues of bromoxynil showed potential

  3. Five new discodermolide analogues from the marine sponge Discodermia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Sarath P; Paul, Gopal K; Longley, Ross E; Isbrucker, Richard A; Pomponi, Shirley A

    2002-11-01

    Discodermolide (1) and five new discodermolide analogues trivially named 2-epi-discodermolide (2), 2-des-methyldiscodermolide (3), 5-hydroxymethyldiscodermolate (4), 19-des-aminocarbonyldiscodermolide (5), and 9(13)-cyclodiscodermolide (6) have been isolated from marine sponges belonging to the genus Discodermia collected from the Caribbean Sea. The isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activities of 2-6 are described. The natural analogues, which were isolated in trace amounts, exhibited significant variation of cytotoxicity against the cultured murine P-388 leukemia and A-549 human adenocarcinoma cells and suggested the importance of the C(7) through C(17) moiety for potency against cultured tumor cell lines.

  4. Synthesis of Novel 1,3-Dioxolane Nucleoside Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡冬梅; 林昆华; 李明宗; 温集武; 李鸿艳; 尤田耙

    2004-01-01

    Novel 1,3-dioxolane C-nucleoside analogues of tiazofurin 2-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxamide as well as N-nucleoside analogues of substituted imidazoles 1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4-nitroimidazole and 1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4,5-dicyanoimidazole were synthesized frommethyl acrylate through a multistep procedure. Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental analysis.

  5. Analogue Building Blocks Based on Digital CMOS Gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucha, Igor

    1996-01-01

    Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility with the......Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility...

  6. Comparison of Three Common Experimental Designs to Improve Statistical Power When Data Violate Parametric Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew C.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the small sample goodness of fit and statistical power of several nonparametric tests and their parametric analogues when applied to data which violate parametric assumptions. The motivation was to facilitate choice among three designs, simple random assignment with and without a concomitant variable…

  7. Lectures on algebraic statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth

    2009-01-01

    How does an algebraic geometer studying secant varieties further the understanding of hypothesis tests in statistics? Why would a statistician working on factor analysis raise open problems about determinantal varieties? Connections of this type are at the heart of the new field of "algebraic statistics". In this field, mathematicians and statisticians come together to solve statistical inference problems using concepts from algebraic geometry as well as related computational and combinatorial techniques. The goal of these lectures is to introduce newcomers from the different camps to algebraic statistics. The introduction will be centered around the following three observations: many important statistical models correspond to algebraic or semi-algebraic sets of parameters; the geometry of these parameter spaces determines the behaviour of widely used statistical inference procedures; computational algebraic geometry can be used to study parameter spaces and other features of statistical models.

  8. Statistics for economics

    CERN Document Server

    Naghshpour, Shahdad

    2012-01-01

    Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...

  9. Estimation and inferential statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Das, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the meaning of statistical inference and estimation. Statistical inference is concerned with the problems of estimation of population parameters and testing hypotheses. Primarily aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students of statistics, the book is also useful to professionals and researchers in statistical, medical, social and other disciplines. It discusses current methodological techniques used in statistics and related interdisciplinary areas. Every concept is supported with relevant research examples to help readers to find the most suitable application. Statistical tools have been presented by using real-life examples, removing the “fear factor” usually associated with this complex subject. The book will help readers to discover diverse perspectives of statistical theory followed by relevant worked-out examples. Keeping in mind the needs of readers, as well as constantly changing scenarios, the material is presented in an easy-to-understand form.

  10. Photonic analogue of quantum spin Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yulin; Feng, Liang; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Symmetry-protected photonic topological insulator exhibiting robust pseudo-spin-dependent transportation, analogous to quantum spin Hall (QSH) phases and topological insulators, are of great importance in fundamental physics. Such transportation robustness is protected by time-reversal symmetry. Since electrons (fermion) and photons (boson) obey different statistics rules and associate with different time-reversal operators (i.e., Tf and Tb, respectively), whether photonic counterpart of Kramers degeneracy is topologically protected by bosonic Tb remains unidentified. Here, we construct the degenerate gapless edge states of two photonic pseudo-spins (left/right circular polarizations) in the band gap of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with strong magneto-electric coupling. We further demonstrated that the topological edge states are in fact protected by Tf rather than commonly believed Tb and their pseudo-spin dependent transportation is robust against Tf invariant impurities, discovering for the first tim...

  11. Baseline Statistics of Linked Statistical Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, Andrea; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Guéret, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We are surrounded by an ever increasing ocean of information, everybody will agree to that. We build sophisticated strategies to govern this information: design data models, develop infrastructures for data sharing, building tool for data analysis. Statistical datasets curated by National Statistica

  12. Sedimentology and geochemistry of recent alluvium of the wadi Beht mean (Furrow south western Rif, Morocco: dynamics of implementation and hydrological and climatic meanings ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed LAABIDI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The watershed of the river Beht is located northwest of Morocco and occupies the southwestern part of the Sebou basin. This study focuses on the sedimentological and geochemical analysis of current alluvial floodplain and meandering filling abandoned Middle Beht. The results revealed that the sediments exhibit an alkaline pH, low levels of carbonates, low values of the electrical conductivity and relatively high contents of organic matter mostly in the finest sediment. Deposits are organized in grano-decreasing repetitive elementary sequences much more expressed and fines in meandering filling abandoned deposits, which function as ephemeral lakes, as in those of the floodplain. They are the expression of the sedimentological variation of hydrodynamics related to the succession of flood-related flood recession cycles themselves with climate change. They are set up on the often rocky deposits texture background meandering channels and bars. The sequence of these basic sequences, sandy-silty clay at the base and silty-sandy clay on top, gives larger sequences grano-decreasing.

  13. Determining flow directions in turbidites: An integrated sedimentological and magnetic fabric study of the Miocene Marnoso Arenacea Formation (northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felletti, Fabrizio; Dall'Olio, Eleonora; Muttoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Depositional models of turbidity flows require estimating paleocurrent directions using sedimentological indicators such as flute and ripple marks, but these are not always present in outcrop sections or drill cores. In this study, we apply the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as an alternative tool to estimate paleocurrent directions in a case-study turbiditic system: the Marnoso Arenacea foredeep turbidites of Miocene age exposed in the northern Apennines of Italy. Different depositional facies have been sampled for AMS and additional rock-magnetic analyses. We observed a good agreement between paleocurrent directions from flute casts at the base of turbidite beds and mean directions of maximum magnetic susceptibility axes in organized facies such as massive and laminated sandstones, even if a relatively small but apparently consistent offset of ~ 15-20° seems to be present. Highly dispersed AMS fabrics were instead observed in disordered facies such as convoluted and undulated sandstones as well as debrites. This strong correlation between hydrodynamic regimes of depositional facies and AMS data represents a novel contribution and confirms the validity of the AMS method to estimate flow directions in the absence of sedimentological indicators. Finally, paleomagnetic analyses from the literature were used to reconstruct the paleogeography of the Marnoso Arenacea basin and make inferences about the origin and direction of transport of the sediments at the basin scale.

  14. Investigations in Martian Sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate and discuss the Martian surface. This report was done in specific tasks. The tasks were: characterization of Martian fluids and chemical sediments; mass wasting and ground collapse in terrains of volatile-rich deposits; Mars Rover terrestrial field investigations; Mars Pathfinder operations support; and Martian subsurface water instrument.

  15. The statistical stability phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Igor I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...

  16. Analogues of estradiol as potential breast tumor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, R.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Ferriera, N.L.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The radioiodinated analogue of estradiol, 11..beta..-methoxy-17..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)iodovinylestradiol (MIVE/sub 2/), has been shown to be a good candidate for the imaging of estrogen dependent breast tumors. Although there has been no extensive study on the sensitivity of radiotracers of this type, the authors have not observed localization of the radiotracer in metastatic lesions containing less than 20 fmole estrogen receptor/mg protein or in bone metasteses. In order to improve the sensitivity, they have examined several structural analogues of moxestrol (the parent structure for MIVE/sub 2/) for affinity to the ER isolated from immature rat uterus. The 11..beta..-ethyl analogue (EEE/sub 2/) of ethynyl estradiol (EE/sub 2/) exhibits the highest affinity with the 11..beta..-methyl analogue second best. Although the lipophilicity is also very high this compound should not be much more lipophilic than 16-iodoestradiol or MIVE/sub 2/ since the introduction of iodine increases the log P by greater than 1. The distribution of the tritiated derivative of EEE/sub 2/ is under study.

  17. Synthesis of pyrophosphonic acid analogues of farnesyl pyrophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, A.R.P.M.; Berg, O. van den; Marel, G.A. van der; Cohen, L.H.; Boom, J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of four new analogues (i.e. 3-6) of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which may function as inhibitor of squalene synthase, is described. Compounds 3 and 4 were readily accessible by reaction of farnesal with diethyl phosphite or dimethyl lithiomethylphosphonate, respectively, followed by

  18. Simulated Milky Way analogues: implications for dark matter direct searches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozorgnia, N.; Calore, F.; Schaller, M.; Lovell, M.; Bertone, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Crain, R.A.; Navarro, J.F.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study the implications of galaxy formation on dark matter direct detection using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies simulated within the EAGLE and APOSTLE projects. We identify Milky Way analogues that satisfy observational constraints on the Milky Way rotation

  19. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were ac

  20. Aromaticity in Polyacene Analogues of Inorganic Ring Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Chattaraj, P K; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar; Roy, Debesh Ranjan

    2006-01-01

    The aromaticity in the polyacene analogues of several inorganic ring compounds (BN-acenes, CN-acenes, BO-acenes and Na6-acenes) is reported here for the first time. Conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors and the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) values are used in this analysis.

  1. Synthesis of 4” manipulated Lewis X trisaccharide analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Moore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three analogues of the Lex trisaccharide antigen (β-D-Galp(1→4[α-L-Fucp(1→3]-D-GlcNAcp in which the galactosyl residue is modified at O-4 as a methyloxy, deoxychloro or deoxyfluoro, were synthesized. We first report the preparation of the modified 4-OMe, 4-Cl and 4-F trichloroacetimidate galactosyl donors and then report their use in the glycosylation of an N-acetylglucosamine glycosyl acceptor. Thus, we observed that the reactivity of these donors towards the BF3·OEt2-promoted glycosylation at O-4 of the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyl acceptors followed the ranking 4-F > 4-OAc ≈ 4-OMe > 4-Cl. The resulting disaccharides were deprotected at O-3 of the glucosamine residue and fucosylated, giving access to the desired protected Lex analogues. One-step global deprotection (Na/NH3 of the protected 4”-methoxy analogue, and two-step deprotections (removal of a p-methoxybenzyl with DDQ, then Zemplén deacylation of the 4”-deoxychloro and 4”-deoxyfluoro protected Lex analogues gave the desired compounds in good yields.

  2. BlockLevel Bayesian Diagnosis of Analogue Electronic Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Shaji; Krishnan, Shaji; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Doornbosch, Klaas D.; Brand, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    Daily experience with product designers, test and diagnosis engineers it is realized that the depth of interaction among them, ought to be high for successful diagnosis of analogue circuits. With this knowledge in mind, a responsibility was undertaken to choose a popular diagnostic method and define

  3. Design and Synthesis of Muramyl Dipeptide Cyclic Analogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new conformationally restricted cyclic analogue of muramyl dipeptide was designed and manually synthesized by our "Meshed-Bag Gathered-Bunch" method with a combination of Fmoc, allyl and N-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclo-hexylidene)ethyl chemical protection strategy.

  4. Reproducibility along a 10 cm vertical visual analogue scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, J. S.; Bird, H A

    1981-01-01

    Reproducibility along a vertical 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was investigated. Eight normal volunteers attempted to duplicate a set of marked VAS. There was a tendency to estimate too high on the scale, and reproducibility was found to be variable along its length. This indicates that the error involved in the use of VASs is even more complex than previously thought.

  5. Direct neutron decay of analogue resonances in 105Rh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Bi-Tao; P.P.Zarubin; U.U.Juravlev

    2006-01-01

    A new method, while takes into account the contribution of direct neutron decay of analogue resonances to the isomeric ratio resulting from (p,n) reaction, is used to analyse the published experimental data for the reaction 104Ru(p,n)104Rh and also estimate a minimum probability of direct decay.

  6. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  7. Nucleic Acid Analogue Induced Transcription of Double Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    RNA is transcribed from a double stranded DNA template by forming a complex by hybridizing to the template at a desired transcription initiation site one or more oligonucleic acid analogues of the PNA type capable of forming a transcription initiation site with the DNA and exposing the complex...

  8. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…

  9. Combined treatment of somatostatin analogues with pegvisomant in acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Franck (Sanne); A. Muhammad (Ammar); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of acromegaly with monotherapy long-acting somatostatin analogues (LA-SSA) as primary treatment or after neurosurgery can only achieve complete normalization of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in roughly 40 % of patients. Recently, one of the acromegaly consensus groups

  10. Combined treatment of somatostatin analogues with pegvisomant in acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Franck; A. Muhammad; A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of acromegaly with monotherapy long-acting somatostatin analogues (LA-SSA) as primary treatment or after neurosurgery can only achieve complete normalization of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in roughly 40 % of patients. Recently, one of the acromegaly consensus groups ha

  11. Are Structural Analogues to Bisphenol A Safe Alternatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Dybdahl, Marianne; Pedersen, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical with widespread human exposure suspected of causing low-dose effects. Thus, a need for developing alternatives to BPA exists. Structural analogues of BPA have already been detected in foods and humans. Due to the structural analogy of the alternatives, ...

  12. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were

  13. A highly efficient synthesis of itraconazole intermediates and their analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chong Il; Myoung, Young Chan; Choi, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Jin [Agency for Technology and Standards, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    Itraconazole is an important drug for oral treatment of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. Itraconazole has been the targets of many synthetic efforts due to their diverse antifungal activities. In this study, an efficient synthetic route for Itraconazole intermediates has been developed using new procedures. Also, Itraconazole analogues introducing 2- and 3-methoxy group instead of Itraconazole intermediates with 4-methoxy group were synthesized.

  14. Vitamin D analogues: Potential use in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael J; Murray, Alyson; Synnott, Naoise C; O'Donovan, Norma; Crown, John

    2017-04-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the thyroid-steroid family of nuclear transcription factors. Following binding of the active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3 (also known as calcitriol) and interaction with co-activators and co-repressors, VDR regulates the expression of several different genes. Although relatively little work has been carried out on VDR in human cancers, several epidemiological studies suggest that low circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with both an increased risk of developing specific cancer types and poor outcome in patients with specific diagnosed cancers. These associations apply especially in colorectal and breast cancer. Consistent with these findings, calcitriol as well as several of its synthetic analogues have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro and in diverse animal model systems. Indeed, some of these vitamin D analogues with low calcemic inducing activity (e.g., EB1089, inecalcitol, paricalcitol) have progressed to clinical trials in patients with cancer. Preliminary results from these trials suggest that these vitamin D analogues have minimal toxicity, but clear evidence of efficacy remains to be shown. Although evidence of efficacy for mono-treatment with vitamin D analogues is currently lacking, several studies have reported that supplementation with calcitriol or the presence of high endogenous circulating levels of vitamin D enhances response to standard therapies.

  15. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxinlnu@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yang [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Niu, Hua-Ying [Jinan Dachpharm Development Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: liubinzehao@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-03-15

    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method.

  16. Click-based synthesis and proteomic profiling of lipstatin analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngai, Mun H.; Yang, Peng-Yu; Liu, Kai; Shen, Yuan; Wenk, Markus R; Yao, Shao Q.; Lear, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Using click chemistry to enable both structural diversity and proteome profiling within a natural product derived library, two out of nineteen lipstatin analogues showed similar activity to Orlistat against fatty acid synthase (FAS), but with an improved ability to induce tumour cell death.

  17. Solution-phase synthesis of a muramyl dipeptide analogue MDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Zhao; Yao Ma; Gang Liu

    2011-01-01

    The solution-phase synthesis of a muramyl dipeptide (MDP) analogue of Nα- [4-chlorocinnamoyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl]-L-lysine (MDA, 2) is reported that possesses the features of easy feasibility, safety and low cost in large scale of synthesis.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Muramyl Dipeptide Cyclic Analogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuoDeZHANG; GangLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new conformationalloy restricted cyclic analogue of muramyl dipeptide was designed and manually synthesized by our “Meshed-Bag Gathered-Bunch” method with a combination of Fmoc,ally and N-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclo-hexylidene) ethyl chemical protection strategy.

  19. Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

  20. Synthesis of pyrophosphonic acid analogues of farnesyl pyrophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, A.R.P.M.; Berg, O. van den; Marel, G.A. van der; Cohen, L.H.; Boom, J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of four new analogues (i.e. 3-6) of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which may function as inhibitor of squalene synthase, is described. Compounds 3 and 4 were readily accessible by reaction of farnesal with diethyl phosphite or dimethyl lithiomethylphosphonate, respectively, followed by

  1. The influence of no fault found in analogue CMOS circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Jinbo; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult fault category in electronic systems is the “No Fault Found” (NFF). It is considered to be the most costly fault category in, for instance, avionics. The relatively few papers in this area rarely deal with analogue integrated systems. In this paper a simple simulation model has be

  2. Synthesis and Antioxidant Properties of Novel Silybin Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eight novel silybin analogues (7a-h) were synthesized and their antioxidant properties including the capability of scavenging superoxide anion free radicals and the inhibitory effect on DPPH free radicals were determined. Several synthetic compounds showed comparable antioxidative effect to that of quercetin.

  3. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were ac

  4. Concise synthesis of new bridged-nicotine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Hooyberghs, Geert; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively....

  5. Rubrene analogues with the aggregation-induced emission enhancement behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger; Fu, Xiaowei;

    2014-01-01

    In the light of the principle of aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE), the rubrene analogue with orange light-emitting properties is designed and synthesized by substituting the phenyl side groups of rubrene with thienyl groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report...

  6. Lectures on statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, M G

    1982-01-01

    Anyone dissatisfied with the almost ritual dullness of many 'standard' texts in statistical mechanics will be grateful for the lucid explanation and generally reassuring tone. Aimed at securing firm foundations for equilibrium statistical mechanics, topics of great subtlety are presented transparently and enthusiastically. Very little mathematical preparation is required beyond elementary calculus and prerequisites in physics are limited to some elementary classical thermodynamics. Suitable as a basis for a first course in statistical mechanics, the book is an ideal supplement to more convent

  7. Statistics at square one

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M J

    2011-01-01

    The new edition of this international bestseller continues to throw light on the world of statistics for health care professionals and medical students. Revised throughout, the 11th edition features new material in the areas of relative risk, absolute risk and   numbers needed to treat diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity, ROC curves free statistical software The popular self-testing exercises at the end of every chapter are strengthened by the addition of new sections on reading and reporting statistics and formula appreciation.

  8. Contributions to industrial statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about statistics' contributions to industry. It is an article compendium comprising four articles divided in two blocks: (i) two contributions for a water supply company, and (ii) significance of the effects in Design of Experiments. In the first block, great emphasis is placed on how the research design and statistics can be applied to various real problems that a water company raises and it aims to convince water management companies that statistics can be very useful to impr...

  9. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  10. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, E Atlee

    2000-01-01

    Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t

  11. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  12. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, J E

    1968-01-01

    The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t

  13. Mathematical statistics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wackerly, Dennis D; Scheaffer, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    In their bestselling MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS WITH APPLICATIONS, premiere authors Dennis Wackerly, William Mendenhall, and Richard L. Scheaffer present a solid foundation in statistical theory while conveying the relevance and importance of the theory in solving practical problems in the real world. The authors' use of practical applications and excellent exercises helps you discover the nature of statistics and understand its essential role in scientific research.

  14. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  15. Non-robust numerical simulations of analogue extension experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Numerical and analogue models of lithospheric deformation provide significant insight into the tectonic processes that lead to specific structural and geophysical observations. As these two types of models contain distinct assumptions and tradeoffs, investigations drawing conclusions from both can reveal robust links between first-order processes and observations. Recent studies have focused on detailed comparisons between numerical and analogue experiments in both compressional and extensional tectonics, sometimes involving multiple lithospheric deformation codes and analogue setups. While such comparisons often show good agreement on first-order deformation styles, results frequently diverge on second-order structures, such as shear zone dip angles or spacing, and in certain cases even on first-order structures. Here, we present finite-element experiments that are designed to directly reproduce analogue "sandbox" extension experiments at the cm-scale. We use material properties and boundary conditions that are directly taken from analogue experiments and use a Drucker-Prager failure model to simulate shear zone formation in sand. We find that our numerical experiments are highly sensitive to numerous numerical parameters. For example, changes to the numerical resolution, velocity convergence parameters and elemental viscosity averaging commonly produce significant changes in first- and second-order structures accommodating deformation. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations to small parameter changes likely reflects a number of factors, including, but not limited to, high angles of internal friction assigned to sand, complex, unknown interactions between the brittle sand (used as an upper crust equivalent) and viscous silicone (lower crust), highly non-linear strain weakening processes and poor constraints on the cohesion of sand. Our numerical-analogue comparison is hampered by (a) an incomplete knowledge of the fine details of sand failure and sand

  16. Statistical discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Kosasih, Jusak Sali; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy Permana

    2016-01-01

    Following our earlier work, we construct statistical discrete geometry by applying statistical mechanics to discrete (Regge) gravity. We propose a coarse-graining method for discrete geometry under the assumptions of atomism and background independence. To maintain these assumptions, restrictions are given to the theory by introducing cut-offs, both in ultraviolet and infrared regime. Having a well-defined statistical picture of discrete Regge geometry, we take the infinite degrees of freedom (large n) limit. We argue that the correct limit consistent with the restrictions and the background independence concept is not the continuum limit of statistical mechanics, but the thermodynamical limit.

  17. Improved Statistics Handling

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Ericsson is a global provider of telecommunications systems equipment and related services for mobile and fixed network operators.  3Gsim is a tool used by Ericsson in tests of the 3G RNC node. In order to validate the tests, statistics are constantly gathered within 3Gsim and users can use telnet to access the statistics using some system specific 3Gsim commands. The statistics can be retrieved but is unstructured for the human eye and needs parsing and arranging to be readable.  The statist...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...