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Sample records for analogue l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid

  1. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  2. Actions of a proline analogue, L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C, on Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Anahí Magdaleno

    Full Text Available It is well established that L-proline has several roles in the biology of trypanosomatids. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, this amino acid is involved in energy metabolism, differentiation processes and resistance to osmotic stress. In this study, we analyzed the effects of interfering with L-proline metabolism on the viability and on other aspects of the T. cruzi life cycle using the proline analogue L- thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C. The growth of epimastigotes was evaluated using different concentrations of T4C in standard culture conditions and at high temperature or acidic pH. We also evaluated possible interactions of this analogue with stress conditions such as those produced by nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. T4C showed a dose-response effect on epimastigote growth (IC(50 = 0.89+/-0.02 mM at 28 degrees C, and the inhibitory effect of this analogue was synergistic (p<0.05 with temperature (0.54+/-0.01 mM at 37 degrees C. T4C significantly diminished parasite survival (p<0.05 in combination with nutrient starvation and oxidative stress conditions. Pre-incubation of the parasites with L-proline resulted in a protective effect against oxidative stress, but this was not seen in the presence of the drug. Finally, the trypomastigote bursting from infected mammalian cells was evaluated and found to be inhibited by up to 56% when cells were treated with non-toxic concentrations of T4C (between 1 and 10 mM. All these data together suggest that T4C could be an interesting therapeutic drug if combined with others that affect, for example, oxidative stress. The data also support the participation of proline metabolism in the resistance to oxidative stress.

  3. Phosphorescent emissions of phosphine copper(I) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline carboxylic acid analogue ligands

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    Małecki, Jan G., E-mail: gmalecki@us.edu.pl [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Łakomska, Iwona, E-mail: iwolak@chem.umk.pl [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Maroń, Anna [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Szala, Marcin [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Fandzloch, Marzena [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Nycz, Jacek E., E-mail: jacek.nycz@us.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2015-05-15

    The pseudotetrahedral complexes of [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)], where L=8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (1), 8-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (2) or 5-chloro-8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Their properties have been examined through combinations of IR, NMR, electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The complexes exhibit extraordinary photophysical properties. Complex (1) in solid state exhibits an emission quantum yield of 4.67% and an excited life time of 1.88 ms (frozen DCM solution up to 6.7 ms). When dissolved in a coordinating solvent (acetonitrile) the charge transfer emission was quenched on a microsecond scale. - Highlights: • Synthesis of copper(I) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline carboxylic acid ligands. • Very long lived phosphorescent copper(I) complexes. • [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)] where L=8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid luminesce in the solid state exhibits extremely long lifetime on millisecond scale (1.9 ms). • In frozen MeOH:EtOH solution lifetime increases to 7 ms. • Quantum efficiency equal to 4.7%.

  4. l-2-Nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid

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    Harutyun A. Karapetyan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic form of l-nitroarginine, C6H10N4O4, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. According to the geometrical parameters, similar in both molecules, the structure corresponds to that of l-2-nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid; there are, however, conformational differences between the independent molecules, one of them being close to a twisted chair while the other might be described as a rather flattened boat. All six active H atoms in the two molecules are involved in hydrogen bonds, two of which are intramolecular and four intermolecular, forming an infinite chain of molecules along the b axis.

  5. [Chloroquine analogues from benzofuro- and benzothieno[3,2-b]-4-pyridone-2-carboxylic acid esters].

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    Gölitzer, K; Meyer, H; Jomaa, H; Wiesner, J

    2004-08-01

    The amides 7 were synthesized from the annulated methyl 4-pyridone-2-carboxylates 4 via the carboxylic acids 5 and their acid chlorides by reacting with the novaldiamine base 6. The alcohol 8b, obtained from DIBAH reduction of the ester 4b, was transformed to the chloromethyl derivative 9 which reacted with 6 and 18-crown-6 leading to the 2-novaldiaminomethyl-4-pyridone 10. Compound 10 was obtained with higher yield from DIBAH reduction of the amide 7b. The substances 7 and 10 were inactive when tested against the chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain Dd2.

  6. Biosynthesis of quinoxaline antibiotics: Purification and characterization of the quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid activating enzyme from Streptomyces triostinicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glund, K.; Schlumbohm, W.; Bapat, M.; Keller, U.

    1990-01-01

    A quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid activating enzyme was purified to homogeneity from triostin-producing Streptomyces triostinicus. It could also be purified from quinomycin-producing Streptomyces echinatus. Triostins and quinomycins are peptide lactones that contain quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid as chromophoric moiety. The enzyme catalyzes the ATP-pyrophosphate exchange reaction dependent on quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and the formation of the corresponding adenylate. Besides quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, the enzyme also catalyzes the formation of adenylates from quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and thieno[3,2-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid. No adenylates were seen from quinoline-3-carboxylic acid, quinoline-4-carboxylic acid, pyridine-2-carboxylic acid, and 2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid. Previous work revealed that quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and thieno[3,2-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid became efficiently incorporated into the corresponding quinoxaline antibiotic analogues in vivo. Together with the data described here, this suggests that the enzyme is part of the quinoxaline antibiotics synthesizing enzyme system. The enzyme displays a native molecular weight of 42,000, whereas in its denatured form it is a polypeptide of Mr 52,000-53,000. It resembles in its behavior actinomycin synthetase I, the chromophore activating enzyme involved in actinomycin biosynthesis

  7. Decarboxylative Trifluoromethylation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.

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    Kautzky, Jacob A; Wang, Tao; Evans, Ryan W; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-05-14

    Herein we disclose an efficient method for the conversion of carboxylic acids to trifluoromethyl groups via the combination of photoredox and copper catalysis. This transformation tolerates a wide range of functionality including heterocycles, olefins, alcohols, and strained ring systems. To demonstrate the broad potential of this new methodology for late-stage functionalization, we successfully converted a diverse array of carboxylic acid-bearing natural products and medicinal agents to the corresponding trifluoromethyl analogues.

  8. Construction of Azabicyclo[6.4.0]dodecatrienes Based on Rhodium(I)-Catalyzed Intramolecular [6+2] Cycloaddition between Azetidine, Allene, and Alkynes.

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    Yasuda, Shigeo; Yokosawa, Haruna; Mukai, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of the allenylazetidine-alkynes with a catalytic amount of [RhCl(CO)dppp]2 (dppp: 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) effected the intramolecular hetero-[6+2]-type ring-closing reaction via the C-C bond cleavage of the azetidine ring to produce azabicyclo[6.4.0]dodecatriene derivatives in good to excellent yields. The formation of the oxa analogue could also be achieved.

  9. Nine of 16 stereoisomeric polyhydroxylated proline amides are potent β-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Benjamin J; Glawar, Andreas F G; Martínez, R Fernando; Ngo, Nigel; Liu, Zilei; Fleet, George W J; Butters, Terry D; Nash, Robert J; Yu, Chu-Yi; Wormald, Mark R; Nakagawa, Shinpei; Adachi, Isao; Kato, Atsushi; Jenkinson, Sarah F

    2014-04-18

    All 16 stereoisomeric N-methyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyproline amides have been synthesized from lactones accessible from the enantiomers of glucuronolactone. Nine stereoisomers, including all eight with a (3R)-hydroxyl configuration, are low to submicromolar inhibitors of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. A structural correlation between the proline amides is found with the ADMDP-acetamide analogues bearing an acetamidomethylpyrrolidine motif. The proline amides are generally more potent than their ADMDP-acetamide equivalents. β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase inhibition by an azetidine ADMDP-acetamide analogue is compared to an azetidine carboxylic acid amide. None of the amides are good α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase inhibitors.

  10. Synthesis and bioactivity of analogues of the marine antibiotic tropodithietic acid

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    Patrick Rabe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropodithietic acid (TDA is a structurally unique sulfur-containing antibiotic from the Roseobacter clade bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 and a few other related species. We have synthesised several structural analogues of TDA and used them in bioactivity tests against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio anguillarum for a structure–activity relationship (SAR study, revealing that the sulfur-free analogue of TDA, tropone-2-carboxylic acid, has an antibiotic activity that is even stronger than the bioactivity of the natural product. The synthesis of this compound and of several analogues is presented and the bioactivity of the synthetic compounds is discussed.

  11. Biostructural and pharmacological studies of bicyclic analogues of the 3-isoxazolol glutamate receptor agonist ibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Pickering, Darryl S; Greenwood, Jeremy R

    2010-01-01

    We describe an improved synthesis and detailed pharmacological characterization of the conformationally restricted analogue of the naturally occurring nonselective glutamate receptor agonist ibotenic acid (RS)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-7-carboxylic acid (7-HPCA, 5......) at AMPA receptor subtypes. Compound 5 was shown to be a subtype-discriminating agonist at AMPA receptors with higher binding affinity and functional potency at GluA1/2 compared to GluA3/4, unlike the isomeric analogue (RS)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid (5-HPCA, 4...

  12. Growth kinetics of racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid nanowires on calcite (104)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Einax, M.; Richter, T.; Nimmrich, M.; Rahe, P.; Stará, Irena G.; Starý, Ivo; Kühnle, A.; Maass, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 13 (2016), č. článku 134702. ISSN 0021-9606 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid nanowires * nc-AFM * calcite * growth kinetics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016

  13. Permeability and toxicity characteristics of L-cysteine and 2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid in Caco-2 cells.

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    Kartal-Hodzic, Alma; Marvola, Tuuli; Schmitt, Mechthild; Harju, Kirsi; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Sivén, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Acetaldehyde is a known mutagenic substance and has been classified as a group-one carcinogen by the WHO. It is possible to bind acetaldehyde locally in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with the semi-essential amino acid l-cysteine, which reacts covalently with acetaldehyde and forms compound 2-methyl-thiozolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA). The Caco-2 cell line was used to determine the permeation of l-cysteine and MTCA, as well as the possible cell toxicity of both substances. Neither of the substances permeated through the Caco-2 cells at the concentrations used in this study, and only the highest concentration of MTCA affected the viability of the cells in the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test. These results showed that when l-cysteine is administered in formulations releasing it locally in the lower parts of GI tract, it is not absorbed but can react with acetaldehyde, and that neither l-cysteine nor MTCA is harmful to the cells when present locally in the upper parts of GI tract. This study also shows that MTCA is sensitive at a lower pH of 5.5. Since stable MTCA is desired in different parts of the GI tract, this observation raises concern over the influence of lower pH on l-cysteine-containing product ability to bind and eliminate carcinogenic acetaldehyde.

  14. 4-(9-Anthryl-1-(2-methoxyphenylspiro[azetidin-3,9′-xanthen]-2-one

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    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The stabilized conformation of the title compound, C36H25NO3, 4-(9-anthryl-1-(2-methoxyphenyl-spiro[azetidin-3,9′-xanthen]-2-one, may be compared with that of the isomeric compound 4-(9-anthryl-1-(4-methoxyphenylspiro[azetidin-3,9′-xanthen]-2-one. In the title isomer, the methoxy group is slightly twisted out of the plane of the attached benzene ring, with a C—O—C—C torsion angle of 31.5 (2°. Its β-lactam ring is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation of −0.021 (1 Å. The β-lactam ring makes dihedral angles of 18.815 (9, 83.33 (7 and 53.62 (8° with the mean planes of the benzene, xanthene and anthracene ring systems, respectively. The structure is stabilized by C—H...π, C—H...N and C—H...O interactions.

  15. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 3-Chloro-1-(4-perimidine methylcarbonylamino-4-phenyl-azetidin-2-one

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    Dinesh R. Panchasara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Perimidine-1-acetic acid hydrazide (1 undergoes facile condensation with aromatic aldehydes to afford the corresponding azomethine (i.e. Schiff base derivatives (2a-h in good yield. Cyclocondensation of compounds (2a-h with chloro acetyl chloride affords 3-chloro-1-(4-perimidine methylcarbonylamino-4-phenyl-azetidin-2-ones (3a-h. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  16. Substituted Amides of Pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids: Synthesis and Biological Activity

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    Katarina Kralova

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 6-chloro-, 5-tert-butyl- or 6-chloro-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid chloride with ring substituted anilines yielded a series of amides, which were tested for their in vitro antimycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activities. The highest antituberculotic activity (72% inhibition against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the highest lipophilicity (log P = 6.85 were shown by the 3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl amide of 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (2o. The 3-methylphenyl amides of 6-chloro- and 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (2d and 2f exhibited only a poor in vitro antifungal effect (MIC = 31.25-500 μmol·dm-3 against all strains tested, although the latter was the most active antialgal compound (IC50 = 0.063 mmol·dm-3. The most active inhibitor of oxygen evolution rate in spinach chloroplasts was the (3,5-bis-trifluoromethylphenylamide of 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (2m, IC50 = 0.026 mmol·dm-3.

  17. Heterocycles [h]-Fused Onto 4-Oxoquinoline-3-Carboxylic Acid, Part VIII [1]. Convenient Synthesis and Antimicrobial Properties of Substituted Hexahydro[1,4]diazepino[2,3-h]quinoline-9-carboxylic acid and Its Tetrahydroquino[7,8-b]benzodiazepine Analog

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    Yusuf M. Al-Hiari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available [1,4]Diazepino[2,3-h]quinolone carboxylic acid 3 and its benzo-homolog tetrahydroquino[7,8-b]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid 5 were prepared via PPAcatalyzed thermal lactamization of the respective 8-amino-7-substituted-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives 8, 10. The latter compounds were obtained by reduction of their 8-nitro-7-substituted-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid precursors 7, 9 which, in turn, were prepared by reaction of 7-chloro-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-nitro-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (6 with each of β-alanine and anthranilic acid. All intermediates and target compounds were characterized using elemental analysis, NMR, IR and MS spectral data. The prepared targets and the intermediates have shown interesting antibacterial activity mainly against Gram positive strains. In particular, compound 8 showed good activity against S. aureus (MIC = 0.39 μg/mL and B. subtilis (MIC = 0.78 μg/mL. Compounds 5a and 9 have also displayed good antifungal activity against C. albicans (MIC = 1.56 μg/mL and 0.78 μg/mL, respectively. None of the compounds tested showed any anticancer activity against solid breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells or a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of (2RS,4R)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid

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    Muche, Simon; Müller, Matthias; Hołyńska, Małgorzata

    2018-03-01

    The condensation reaction of ortho-vanillin and L-cysteine leads to formation of a racemic mixture of (2RS,4R)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and not, as reported in the available literature, to a Schiff base. The racemic mixture was fully characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques, ESI-MS and X-ray diffraction. Addition of ZnCl2 led to formation of crystals in form of colorless needles, suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. The measured crystals were identified as the diastereomer (2R,4R)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 1. The bulk material is racemic. Thiazolidine exists as zwitterion in solid state, as indicated by the crystal structure.

  19. Ring opening of azetidine cycle: First examples of 1-azetidinepropanamine molecules as a template in hybrid organic-inorganic compounds

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    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Tyumentseva, Olga S.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Tananaev, Ivan G.

    2018-01-01

    Three novel uranyl selenate and sulfate oxysalts templated by protonated azetidine molecules, [AzH]+, and its ring-opened counterpart 1-azetidinepropanamine, [AzH(CH2)3NH3]2+, have been prepared and studied by X-ray structural analysis. Conformations of azetidinium cations were analysed by means of infrared vibrational assignments supported by the DFT calculations. Crystallization of [AzH]2 [(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)] (I) from highly acidic solutions suggests that low pH does not necessarily result in the opening of azetidine ring. [AzH(CH2)3NH3][(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)](H2O) (II) and [AzH(CH2)3NH3](H5O2)[(UO2)2(SO4)3(HSO4)] (III) are the first structurally characterized crystalline compounds bearing isolated ring-opened azetidine moiety.

  20. Synthesis of 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, S. A.

    2004-09-01

    Quinolin derivatives are a group of compounds known to possess a wide range of biological activities. The chemistry of quinolines together with their corresponding aldehydes were dealt with in chapter one of this study. Special emphasis was given to the chemistry of benzaldehyde. Twenty five 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid derivatives together with their corresponding intermediates were prepared in this work. Basically, the synthetic design of these compounds arise from the appropriate disconnections of the target 2-phenyl and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acids. The retro synthesis analysis of these compounds reveals pyruvic acid, aromatic amine and benzaldehyde or phenyl pyruvic acid, aromatic amine and benzaldehyde as possible logical precursors for 2-phenyl-and 2,3-diphenyl- quinoline-4-carboxylic acids respectively. The purity and identities of the synthesized compounds were elucidated through chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compounds were heavily subjected to spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, GC/MS, 1 H-and 13 C- NMR). The appropriate disconnections and the mechanisms of the corresponding reactions were given and discussed in chapter three. The spectral data were interpreted and correlated with the target structures. The prepared 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were screened for their antibacterial activity. The compounds were tested against the standard bacterial organisms B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. vulgaris. Some of these compounds were devoid of antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. vulgaris, while others showed moderate activity. All of the tested compounds showed an activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. 2,3-diphenyl -6-sulphanilamide-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid showed the highest activity against the four standard tested organisms.(Author)

  1. Synthesis of 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid derivatives

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    Elhadi, S A [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-09-01

    Quinolin derivatives are a group of compounds known to possess a wide range of biological activities. The chemistry of quinolines together with their corresponding aldehydes were dealt with in chapter one of this study. Special emphasis was given to the chemistry of benzaldehyde. Twenty five 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid derivatives together with their corresponding intermediates were prepared in this work. Basically, the synthetic design of these compounds arise from the appropriate disconnections of the target 2-phenyl and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acids. The retro synthesis analysis of these compounds reveals pyruvic acid, aromatic amine and benzaldehyde or phenyl pyruvic acid, aromatic amine and benzaldehyde as possible logical precursors for 2-phenyl-and 2,3-diphenyl- quinoline-4-carboxylic acids respectively. The purity and identities of the synthesized compounds were elucidated through chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compounds were heavily subjected to spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, GC/MS, {sup 1}H-and {sup 13}C- NMR). The appropriate disconnections and the mechanisms of the corresponding reactions were given and discussed in chapter three. The spectral data were interpreted and correlated with the target structures. The prepared 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were screened for their antibacterial activity. The compounds were tested against the standard bacterial organisms B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. vulgaris. Some of these compounds were devoid of antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. vulgaris, while others showed moderate activity. All of the tested compounds showed an activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. 2,3-diphenyl -6-sulphanilamide-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid showed the highest activity against the four standard tested organisms.(Author)

  2. Sulfur-containing constituents and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative from pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Ma, Jinyu; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chao, Jianfei; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-12-01

    Two sulfur-containing compounds, (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-carboxy-2-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)allylthio)ethyl-amino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (1) and (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-(carboxymethylamino)-3-((E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)allylthio)-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (2), and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative, 6-(3-(1H-pyrrole-2-carbonyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid (3), together with eighteen known phenolic compounds, were isolated from the fruits of pineapple. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. Some of these compounds showed inhibitory activities against tyrosinase. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values of compounds 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 are lower than 1 mM. These compounds may contribute to the well-known anti-browning effect of pineapple juice and be potential skin whitening agents in cosmetic applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A structural and functional model for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmann, Madleen; Oldenburg, Fabio; Braun, Beatrice; Réglier, Marius; Simaan, A Jalila; Limberg, Christian

    2015-10-12

    The hitherto most realistic low-molecular-weight analogue for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO) is reported. The ACCOs 2-His-1-carboxylate iron(II) active site was mimicked by a TpFe moiety, to which the natural substrate ACC could be bound. The resulting complex [Tp(Me,Ph) FeACC] (1), according to X-ray diffraction analysis performed for the nickel analogue, represents an excellent structural model, featuring ACC coordinated in a bidentate fashion-as proposed for the enzymatic substrate complex-as well as a vacant coordination site that forms the basis for the first successful replication also of the ACCO function: 1 is the first known ACC complex that reacts with O2 to produce ethylene. As a FeOOH species had been suggested as intermediate in the catalytic cycle, H2 O2 was tested as the oxidant, too, and indeed evolution of ethylene proceeded even more rapidly to give 65 % yield. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS ELECTROOXIDATION ON SHUNGITE ELECTRODE

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    Oleksandr Davydenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article discusses the electrochemical method of directional conversion of carboxylic acids, which are the most aggressive hydrocarbons oxidation products back into the corresponding hydrocarbons. Existing methods for the regeneration of waste petroleum oils have significant drawbacks, which include the formation of new hard-reclaimed waste and loss of a significant part of the oil during regeneration. Methods: Electrooxidation processes of carboxylic acid on various electrode materials: platinum, graphite and shungite anodes were studied. Results: Potentiostatic polarization curves with simultaneous measurement of near-electrode solution pH showed differences in the process on these anode materials: dimer yield for Kolbe is decreased under the transition from platinum to shungite. At potentials higher than 2.0 v, carboxylic acid has a higher adsorbability compared to water. Therefore Faraday’s side-process of water oxidation doesn’t almost occur, which contributes to high yield of expected product according to current. Electrolysis of carboxylic acids solutions under controlled potential (2.0 and 2.4 V and chromatographic analysis of the formed products showed that along with the dimeric structures formation for Kolbe reaction, the occurrence of a hydrocarbons mixture takes place, which may be the result of disproportionation of hydrocarbon radicals (alkane and alkene and hydrocarbons of isomeric structure, by further oxidation of the hydrocarbon radical to carbocation and its subsequent transformation into the corresponding saturated and unsaturated isomers. Such statement is not supported by conception of the process of one- and two-electron carboxylic acid oxidation. Discussion: General carboxylic acid oxidation scheme according to one-electron mechanism (dimerization and disproportionation of the radical and two-electron mechanism (formation and carbocation rearrangement is proposed. The formation of hydrocarbons under

  5. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  6. Synthesis and Transformations of di-endo-3-Aminobicyclo-[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

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    Márta Palkó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available all-endo-3-amino-5-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid (13 and all-endo-5-amino-6-(hydroxymethylbicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ol (10 were prepared via dihydro-1,3-oxazine or g-lactone intermediates by the stereoselective functionalization of an N-protected derivative of endo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid (2. Ring closure of b-amino ester 4 resulted in tricyclic pyrimidinones 15 and 16. The structures, stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined by IR and NMR.

  7. A Concise Synthesis and the Antibacterial Activity of 5,6-Dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKSU, Süleyman; UĞUZ, Metin Tansu

    2014-01-01

    5,6-Dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid was synthesized in 7 steps and with an overall yield of 46%. Bromination of 2-naphthol, and methylation with dimethyl sulfate followed by Friedel-Crafts acylation with AcCl gave 2-acetyl-5-bromo-6-methoxynaphthalene. 2-Acetyl-5-bromo-6-methoxynaphthalene was converted to 5-bromo-6- methoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid by a haloform reaction. The esterification of the acid with methanol, methoxylation with NaOCH3 in the presence of CuI and s...

  8. Syntheses, structures, photoluminescence and photocatalysis of 2D layered lanthanide-carboxylates with 2, 2′-dithiodibenzoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ling; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Qiu, Xing-Tai; Sun, Yan-Qiong, E-mail: sunyq@fzu.edu.cn; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2017-02-15

    Two series of lanthanide-carboxylates, [Ln(2,2′-dtba)(2,2′-Hdtba)(EtOH)]{sub n} (I:Ln=Eu(1a), Dy(1b)) and [Ln(2,2′-dtba)(2,2′-Hdtba)(4,4′-bpy){sub 0.5}]{sub n} (II:Ln=Eu(2a), Dy(2b), Tb(2c) 2,2′-H{sub 2}dtba=2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid, 4,4′-bpy=4,4′-bipyridine) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Interestingly, the H{sub 2}dtba organic ligand was generated by in situ S–S reaction of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid. Compounds I and II possess different 2D layered structures based on similar 1D [Ln(2,2′-dtba)]{sup +} chains. Photoluminescence studies reveal that compounds I and II exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands. Remarkably, Compounds 1b and 2a both exhibit good photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine-B (Rh-B) under the simulated sunlight irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Two series of lanthanide-carboxylates have been in situ synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The lanthanide-carboxylates exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands and good photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine-B. - Highlights: • 2D layered lanthanide-carboxylates with 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid. • In situ S–S reaction of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid under hydrothermal condition. • The Emission spectra of I and II exhibit the characteristic transition of lanthanide ions. • Compounds 1b and 2a exhibit good photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine-B.

  9. Oxidative allene amination for the synthesis of azetidin-3-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eileen G; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2015-10-05

    Regioselectivity in the aziridination of silyl-substituted homoallenic sulfamates is readily diverted to the distal double bond of the allene to yield endocyclic bicyclic methyleneaziridines with excellent stereocontrol. Subsequent reaction with electrophilic oxygen sources initiates facile rearrangement to densely functionalized, fused azetidin-3-ones in excellent d.r., effectively transferring the axial chirality of the allene to central chirality in the products. The steric nature of the silyl group dictates which of the two rings of the fused azetidin-3-one will undergo further functionalization, providing an additional element of diversity for the preparation of enantioenriched azetidine scaffolds with potential biological activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis and bioactivities of Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid derivatives based on the modification of PCA carboxyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhipeng; Niu, Junfan; Liu, Hao; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Junkai; Wu, Qinglai

    2017-05-01

    Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) as a natural product widely exists in microbial metabolites of Pseudomonads and Streptomycetes and has been registered for the fungicide against rice sheath blight in China. To find higher fungicidal activities compounds and study the effects on fungicidal activities after changing the carboxyl group of PCA, we synthesized a series of PCA derivatives by modifying the carboxyl group of PCA and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR and HRMS. Most compounds exhibited significant fungicidal activities in vitro. In particular, compound 6 exhibited inhibition effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 values of 4.35mg/L and compound 3b exhibited effect against Fusarium graminearum with EC 50 values of 8.30mg/L, compared to the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 7.88mg/L (Rhizoctonia solani) and 127.28mg/L (Fusarium graminearum), respectively. The results indicated that the carboxyl group of PCA could be modified to be amide group, acylhydrazine group, ester group, methyl, hydroxymethyl, chloromethyl and ether group etc. And appropriate modifications on carboxyl group of PCA were useful to extend the fungicidal scope. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and GGCT Inhibitory Activity of N-Glutaryl-L-alanine Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Hiromi; Yoshiki, Tatsuhiro; Hoshiya, Naoyuki; Uenishi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) is an important enzyme that cleaves γ-glutamyl-amino acid in the γ-glutamyl cycle to release 5-oxoproline and amino acid. Eighteen N-acyl-L-alanine analogues including eleven new compounds have been synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activity against recombinant human GGCT protein. Simple N-glutaryl-L-alanine was found to be the most potent inhibitor for GGCT. Other N-glutaryl-L-alanine analogues having methyl and dimethyl substituents at the 2-position were moderately effective, while N-(3R-aminoglutary)-L-alanine, the substrate having an (R)-amino group at the 3-position or N-(N-methyl-3-azaglutaryl)-L-alanine, the substrate having an N-methyl substituent on the 3-azaglutaryl carbon, in constract, exhibited excellent inhibition properties.

  12. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayah Sekeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  13. Liposomes containing alkylated methotrexate analogues for phospholipase A(2) mediated tumor targeted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jensen, Simon Skøde

    2009-01-01

    of alkylated compounds in liposomes, it was demonstrated that the MTX-analogue partitioned into the water phase and thereby became available for cell uptake. It was concluded that liposomes containing alkylated MTX-analogues show promise as a drug delivery system, although the MTX-analogue needs to be more......Two lipophilic methotrexate analogues have been synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against KATO III and HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Both analogues contained a C-16-alkyl chain attached to the gamma-carboxylic acid and one of the analogues had an additional benzyl group attached...... cytotoxicity was incorporated into liposomes that were designed to be particularly Susceptible to a liposome degrading enzyme, secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)), which is found in high concentrations in tumors of several different cancer types. Liposome incorporation was investigated by differential...

  14. Synthesis, structure, and glutathione peroxidase-like activity of amino acid containing ebselen analogues and diaryl diselenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Shah, Poonam; Singh, Harkesh B; Butcher, Ray J

    2011-11-04

    The synthesis of some ebselen analogues and diaryl diselenides, which have amino acid functions as an intramolecularly coordinating group (Se···O) has been achieved by the DCC coupling procedure. The reaction of 2,2'-diselanediylbis(5-tert-butylisophthalic acid) or the activated ester tetrakis(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl) 2,2'-diselanediylbis(5-tert-butylisophthalate) with different C-protected amino acids (Gly, L-Phe, L-Ala, and L-Trp) afforded the corresponding ebselen analogues. The used precursor diselenides have been found to undergo facile intramolecular cyclization during the amide bond formation reaction. In contrast, the DCC coupling of 2,2'-diselanediyldibenzoic acid with C-protected amino acids (Gly, L/D-Ala and L-Phe) affords the corresponding amide derivatives and not the ebselen analogues. Some of the representative compounds have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like activities of the ebselen analogues and the diaryl diselenides have been evaluated by using the coupled reductase assay method. Intramolecularly stabilized ebselen analogues show slightly higher maximal velocity (V(max)) than ebselen. However, they do not show any GPx-like activity at low GSH concentrations at which ebselen and related diselenides are active. This could be attributed to the peroxide-mediated intramolecular cyclization of the corresponding selenenyl sulfide and diaryl diselenide intermediates generated during the catalytic cycle. Interestingly, the diaryl diselenides with alanine (L,L or D,D) amide moieties showed excellent catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(M)) with low K(M) values in comparison to the other compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synthesis of Amino Acid Analogues of 5H-Dibenz[b,f]azepine and Evaluation of their Radical Scavenging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vijay Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the synthesis of tyrosine, phenyl alanine, hydroxy proline and threonine free amino acid analogues of 5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine is proposed. 5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine was prepared by known method. The key intermediate 3-chloro-1-(5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-ylpropan-1-one was obtained by N-acylation of 5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine with 3-chloro propionyl chloride. Further coupling of respective free amino acid to produce 2-(3-(5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-yl-3-oxopropylamino3-(4 hydroxyphenyl propanoic acid, 2-(3-(5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-yl-3-oxopropylamino-3-phenyl propanoicacid,1-(3-(5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-yl-3-oxopropyl-3-hydroxypyrolidine-2-carboxylic acid and 2-(3-(5H-dibenz[b,f] azepine-yl-3-oxopropyl amino-3-hydroxy butanoic acid. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their potential over 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA and ascorbic acid (AA were used as the reference antioxidant compounds and also the comparative study with synthesized compounds was done. Under our experimental conditions tyrosine, hydroxy proline and threonine analogues possess a direct scavenging effect on trapping the stable free radical DPPH. Hydroxy proline analogues showed a significant radical scavenging activity among the synthesized analogues

  16. Facile syntheses of isotope-labeled chiral octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid and its N-methyl analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinsheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    We have synthesized deuterium and carbon-14 labeled enantiomerically pure octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid (PD0140417), N-methyl octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid (PD0348183) and their racemic analogs (PD0108405 and PD0338055). [ring-U- 14 C]PD0140417 was prepared from [ring-U- 14 C]benzoic acid in a seven-step synthesis in 6.2% overall radiochemical yield. [ 14 C]PD0348183 was prepared from [ 14 C]BaCO 3 in a five-step synthesis in 16% radiochemical yield. Additionally, [D]PD0108405 and [D]PD0338055 were synthesized by direct platinum-catalyzed hydrogenation with deuterium gas. (author)

  17. Indirect approach to C-3 branched 1,2-cis-glycofuranosides: synthesis of aceric acid glycoside analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo T; Hughes, David L; Nepogodiev, Sergey A; Field, Robert A

    2008-02-04

    Aceric acid (3-C-carboxy-5-deoxy-alpha-l-xylofuranose) residues are present in pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG II) in the form of synthetically challenging 1,2-cis-glycofuranosides. To access synthetic fragments of RG II incorporating aceric acid, a four-step procedure based on C-2 epimerisation of initially prepared 1,2-trans-glycofuranoside was developed. Readily available derivatives of branched-chain l-lyxofuranose bearing a 3-C-vinyl group as a masked 3-C-carboxyl group were investigated as potential precursors of aceric acid units. In the first step of the procedure, installation of a participating group at C-2 of the furanose ring ensured stereocontrol of the O-glycosylation, which was carried out with the thioglycoside of 2-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-benzyl-3-C-vinyl-L-lyxofuranose. After the glycosylation step, the 2-O-acetyl group was removed, the free 2-OH group was oxidised and the resulting ketone was finally reduced to form the C-3-vinyl-L-xylofuranoside. The use of L-Selectride in the key reduction reaction was essential to achieve the required stereoselectivity to generate 1,2-cis-furanoside.

  18. Reaction of uranyl nitrate with carboxylic di-acids under hydrothermal conditions. Crystal structure of complexes with L(+)-tartaric and oxalic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, P.

    2007-01-01

    L(+)-tartaric acid reacts with uranyl nitrate in the presence of KOH, under mild hydrothermal conditions, to give the complex [UO 2 (C 4 H 4 O 6 )(H 2 O)] (1), the first uranyl tartrate to be crystallographically characterized. Each tartrate ligand bridges three uranyl ions, one of them in chelating fashion through proximal carboxylate and hydroxyl groups. The resulting assemblage is two-dimensional, with the uranyl pentagonal bipyramidal coordination polyhedra separated from one another. Prolonged heating of an uranyl tartrate solution resulted in oxidative cleavage of the acid and formation of the oxalate complex [(UO 2 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 2 (OH)Na(H 2 O) 2 ] (2). The bis-bidentate oxalate and bridging hydroxide groups ensure the formation of sheets with corner-sharing uranyl pentagonal bipyramidal coordination polyhedra, in which six-membered metallacycles encompass the sodium ions. These sheets are assembled into a three-dimensional framework through further oxo-bonding of the sodium ions. (authors)

  19. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Richard L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate

  20. SYNTHESIS OF FLAVANONE-6-CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM SALICYLIC ACID DERIVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idham Darussalam Mardjan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of flavanone-6-carboxylic acid derivatives had been conducted via the route of chalcone. The synthesis was carried out from salicylic acid derivative, i.e. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, via esterification, Fries rearrangement, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and 1,4-nucleophilic addition reactions. Structure elucidation of products was performed using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrometers. Reaction of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol catalyzed with sulfuric acid produced methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in 87% yield. The acid-catalyzed-acetylation of the product using acetic anhydride gave methyl 4-acetoxybenzoate in 75% yield. Furthermore, solvent-free Fries rearrangement of methyl 4-acetoxybenzoate in the presence of AlCl3 produced 3-acetyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the acetophenone derivatives in 67% yield. Then, Claisen-Schmidt condensation of the acetophenone and benzaldehyde derivatives of p-anisaldehyde and veratraldehyde in basic condition gave 2'-hydroxychalcone-5'-carboxylic acid derivatives  in 81 and 71 % yield, respectively. Finally, the ring closure reaction of the chalcone yielded the corresponding flavanone-6-carboxylic acids in 67 and 59% yield, respectively.

  1. Aminolysis of resin-bound N-nosylaziridine-2-carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian A; Christensen, Caspar; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    [Structure: see text] Solid-phase synthesis is a rapidly developing area of organic chemistry, of particular importance for medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. Aziridines have previously only rarely been applied in solid-phase synthesis. In the present work, aminolysis of resin-bound, sprin......-loaded N-nitrobenzenesulfonyl-activated aziridine-2-carboxylic acids has been optimized and employed in the synthesis of a number of open-chain and heterocyclic scaffolds, including enantiopure products....

  2. 18F-Labelled metomidate analogues as adrenocortical imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, Maria; Karimi, Farhad; Lindhe, Orjan; Langstroem, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Two- and one-step syntheses of 18 F-labelled analogues of metomidate, such as 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (1), 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (2), 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (3), 3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (4) and 3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (5) are presented. Methods: Analogues 1-5 were prepared by a two-step reaction sequence that started with the synthesis of either 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate or 3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. These were used as 18 F-alkylating agents in the second step, in which they reacted with the ammonium salt of a 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid. One-step-labelling syntheses of 1, 2 and 5 were also explored. Analogues 1-4 were biologically validated by frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution. Metabolite analysis was performed for 2 and 3. Results: The radiochemical yield of the two-step synthesis was in the range of 10-29% and that of the one-step synthesis was 25-37%. Using microwave irradiation in the one-step synthesis of 1 and 2 increased the radiochemical yield to 46±3% and 79±30%, respectively. Conclusion: Both the frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution results indicated that analogue 2 has a potential as an adrenocortical imaging agent, having the highest degree of specific adrenal binding and best ratio of adrenal to organ uptake among the compounds studied.

  3. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Loree Joanne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); King, C. Judson [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO2 and H2S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The

  4. Formation and High-order Carboxylic Acids (RCOOH) in Interstellar Analogous Ices of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane(CH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng; Turner, Andrew M.; Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2018-01-01

    This laboratory study simulated the abiotic formation of carboxylic acids (RCOOH) in interstellar analogous ices of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at 10 K upon exposure to energetic electrons. The chemical processing of the ices and the subsequent warm-up phase were monitored online and in situ, exploiting Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Characteristic absorptions of functional groups of carboxylic acids (RCOOH) were observed in the infrared spectra of the irradiated ice. Two proposed reaction mechanisms replicated the kinetic profiles of the carboxylic acids along with the decay profile of the precursors during the irradiation via hydrocarbon formation, followed by carboxylation and/or through acetic acid along with mass growth processes of the alkyl chain. Mass spectra recorded during the warm-up phase demonstrated that these acids are distributed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) up to decanoic acid (C9H19COOH). High-dose irradiation studies (91 ± 14 eV) converted low-molecular-weight acids such as acetic acid (CH3COOH) and propionic acid (C2H5COOH) to higher-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, compared to low-dose irradiation studies (18 ± 3 eV). The traces of the {{{H}}}2{{C}}= {{C}}({OH}{)}2+ (m/z = 60) fragment—a link to linear carboxylic acids—implied that higher-order acids (C n H2n+1COOH, n ≥ 5) are likely branched, which correlates with the recent analysis of the structures of the monocarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite.

  5. Pd(II)/Bipyridine-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Arylboronic Acids to α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids. Synthesis of β-Quaternary Carbons Substituted Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yang, Zhenyu; Ni, Yuxin; Song, Kaixuan; Shen, Kai; Lin, Shaohui; Pan, Qinmin

    2017-08-04

    Pd(II)/bipyridine-catalyzed conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids (including β,β-disubstituted acrylic acids) was developed and optimized, which provided a mild and convenient method for the highly challenging synthesis of β-quaternary carbons substituted carboxylic acids.

  6. Extraction characteristics of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in mixtures of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid and carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.H.

    1983-03-01

    Dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) has been shown to be an effective liquid cation exchanger for the extraction of metal ions. This extractant has proven to be successful in the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in the pH range of 2.0 to 3.0, although it shows little selectivity for individual ions because of its strong acid character. In an effort to improve the selectivity of HDNNS between trivalent lanthanides and actinides, carboxylic acids were added to the organic phase and the effects on the extraction characteristics of HDNNS were investigated. Three carboxylic acids - nonanoic, cyclohexanecarboxylic, and cyclohexanebutyric - were studied with the following metals: Am(III), Cm(III), Ce(III), Eu(III), and Tm(III). The distributions of the metal ions were studied holding the HDNNS concentration constant while varying the carboxylic acid concentrations over a range of 1.0 x 10 -5 M to 1.0 M. Results indicated that the greatest enhancement of the extraction occurred at a carboxylic acid concentration of 1.0 x 10 -2 M with negative effects occurring at 0.5 M and 1.0 M. The effects on the extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides were interpreted in terms of the structural differences of the carboxylic acids, the effect of the carboxylic acids on the HDNNS extraction mechanism, and the ionic properties of the metals studied

  7. Synthesis of N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid mimetics via selective protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, V; Pícha, J; Budesínský, M; Sanda, M; Jirácek, J; Holz, R C; Hlavácek, J

    2010-03-01

    The search for potential inhibitors that target so far unexplored bacterial enzyme mono-N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) has stimulated a development of methodology for quick and efficient preparation of mono-N-acylated 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) derivatives bearing the different carboxyl groups or lipophilic moieties on their amino group.

  8. {sup 18}F-Labelled metomidate analogues as adrenocortical imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Maria; Karimi, Farhad [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 576, S-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Lindhe, Orjan [Uppsala Imanet, GE Healthcare, Box 967, S-751 09 Uppsala (Sweden); Langstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 576, S-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: bengt.langstrom@biorg.uu.se

    2009-05-15

    Introduction: Two- and one-step syntheses of {sup 18}F-labelled analogues of metomidate, such as 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (1), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (2), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (3), 3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (4) and 3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (5) are presented. Methods: Analogues 1-5 were prepared by a two-step reaction sequence that started with the synthesis of either 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate or 3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. These were used as {sup 18}F-alkylating agents in the second step, in which they reacted with the ammonium salt of a 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid. One-step-labelling syntheses of 1, 2 and 5 were also explored. Analogues 1-4 were biologically validated by frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution. Metabolite analysis was performed for 2 and 3. Results: The radiochemical yield of the two-step synthesis was in the range of 10-29% and that of the one-step synthesis was 25-37%. Using microwave irradiation in the one-step synthesis of 1 and 2 increased the radiochemical yield to 46{+-}3% and 79{+-}30%, respectively. Conclusion: Both the frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution results indicated that analogue 2 has a potential as an adrenocortical imaging agent, having the highest degree of specific adrenal binding and best ratio of adrenal to organ uptake among the compounds studied.

  9. Chlorogenic acid analogues from Gynura nepalensis protect H9c2 cardiomyoblasts against H2O2-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bang-Wei; Li, Jin-Long; Guo, Bin-Bin; Fan, Hui-Min; Zhao, Wei-Min; Wang, He-Yao

    2016-11-01

    Chlorogenic acid has shown protective effect on cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress-induced damage. Herein, we evaluated nine caffeoylquinic acid analogues (1-9) isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis for their protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to H 2 O 2 (0.3 mmol/L) for 3 h, and cell viability was detected with MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 staining was performed to evaluate cell apoptosis. MMPs (mitochondrial membrane potentials) were measured using a JC-1 assay kit, and ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation was measured using CM-H 2 DCFDA. The expression levels of relevant proteins were detected using Western blot analysis. Exposure to H 2 O 2 markedly decreased the viability of H9c2 cells and catalase activity, and increased LDH release and intracellular ROS production; accompanied by a loss of MMP and increased apoptotic rate. Among the 9 chlorogenic acid analogues as well as the positive control drug epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) tested, compound 6 (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid ethyl ester) was the most effective in protecting H9c2 cells from H 2 O 2 -induced cell death. Pretreatment with compound 6 (1.56-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently alleviated all the H 2 O 2 -induced detrimental effects. Moreover, exposure to H 2 O 2 significantly increased the levels of Bax, p53, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9, and decreased the level of Bcl-2, resulting in cell apoptosis. Exposure to H 2 O 2 also significantly increased the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK in the H9c2 cells. Pretreatment with compound 6 (12.5 and 25 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced increase in the level of cleaved caspase-9 but not of cleaved caspase-8. It also dose-dependently suppressed the H 2 O 2 -induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK but not that of p38. Compound 6 isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis potently protects H9c2

  10. Antibacterial activity of 2-alkynoic fatty acids against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Rivera-Torres, Yaritza; Maldonado-Domínguez, Gamalier; Domínguez, Idializ; Ríos, Camille; Díaz, Damarith; Rodríguez, José W.; Altieri-Rivera, Joanne S.; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Cintrón, Gabriel; Montano, Nashbly; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2014-01-01

    The first study aimed at determining the structural characteristics needed to prepare antibacterial 2-alkynoic fatty acids (2-AFAs) was accomplished by synthesizing several 2-AFAs and other analogues in 18-76% overall yields. Among all the compounds tested, the 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA) displayed the best overall antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 15.6 μg/mL), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (MIC = 15.5 μg/mL), and Bacillus cereus (MIC = 31.3 μg/mL), as well as against the Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.8 μg/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 125 μg/mL). In addition, 2-HDA displayed significant antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 (MIC = 15.6 μg/mL) and clinical isolates of MRSA (MIC = 3.9 μg/mL). No direct relationship was found between the antibacterial activity of 2-AFAs and their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggesting that the antibacterial properties of these fatty acids are not mediated by micelle formation. It was demonstrated that the presence of a triple bond at C-2 as well as the carboxylic acid moiety in 2-AFAs are important for their antibacterial activity. 2-HDA has the potential to be further evaluated for use in antibacterial formulations. PMID:24365283

  11. Cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates as catalyst prototypes for self-induced hydrogenation of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Masayuki; Saito, Susumu

    2015-08-28

    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in bio-renewable and petrochemical sources of carbon. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to yield alcohols produces water as the only byproduct, and thus represents a possible next generation, sustainable method for the production of these alternative energy carriers/platform chemicals on a large scale. Reported herein are molecular insights into cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates ([Ru(OCOR)](+)) as prototypical catalysts for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. The substrate-derived coordinated carboxylate was found to function initially as a proton acceptor for the heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen, and subsequently also as an acceptor for the hydride from [Ru-H](+), which was generated in the first step (self-induced catalysis). The hydrogenation proceeded selectively and at high levels of functional group tolerance, a feature that is challenging to achieve with existing heterogeneous/homogeneous catalyst systems. These fundamental insights are expected to significantly benefit the future development of metal carboxylate-catalysed hydrogenation processes of bio-renewable resources.

  12. Additional Nucleophile-Free FeCl3-Catalyzed Green Deprotection of 2,4-Dimethoxyphenylmethyl-Protected Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Masuda, Masahiro; Honda, Akie; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Park, Kwihwan; Yasukawa, Naoki; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2016-01-01

    The deprotection of the methoxyphenylmethyl (MPM) ether and ester derivatives can be generally achieved by the combinatorial use of a catalytic Lewis acid and stoichiometric nucleophile. The deprotections of 2,4-dimethoxyphenylmethyl (DMPM)-protected alcohols and carboxylic acids were found to be effectively catalyzed by iron(III) chloride without any additional nucleophile to form the deprotected mother alcohols and carboxylic acids in excellent yields. Since the present deprotection proceeds via the self-assembling mechanism of the 2,4-DMPM protective group itself to give the hardly-soluble resorcinarene derivative as a precipitate, the rigorous purification process by silica-gel column chromatography was unnecessary and the sufficiently-pure alcohols and carboxylic acids were easily obtained in satisfactory yields after simple filtration.

  13. Polarographic study of Cd(2), Pb(2), Hg(1) in anhydrous acetic acid; Etude polarographique de Cd(2), Pb(2), Hg(1) dans l'acide acetique anhydre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa-Botta, M C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Anhydrous acetic acid is a solvent which can be compared to water as far as its behaviour towards acid-base reactions is concerned. It is in fact, like water both a proton acceptor (basic) - and as such it can provoke the dissociation of acids - and a proton donor (acid). This amphoteric behaviour is characterized by the equilibrium: 2 H O Ac {r_reversible} Ac OH{sub 2}{sup +} + Ac O{sup -} with K{sub i} = |Ac O H{sub 2}|{sup +} |Ac O{sup -}| = 10{sup -14.5} analogue to 2 H{sub 2}O {r_reversible} H{sub 3}O{sup +} + HO{sup -} with K{sub i} = |H{sub 3}O{sup +}| |HO{sup -}| = 10{sup -14} The acid-base reactions can in principle be characterized by a pH scale based on a definition similar to that for the pH scale in aqueous solutions. The essential difference however between aqueous and acetic acid solutions is due to the fact that acetic acid has a low dielectric constant. {epsilon} = 6.1 (at 25 deg. C) The ions therefore remain associated, almost completely, in the form of ion-pairs produced as a result of the strong electrostatic interactions. This phenomenon requires us to modify the reasoning usually applied to aqueous solutions. The new general methods of reasoning have been established and discussed by G. CHARLOT and B. TREMILLON. We will make use of them for the particular case under consideration. In the first part, we have employed the polarographic method for the study of the acetic complexes of two elements: cadmium(II) and lead (II). In the second part we have tried to show that mercurous halides are formed in acetic acid; we have attempted to determine their stability. (author) [French] L'acide acetique anhydre est un solvant qui peut etre rapproche de l'eau par son comportement envers les reactions acides-bases. Il est en effet, comme l'eau, a la fois accepteur de protons (basique) - et comme tel agit sur la dissociation des acides - et donneur de protons (acide). Ce pouvoir amphotere est caracterise par l'equilibre: 2 H O Ac {r_reversible} Ac OH{sub 2

  14. Novel Polymers with Carboxylic Acid Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders Daugaard; Malmström, Eva; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Click chemistry has been used to prepare a range of novel polymers with pendant carboxylic acid side groups. Four azido carboxylic acids, either mono- or difunctional and aliphatic or aromatic, have been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Extensive model reactions with 1-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzene......, the simplest model for poly(4-hydroxystyrene), and the four azido carboxylic acids have been conducted to establish the proper reaction conditions and provide an analytical frame for the corresponding polymers. Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) moieties in three different polymers—poly(4-hydroxystyrene), poly(4...... the polymers in general exhibit [when poly(4-hydroxystyrene) is a substantial part] significant changes in the glass-transition temperature from the polar poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (120–130 °C) to the much less polar alkyne polymers (46–60 °C). A direct correlation between the nature of the pendant groups...

  15. Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonist (2S,3R)-3-(3-Carboxyphenyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Storgaard, Morten; Møller, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Herein we describe the first structure-activity relationship study of the broad-range iGluR antagonist (2S,3R)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (1) by exploring the pharmacological effect of substituents in the 4, 4', or 5' positions and the bioisosteric substitution of the distal...... carboxylic acid for a phosphonic acid moiety. Of particular interest is a hydroxyl group in the 4' position 2a which induced a preference in binding affinity for homomeric GluK3 over GluK1 (Ki = 0.87 and 4.8 μM, respectively). Two X-ray structures of ligand binding domains were obtained: 2e in GluA2-LBD...... and 2f in GluK1-LBD, both at 1.9 Å resolution. Compound 2e induces a D1-D2 domain opening in GluA2-LBD of 17.3-18.8° and 2f a domain opening in GluK1-LBD of 17.0-17.5° relative to the structures with glutamate. The pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate moiety of 2e and 2f shows a similar binding mode as kainate...

  16. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of (Z/E-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienamide and Its 6,7-Epoxy Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyan Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to find new lead compounds with high fungicidal activity, (Z/E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acids were synthesized via selective two-step oxidation using the commercially available geraniol/nerol as raw materials. Twenty-eight different (Z/E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienamide derivatives were prepared by reactions of (Z/E-carboxylic acid with various aromatic and aliphatic amines, followed by oxidation of peroxyacetic acid to afford their 6,7-epoxy analogues. All of the compounds were characterized by HR-ESI-MS and 1H-NMR spectral data. The preliminary bioassays showed that some of these compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. For example, 5C, 5I and 6b had 94.0%, 93.4% and 91.5% inhibition rates against R. solani, respectively. Compound 5f displayed EC50 values of 4.3 and 9.7 µM against Fusahum graminearum and R. Solani, respectively.

  17. Engineering Copper Carboxylate Functionalities on Water Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Enhancement of Ammonia Removal Capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Jayraj N.; Garcia-Gutierrez, Erika Y.; Moran, Colton M.; Deneff, Jacob I.; Walton, Krista S.

    2017-02-02

    Functionalization of copper carboxylate groups on a series of UiO-66 metal organic framework (MOF) analogues and their corresponding impact on humid and dry ammonia adsorption behavior were studied. Relative locations of possible carboxylic acid binding sites for copper on the MOF analogues were varied on ligand and missing linker defect sites. Materials after copper incorporation exhibited increased water vapor and ammonia affinity during isothermal adsorption and breakthrough experiments, respectively. The introduction of copper markedly increased ammonia adsorption capacities for all adsorbents possessing carboxyl binding sites. In particular, the new MOF UiO-66-(COOCu)2 displayed the highest ammonia breakthrough capacities of 6.38 and 6.84 mmol g–1 under dry and humid conditions, respectively, while retaining crystallinity and porosity. Relative carboxylic acid site locations were also found to impact sorbent stability, as missing linker defect functionalized materials degraded under humid conditions after copper incorporation. Postsynthetic metal insertion provides a method for adding sites that are analogous to open metal sites while maintaining good structural stability.

  18. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under this... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali...

  19. 4-Methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic Acid. Peculiarities of Preparation, Structure, and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Ukrainets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the regularities of the structure–analgesic activity relationship, the peculiarities of obtaining, the spatial structure, and biological properties of 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid and some of its derivatives have been studied. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it has been proven that varying the reaction conditions using alkaline hydrolysis of methyl 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylate makes it possible to successfully synthesize a monohydrate of the target acid, its sodium salt, or 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine. The derivatographic study of the thermal stability of 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid monohydrate has been carried out; based on this study, the optimal conditions completely eliminating the possibility of unwanted decomposition have been proposed for obtaining its anhydrous form. It has been shown that 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine is easily formed during the decarboxylation of not only 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid, but also its sodium salt, which is capable of losing СО2 both in rather soft conditions of boiling in an aqueous solution, and in more rigid conditions of dry heating. The NMR spectra of the compounds synthesized are given; their spatial structure is discussed. To study the biological properties of 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid and its sodium salt, the experimental model of inflammation caused by subplantar introduction of the carrageenan solution in one of the hind limbs of white rats was used. The anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic effect were assessed by the degree of edema reduction and the ability to affect the pain response compared to the animals of control groups. According to the results of the tests performed, it has been found that after intraperitoneal injection

  20. Hsp70-GlcNAc-binding activity is released by stress, proteasome inhibition, and protein misfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinez, Celine; Mir, Anne-Marie; Leroy, Yves; Cacan, Rene; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Lefebvre, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Numerous recent works strengthen the idea that the nuclear and cytosolic-specific O-GlcNAc glycosylation protects cells against injuries. We have first investigated O-GlcNAc level and Hsp70-GlcNAc-binding activity (HGBA) behaviour after exposure of HeLa and HepG 2 cells to a wide variety of stresses. O-GlcNAc and HGBA responses were different according to the stress and according to the cell. HGBA was released for almost all stresses, while O-GlcNAc level was modified either upwards or downwards, depending to the stress. Against all expectations, we demonstrated that energy charge did not significantly vary with stress whereas UDP-GlcNAc pools were more dramatically affected even if differences in UDP-GlcNAc contents were not correlated with O-GlcNAc variations suggesting that O-GlcNAc transferase is itself finely regulated during cell injury. Finally, HGBA could be triggered by proteasome inhibition and by L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (a proline analogue) incorporation demonstrating that protein misfolding is one of the key-activator of this Hsp70 property

  1. Ru(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Heck-Type Olefination of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids with Styrenes through Carboxylate-Assisted C-H Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Suman; Mandal, Anup; Sahoo, Harekrishna; Mallik, Sumitava; Grandhi, Gowri Sankar; Baidya, Mahiuddin

    2018-02-02

    A straightforward synthesis of 2-styrylbenzoic acids from aryl carboxylic acids is disclosed through a carboxylate-assisted coupling under Ru(II) catalysis. This protocol is simple and exhibits broad scope with high tolerance of common organic functional groups, providing good to excellent yields of diverse olefinated products. The efficacy of this protocol has been showcased through sequential syntheses of isochromanone, isocoumarin, and formal synthesis of anacardic acid derivative in good yields.

  2. Carboxylic acid-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods for gemcitabine delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrami, Zohreh; Badiei, Alireza; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Mono, di, and tri amino-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods were synthesized by post-grafting method using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane, N-(2-aminoethyl-)3- aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino] propyl trimethoxysilane, respectively. The carboxylic acid derivatives of the amino-functionalized samples were obtained using succinic anhydride. Tminopropyltrimethoxysilanehe obtained modified materials were investigated as matrixes for the anticancer drug (gemcitabine) delivery. The prepared samples were characterized by SAXS, N 2 adsorption/desorption, SEM, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and FTIR and UV spectroscopies. The adsorption and release properties of all samples were studied. It was revealed that the adsorption capacity and release behavior of gemcitabine were highly dependent on the type of the introduced functional groups. The carboxylic acid-modified samples have higher loading content, due to the strong interaction with gemcitabine. The maximum content of deposited drug in the modified SBA-15 nanorods is close to 40 wt%. It was found that the surface functionalization leads toward significant decrease of the drug release rate. The carboxylic acid-functionalized samples have slower release rate in contrast with the amino-functionalized samples

  3. Method for the determination of carboxylic acids in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with injection port derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, Andre; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2017-09-29

    The paper presents a new method for the determination of 15 carboxylic acids in samples of postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumens using ion-pair dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with injection port derivatization. Several parameters related to the extraction and derivatization efficiency were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, the obtained limit of detection and quantification ranged from 0.0069 to 1.12μg/mL and 0.014 to 2.24μg/mL, respectively. The precision (RSD ranged 1.29-6.42%) and recovery (69.43-125.79%) were satisfactory. Nine carboxylic acids at concentrations ranging from 0.10μg/mL to 15.06μg/mL were determined in the raw wastewater and in samples of effluents treated by various oxidation methods. The studies revealed a substantial increase of concentration of benzoic acids, in samples of wastewater after treatment, which confirms the need of carboxylic acids monitoring during industrial effluent treatment processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Defense-Related Isoleucic Acid Differentially Accumulates in Arabidopsis Among Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Related 2-Hydroxy Carboxylic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał P. Maksym

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA related 2-hydroxy carboxylic acid isoleucic acid (ILA enhances salicylic acid-mediated pathogen defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. ILA has been identified in A. thaliana as its glucose conjugate correlated with the activity of the small-molecule glucosyltransferase UGT76B1, which can glucosylate both salicylic acid and ILA in vitro. However, endogenous levels of the ILA aglycon have not yet been determined in planta. To quantify ILA as well as the related leucic acid (LA and valic acid (VA in plant extracts, a sensitive method based on the derivatization of small carboxylic acids by silylation and gas chromatography–mass spectrometric analysis was developed. ILA was present in all species tested including several monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants as well as broadleaf and coniferous trees, whereas LA and VA were only detectable in a few species. In A. thaliana both ILA and LA were found. However, their levels varied during plant growth and in root vs. leaves. ILA levels were higher in 2-week-old leaves and decreased in older plants, whereas LA exhibited a reverted accumulation pattern. Roots displayed higher ILA and LA levels compared to leaves. ILA was inversely related to UGT76B1 expression level indicating that UGT76B1 glucosylates ILA in planta. In contrast, LA was not affected by the expression of UGT76B1. To address the relation of both 2-hydroxy acids to plant defense, we studied ILA and LA levels upon infection by Pseudomonas syringae. LA abundance remained unaffected, whereas ILA was reduced. This change suggests an ILA-related attenuation of the salicylic acid response. Collectively, the BCAA-related ILA and LA differentially accumulated in Arabidopsis, supporting a specific role and regulation of the defense-modulating small-molecule ILA among these 2-hydroxy acids. The new sensitive method will pave the way to further unravel their role in plants.

  5. Carboxylic acid exchangers in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on the use of carboxylic acid exchangers in inorganic analytical chemistry is reviewed. It is classified under two heads, based on the ionic form in which the exchanger is employed, viz., the salt form and the acid form. In the salt form, the separations reported in the beginning are mostly carried out in alkaline medium, employing ammonia and its derivatives as complexing agents to hold cations in solution. This was followed by the use of ammonium ion as an eluent from heavy weakly or neutral solutions. There are a few separations reported making use of EDTA as eluent. It appears that separation of some anions from cations can be achieved with greater ease with these exchangers than with sulphonic acid type. Contary to the general belief, carboxylic acid exchangers are used in H + form to achieve some analytical separations of cations of interest. These exchangers exhibit better sorption of some cations in presence of complexing agents containing basic nitrogen as a donor. In fact, a careful study of these exchangers with different matrices might yield really selective exchangers, than the chelating ones known commercially. From the separation cited, carboxylic acid exchangers appear to have greater potentialities in their applications, than what is normally expected. (author)

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Anthraquinone-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Hong, Sungyoul; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Shi Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinone compounds are one of the abundant polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. However, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of anthraquinones have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the activity of anthraquinones using acute inflammatory and nociceptive experimental conditions. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, AQCA), one of the major anthraquinones identified from Brazilian taheebo, ameliorated various inflammatory and algesic symptoms in EtOH/HCl- and acetylsalicylic acid- (ASA-) induced gastritis, arachidonic acid-induced edema, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing without displaying toxic profiles in body and organ weight, gastric irritation, or serum parameters. In addition, AQCA suppressed the expression of inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in stomach tissues and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. According to reporter gene assay and immunoblotting analyses, AQCA inhibited activation of the nuclear factor- (NF-) κB and activator protein- (AP-) 1 pathways by suppression of upstream signaling involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK1), p38, Src, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data strongly suggest that anthraquinones such as AQCA act as potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components in vivo, thus contributing to the immune regulatory role of fruits and herbs.

  7. Hepatic Metabolism of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-05

    Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n- octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate on Hepatic Phosphorus L...Carboxylic Acids and 4Polychiorotrifluoroethylene: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance G-AFOSR-90-0148 Investigation in Vivo ,IIC 6. AUTHOR(S a Nicholas V. Reo...Maxim um 200 words) This report outlines our research progress regarding toxicological investigations of perifluoro- n-octanoic acid (PFOA) and

  8. Facile synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids from the corresponding α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Padrah, Shahrokh; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    An effective and improved procedure is developed for the synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids by treatment of the corresponding protonated α-amino acid with tert-butyl nitrite in 1,4-dioxane-water. The amino moiety must be protonated and located α to a carboxylic acid function in order...

  9. Copper coordination polymers constructed from thiazole-5-carboxylic acid: Synthesis, crystal structures, and structural transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meundaeng, Natthaya; Rujiwatra, Apinpus [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prior, Timothy J., E-mail: t.prior@hull.ac.uk [Chemistry, University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    We have successfully prepared crystals of thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (5-Htza) (L) and three new thiazole-5-carboxylate-based Cu{sup 2+} coordination polymers with different dimensionality, namely, 1D [Cu{sub 2}(5-tza){sub 2}(1,10-phenanthroline){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (1), 2D [Cu(5-tza){sub 2}(MeOH){sub 2}] (2), and 3D [Cu(5-tza){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O (3). These have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. Interestingly, the 2D network structure of 2 can directly transform into the 3D framework of 3 upon removal of methanol molecules at room temperature. 2 can also undergo structural transformation to produce the same 2D network present in the known [Cu(5-tza){sub 2}]·1.5H{sub 2}O upon heat treatment for 2 h. This 2D network can adsorb water and convert to 3 upon exposure to air. - Highlights: • Rare examples of coordination polymers of thiazole-5-carboxylic acid were prepared. • Non-covalent interactions play a key role on the assembly of the complexes in solid state. • Structural transformation of a 2D framework to a 3D upon removal of methanol is observed.

  10. Silver-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Primary Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalehshahi, Hajar Golshadi; Madsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A simple silver-catalyzed protocol has been developed for the acceptorless dehydrogenation of primary alcohols into carboxylic acids and hydrogen gas. The procedure uses 2.5 % Ag2 CO3 and 2.5-3 equiv of KOH in refluxing mesitylene to afford the potassium carboxylate which is then converted...... into the acid with HCl. The reaction can be applied to a variety of benzylic and aliphatic primary alcohols with alkyl and ether substituents, and in some cases halide, olefin, and ester functionalities are also compatible with the reaction conditions. The dehydrogenation is believed to be catalyzed by silver...

  11. 3-pyrazolone analogues of the 3-isoxazolol metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptor agonist homo-AMPA. Synthesis and pharmacological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, D.; Janin, Y.L.; Brehm, L.

    1999-01-01

    the terminal carboxyl group has been replaced by various bioisosteric groups, such as phosphonic acid or 3-isoxazolol groups, have been shown to interact selectively with different subtypes of mGlu receptors. In this paper we report the synthesis of the 3-pyrazolone bioisosteres of a-AA, compounds (RS)-2-amino......-4-(1,2-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)butyric acid (1) and (RS)-2-amino-4-(1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)butyric acid (2). At a number of steps in the reaction sequences used, the reactions took unexpected courses and provided products which could not be transformed......We have previously shown that the higher homologue of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu], (S)-a-aminoadipic acid [(S)-a-AA] is selectively recognized by the mGlu and mGlu subtypes of the family of metabotropic glutamic acid (mGlu) receptors. Furthermore, a number of analogues of (S)-a-AA, in which...

  12. Influence of carboxylic acid type on microstructure and magnetic properties of polymeric complex sol–gel driven NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessien, M.M. [Materials Science & Engineering Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Materials Dept, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box: 87, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y., E-mail: nmost69@yahoo.com [Materials Science & Engineering Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Abd-Elkader, Omar H. [Department of Zoology, Science College, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Electron Microscope and Thin Films Department, National Research Center (NRC), El-Behooth Street, Dokki, Cairo 12622 (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    Citric, oxalic and tartaric acids were used for synthesis of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} using polymeric complex precursor route. The dry precursor gels were calcined at various temperatures (400–1100 °C) for 2 h. All carboxylic acids produce iron-deficient NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with considerable amount of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 400 °C. Increase in the annealing temperature caused reaction of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with iron-deficient ferrite phase. The amount of initially formed α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is directly correlated with stability constant and inversely correlated with the decomposition temperature of Fe(III) carboxylate precursors. In case of tartaric acid precursor, single phase of the ferrite was obtained at 450 °C. However, in case of oxalic acid and citric acid precursors, single phase ferrite was obtained at 550 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The lattice parameters were increased with increasing annealing temperature and with decreasing the amount of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Maximum saturation magnetization (55 emu/g) was achieved using tartaric acid precursor annealed at 1100 °C. - Highlights: • Citric, oxalic and tartaric acids were used for synthesis of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Carboxylic acid type affects the produced powders. • At low temperatures all carboxylic acids produce iron-deficient NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is correlated with the decomposition of Fe(III) carboxylate precursors.

  13. High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, L.C.; Sun, T.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Butler, T.A.; Callahan, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period

  14. Synthesis and characterization of carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Ted V.

    Silicon nanoparticles are of great interest in a great number of fields. Silicon nanoparticles show great promise particularly in the field of bioimaging. Carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles have the ability to covalently bond to biomolecules through the conjugation of the carboxylic acid to an amine functionalized biomolecule. This thesis explores the synthesis of silicon nanoparticles functionalized by both carboxylic acids and alkenes and their carboxylic acid functionality. Also discussed is the characterization of the silicon nanoparticles by the use of x-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the nature of the Si-H bond that is observed on the surface of the silicon nanoparticles will be investigated using photoassisted exciton mediated hydrosilation reactions. The silicon nanoparticles are synthesized from both carboxylic acids and alkenes. However, the lack of solubility of diacids is a significant barrier to carboxylic acid functionalization by a mixture of monoacids and diacids. A synthesis route to overcome this obstacle is to synthesize silicon nanoparticles with terminal vinyl group. This terminal vinyl group is distal to the surface of the silicon nanoparticle. The conversion of the vinyl group to a carboxylic acid is accomplished by oxidative cleavage using ozonolysis. The carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles were then successfully conjugated to amine functionalized DNA strand through an n-hydroxy succinimide ester activation step, which promotes the formation of the amide bond. Conjugation was characterized by TEM and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The PAGE results show that the silicon nanoparticle conjugates move slower through the polyacrylamide gel, resulting in a significant separation from the nonconjugated DNA. The silicon nanoparticles were then characterized by the use of x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (Xanes) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the bonding and chemical

  15. Hepatic Metabolism of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-17

    Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n- octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate on Hepatic...SUBTITLE 7C 5. FUNDING NUMBERS" Hepatic Metabolism of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids : A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation in Vivo G-AFOSR-90-0148 6...octanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA). These Air Force chemicals belong to a class of CU’. compounds known as peroxisome

  16. Anhydrous thallium hydrogen L-glutamate: polymer networks formed by sandwich layers of oxygen-coordinated thallium ions cores shielded by hydrogen L-glutamate counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Thomas; Wirnsberger, Bianca; Albering, Jörg; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2011-11-07

    Anhydrous thallium hydrogen L-glutamate [Tl(L-GluH)] crystallizes from water (space group P2(1)) with a layer structure in which the thallium ions are penta- and hexacoordinated exclusively by the oxygen atoms of the γ-carboxylate group of the hydrogen L-glutamate anions to form a two-dimensional coordination polymer. The thallium-oxygen layer is composed of Tl(2)O(2) and TlCO(2) quadrangles and is only 3 Å high. Only one hemisphere of the thallium ions participates in coordination, indicative of the presence of the 6s(2) lone pair of electrons. The thallium-oxygen assemblies are shielded by the hydrogen l-glutamate anions. Only the carbon atom of the α-carboxylate group deviates from the plane spanned by the thallium ions, the γ-carboxylate groups and the proton bearing carbon atoms, which are in trans conformation. Given the abundance of L-glutamic and L-aspartic acid in biological systems on the one hand and the high toxicity of thallium on the other hand, it is worth mentioning that the dominant structural motifs in the crystal structure of [Tl(L-GluH)] strongly resemble their corresponding analogues in the crystalline phase of [K(L-AspH)(H(2)O)(2)].

  17. Carboxylic acid effects on the size and catalytic activity of magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan; Parchegani, Fatemeh; Alavi, Sohaila

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) were successfully synthesized in diethylene glycol in the presence of carboxylic acids. They were characterized using XRD, SEM and FTIR. Carboxylic acid plays a critical role in determining the morphology, particle size and size distribution of the resulting particles. The results show that as-prepared magnetite nanoparticles are monodisperse and highly crystalline. The nanoparticles can be easily dispersed in aqueous media and other polar solvents due to coated by a layer of hydrophilic polyol and carboxylic acid ligands in situ. Easily prepared Fe3O4-NPs have been shown to be an active, recyclable, and highly selective catalyst for the epoxidation of cyclic olefins with aqueous 30% H2O2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and ethers containing a tetrahydropyran ring derived from 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Yohko; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Kasashima, Yoshio; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    3-hydroxy acids, 3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyloct-6-enoic acid (1) and 3-hydroxy-2,2,3,7-tetramethyloct-6-enoic acid (2), were prepared from 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and they were subsequently used to prepare (2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran-2-yl)acetic acid (3) and 2-methyl-2-(2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran-2-yl)propanoic acid (4), respectively, via cyclization with an acidic catalyst such as boron trifluoride diethyl etherate or iodine. The reaction of carboxylic acids 3 and 4 with alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol, produced the corresponding methyl, ethyl, and propyl esters, which all contained a tetrahydropyran ring. Reduction of carboxylic acids 3 and 4 afforded the corresponding alcohols. Subsequent reactions of these alcohols with several acyl chlorides produced novel esters. The alcohols also reacted with methyl iodide and sodium hydride to provide novel ethers. A one-pot cyclization-esterification of 1 to produce esters containing a tetrahydropyran ring, using iodine as a catalyst, was also investigated.

  19. Short Carboxylic Acid–Carboxylate Hydrogen Bonds Can Have Fully Localized Protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiusheng; Pozharski, Edwin; Wilson, Mark A.

    2017-01-17

    Short hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) have been proposed to play key functional roles in several proteins. The location of the proton in short H-bonds is of central importance, as proton delocalization is a defining feature of low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs). Experimentally determining proton location in H-bonds is challenging. Here, bond length analysis of atomic (1.15–0.98 Å) resolution X-ray crystal structures of the human protein DJ-1 and its bacterial homologue, YajL, was used to determine the protonation states of H-bonded carboxylic acids. DJ-1 contains a buried, dimer-spanning 2.49 Å H-bond between Glu15 and Asp24 that satisfies standard donor–acceptor distance criteria for a LBHB. Bond length analysis indicates that the proton is localized on Asp24, excluding a LBHB at this location. However, similar analysis of the Escherichia coli homologue YajL shows both residues may be protonated at the H-bonded oxygen atoms, potentially consistent with a LBHB. A Protein Data Bank-wide screen identifies candidate carboxylic acid H-bonds in approximately 14% of proteins, which are typically short [O–O> = 2.542(2) Å]. Chemically similar H-bonds between hydroxylated residues (Ser/Thr/Tyr) and carboxylates show a trend of lengthening O–O distance with increasing H-bond donor pKa. This trend suggests that conventional electronic effects provide an adequate explanation for short, charge-assisted carboxylic acid–carboxylate H-bonds in proteins, without the need to invoke LBHBs in general. This study demonstrates that bond length analysis of atomic resolution X-ray crystal structures provides a useful experimental test of certain candidate LBHBs.

  20. Liquid chromatographic determination of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, a biomarker of carbon disulphide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B L; Yang, X F; New, A L; Ong, C N

    1995-06-23

    An effective gradient high-performance liquid chromatographic method for baseline separation of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), with photodiode array detection at 271 nm was described. o-Methylhippuric acid was used as an internal standard (I.S.). A 1-ml urine sample was saturated with 300 mg of sodium sulphate, acidified with 100 microliters of 6 M hydrochloric acid, extracted twice with 2 ml of diethyl ether, and after evaporation, the residue was taken up in 1 ml of 0.1% (v/v) phosphoric acid. The two mobile phases used for gradient elution were: (A) 10 mM ammonium dihydrogenphosphate (pH 3.5) and (B) same concentration of buffer but containing 20% (v/v) of methanol (pH 4.8). The flow-rate was set at 1.0 ml/min. TTCA and I.S. were detected at 2.2 and 9.1 min, respectively. The method was validated with urine samples collected from normal subjects and workers occupationally exposed to carbon disulphide. The present method enables the detection of urinary TTCA at a concentration of 0.025 mg/l. Analytical recovery and reproducibility generally exceeded 90%. The proposed method is considered more sensitive, specific and reliable than other existing methods.

  1. Use of scandium ionic associates with salicylic- or 2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxylic acid and rhodamine C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononenko, L.I.; Bel' tyukova, S V; Drobyazko, V N; Poluehktov, N S [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Odessa. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii)

    1975-09-01

    With salicylic or 2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxylic acid and rhodamine C scandium forms ion associations whose benzene solutions are capable of luminescence. Optimum conditions for the formation of complexes and the composition of the complex with the ratio of Sc:acid:rhodamine C = 1:2:1 are established. A possibility of luminescence determination of scandium in the presence of rare earths is shown.

  2. Luminescent hybrid lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 1,10-phenanthroline involving in-situ oxidation of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jie-Cen; Wan, Fang; Sun, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A series of lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates, [Ln 2 (phen) 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ] n (I:Ln=Nd(1a), Sm(1b), Eu(1c), phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Ln(phen)(2-SBA)(BZA)] n (II: Ln=Sm(2a), Eu(2b), Dy(2c), 2-SBA=2-sulfobenzoate, BZA=benzoate) have been hydrothermally synthesized from lanthanide oxide, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra, TG analyses and luminescence spectroscopy. Interestingly, SO 4 2− anions in I came from the in situ deep oxidation of thiol groups of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid while 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate ligands in II from the middle oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. Compounds I are organic–inorganic hybrid lanthanide sulfates, which have rare one-dimensional column-like structures. Complexes II are binuclear lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate as bridges and 1,10-phenanthroline as terminal. Photoluminescence studies reveal that complexes I and II exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates have been hydrothermally synthesized. Interestingly, sulfate anions, 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate ligands came from the in situ oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. - Highlights: • In situ oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. • The organic–inorganic hybrid lanthanide sulfates with one-dimensional column-like structure. • The dinuclear lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates. • The emission spectra exhibit the characteristic transition of 5 D 0 → 7 F J (J=0–4) of the Eu(III)

  3. Developmental Toxicity of (4S-2- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid in Zebrafish ( Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Akbulut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT (4S-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid is new synthesized substance obtained from cysteine and valine. Thiazolidine derivates have important biological responses so scientists work intensively on these compounds in recent years. It is obvious that thiazolidine contained compounds will be used in future in the pharmaceutical industry to treat important diseases. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 for 48 h and 96 h were found as 1.106±0.052 mM and 0.804mM ± 0.102 respectively. According to LC50, exposure doses were determined as control, 0.4 mM, 0.2 mM and 0.1 mM (4S-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. Developmental toxicity and apoptotic features on zebrafish development were evaluated in this study. The results of this study indicate that (4S-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid exposure cause developmental defects like pericardial edema, bent spine, tail malformation, blood accumulation, yolk sac edema but on the other hand concentration-dependent decrease in apoptotic rate. Likewise, concentration-dependent decrease in hatching and increase in mortality of embryos were also detected.

  4. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with various cation-exchange resin columns and sulfuric acid as eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2003-05-16

    The application of various hydrophilic cation-exchange resins for high-performance liquid chromatography (sulfonated silica gel: TSKgel SP-2SW, carboxylated silica gel: TSKgel CM-2SW, sulfonated polymethacrylate resin: TSKgel SP-5PW, carboxylated polymethacrylate resins: TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) as stationary phases in ion-exclusion chromatography for C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic, caproic, 2-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, trimellitic, hemimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic, salicylic acids and phenol) was carried out using diluted sulfuric acid as the eluent. Silica-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-2SW and TSKgel CM-2SW) were very suitable for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids was achieved on a TSKgel SP-2SW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 17 min using a 2.5 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.4 as the eluent. Polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-5PW, TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) acted as advanced stationary phases for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these C1-C7 acids was achieved on a TSKgel CM-5PW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 32 min using a 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent.

  5. 6-Substituted 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids: synthesis and structure-activity studies in a novel class of human 5alpha reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Eckhard; Salem, Ola I A; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2002-10-01

    Novel 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids were synthesized and evaluated for 5alpha reductase inhibitory activity. This enzyme exists in two isoforms and is a pharmacological target for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, male pattern baldness and acne. In the present study non-steroidal compounds capable of mimicking the transition state of the steroidal substrates were prepared. The synthetic strategy for the preparation of compounds 1-6 consisted of triflation followed by subsequent Heck-type carboxylation or methoxy carbonylation for 6-phenyl-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-2(1H)-one 1c. A Negishi-type coupling reaction between 6-(trifluoro-methanesulfonyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester 7b and various aryl bromides led, after further transformations, to 6-substituted 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids 7-15. In a similar way the corresponding naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids 16 and 17 were obtained. The DU 145 cell line and prostate homogenates served as enzyme sources for the human type 1 and type 2 isozymes, whereas ventral prostate was employed to evaluate rat isozyme inhibitory potency. The most active inhibitors identified in this study were 6-[4-(N,N-dicyclohexylaminocarbonyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (3) (IC50 = 0.09 microM, rat type 1), 6-[3-(N,N-dicyclohexylaminocarbonyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (13) (IC50 = 0.75 microM, human type 2; IC50 = 0.81 microM, human type 1) and 6-[4-(N,N-diisopropylamino-carbonyl)phenyl]naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (16) (IC50 = 0.2 microM, human type 2). The latter compound was shown to deactivate the enzyme in an uncompetitive manner (Ki = 90 nM; Km, Testosterone = 0.8-1.0 microM) similar to the steroidal inhibitor Epristeride. Select inhibitors (13 and 16) were tested in vivo using testosterone propionate-treated, juvenile, orchiectomized SD-rats. None of the compounds was active at a dose of 25 mg/kg. This result might in part be

  6. Effect of alkali metal ions on the pyrrole and pyridine π-electron systems in pyrrole-2-carboxylate and pyridine-2-carboxylate molecules: FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świderski, G.; Wojtulewski, S.; Kalinowska, M.; Świsłocka, R.; Lewandowski, W.

    2011-05-01

    The FT-IR, FT-Raman and 1H and 13C NMR spectra of pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) and lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium pyrrole-2-carboxylates were recorded, assigned and compared in the Li → Na → K → Rb → Cs salt series. The effect of alkali metal ions on the electronic system of ligands was discussed. The obtained results were compared with previously reported ones for pyridine-2-carboxylic acid and alkali metal pyridine-2-carboxylates. Calculations for pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and Li, Na, K pyrrole-2-carboxylates in B3LYP/6-311++G ** level and Møller-Plesset method in MP2/6-311++G ** level were made. Bond lengths, angles and dipole moments as well as aromaticity indices (HOMA, EN, GEO, I 6) for the optimized structures of pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) and lithium, sodium, potassium pyrrole-2-carboxylates were also calculated. The degree of perturbation of the aromatic system of ligand under the influence of metals in the Li → Cs series was investigated with the use of statistical methods (linear correlation), calculated aromaticity indices and Mulliken, NBO and ChelpG population analysis method. Additionally, the Bader theory (AIM) was applied to setting the characteristic of the bond critical points what confirmed the influence of alkali metals on the pyrrole ring.

  7. Hepatic Metabolism of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation in vito

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-06

    L. Narayanan. and B. M. Jamot. ’Effects of Peulluoro-n- octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate on Hepatic Phosphorus Metabolism in...pathways and examined the impact of perfluorocarboxylic acid exposure. This investigative strategy will delineate the metabolic effices exerted by...Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation in Vivo Principal Investigator: Nicholas V. Reo

  8. A Stereoselective [3+1] Ring Expansion for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Methylene Azetidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Steven C; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-09-25

    The reaction of rhodium-bound carbenes with strained bicyclic methylene aziridines results in a formal [3+1] ring expansion to yield highly substituted methylene azetidines with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. The reaction appears to proceed through an ylide-type mechanism, where the unique strain and structure of the methylene aziridine promotes a ring-opening/ring-closing cascade that efficiently transfers chirality from substrate to product. The resultant products can be elaborated into new azetidine scaffolds containing vicinal tertiary-quaternary and even quaternary-quaternary stereocenters. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis of antimalarial amide analogues based on the plant serrulatane diterpenoid 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitesh; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M; Davis, Rohan A

    2017-09-01

    A plant-derived natural product scaffold, 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (1) was isolated in high yield from the aerial parts of the endemic Australian desert plant Eremophila microtheca. This scaffold (1) was subsequently used in the generation of a series of new amide analogues via a one-pot mixed anhydride amidation using pivaloyl chloride. The structures of all analogues were characterized using MS, NMR, and UV data. The major serrulatane natural products (1-3), isolated from the plant extract, and all amide analogues (6-15) together with several pivaloylated derivatives of 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (16-18) were evaluated for their antimalarial activity against 3D7 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant) Plasmodium falciparum strains, and preliminary cytotoxicity data were also acquired using the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293. The natural product scaffold (1) did not display any antimalarial activity at 10µM. Replacing the carboxylic acid of 1 with various amides resulted in moderate activity against the P. falciparum 3D7 strain with IC 50 values ranging from 1.25 to 5.65µM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of carboxylic acids from Pichia membranifaciens against coffee rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Laura Andrade Melchor

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coffee rust is a fungal disease that has affected every coffee-producing region in the world. Given that the effectivity of the protectant and systemic fungicides applied routinely to control the spread of the causative agent of the disease (Hemileia vastatrix has gradually diminished, besides are harmful to mammals and ecosystems, the objective of this work was to search for a mixture of harmless natural compounds with the potential to be applied in the field. So, a yeast strain producing a battery of long-chain carboxylic acids (CA with fungicide properties was isolated from soil of coffee crop and identified as Pichia membranifaciens by ITS sequencing. Culture conditions of the yeast were optimized and the CA in the solution were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS as ethyl formate (55.5 g L-1, octadecenoic acid (3.5 g L-1, propionic acid (7.2 g L-1, 3-(octadecanoyl-propionic acid (7.2 g L-1 and methyl acetate (8.4 g L-1. Randomized field studies were conducted in three different locations in Chiapas, México. Five treatments were tested including three concentrations of the CA solution (389, 584 and 778 ppm and copper oxychloride (5 000 ppm as conventional control. The initial coffee rust incidence averages varied between sites: Maravillas (3-9%, Santo Domingo (10-16% and Búcaro (16-22%. The treatments of CA solution proved to be effective at slowing down the progress of the rust disease even for the sites where initial incidence was high. Likewise, the CA solution reduced the viability of H. vastatrix spores, as assessed by fluorescence microscopy.

  11. Structures of aspartic acid-96 in the L and N intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, A.; Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Yoshizawa, T.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum between the L or N intermediate minus light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was measured in order to examine the protonated states and the changes in the interactions of carboxylic acids of Asp-96 and Asp-115 in these intermediates. Vibrational bands due to the protonated and unprotonated carboxylic acid were identified by isotope shift and band depletion upon substitution of Asp-96 or -115 by asparagine. While the signal due to the deprotonation of Asp-96 was clearly observed in the N intermediate, this residue remained protonated in L. Asp-115 was partially deprotonated in L. The C = O stretching vibration of protonated Asp-96 of L showed almost no shift upon 2H2O substitution, in contrast to the corresponding band of Asp-96 or Asp-115 of BR, which shifted by 9-12 cm-1 under the same conditions. In the model system of acetic acid in organic solvents, such an absence of the shift of the C = O stretching vibration of the protonated carboxylic acid upon 2H2O substitution was seen only when the O-H of acetic acid is hydrogen-bonded. The non-hydrogen-bonded monomer showed the 2H2O-dependent shift. Thus, the O-H bond of Asp-96 enters into hydrogen bonding upon conversion of BR to L. Its increased hydrogen bonding in L is consistent with the observed downshift of the O-H stretching vibration of the carboxylic acid of Asp-96.

  12. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  13. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  14. [14C]-radiolabeling of {[trans-(8β)]-6-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl) ergoline-8-carboxylic acid, 4-methoxycyclohexyl ester (Z)-2-buteneidioate (1:1)}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzoni, G.; Wheeler, W.J.; Garbrecht, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The 5HT 2 -receptor antagonist, [ 14 C]-labeled brace[trans-(8β)]-6-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)ergoline-8-carboxylic acid, 4-methoxycyclohexyl ester (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)brace (LY281067) was synthesized from unlabeled 6-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)ergoline-8-carboxylic acid. The [ 14 C] label was introduced into the carboxyl group attached to the 8 position of the ergoline nucleus. This site is stable to metabolism. The synthesis involves removal of an unlabeled carboxyl group and subsequent reinsertion of a [ 14 C]-labeled carboxyl group into the same position. The radiolabel is not introduced until near the end of the synthesis which allows for ease of handling and scale-up of intermediates. (author)

  15. Syntheses of {gamma}-aminobutyric-1-{sup 14}C and of {alpha}-aminoadipic-6-{sup 14}C acid from methoxy-3 chloropropyl-magnesium and marked carbon dioxide; Syntheses de l'acide {gamma}-aminobutyrique{sup 14}C-1 et de l'acide {alpha}-aminoadipique {sup 14}C-6 a partir de methoxy-3 chloropropylmagnesium et d'anhydride carbonique marque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Phung Nhu [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Departement des radioelements, Service des molecules marquees

    1967-04-01

    Carbonation of {gamma}-methoxypropyl-magnesium chloride by CO{sub 2} gives {gamma}-methoxy-butyric carboxylic-{sup 14}C acid with a yield of about 95 per cent. When the latter is treated successively with anhydrous HBr and with diazomethane, methyl carboxylic {gamma}-bromobutyrate-{sup 14}C is formed. This in turn gives {gamma}-amino-butyric carboxylic-{sup 14}C acid with an overall yield of 66 per cent with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}, when it is condensed with potassium phthalimide and hydrolyzed by acid. By reacting methyl-{gamma}-bromobutyrate-{sup 14}C with the sodium derivative of ethyl cyanacetamido-acetate in ethanol, followed by an acid hydrolysis, {alpha}-aminoadipic-6-{sup 14}C acid is obtained with an overall yield of 46 per cent with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. (author) [French] La carbonatation du chlorure de {gamma}-methoxypropylmagnesium par {sup 14}CO{sub 2} donne l'acide {gamma}-methoxybutyrique carboxyle {sup 14}C avec un rendement d'environ 95 pour cent. Ce dernier traite successivement par HBr anhydre et par le diazomethane conduit au {gamma}-bromobutyrate de methyle carboxyle {sup 14}C. Celui-ci condense avec le phtalimide de potassium suivi d'une hydrolyse acide fournit l'acide {gamma}-aminobutyrique carboxyle {sup 14}C avec un rendement global de 66 pour cent par rapport a Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. L'action du {gamma}-bromobutyrate de methyle {sup 14}C sur le derive sode du cyanacetamidoacetate d'ethyle dans l'ethanol suivie d'hydrolyse acide donne l'acide {alpha}-aminoadipique {sup 14}C-6 avec un rendement global de 46 pour cent par rapport a Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. (auteur)

  16. Adsorption of UO2+2 by polyethylene adsorbents with amidoxime, carboxyl, and amidoxime/carboxyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Nho, Young Chang

    2000-01-01

    The polyethylene (PE) adsorbents were prepared by a radiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA), and the mixture of AN/AA onto PE film, and by subsequent amidoximation of cyano groups of poly-AN graft chains. With an increase of AA composition in AN/AA monomer mixture, the water uptake of the grafted polyethylene film increased. In AN/AA mixture, the maximum adsorption of UO 2+ 2 was observed in the adsorbent with a ratio of AN/AA (50/50, mol%) in copolymer. The amidoxime, carboxyl, and amidoxime/carboxyl groups onto PE acted as a chelating site for the selected UO 2+ 2 . The complex structure of polyethylene with three functional groups and UO 2+ 2 was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Kinetic studies on the carboxylation of 6-amino-penicillanic acid to 8-hydroxy-penillic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Claus Maxel; Holm, SS; Schipper, D.

    1997-01-01

    The carboxylation in aqueous solution of 6-amino-penicillanic acid (6-APA) to 8-hydroxy-penillic acid (8-HPA) was studied at 25 degrees C and pH 6.5. During sparging with either a citrate buffer or a chemically defined cultivation medium containing 6-APA with mixtures of carbon dioxide and air (2.......7-41% (v/v) CO2), the kinetics for conversion of 6-APA was followed by HPLC. In the citrate buffer 6-APA was converted by two competitive reactions each following first order kinetics with respect to the concentration of 6-APA: 1. carboxylation into 8-HPA; and 2. slow conversion into an unknown compound....... Formation of the unknown compound was not observed in the cultivation medium. The carboxylation of 6-APA was also found to be first order with respect to the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide. The rate constant for formation of 8-HPA did not differ significantly in the cultivation medium compared...

  18. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  19. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF 3 /methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L -1 . Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices

  20. Correction: Synthesis of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives via asymmetric Michael addition reactions of carboxylate-substituted enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Feng; Garifullina, Ainash; Tanaka, Fujie

    2018-04-25

    Correction for 'Synthesis of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives via asymmetric Michael addition reactions of carboxylate-substituted enones' by Feng Yin et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 15, 6089-6092.

  1. Development of 2-(Substituted Benzylamino)-4-Methyl-1, 3-Thiazole-5-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives as Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors and Free Radical Scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Rahmat; Kumar, Suresh; Afzal, Obaid; Shalmali, Nishtha; Sharma, Manju; Bawa, Sandhya

    2016-04-01

    A series of 2-(substituted benzylamino)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid was designed and synthesized as structural analogue of febuxostat. A methylene amine spacer was incorporated between the phenyl ring and thiazole ring in contrast to febuxostat in which the phenyl ring was directly linked with the thiazole moiety. The purpose of incorporating methylene amine was to provide a heteroatom which is expected to favour hydrogen bonding within the active site residues of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. The structure of all the compounds was established by the combined use of FT-IR, NMR and MS spectral data. All the compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to inhibit the enzyme xanthine oxidase as per the reported procedure along with DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Compounds 5j, 5k and 5l demonstrated satisfactory potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values, 3.6, 8.1 and 9.9 μm, respectively, whereas compounds 5k, 5n and 5p demonstrated moderate antioxidant activities having IC50 15.3, 17.6 and 19.6 μm, respectively, along with xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Compound 5k showed moderate xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity as compared with febuxostat along with antioxidant activity. All the compounds were also studied for their binding affinity in active site of enzyme (PDB ID-1N5X). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Stereocontrolled synthesis of polyhydroxylated bicyclic azetidines as a new class of iminosugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Maciej; Hensienne, Raphaël; Kern, Nicolas; Tardieu, Damien; Bodlenner, Anne; Hazelard, Damien; Compain, Philippe

    2018-06-12

    We report herein the development of a stereodivergent route towards polyhydroxylated bicyclic azetidine scaffolds, namely 6-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane derivatives. The strategy hinges on a common bicyclic β-lactam precursor, which is forged by way of a rare example of a cationic Dieckmann-type reaction, followed by IBX-mediated desaturation. Substrate-controlled diastereoselective oxidations then allow the divergent preparation of novel iminosugar mimics.

  3. Chiral metal-organic frameworks bearing free carboxylic acids for organocatalyst encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xi, Xiaobing; Ye, Chengcheng; Gong, Tengfei; Yang, Zhiwei; Cui, Yong

    2014-12-08

    Two chiral carboxylic acid functionalized micro- and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed by the stepwise assembly of triple-stranded heptametallic helicates with six carboxylic acid groups. The mesoporous MOF with permanent porosity functions as a host for encapsulation of an enantiopure organic amine catalyst by combining carboxylic acids and chiral amines in situ through acid-base interactions. The organocatalyst-loaded framework is shown to be an efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the asymmetric direct aldol reactions with significantly enhanced stereoselectivity in relative to the homogeneous organocatalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Enhancement of carboxylic acid degradation with sulfate radical generated by persulfate activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, J; Nebout, P; Karpel Vel Leitner, N

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the generation of sulfate radical for the removal of two carboxylic acids in aqueous solution: acetic and citric acids. From photochemical and radiolytic processes, kinetics of the degradation of these two carboxylic acids was studied as a function of the pH of the solution. It was shown that the maximum of acetic acid degradation occurred at pH 5. Above this pH, competitive reactions with the carbon mineralized inhibit the reaction of with the solute. In the case of citric acid, pH has only a little effect on the kinetic of citric acid degradation. The determination of mineralization yields shows several differences depending on carboxylic acids and pH. The degradation of both carboxylic acids was also studied in the radiolysis process whether with or without persulfate addition. A comparison of the processes of sulfate radical production is presented.

  5. Discovery of a low-systemic-exposure DGAT-1 inhibitor with a picolinoylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianwei; Wang, Gaihong; Dang, Xiangyu; Guo, Binbin; Chen, Wuhong; Wang, Ting; Zeng, Limin; Wang, Heyao; Hu, Youhong

    2017-09-01

    A series of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT-1) inhibitors with a picolinoylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid moiety were designed and synthesized. Of these compounds, compound 22 exhibited excellent DGAT-1-inhibitory activity (hDGAT-1 enzyme assay, 50% inhibitory concentration [IC 50 ]=3.5±0.9nM) and effectively reduced the intracellular triglyceride contents in 3T3-L1, HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. A preliminary study of the plasma and tissue distributions of compound 22 in mice revealed low plasma exposure and high concentrations in different segments of the intestine and liver, which may facilitate targeting DGAT-1. Furthermore, in an acute lipid challenge test, compound 22 showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on high-serum triglycerides in C57/KSJ mice induced by olive oil (1, 3, and 10mg/kg, i.g.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, Antifungal Activity and QSAR of Some Novel Carboxylic Acid Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel aromatic carboxylic acid amides were synthesized and tested for their activities against six phytopathogenic fungi by an in vitro mycelia growth inhibition assay. Most of them displayed moderate to good activity. Among them N-(2-(1H-indazol-1-ylphenyl-2-(trifluoromethylbenzamide (3c exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (EC50 = 16.75 µg/mL and Rhizoctonia solani (EC50 = 19.19 µg/mL, compared to the reference compound boscalid with EC50 values of 10.68 and 14.47 µg/mL, respectively. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA were employed to develop a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model for the activity of the compounds. In the molecular docking, a fluorine atom and the carbonyl oxygen atom of 3c formed hydrogen bonds toward the hydroxyl hydrogens of TYR58 and TRP173.

  7. Photoacidic and Photobasic Behavior of Transition Metal Compounds with Carboxylic Acid Group(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Donnell, Ryan M. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Sampaio, Renato N. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Li, Guocan [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Johansson, Patrik G. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Ward, Cassandra L. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Meyer, Gerald J. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States

    2016-03-10

    Excited state proton transfer studies of six Ru polypyridyl compounds with carboxylic acid/carboxylate group(s) revealed that some were photoacids and some were photobases. The compounds [RuII(btfmb)2(LL)]2+, [RuII(dtb)2(LL)]2+, and [RuII(bpy)2(LL)]2+, where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, btfmb is 4,4'-(CF3)2-bpy, and dtb is 4,4'-((CH3)3C)2-bpy, and LL is either dcb = 4,4'-(CO2H)2-bpy or mcb = 4-(CO2H),4'-(CO2Et)-2,2'-bpy, were synthesized and characterized. The compounds exhibited intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption bands in the visible region and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) with long τ > 100 ns excited state lifetimes. The mcb compounds had very similar ground state pKa’s of 2.31 ± 0.07, and their characterization enabled accurate determination of the two pKa values for the commonly utilized dcb ligand, pKa1 = 2.1 ± 0.1 and pKa2 = 3.0 ± 0.2. Compounds with the btfmb ligand were photoacidic, and the other compounds were photobasic. Transient absorption spectra indicated that btfmb compounds displayed a [RuIII(btfmb–)L2]2+* localized excited state and a [RuIII(dcb–)L2]2+* formulation for all the other excited states. Time dependent PL spectral shifts provided the first kinetic data for excited state proton transfer in a transition metal compound. PL titrations, thermochemical cycles, and kinetic analysis (for the mcb compounds) provided self-consistent pKa* values. The ability to make a single ionizable group photobasic or photoacidic through ligand design was unprecedented and was understood based on the orientation of the lowest-lying MLCT excited state dipole relative to the ligand that contained the carboxylic acid group(s).

  8. Synthesis of 1-Methyl-3-oxo-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Valdo José da Silva

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method for the preparation of 1-methyl-3-oxo-7- oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1 is described. The first step is a highly regioselective Diels-Alder reaction between 2-methylfuran and methyl-3-bromo- propiolate. A remarkably difficult ketal hydrolysis reaction was effected by treatment with HCl, a simple reagent that was shown to be more efficient, in this case, than commonly used more elaborate methods.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative γ-Olefination of 2,5-Cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic Acid Derivatives with Vinyl Halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Hao; Chou, Chih-Ming

    2018-04-06

    This study explores a Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative Heck-type Csp 3 -Csp 2 coupling reaction of 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid derivatives with vinyl halides to provide γ-olefination products. The olefinated 1,3-cyclohexadienes can be further oxidized to produce meta-alkylated stilbene derivatives. Additionally, the conjugated diene products can also undergo a Diels-Alder reaction to produce a bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene framework.

  10. Hypocalcemic action of the several types of salicylic acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Nishishita, K; Sakai, H; Tatsumi, M; Yamamoto, K

    1989-02-01

    The present study was performed to see the structure-activity relationships on the aspirin-induced hypocalcemia. Several kinds of salicylic acid (SA) analogues administered orally with a stomach tube. In general, the drugs were suspended in the 2% CMC solution. At the scheduled times after the treatment, 60 microliters of the blood was collected to determine the level of calcium. Aspirin, sodium salt of o-hydroxybenzoic acid (Na-salicylate), sodium salt of m- and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), PAS sodium dihydrate (PAS-Na), salicylamide (SAM) and 2% CMC control were used. Hypocalcemia was induced by aspirin and Na-salicylate but not by m- and p-HBA-Na. In addition, DHBA and PAS caused hypocalcemia when they were administered intravenously but not orally. These results suggest that the carboxyl group must be adjacent to the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring to induce this type of hypocalcemia and that the SA structure would be able to induce hypocalcemia, even in the presence of the additional third substituent on the same ring. On the comparison between aspirin-DL lysine (water soluble aspirin) and SA-DL lysine, SA-DL lysine, which is not an inhibitor of PG synthetase, was more effective on the hypocalcemic action than ASP-DL lysine. The phenomenon was observed at the stage especially immediately after intravenous injection, when the acetyl group may be more responsible to acetylate the PG synthetase in the aspirin-DL lysine group. The present results seems to be consistent with the previous hypothesis that PGs are not involved in the process of aspirin-induced hypocalcemia in the rat.

  11. Effects of glutamic acid analogues on identifiable giant neurones, sensitive to beta-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid, of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T.; Nomoto, K.; Ohfune, Y.; Shiratori, Y.; Takemoto, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Watanabe, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of the seven glutamic acid analogues, alpha-kainic acid, alpha-allo-kainic acid, domoic acid, erythro-L-tricholomic acid, DL-ibotenic acid, L-quisqualic acid and allo-gamma-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid were examined on six identifiable giant neurones of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac). The neurones studied were: PON (periodically oscillating neurone), d-RPLN (dorsal-right parietal large neurone), VIN (visceral intermittently firing neurone), RAPN (right anterior pallial neurone), FAN (frequently autoactive neurone) and v-RCDN (ventral-right cerebral distinct neurone). Of these, d-RPLN and RAPN were excited by the two isomers (erythro- and threo-) of beta-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid (L-BHGA), whereas PON, VIN, FAN and v-RCDN were inhibited. L-Glutamic acid (L-Glu) had virtually no effect on these neurones. alpha-Kainic acid and domoic acid showed marked excitatory effects, similar to those of L-BHGA, on d-RPLN and RAPN. Their effective potency quotients (EPQs), relative to the more effective isomer of L-BHGA were: 0.3 for both substances on d-RPLN, and 1 for alpha-kainic acid and 3-1 for domoic acid on RAPN. alpha-Kainic acid also had excitatory effects on FAN and v-RCDN (EPQ for both: 0.3), which were inhibited by L-BHGA but excited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Erythro-L-tricholomic acid showed marked effects, similar to those of L-BHGA, on VIN (EPQ: 0.3) and RAPN (EPQ: 3-1), but produced weaker effects on PON and d-RPLN (EPQ: 0.1). DL-Ibotenic acid produced marked effects, similar to those of L-BHGA, on PON, VIN (EPQ for both: 1) and RAPN (EPQ: 1-0.3), but had weak effects on d-RPLN (EPQ: less than 0.1) and FAN (EPQ: 0.1). It had excitatory effects on v-RCDN (EPQ: 0.1). This neurone was inhibited by L-BHGA but excited by GABA. L-Quisqualic acid showed the same effects as L-BHGA on all of the neurones examined (EPQ range 30-0.1). It was the most potent of the compounds tested on RAPN (EPQ: 30-10), FAN (EPQ: 30) and v-RCDN (EPQ: 3). alpha

  12. Effects of carboxylic acids on nC60 aggregate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xiaojun; Vikesland, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that negatively charged aggregates of C 60 fullerene (nC 60 ) are stable in water has raised concerns regarding the potential environmental and health effects of these aggregates. In this work, we show that nC 60 aggregates produced by extended mixing in the presence of environmentally relevant carboxylic acids (acetic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid) have surface charge and morphologic properties that differ from those produced by extended mixing in water alone. In general, aggregates formed in the presence of these acids have a more negative surface charge and are more homogeneous than those produced in water alone. Carboxylic acid identity, solution pH, and sodium ion concentration, which are all intricately coupled, play an important role in setting the measured surface charge. Comparisons between particle sizes determined by analysis of TEM images and those obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that DLS results require careful evaluation when used to describe nC 60 aggregates. - The effects of carboxylic acids on the formation of nC 60 aggregates are discussed

  13. In Vitro Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid-CoA Thioesters with Glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Ulrik; Skonberg, Christian; Olsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    was to investigate whether a correlation could be found between the structure of acyl-CoA thioesters and their reactivities toward the tripeptide, glutathione (ç- Glu-Cys-Gly).  The  acyl-CoA  thioesters  of  eight  carboxylic  acids  (ibuprofen,  clofibric  acid, indomethacin,  fenbufen,  tolmetin,  salicylic  acid......The chemical reactivity of acyl-CoA thioesters toward nucleophiles has been demonstrated in several recent studies. Thus, intracellularly formed acyl-CoAs of xenobiotic carboxylic acids may react covalently with endogenous proteins and potentially lead to adverse effects. The purpose of this study......,  2-phenoxypropionic  acid,  and  (4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)acetic  acid  (MCPA))  were  synthesized,  and  each  acyl-CoA  (0.5  mM)  was incubated with glutathione (5.0 mM) in 0.1 M potassium phosphate (pH 7.4, 37 °C). All of the acyl-CoAs reacted with glutathione to form the respective acyl...

  14. Adsorption Equilibrium Equation of Carboxylic Acids on Anion-Exchange Resins in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Urano, Kohei; Kokado, Naohiro; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni

    2001-06-01

    The adsorption of propionic acid and benzoic acid on anion-exchange resins was analyzed, and an adsorption equilibrium equation of carboxylic acids was proposed. The adsorption of carboxylic acids on the anion-exchange resins was considered to be the sum of the physical adsorption of the molecule and the ion-exchange adsorption of the ion, which were independent of each other. For the physical adsorption of carboxylic acids, it was conformed to the Freundlich equation. For the ion-exchange adsorption of carboxylate ions, the equilibrium equation corresponded well with the experimental results for wide ranges of concentration and pH. The equation contains a selectivity coefficient S(A)(Cl) for the chloride ion versus the carboxylate ion, which was considered essentially a constant. The influent of the bicarbonate ion from carbon dioxide in air could also be expressed by the additional equilibrium equation with the selectivity coefficient S(HCO(3))(Cl) for the chloride ion versus the bicarbonate ion. Consequently, an adsorption equilibrium equation can estimate the equilibrium adsorption amounts. Even the effect of a coexisting bicarbonate ion is inconsequential when the parameters of the Freundlich isotherm equation and the selectivity coefficients of the carboxylate ion and the bicarbonate ion in each resin are determined in advance. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. ON THE FORMATION OF BENZOIC ACID AND HIGHER-ORDER BENZENE CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN INTERSTELLAR MODEL ICE GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Saito, Sean E. J.; Turner, Andrew M.; Chakravarty, Harish K.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    With a binary ice mixture of benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions, the formation of benzene carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to probe for the formation of new species during the chemical processing of the ice mixture and during the following temperature-programmed desorption. Newly formed benzene carboxylic acid species, i.e., benzoic acid, as well as meta - and para -benzene dicarboxylic acid, were assigned using newly emerging bands in the infrared spectrum; a reaction mechanism, along with rate constants, was proposed utilizing the kinetic fitting of the coupled differential equations.

  16. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected in April–May 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions and low molecular weight carboxylic acids using ion chromatography. PM2.5 and PM10 low-volume samplers with quartz fibre filters were deployed and aerosol ...

  17. In situ Recovery of Bio-Based Carboxylic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saboe, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Darren J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deutch, Stephen P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cywar, Robin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kumar, Manish [Pennsylvania State University

    2018-03-16

    The economics of chemical and biological processes is often dominated by the expense of downstream product separations from dilute product streams. Continuous separation techniques, such as in situ product recovery (ISPR), are attractive in that they can concentrate products from a reactor and minimize solvent loss, thereby increasing purity and sustainability of the process. In bioprocesses, ISPR can have an additional advantage of increasing productivity by alleviating product inhibition on the microorganism. In this work, we developed a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)-based ISPR system integrated with downstream distillation to selectively purify free carboxylic acids, which were selected as exemplary bioproducts due to their ability to be produced at industrially relevant titers and productivities. Equilibrium constants for the extraction of carboxylic acids into a phosphine-oxide based organic phase were experimentally determined. Complete recovery of acids from the extractant and recyclability of the organic phase were demonstrated through multiple extraction-distillation cycles. Using these data, an equilibrium model was developed to predict the acid loading in the organic phase as a function of the extraction equilibrium constant, initial aqueous acid concentration, pH, organic to aqueous volume ratio, and temperature. A distillation process model was then used to predict the energy input required to distill neat acid from an organic phase as a function of the acid loading in the organic phase feed. The heat integrated distillation train can achieve neat recovery of acetic acid with an energy input of 2.6 MJ kg-1 of acetic acid. This LLE-based ISPR system integrated with downstream distillation has an estimated carbon footprint of less than 0.36 kg CO2 per kg of acetic acid, and provides a green approach to enable both new industrial bioprocesses, and process intensification of existing industrial operations by (1) increasing the productivity and titer of

  18. Carboxylic acids in crystallization of macromolecules: learning from successful crystallization experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Lesa R; He, John Z; Mank, Nicholas J; Booth, William T; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-03-01

    The production of macromolecular crystals suitable for structural analysis is one of the most important and limiting steps in the structure determination process. Often, preliminary crystallization trials are performed using hundreds of empirically selected conditions. Carboxylic acids and/or their salts are one of the most popular components of these empirically derived crystallization conditions. Our findings indicate that almost 40 % of entries deposited to the Protein Data Bank (PDB) reporting crystallization conditions contain at least one carboxylic acid. In order to analyze the role of carboxylic acids in macromolecular crystallization, a large-scale analysis of the successful crystallization experiments reported to the PDB was performed. The PDB is currently the largest source of crystallization data, however it is not easily searchable. These complications are due to a combination of a free text format, which is used to capture information on the crystallization experiments, and the inconsistent naming of chemicals used in crystallization experiments. Despite these difficulties, our approach allows for the extraction of over 47,000 crystallization conditions from the PDB. Initially, the selected conditions were investigated to determine which carboxylic acids or their salts are most often present in crystallization solutions. From this group, selected sets of crystallization conditions were analyzed in detail, assessing parameters such as concentration, pH, and precipitant used. Our findings will lead to the design of new crystallization screens focused around carboxylic acids.

  19. What is the enthalpy of formation of pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Margarida S.; Duarte, Darío J.R.; Liebman, Joel F.

    2016-01-01

    There are two contemporary conflicting, indeed, incompatible determinations of measurements of the enthalpies of combustion and of formation of pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid in the literature, (−2268.0 ± 0.9 and −271.2 ± 1.1 kJ · mol −1 ) and (−2211.4 ± 0.9 and −327.8 ± 1.1 kJ · mol −1 ). The current paper discusses these two sets of values and from the use of a measurement of the enthalpy of sublimation, a newly evaluated enthalpy of formation of pyrazine itself, and of the quantum chemical calculations at the G3(MP2)//B3LYP level, the former results are accepted and the derived gas phase enthalpy of formation, −(167.6 ± 3.1) kJ · mol −1 , suggested.

  20. The investigation of the reactions of some pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with various diamines and diols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Kasımoğulları

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some new derivatives were synthesized of 4-benzoyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1 and 4-(ethoxycarbonyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2 that they were pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. Firstly, 1 and 2 reacted with SOCl2 to transform them into acyl chlorides (3, 4. Then various bis-carboxamide derivatives (5–8 were obtained from the reaction of 3 and 4 with various diamines and also a ;#946;-hydroxy ester (9 derivative was obtained from the reaction of 3 with ethylene glycol. The structures of synthesized compounds were elucidated with using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis methods.

  1. Silver(I) and copper(II)-imidazolium carboxylates: Efficient catalysts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GANESAN PRABUSANKAR

    the reaction between corresponding carboxylic acid ligands and metal salts. These new metal .... g), DMF (2 mL) and water (1 mL) was added; then, the sus- pension was ..... ence of five mol% potassium hydroxide as base in 1 and. Scheme 3.

  2. Rapid and selective derivatizatin method for the nitrogen-sensitive detection of carboxylic acids in biological fluids prior to gas chromatographic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingeman, H.; Haan, H.B.P.; Hulshoff, A.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and selective derivatization procedure is described for the pre-column labelling of carboxylic acids with a nitrogen-containing label. The carboxylic acid function is activated with 2-bromo-1-methylpyridinium iodide and the activated carboxylic acid function reacts with a primary or a

  3. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  4. l-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylic Acid or α-Lipoic Acid Attenuates Airway Remodeling: Involvement of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB, Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2p45-Related Factor-2 (Nrf2, and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Bum Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Antioxidants have been found to ameliorate airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in animal models employing short-term exposure to allergen. However, little data are available on the effect of antioxidants on airway remodeling and signaling pathways in chronic asthma. In the present study, we used a long-term exposure murine model of allergic airway disease to evaluate the effects of an antioxidant, l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC or α-lipoic acid (LA on airway remodeling, focusing on the ROS-related hypoxia-inducible signaling. Long-term challenge of ovalbumin (OVA increased ROS production, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness, and developed features of airway remodeling such as excessive mucus secretion, subepithelial fibrosis, and thickening of the peribronchial smooth muscle layer. Administration of OTC or LA reduced these features of asthma, including airway remodeling, which was accompanied by suppression of transforming growth factor-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and T-helper 2 cytokines. In addition, OVA-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α, and HIF-2α was reduced by OTC or LA. Our results also showed that OTC or LA down-regulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity and decreased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These findings demonstrate that OTC and LA can inhibit activation of NF-κB, Nrf2, and HIF, leading to attenuate allergen-induced airway remodeling.

  5. Determination of the Cyanide Metabolite 2-Aminothiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid in Urine and Plasma by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logue, Brian A; Kirschten, Nicholas P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Moser, Matthew A; Rockwood, Gary A; Baskin, Steven I

    2005-01-01

    The cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline.4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is a promising biomarker for cyanide exposure because of its stability and the limitations of direct determination of cyanide and more abundant cyanide metabolites...

  6. Synthesis and complexation properties towards uranyl cation of carboxylic acid derivatives of p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souane, R.

    2005-03-01

    In the fuel reprocessing plants radioactive metals, and more particularly, uranium in UO 2 2+ form in the various installations, have many varied physico-chemical forms and there is a risk of exposure and internal contamination in the nuclear industry. It is necessary to exert a medical control to ensure the protection of the health of the workers. This medical control is done by dosing uranyl cation in the urine of the exposed people. This work forms part of this context. Indeed, we prepared a ligand able to complex the ion uranyl and which is also to be grafted on a solid support. In the family of calixarenes, the calix[6]arenes functionalized by three or four carboxylic functions were selected like chelating molecules of the ion uranyl. The properties of complexation of these calixarenes were studied by potentiometry in methanol, under these conditions balances of protonation and complexation were determined and the constant partners were obtained using the Hyperquad program. We synthesized tri-carboxylic calix[6]arenes comprising of the groupings nitro (NO 2 ) in para position of phenol in order to see the influence of a substitution in para position on the complexation. We also synthesized calix[6]arenes tetra-carboxylic in order to show the role of an additional carboxylic acid grouping. The potentiometric study determined thermodynamic parameters of protonation and complexation of carboxylic calix[6]arenes. The results of the complexation highlighted which complex UO 2 L corresponding to the ligand para-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene tetra-acid is more stable than that corresponding to the ligand mono-nitro calix[6]arene tri-acid (ΔlogΒ110 = 4.3), and than the effect of the groupings nitro in para position has low influence on the complexation of UO 2 2+ . This makes it possible to consider as possible the grafting of the calix[6]arenes which one knows the behaviour of trapping. To this end we synthesized the ligand 23. (author)

  7. Thermodynamic studies on corrosion inhibition of aqueous solutions of amino/carboxylic acids toward copper by EMF measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spah, Manjula; Spah, Dal Chand; Deshwal, Balraj; Lee, Seungmoon; Chae, Yoon-Keun; Park, Jin Won

    2009-01-01

    Electromotive force (E) measurements were made on an electrochemical cell [Cu x Hg|CuCl 2 (m) in a solvent S|AgCl-Ag] (where S is a dilute aqueous solution (0.01 m) of amino acid (glycine, alanine, methionine and glutamic acid) or aliphatic carboxylic acid (formic acid, acetic acid, n-butyric acid and glutaric acid)) at 30 deg. C. These measured E values were used to compute the dissociation constants (K 1 and K 2 ) and the degree of dissociation (α 1 and α 2 ) by iterative procedures. The standard cell potential (E o ) and the mean activity coefficient (γ ± ) of CuCl 2 were also determined. The E o data were next used to evaluate the Gibbs energy of transfer (ΔG tr 0 ) of CuCl 2 from water to dilute aqueous solutions of the amino/carboxylic acids. The negative ΔG tr 0 values suggested that these acids act as potential corrosion inhibitors. The magnitudes of ΔG tr 0 values show that the amino acids act as better corrosion inhibitors towards copper than the aliphatic carboxylic acids.

  8. L-aspartic acid transport by cat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Cat and dog red cells are unusual in that they have no Na/K ATPase and contain low K and high Na intracellularly. They also show significant Na dependent L-aspartate (L-asp) transport. The authors have characterized this system in cat RBCs. The influx of 3 H-L-asp (typically 2μM) was measured in washed RBCs incubated for 60 s at 37 0 C in medium containing 140 mM NaCl, 5 mM Kcl, 2 mM CaCl 2 , 15 mM MOPS pH 7.4, 5 mM glucose, and 14 C-PEG as a space marker. The cells were washed 3 times in the medium immediately before incubation which was terminated by centrifuging the RBCs through a layer of dibutylphthalate. Over an L-asp concentration range of 0.5-1000μM, influx obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a small added linear diffusion component. The Kt and Jmax of the saturable component were 5.40 +/- 0.34 μM and 148.8 +/- 7.2 μmol 1. cell -1 h -1 respectively. Replacement of Na with Li, K, Rb, Cs or choline reduce influx to diffusion. With the addition of asp analogues (4 + M L-asp, 40 + M inhibitor), the following sequence of inhibition was observed (range 80% to 40% inhib.): L-glutamate > L-cysteine sulfonate > D-asp > L-cysteic acid > D-glutamate. Other amino acids such as L-alanine, L-proline, L-lysine, L-cysteine, and taurine showed no inhibition (<5%). These data suggest that cat red cells contain a high-affinity Na dependent transport system for L-asp, glutamate, and closely related analogues which resembles that found in the RBCs of other carnivores and in neural tissues

  9. Synthesis and pharmacology of 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline-cyclopentane analogues of glutamic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, P; De Amici, M; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and pharmacology of two potential glutamic acid receptor ligands are described. Preparation of the bicyclic 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline-cyclopentane derivatives (+/-)-7 and (+/-)-8 was accomplished via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of bromonitrile oxide to suitably protected 1-amino......-cyclopent-3-enecarboxylic acids. Their structure was established using a combination of 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations carried out on the intermediate cycloadducts (+/-)-11 and (+/-)-12. Amino acid derivatives (+/-)-7 and (+/-)-8 were assayed at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamic...... acid receptor subtypes and their activity compared with that of trans-ACPD and cis-ACPD. The results show that the replacement of the omega-carboxylic group of the model compounds with the 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline moiety abolishes or reduces drastically the activity at the metabotropic glutamate...

  10. Potentiometric studies on mixed-ligand chelates of uranyl ion with carboxylic acid phenolic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandiwadekar, S.P.; Chavar, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mixed ligand complexes of UO 2 2+ with bidentate carboxylic and phenolic acids have been studied potentiometrically at 30 ± 0.1degC and μ=0.2M (NaClO 4 ). 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of UO 2 2+ with phthalic acid (PTHA), maleic acid (MAE), malonic acid (MAL), quinolinic acid (QA), 5-sulphosalicylic acid (5-SSA), salicylic acid (SA), and only 1:1 complexes in the case of mandelic acid (MAD) have been detected. The formation of 1:1:1 mixed ligand complexes has been inferred from simultaneous equilibria in the present study. The values of ΔlogK, Ksub(DAL), Ksub(2LA) or Ksub(2AL) for the ternary complexes have been calculated. The stabilities of mixed ligand complexes depend on the size of the chelate ring and the stabilities of the binary complexes. (author). 15 refs

  11. Determining aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids in biomass-derived oil samples using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and liquid chromatography-electrospray injection-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Samuel A.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Keiser, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Converting biomass to a useful fuel commonly incorporates the pyrolysis of the biomass feed stock. The base liquid fraction usually contains high concentrations of ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids, of which each can cause detrimental issues related to the storage and upgrading process. Knowing the carbonyl species and the concentration of each will provide value information to the pyrolysis researchers, specifically as that community branches into more targeted end-products such as jet fuel or biogenic-derived oxygenate-containing fuel products. The analysis of aldehydes, ketones and small alkyl carboxylic acids using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivation method has been well documented and the method is commonly used the analytical community. By using liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, biomass sample analysis can be complete with identification of most carbonyl species. The issue of identifying isobaric ketone and aldehyde compounds can be resolved by utilizing differences in retention time or characteristic fragment ions of ketones and aldehydes. One issue which could not resolved using published methods was identifying aromatic or large non-aromatic carboxylic acids from their corresponding hydroxyl aldehyde or ketone analogs. By modifying the current method for determining carbonyls in biomass samples, carboxylic and hydroxyl-carbonyl can be determined. A careful adjustment of the pH during the extraction procedure and extended heating time of the DNPH solution allowed for the successful derivation of aromatic carboxylic acids. Like other dinitrophenylhydrazones, carboxylic acid derivatives also produce a unique secondary ion pattern, which was useful to distinguish these species from the non-acid analogs.

  12. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorovarov, D.I.; Chumakova, G.M.; Rusin, L.I.; Ul'anov, V.S.; Sviridova, R.A.; Sviridov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C 7 -C 9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  13. Uptake of 3-[125I]iodo-α-methyl-L-tyrosine into colon cancer DLD-1 cells: characterization and inhibitory effect of natural amino acids and amino acid-like drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikano, Naoto; Ogura, Masato; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Syuichi; Kotani, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masato; Nakazawa, Shinya; Baba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Kubota, Nobuo; Iwamura, Yukio; Kawai, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examined 3-[ 123 I]iodo-α-methyl-L-tyrosine ([ 123 I]IMT) uptake and inhibition by amino acids and amino acid-like drugs in the human DLD-1 colon cancer cell line, to discuss correlation between the inhibition effect and structure. Methods: Expression of relevant neutral amino acid transporters was examined by real-time PCR with DLD-1 cells. The time course of [ 125 I]IMT uptake, contributions of transport systems, concentration dependence and inhibition effects by amino acids and amino acid-like drugs (1 mM) on [ 125 I]IMT uptake were examined. Results: Expression of system L (4F2hc, LAT1 and LAT2), system A (ATA1, ATA2) and system ASC (ASCT1) was strongly detected; system L (LAT3, LAT4) and MCT8 were weakly detected; and B 0 AT was not detected. [ 125 I]IMT uptake in DLD-1 cells involved Na + -independent system L primarily and Na + -dependent system(s). Uptake of [ 125 I]IMT in Na + -free buffer followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K m of 78 μM and V max of 333 pmol/10 6 cells per minute. Neutral D- and L-amino acids with branched or aromatic large side chains inhibited [ 125 I]IMT uptake. Tyrosine analogues, tryptophan analogues, L-phenylalanine and p-halogeno-L-phenylalanines, and gamma amino acids [including 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), DL-threo-β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)serine (DOPS), 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-L-phenylalanine and 1-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexaneacetic acid] strongly inhibited [ 125 I]IMT uptake, but L-tyrosine methyl ester and R(+)/S(-)-baclofen weakly inhibited uptake. The substrates of system ASC and A did not inhibit [ 125 I]IMT uptake except L-serine and D/L-cysteine. Conclusions: [ 125 I]IMT uptake in DLD-1 cells involves mostly LAT1 and its substrates' (including amino acid-like drugs derived from tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine) affinity to transport via LAT1. Whether transport of gamma amino acid analogues is involved in LAT1 depends on the structure of the group corresponding to the amino acid

  14. 2-Oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassir Filali Baba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H7NO3·H2O, O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the carboxyl groups, the keto groups and the lattice water molecules form stepped sheets approximately parallel to {010} which are tied together by pairwise N—H...O interactions. The asymmetric unit contains two independent quinolone derivatives and two water molecules, one of which is disordered over two positions, of equal occupancy.

  15. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.): a comparative study of fruits and seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermann, K.; Meinhard, J.; Dobrev, Petre; Linkies, A.; Pešek, Bedřich; Heß, B.; Macháčková, Ivana; Fischer, U.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 11 (2007), s. 3047-3060 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : abscisic acid (ABA) * ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A) * 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ( ACC ) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.917, year: 2007

  16. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  17. Biotransformation of fluorophenyl pyridine carboxylic acids by the model fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Brown, William; Dunne, Brian; Ortin, Yannick; Fox, Mark A; Sandford, Graham; Murphy, Cormac D

    2017-09-01

    1. Fluorine plays a key role in the design of new drugs and recent FDA approvals included two fluorinated drugs, tedizolid phosphate and vorapaxar, both of which contain the fluorophenyl pyridyl moiety. 2. To investigate the likely phase-I (oxidative) metabolic fate of this group, various fluorinated phenyl pyridine carboxylic acids were incubated with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans, which is an established model of mammalian drug metabolism. 3.  19 F NMR spectroscopy established the degree of biotransformation, which varied depending on the position of fluorine substitution, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified alcohols and hydroxylated carboxylic acids as metabolites. The hydroxylated metabolites were further structurally characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which demonstrated that hydroxylation occurred on the 4' position; fluorine in that position blocked the hydroxylation. 4. The fluorophenyl pyridine carboxylic acids were not biotransformed by rat liver microsomes and this was a consequence of inhibitory action, and thus, the fungal model was crucial in obtaining metabolites to establish the mechanism of catabolism.

  18. Synthesis and distribution of L-glutamic acid with three different labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Spolter, Leonard; Chia Chin Chang; MacDonald, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to compare the distribution of C-11 L-glutamic acid, labeled on the carboxyl group of either the alpha or gamma carbon with that of N-13 L-glutamic acid in order to determine if the position of the label is of importance in the study of the distribution of glutamic acid

  19. In situ SERS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on the pH-dependant adsorption of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid on silver electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan, E-mail: dany@sit.edu.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China); Jia, Shaojie [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China); Fodjo, Essy Kouadio [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, University Felix Houphouet Boigny, 22 BP 582, Abidjan 22, Cote d’Ivoire (Cote d' Ivoire); Xu, Hu [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China); Wang, Yuhong, E-mail: yuhong_wang502@sit.edu.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China); Deng, Wei [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: The orientation of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ-2-COOH) has been investigated by in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (in situ SERS) spectroelectrochemistry and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) on silver surface. - Highlights: • The adsorption behavior of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ-2-COOH) on Ag electrode is influenced by the pH. • The pH-dependant adsorption of AQ-2-COOH has been confirmed by in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (in situ SERS) spectroelectrochemistry and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). • The results can provide insights into electron transfer reactions of AQ-2-COOH in biological systems. - Abstract: In this study, in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemistry and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) are used to investigate the redox reaction and adsorption behavior of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ-2-COOH) on an Ag electrode at different pH values. The obtained results indicate that AQ-2-COOH is adsorbed tilted on the Ag electrode through O-atom of ring carbonyl in a potential range from −0.3 to −0.5 V vs. SCE, but the orientation turns to more tilted orientation with both O-atom of the ring carbonyl and carboxylate group in positive potential region for pH 6.0 and 7.4. However, at pH 10.0, the orientation adopts tilted conformation constantly on the Ag electrode with both O-atom of the anthraquinone ring and carboxylate group in the potential range from −0.3 to −0.5 V vs. SCE or at positive potentials. Moreover, the adsorption behavior of AQ-2-COOH has been further confirmed by AR-XPS on the Ag surface. Proposed reasons for the observed changes in orientation are presented.

  20. SENYAWA ASAM 2- METILESTER-1-H-PIROL-4-KARBOKSILAT DALAM EKSTRAK ETIL ASETAT BUAH SALAK VARIETAS BONGKOK SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN DAN ANTIHYPERURICEMIA [Studies on 2-Methylester-1-H-Pyrolle-4-Carboxylic Acid Compound in Ethylacetate Extract of Snake Fruit Variety Bongkok as Antioxidant and Anthyperuricemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Herliani Afrianti 1*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant and antihyperuricemia activity of ethyl acetate extract of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw. var. Bongkok. The research methods used in this study comprised of three stages. First stage, the isolation processes, consist ed of maceration, fractionation, and purification using several techniques of chromatography. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on UV, IR, 1-D NMR, and 2-D NMR spectral data. The ethyl acetate extract of snake fruit var. Bongkok isolated was a new compound 2-methylester-1-H-pyrolle-4- carboxylic acid. In the second stage the antioxidant activity of the extract and the isolated compounds were measured by 1,1 diphenol (DPPH method. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and the isolated compounds were expressed as IC50, The ethyl acetate extracts at concentrations of 0.2, 2, 20, 200, 400, and 2000 µg/mL showed inhibition of 9.67, 4.47, 41.89, 96.06, 82.54, and 90.60 % respectively, with an IC50 of 1.6 µg/mL. Ascorbic acid standards at the same concentration range showed an IC50 of 0.54 µg/mL. Meanwhile, at the same concentrations the 2-methylester-1-H-pyrolle-4-carboxylic acid showed free radical inhibition of 17.48, 21.48, 18.14, 31.87, and 62.34 % respectively, with an IC50 of 3.27 µg/mL. During the third stage, the antihyperuricemic properties of the extracts and the isolated compound were examinated in vitro using inhibition of xanthin oxidase method. The ethyl acetate extracts at concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.2, 2, and 2000 µg/mL showed xanthin oxidase inhibition of 49.24, 49.58, 50.28 and 52.26 % respectively, with an IC50 of 24.75 µg/mL. At the same concentrations, the 2-methylester-1-H-pyrolle-4- carboxylic acid, showed xanthin oxidase inhibition of 27.7, 30.5, 37.3, 50.27 and 50.55 % respectively, with an IC50 of 48.86 µg/mL. Allopurinol as a standard drug showed an IC50 of 0.92 µg/mL.

  1. Luminescent hybrid lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 1,10-phenanthroline involving in-situ oxidation of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie-Cen; Wan, Fang; Sun, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A series of lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates, [Ln2(phen)2(SO4)3(H2O)2]n (I:Ln=Nd(1a), Sm(1b), Eu(1c), phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Ln(phen)(2-SBA)(BZA)]n (II: Ln=Sm(2a), Eu(2b), Dy(2c), 2-SBA=2-sulfobenzoate, BZA=benzoate) have been hydrothermally synthesized from lanthanide oxide, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra, TG analyses and luminescence spectroscopy. Interestingly, SO4 2 - anions in I came from the in situ deep oxidation of thiol groups of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid while 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate ligands in II from the middle oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. Compounds I are organic-inorganic hybrid lanthanide sulfates, which have rare one-dimensional column-like structures. Complexes II are binuclear lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate as bridges and 1,10-phenanthroline as terminal. Photoluminescence studies reveal that complexes I and II exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands in the solid state at room temperature.

  2. Determination of tetrahydrophtalimide and 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, urinary metabolites of the fungicide captan, in rats and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welie, R.T.H.; van Duyn, P; Lamme, E K; Jäger, P; van Baar, B L; Vermeulen, N P

    1991-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatographic (GC) methods using sulphur and mass selective detection for the qualitative and quantitative determination of tetrahydrophtalimide (THPI) and 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), urinary metabolites of the fungicide captan in rat and humans, were developed.

  3. Crystal structures of active fully assembled substrate- and product-bound complexes of UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid:L-alanine ligase (MurC) from Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Clifford D; Brooun, Alexei; Dougan, Douglas R; Hilgers, Mark T; Tari, Leslie W; Wijnands, Robert A; Knuth, Mark W; McRee, Duncan E; Swanson, Ronald V

    2003-07-01

    UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid:L-alanine ligase (MurC) catalyzes the addition of the first amino acid to the cytoplasmic precursor of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. The crystal structures of Haemophilus influenzae MurC in complex with its substrate UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UNAM) and Mg(2+) and of a fully assembled MurC complex with its product UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine (UMA), the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue AMPPNP, and Mn(2+) have been determined to 1.85- and 1.7-A resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a conserved, three-domain architecture with the binding sites for UNAM and ATP formed at the domain interfaces: the N-terminal domain binds the UDP portion of UNAM, and the central and C-terminal domains form the ATP-binding site, while the C-terminal domain also positions the alanine. An active enzyme structure is thus assembled at the common domain interfaces when all three substrates are bound. The MurC active site clearly shows that the gamma-phosphate of AMPPNP is positioned between two bound metal ions, one of which also binds the reactive UNAM carboxylate, and that the alanine is oriented by interactions with the positively charged side chains of two MurC arginine residues and the negatively charged alanine carboxyl group. These results indicate that significant diversity exists in binding of the UDP moiety of the substrate by MurC and the subsequent ligases in the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis pathway and that alterations in the domain packing and tertiary structure allow the Mur ligases to bind sequentially larger UNAM peptide substrates.

  4. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria measurements for ternary systems (sulfolane + a carboxylic acid + n-heptane) at T = 303.15 K and at 0.1 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cele, N.P.; Bahadur, I.; Redhi, G.G.; Ebenso, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for (sulfolane + a carboxylic acid + heptane) was measured. • Selectivity values for solvent separation efficiency were calculated. • Separation of carboxylic acids from heptane is feasible by extraction. • Three parameter equations have been fitted to the binodal curve data. • The NRTL and UNIQUAC models were used to correlate the experimental data. - Abstract: In the present work, new (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) values are reported for ternary systems {sulfolane(1) + acetic acid, or propanoic acid, or butanoic acid, or 2-methylpropanoic acid, or pentanoic acid, or 3-methylbutanoic acid (2) + n-heptane (3)} at T = 303.15 K and at p = 0.1 MPa. The mutual solubility of carboxylic acid in sulfolane is dependent on the length and structure of the alkyl chain of the carboxylic acid; it progressively increases with an increase in the alkyl chain of the carboxylic acid. The single phase homogenous region increases as the alkyl chain of the carboxylic acid increases. The n-heptane is most soluble in the carboxylic acid mixtures with long alkyl chain, that is, (3-methylbutanoic acid + sulfolane) and (pentanoic acid + sulfolane) systems and least soluble in the carboxylic acid with short alkyl chain (acetic acid + sulfolane) system. Carboxylic acid together with many other oxygenates and hydrocarbons are produced by SASOL Company in South Africa using the Fischer–Tropsch process. The details about this process are given in introduction section. The NRTL and UNIQUAC models were used to correlate the experimental tie-lines and to calculate the phase compositions of the ternary systems. It was found that the NRTL model fits the experimental values significantly better than the UNIQUAC model.

  5. Hydrogen-bonded co-crystal structure of benzoic acid and zwitterionic l-proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Chesna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: benzoic acid–pyrrolidin-1-ium-2-carboxylate (1/1], C7H6O2·C5H9NO2, is an example of the application of non-centrosymmetric co-crystallization for the growth of a crystal containing a typically centrosymmetric component in a chiral space group. It co-crystallizes in the space group P212121 and contains benzoic acid and l-proline in equal proportions. The crystal structure exhibits chains of l-proline zwitterions capped by benzoic acid molecules which form a C(5[R33(11] hydrogen-bonded network along [100]. The crystal structure is examined and compared to that of a similar co-crystal containing l-proline zwitterions and 4-aminobenzoic acid.

  6. Pharmacology of (S)-homoquisqualic acid and (S)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid [(S)-AP5] at cloned metabotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    1998-01-01

    1 In this study we have determined the pharmacological profile of (S)-quisqualic acid, (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid ((S)-AP4) and their higher homologues (S)-homoquisqualic acid, (S)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid ((S)-AP5), respectively, and (R)-AP5 at subtypes of metabotropic (S)-glutamic...... demonstrate that incorporation of an additional carbon atom into the backbone of (S)-glutamic acid and its analogues, to give the corresponding homologues, and replacement of the terminal carboxyl groups by isosteric acidic groups have profound effects on the pharmacological profiles at mGlu receptor subtypes...... acid (mGlu) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. 2 (S)-Quisqualic acid was a potent mGlu1/mGlu5 agonist (EC50 values of 1.1 microM and 0.055 microM, respectively) showing no activity at mGlu2 and weak agonism at mGlu4 (EC50 approximately 1000 microM). 3 (S)-Homoquisqualic acid displayed...

  7. The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan

    2004-09-01

    This article describes the history of the reaction converting carboxylic acids to ketones. The reaction has been rediscovered several times, yet has actually been known for centuries. The best known version of the process is the Dakin West reaction (1928), which applies to α-amino acids and also involves the simultaneous conversion of the amine group to amido functionality. Unlike other examples, this particular reaction has attracted a reasonable amount of attention and it appears to be better known than the conversion of simple carboxylic acids to ketones. However, this reaction was described as long ago as 1612, when Beguin published an account of it in his book, Tyrocinium Chymicum . Since then, many chemists have rediscovered the reaction, apparently independently. One of the earliest modern accounts was by W. H. Perkin, Sr., in 1886, who made various simple ketones by refluxing the appropriate carboxylic acids with base. However, this work has been largely ignored, including by his son, W. H. Perkin, Jr., who used a more complicated base-catalyzed ketonization to prepare small ring compounds in the early years of the 20th century. Other articles detailing the application of ketonization to organic acids are discussed, including our own work, which employed the process to crosslink carboxylated polymers for possible technical application in coatings. Despite its relative obscurity, the reaction was used by Woodward et al. in the total synthesis of strychnine, reported in 1963, and this is discussed in detail at the end of the article. See Featured Molecules .

  8. Acid-Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently Attached at the Surface of Polyethylene: The Usefulness of Contact Angle in Following the Ionization of Surface Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    additional check, we converted granular PE-CO 2H to granular PE-CO 2CH3 by acid -catalyzed esterification. This material had no titrable groups. Upon...Task No. NR-631-840 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 85-1 Acid -Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently Attached at the Surface of Polyethylene: The...34I Acid -Base Behavior K-142 ofCarboxylicAcidGroupsAttached...______________________ 12. PERSIIMAL AUTHOR IS) S.R. Holmes-Farly., R.H. Reamey, T.J

  9. Fe(II) and Co (II) complexes of (4-(4-bromophenyl)-[2,2'-bipyridine]-6-carboxylic acid) synthesis, characterization and electrochromic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, A.; Maqsood, Z.T.; Wasim, A.A.; Basha, F.Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this study novel complexes of substituted bipyridine (4-(4-bromophenyl)-[2,2'-bipyridine]-6-carboxylic acid) with Fe/sup +2/ and Co/sup +2/ were synthesized and characterized by different physical, analytical and spectral techniques which includes /sup 1/ H-NMR, MALDI-MS, FTIR, UV-VIS Spectrophotometry, CHN analysis and conductometry. Mole ratio method revealed that both complexes satisfied ML2 stoichiometry. Other characterization studies showed that substituted bipyridine acted as a tridentate ligand, with two pyridine N and one carboxylic O atom as binding sites per ligand molecule. The complexes were found octahedral, neutral and possessed fairly high molar absorptivities in visible region. Electrochromic studies revealed that Fe (II) complex had relatively good electrochromic properties with a reversible color change from blue to pale yellow. Co (II) complex, however, did not show significant electrochromic properties in the visible region. (author)

  10. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  11. Carboxylic acid functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for sustained release of diphenhydramine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargarian, S. Sh.; Haddadi-Asl, V., E-mail: haddadi@aut.ac.ir; Hematpour, H. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) (cylindrical shape with external diameter and length in the range of 30–80 nm and 0.2–1 µm, respectively) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) from hydroxyl groups by a coupling reaction. Subsequently, maleic anhydride was attached to the APTES moieties to yield carboxylic acid-functionalized HNT. Loading and subsequent release of a model drug molecule diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) on modified and unmodified nanotubes were investigated. Morphology of HNT was studied by electron microscopy. Successful attachment of APTES and carboxylic acid groups to halloysite and drug loading were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amount of surface modification and drug adsorption capacity were calculated via thermogravimetric analysis. The ordered crystal structure of loaded drug was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. UV–Visible spectrophotometer was used to study drug release from modified and unmodified samples. Carboxylated halloysite exhibits higher loading capacity and prolonged release of DPH as compared to that of the natural halloysite.

  12. Carboxylic acid functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for sustained release of diphenhydramine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zargarian, S. Sh.; Haddadi-Asl, V.; Hematpour, H.

    2015-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) (cylindrical shape with external diameter and length in the range of 30–80 nm and 0.2–1 µm, respectively) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) from hydroxyl groups by a coupling reaction. Subsequently, maleic anhydride was attached to the APTES moieties to yield carboxylic acid-functionalized HNT. Loading and subsequent release of a model drug molecule diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) on modified and unmodified nanotubes were investigated. Morphology of HNT was studied by electron microscopy. Successful attachment of APTES and carboxylic acid groups to halloysite and drug loading were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amount of surface modification and drug adsorption capacity were calculated via thermogravimetric analysis. The ordered crystal structure of loaded drug was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. UV–Visible spectrophotometer was used to study drug release from modified and unmodified samples. Carboxylated halloysite exhibits higher loading capacity and prolonged release of DPH as compared to that of the natural halloysite

  13. On the formation of niacin (vitamin B3) and pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar model ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Turner, Andrew M.; Saito, Sean E.J.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The formation of pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was simulated by electron exposures of binary pyridine (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N)-carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) ice mixtures at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Chemical processing of the pristine ice and subsequent warm-up phase was monitored on line and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe for the formation of new radiation induced species. In the infrared spectra of the irradiated ice, bands assigned to nicotinic acid (niacin; vitamin B3; m-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}NCOOH) along with 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N(COOH){sub 2}) were unambiguously identified along with the hydroxycarbonyl (HOCO) radical. Our study suggests that the reactive pathway responsible for pyridine carboxylic acids formation involves a HOCO intermediate, which forms through the reaction of suprathermal hydrogen ejected from pyridine with carbon dioxide. The newly formed pyridinyl radical may then undergo radical–radical recombination with a hydroxycarbonyl radical to form a pyridine carboxylic acid.

  14. Biological roles and therapeutic potential of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashan eAhmed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, deorphanization studies have described intermediates of energy metabolism to activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and to thereby regulate metabolic functions. GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, formerly known as the nicotinic acid receptor family, are encoded by clustered genes and share a high degree of sequence homology. Recently, hydroxy-carboxylic acids were identified as endogenous ligands of GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, and therefore these receptors have been placed into a novel receptor family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA receptors. The HCA1 receptor (GPR81 is activated by the glycolytic metabolite 2-hydroxy-propionic acid (lactate, the HCA2 receptor is activated by the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid and the HCA3 receptor (GPR109B is a receptor for the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. While HCA1 and HCA2 receptors are present in most mammalian species, the HCA3 receptor is exclusively found in humans and higher primates. HCA receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and mediate anti-lipolytic effects in adipocytes through Gi-type G-protein-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. HCA2 and HCA3 inhibit lipolysis during conditions of increased β-oxidation such as prolonged fasting, whereas HCA1 mediates the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in the fed state. As HCA2 is a receptor for the established anti-dyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid, HCA1 and HCA3 also represent promising drug targets and several synthetic ligands for HCA receptors have been developed. In this article, we will summarize the deorphanization and pharmacological characterization of HCA receptors. Moreover, we will discuss recent progress in elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological role to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the HCA receptor family for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  15. Aziridine- and Azetidine-Pd Catalytic Combinations. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Ligand Ring Size Impact on Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Boufroura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new vicinal diamines based on aziridine and azetidine cores as well as the comparison of their catalytic activities as ligand in the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction are described in this communication. The synthesis of three- and four-membered ring heterocycles substituted by a methylamine pendant arm is detailed from the parent nitrile derivatives. Complexation to palladium under various conditions has been examined affording vicinal diamines or amine-imidate complexes. The efficiency of four new catalytic systems is compared in the preparation of variously substituted biaryls. Aziridine- and azetidine-based catalytic systems allowed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions from aryl halides including chlorides with catalytic loadings until 0.001% at temperatures ranging from 100 °C to r.t. The evolution of the Pd-metallacycle ring strain moving from azetidine to aziridine in combination with a methylamine or an imidate pendant arm impacted the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction issue.

  16. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 1- and 2-Substituted Indazoles: Ester and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bento

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of indazoles substituted at the N-1 and N-2 positions with ester-containing side chains -(CH2nCO2R of different lengths (n = 0-6, 9, 10 are described.Nucleophilic substitution reactions on halo esters (X(CH2nCO2R by 1H-indazole inalkaline solution lead to mixtures of N-1 and N-2 isomers, in which the N-1 isomerpredominates. Basic hydrolysis of the ester derivatives allowed the synthesis of thecorresponding indazole carboxylic acids. All compounds were fully characterised bymultinuclear NMR and IR spectroscopies, MS spectrometry and elemental analysis; theNMR spectroscopic data were used for structural assignment of the N-1 and N-2 isomers.The molecular structure of indazol-2-yl-acetic acid (5b was determined by X-raydiffraction, which shows a supramolecular architecture involving O2-H...N1intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  17. Bienzymatic Acetylcholinesterase and Choline Oxidase Immobilized Biosensor Based on a Phenyl Carboxylic Acid-Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bienzymatic acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline oxidase (ChOx immobilized biosensor based on a phenyl carboxylic acid-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE and carbon-screen printed electrode (SPE was fabricated for acetylcholine detection in human blood samples. Phenyl carboxylic acid-modified MWNT supports were prepared by electrochemical polymerization of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salts, which were synthesized by an amine group and sodium nitrite, on the surface of the MWNT-modified GCE and SPE in 0.1 M PBS. The successful fabrication of the AChE-ChOx-immobilized biosensor was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The sensing range of the biosensor based on a GCE and SPE was 1.0~10 μM and 10~100 μM, respectively. The interfering effect of 0.1 M L-ascorbic acid, 0.1 M L-cysteine, and 0.1 M uric acid to 0.1 M acetylcholine was 3.00%, 9.00%, and 3.00%, respectively. Acetylcholine in a human blood sample was detected by the AChE-ChOx-immobilized biosensor.

  18. Molecular Design of a Chiral Brønsted Acid with Two Different Acidic Sites: Regio-, Diastereo-, and Enantioselective Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction of Azopyridinecarboxylate with Amidodienes Catalyzed by Chiral Carboxylic Acid-Monophosphoric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momiyama, Norie; Tabuse, Hideaki; Noda, Hirofumi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Yamanishi, Katsunori; Izumiseki, Atsuto; Funayama, Kosuke; Egawa, Fuyuki; Okada, Shino; Adachi, Hiroaki; Terada, Masahiro

    2016-09-07

    A chiral Brønsted acid containing two different acidic sites, chiral carboxylic acid-monophosphoric acid 1a, was designed to be a new and effective concept in catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of azopyridinecarboxylate with amidodienes. The multipoint hydrogen-bonding interactions among the carboxylic acid, monophosphoric acid, azopyridinecarboxylate, and amidodiene achieved high catalytic and chiral efficiency, producing substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridazines with excellent stereocontrol in a single step. This constitutes the first example of regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective azo-hetero-Diels-Alder reactions by chiral Brønsted acid catalysis.

  19. Applications of Poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid-co-2,2′-bithiophene Films in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Wen Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two homopolymers (poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid (PInc and poly(2,2′-bithiophene (PbT and a copolymer (poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid-co-2,2′-bithiophene (P(Inc-co-bT are electrodeposited on ITO electrode surfaces via electrochemical method. Electrochemical and electrochromic properties of PInc, PbT, and P(Inc-co-bT films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and in situ UV-Vis spectroscopy. The anodic P(Inc-co-bT film prepared using Inc./bT = 1/1 feed molar ratio shows high optical contrast (30% at 890 nm and coloring efficiency (112 cm2 C−1 at 890 nm. P(Inc-co-bT film revealed light yellow, yellowish green, and bluish grey in the neutral, intermediate, and oxidation states, respectively. Electrochromic devices (ECDs were constructed using PInc, PbT, or P(Inc-co-bT film as anodic layer and PEDOT-PSS as cathodic layer. P(Inc-co-bT/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS ECD showed high ∆T (31% at 650 nm, and PInc/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS ECD displayed high coloration efficiency (416.7 cm2 C−1 at 650 nm. The optical memory investigations of PInc/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS, PbT/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS, and P(Inc-co-bT/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS ECDs exhibited that ECDs had adequate optical memory in bleaching and coloring states.

  20. Modification of polysulfone with pendant carboxylic acid functionality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polysulfone (PSF) by in situ generated chloromethyl radical in presence of stannic chloride in tetrachloroethane and .... vert the nitrile group to carboxylic acid was reported (Reddy ..... PEG molecular weight vs rejection at 35 psi pressure.

  1. Basicity of carboxylic acids: resonance in the cation and substituent effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, S.; Exner, Otto

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2005), s. 336-342 ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : basicity * carboxylic acids Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.574, year: 2005

  2. Surface Patterning of Benzene Carboxylic Acids on Graphite: Influence of structure, solvent, and concentration on molecular self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Gina; Stiso, Kimberly; Campanelli, Joseph; Dessources, Kimberly; Folkes, Trudi

    2012-02-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to investigate the molecular self-assembly of four different benzene carboxylic acid derivatives at the liquid/graphite interface: pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid), trimellitic acid (1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid), trimesic acid (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid), and 1,3,5-benzenetriacetic acid. A range of two dimensional networks are observed that depend sensitively on the number of carboxylic acids present, the nature of the solvent, and the solution concentration. We will describe our recent efforts to determine (a) the preferential two-dimensional structure(s) for each benzene carboxylic acid at the liquid/graphite interface, (b) the thermodynamic and kinetic factors influencing self-assembly (or lack thereof), (c) the role solvent plays in the assembly, (e) the effect of in situ versus ex situ dilution on surface packing density, and (f) the temporal evolution of the self-assembled monolayer. Results of computational analysis of analog molecules and model monolayer films will also be presented to aid assignment of network structures and to provide a qualitative picture of surface adsorption and network formation.

  3. Mass spectrometric analysis of L-cysteine metabolism: physiological role and fate of L-cysteine in the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Sato, Dan; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2014-11-04

    L-cysteine is essential for virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. Besides having a role in the synthesis of virtually all proteins and of taurine, cysteamine, glutathione, and other redox-regulating proteins, L-cysteine has important functions under anaerobic/microaerophilic conditions. In anaerobic or microaerophilic protozoan parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica, L-cysteine has been implicated in growth, attachment, survival, and protection from oxidative stress. However, a specific role of this amino acid or related metabolic intermediates is not well understood. In this study, using stable-isotope-labeled L-cysteine and capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of L-cysteine in E. histolytica. [U-(13)C3, (15)N]L-cysteine was rapidly metabolized into three unknown metabolites, besides L-cystine and L-alanine. These metabolites were identified as thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C), 2-methyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MT4C), and 2-ethyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (ET4C), the condensation products of L-cysteine with aldehydes. We demonstrated that these 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids serve for storage of L-cysteine. Liberation of L-cysteine occurred when T4C was incubated with amebic lysates, suggesting enzymatic degradation of these L-cysteine derivatives. Furthermore, T4C and MT4C significantly enhanced trophozoite growth and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels when it was added to cultures, suggesting that 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids are involved in the defense against oxidative stress. Amebiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In this parasite, L-cysteine is the principal low-molecular-weight thiol and is assumed to play a significant role in supplying the amino acid during trophozoite invasion, particularly when the parasites move from the anaerobic intestinal lumen to highly

  4. Dimerization of Carboxylic Acids: An Equation of State Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Panayiotou, Costas

    2017-01-01

    The association term of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding theory, which is an equation of state model, is extended to describe the dimerization of carboxylic acids in binary mixtures with inert solvents and in systems of two different acids. Subsequently, the model is applied to describe the excess...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2088 - Carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... linear. 721.2088 Section 721.2088 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2088 Carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear. (a) Chemical... as carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear (PMNs P-93-313, 314, 315, and 316) are subject to...

  6. Measuring the concentration of carboxylic acid groups in torrefied spruce wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraie Shoulaifar, Tooran; Demartini, Nikolai; Ivaska, Ari; Fardim, Pedro; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-11-01

    Torrefaction is moderate thermal treatment (∼200-300°C) to improve the energy density, handling and storage properties of biomass fuels. In biomass, carboxylic sites are partially responsible for its hygroscopic. These sites are degraded to varying extents during torrefaction. In this paper, we apply methylene blue sorption and potentiometric titration to measure the concentration of carboxylic acid groups in spruce wood torrefied for 30min at temperatures between 180 and 300°C. The results from both methods were applicable and the values agreed well. A decrease in the equilibrium moisture content at different humidity was also measured for the torrefied wood samples, which is in good agreement with the decrease in carboxylic acid sites. Thus both methods offer a means of directly measuring the decomposition of carboxylic groups in biomass during torrefaction as a valuable parameter in evaluating the extent of torrefaction which provides new information to the chemical changes occurring during torrefaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. From boron analogues of amino acids to boronated DNA: potential new pharmaceuticals and neutron capture agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, B.F.; Sood, Anup; Duke Univ., Durham, NC; Shaw, B.R.; Hall, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    Isoelectronic and isostructural boron analogues of the α-amino acids ranging from simple glycine analogues such as H 3 NBH 2 COOH and Me 2 NHBH 2 COOH to alanine analogues have been synthesised. A diverse variety of analogues, including precursors and derivatives (such as peptides) have potent pharmacological activity, including anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypolipidemic activity in animal model studies and in vitro cell cultures. Boronated nucleosides and (oligo)nucleotides, synthetic oligonucleotide analogues of ''antisense'' agents interact with a complementary nucleic acid sequence blocking the biological effect of the target sequence. Nucleosides boronated on the pyrimidine and purine bases have been prepared. It has been established that an entirely new class of nucleic acid derivatives is feasible in which one of the non-bridging oxygens in the internucleotide phosphodiester linkage can be replaced by an isoelectronic analogue, the borane group, (BH 3 ). The boronated oligonucleotides can be viewed as hybrids of the normal oxygen oligonucleotides and the methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. (author)

  8. Comparative hepatotoxicity of 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid, two fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, on adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Zhou, Xiujuan; Zheng, Fei; Pan, Yitao; Guo, Xuejiang; Guo, Yong; Sun, Yan; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-08-01

    Due to their structural similarities, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA) are often used as alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), respectively. With limited health risk data and 6:2 FTSA detection in water and sludge, the toxicity of these chemicals is of growing concern. Here, adult male mice were exposed with 5 mg/kg/day of 6:2 FTCA or 6:2 FTSA for 28 days to investigate their hepatotoxicological effects. In contrast to 6:2 FTCA, 6:2 FTSA was detected at high and very high levels in serum and liver, respectively, demonstrating bioaccumulation potential and slow elimination. Furthermore, 6:2 FTSA induced liver weight increase, inflammation, and necrosis, whereas 6:2 FTCA caused no obvious liver injury, with fewer significantly altered genes detected compared with that of 6:2 FTSA (39 vs. 412). Although PFOA and PFOS commonly activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), 6:2 FTSA induced an increase in PPARγ and related proteins, but not in lipid metabolism-related genes such as PPARα. Our results showed that 6:2 FTCA and 6:2 FTSA exhibited weak and moderate hepatotoxicity, respectively, compared with that reported for legacies PFOA and PFOS.

  9. A new analogue of fatty alcohol from Tamarix hampeana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykac, Ahmet; Akgül, Yurdanur

    2010-01-01

    New analogues of a long-chain secondary alcohol (1) and laserine (2) were isolated from the flowers of Tamarix hampeana L. The isolated compounds were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, LCMS/APCI, and chemical methods. Laserine was isolated for the first time from T. hampeana L.

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaïtilingom, M.; Charbouillot, T.; Deguillaume, L.; Maisonobe, R.; Parazols, M.; Amato, P.; Sancelme, M.; Delort, A.-M.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this work was to compare experimentally the contribution of photochemistry vs. microbial activity to the degradation of carboxylic acids present in cloud water. For this, we selected 17 strains representative of the microflora existing in real clouds and worked on two distinct artificial cloud media that reproduce marine and continental cloud chemical composition. Photodegradation experiments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals were performed under the same microcosm conditions using two irradiation systems. Biodegradation and photodegradation rates of acetate, formate, oxalate and succinate were measured on both media at 5 °C and 17 °C and were shown to be on the same order of magnitude (around 10-10-10-11 M s-1). The chemical composition (marine or continental origin) had little influence on photodegradation and biodegradation rates while the temperature shift from 17 °C to 5 °C decreased biodegradation rates of a factor 2 to 5. In order to test other photochemical scenarios, theoretical photodegradation rates were calculated considering hydroxyl (OH) radical concentration values in cloud water estimated by cloud chemistry modelling studies and available reaction rate constants of carboxylic compounds with both hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. Considering high OH concentration ([OH] = 1 × 10-12 M) led to no significant contribution of microbial activity in the destruction of carboxylic acids. On the contrary, for lower OH concentration (at noon, [OH] = 1 × 10-14 M), microorganisms could efficiently compete with photochemistry and in similar contributions than the ones estimated by our experimental approach. Combining these two approaches (experimental and theoretical), our results led to the following conclusions: oxalate was only photodegraded; the photodegradation of formate was usually more efficient than its biodegradation; the biodegradation of acetate and succinate seemed to exceed their photodegradation.

  11. Seven new Zn(II)/Cd(II) coordination polymers with 2-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic acid: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Fang; Zhou, Sheng-Bin; Du, Ceng-Ceng; Wang, Duo-Zhi; Jia, Dianzeng

    2017-08-01

    Using a new simi-rigid multitopic ligand 2-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic acid (H2L), seven new coordination polymers [Zn3(L)22-OH)2]n (1), {[Zn2(HL)2(H2O)2]·SiF6}n (2), [Zn(HL)(SCN)]n (3), {[Zn2(HL)2(SO4)]·(4,4‧-bpy)}n (4) [4,4‧-bpy =4,4‧-bipyridine], {[Zn(HL)22H2O}n (5), {[Cd(HL)22H2O}n (6) and [Cd2(HL)2(H2O)2(SO4)]n (7) have been successfully obtained from H2L ligand under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. In addition, UV-vis diffuse-reflectance spectra demonstrate wide band gaps. Complex 1 features a 3D topological net of {412·63} with the stoichiometry (6-c), contains 1D channels with the accessible solvent volume of 42.1%. 3, 4, 5 and 6 have a 1D chain structure, 5 and 6 further assemble to form 2D sheet and 3D supramolecular frameworks by hydrogen-bonding interactions, respectively. Complexes 2 and 7 possess a 2D layered structure, and the 2D supramolecular network of 2 can be rationalized to be four-connected {44·62} topological sql network with the dinuclear units, while 7 shows a 3-nodal 2D net with a point symbol of {63}. Moreover, the fluorescent emission, fluorescence lifetimes of 1-7 have been investigated and discussed. Interesting enough, complex 1 showed high efficiency for catalyzing the Knoevenagel condensation reaction between 4-substituted aromatic aldehydes and malononitrile as selective heterogeneous catalyst. The CPs combining catalytic and fluorescent properties could further meet the requirement as a multifunctional material. Seven new Zn(II)/Cd(II) coordination polymers with simi-rigid multitopic ligand, [(2-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic acid) (H2L)] have been successfully obtained and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and IR

  12. Deracemization of Racemic Amino Acids Using (R)- and (S)-Alanine Racemase Chiral Analogues as Chiral Converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Manjeong; Jeon, So Hee; Lee, Wonjae; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Kwan Mook

    2014-01-01

    Our findings show that both (R)- and (S)-ARCA can be practical chiral converters for L- and D-amino acids, respectively, in the deracemization of racemic amino acids. The overall stereoselectivities of both chiral converters are generally greater than 90%. In addition, we developed chiral and achiral HPLC methods for the analysis of stereoselectivity determination. This chromatographic method proved much more accurate and convenient at determining both enantiomer and diastereomer purity than did those previously reported. Deracemization is the stereoselective process of converting a racemate into either a pure enantiomer or a mixture in which one enantiomer is present in excess.1 Previous studies have shown that (S)-alanine racemase chiral analogue (ARCA) [(S)-2-hydroxy-2'-(3-phenyluryl-benzyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl-3-carboxaldehyde], developed as a chiral convertor compound that imitates the function of alanine racemase, plays an essential role in the stereoselective conversion of amino acid. Since (S)-ARCA showed a higher stability with D-amino acids than with L-amino acids, several L-amino acids were preferentially converted to D-amino acids via (S)-ARCA/D-amino acid imine diastereomer formation. For the deracemization process undertaken in this study, we utilized both (R)-ARCA and (S)-ARCA as chiral converters, which were expected to generate L- and D-amino acids, respectively, from the starting racemic mixtures

  13. Formation of biologically relevant carboxylic acids during the gamma irradiation of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid with gamma rays produced several carboxylic acids in small yield. Their identification was based on the technique of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Some of these acids are Krebs Cycle intermediates. Their simultaneous formation in experiments simulating the primitive conditions on the earth suggests that metabolic pathways may have had their origin in prebiotic chemical processes.

  14. Synthesis of N-acylurea derivatives from carboxylic acids and N,N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acid 1 (scheme 1) to the basic nitrogen of the carbodi- imide 2, followed by addition of the carboxylate to form the O-acyl isourea 3. It is known10 that in low dielec- tric constant solvents such as CH2Cl2, formation of 3 occurs instantaneously and, in the absence of a nucle- ophile or a base, it can be stable for many hours.

  15. 4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester derivatives as potent anti-tumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Shioya, Rieko; Agatsuma, Toshinori; Furukawa, Hidehiko; Naruto, Shunji; Sugano, Yuichi

    2004-01-19

    Based on the structure of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1), which exhibits selective cytotoxicity against a tumorigenic cell line, (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-yl)-methanone (18m) was designed and synthesized as a biologically stable derivative containing no ester group. Although the potency of 18m was almost the same as our initial hit compound 1, 18m is expected to last longer in the human body as an anticancer agent.

  16. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    radiation balance.4,5 Major water-soluble inorganic ions are associated with atmospheric ... molecular weight carboxylic acids in aerosol samples collected from a rural ... include biomass burning, agriculture, livestock and soil dust. Tropical ...

  17. Kinetic analysis of the reactivity of aliphatic cyclic alcohols and carboxylic acids in the T-for-H exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kiyoshi; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Kano, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate the influence of tritium ( 3 He or T) on various functional groups in environment, the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction (T-for-H exchange reaction) between tritium-labeled poly-(vinyl alcohol) and each aliphatic cyclic alcohol (or carboxylic acid) has been dynamically observed in the range of 50 to 90degC. Consequently, the activities of the aliphatic cyclic alcohol and carboxylic acid increased with increasing reaction time. Applying in A''-McKay plot method to the observed data, the rate constants (k) for these materials were obtained. Using the k, the relation between the number of carbon atoms in the ring in each alcohol and the reactivity of the alcohol was quantitatively compared. Then, to clarify the effect of relative atomic charge of O atom (connected with the H atom in the hydroxy (or carboxy) group in the material) on the reactivity of the material, the MOPAC method was used. From both the above-mentioned and the obtained previously, the following nine items were found as to aliphatic cyclic alcohols (and carboxylic acids) in the T-for-H exchange reaction. (1) The reactivity of aliphatic cyclic alcohols (and carboxylic acids) depends on the temperature. (2) The reactivity of the cyclic materials decreases with increasing number of carbon atoms in the ring. (3) The reactivity of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid seems to be smaller than that of aliphatic cyclic alcohol, and be larger than that of aliphatic cyclic amine. (4) For aliphatic cyclic alcohols, correlation exists between k and relative atomic charges of O atom obtained by the MOPAC method, but the tendency for aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid is not clear. (5) As to having the same number of carbon atoms in each ring, the reactivity of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid including the side chain is smaller than of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid including no side chain. (6) The reactivity of aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid is larger than that of

  18. Rhodium-catalyzed regioselective olefination directed by a carboxylic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Satoshi; Hirano, Koji; Satoh, Tetsuya; Miura, Masahiro

    2011-05-06

    The ortho-olefination of benzoic acids can be achieved effectively through rhodium-catalyzed oxidative coupling with alkenes. The carboxylic group is readily removable to allow ortho-olefination/decarboxylation in one pot. α,β-Unsaturated carboxylic acids such as methacrylic acid also undergo the olefination at the β-position. Under the rhodium catalysis, the cine-olefination of heteroarene carboxylic acids such as thiophene-2-carboxylic acid proceeds smoothly accompanied by decarboxylation to selectively produce the corresponding vinylheteroarene derivatives. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Understanding Chemistry and Unique NMR Characters of Novel Amide and Ester Leflunomide Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos A. Henen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of diverse substituted 5-methyl-isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid amides, imide and esters in which the benzene ring is mono or disubstituted was prepared. Spectroscopic and conformational examination was investigated and a new insight involving steric interference and interesting downfield deviation due to additional diamagnetic anisotropic effect of the amidic carbonyl group and the methine protons in 2,6-diisopropyl-aryl derivative (2 as conformationaly restricted analogues Leflunomide was discussed. Individual substituent electronic effects through π resonance of p-substituents and most stable conformation of compound (2 are discussed.

  20. Inhibitors of bacterial N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) and demonstration of in vitro antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillner, Danuta; Armoush, Nicola; Holz, Richard C; Becker, Daniel P

    2009-11-15

    The dapE-encoded N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) is a critical bacterial enzyme for the construction of the bacterial cell wall. A screen biased toward compounds containing zinc-binding groups (ZBG's) including thiols, carboxylic acids, boronic acids, phosphonates and hydroxamates has delivered a number of micromolar inhibitors of DapE from Haemophilus influenzae, including the low micromolar inhibitor L-captopril (IC(50)=3.3 microM, K(i)=1.8 microM). In vitro antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for L-captopril against Escherichia coli.

  1. Efficient click chemistry towards fatty acids containing 1,2,3-triazole: Design and synthesis as potential antifungal drugs for Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Nina; Wang, Suiliang; Zhang, Yuqian; Zhang, Caixia; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Zhao, Baomin; Wang, Lianhui

    2017-08-18

    Candida is an important opportunistic human fungal pathogen. The cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) showing in vitro activity of against C. albicans growth, germ-tube germination and biofilm formation has been a potential inhibitor for Candida and other fungi. In this study, facile synthetic strategies toward a novel family of BDSF analogue, 1-alkyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acids (ATCs) was developed. The straightforward synthetic method including converting the commercial available alkyl bromide to alkyl azide, consequently with a typical click chemistry method, copper(II) sulfate and sodium ascorbate as catalyst in water to furnish ATCs with mild to good yields. According to antifungal assay, 1-decyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid (5d) showed antifungal capability slightly better than BDSF. The 1,2,3-triazole unit played a crucial role for the bioactivity of ATCs was also confirmed when compared with two alkyl-aromatic carboxylic acids. Given its simplicity, high antifungal activity, and wide availability of compounds with halide atoms on the end part of the alkyl chains, the method can be extended to develop more excellent ATC drugs for accomplishing the challenges in future antifungal applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin by elution with benzoic acid-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Xu, Qun; Helaleh, Murad I H; Ikedo, Mikaru; Taoda, Hiroshi; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Fritz, James S; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-05-16

    In this study, an aqueous solution consisting of benzoic acid with low background conductivity and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) of hydrophilic nature and the inclusion effect to benzoic acid were used as eluent for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with different pKa values and hydrophobicity on a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+ form. With increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in the eluent, the retention times of the carboxylic acids decreased due to the increased hydrophilicity of the polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resin surface from the adsorption of OH groups of beta-cyclodextrin. Moreover, the eluent background conductivity decreased with increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in 1 mM benzoic acid, which could result in higher sensitivity for conductimetric detection. The ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids with high resolution and sensitivity was accomplished successfully by elution with a 1 mM benzoic acid-10 mM cyclodextrin solution without chemical suppression.

  3. Copper Complexes of Nicotinic-Aromatic Carboxylic Acids as Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acid (also known as vitamin B3 is a dietary element essential for physiological and antihyperlipidemic functions. This study reports the synthesis of novel mixed ligand complexes of copper with nicotinic and other select carboxylic acids (phthalic, salicylic and anthranilic acids. The tested copper complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic activity and antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, with a minimum inhibition concentration of 256 μg/mL. Copper complex of nicotinic-phthalic acids (CuNA/Ph was the most potent with a SOD mimetic activity of IC50 34.42 μM. The SOD activities were observed to correlate well with the theoretical parameters as calculated using density functional theory (DFT at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. Interestingly, the SOD activity of the copper complex CuNA/Ph was positively correlated with the electron affinity (EA value. The two quantum chemical parameters, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, were shown to be appropriate for understanding the mechanism of the metal complexes as their calculated energies show good correlation with the SOD activity. Moreover, copper complex with the highest SOD activity were shown to possess the lowest HOMO energy. These findings demonstrate a great potential for the development of value-added metallovitamin-based therapeutics.

  4. An irresolute linker: separation, and structural and spectroscopic characterization of the two linkage isomers of a Ru(ii)-(2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iengo, E; Demitri, N; Balducci, G; Alessio, E

    2014-08-28

    For the first time the two linkage isomers of a Ru(ii) complex with 2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (cppH) - that form in comparable amounts - have been fully characterized individually. The X-ray structure of each isomer is related to its NMR spectrum in solution.

  5. NHC-Ag/Pd-Catalyzed Reductive Carboxylation of Terminal Alkynes with CO2 and H2 : A Combined Experimental and Computational Study for Fine-Tuned Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingyi; Zhou, Feng; Lim, Diane S W; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen

    2017-03-09

    Reductive carboxylation of terminal alkynes utilizing CO 2 and H 2 as reactants is an interesting and challenging transformation. Theoretical calculations indicated it would be kinetically possible to obtain cinnamic acid, the reductive carboxylation product, from phenylacetylene in a CO 2 /H 2 system with an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-supported Ag/Pd bimetallic catalysts through competitive carboxylation/hydrogenation cascade reactions in one step. These calculations were verified experimentally with a poly-NHC-supported Ag/Pd catalyst. By tuning the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, phenylacetylene was selectively converted to cinnamic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, or phenylpropiolic acid in excellent yields. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths

  7. Use of technical mixtures of carboxylic acids to the extraction of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smulek, W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of technical mixtures of carboxylic acids, obtained from a Polish oil mill, to the extraction of silver, gold, and europium is described. The distribution ratio is given as a function of HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 concentrations, extractant and metal concentrations, and nature of diluent. (author)

  8. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer film and studies of thermal stability and surface resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongshen; Li, Jihui; Li, Yuehai; Li, Yali; Song, Yunan; Niu, Shuai; Li, Ning

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, flake graphite, nitric acid and acetic anhydride are used to prepare graphene oxide carboxylic acid (GO-COOH) via an ultrasonic-assisted method, and GO-COOH and polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA) are used to synthesize graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer (GO-COOPVA) via the ultrasonic-assisted method, and GO-COOPVA is used to manufacture graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer film (GO-COOPVA film) via a solidification method, and the structure and morphology of GO-COOH, GO-COOPVA and GO-COOPVA film are characterized, and the thermal stability and surface resistivity are measured in the case of the different amount of GO-COOH. Based on the characterization and measurement, it has been successively confirmed and attested that carboxyl groups implant on 2D lattice of GO to form GO-COOH, and GO-COOH and PVA have the esterification reaction to produce GO-COOPVA, and GO-COOPVA consists of 2D lattice of GO-COOH and the chain of PVA connected in the form of carboxylic ester, and GO-COOPVA film is composed of GO-COOPVA, and the thermal stability of GO-COOPVA film obviously improves in comparison with PVA film, and the surface resistivity of GO-COOPVA film clearly decreases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vaïtilingom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare experimentally the contribution of photochemistry vs. microbial activity to the degradation of carboxylic acids present in cloud water. For this, we selected 17 strains representative of the microflora existing in real clouds and worked on two distinct artificial cloud media that reproduce marine and continental cloud chemical composition. Photodegradation experiments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a source of hydroxyl radicals were performed under the same microcosm conditions using two irradiation systems. Biodegradation and photodegradation rates of acetate, formate, oxalate and succinate were measured on both media at 5 °C and 17 °C and were shown to be on the same order of magnitude (around 10−10–10−11 M s−1. The chemical composition (marine or continental origin had little influence on photodegradation and biodegradation rates while the temperature shift from 17 °C to 5 °C decreased biodegradation rates of a factor 2 to 5.

    In order to test other photochemical scenarios, theoretical photodegradation rates were calculated considering hydroxyl (OH radical concentration values in cloud water estimated by cloud chemistry modelling studies and available reaction rate constants of carboxylic compounds with both hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. Considering high OH concentration ([OH] = 1 × 10−12 M led to no significant contribution of microbial activity in the destruction of carboxylic acids. On the contrary, for lower OH concentration (at noon, [OH] = 1 × 10−14 M, microorganisms could efficiently compete with photochemistry and in similar contributions than the ones estimated by our experimental approach.

    Combining these two approaches (experimental and theoretical, our results led to the following conclusions: oxalate was only photodegraded; the photodegradation of formate was usually more

  10. Structure-activity relationship of daptomycin analogues with substitution at (2S, 3R) 3-methyl glutamic acid position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Du'an; Lam, Hiu Yung; Han, Wenbo; Cotroneo, Nicole; Pandya, Bhaumik A; Li, Xuechen

    2017-02-01

    Daptomycin is a highly effective lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens. The presence of (2S, 3R) 3-methyl glutamic acid (mGlu) in daptomycin has been found to be important to the antibacterial activity. However the role of (2S, 3R) mGlu is yet to be revealed. Herein, we reported the syntheses of three daptomycin analogues with (2S, 3R) mGlu substituted by (2S, 3R) methyl glutamine (mGln), dimethyl glutamic acid and (2S, 3R) ethyl glutamic acid (eGlu), respectively, and their antibacterial activities. The detailed synthesis of dimethyl glutamic acid was also reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supramolecular Coordination Assemblies Constructed From Multifunctional Azole-Containing Carboxylic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Deng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review of recent progress in the field of metal coordination polymers assembled from azole-containing carboxylic acids and gives a diagrammatic summary of the diversity of topological structures in the resulting infinite metal-organic coordination networks (MOCNs. Azole-containing carboxylic acids are a favorable kind of multifunctional ligand to construct various metal complexes with isolated complexes and one, two and three dimensional structures, whose isolated complexes are not the focus of this review. An insight into the topology patterns of the infinite coordination polymers is provided. Analyzed topologies are compared with documented topologies and catalogued by the nature of nodes and connectivity pattern. New topologies which are not available from current topology databases are described and demonstrated graphically.

  12. The respective N-hydroxypyrazole analogues of the classical glutamate receptor ligands ibotenic acid and (RS)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus P; Hansen, Kasper B; Calí, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    We have determined the pharmacological activity of N-hydroxypyrazole analogues (3a and 4a) of the classical glutamate receptor ligands ibotenic acid and (RS)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)acetic acid (AMAA), as well as substituted derivatives of these two compounds. The pharmacological...... partial agonism to antagonism with increasing substituent size, substitution abolishes affinity for mglu1 and mglu4 receptors. Ligand- and receptor-based modelling approaches assist in explaining these pharmacological trends among the metabotropic receptors and suggest a mechanism of partial agonism...

  13. 1-Azaniumylcyclobutane-1-carboxylate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C5H9NO2·H2O, the amino acid is in the usual zwitterionic form involving the α-carboxylate group. The cyclobutane backbone of the amino acid is disordered over two conformations, with occupancies of 0.882 (7 and 0.118 (7. In the crystal, N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the zwitterions [with the water molecule involved as both acceptor (with the NH3+ and donor (through a single carboxylate O from two different aminocyclobutane carboxylate moities], resulting in a two-dimensional layered structure lying parallel to (100.

  14. Radioprotective efficacy of serotonin and its analogues in the experiments with sea urchin eggs (Strongylocentrotus nudus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, I.M.; Graevskaya, E.Eh.; Tarasenko, A.G.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.

    1975-01-01

    Serotonin and mexamine, added to cells before or after irradiation, were found to increase the survival rate of S. nudus eggs. Their analogues (6-oxytryptamine, 5-sulphamidotryptamine-2-carboxylic acid), which do not have a protective effect on mammals, increased the survival rate of irradiated eggs when used before and after irradiation. Histamine also had a protective action. The possible mechanism underlying the action of the amines used is discussed. (V.A.P.)

  15. Synthesis and complexation properties towards uranyl cation of carboxylic acid derivatives of p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene; Synthese et proprietes complexantes vis-a-vis de l'ion uranyle de derives carboxyliques du p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souane, R

    2005-03-15

    In the fuel reprocessing plants radioactive metals, and more particularly, uranium in UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} form in the various installations, have many varied physico-chemical forms and there is a risk of exposure and internal contamination in the nuclear industry. It is necessary to exert a medical control to ensure the protection of the health of the workers. This medical control is done by dosing uranyl cation in the urine of the exposed people. This work forms part of this context. Indeed, we prepared a ligand able to complex the ion uranyl and which is also to be grafted on a solid support. In the family of calixarenes, the calix[6]arenes functionalized by three or four carboxylic functions were selected like chelating molecules of the ion uranyl. The properties of complexation of these calixarenes were studied by potentiometry in methanol, under these conditions balances of protonation and complexation were determined and the constant partners were obtained using the Hyperquad program. We synthesized tri-carboxylic calix[6]arenes comprising of the groupings nitro (NO{sub 2}) in para position of phenol in order to see the influence of a substitution in para position on the complexation. We also synthesized calix[6]arenes tetra-carboxylic in order to show the role of an additional carboxylic acid grouping. The potentiometric study determined thermodynamic parameters of protonation and complexation of carboxylic calix[6]arenes. The results of the complexation highlighted which complex UO{sub 2}L corresponding to the ligand para-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene tetra-acid is more stable than that corresponding to the ligand mono-nitro calix[6]arene tri-acid ({delta}log{beta}110 = 4.3), and than the effect of the groupings nitro in para position has low influence on the complexation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. This makes it possible to consider as possible the grafting of the calix[6]arenes which one knows the behaviour of trapping. To this end we synthesized the ligand 23

  16. Preparation and reactivity of carboxylic acid-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedziolka-Joensson, Joanna; Boland, Susan; Leech, Donal; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on the formation of carboxy-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The carboxylic acid termination was prepared in a controlled way by reacting photochemically oxidized BDD with succinic anhydride. The resulting interface was readily employed for the linking of an amine-terminated ligand such as an osmium complex bearing an amine terminal group. The interfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Contact angle measurements were used to follow the changes in surface wetting properties due to surface functionalization. The chemical reactivity of the carboxyl-terminated BDD was investigated by covalent coupling of the acid groups to an amine-terminated osmium complex.

  17. Determination of the conformation of 2-hydroxy- and 2-aminobenzoic acid dimers using 13C NMR and density functional theory/natural bond order analysis: the central importance of the carboxylic acid carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Ronald R; Weinhold, Frank

    2006-07-20

    The 13C chemical shift for the carboxylic acid carbon provides a powerful diagnostic probe to determine the preferred isomeric dimer structures of benzoic acid derivatives undergoing intra- and intermolecular H-bonding in the gas, solution and crystalline phases. We have employed hybrid density functional calculations and natural bond orbital analysis to elucidate the electronic origins of the observed 13C shieldings and their relationship to isomeric stability. We find that delocalizing interactions from the carbonyl oxygen lone pairs (nO) into vicinal carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon antibonds (sigmaCO*,sigmaCC*) make critical contributions to the 13C shieldings, and these nO --> sigmaCO*, nO --> sigmaCC* interactions are in turn sensitive to the intramolecular interactions that dictate dimer structure and stability. The carboxyl carbon atom can thus serve as a useful detector of subtle structural and conformational features in this pharmacologically important class of carboxylic acid interactions.

  18. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF (4S)-2-(4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYPHENYL) THIAZOLIDINE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID ON ZEBRAFISH (Danio rerio) HEART TISSUE

    OpenAIRE

    YÖN, Nazan Deniz; ÖZTÜRK, Burcu; ZENGİN, Mustafa; AKBULUT, Cansu

    2018-01-01

    Examination thehistopathological effects of (4s)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) thiazolidine-4-carboxylicacid on heart tissue of zebrafish were aimed.Introduction:(4S)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid is newsynthesized substance which obtained from cysteine and valine. Because ofthiazolidine derivates have important biological responses scientist workintensively on these compounds recent years. It is obvious that thiazolidinecontained compounds will be used in futur...

  19. Are carboxyl groups the most acidic sites in amino acids? Gas-phase acidities, photoelectron spectra, and computations on tyrosine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and their conjugate bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhixin; Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Kass, Steven R

    2009-01-28

    Deprotonation of tyrosine in the gas phase was found to occur preferentially at the phenolic site, and the conjugate base consists of a 70:30 mixture of phenoxide and carboxylate anions at equilibrium. This result was established by developing a chemical probe for differentiating these two isomers, and the presence of both ions was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Equilibrium acidity measurements on tyrosine indicated that deltaG(acid)(o) = 332.5 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1) and deltaH(acid)(o) = 340.7 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1). Photoelectron spectra yielded adiabatic electron detachment energies of 2.70 +/- 0.05 and 3.55 +/- 0.10 eV for the phenoxide and carboxylate anions, respectively. The H/D exchange behavior of deprotonated tyrosine was examined using three different alcohols (CF3CH2OD, C6H5CH2OD, and CH3CH2OD), and incorporation of up to three deuterium atoms was observed. Two pathways are proposed to account for these results, and all of the experimental findings are supplemented with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and G3B3 calculations. In addition, it was found that electrospray ionization of tyrosine from a 3:1 (v/v) CH3OH/H2O solution using a commercial source produces a deprotonated [M-H]- anion with the gas-phase equilibrium composition rather than the structure of the ion that exists in aqueous media. Electrospray ionization from acetonitrile, however, leads largely to the liquid-phase (carboxylate) structure. A control molecule, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, was found to behave in a similar manner. Thus, the electrospray conditions that are employed for the analysis of a compound can alter the isomeric composition of the resulting anion.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, DFT studies, acid dissociation constant, and antimicrobial activity of methyl 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-7a-((4-chlorophenyl)carbamothioyl)-1-oxo-5,5-diphenyl-3-thioxo-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-e]imidazole-6-carboxylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural, Yahya; Gemili, Muge; Seferoglu, Nurgul; Sahin, Ertan; Ulger, Mahmut; Sari, Hayati

    2018-05-01

    A novel bicyclic thiohydantoin fused to pyrrolidine compound, methyl 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-7a-((4-chlorophenyl)carbamothioyl)-1-oxo-5,5-diphenyl-3-thioxo-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-e]imidazole-6-carboxylate, was synthesized by the cyclization reaction of dimethyl 5,5-diphenylpyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate and 4-chlorophenyl isothiocyanate in the presence of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine to form methyl 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-oxo-5,5-diphenyl-3-thioxo-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-e]imidazole-6-carboxylate with concomitant addition reaction of the 4-chlorophenyl isothiocyanate in 79% yield. The structural characterization was performed by NMR, FT-IR, MS and HRMS techniques, and the stereochemistry of the compound was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. In addition, the molecular structure and 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the compound were obtained with the density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations. Acid dissociation constants of the compound were determined using potentiometric titration method in 25% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide-water hydroorganic solvent at 25 ± 0.1 °C, at an ionic background of 0.1 mol/L of NaCl using the HYPERQUAD computer program. Four acid dissociation constants were obtained for the compound, and we suggest that these acid dissociation constants are related to the NH, for two groups of enthiols and enol groups. Antimicrobial activity study was performed against S. aureus, B. subtilis, A. hydrophila, E. coli and A. baumannii as bacterial standard strains, and against M. tuberculosis H37Rv as mycobacterial strain. The compound exhibited antibacterial activity in the range of 31.25-62.5 μg/mL, and antimycobacterial activity with a MIC value of 40 μg/mL against the indicated strains.

  1. Transport of amino acids and GABA analogues via the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie; Larsen, Birger Brodin; Frølund, Bente

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate transepithelial amino acid transport as a function of Caco-2 cell culture time. Furthermore, the objective was to investigate apical uptake characteristics of hPAT1-mediated transport under various experimental conditions. Apical amino acid uptake......, which has been shown to function as a carboxylic acid bioisostere for substrates of the GABA receptor and transport systems....

  2. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Goro; Matsuyama, Jun; Nagano, Akiko; Namatame, Mitsuko; Morita, Yoshiaki.

    1980-01-01

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  3. Approaches to α-amino acids via rearrangement to electron-deficient nitrogen: Beckmann and Hofmann rearrangements of appropriate carboxyl-protected substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosale Chandrasekhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The titled approaches were effected with various 2-substituted benzoylacetic acid oximes 3 (Beckmann and 2-substituted malonamic acids 9 (Hofmann, their carboxyl groups being masked as a 2,4,10-trioxaadamantane unit (an orthoacetate. The oxime mesylates have been rearranged with basic Al2O3 in refluxing CHCl3, and the malonamic acids with phenyliodoso acetate and KOH/MeOH. Both routes are characterized by excellent overall yields. Structure confirmation of final products was conducted with X-ray diffraction in selected cases. The final N-benzoyl and N-(methoxycarbonyl products are α-amino acids with both carboxyl and amino protection; hence, they are of great interest in peptide synthesis.

  4. EPR spectra of vanadyl(2) intra-complexes with amino acids in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shodiev, U.M.; Musaev, Z.M.; Khodzhaev, O.F.; Usmankhodzhaeva, Ya.S.; Parpiev, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    EPR spectra of vanadyl (2) intracomplexes with glycine, α- and β-alanines, benzoylglycine, lencine, glutamine and the aspartic acid of VOL 2 xH 2 O composition as well as with cystine of VOLxH 2 O composition (where L-monodeprotonated, in case of cystine and the aspartic acid - dideprotonated form of the amino acid) in aqueous, methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and pyridine solutions are studied. It is established that the structure determined in the solid state is retained in the dimethylsulfoxide solution and partially - in methanol. In aqueous, pyridine and partially in methanol solutions complexes are distorted and two molecules of the amino acid are coordinated monodentately through oxygen atoms of the carboxyl group, and ''vacant'' coordination places in the equatorial plane take two molecules of the solvent. From the data obtained it follows that the metal - nitrogen bond in the vanadyl (2) complexes studied with amino acids is not so strong than the metal - oxygen bond of the carboxyl ligand group

  5. 2-[(1-Benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethylamino]benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Anouar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The carboxylic α,α-diaminoester 2-[(1-benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl amino]benzoic acid is obtained by N-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate N-benzoylated with 2-aminobenzoic acid.

  6. Carboxyl group reactivity in actin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, M.

    1986-01-01

    While earlier work showed that the carboxyl groups of proteins could be quantitatively coupled to amino groups at pH 4.75 in the presence of EDC and a denaturing agent, the work presented here indicates that under milder conditions the modification of sidechain carboxyls is limited and somewhat specific. Most of the incorporated glycine ethyl ester (GEE) is apparently bound to five carboxyls. The total GEE incorporated was 3 to 4 moles/mole of protein as measured by an increase in Gly upon acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis, as well as total radioactivity. 3.55 residues were found in peptides, 2.75 bound to residues 1 to 4, and 0.8 bound to Gly-100. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Carboxyl group reactivity in actin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzinga, M.

    1986-01-01

    While earlier work showed that the carboxyl groups of proteins could be quantitatively coupled to amino groups at pH 4.75 in the presence of EDC and a denaturing agent, the work presented here indicates that under milder conditions the modification of sidechain carboxyls is limited and somewhat specific. Most of the incorporated glycine ethyl ester (GEE) is apparently bound to five carboxyls. The total GEE incorporated was 3 to 4 moles/mole of protein as measured by an increase in Gly upon acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis, as well as total radioactivity. 3.55 residues were found in peptides, 2.75 bound to residues 1 to 4, and 0.8 bound to Gly-100. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Consolidated bioprocessing of microalgal biomass to carboxylates by a mixed culture of cow rumen bacteria using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Liu, Jie; Frear, Craig; Holtzapple, Mark; Chen, Shulin

    2016-12-01

    This study employed mixed-culture consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to digest microalgal biomass in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The primary objectives are to evaluate the impact of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on the productivity of carboxylic acids and to characterize the bacterial community. HRT affects the production rate and patterns of carboxylic acids. For the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentation, a 12-day HRT was selected because it offered the highest productivity of carboxylic acids and it synthesized longer chains. The variability of the bacterial community increased with longer HRT (R 2 =0.85). In the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentor, the most common phyla were Firmicutes (58.3%), Bacteroidetes (27.4%), and Proteobacteria (11.9%). The dominant bacterial classes were Clostridia (29.8%), Bacteroidia (27.4%), Tissierella (26.2%), and Betaproteobacteria (8.9%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis, binding affinity at glutamic acid receptors, neuroprotective effects, and molecular modeling investigation of novel dihydroisoxazole amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    stereoisomers of the bicyclic analogue 5-amino-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-cyclopenta[d]isoxazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid (+)-2, (-)-2, (+)-3, and (-)-3 were tested at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes. The most potent NMDA receptor antagonists [(+)-2, (-)-4, and (+)-5] showed a significant......The four stereoisomers of 5-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-3-carboxylic acid(+)-4, (-)-4, (+)-5, and (-)-5 were prepared by stereoselective synthesis of two pairs of enantiomers, which were subsequently resolved by enzymatic procedures. These four stereoisomers and the four...

  10. Cloning of phenazine carboxylic acid genes of Fusarium fujikuroi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... genetic modification can improve the efficacy of biological control agents (Van Loon, 1998). Bacterial secondary ... WCS358r was modified to produce the antifungal com- pound phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) ( ..... control of Rhizoctonia solani in tomato. J. Biotechnol. 6: 115-127. Raaijmakers JM ...

  11. A library synthesis of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester derivatives as anti-tumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Shioya, Rieko; Agatsuma, Toshinori; Furukawa, Hidehiko; Naruto, Shunji; Sugano, Yuichi

    2004-09-06

    As a result of a hit-to-lead program using a technique of solution-phase parallel synthesis, a highly potent (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-[6-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzofuran-2-yl]methanone (15b) was synthesized as an optimized derivative of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1), which was discovered as a screening hit from small-molecule libraries and exhibited selective cytotoxicity against a tumorigenic cell line.

  12. A Novel Strategy Towards the Asymmetric Synthesis of Orthogonally Funtionalised 2-N-Benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino- 5-carboxymethyl-cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio G. Urones

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric synthesis of the orthogonally funtionalised compounds tert-butyl 2-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino-5-methoxycarbonylmethylcyclopentane- 1-carboxylate and methyl 2-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino-5–carboxymethylcyclo- pentane-1-carboxylate by a domino reaction of tert-butyl methyl (E,E-octa-2,6- diendioate with lithium N-α-methylbenzyl-N-benzylamide initiated by a Michael addition, subsequent 5-exo-trig intramolecular cyclisation and posterior selective hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid is reported.

  13. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Jin Tong; Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphologi...

  14. Synthesis of {delta}-aminolevulic acid. Application to the introduction of carbon-14 and of tritium; Syntheses de l'acide {delta} aminolevulique. Application a l'introduction de carbone 14 et de tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loheac, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    Several new syntheses of {delta} aminolevulic acid ({delta} A.L.A.) have been studied. {sup 14}C-4 {delta} - aminolevulic acid has been obtained from {sup 14}C allylacetic carboxylic acid with a yield of 30 per cent with respect to barium carbonate and with a specific activity of 32 mCi/mM. The {sup 14}C-1 or {sup 14}C-2 {delta}-A.L.A. has been prepared from the {sup 14}C-1 or {sup 14}C-2 acetate with a yield of 55 per cent with respect to the acetate. Finally the tritiated {delta}-A.L.A. has been obtained for the first time by tritiation of ethyl phthalimidodehydrolevulate. (author) [French] Plusieurs syntheses nouvelles de l'acide {delta}-aminolevulique ont ete etudiees. L'acide {delta}-aminolevulique {sup 14}C-4 a ete obtenu a partir d'acide allylacetique carboxylique {sup 14}C, avec un rendement global de 30 pour cent par rapport au carbonate de baryum a une activite specifique de 32 mCi/M. Le {delta}-A.A.L. {sup 14}C-1 ou {sup 14}C-2 a ete obtenu a partir d'acetate {sup 14}C-1 ou {sup 14}C-2 avec un rendement de 55 pour cent par rapport a l'acetate. Enfin le {delta}-A.A.L. tritie a ete obtenu pour la premiere fois par tritiation du phtalimidodehydrolevulate d'ethyle. (auteur)

  15. Omega-3 carboxylic acids monotherapy and combination with statins in the management of dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benes LB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lane B Benes1, Nikhil S Bassi2, Michael H Davidson1 1Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, 2Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on cholesterol management placed greater emphasis on statin therapy given the well-established benefits in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Residual risk may remain after statin initiation, in part because of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol. Several large trials have failed to show benefit with non-statin cholesterol-lowering medications in the reduction of cardiovascular events. Yet, subgroup analyses showed a benefit in those with hypertriglyceridemia and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, a high-risk pattern of dyslipidemia. This review discusses the benefits of omega-3 carboxylic acids, a recently approved formulation of omega-3 fatty acid with enhanced bioavailability, in the treatment of dyslipidemia both as monotherapy and combination therapy with a statin. Keywords: omega-3 carboxylic acids, non-HDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia, residual risk, statin

  16. Direct enantioselective conjugate addition of carboxylic acids with chiral lithium amides as traceless auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Eickhoff, John A; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-01-21

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B.

  17. Catalytic conversion of carboxylic acids in bio-oil for liquid hydrocarbons production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shurong; Guo, Zuogang; Cai, Qinjie; Guo, Long

    2012-01-01

    Bio-oil must be upgraded to be suitable for use as a high-grade transport fuel. Crude bio-oil has a high content of carboxylic acids which can cause corrosion, and the high oxygen content of these acids also reduces the oil’s heating value. In this paper, acetic acid and propanoic acid were chosen as the model carboxylic acids in bio-oil. Their behavior in the production of liquid hydrocarbons during a catalytic conversion process was investigated in a micro-fixed bed reactor. The liquid organic phase from this catalytic conversion process mainly consisted of liquid hydrocarbons and phenol derivatives. Under the condition of low Liquid Hourly Space Velocity (LHSV), the liquid organic phase from acetic acid cracking had a selectivity of 22% for liquid hydrocarbons and a selectivity of 65% for phenol derivatives. The composition of the organic products changed considerably with the LHSV increasing to 3 h −1 . The selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons increased up to 52% while that for phenol derivatives decreased to 32%. Propanoic acid performed much better in producing liquid hydrocarbons than acetic acid. Its selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons was as high as 80% at LHSV = 3 h −1 . A mechanism for this catalytic conversion process was proposed according to the analysis of the components in the liquid organic phases. The pathways of the main compounds formation in the liquid organic phases were proposed, and the reason why liquid hydrocarbons were more effectively produced when using propanoic acid rather than acetic acid was also successfully explained. In addition, BET and SEM characterization were used to analyze the catalyst coke deposition. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► High content of carboxylic acids in bio-oil causes its corrosiveness. ► Acetic acid and propanoic acid are two dominant acids in bio-oil. ► Liquid hydrocarbons were produced by cracking of these two dominant acids. ► A mechanism model was proposed to explain

  18. Chemical rescue of the post-translationally carboxylated lysine mutant of allantoinase and dihydroorotase by metal ions and short-chain carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ya-Yeh; Huang, Yen-Hua; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial allantoinase (ALLase) and dihydroorotase (DHOase) are members of the cyclic amidohydrolase family. ALLase and DHOase possess similar binuclear metal centers in the active site in which two metals are bridged by a post-translationally carboxylated lysine. In this study, we determined the effects of carboxylated lysine and metal binding on the activities of ALLase and DHOase. Although DHOase is a metalloenzyme, purified DHOase showed high activity without additional metal supplementation in a reaction mixture or bacterial culture. However, unlike DHOase, ALLase had no activity unless some specific metal ions were added to the reaction mixture or culture. Substituting the metal binding sites H59, H61, K146, H186, H242, or D315 with alanine completely abolished the activity of ALLase. However, the K146C, K146D and K146E mutants of ALLase were still active with about 1-6% activity of the wild-type enzyme. These ALLase K146 mutants were found to have 1.4-1.7 mol metal per mole enzyme subunit, which may indicate that they still contained the binuclear metal center in the active site. The activity of the K146A mutant of the ALLase and the K103A mutant of DHOase can be chemically rescued by short-chain carboxylic acids, such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, but not by ethanol, propan-1-ol, and imidazole, in the presence of Co2+ or Mn2+ ions. However, the activity was still ~10-fold less than that of wild-type ALLase. Overall, these results indicated that the 20 natural basic amino acid residues were not sufficiently able to play the role of lysine. Accordingly, we proposed that during evolution, the post-translational modification of carboxylated lysine in the cyclic amidohydrolase family was selected for promoting binuclear metal center self-assembly and increasing the nucleophilicity of the hydroxide at the active site for enzyme catalysis. This kind of chemical rescue combined with site-directed mutagenesis may also be used to identify a binuclear metal

  19. New trends and applications in carboxylation for isotope chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Ryan A; Sardana, Malvika; Artelsmair, Markus; Elmore, Charles S

    2018-05-08

    Carboxylations are an important method for the incorporation of isotopically labeled 14 CO 2 into molecules. This manuscript will review labeled carboxylations since 2010 and will present a perspective on the potential of recent unlabeled methodology for labeled carboxylations. The perspective portion of the manuscript is broken into 3 major sections based on product type, arylcarboxylic acids, benzylcarboxylic acids, and alkyl carboxylic acids, and each of those sections is further subdivided by substrate. © 2018 AstraZeneca. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. An improved synthesis of carbon-14 labelled carboxylic acids from carbon-14 labelled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, T.V.; Ravi, S.; Viswanathan, K.V.

    1988-01-01

    Various carbon-14 labelled amino acids including the aromatic ones viz., tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids in high yield (70-90%) on a micromolar scale synthesis by reaction with hydroxyl-amine-O-sulphonic acid and in a short reaction time. The improvement in yield has been achieved by using aqeuous alcohol as solvent in lieu of water alone as the medium of reaction. (author)

  1. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of olefins by carboxylic acid esters and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruesch gen. Klaas, M.; Warwel, S. [Inst. for Biochemistry and Technology of Lipids, H.P. Kaufmanm-Inst., Federal Centre for Cereal, Potato and Lipid Research, Muenster (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Ethylen and, recently, butadiene can be epoxidized directly with oxygen and for the epoxidation of propylene, the use of heterogeneous transition metals and organic peroxides (Halcon-Process) is the major player. But, beside from those notable exceptions, all other epoxidations, including large ones like the epoxidation of plant oils as PVC-stabilizers (about 200.000 t/year), are carried out with peroxy acids. Because mcpba is far to expensive for most applications, short chain peracids like peracetic acid are used. Being much less stable than mcpba and thus risky handled in large amounts and high concentrations, these peroxy acids were preferably prepared in-situ. However, conventional in-situ formation of peracids has the serious drawback, that a strong acid is necessary to catalyze peroxy acid formation from the carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The presence of a strong acid in the reaction mixture often results in decreased selectivity because of the formation of undesired by-products by opening of the oxirane ring. Therefore, we propose a new method for epoxidation based on the in-situ preparation of percarboxylic acids from carboxylic acid esters and hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by a commercial, immobilized lipase. (orig.)

  2. Preparation of an aminopropyl imidazole-modified silica gel as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction of carboxylic acid compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Yong; Wang, Licheng; Liang, Xiaojing; Liu, Shujuan; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2014-05-21

    In this paper, a kind of aminopropyl imidazole-modified silica sorbent was synthesized and used as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the determination of carboxylic acid compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The resultant aminopropyl imidazole-modified silica sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis (EA) to ensure the successful binding of aminopropyl imidazole on the surface of silica gel. Then the aminopropyl imidazole-modified silica sorbent served as a SPE sorbent for the enrichment of carboxylic acid compounds and PAHs. The new sorbent exhibited high extraction efficiency towards the tested compounds and the results show that such a sorbent can offer multiple intermolecular interactions: electrostatic, π-π, and hydrophobic interactions. Several parameters affecting the extraction recovery, such as the pH of sample solution, the pH of eluent, the solubility of eluent, the volume of eluent, and sample loading, were also investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of four carboxylic acid compounds and four PAHs in environmental water samples. Good linearities were obtained for all the tested compounds with R(2) larger than 0.9903. The limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.0065-0.5 μg L(-1). The recovery values of spiked river water samples were from 63.2% to 112.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10.1% (n = 4).

  3. Direct Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Carboxylic Acids with Chiral Lithium Amides as Traceless Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  4. Investigations and design of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid thiazol-2-ylamide analogs as methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors using 3D-QSAR and molecular docking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    complexes, four new pyridine-2-carboxylic acid thiazol-2-ylamide analogs were designed. These analogs exhibit significantly better predicted activity than the reported molecules. The present work has implications for the development of novel antibiotics as potent MetAP inhibitors.......Methionine amino peptidases (MetAPs) are metalloproteases that remove co-translational N-terminal methionine from nascent polypeptide chains. Due to their essential role in protein synthesis, MetAPs are considered as potential targets for antibacterial drugs. In the present work, three...

  5. Simple quantification of surface carboxylic acids on chemically oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hyejin; Kim, Seong-Taek; Lee, Jong Doo; Yim, Sanggyu

    2013-02-01

    The surface of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was chemically oxidized using nitric acid and sulfuric-nitric acid mixtures. Thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy revealed that the use of acid mixtures led to higher degree of oxidation. More quantitative identification of surface carboxylic acids was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and acid-base titration. However, these techniques are costly and require very long analysis times to promptly respond to the extent of the reaction. We propose a much simpler method using pH measurements and pre-determined pKa value in order to estimate the concentration of carboxylic acids on the oxidized MWCNT surfaces. The results from this technique were consistent with those obtained from XPS and titration, and it is expected that this simple quantification method can provide a cheap and fast way to monitor and control the oxidation reaction of MWCNT.

  6. Virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity of novel analogue peptides based on the HP (2-20) derived from N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori Ribosomal Protein L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Dong Gun; Chang, Young-Su; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2002-12-01

    HP (2-20) (AKKVFKRLEKLFSKIQNDK) is the antibacterial sequence derived from N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori Ribosomal Protein L1 (RPL1). It has a broad-spectrum microbicidal activity in vitro that is thought to be related to the membrane-disruptive properties of the peptide. Based on the putative membrane-targeted mode of action, we postulated that HP (2-20) might be possessed virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity. To develop the novel virus-cell fusion inhibitory peptides, several analogues with amino acid substitution were designed to increase or decrease only net hydrophobic region. In particular, substitution of Gln and Asp for hydrophobic amino acid, Trp at position 17 and 19 of HP (2-20) (Anal 3) caused a dramatic increase in virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity without hemolytic effect.

  7. Enhanced detection of amino acids in hydrophilic interaction chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with carboxylic acids as mobile phase additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dengyang; Hu, Xunxiu; Liu, Dantong; Du, Wencheng; Wang, Haibo; Guo, Mengzhe; Tang, Daoquan

    2017-06-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technique has been widely used in the analysis of biological targets such as amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In this work, eight common single carboxylic acids or diacids, which contain different pKa have been investigated as the additives to the analysis of amino acids. As the results, carboxylic acid additive can improve the signal intensity of acidity amino acids such as Asp and Glu and the chromatographic separation of basic amino acids such as Arg, His, and Lys. In particular, the diacids have better performance than single acids. The proposed mechanism is that the diacid has hydrogen bond interaction with amino acids to reduce their polarity/amphiprotic characteristics. Besides, oxalic acid has been found having better enhancement than phthalic acid by overall consideration. Therefore, we successfully quantified the 15 amino acids in Sepia bulk pharmaceutical chemical by using oxalic acid as the additive.

  8. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. An engineered fatty acid synthase combined with a carboxylic acid reductase enables de novo production of 1-octanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henritzi, Sandra; Fischer, Manuel; Grininger, Martin; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard

    2018-01-01

    The ideal biofuel should not only be a regenerative fuel from renewable feedstocks, but should also be compatible with the existing fuel distribution infrastructure and with normal car engines. As the so-called drop-in biofuel, the fatty alcohol 1-octanol has been described as a valuable substitute for diesel and jet fuels and has already been produced fermentatively from sugars in small amounts with engineered bacteria via reduction of thioesterase-mediated premature release of octanoic acid from fatty acid synthase or via a reversal of the β-oxidation pathway. The previously engineered short-chain acyl-CoA producing yeast Fas1 R1834K /Fas2 fatty acid synthase variant was expressed together with carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum and phosphopantetheinyl transferase Sfp from Bacillus subtilis in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δfas1 Δfas2 Δfaa2 mutant strain. With the involvement of endogenous thioesterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and aldehyde reductases, the synthesized octanoyl-CoA was converted to 1-octanol up to a titer of 26.0 mg L -1 in a 72-h fermentation. The additional accumulation of 90 mg L -1 octanoic acid in the medium indicated a bottleneck in 1-octanol production. When octanoic acid was supplied externally to the yeast cells, it could be efficiently converted to 1-octanol indicating that re-uptake of octanoic acid across the plasma membrane is not limiting. Additional overexpression of aldehyde reductase Ahr from Escherichia coli nearly completely prevented accumulation of octanoic acid and increased 1-octanol titers up to 49.5 mg L -1 . However, in growth tests concentrations even lower than 50.0 mg L -1 turned out to be inhibitory to yeast growth. In situ extraction in a two-phase fermentation with dodecane as second phase did not improve growth, indicating that 1-octanol acts inhibitive before secretion. Furthermore, 1-octanol production was even reduced, which results from extraction of the intermediate octanoic acid to

  10. A Novel Approach in Cinnamic Acid Synthesis: Direct Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids from Aromatic Aldehydes and Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in the Presence of Boron Tribromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onciu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acids have been prepared in moderate to high yields by a new direct synthesis using aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic carboxylic acids, in the presence of boron tribromide as reagent, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (4-DMAP and pyridine (Py as bases and N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone (NMP as solvent, at reflux (180-190°C for 8-12 hours.

  11. Biomimetic L-aspartic acid-derived functional poly(ester amide)s for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Darryl K; Gillies, Elizabeth R; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-08-01

    Functionalization of polymeric biomaterials permits the conjugation of cell signaling molecules capable of directing cell function. In this study, l-phenylalanine and l-aspartic acid were used to synthesize poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) with pendant carboxylic acid groups through an interfacial polycondensation approach. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cell (HCASMC) attachment, spreading and proliferation was observed on all PEA films. Vinculin expression at the cell periphery suggested that HCASMCs formed focal adhesions on the functional PEAs, while the absence of smooth muscle α-actin (SMαA) expression implied the cells adopted a proliferative phenotype. The PEAs were also electrospun to yield nanoscale three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds with average fiber diameters ranging from 130 to 294nm. Immunoblotting studies suggested a potential increase in SMαA and calponin expression from HCASMCs cultured on 3-D fibrous scaffolds when compared to 2-D films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and immunofluorescence demonstrated the conjugation of transforming growth factor-β1 to the surface of the functional PEA through the pendant carboxylic acid groups. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PEAs containing aspartic acid are viable biomaterials for further investigation in vascular tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethylene biosynthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Arianna; Borowski, Tomasz; Schofield, Christopher J; Siegbahn, Per E M

    2006-11-24

    The reaction catalyzed by the plant enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO) was investigated by using hybrid density functional theory. ACCO belongs to the non-heme iron(II) enzyme superfamily and carries out the bicarbonate-dependent two-electron oxidation of its substrate ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) concomitant with the reduction of dioxygen and oxidation of a reducing agent probably ascorbate. The reaction gives ethylene, CO(2), cyanide and two water molecules. A model including the mononuclear iron complex with ACC in the first coordination sphere was used to study the details of O-O bond cleavage and cyclopropane ring opening. Calculations imply that this unusual and complex reaction is triggered by a hydrogen atom abstraction step generating a radical on the amino nitrogen of ACC. Subsequently, cyclopropane ring opening followed by O-O bond heterolysis leads to a very reactive iron(IV)-oxo intermediate, which decomposes to ethylene and cyanoformate with very low energy barriers. The reaction is assisted by bicarbonate located in the second coordination sphere of the metal.

  13. Structural and Functional Models of Non-Heme Iron Enzymes : A Study of the 2-His-1-Carboxylate Facial Triad Structural Motif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnincx, P.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The structural and functional modeling of a specific group of non-heme iron enzymes by the synthesis of small synthetic analogues is the topic of this thesis. The group of non-heme iron enzymes with the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad has recently been established as a common platform for the

  14. CsF-promoted carboxylation of aryl(hetaryl) terminal alkynes with atmospheric CO_2 at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, B.; Yang, Z.Z.; Zhao, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Yang, P.; Gao, X.; Liu, Z.M.

    2017-01-01

    A CsF-promoted carboxylation of aryl(hetaryl) terminal alkynes with atmospheric CO_2 in the presence of trimethylsilylacetylene was developed to give functionalized propiolic acid products at room temperature. A wide range of propiolic acids bearing functional groups was successfully obtained in good to excellent yields. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that in the carboxylation process the alkynyl-silane intermediate was first in situ generated, which was then trapped by CO_2, giving rise to the corresponding functionalized propiolic acids after acidification. The advantages of this approach include avoiding use of transition-metal catalysts, wide substrate scope together with excellent functional group tolerance, ambient conditions and a facile work-up procedure. (authors)

  15. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to L-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2014-10-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (trigger), D-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to L-amino acids. Using L-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an L-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Synthesis of a Bicyclic Azetidine with In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Enabled by Stereospecific, Directed C(sp3)-H Arylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetani, Micah; Zoller, Jochen; Melillo, Bruno; Verho, Oscar; Kato, Nobutaka; Pu, Jun; Comer, Eamon; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2017-08-16

    The development of new antimalarial therapeutics is necessary to address the increasing resistance to current drugs. Bicyclic azetidines targeting Plasmodium falciparum phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase comprise one promising new class of antimalarials, especially due to their activities against three stages of the parasite's life cycle, but a lengthy synthetic route to these compounds may affect the feasibility of delivering new therapeutic agents within the cost constraints of antimalarial drugs. Here, we report an efficient synthesis of antimalarial compound BRD3914 (EC 50 = 15 nM) that hinges on a Pd-catalyzed, directed C(sp 3 )-H arylation of azetidines at the C3 position. This newly developed protocol exhibits a broad substrate scope and provides access to valuable, stereochemically defined building blocks. BRD3914 was evaluated in P. falciparum-infected mice, providing a cure after four oral doses.

  17. Versatile Multicomponent Reaction Macrocycle Synthesis Using α-Isocyano-ω-carboxylic Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, George P; Abdelraheem, Eman M M; Neochoritis, Constantinos G; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; McGowan, David C; Dömling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The direct macrocycle synthesis of α-isocyano-ω-carboxylic acids via an Ugi multicomponent reaction is introduced. This multicomponent reaction (MCR) protocol differs by being especially short, convergent, and versatile, giving access to 12-22 membered rings.

  18. Larvicidal and Nematicidal Activities of 3-Acylbarbituric Acid Analogues against Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Mi Seo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Widespread concern for the occurrence of resistant strains, along with the avoidance of the use of highly toxic insecticides and their wide environmental dispersal, highlights the need for the development of new and safer pest control agents. Natural products provide inspiration for new chemical entities with biological activities, and their analogues are good lead compounds for the development of new pest control agents. For this purpose, we evaluated the larvicidal and nematicidal activities of 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, organisms of increasing global concern. Among the 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues, four compounds—10, 14d, 14g and 19b—showed >90% larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus at 10 μg/mL concentration, and one (compound 10 showed the strongest larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus, with a LC50 value of 0.22 μg/mL. Only compound 18 showed strong nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Most active compounds possessed similar physicochemical properties; thus, actives typically had ClogP values of around 1.40–1.50 and rel-PSA values of 16–17% and these similar cheminformatic characteristics reflect their similar structure. This study indicates that active 3-acylbarbituric acids analogues have potential as lead compounds for developing novel mosquito control agents.

  19. The extraction of aromatic carboxylic acids by the copper complex with Curtis macrocyclic tetramine and its utilization for photometric determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zseltvay, Ivan; Zheltvay, Olga; Antonovich, Valerij

    2011-01-01

    Copper complex with Curtis macrocyclic tetramine is offered as reagent for extraction-photometric determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), belonging to the class of aromatic carboxylic acids. The studies indicate that this method is suitable for quantitative determination of NSAIDs, which have the constant distribution in the system chloroform/water (log P) no less than 3 and dissolubility in chloroform (S) no less than 10 mg/mL. Under optimum conditions, there are liner relationships between the absorption of chloroform extracts and concentration of NSAID in the range of 0.2-4 mg/mL for indometacin (Ind), 0.2-3 mg/mL for mefenamic acid (Mef) and 0.5-3 mg/mL for diclofenac (Dic). The detection limits (S/N = 3) of Ind, Mef and Dic are 0.2, 0.1 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. With the help of calculating method (SPARC V4.2) it was predicted the possibility of utilization of this method for extractive-photometric determination of its detached specimen NSAID.

  20. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of PCA amide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Yu, Di-Ya; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Qing-Lai; Li, Jun-Kai

    2018-04-18

    To improve the physical and chemical properties of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and find higher antifungal compounds, a series of PCA amide analogues were designed and synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, HRMS, and X-ray. Most compounds showed some antifungal activities in vitro. Particularly, compound 3d exhibited inhibition effect against Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra with EC 50 value of 28.7 μM and compound 3q exhibited effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 value of 24.5 μM, more potently active than that of the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 37.3 μM (Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra) and 33.2 μM (Rhizoctonia solani), respectively.

  1. Discovery of a New Class of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists by the Rational Design of (2S,3R)-3-(3-Carboxyphenyl)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Møller; Venskutonyte, Raminta; Valadés, Elena Antón

    2011-01-01

    The kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the class of glutamate (Glu) receptors in the brain and constitute a promising target for the treatment of neurological and/ or psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, and epilepsy. Five KA subtypes have been identified and named GluK1......-5. In this article, we present the discovery of (2S,3R)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (1) based on a rational design process. Target compound 1 was synthesized by a stereoselective strategy in 10 steps from commercially available starting materials. Binding affinities of 1 at native ionotropic...

  2. A Precise Method for Processing Data to Determine the Dissociation Constants of Polyhydroxy Carboxylic Acids via Potentiometric Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaixuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Wen; Yu, Shiyuan

    2017-12-01

    The thermodynamic dissociation constants of xylonic acid and gluconic acid were studied via potentiometric methods, and the results were verified using lactic acid, which has a known pKa value, as a model compound. Solutions of xylonic acid and gluconic acid were titrated with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide. The determined pKa data were processed via the method of derivative plots using computer software, and the accuracy was validated using the Gran method. The dissociation constants associated with the carboxylic acid group of xylonic and gluconic acids were determined to be pKa 1  = 3.56 ± 0.07 and pKa 1  = 3.74 ± 0.06, respectively. Further, the experimental data showed that the second deprotonation constants associated with a hydroxyl group of each of the two acids were pKa 2  = 8.58 ± 0.12 and pKa 2  = 7.06 ± 0.08, respectively. The deprotonation behavior of polyhydroxy carboxylic acids was altered using various ratios with Cu(II) to form complexes in solution, and this led to proposing a hypothesis for further study.

  3. Recovery of carboxylic acids at pH greater than pKa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Lisa A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Economics of producing carboxylic acids by fermentation is often dominated, not by the fermentation cost, but by the cost of recovering and purifying the acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed to measure uptakes of lactic and succinic acids as functions of pH by basic polymeric sorbents; sorbent regeneration was also tested. Performance at pH > pKa and regenerability depend on sorbent basicity; apparent pKa and monomer pK{sub a} can be used to predict sorbent performance. Two basic amine extractants, Alamine 336 and Amberlite LA-2, in were also studied; they are able to sustain capacity to higher pH in diluents that stabilize the acid-amine complex through H bonding. Secondary amines perform better than tert-amines in diluents that solvate the additional proton. Competitive sulfate and phosphate, an interference in fermentation, are taken up by sorbents more strongly than by extractants. The third step in the proposed fermentation process, the cracking of the trimethylammonium (TMA) carboxylate, was also examined. Because lactic acid is more soluble and tends to self-esterify, simple thermal cracking does not remove all TMA; a more promising approach is to esterify the TMA lactate by reaction with an alcohol.

  4. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkov, V.; Fourest, B.

    2006-01-01

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  5. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladkov, V.; Fourest, B

    2006-07-01

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  6. Edge-carboxylated graphene nanoflakes from nitric acid oxidised arc-discharge material

    OpenAIRE

    NICOLOSI, VALERIA

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) with average diameters of 30 nm have been prepared by a single-step oxidation procedure using single-wall carbon nanotube arc-discharge material and nitric acid. The GNFs are predominately single sheets containing a small number of internal defects. The edges are decorated with primarily carboxylic acid groups which allow facile chemical functionalisation and cross-linking of the fragments using multivalent cations

  7. Toxicological evaluation of the flavour ingredient 4-amino-5-(3-(isopropylamino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropoxy-2-methylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A toxicological evaluation of 4-amino-5-(3-(isopropylamino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropoxy-2-methylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid(S9632; CAS 1359963-68-0, a flavour with modifying properties,was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. No Phase I biotransformations of S9632 were observed in rat or human microsomes in vitro, and in rat pharmacokinetic studies, the compound was poorly orally bioavailable and rapidly eliminated. S9632 was not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei or indicate interactions with the mitotic spindle in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay at oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats, the NOEL was 100 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested for S9632 when administered as a food ad-mix for 90 consecutive days. Furthermore, S9632 demonstrated a lack of maternal toxicity, as well as adverse effects on fetal morphology at the highest dose tested, providing a NOEL of 1000 mg/kg/day for both maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when administered orally during gestation to pregnant rats.

  8. Metal-Catalyzed Intra- and Intermolecular Addition of Carboxylic Acids to Alkynes in Aqueous Media: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Francos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The metal-catalyzed addition of carboxylic acids to alkynes is a very effective tool for the synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized olefinic compounds in an atom-economical manner. Thus, a large variety of synthetically useful lactones and enol-esters can be accessed through the intra- or intermolecular versions of this process. In order to reduce the environmental impact of these reactions, considerable efforts have been devoted in recent years to the development of catalytic systems able to operate in aqueous media, which represent a real challenge taking into account the tendency of alkynes to undergo hydration in the presence of transition metals. Despite this, different Pd, Pt, Au, Cu and Ru catalysts capable of promoting the intra- and intermolecular addition of carboxylic acids to alkynes in a selective manner in aqueous environments have appeared in the literature. In this review article, an overview of this chemistry is provided. The synthesis of β-oxo esters by catalytic addition of carboxylic acids to terminal propargylic alcohols in water is also discussed.

  9. Chemical states of p-boronophenylalanine in aqueous carboxylic acids and polyols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Mitsue; Kitaoka, Yoshinori

    1995-01-01

    Chemical states of p-boronophenylalanine were studied by infrared (IR) spectroscopy in aqueous carboxylic acids and in aqueous fructose. For BPA in water, the absorption band due to the B-O stretching of trigonal boron was observed, while that of tetrahedral boron was observed for BPA in aqueous oxalic acid. This means BPA forms a complex of tetrahedral boron with oxalate. It was proved that BPA also formed complexes of tetrahedral boron with citric acid as well as with fructose. No appreciable interaction was detected between BPA and maleic acid. (author)

  10. On the synthesis of radiofluorinated amino acids by isotope exchange based on the example of 6-[{sup 18}F]Fluor-L-DOPA; Zur Synthese radiofluorierter aromatischer Aminosaeuren mittels Isotopenaustausch am Beispiel von 6-[{sup 18}F]Fluor-L-DOPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, F M

    2008-06-15

    In nuclear medical diagnosis, 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-LDOPA), an analogue of L-DOPA, is one of the few established radiopharmaceuticals used for the in vivo investigation of the presynaptic dopaminergic metabolism and of some kind of tumours via Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The presently used method of preparation of the radiotracer by electrophilic labelling is limited to low amounts of activity at high costs. Known nucleophilic syntheses, however, result either in insufficient enantiomeric purity or the known multi-step syntheses are hard to automate, due to their complexity. During this work a novel, easy to automate alternative for the preparation of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA, was developed and evaluated, using a direct nucleophilic {sup 18}F-fluorination of a protected amino acid derivative. The resulting product has a very high enantiomeric purity. At first, the general suitability of the (S)-BOC-BMI-derivatives for the synthesis of {sup 18}F-labelled amino acids, used in this work, was investigated using a less complex precursor, which resulted in the amino acid 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosin via acidic hydrolysis. The preparation of a useful precursor for the nucleophilic {sup 18}F-isotope substitution, namely the (2S,5S)-tert.-butyl- 5-(2-fluoro-5-formylbenzyl)-2-tert.-butyl-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidine-1-carboxylate, was investigated in three general different ways. At first it was tried to obtain this product via formylation after coupling with the BOC-BMI, secondly via {alpha},{beta}-dehydro amino acid derivatives and finally via a systematic multi-step synthesis. Only the last mentioned way resulted in a precursor with sufficient purity that could be labelled. The radiochemical yield of the isotopic exchange was about 60 %. In the next step, the presented concept was modified to synthesize a precursor for the preparation of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA. Only a combination of the protecting groups

  11. In situ SERS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on the pH-dependant adsorption of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid on silver electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Jia, Shaojie; Fodjo, Essy Kouadio; Xu, Hu; Wang, Yuhong; Deng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemistry and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) are used to investigate the redox reaction and adsorption behavior of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ-2-COOH) on an Ag electrode at different pH values. The obtained results indicate that AQ-2-COOH is adsorbed tilted on the Ag electrode through O-atom of ring carbonyl in a potential range from -0.3 to -0.5 V vs. SCE, but the orientation turns to more tilted orientation with both O-atom of the ring carbonyl and carboxylate group in positive potential region for pH 6.0 and 7.4. However, at pH 10.0, the orientation adopts tilted conformation constantly on the Ag electrode with both O-atom of the anthraquinone ring and carboxylate group in the potential range from -0.3 to -0.5 V vs. SCE or at positive potentials. Moreover, the adsorption behavior of AQ-2-COOH has been further confirmed by AR-XPS on the Ag surface. Proposed reasons for the observed changes in orientation are presented.

  12. 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-L-proline: An amino acid in toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buku, A.; Faulstich, H.; Wieland, T.; Dabrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the four possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline,2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline (IV) had not been found in nature previously. It has now been detected as a component of virotoxins, toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms. Because periodate failed to effect an oxidative glycol splitting reaction, the two hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 4 were expected to be in a trans configuration. Furthermore, the formation of a 4-lactone on treatment with acids pointed to the carboxyl group and the hydroxyl group at position 4 being in a cis configuration. These results are in agreement with structure IV only. Final proof for structure IV was given by NMR spectroscopy and direct comparison with the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline isomer. PMID:16592813

  13. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D.; Volmer, Dietrich A.; Gill, Chris G.; Krogh, Erik T.

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H]-) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba2+ have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba]+ precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH]+ and [BaOH]+). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  14. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D; Volmer, Dietrich A; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H](-)) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba(2+) have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba](+) precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH](+) and [BaOH](+)). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  15. Solvent-Free Esterification of Carboxylic Acids Using Supported Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as an Efficient and Recoverable Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rajabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Supported iron oxide nanoparticles on mesoporous materials (FeNP@SBA-15 have been successfully utilized in the esterification of a variety carboxylic acids including aromatic, aliphatic, and long-chain carboxylic acids under convenient reaction conditions. The supported catalyst could be easily recovered after reaction completion and reused several times without any loss in activity after up to 10 runs.

  16. Synthesis of aminocarbonyl N-acylhydrazones by a three-component reaction of isocyanides, hydrazonoyl chlorides, and carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Meneghetti, Fiorella; Mercalli, Valentina; Varese, Monica; Giustiniano, Francesco; Novellino, Ettore; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2014-10-17

    A novel one-pot multicomponent synthesis of α-aminocarbonyl N-acylhydrazones starting from readily available hydrazonoyl chlorides, isocyanides, and carboxylic acids is reported. The strategy exploits the ability of the carboxylic acid as a third component to suppress all competing reactions between nitrile imines and isocyanides, channeling the course of the reaction toward the formation of this novel class of compounds.

  17. The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  18. Phosphazene-promoted metal-free ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide initiated by carboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-03-11

    The effectiveness of carboxylic acid as initiator for the anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide was investigated with a strong phosphazene base (t-BuP4) used as promoter. Kinetic study showed an induction period, i.e., transformation of carboxylic acid to hydroxyl ester, followed by slow chain growth together with simultaneous and fast end-group transesterification, which led to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) consisting of monoester (monohydroxyl), diester, and dihydroxyl species. An appropriate t-BuP4/acid ratio was proven to be essential to achieve better control over the polymerization and low dispersity of PEO. This work provides important information and enriches the toolbox for macromolecular and biomolecular engineering with protic initiating sites. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Determination and structural correlation of the pKa values of p-substituted trans-2,3-epoxy-4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JURANIC

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The pKa values for a series of eight p-substituted trans-2,3-epoxy-4-phenyl butanoic acids (p-substituted trans-b-aroylepoxyacrylic acids have been determined potentiometrically in aqueous media at 25°C at an ionic strength of 0.1 mol/dm3 (NaCl. The transmission of polar effects from the substituents on the phenyl nucleus to the carboxylic group through the side chain involving a carbonyl group and an epoxide ring was investigated. The pKa values were correlated with structure using the Hammett, Taft and Yukawa-Tsuno approaches. The Hammett r constant (0.34 was compared with analogue values for structurally similar acids.

  20. Immune Modulation in Normal Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) (Lymphocytes) in Response to Benzofuran-2-Carboxylic Acid Derivative KMEG during Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Elvis; Mann, Vivek; Ellis, Ivory; Mansoor, Elvedina; Olamigoke, Loretta; Marriott, Karla Sue; Denkins, Pamela; Williams, Willie; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2017-08-01

    Microgravity and radiation exposure during space flight have been widely reported to induce the suppression of normal immune system function, and increase the risk of cancer development in humans. These findings pose a serious risk to manned space missions. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid derivatives can inhibit the progression of some of these devastating effects on earth and in modeled microgravity. However, these studies had not assessed the impacts of benzofuran-2- carboxylic acid and its derivatives on global gene expression under spaceflight conditions. In this study, the ability of a specific benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid derivative (KMEG) to confer protection from radiation and restore normal immune function was investigated following exposure to space flight conditions on the ISS. Normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphocytes) treated with 10 µ g/ml of KMEG together with untreated control samples were flown on Nanoracks hardware on Spacex-3 flight. The Samples were returned one month later and gene expression was analyzed. A 1g-ground control experiment was performed in parallel at the Kennedy spaceflight center. The first overall subtractive unrestricted analysis revealed 78 genes, which were differentially expressed in space flight KMEG, untreated lymphocytes as compared to the corresponding ground controls. However, in KMEG-treated space flight lymphocytes, there was an increased expression of a group of genes that mediate increased transcription, translation and innate immune system mediating functions of lymphocytes as compared to KMEG-untreated samples. Analysis of genes related to T cell proliferation in spaceflight KMEG-treated lymphocytes compared to 1g-ground KMEG- treated lymphocytes revealed six T cell proliferation and signaling genes to be significantly upregulated (p trafficking, promote early response, mediating C-myc related proliferation, promote antiapoptotic activity and protects

  1. Optimization of polycrystalline platinum catalytic activity opposite to carboxylic acids oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Naour, C.; Moisy, P.; Blanc, P.; Madic, C.

    1994-01-01

    In electro nuclear industry, in the aim to reduce the quantity of wastes coming from the spent fuels reprocessing, the use of reagents as some carboxylic acids is considered: after use, these reagents are completely decomposed in gaseous products, which can be filtered and released in environment

  2. Use of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column and propionic acid as an eluent in ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We developed an ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography (IEAC) method employing a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (PS-WCX) column with propionic acid as the eluent for the simultaneous determination of multivalent aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. The PS-WCX column well resolved mono-, di-, and trivalent carboxylic acids in the acidic eluent. Propionic acid as the eluent gave a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and enabled sensitive conductimetric detection of analyte acids. We found the optimal separation condition to be the combination of a PS-WCX column and 20-mM propionic acid. Practical applicability of the developed method was confirmed by using a short precolumn with a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form connected before the separation column; this was to remove cations from food samples by converting them to hydrogen ions. Consequently, common carboxylic acids and ethanol in beer, wine, and soy sauce were successfully separated by the developed method.

  3. Microbial synthesis of a branched-chain ester platform from organic waste carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan S. Layton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Processing of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes produces a plethora of chemicals such as short, linear carboxylic acids, known as carboxylates, derived from anaerobic digestion. While these carboxylates have low values and are inhibitory to microbes during fermentation, they can be biologically upgraded to high-value products. In this study, we expanded our general framework for biological upgrading of carboxylates to branched-chain esters by using three highly active alcohol acyltransferases (AATs for alcohol and acyl CoA condensation and modulating the alcohol moiety from ethanol to isobutanol in the modular chassis cell. With this framework, we demonstrated the production of an ester library comprised of 16 out of all 18 potential esters, including acetate, propionate, butanoate, pentanoate, and hexanoate esters, from the 5 linear, saturated C2-C6 carboxylic acids. Among these esters, 5 new branched-chain esters, including isobutyl acetate, isobutyl propionate, isobutyl butyrate, isobutyl pentanoate, and isobutyl hexanoate were synthesized in vivo. During 24 h in situ fermentation and extraction, one of the engineered strains, EcDL208 harnessing the SAAT of Fragaria ananassa produced ~63 mg/L of a mixture of butyl and isobutyl butyrates from glucose and butyrate co-fermentation and ~127 mg/L of a mixture of isobutyl and pentyl pentanoates from glucose and pentanoate co-fermentation, with high specificity. These butyrate and pentanoate esters are potential drop-in liquid fuels. This study provides better understanding of functional roles of AATs for microbial biosynthesis of branched-chain esters and expands the potential use of these esters as drop-in biofuels beyond their conventional flavor, fragrance, and solvent applications. Keywords: Carboxylate platform, Ester platform, Branched-chain ester, Modular cell, Biological upgrading, Organic waste, Lignocellulosic biomass, Isobutyl esters

  4. Potential cerebral perfusion agents: synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated vinylalkylbarbituric acid analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Callahan, A.P.; Cunningham, E.B.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    A new iodinated barbiturate has been prepared. Treatment of 5-chloropentyne and propargyl bromide with diethyl 2-ethyl-2-sodiomalonate (DESM) provided diethyl 2-ethyl-2-(1-pentyn-5-yl)malonate (3) and diethyl 2-ethyl-2-propargylmalonate (4), respectively. Similar condensation of DESM with (E)-(5-iodo-1-penten-1-yl)boronic acid (9) or the reaction of catecholborane with 3 provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-borono-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (8). The direct sodium iodide-chloramine-T iodination of 8 or the treatment of (E)-1,5-diiodo-1-pentene (10) with DESM provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (11). The condensation of functionalized malonates 3, 4, and 11 with urea in the presence of a base provided the corresponding barbiturates, 5-ethyl-5-(1-pentyn-5-yl)-(5), 5-ethyl-5-propargyl- (6), and (E)-5-ethyl-5-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)barbituric acid (12), respectively. (E)-6-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylic acid (13) was isolated as the hydrolytic byproduct of 11. Compound 13 decarboxylated under vacuum to provide ethyl (E)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylate (14). The /sup 125/I-labeled congeners of 12 and 13 were synthesized in the same manner and evaluated in rats. The barbiturate 12 exhibited significant brain uptake (approximately 1% dose after 5 min), demonstrating that iodinated barbiturates freely cross the intact blood-brain barrier.

  5. Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Buddha D; Jacobs, Aaron

    2002-10-01

    Bleach, nitrite, chromate, and hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase are effective urine adulterants used by the illicit drug users to conceal marijuana-positive results. Methods for detecting nitrite and chromate are available. Effects of other oxidizing agents that could possibly be used as adulterants and are difficult to detect or measure are presented in this report. Urine samples containing 40 ng/mL of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid) were treated with 10 mmol/L of commonly available oxidizing agents. Effects of horseradish peroxidase of activity 10 unit/mL and extracts from 2.5 g of red radish (Raphanus sativus, Radicula group), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus, Daikon group), and black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra), all with 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide, were also examined. After 5 min, 16 h and 48 h of exposure at room temperature (23 degrees C) the specimens were tested by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for THC-acid. A control group treated with sodium hydrosulfite to reduce the oxidants, was also tested to investigate the effect of oxidizing agents on THC-acid in the extraction method. THC-acid was lost completely in the extraction method when treated with chromate, nitrite, oxone, and hydrogen peroxide/ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fenton's reagent). Some losses were also observed with persulfate and periodate (up to 25%). These oxidants, and other oxidizing agents like permanganate, periodate, peroxidase, and extracts from red radish, horseradish, Japanese radish and black mustard seeds destroyed most of the THC-acid (> 94%) within 48 h of exposure. Chlorate, perchlorate, iodate, and oxychloride under these conditions showed little or no effect. Complete loss was observed when THC-acid was exposed to 50 mmol/L of oxychloride for 48 h. Several oxidizing adulterants that are difficult to test by the present urine adulterant testing methods showed considerable effects on the destruction of THC-acid

  6. Synthesis and HPLC evaluation of carboxylic acid phases on a hydride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Joseph J; Matyska, Maria T; Gangakhedkar, Surekha; Siddiq, Rukhsana

    2006-04-01

    Three organic moieties containing carboxylic acid functional groups are attached to a particulate silica surface through silanization/hydrosilation. Two compounds (undecylenic acid and 10-undecynoic acid) have 11 carbon chains and the other is a five-carbon acid (pentenoic acid). Bonding is confirmed through carbon elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy, and carbon-13 and silicon-29 CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The bonded phases are tested by HPLC using PTH amino acids, nucleic acids, theophylline-related compounds, anilines, benzoic acid compounds, choline, and tobramycin. The latter two compounds are used to investigate the aqueous normal phase properties of the three bonded materials.

  7. Characterisation and application of new carboxylic acid-functionalised ruthenium complexes as dye-sensitisers for solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Virginie; Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    A series of ruthenium complexes with and without TiO2, anchoring carboxylic acid groups have been synthesised and characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV-vis and luminescence. These complexes were adsorbed on thin films of the wide band-gap semiconductor anatase and were tested a...

  8. Antibacterial activity of 2-alkynoic fatty acids against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Ríos, David J; Rivera-Torres, Yaritza; Maldonado-Domínguez, Gamalier; Domínguez, Idializ; Ríos, Camille; Díaz, Damarith; Rodríguez, José W; Altieri-Rivera, Joanne S; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Cintrón, Gabriel; Montano, Nashbly; Carballeira, Néstor M

    2014-02-01

    The first study aimed at determining the structural characteristics needed to prepare antibacterial 2-alkynoic fatty acids (2-AFAs) was accomplished by synthesizing several 2-AFAs and other analogs in 18-76% overall yields. Among all the compounds tested, the 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA) displayed the best overall antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=15.6 μg/mL), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (MIC=15.5 μg/mL), and Bacillus cereus (MIC=31.3 μg/mL), as well as against the Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.8 μg/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=125 μg/mL). In addition, 2-HDA displayed significant antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 (MIC=15.6 μg/mL) and clinical isolates of MRSA (MIC=3.9 μg/mL). No direct relationship was found between the antibacterial activity of 2-AFAs and their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggesting that the antibacterial properties of these fatty acids are not mediated by micelle formation. It was demonstrated that the presence of a triple bond at C-2 and the carboxylic acid moiety in 2-AFAs are important for their antibacterial activity. 2-HDA has the potential to be further evaluated for use in antibacterial formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodistribution and human dosimetry of enantiomer-1 of the synthetic leucine analog anti-1-amino-2-fluorocyclopentyl-1-carboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nye, Jonathon A.; Jarkas, Nashwa; Schuster, David M.; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Voll, Ronald J.; Camp, Vernon M.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The enantiomerically enriched (ee=90%, enantiomer 1) synthetic amino acid (R,S)-anti-1-amino-2-fluorocyclopentyl-1-carboxylic acid (anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1) accumulates in malignant cells by elevated transport through the sodium-independent system-L (leucine preferring) amino acid transporter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo uptake and single-dose toxicity of anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1 in animals as well as the individual organ and whole-body dose in humans. Methods: A DU145 xenograft rodent model was used to measure anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1 uptake at 15, 30 and 60 min post-injection. Animals were sacrificed and organs harvested to measure the percent injected activity per organ and to calculate residence time. Anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1 toxicity was assessed using a single microdose (37-74 MBq/kg) in nonhuman primates. Their vital signs were monitored for 2 h post-injection for drug-related effects. Human biodistribution studies were collected by sequential whole-body PET/CT scans on six healthy volunteers (three male and three female) for 120 min following a single 247±61 MBq bolus injection of anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1. Estimates of radiation dose from anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1 to the human body were calculated using recommendations of the MIRD committee and MIRDOSE 3.0 software. Results: High anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1 residence time was observed in the pancreas of the rodent model compared to the human data. No abnormal treatment-related observations were made in the nonhuman primate toxicity studies. Human venous blood showed no metabolites of anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1 in the first 60 min post-injection. All volunteers showed initially high uptake in the kidneys followed by a rapid washout phase. The estimated effective dose equivalent was 0.0196 mSv/MBq. Conclusion: Anti-2-[ 18 F]FACPC-1 showed low background uptake in the brain, thoracic and abdominal cavities of humans, suggesting a possible use for detecting malignant tissues in these regions.

  10. Synthesis, structures and properties of Cu(II) and Mn(II) complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline-2-carboxylic acid and 2,2'-bipyridine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingya; Xu, Huanzhi

    2010-11-15

    Four new 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline complexes, namely [Mn(phenca)(2)]·(H(2)O)(2) (1), [Cu(4)(phen)(4)(OH-)(4)(H(2)O)(2)](DMF)(4)(ClO(4)-)(4)(H(2)O) (2), [Cu(2)(2,2-bipy)(2)(C(2)O(4)2-)(H(2)O)(2)(NO(3))(2)] (3) and [Cu(2,2-bipy)(2)(ClO(4)-)](ClO(4)-) (4) (2,2'-bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Hphenca = 1,10-phenanthroline-2-carboxylic acid) have been synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray crystal diffraction. While strong hydrogen bonds play central roles in the formation of the 3D structure, the combined influence of the weak interactions such as π···π interactions is also evident in the structures. A preliminary investigation on the ion exchange properties of the complexes is presented.

  11. Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Delaš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 μg/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 μmol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 μmol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 μmol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

  12. Equilibrium studies of ternary systems containing some selected transition metal ions, triazoles and aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed Magdy; Radalla, Abd-Elatty; Qasem, Fatma; Khaled, Rehab [Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Solution equilibria of the binary and ternary complex systems of the divalent transition metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} with 1,2,4-triazole (TRZ), 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (TRZSH), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (TRZAM) and aromatic carboxylic acids (phthalic, anthranilic, salicylic, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) have been studied pH-metrically at (25.0±0.1) .deg. C, and a constant ionic strength I=1x10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3} in an aqueous medium. The potentiometric titration curves show that binary and ternary complexes of these ligands are formed in solution. The stability constants of the different binary and ternary complexes formed were calculated on the basis of computer analysis of the titration data. The relative stability of the different ternary complex species is expressed in terms of Δ log K values, log X and R. S.% parameters. The effect of temperature of the medium on both the proton-ligand equilibria for TRZAM and phthalic acid and their metal-ligand equilibria with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} has been studied along with the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. The complexation behavior of ternary complexes is ascertained using conductivity measurements. In addition, the formation of ternary complexes in solution has been confirmed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  13. LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF CARBOXYLIC-ACIDS USING N-(4-AMINOBUTYL)-N-ETHYLISOLUMINOL AS CHEMILUMINESCENT LABEL - DETERMINATION OF IBUPROFEN IN SALIVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEIJGER, OM; LINGEMAN, H; BRINKMAN, UAT; HOLTHUIS, JJM; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    N-(4-Aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol was used for labelling of carboxylic acids. The derivatization reaction was carried out with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as pre-activator of the carboxylic acid function and N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide as the coupling reagent. Optimum conditions for

  14. Liquid chromatographic analysis of carboxylic acids using N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol as chemiluminescent label: determination of ibuprofen in saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijger, O. M.; Lingeman, H.; Brinkman, U. A.; Holthuis, J. J.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    N-(4-Aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol was used for labelling of carboxylic acids. The derivatization reaction was carried out with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as pre-activator of the carboxylic acid function and N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide as the coupling reagent. Optimum conditions for

  15. Identification and quantification of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide (THC-COOH-glu) in hair by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as a potential hair biomarker of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Marchei, Emilia; Martello, Simona; Gottardi, Massimo; Pellegrini, Manuela; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Lotti, Andrea; Chiarotti, Marcello; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    We developed and validated an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to identify and quantify 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide in hair of cannabis consumers. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of amiodarone as internal standard hair samples were treated with 500 μl VMA-T M3 buffer reagent for 1 h at 100 °C. After cooling, 10 μl VMA-T M3 extract were injected into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase column using a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 5 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 (solvent A) and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). The flow rate was kept constant at 0.4 ml/min during the analysis. The separated analytes were detected with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.99 and a limit of quantification of 0.25 pg/mg hair. Analytical recovery was between 79.6% and 100.7% and intra- and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy were always lower than 15%. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 20 different hair samples of cannabis consumers disclosed the presence of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide in the range of 0.5-8.6 pg/mg hair. These data provided a good start to consider 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide as alternative hair biomarker of cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A relativistic density functional study of uranyl hydrolysis and complexation by carboxylic acids in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Rupashree Shyama

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the complexation of uranium in its most stable oxidation state VI in aqueous solution was studied computationally, within the framework of density functional (DF) theory. The thesis is divided into the following parts: Chapter 2 briefly summarizes the relevant general aspects of actinide chemistry and then focuses on actinide environmental chemistry. Experimental results on hydrolysis, actinide complexation by carboxylic acids, and humic substances are presented to establish a background for the subsequent discussion. Chapter 3 describes the computational method used in this work and the relevant features of the parallel quantum chemistry code PARAGAUSS employed. First, the most relevant basics of the applied density functional approach are presented focusing on relativistic effects. Then, the treatment of solvent effects, essential for an adequate modeling of actinide species in aqueous solution, will be introduced. At the end of this chapter, computational parameters and procedures will be summarized. Chapter 4 presents the computational results including a comparison to available experimental data. In the beginning, the mononuclear hydrolysis product of UO_2"2"+, [UO_2OH]"+, will be discussed. The second part deals with actinide complexation by carboxylate ligands. First of all the coordination number for uranylacetate will be discussed with respect to implications for the complexation of actinides by humic substances followed by the uranyl complexation of aromatic carboxylic acids in comparison to earlier results for aliphatic ones. In the end, the ternary uranyl-hydroxo-acetate are discussed, as models of uranyl humate complexation at ambient condition.

  17. New derivatives of 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid with free-radical scavenging, D-amino acid oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecka, Jolanta; Guśpiel, Adam; Postek, Magdalena; Ziemska, Joanna; Kawęcki, Robert; Lęczycka, Katarzyna; Osior, Agnieszka; Pietrzak, Bartłomiej; Pypowski, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowska, Agata

    2014-09-30

    A series of 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesised and tested for their free-radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS·+), superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and nitric oxide radical (·NO) assays. We also studied d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activity. Almost each of newly synthesised compounds exhibited radical scavenging capabilities. Moreover, several compounds showed moderate inhibitory activities against DAAO, AChE and BuChE. Compounds with significant free-radical scavenging activity may be potential candidates for therapeutics used in oxidative-stress-related diseases.

  18. Organocatalyzed, Visible-Light Photoredox-Mediated, One-Pot Minisci Reaction Using Carboxylic Acids via N-(Acyloxy)phthalimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Li, Ning; Yazdani, Aliza N; Dhar, T G Murali

    2018-03-02

    An improved, one-pot Minisci reaction has been developed using visible light, an organic photocatalyst, and carboxylic acids as radical precursors via the intermediacy of in situ-generated N-(acyloxy)phthalimides. The conditions employed are mild, demonstrate a high degree of functional group tolerance, and do not require a large excess of the carboxylic acid reactant. As a result, this reaction can be applied to drug-like scaffolds and molecules with sensitive functional groups, enabling late-stage functionalization, which is of high interest to medicinal chemistry.

  19. Synthesis of New Functionalized Indoles Based on Ethyl Indol-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T. A. Boraei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful alkylations of the nitrogen of ethyl indol-2-carboxylate were carried out using aq. KOH in acetone. The respective N-alkylated acids could be obtained without separating the N-alkylated esters by increasing the amount of KOH and water. The use of NaOMe in methanol led to transesterification instead of the alkylation, while the use of NaOEt led to low yields of the N-alkylated acids. Hydrazinolysis of the ester gave indol-2-carbohydrazide which then was allowed to react with different aromatic aldehydes and ketones in ethanol catalyzed by acetic acid. Indol-2-thiosemicarbazide was used in a heterocyclization reaction to form thiazoles. The new structures were confirmed using NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray single crystal analysis.

  20. Characterization of an Indole-3-Acetamide Hydrolase from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis and Its Application in Efficient Preparation of Both Enantiomers of Chiral Building Block 2,3-Dihydro-1,4-Benzodioxin-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Mishra

    Full Text Available Both the enantiomers of 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid are valuable chiral synthons for enantiospecific synthesis of therapeutic agents such as (S-doxazosin mesylate, WB 4101, MKC 242, 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzodioxin, and N-[2,4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide. Pharmaceutical applications require these enantiomers in optically pure form. However, currently available methods suffer from one drawback or other, such as low efficiency, uncommon and not so easily accessible chiral resolving agent and less than optimal enantiomeric purity. Our interest in finding a biocatalyst for efficient production of enantiomerically pure 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid lead us to discover an amidase activity from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, which was able to kinetically resolve 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxyamide with E value of >200. Thus, at about 50% conversion, (R-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid was produced in >99% e.e. The remaining amide had (S-configuration and 99% e.e. The amide and acid were easily separated by aqueous (alkaline-organic two phase extraction method. The same amidase was able to catalyse, albeit at much lower rate the hydrolysis of (S-amide to (S-acid without loss of e.e. The amidase activity was identified as indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (IaaH. IaaH is known to catalyse conversion of indole-3-acetamide (IAM to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, which is phytohormone of auxin class and is widespread among plants and bacteria that inhabit plant rhizosphere. IaaH exhibited high activity for 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which was about 65% compared to its natural substrate, indole-3-acetamide. The natural substrate for IaaH indole-3-acetamide shared, at least in part a similar bicyclic structure with 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which may account for high activity of enzyme towards this un-natural substrate. To

  1. Characterization of an Indole-3-Acetamide Hydrolase from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis and Its Application in Efficient Preparation of Both Enantiomers of Chiral Building Block 2,3-Dihydro-1,4-Benzodioxin-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pradeep; Kaur, Suneet; Sharma, Amar Nath; Jolly, Ravinder S

    2016-01-01

    Both the enantiomers of 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid are valuable chiral synthons for enantiospecific synthesis of therapeutic agents such as (S)-doxazosin mesylate, WB 4101, MKC 242, 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzodioxin, and N-[2,4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide. Pharmaceutical applications require these enantiomers in optically pure form. However, currently available methods suffer from one drawback or other, such as low efficiency, uncommon and not so easily accessible chiral resolving agent and less than optimal enantiomeric purity. Our interest in finding a biocatalyst for efficient production of enantiomerically pure 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid lead us to discover an amidase activity from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, which was able to kinetically resolve 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxyamide with E value of >200. Thus, at about 50% conversion, (R)-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid was produced in >99% e.e. The remaining amide had (S)-configuration and 99% e.e. The amide and acid were easily separated by aqueous (alkaline)-organic two phase extraction method. The same amidase was able to catalyse, albeit at much lower rate the hydrolysis of (S)-amide to (S)-acid without loss of e.e. The amidase activity was identified as indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (IaaH). IaaH is known to catalyse conversion of indole-3-acetamide (IAM) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is phytohormone of auxin class and is widespread among plants and bacteria that inhabit plant rhizosphere. IaaH exhibited high activity for 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which was about 65% compared to its natural substrate, indole-3-acetamide. The natural substrate for IaaH indole-3-acetamide shared, at least in part a similar bicyclic structure with 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which may account for high activity of enzyme towards this un-natural substrate. To the best of

  2. Complexes of molybdenum (6) and tungsten (6) with amino- and pyridine carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Mozgin, S.V.; Felin, M.G.; Subbotina, N.A.; Ajzenberg, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    By interaction of Na 2 MO 4 With amino acid excess in muriatic medium the complexes Mo 2 O 4 (OH) 3 L (LH-anthranilic, nicotinic acids, histidine), Mo 2 O 5 (OH)L' (L'H-α- and β-alanine, valine, isonicotinic acid), W 3 O 8 (OH) (H 2 O) 4 L'' (L'H-nicotinic, isonicotinic acids, histidine) are isolated. On the basis of the data of elementary analysis, IR spectrosfopy and thermogravimetry assumptions on their composition and structure have been suggested

  3. Development of starch biofilms using different carboxylic acids as plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, L.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Santos, W.J. dos; Goncalves, A.P.B.; Oliveira, J.C.; Jose, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable films have become a widely exploited issue among scientists because of their positive environmental impact, besides their potential to promote better food conservation and an increase in shelf life. Starch has been studied in this field due to its availability, low cost and biodegradability. However, starch films tend to be brittle and they need addition of a plasticizer to enable their usage. In this work, starch films were synthesized with different carboxylic acids as plasticizers, aiming to observe the effect of the acids chain size in the final films properties. The acids used were: oxalic, succinic and adipic. The materials were produced by casting and characterized by DSC, TG, DRX e FTIR. It was observed that the acids chain size influenced on the thermal and structural properties of the films. (author)

  4. Chemo-enzymatic Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 4-methylcyclohexanone via kinetic resolution of racemic carboxylic acids: direct access to enantioenriched lactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, Agnieszka; Chrobok, Anna

    2016-01-21

    A new method for the asymmetric chemo-enzymatic Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of prochiral 4-methylcyclohexanone to (R)-4-methylcaprolactone in the presence of (±)-4-methyloctanoic acid, Candida Antarctica lipase B and 30% aq. H2O2 has been developed. A mechanism for the asymmetric induction based on kinetic resolution of racemic carboxylic acids is proposed.

  5. Mechanism of catalytic action of oxide systems in reactions of aldehyde oxidation to carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrushkevich, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanism of selective action of oxide catalysts (on the base of V 2 O 4 , MoO 3 ) of aldehyde oxidation to acids is considered, reaction acrolein oxidation to acrylic acid is taken as an example. Multistage mechanism of the process is established; it involves consequent transformation of coordination-bonded aldehyde into carbonyl-bonded aldehyde and symmetric carboxylate. Principles of active surface construction are formulated, they take into account the activity of stabilization center of concrete intermediate compound and bond energy of oxygen with surface. (author)

  6. Omega-3 carboxylic acids (Epanova): a review of its use in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Hannah A; Dhillon, Sohita

    2014-10-01

    Omega-3 carboxylic acids (Epanova) [OM3-CA] is the first free fatty acid form of long-chain marine omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid being the most abundant) to be approved by the US FDA as an adjunct to diet to lower triglyceride levels in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL). Oral OM3-CA has greater bioavailability than ethyl ester forms of omega-3 and, unlike omega-3 acid ethyl esters, does not require co-ingestion of a high-fat meal, as it does not need pancreatic enzyme activity for absorption. In the 12-week EpanoVa fOr Lowering Very high triglyceridEs (EVOLVE) trial, OM3-CA 2 or 4 g/day significantly reduced serum triglyceride levels relative to placebo. Other lipid parameters, including non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels, were also reduced significantly with OM3-CA relative to placebo. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased significantly with OM3-CA relative to placebo; however, these increases were not accompanied by increases in the circulating concentrations of non-HDL-C, VLDL-C, or apolipoprotein B. OM3-CA was generally well tolerated in this study, with most adverse events being of mild or moderate severity. Although additional comparative data are needed to position OM3-CA with respect to other formulations of omega-3 fatty acids, current evidence suggests that OM3-CA is a useful addition to the treatment options available for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  7. Gibberellic acid, amino acids (glycine and L-leucine), vitamin B 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined effects of zinc, gibberellic acid, vitamin B2, amino acids (glycine and L-leucine) on pigment production were evaluated in a liquid culture of Monascus purpureus. In this study, response surface design was used to optimize each parameter. The data were analyzed using Minitab 14 software. Five parameters ...

  8. Phase behavior and micellar properties of carboxylic acid end group modified pluronic surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.P.A.; Broeke, van den L.J.P.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    The micellar behavior of three different carboxylic acid end standing (CAE) surfactants has been characterized using conductometry, differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, and dynamic light scattering. The CAE surfactants are modified high molecular weight Pluronic

  9. Proton-conducting membranes based on benzimidazole-containing sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) compared with their carboxyl acid form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Xu, Dan; Lin, Haidan; Han, Miaomiao; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing pendant carboxyl (C-SPEEKs) have been synthesized using a nucleophilic polycondesation reaction. A condensation reaction between 1,2-diaminobenzene and carboxyl resulted in a new series of copolymers containing benzimidazole groups (SPEEK-BIms). The expected structures of the sulfonated copolymers are confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR. The dependence of ion exchange capacity, water uptake, proton conductivity and methanol diffusion coefficient of SPEEK-BIm membranes has been studied and compared with their carboxyl acid form. The results suggest that the introduction of benzimidazole groups may be responsible for many excellent properties of the membranes for fuel cell. It is noticeable that the markedly improved oxidative stability is benefit for the application of membrane. (author)

  10. Synthesis, Structures and Properties of Cu(II and Mn(II Complexes with 1,10-Phenanthroline-2-carboxylic acid and 2,2’-Bipyridine Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanzhi Xu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Four new 2,2’-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline complexes, namely [Mn(phenca2]·(H2O2 (1, [Cu4(phen4(OH-4(H2O2](DMF4(ClO4-4(H2O (2, [Cu2(2,2-bipy2(C2O42-(H2O2(NO32] (3 and [Cu(2,2-bipy2(ClO4-](ClO4- (4 (2,2’-bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine, Hphenca = 1,10-phenanthroline-2-carboxylic acid have been synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray crystal diffraction. While strong hydrogen bonds play central roles in the formation of the 3D structure, the combined influence of the weak interactions such as π···π interactions is also evident in the structures. A preliminary investigation on the ion exchange properties of the complexes is presented.

  11. RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH A TRIISOOCTYLAMINE DILUENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malmary

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary alkylamines in solution with organic diluents are attractive extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for extraction of organic acids from water by a long-chain aliphatic tertiary amine. In order to attain this objective, we studied the liquid-liquid equilibria between the triisooctylamine + 1-octanol + n-heptane system as solvent and an aqueous solution of an individual carboxylic acid such as citric, lactic and malic acids. The experiments showed that the partition coefficient for a particular organic acid depends on the kind of solute, notably when the acid concentration in the aqueous phase is low. A mathematical model, where both chemical association and physical distribution are taken into consideration, is proposed. The model suggests that the various complexes obtained between amine and organic acids contribute to the distribution of the solute between the coexisting phases in equilibrium.

  12. Identification and characterization of trans-3-hydroxy-l-proline dehydratase and Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase involved in trans-3-hydroxy-l-proline metabolism of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available trans-4-Hydroxy-l-proline (T4LHyp and trans-3-hydroxy-l-proline (T3LHyp occur mainly in collagen. A few bacteria can convert T4LHyp to α-ketoglutarate, and we previously revealed a hypothetical pathway consisting of four enzymes at the molecular level (J Biol Chem (2007 282, 6685–6695; J Biol Chem (2012 287, 32674–32688. Here, we first found that Azospirillum brasilense has the ability to grow not only on T4LHyp but also T3LHyp as a sole carbon source. In A. brasilense cells, T3LHyp dehydratase and NAD(PH-dependent Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate (Pyr2C reductase activities were induced by T3LHyp (and d-proline and d-lysine but not T4LHyp, and no effect of T3LHyp was observed on the expression of T4LHyp metabolizing enzymes: a hypothetical pathway of T3LHyp → Pyr2C → l-proline was proposed. Bacterial T3LHyp dehydratase, encoded to LhpH gene, was homologous with the mammalian enzyme. On the other hand, Pyr2C reductase encoded to LhpI gene was a novel member of ornithine cyclodeaminase/μ-crystallin superfamily, differing from known bacterial protein. Furthermore, the LhpI enzymes of A. brasilense and another bacterium showed several different properties, including substrate and coenzyme specificities. T3LHyp was converted to proline by the purified LhpH and LhpI proteins. Furthermore, disruption of LhpI gene from A. brasilense led to loss of growth on T3LHyp, d-proline and d-lysine, indicating that this gene has dual metabolic functions as a reductase for Pyr2C and Δ1-piperidine-2-carboxylate in these pathways, and that the T3LHyp pathway is not linked to T4LHyp and l-proline metabolism.

  13. Complexes of molybdenum (6) and tungsten (6) with amino- and pyridine carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitsyn, V I; Mozgin, S V; Felin, M G; Subbotina, N A; Ajzenberg, M I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1984-01-01

    By interaction of Na/sub 2/MO/sub 4/ with amino acid excess in muriatic medium the complexes Mo/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (OH)/sub 3/L (LH-anthranilic, nicotinic acids, histidine), Mo/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (OH)L' (L'H-..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-alanine, valine, isonicotinic acid), W/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (OH) (H/sub 2/O)/sub 4/ L'' (L'H-nicotinic, isonicotinic acids, histidine) are isolated. On the basis of the data of elementary analysis, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetry assumptions on their composition and structure have been suggested.

  14. A relativistic density functional study of uranyl hydrolysis and complexation by carboxylic acids in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Rupashree Shyama

    2009-02-10

    In this work, the complexation of uranium in its most stable oxidation state VI in aqueous solution was studied computationally, within the framework of density functional (DF) theory. The thesis is divided into the following parts: Chapter 2 briefly summarizes the relevant general aspects of actinide chemistry and then focuses on actinide environmental chemistry. Experimental results on hydrolysis, actinide complexation by carboxylic acids, and humic substances are presented to establish a background for the subsequent discussion. Chapter 3 describes the computational method used in this work and the relevant features of the parallel quantum chemistry code PARAGAUSS employed. First, the most relevant basics of the applied density functional approach are presented focusing on relativistic effects. Then, the treatment of solvent effects, essential for an adequate modeling of actinide species in aqueous solution, will be introduced. At the end of this chapter, computational parameters and procedures will be summarized. Chapter 4 presents the computational results including a comparison to available experimental data. In the beginning, the mononuclear hydrolysis product of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, [UO{sub 2}OH]{sup +}, will be discussed. The second part deals with actinide complexation by carboxylate ligands. First of all the coordination number for uranylacetate will be discussed with respect to implications for the complexation of actinides by humic substances followed by the uranyl complexation of aromatic carboxylic acids in comparison to earlier results for aliphatic ones. In the end, the ternary uranyl-hydroxo-acetate are discussed, as models of uranyl humate complexation at ambient condition.

  15. Predominant contribution of L-type amino acid transporter to 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine uptake in human glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Honda, Natsuki; Kawai, Keiichi; Ohe, Kazuyo; Fujii, Hirofumi; Itami, Jun; Arai, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: 4-Borono-2- 18 F-fluoro-phenylalanine ( 18 F-FBPA) has been used to anticipate the therapeutic effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with 4-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA). Similarly, L-[methyl- 11 C]-methionine ( 11 C-MET), the most popular amino acid PET tracer, is a possible candidate for this purpose. We investigated the transport mechanism of 18 F-FBPA and compared it with that of 14 C-MET in human glioblastoma cell lines. Methods: Uptake of 18 F-FBPA and 14 C-MET was examined in A172, T98G, and U-87MG cells using 2-aminobicyclo-(2.2.1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (a system L-specific substrate), 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid (a system A-specific substrate), and BPA. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Results: System L was mainly involved in the uptake of 18 F-FBPA (74.5%–81.1% of total uptake) and 14 C-MET (48.3%–59.4%). System A and ASC also contributed to the uptake of 14 C-MET. Inhibition experiments revealed that BPA significantly decreased the uptake of 18 F-FBPA, whereas 31%–42% of total 14 C-MET uptake was transported by BPA non-sensitive transporters. In addition, 18 F-FBPA uptake correlated with LAT1 and total LAT expressions. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that 18 F-FBPA was predominantly transported by system L in human glioblastoma cells compared to 14 C-MET. Although further studies are needed to elucidate the correlation between 18 F-FBPA uptake and BPA content in tumor tissues, 18 F-FBPA is suitable for the selection of patients who benefit from BNCT with BPA

  16. Radiation-initiated emulsion copolymerization of styrene and carboxylic acid monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, S.; Makuuchi, K.

    1982-01-01

    The emulsion copolymerization of styrene and carboxylic acid monomers such as acrylic, methacrylic, and itaconic acids (AAc, MAAc, IAc) was studied by using 60 Co γ-rays as initiator and sodium dodecylsulfate as emulsifier. The polymerization behavior of these acid monomers was followed by simultaneous conductometric and potentiometric titrations for a latex sample taken in polymerization. The polymerization rate of these acid monomers increases in the following order of hydrophobicity: IAc < AAc < MAAc; this suggests that their polymerization sites are mainly the surface and/or subsurface regions of latex particles. The copolymerization rate of styrene and acid monomer increases with an increase in the acid monomer content for AAc and MAAc, whereas for IAc the rate decreases. The particle sizes determined by the stopped-flow method reveal that this variation of copolymerization rate cannot be explained by the number of growing particles and should be attributed to another factor; for instance, the transfer rate of styrene molecules from oil droplets to growing particles

  17. Synthesis of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid: an amino acid component of apicidins

    OpenAIRE

    Linares de la Morena, María Lourdes; Agejas Chicharro, Francisco Javier; Alajarín Ferrández, Ramón; Vaquero López, Juan José; Álvarez-Builla Gómez, Julio

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis Of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid (Aoda) is described. This is a rare amino acid component of apicidins, a family of new cyclic tetrapeptides, inhibitors of histone deacetylase. Aoda was synthesised in seven steps from L-glutamic acid along with some derivatives. Universidad de Alcalá Fundación General de la Universidad de Alcalá FEDER

  18. Do carboximide–carboxylic acid combinations form co-crystals? The role of hydroxyl substitution on the formation of co-crystals and eutectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanpreet Kaur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids, amides and imides are key organic systems which provide understanding of molecular recognition and binding phenomena important in biological and pharmaceutical settings. In this context, studies of their mutual interactions and compatibility through co-crystallization may pave the way for greater understanding and new applications of their combinations. Extensive co-crystallization studies are available for carboxylic acid/amide combinations, but only a few examples of carboxylic acid/imide co-crystals are currently observed in the literature. The non-formation of co-crystals for carboxylic acid/imide combinations has previously been rationalized, based on steric and computed stability factors. In the light of the growing awareness of eutectic mixtures as an alternative outcome in co-crystallization experiments, the nature of various benzoic acid/cyclic imide combinations is established in this paper. Since an additional functional group can provide sites for new intermolecular interactions and, potentially, promote supramolecular growth into a co-crystal, benzoic acids decorated with one or more hydroxyl groups have been systematically screened for co-crystallization with one unsaturated and two saturated cyclic imides. The facile formation of an abundant number of hydroxybenzoic acid/cyclic carboximide co-crystals is reported, including polymorphic and variable stoichiometry co-crystals. In the cases where co-crystals did not form, the combinations are shown invariably to result in eutectics. The presence or absence and geometric disposition of hydroxyl functionality on benzoic acid is thus found to drive the formation of co-crystals or eutectics for the studied carboxylic acid/imide combinations.

  19. Crystal Structures of Active Fully Assembled Substrate- and Product-Bound Complexes of UDP-N-Acetylmuramic Acid:l-Alanine Ligase (MurC) from Haemophilus influenzae

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, Clifford D.; Brooun, Alexei; Dougan, Douglas R.; Hilgers, Mark T.; Tari, Leslie W.; Wijnands, Robert A.; Knuth, Mark W.; McRee, Duncan E.; Swanson, Ronald V.

    2003-01-01

    UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid:l-alanine ligase (MurC) catalyzes the addition of the first amino acid to the cytoplasmic precursor of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. The crystal structures of Haemophilus influenzae MurC in complex with its substrate UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UNAM) and Mg2+ and of a fully assembled MurC complex with its product UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine (UMA), the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue AMPPNP, and Mn2+ have been determined to 1.85- and 1.7-Å resolution, respective...

  20. Biological evaluation of dopamine analogues containing phenylboronic acid group as new boron carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Mizuno, T.; Yoshino, K.; Ban, H.S.; Nakamura, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ishikawa, A.; Ohki, H.

    2011-01-01

    As new BNCT reagents, we designed and synthesized dopamine analogues containing phenylboronic acid group, N-3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl-4-dihydroxyborylbenzamide (dopamine–PCBA) and N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenetyl)ethyl]-3-(4-dihydroxyborylphenyl)promionamide (dopamine–CEBA). The efficacies of these compounds have not been investigated for biological samples. Therefore we have carried out experiments with cultured tumor cells and tumor-bearing mice, and evaluated possibility of these compounds as boron carriers. Dopamine–PCBA and dopamine–CEBA were synthesized by coupling between p-carboxyphenylboronic acid (PCBA) or 4-(2-carboxyethyl)benzeneboronic acid (CEBA) and 3,4-(dibenzyloxy)phenethylamine hydrochloride (DBPA-HCl) followed by catalytic hydrogenation using Pd catalyst. The effect of compounds on cell vitality was determined by MTT assay in various cells. In vivo biodistribution of compounds was determined in Balb/c and DDY mice in bearing implanted CT26 cells. These results have demonstrated that dopamine–CEBA was less toxic. - Highlights: ► Dopamine analogues containing phenylboronic acid are synthesized as BNCT reagents. ► Their cytotoxicity is almost lower than that of BSH. ► Boron uptake with dopamine–PCBA is larger than that of BSH. ► Dopamine analogs showed lesser boron accumulation property into spleen than BPA.

  1. Inhibition of food stimulated acid secretion by misoprostol, an orally active synthetic E1 analogue prostaglandin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramage, J K; Denton, A; Williams, J G

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 200 micrograms misoprostol (a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue) on food stimulated intragastric acidity has been monitored over a 9 h period in 16 normal volunteers. Misoprostol caused a significant inhibition of intragastric acidity for 2 h post-dosing, but no significant effect was seen thereafter on either basal or food stimulated acidity.

  2. Structural Basis for Recognition of L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino Butyric Acid by Lysine Cyclodeaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungjin; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Matsuura, Atsushi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2018-04-30

    L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes β-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, μ-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with NAD + , (ii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. The overall structure of SpLCD was similar to that of ornithine cyclodeaminase from Pseudomonas putida . In addition, SpLCD recognized L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid despite differences in the active site, including differences in hydrogen bonding by Asp236, which corresponds with Asp228 from Pseudomonas putida ornithine cyclodeaminase. The substrate binding pocket of SpLCD allowed substrates smaller than lysine to bind, thus enabling binding to ornithine and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. Our structural and biochemical data facilitate a detailed understanding of substrate and product recognition, thus providing evidence for a reaction mechanism for SpLCD. The proposed mechanism is unusual in that NAD + is initially converted into NADH and then reverted back into NAD + at a late stage of the reaction.

  3. Dual role of the carboxyl-terminal region of pig liver L-kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: mitochondrial-targeting signal and enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kumiko; Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Hirabayashi-Takahashi, Kanako; Saito, Kuniaki; Haga, Seiich; Uemura, Tomihiko; Izumi, Susumu

    2010-12-01

    l-kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an NAD(P)H-dependent flavin monooxygenase that catalyses the hydroxylation of l-kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and is localized as an oligomer in the mitochondrial outer membrane. In the human brain, KMO may play an important role in the formation of two neurotoxins, 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid, both of which provoke severe neurodegenerative diseases. In mosquitos, it plays a role in the formation both of eye pigment and of an exflagellation-inducing factor (xanthurenic acid). Here, we present evidence that the C-terminal region of pig liver KMO plays a dual role. First, it is required for the enzymatic activity. Second, it functions as a mitochondrial targeting signal as seen in monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) or outer membrane cytochrome b(5). The first role was shown by the comparison of the enzymatic activity of two mutants (C-terminally FLAG-tagged KMO and carboxyl-terminal truncation form, KMOΔC50) with that of the wild-type enzyme expressed in COS-7 cells. The second role was demonstrated with fluorescence microscopy by the comparison of the intracellular localization of the wild-type, three carboxyl-terminal truncated forms (ΔC20, ΔC30 and ΔC50), C-terminally FLAG-tagged wild-type and a mutant KMO, where two arginine residues, Arg461-Arg462, were replaced with Ser residues.

  4. Analytical study of zirconium and hafnium α-hydroxy carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The analytical study of zirconium and hafnium α-hydroxy carboxylates was described. For this purpose dl-mandelic, dl-p-bromo mandelic, dl-2-naphthyl glycolic, and benzilic acids were prepared. These were used in conjunction with glycolic, dl-lactic, dl-2-hydroxy isovaleric, dl-2-hydroxy hexanoic, and dl-2-hydroxy dodecanoic acids in order to synthesize the zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) tetrakis(α-hydroxy carboxylates). The compounds were characterized by melting point determination, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, calcination to oxides and X-ray diffractometry by the powder method. (C.G.C)

  5. The effects of solvents and structure on the electronic absorption spectra of the isomeric pyridine carboxylic acid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drmanić Saša Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultraviolet absorption spectra of the carboxyl group of three isomeric pyridine carboxylic acids N-oxides (picolinic acid N-oxide, nicotinic acid N-oxide and isonicotinic acid N-oxide were determined in fourteen solvents in the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm. The position of the absorption maxima (λmax of the examined acids showed that the ultraviolet absorption maximum wavelengths of picolinic acid N-oxide are the shortest, and those of isonicotinic acid N-oxide acid are the longest. In order to analyze the solvent effect on the obtained absorption spectra, the ultraviolet absorption frequencies of the electronic transitions in the carboxylic group of the examined acids were correlated using a total solvatochromic equation of the form max = v0 + sπ + aα+ bβ, where υmax is the absorption frequency (1/λmax, p is a measure of the solvent polarity, β represents the scale of solvent hydrogen bond acceptor basicities and α represent the scale of solvent hydrogen bond donor acidities. The correlation of the spectroscopic data was carried out by means of multiple linear regression analysis. The solvent effects on the ultraviolet absorption maximums of the examined acids were discussed.

  6. Photoaffinity analogues of methotrexate as folate antagonist binding probes. 1. Photoaffinity labeling of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase and amino acid sequence of the binding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.M.; Smith, P.L.; Klein, T.E.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    N/sup α/-(4-Amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroyl)-N/sup epsilon/-(4-azido-5-[ 125 I]iodosalicylyl)-L-lysine, a photoaffinity analogue of methotrexate, is only 2-fold less potent than methotrexate in the inhibition of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase. Irradiation of the enzyme in the presence of an equimolar concentration of the 125 I-labeled analogue ultimately leads to an 8% incorporation of the photoprobe. A 100-fold molar excess of methotrexate essentially blocks this incorporation. Cyanogen bromide digestion of the labeled enzyme, followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography purification of the generated peptides, indicates that greater than 85% of the total radioactivity is incorporated into a single cyanogen bromide peptide. Sequence analysis revealed this peptide to be residues 53-111, with a majority of the radioactivity centered around residues 63-65 (Lys-Asn-Arg). These data demonstrate that the photoaffinity analogue specifically binds to dihydrofolate reductase and covalently modifies the enzyme following irradiation and is therefore a photolabeling agent useful for probing the inhibitor binding domain of the enzyme

  7. Boron-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines using Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming-Chen; Shang, Rui; Cheng, Wan-Min; Fu, Yao

    2015-07-27

    A boron-based catalyst was found to catalyze the straightforward alkylation of amines with readily available carboxylic acids in the presence of silane as the reducing agent. Various types of primary and secondary amines can be smoothly alkylated with good selectivity and good functional-group compatibility. This metal-free amine alkylation was successfully applied to the synthesis of three commercial medicinal compounds, Butenafine, Cinacalcet. and Piribedil, in a one-pot manner without using any metal catalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Biodistribution and human dosimetry of enantiomer-1 of the synthetic leucine analog anti-1-amino-2-fluorocyclopentyl-1-carboxylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, Jonathon A., E-mail: jnye@emory.edu; Jarkas, Nashwa; Schuster, David M.; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Voll, Ronald J.; Camp, Vernon M.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: The enantiomerically enriched (ee=90%, enantiomer 1) synthetic amino acid (R,S)-anti-1-amino-2-fluorocyclopentyl-1-carboxylic acid (anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1) accumulates in malignant cells by elevated transport through the sodium-independent system-L (leucine preferring) amino acid transporter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo uptake and single-dose toxicity of anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1 in animals as well as the individual organ and whole-body dose in humans. Methods: A DU145 xenograft rodent model was used to measure anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1 uptake at 15, 30 and 60 min post-injection. Animals were sacrificed and organs harvested to measure the percent injected activity per organ and to calculate residence time. Anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1 toxicity was assessed using a single microdose (37-74 MBq/kg) in nonhuman primates. Their vital signs were monitored for 2 h post-injection for drug-related effects. Human biodistribution studies were collected by sequential whole-body PET/CT scans on six healthy volunteers (three male and three female) for 120 min following a single 247{+-}61 MBq bolus injection of anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1. Estimates of radiation dose from anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1 to the human body were calculated using recommendations of the MIRD committee and MIRDOSE 3.0 software. Results: High anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1 residence time was observed in the pancreas of the rodent model compared to the human data. No abnormal treatment-related observations were made in the nonhuman primate toxicity studies. Human venous blood showed no metabolites of anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1 in the first 60 min post-injection. All volunteers showed initially high uptake in the kidneys followed by a rapid washout phase. The estimated effective dose equivalent was 0.0196 mSv/MBq. Conclusion: Anti-2-[{sup 18}F]FACPC-1 showed low background uptake in the brain, thoracic and abdominal cavities of humans, suggesting a possible use for detecting

  9. Synthesis and antiplatelet activity of thioaryloxyacids analogues of clofibric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Amoroso, Rosa; Baraldi, Mario; Bettoni, Giancarlo; Braghiroli, Daniela; De Filippis, Barbara; Giampietro, Letizia; Tricca, Maria L; Vezzalini, Francesca

    2005-09-01

    The thiophene-, benzothiazole- and pyridine-thioaryloxyacids analogues of clofibric acid were synthesized and their antiplatelet activity was screened. Some compounds exhibited antiaggregating properties. The platelet-related haemostasis was measured on a PFA-100 analyzer using bull blood.

  10. Characterization of Lactobacillus salivarius alanine racemase: short-chain carboxylate-activation and the role of A131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Yukimoto, Jotaro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Taketo; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Many strains of lactic acid bacteria produce high concentrations of d-amino acids. Among them, Lactobacillus salivarius UCC 118 produces d-alanine at a relative concentration much greater than 50 % of the total d, l-alanine (100d/d, l-alanine). We characterized the L. salivarius alanine racemase (ALR) likely responsible for this d-alanine production and found that the enzyme was activated by carboxylates, which is an unique characteristic among ALRs. In addition, alignment of the amino acid sequences of several ALRs revealed that A131 of L. salivarius ALR is likely involved in the activation. To confirm that finding, an L. salivarius ALR variant with an A131K (ALR(A131K)) substitution was prepared, and its properties were compared with those of ALR. The activity of ALR(A131K) was about three times greater than that of ALR. In addition, whereas L. salivarius ALR was strongly activated by low concentrations (e.g., 1 mM) of short chain carboxylates, and was inhibited at higher concentrations (e.g., 10 mM), ALR(A131K) was clearly inhibited at all carboxylate concentrations tested (1-40 mM). Acetate also increased the stability of ALR such that maximum activity was observed at 35 °C and pH 8.0 without acetate, but at 50 °C in the presence of 1 mM acetate. On the other hand, maximum ALR(A131K) activity was observed at 45 °C and around pH 9.0 with or without acetate. It thus appears that A131 mediates the activation and stabilization of L. salivarius ALR by short chain carboxylates.

  11. Quantification of the xylem-to-phloem transfer of amino acids by use of inulin (14C)carboxylic acid as xylem transfer marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bel, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inulin ( 14 C)carboxylic acid and 14 C-labelled amino acid (α-aminoisobutyric acid (aib) and valine) solutions were introduced into the transpiration stream through the cut stem bases of young (4-12 leaves) tomato plants. Inulin carboxylic acid (inu) was translocated exclusively by the xylem, whereas the amino acid distribution resulted from both xylem and phloem import. Comparison of the distribution of inu and aib permitted a quantitative assessment of the xylem-to-phloem transfer in the stem. Of aib, 20.6% traversed from xylem to phloem in a plant with 12 leaves. The phloem import was not evenly distributed over the leaves and varied from 0% (first five leaves) to 95% (top leaf) of the aib import per leaf. Doubling the flow rates in the xylem reduced the aib supply to 25% in the top leaf and 55% in the next leaf, which reflects a reduced xylem-to-phloem transfer. (author)

  12. Clozapine-carboxylic acid plasticized co-amorphous dispersions: Preparation, characterization and solution stability evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelhaleem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the possibility of forming of co-amorphous systems between clozapine (CZ and various carboxylic acid plasticizers (CAPs. The aim was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine. Co-amorphous dispersions were prepared using modified solvent evaporation methodology at drug/plasticizer stoichiometric ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2. Solid state characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infra red spectroscopy. Highly soluble homogeneous co-amorphous dispersions were formed between clozapine and CAPs via hydrogen bonding. The co-amorphous dispersions formed with tartaric acid (1:2 showed the highest dissolution percentage (> 95 % in 20 minutes compared to pure crystalline CZ (56 %. Highly stable solutions were obtained from co-amorphous CZ-citric and CZ-tartaric acid at 1:1.5 molar ratio. The prepared dispersions suggest the possibility of peroral or sublingual administration of highly soluble clozapine at a reduced dose with the great chance to bypass the first pass metabolism.

  13. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in isolated embryos of Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gage, D.A.; Fong, F.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previous labeling experiments with 18 O 2 have supported the hypothesis that stress-induced abscisic acid (ABA) is synthesized through an indirect pathway involving an oxygenated carotenoid (xanthophyll) as a precursor. To investigate ABA formation under nonstress conditions, an 18 O 2 labeling experiment was conducted with isolated embryos from in vitro grown maize (Zea mays L.) kernels. Of the ABA produced during the incubation in 18 O 2 , three-fourths contained a single 18 O atom located in the carboxyl group. Approximately one-fourth of the ABA synthesized during the experiment contained two 18 O atoms. These results suggest that ABA synthesized in maize embryos under nonstress conditions also proceeds via the indirect pathway, requiring a xanthophyll precursor. It was also found that the newly synthesized ABA was preferentially released into the surrounding medium

  14. Pyrazole carboxamides and carboxylic acids as protein kinase inhibitors in aberrant eukaryotic signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Tobias; Yde, Christina W.; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald

    2007-01-01

    Densely functionalised pyrazole carboxamides and carboxylic acids were synthesised in an expedient manner through saponification and transamidation, respectively, of ester-functionalised pyrazoles. This synthetic protocol allowed for three diversifying steps in which appendages on the pyrazole...

  15. Determination of carboxyl groups in wood fibers by headspace gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.-S. Chai; Q.X. Hou; J.Y. Zhu; S.-L. Chen; S.F. Wang; L. Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The phase reaction conversion (PRC) headspace gas chromatographic (HSGC) technique was employed to develop a method for the determination of the content of carboxyl groups in wood fibers. Acid treatment of the wood fibers using hydrochloric was applied to convert carboxyl groups to carboxyl acids. Bicarbonate solution is then used to react with carboxyl acids on the...

  16. Utilization of oriented crystal growth for screening of aromatic carboxylic acids cocrystallization with urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław; Mroczyńska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of molecular complex formation in the solid state of urea with benzoic acid analogues was measured directly on the crystallite films deposited on the glass surface using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Obtained solid mixtures were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simple droplet evaporation method was found to be efficient, robust, fast and cost-preserving approach for first stage cocrystal screening. Additionally, the application of orientation effect to cocrystal screening simplifies the analysis due to damping of majority of diffraction signals coming from coformers. During validation phase the proposed approach successfully reproduced both positive cases of cocrystallization (urea:salicylic acid and urea:4-hydroxy benzoic acid) as well as pairs of co-formers immiscible in the solid state (urea:benzoic acid and urea:acetylsalicylic acids). Based on validated approach new cocrystals of urea were identified in complexes with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. In all cases formation of multicomponent crystal phase was confirmed by the appearance of new reflexes on the diffraction patterns and FTIR absorption band shifts of O-H and N-H groups.

  17. Difference between Extra- and Intracellular T1 Values of Carboxylic Acids Affects the Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Kinetics by Hyperpolarized NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille Rose; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on the quantification of intracellular metabolicactivity. It is expected that the significantly shorter T1valueof the carboxylic moieties inside cells is a result of macro-molecular crowding. An artificial cytosol has been preparedand applied to predict the T1of other carboxylic acids. Wedemonstrate the value......Incomplete knowledge of the longitudinal relaxationtime constant (T1) leads to incorrect assumptions in quantita-tive kinetic models of cellular systems, studied by hyper-polarized real-time NMR. Using an assay that measures theintracellular signal of small carboxylic acids in living cells...

  18. Synthesis, characterization and metal coordination of a potential β-lactamase inhibitor: 5-Methyl-2-phenoxymethyl-3-H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (PIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Romagnoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among relevant metal ions in biological systems, zinc and iron play a key role as active partners of the catalytic machinery. In particular, the inhibition of metal enzymes that are involved in physiological and pathological processes has been deeply investigated for the rational design of selective and efficient drugs based on chelators. Since imidazole histidine residue is one of the most versatile sites in proteins, especially in enzymes acting in the presence of metal ions as cofactors, in this work the synthesis and characterization of a new imidazole derivative, namely 5-methyl-2-phenoxymethyl-3-H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (PIMA is reported. PIMA was designed as metallo-β-lactamase inhibitor thanks to its similarity with penicillin V, a β-lactam antibiotic inactivated by metallo-β-lactamase, for which there are no commercially available inhibitors. The evaluation of PIMA coordinating ability toward iron, zinc, and gallium, these latter selected as a non-paramagnetic probe for iron, is performed by theoretical DFT calculations and in solution by experimental techniques, i.e. potentiometry, UV–vis and NMR spectroscopy. PIMA exhibits an efficient metal chelating ability; the prevailing species in physiological condition are ML3 for Fe3+ and Ga3+ and ML2 for Zn2+, in which chelation is due to deprotonated carboxylic oxygen and imidazole nitrogen in the N,O donor set. The demonstrated ability of PIMA to chelate zinc ion, combined with its structure similarity with penicillin V, supports further exploration of this imidazole-4-carboxylate as metallo-β-lactamase inhibitor.

  19. Acid monomer analysis in waterborne polymer systems by targeted labeling of carboxylic acid functionality, followed by pyrolysis - gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, T; Okhuijsen, R; Oerlemans, I; Schoenmakers, P J; Peters, R

    2018-05-14

    Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - (PyGC) is a common method to analyse the composition of natural and synthetic resins. The analysis of acid functionality in, for example, waterborne polyacrylates and polyurethanes polymers has proven to be difficult due to solubility issues, inter- and intramolecular interaction effects, lack of detectability in chromatographic analysis, and lack of thermal stability. Conventional analytical techniques, such as PyGC, cannot be used for the direct detection and identification of acidic monomers, due to thermal rearrangements that take place during pyrolysis. To circumvent this, the carboxylic acid groups are protected prior to thermal treatment by reaction with 2-bromoacetophenone. Reaction conditions are investigated and optimised wrt. conversion measurements. The aproach is applied to waterborne polyacryalates and the results are discussed. This approach enables identification and (semi)quantitative analysis of different acid functionalities in waterborne polymers by PyGC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of co-crystals/salts of some Nitrogenous bases and some derivatives of thiophene carboxylic acids through a combination of hydrogen and halogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, Samson Jegan; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The utility of N-heterocyclic bases to obtain molecular complexes with carboxylic acids is well studied. Depending on the solid state interaction between the N-heterocyclic base and a carboxylic acid a variety of neutral or ionic synthons are observed. Meanwhile, pyridines and pyrimidines have been frequently chosen in the area of crystal engineering for their multipurpose functionality. HT (hetero trimers) and LHT (linear heterotetramers) are the well known synthons that are formed in the presence of pyrimidines and carboxylic acids. Fourteen crystals involving various substituted thiophene carboxylic acid derivatives and nitrogenous bases were prepared and characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The 14 crystals can further be divided into two groups [1a-7a], [8b-14b] based on the nature of the nitrogenous base. Carboxylic acid to pyridine proton transfer has occurred in 3 compounds of each group. In addition to the commonly occurring hydrogen bond based pyridine/carboxylic acid and pyrimidine/carboxylic acid synthons which is the reason for assembly of primary motifs, various other interactions like Cl…Cl, Cl…O, C-H…Cl, C-H…S add additional support in organizing these supermolecules into extended architectures. It is also interesting to note that in all the compounds π-π stacking occurs between the pyrimidine-pyrimidine or pyridine-pyridine or acid-acid moieties rather than acid-pyrimidine/pyridine. In all the compounds (1a-14b) either neutral O-H…Npyridyl/pyrimidine or charge-assisted Npyridinium-H…Ocarboxylate hydrogen bonds are present. The HT (hetero trimers) and LHT (linear heterotetramers) are dominant in the crystal structures of the adducts containing N-heterocyclic bases with two proton acceptors (1a-7a). Similar type supramolecular ladders are observed in 5TPC44BIPY (8b), TPC44BIPY (9b), TPC44TMBP (11b). Among the seven compounds [8b-14b] the extended ligands are linear in all except for the TMBP (10b, 11b, 12b). The

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of monoterpene-based 2-amino carboxylic acids on macrocyclic glycopeptide-based phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, László; Ilisz, István; Pataj, Zoltán; Szakonyi, Zsolt; Fülöp, Ferenc; Armstrong, Daniel W; Péter, Antal

    2010-10-29

    The enantiomers of five monoterpene-based 2-amino carboxylic acids were directly separated on chiral stationary phases containing macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin (Astec Chirobiotic T and T2) and teicoplanin aglycone (Chirobiotic TAG) as chiral selectors. The effects of pH, the mobile phase composition, the structure of the analyte and temperature on the separations were investigated. Experiments were performed at constant mobile phase compositions in the temperature range 10-40°C to study the effects of temperature and thermodynamic parameters on separations. Apparent thermodynamic parameters and T(iso) values were calculated from plots of ln k or ln α versus 1/T. Some mechanistic aspects of the chiral recognition process are discussed with respect to the structures of the analytes. It was found that the enantioseparations were in most cases enthalpy driven. The sequence of elution of the enantiomers was determined in all cases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Recovery and esterification of aqueous carboxylates by using CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera-Rodríguez, Carlos I.; Paltrinieri, Laura; Smet, De Louis C.P.M.; Wielen, Van Der Luuk A.M.; Straathof, Adrie J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of carboxylic acids from fermentation broth is one of the main bottlenecks for the industrial production of bio-based esters. This paper proposes an alternative for the recovery of carboxylates produced by fermentations at pH values above the pKa of the carboxylic acid. In this

  3. Phosphazene-promoted metal-free ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide initiated by carboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng; Pahovnik, David; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of carboxylic acid as initiator for the anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide was investigated with a strong phosphazene base (t-BuP4) used as promoter. Kinetic study showed an induction period, i.e., transformation

  4. The protonation state of small carboxylic acids at the water surface from photoelectron spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottosson, N.; Wernersson, Erik; Söderström, J.; Pokapanich, W.; Kaufmann, S.; Svensson, S.; Persson, I.; Öhrwall, G.; Björneholm, O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 26 (2011), s. 12261-12267 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : water surface * carboxylic acids * photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  5. Synthesis of 123I-labelled analogues of imidazobenzodiazepine receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsifis, A.G.; Mattner, F.; McPhee, M.E.; Ridley, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Reaction of bromo- or iodo-substituted isatoic anhydrides with N-methylglycine, L-proline or D-proline afforded bromo- or iodo-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepinediones which on condensation with ethyl or t-butyl isocyanoacetates gave ethyl or t-butyl bromo- or iodo-imidazobenzodiazepine carboxylates. These aryl halides were converted into the corresponding tributylstannanes with bis(tributyltin) in the presence of (triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), and the stannanes were treated with sodium ( 123 I)iodide in the presence of chloramine-T to give the required 123 I-labelled analogues of the imidazobenzodiazepine receptor ligands flumazenil and bretazenil. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Australia

  6. Radiation fibrosis of guinea pig skin after β irradiation and an attempt at its suppression with proline analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, K.; Chang, L.F.; Tabachnick, J.

    1979-01-01

    The skins of adult, male albino guinea pigs were irradiated with a dose of 3500-rad β rays from a 90 Sr- 90 Y sealed source on 25 x 25-mm flank areas. Abnormal collagen deposition (fibrosis) occurred between the first and fourth months as evidenced by the replacement of the normal thick random whorls of collagen fibers by embryonic-like thin fibers parallel to the hyperplastic epidermis. These histologic changes were confined primarily to about 0.4 mm of upper dermis. By the fourth month and up to 2.5 years postirradiation, there was a decreased content of acid-soluble and -insoluble collagen in the irradiated upper dermis concomitant with an increase in noncollageneous protein. With the exception of occluded arterioles in the lower dermis, there were no obvious chemical or histological changes in collagen of remaining dermis. Injection for 4 months or longer of the proline analogs, DL-3,4-dehydroproline, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, or cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline significantly decreased the small amount of metabolically active soluble collagen but had no effect on the content of insoluble fibrous collagen nor the abnormal deposition of collagen fibers in the upper dermis. The data indicate that the proline analogs are of little or no value in suppressing radiation fibrosis in skin

  7. Biomedical applications of SPION@APTES@PEG-folic acid@carboxylated quercetin nanodrug on various cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akal, Z.Ü.; Alpsoy, L.; Baykal, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SPION has been synthesized via Reflux synthesis route. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has super paramagnetic property. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects on HeLa and MCF-7 cells. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug can be potentially used for the delivery of quercetin to cervical and breast cancer cells. - Abstract: In this study, carboxylated quercetin (CQ) was conjugated to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) which were modified by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), Folic acid (FA) and carboxylated Polyethylene glycol (PEG); (SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ), nanodrug has been synthesized via polyol and accompanying by various chemical synthesis routes. The characterization of the final product was done via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Its cytotoxic and apoptotic activities on over expressed folic acid receptor (FR + ) (MCF-7, HeLa) and none expressed folic acid receptor (FR-) (A549) cancer cell lines were determined by using MTT assay, Real-Time Cell Analysis, TUNEL assay, Annexin assay and RT-PCR analysis for Caspase3/7 respectively. SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug showed higher cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines as compared with A549 cell line. Moreover, SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug also caused higher apoptotic and necrotic effects in 100 μg/mL HeLa and MCF-7 cells than A549 cells. The findings showed that SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects on HeLa and MCF-7 which are FR over expressed cell lines and can be potentially used for the delivery of quercetin to cervical and breast cancer cells.

  8. Biomedical applications of SPION@APTES@PEG-folic acid@carboxylated quercetin nanodrug on various cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Z.Ü., E-mail: zulker@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Biology, 34500 Büyükçekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Alpsoy, L. [Department of Biology, 34500 Büyükçekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Medical Biology, 34500 Büyükçekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 Büyükçekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • SPION has been synthesized via Reflux synthesis route. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has super paramagnetic property. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects on HeLa and MCF-7 cells. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug can be potentially used for the delivery of quercetin to cervical and breast cancer cells. - Abstract: In this study, carboxylated quercetin (CQ) was conjugated to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) which were modified by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), Folic acid (FA) and carboxylated Polyethylene glycol (PEG); (SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ), nanodrug has been synthesized via polyol and accompanying by various chemical synthesis routes. The characterization of the final product was done via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Its cytotoxic and apoptotic activities on over expressed folic acid receptor (FR + ) (MCF-7, HeLa) and none expressed folic acid receptor (FR-) (A549) cancer cell lines were determined by using MTT assay, Real-Time Cell Analysis, TUNEL assay, Annexin assay and RT-PCR analysis for Caspase3/7 respectively. SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug showed higher cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines as compared with A549 cell line. Moreover, SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug also caused higher apoptotic and necrotic effects in 100 μg/mL HeLa and MCF-7 cells than A549 cells. The findings showed that SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects on HeLa and MCF-7 which are FR over expressed cell lines and can be potentially used for the delivery of quercetin to cervical and breast cancer cells.

  9. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem

    2016-02-04

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  10. Identification of Key Residues for Enzymatic Carboxylate Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stolterfoht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylate reductases (CARs, E.C. 1.2.1.30 generate aldehydes from their corresponding carboxylic acid with high selectivity. Little is known about the structure of CARs and their catalytically important amino acid residues. The identification of key residues for carboxylate reduction provides a starting point to gain deeper understanding of enzymatic carboxylate reduction. A multiple sequence alignment of CARs with confirmed activity recently identified in our lab and from the literature revealed a fingerprint of conserved amino acids. We studied the function of conserved residues by multiple sequence alignments and mutational replacements of these residues. In this study, single-site alanine variants of Neurospora crassa CAR were investigated to determine the contribution of conserved residues to the function, expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analyzing enzymatic activity of the variants in vivo and in vitro. Supported by molecular modeling, we interpreted that five of these residues are essential for catalytic activity, or substrate and co-substrate binding. We identified amino acid residues having significant impact on CAR activity. Replacement of His 237, Glu 433, Ser 595, Tyr 844, and Lys 848 by Ala abolish CAR activity, indicating their key role in acid reduction. These results may assist in the functional annotation of CAR coding genes in genomic databases. While some other conserved residues decreased activity or had no significant impact, four residues increased the specific activity of NcCAR variants when replaced by alanine. Finally, we showed that NcCAR wild-type and mutants efficiently reduce aliphatic acids.

  11. Na--dependent transport of basic, zwitterionic, and bicyclic amino acids by a broad-scope system in mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Christensen, H.N.; Campione, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse blastocysts which had been activated from diapause in utero appeared to take up amino acids via a Na - -dependent transport system with novel characteristics. In contrast to other cell types, uptake of 3-aminoendobicyclo [3,2,1]octane-3-carboxylic acid (BCO) by blastocysts was largely Na - dependent. Moreover, L-alanine and BCO met standard criteria for mutual competitive inhibition of the Na - -dependent transport of each other. The Ki for each of these amino acids as an inhibitor of transport of the other had a value similar to the value of its Km for transport. In addition, both 2-aminoendobicyclo [2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid and L-valine appeared to inhibit Na - -dependent transport of alanine and BCO competitively. Finally, alanine and L-lysine appeared to compete for the same Na+-dependent transport sites in blastocysts. For these reasons, the authors conclude that lysine, alanine, and BCO are transported by a common Na+-dependent system in blastocysts. In addition, the apparent interaction of the system with other basic amino acids, such as 1-dimethylpiperidine-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid, which has a nondissociable positive charge on its side chain, and L-arginine and L-homoarginine, whose cationic forms are highly predominant at neutral pH, suggests that the cationic forms of basic amino acids are transported by the wide-scope system

  12. Synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of betulinic acid and ursolic acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocente, Adrine M; Silva, Gloria N S; Cruz, Laura Nogueira; Moraes, Miriam S; Nakabashi, Myna; Sonnet, Pascal; Gosmann, Grace; Garcia, Célia R S; Gnoatto, Simone C B

    2012-10-12

    More than 40% of the World population is at risk of contracting malaria, which affects primarily poor populations in tropical and subtropical areas. Antimalarial pharmacotherapy has utilised plant-derived products such as quinine and artemisinin as well as their derivatives. However, worldwide use of these antimalarials has caused the spread of resistant parasites, resulting in increased malaria morbidity and mortality. Considering that the literature has demonstrated the antimalarial potential of triterpenes, specially betulinic acid (1) and ursolic acid (2), this study investigated the antimalarial activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of some new derivatives of 1 and 2 with modifications at C-3 and C-28. The antiplasmodial study employed flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetric analyses using YOYO-1, dihydroethidium and Fluo4/AM for staining. Among the six analogues obtained, compounds 1c and 2c showed excellent activity (IC₅₀ = 220 and 175 nM, respectively) while 1a and b demonstrated good activity (IC₅₀ = 4 and 5 μM, respectively). After cytotoxicity evaluation against HEK293T cells, 1a was not toxic, while 1c and 2c showed IC₅₀ of 4 μM and a selectivity index (SI) value of 18 and 23, respectively. Moreover, compound 2c, which presents the best antiplasmodial activity, is involved in the calcium-regulated pathway(s).

  13. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of Betulinic Acid and Ursolic Acid Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C. B. Gnoatto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 40% of the World population is at risk of contracting malaria, which affects primarily poor populations in tropical and subtropical areas. Antimalarial pharmacotherapy has utilised plant-derived products such as quinine and artemisinin as well as their derivatives. However, worldwide use of these antimalarials has caused the spread of resistant parasites, resulting in increased malaria morbidity and mortality. Considering that the literature has demonstrated the antimalarial potential of triterpenes, specially betulinic acid (1 and ursolic acid (2, this study investigated the antimalarial activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of some new derivatives of 1 and 2 with modifications at C-3 and C-28. The antiplasmodial study employed flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetric analyses using YOYO-1, dihydroethidium and Fluo4/AM for staining. Among the six analogues obtained, compounds 1c and 2c showed excellent activity (IC50 = 220 and 175 nM, respectively while 1a and b demonstrated good activity (IC50 = 4 and 5 μM, respectively. After cytotoxicity evaluation against HEK293T cells, 1a was not toxic, while 1c and 2c showed IC50 of 4 μM and a selectivity index (SI value of 18 and 23, respectively. Moreover, compound 2c, which presents the best antiplasmodial activity, is involved in the calcium-regulated pathway(s.

  14. Catalytic transformation of functionalized carboxylic acids using multifunctional rhenium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Masayuki; Agrawal, Santosh; Toda, Katsuaki; Saito, Susumu

    2017-06-13

    Carboxylic acids (CAs) are one of the most ubiquitous and important chemical feedstocks available from biorenewable resources, CO 2 , and the petrochemical industry. Unfortunately, chemoselective catalytic transformations of CH n CO 2 H (n = 1-3) groups into other functionalities remain a significant challenge. Herein, we report rhenium V complexes as extremely effective precatalysts for this purpose. Compared to previously reported heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts derived from high- or low-valent metals, the present method involves a α-C-H bond functionalization, a hydrogenation, and a hydrogenolysis, which affords functionalized alcohols with a wide substrate scope and high chemoselectivity under relatively mild reaction conditions. The results represent an important step toward a paradigm shift from 'low-valent' to 'high-valent' metal complexes by exploring a new portfolio of selective functional group transformations of highly oxygenated organic substrates, as well as toward the exploitation of CAs as a valuable biorenewable feedstock.

  15. Simultaneous determination of dopamine, uric acid and nitrite using carboxylated graphene oxide/lanthanum modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Fengying; Feng, Chenqi; Jiang, Jibo; Han, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The carboxylated graphene oxide/lanthanum-modified glassy carbon electrode (GO-COOLa/GCE) was successfully utilized for the simultaneous detection and quantification of DA, UA and NO 2 − . • Combining the benefits of carboxylated graphene oxide and lanthanum, the modified sensor displayed large peak separations, long linear ranges and low detection limits for simultaneously detecting DA, UA and NO 2 − . • The GO-COOLa/GCE electrode showed well stability, good repeatability, rapid response, and high catalytic performance toward the oxidations of DA, UA and NO 2 − . - Abstract: A bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was reformed by carboxylated graphene oxide/lanthanum, and the modified electrode, called GO-COOLa/GCE, was fabricated for simultaneously detecting dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and nitrite (NO 2 − ) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and amperometry. Several factors which affected the electrocatalytic activity of the GO-COOLa/GCE electrode, such as the effect of pH, scan rate and concentration were studied. Due to the combination of carboxylated graphene oxide and lanthanum ions, the GO-COOLa/GCE sensor showed rapid response, excellent selectivity and high catalytic performance toward the electrooxidation of DA, UA and NO 2 − . In optimized conditions, two linear response ranges for determining DA were obtained over ranges of 0.01-1.96×10 2 μM and 1.96×10 2 -1.23×10 3 μM with detection limit of 0.018 μM (S/N = 3). And the responses of the GO-COOLa/GCE electrode for UA and NO 2 − were linear in the region of 1-1.53×10 3 μM and 1-2.75×10 3 μM with detection limits of 0.058 μM and 0.070 μM, respectively. Furthermore, this reformed electrode was successfully used to the detection of DA, UA and NO 2 − in real urine and serum samples, showing its promising application in the electroanalysis of real samples.

  16. NMR structure determination of a synthetic analogue of bacillomycin Lc reveals the strategic role of L-Asn1 in the natural iturinic antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpon, Laurent; Tsan, Pascale; Majer, Zsuzsa; Vass, Elemer; Hollósi, Miklós; Noguéra, Valérie; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Besson, Françoise

    2007-08-01

    Iturins are a group of antifungal produced by Bacillus subtilis. All are cyclic lipopeptides with seven α-amino acids of configuration LDDLLDL and one β-amino fatty acid. The bacillomycin L is a member of this family and its NMR structure was previously resolved using the sequence Asp-Tyr-Asn-Ser-Gln-Ser-Thr. In this work, we carefully examined the NMR spectra of this compound and detected an error in the sequence. In fact, Asp1 and Gln5 need to be changed into Asn1 and Glu5, which therefore makes it identical to bacillomycin Lc. As a consequence, it now appears that all iturinic peptides with antibiotic activity share the common β-amino fatty acid 8- L-Asn1- D-Tyr2- D-Asn3 sequence. To better understand the conformational influence of the acidic residue L-Asp1, present, for example in the inactive iturin C, the NMR structure of the synthetic analogue SCP [cyclo ( L-Asp1- D-Tyr2- D-Asn3- L-Ser4- L-Gln5- D-Ser6- L-Thr7-β-Ala8)] was determined and compared with bacillomycin Lc recalculated with the corrected sequence. In both cases, the conformers obtained were separated into two families of similar energy which essentially differ in the number and type of turns. A detailed analysis of both cyclopeptide structures is presented here. In addition, CD and FTIR spectra were performed and confirmed the conformational differences observed by NMR between both cyclopeptides.

  17. ZrOCl2·8H2O: An Efficient, Cheap and Reusable Catalyst for the Esterification of Acrylic Acid and Other Carboxylic Acids with Equimolar Amounts of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwu Yin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Esterifications of carboxylic acids with equimolar amount of alcohols could beefficiently catalyzed by ZrOCl2·8H2O. Acrylate esters were obtained in good yields undersolvent-free conditions at ambient temperature. The esterification of other carboxylicacids with alcohols also proceeded at ambient temperature or at 50 oC to afford esters inhigh yields. If the esterification was performed in toluene under azeotropic refluxconditions to remove water, both the catalytic activity of ZrOCl2·8H2O and the rate ofesterification could be increased greatly. Furthermore, in the present catalytic system, theesters could be easily separated from the reaction mixtures and the catalyst could beeasily recovered and reused.

  18. Polyoxyethylene alkyl ether carboxylic acids: An overview of a neglected class of surfactants with multiresponsive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappisi, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    In this work, an overview on aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether carboxylic acids is given. Unique properties arise from the combination of the nonionic, temperature-responsive polyoxyethylene block with the weakly ionic, pH-responsive carboxylic acid termination in a single surfactant headgroup. Accordingly, this class of surfactant finds broad application across very different sectors. Despite their large use on an industrial and a technical scale, the literature lacks a systematic and detailed characterization of their physico-chemical properties which is provided herein. In addition, a comprehensive overview is given of their self-assembly and interfacial behavior, of their use as colloidal building blocks and for large-scale applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 2-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-2-yl-alkyl-(alkaryl-, aryl--amines and their derivatives. (3Н-quinazolin-4-ylidenhydrazides (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-ylalkyl-(alkaryl-, aryl-carboxylic acids: features of synthesis, modification and ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Martynenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of different «pharmacophore» components in one structure connected via «linker» functional groups is one of the major and justified approaches for the synthesis of new biologically active substances. In this area (3Н-quinazoline-4-ylidenhydrazides (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-іsoindol-2-yl-alkyl-(aralkyl-, aryl-carboxylic acids are the most interesting compounds. They contain quinazoline and іsoindole fragments united through аlkyl, аlkaryl and аryl groups and furthermore can be used for the synthesis of new heterocycles. Aim: The purpose of this work is to find antimicrobial and antifungal agents among (3H-quinazolin-4-ylidenehydrazides (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl-alkyl-(alkaryl-, aryl-carboxylic acids and their fused derivatives and to establish physical-chemical properties of these compounds and to correlate «structure – activity relationship» for structure optimization. Methods and results. The study of microbiological activity was conducted by disco-diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar on the following strains of microorganisms: gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus aeruginosa, E. faecalis ATCC 29212, gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSS27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniaе and fungi (Candida albicans ATCC 885653. Conclusion. The protected aminoacids were used to synthesize unknown (3H-quinazolin-4-ylidenehydrazides (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisoindolo-2-yl-alkyl-(alkaryl-, aryl-carboxylic acids in the reactions of nucleophilic substitution for the first time. While new [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-2-yl-alkyl-(alkaryl-, aryl-- isoindol-1,3(2H-diones were received by heterocyclization of the last. Structure and identity have been confirmed by elemental analysis, physical and chemical methods (1H NMR spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry. Analysis of the results of microbiological study shows, that

  20. Crystal structure of 7,7-dimethyl-6-methylidenetricyclo[6.2.1.01,5]undecane-2-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Beghidja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H22O2, both five-membered rings display an envelope conformation whereas the six-membered ring displays a chair conformation. In the crystal, pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds between carboxylic groups link molecules, related by a twofold rotation axis, into supramolecular dimers.

  1. Design and synthesis of novel arctigenin analogues for the amelioration of metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shudong; Huang, Suling; Gong, Jian; Shen, Yu; Zeng, Limin; Feng, Ying; Ren, Wenming; Leng, Ying; Hu, Youhong

    2015-04-09

    Analogues of the natural product (-)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (-)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure-activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes.

  2. A chiral mixed carboxylate, [Nd4(H2O)2(OOC(CH2)3COO)4(C2O4)2], exhibiting NLO properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidhyanathan, R.; Natarajan, Srinivasan; Rao, C.N.R.

    2004-01-01

    Reaction of a mixture of neodymium carbonate, HCl, oxamic acid and glutaric acid under hydrothermal conditions gives rise to a new mixed carboxylate of neodymium, [Nd 4 (H 2 O) 2 (OOC(CH 2 ) 3 COO) 4 (C 2 O 4 ) 2 ], I. The structure, determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction, comprises a helical column formed by the grafting of the oxalate unit on to helical NdO 9 chains, cross-linked by the glutarate anions. It is noteworthy that the pitch of the helix is equivalent to the length of the oxalate unit. Furthermore, I shows about 1.1 times the SHG activity of urea

  3. Aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids formed radiolytically in aqueous solutions of cyanides and simple nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Draganic, Z.D.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Graganic, I.G.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic search for aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids was carried out in aqueous solutions of HCN, NH 4 CN, CH 3 CN, and C 2 H 4 CN, that had received multikilogray doses of 60 Co γ radiation. About 30 radiolytic products were identified, among them a large variety of dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids. Some of them might be of significant interest in molecular evolution studies of prebiotic processes. They originate in the free-radical-initiated chemical reactions where the additional oligomerization processes are particularly important. Most of the radiolytic products appear in both cyanides and nitriles and point to the importance of reactions involving the carbon-nitrogen triple bond

  4. Synthesis, crystal structures, molecular docking, and in vitro biological activities evaluation of transition metal complexes with 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) piperazine-1-carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Ya-Na; Xu, Chun-Na; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Cao, Qi-Yue; Qian, Shao-Song; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Three novel mononuclear complexes, [MⅡ(L)2·2H2O], (M = Cu, Ni or Cd; HL = 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperazine-1-carboxylic acid)were synthesized and structurally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Molecular docking study preliminarily revealed that complex 1 had potential urease inhibitory activity. In accordance with the result of calculation, in vitro tests of the inhibitory activities of complexes 1-3 against jack bean urease showed complex 1 (IC50 = 8.17 ± 0.91 μM) had better inhibitory activities than the positive reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) (IC50 = 26.99 ± 1.43 μM), while complexes 2 and 3 showed no inhibitory activities., kinetics study was carried out to explore the mechanism of the inhibiting of the enzyme, and the result indicated that complex 1 was a competitive inhibitor of urease. Albumin binding experiment and in vitro toxicity evaluation of complex 1 were implemented to explore its Pharmacological properties.

  5. A comparison of properties between carboxylated acrylic rubbers prepared by γ-ray irradiation and chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiwei; Chang Zhenqi; Wang Mozhen; Zhang Zhicheng; Lv Pin

    2006-01-01

    Acrylic rubbers (ACM) carboxylated by acrylic acid or itaconic acid were prepared by 60 Co γ-ray or chemical-initiator (K 2 S 2 O 8 ) induced emulsion copolymerization. The polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Acid value, molecular weight and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymers were determined by non-aqueous titration method and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively. Vulcanization and mechanical properties of the filled ACM were studied by rheometric measurement, gel fraction analysis, mechanical property tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The results show that the ACMs prepared by γ-ray irradiation have lower acid value, higher molecular weight and narrower PDI than chemically prepared ACMs of the same compositions. The itaconic acid carboxylated ACM has better cure characteristics and mechanical properties than the acrylic acid carboxylated ACM. The itaconic acid carboxylated ACM prepared by γ-ray irradiation has higher gel fraction and better cure characteristics as well as mechanical properties than that prepared by chemical method. (authors)

  6. Two multi-dimensional frameworks constructed from zinc coordination polymers with pyridine carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuanyuan; Ma Pengtao; Wang Jingping; Niu Jingyang

    2011-01-01

    Two novel zinc coordination polymers [Zn 2 (H 2 O)L(MoO 4 )] n (1) and [Zn 4 (PO 4 ) 2 L'(H 2 O)] n (2) (H 2 L=2,2'-bipyridine-6.6'-dicarboxylic acid, H 2 L'=2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, UV spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. Structural analyses indicate that 1 represents a 2-D sheet structure built by dimeric [Zn 2 L(H 2 O)] 2+ units and MoO 4 2- groups whereas 2 displays an interesting 3-D framework constructed by tetranuclear zinc clusters, L' 2- ligands and PO 4 3- groups. Examination of UV spectra suggests that both 1 and 2 can stably exist in the pH range of 2.45-5.45 and 3.01-8.55 in aqueous solution, respectively. The room-temperature solid-state photoluminescence of 1 and 2 are derived from the intra-ligands π-π* transitions of H 2 L and H 2 L' ligands and the ligand-to-metal-charge-transfer transitions. - Graphical Abstract: Two new transition metal coordination polymers, namely, [Zn 2 (H 2 O)L 1 (MoO 4 )] n (1), [Zn 4 (PO 4 ) 2 L 2 (H 2 O)] n (2) (H 2 L 1 =2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid, H 2 L 2 =2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized. 1 represents a 2-D sheet structure while 2 represents 3-D network. Highlights: →Two new transition metal coordination polymers have been hydrothermally synthesized. → The two compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses and photoluminescence. → Compound 1 represents a 2-D sheet structure while 2 represents 3-D network.

  7. In vitro and In Silico Studies on Curcumin and Its Analogues as Dual Inhibitors for cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Yuniarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin has been widely reported as an anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the plant Curcuma longa L. (turmeric. This anti-inflammatory activity was associated with the ability of this compound to inhibit the activity of both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in arachidonic acid metabolism. Dual COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors are preferred to be employed in the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases compared to selective inhibitors, since it was reported that the use of selective inhibitors led to severe adverse side effect. In the present study, in vitro and in silico assays on curcumin and its analogues as dual inhibitors for both COX-1 and COX-2 were performed. The results provide theoretical contribution in understanding the ligand-protein interactions at the molecular level to develop new curcumin analogues which possess better anti-inflammatory activity as well as to avoid unsolicited side effects.

  8. On the synthesis of radiofluorinated amino acids by isotope exchange based on the example of 6-[18F]Fluor-L-DOPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.M.

    2008-06-01

    In nuclear medical diagnosis, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (6-[ 18 F]fluoro-LDOPA), an analogue of L-DOPA, is one of the few established radiopharmaceuticals used for the in vivo investigation of the presynaptic dopaminergic metabolism and of some kind of tumours via Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The presently used method of preparation of the radiotracer by electrophilic labelling is limited to low amounts of activity at high costs. Known nucleophilic syntheses, however, result either in insufficient enantiomeric purity or the known multi-step syntheses are hard to automate, due to their complexity. During this work a novel, easy to automate alternative for the preparation of 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA, was developed and evaluated, using a direct nucleophilic 18 F-fluorination of a protected amino acid derivative. The resulting product has a very high enantiomeric purity. At first, the general suitability of the (S)-BOC-BMI-derivatives for the synthesis of 18 F-labelled amino acids, used in this work, was investigated using a less complex precursor, which resulted in the amino acid 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosin via acidic hydrolysis. The preparation of a useful precursor for the nucleophilic 18 F-isotope substitution, namely the (2S,5S)-tert.-butyl- 5-(2-fluoro-5-formylbenzyl)-2-tert. -butyl-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidine-1-carbox= yl ate, was investigated in three general different ways. At first it was tried to obtain this product via formylation after coupling with the BOC-BMI, secondly via α,β-dehydro amino acid derivatives and finally via a systematic multi-step synthesis. Only the last mentioned way resulted in a precursor with sufficient purity that could be labelled. The radiochemical yield of the isotopic exchange was about 60 %. In the next step, the presented concept was modified to synthesize a precursor for the preparation of 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA. Only a combination of the protecting groups benzyl and THP resulted in the useful

  9. Radiosynthesis of [18F]fluorophenyl-L-amino acids by isotopic exchange on carbonyl-activated precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo Melean, Johnny

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic [ 18 F]fluoroamino acids have earlier been developed as promising probes for diagnostics using PET. However, a wider use of these radiofluorinated compounds has been limited due to radiosynthetic constraints. The work here presents an amenable three-step radiosynthesis pathway for the preparation of 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine (2-[ 18 F]Fphe), 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-tyrosine (2-[ 18 F]Ftyr), 6-[ 18 F]fuoro-L-m-tyrosine (6-[ 18 F]Fmtyr) and 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA (6-[ 18 F]FDOPA). For this, corresponding precursors were 18 F-fluorinated by nucleophilic isotopic exchange, followed by either removal of an activating formyl group with Rh(PPh 3 ) 3 Cl or its conversion by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, respectively, and subsequent hydrolysis of protecting groups in acidic medium. Two efficient synthetic approaches were developed for the preparation of highly functionalized fluoro-benzaldehydes and -ketones which were used as labeling precursors. The compounds (2S,5S)-tert-butyl 2-tert-butyl-5-(2-fluoro-5-formylbenzyl)-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidine-1 -carboxylate (1a), (2S,5S)-tert-butyl 5-(5-acetyl-2-fluorobenzyl)-2-tert-butyl-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidine-1 -carboxylate (1c), (2S,5S)-benzyl 2-tert-butyl-5-(2-fluoro-5-formylbenzyl)-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidine-1 -carbo-xylate (1d), 4-fluoro-3-(((2S,5R)-5-isopropyl-3,6-dimethoxy-2,5-dihydropyrazin-2-yl) me-thyl)b enzal-dehyde (1e) and 1-(4-fluoro-3-(((2S,5R)-5-isopropyl-3,6-dimethoxy-2,5-dihydropyrazin-2-yl) me-thy l)phenyl)ethanone (1f), could be prepared in six steps and overall yields of 41%, 48%, 37%, 27%, and 32%, respectively. (2S,5S)-tert-Butyl 5-(4-(benzyloxy)-2-fluoro-5-formylbenzyl)-2-tert-butyl-3-methyl-4 -oxoimidazolidi ne-1-carboxylate (1b) was prepared in ten steps with an overall yield of 19% while compounds (2S,5S)-tert-butyl 5-(5-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-benzoyl)-2-fluorobenzyl)-2-tert-butyl-3 -methyl-4-oxoimidazolidine-1-carboxylate (1g) and (2S,5S)-tert-butyl 2-tert-butyl-5-(2-fluoro-5-(2,2,2

  10. An acridinium sulphonylamide as a new chemiluminescent label for the determination of carboxylic acids in liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijger, O.M.; Kamminga, D.A.; Lingeman, H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis of a new acridinium sulphonylamide label for the liquid chromatographic determination of carboxylic acids is described. The label 10-methyl-N-(p-tolyl)-N-(p-iodoacetamidobenzenesulphonyl)-9-acridinium carboxamide iodide is synthesized from 9-acridinecarboxylic acid by a seven-step

  11. Synthesis and Characterisation of Tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethyl eno dithiol enic-S,S') Tungsten Complex as Photo catalyst for Photolysis of H2O Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhli Hadana Rahman; Rusli Daik; Mohammad Kassim; Khuzaimah; Wan Ramli Wan Daud

    2008-01-01

    Tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex is one of the most promising photo catalyst to be used in photolysis of water to produce hydrogen. The first step of the synthesis involves a metathesis reaction of tetrapropylammonium bromide [((C 3 H 7 ) 4 N)Br] and ammonium tetrathiotungstate [(NH 4 ) 2 WS 4 ] to form a tetrapropylammonium tetrathiotungstate [((C 3 H 7 ) 4 N) 2 WS 4 ] (precursor). Then, the precursor was reacted with phenyl acetylenecarboxylic acid (C 9 H 6 O 2 ) to form tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex (C 27 H 18 O 2 S 6 W). The infra-red, ultra violet/ visible (UV/ Vis) spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental micro-analysis of C, H, N and S agreed with the characteristic of the tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex. The (W-S), (C-S) and (C=O) stretching frequencies were detected at 511, (1470 and 1035) and 1655 cm -1 , respectively. The 1 H NMR spectrum showed six protons in the complex. The 13 C NMR showed only 7 signals for carbon atom in the benzene ring, ethylene groups and carboxylic acid pendant group due to the symmetry of the molecules. The reaction yield was about 50 percent. Photolysis of acetone spiked H 2 O showed that the catalyst was able to produced 1.8 μmol/ h hydrogen. (author)

  12. Substituted N-Phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides, Their Synthesis and Evaluation as Herbicides and Abiotic Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kráľová

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The condensation of substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid chlorides with ring-substituted anilines yielded five substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid amides. Thesynthesis, and analytical, lipophilicity and biological data of the newly synthesizedcompounds are presented in this paper. The photosynthesis inhibition, antialgal activityand the effect of a series of pyrazine derivatives as abiotic elicitors on the accumulation offlavonoids in a callus culture of Ononis arvensis (L. were investigated. The most activeinhibitor of the oxygen evolution rate in spinach chloroplasts was 6-chloro-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (3-iodo-4-methylphenyl-amide (2, IC50 = 51.0 μmol·L-1. The highestreduction of chlorophyll content in Chlorella vulgaris was found for 5-tert-butyl-N-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (3, IC50 = 44.0 μmol·L-1. The maximalflavonoid production (about 900% was reached after a twelve-hour elicitation processwith 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (3-iodo-4-methylphenyl-amide (2.

  13. Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C-H carboxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aanindeeta; Dick, Graham R; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kanan, Matthew W

    2016-03-10

    Using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock for commodity synthesis is an attractive means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and a possible stepping-stone towards renewable synthetic fuels. A major impediment to synthesizing compounds from CO2 is the difficulty of forming carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds efficiently: although CO2 reacts readily with carbon-centred nucleophiles, generating these intermediates requires high-energy reagents (such as highly reducing metals or strong organic bases), carbon-heteroatom bonds or relatively acidic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds. These requirements negate the environmental benefit of using CO2 as a substrate and limit the chemistry to low-volume targets. Here we show that intermediate-temperature (200 to 350 degrees Celsius) molten salts containing caesium or potassium cations enable carbonate ions (CO3(2-)) to deprotonate very weakly acidic C-H bonds (pKa > 40), generating carbon-centred nucleophiles that react with CO2 to form carboxylates. To illustrate a potential application, we use C-H carboxylation followed by protonation to convert 2-furoic acid into furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA)--a highly desirable bio-based feedstock with numerous applications, including the synthesis of polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is a potential large-scale substitute for petroleum-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since 2-furoic acid can readily be made from lignocellulose, CO3(2-)-promoted C-H carboxylation thus reveals a way to transform inedible biomass and CO2 into a valuable feedstock chemical. Our results provide a new strategy for using CO2 in the synthesis of multi-carbon compounds.

  14. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2011-01-01

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [ 18F ]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([ 18F ]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [ 18F ]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [ 18F ]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging

  15. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  16. The role of salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid in promoting the oxidation of alkenes with H(2)O(2) catalysed by [Mn(IV) (2)(O)(3)(tmtacn)(2)](2+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Johannes W.; Alsters, Paul L.; Meetsma, Auke; Hage, Ronald; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    The role played by the additives salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid in promoting the catalytic activity of [Mn(IV) (2)(O)(3)(tmtacn)(2)](PF(6))(2) {1(PF(6))(2), where tmtacn = N, N ', N ''-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane} in the epoxidation and cis-dihydroxylation of alkenes with

  17. Redshift or adduct stabilization -- a computational study of hydrogen bonding in adducts of protonated carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Solveig Gaarn; Hammerum, Steen

    2009-01-01

    It is generally expected that the hydrogen bond strength in a D-H-A adduct is predicted by the difference between the proton affinities of D and A, measured by the adduct stabilization, and demonstrated by the IR redshift of the D-H bond stretching vibrational frequency. These criteria do...... not always yield consistent predictions, as illustrated by the hydrogen bonds formed by the E and Z OH groups of protonated carboxylic acids. The delta-PA and the stabilization of a series of hydrogen bonded adducts indicate that the E OH group forms the stronger hydrogen bonds, whereas the bond length...... carboxylic acids are different. The OH bond length and IR redshift afford the better measure of hydrogen bond strength....

  18. Amphetamine-Like Analogues in Diabetes: Speeding towards Ketogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Branis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Amphetamine-like analogues comprise the most popular class of weight loss medications. We present a case of a 34-year-old African American female with a history of type 1 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity who developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA after starting Diethylpropion for the purpose of weight loss. Shortly after starting Diethylpropion, she developed nausea, vomiting, and periumbilical pain. Blood work revealed glucose of 718 mg/dL, pH 7.32 (7.35–7.45, bicarbonate 16 mmol/L (22–29 mmol/L, and anion gap 19 mmol/L (8–16 mmol/L. Urine analysis demonstrated large amount of ketones. She was hospitalized and successfully treated for DKA. Diethylpropion was discontinued. Amphetamine-like analogues administration leads to norepinephrine release from the lateral hypothalamus which results in the appetite suppression. Peripheral norepinephrine concentration rises as well. Norepinephrine stimulates adipocyte lipolysis and thereby increases nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA availability. It promotes β-oxidation of NEFA to ketone bodies while decreasing metabolic clearance rate of ketones. In the setting of acute insulin deficiency these effects are augmented. Females are more sensitive to norepinephrine effects compared to males. In conclusion, amphetamine-like analogues lead to a release of norepinephrine which can result in a clinically significant ketosis, especially in the setting of insulin deficiency.

  19. 2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl quinoline-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H25NO2, the cyclohexyl ring adopts a slightly disordered chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the quinoline ring and the carboxylate group is 22.2 (6°. In the crystal, weak C—H...N interactions make chains along [010].

  20. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, [D-Mel6]LH-RH (SB-05) and [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Arg5,D-Mel6,D-Ala10++ +]LH-RH [SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel6 analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells.

  1. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, [D-Mel 6 ]LH-RH (SB-05) and [Ac-D-Nal(2) 1 ,D-Phe(pCl) 2 ,D-Pal(3) 3 ,Arg 5 ,D-Mel 6 ,D-Ala 10 ]LH-RH [SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel 6 analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells

  2. Degradation of chitosan hydrogel dispersed in dilute carboxylic acids by solution plasma and evaluation of anticancer activity of degraded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokradjaroen, Chayanaphat; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Theeramunkong, Sewan; Saito, Nagahiro

    2018-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide that has been extensively studied in the field of biomedicine, especially its water-soluble degraded products called chitooligosaccharides (COS). In this study, COS were produced by the degradation of chitosan hydrogel dispersed in a dilute solution (i.e., 1.55 mM) of various kinds of carboxylic acids using a non-thermal plasma technology called solution plasma (SP). The degradation rates of chitosan were influenced by the type of carboxylic acids, depending on the interaction between chitosan and each carboxylic acid. After SP treatment, the water-soluble degraded products containing COS could be easily separated from the water-insoluble residue of chitosan hydrogel by centrifugation. The production yields of the COS were mostly higher than 55%. Furthermore, the obtained COS products were evaluated for their inhibitory effect as well as their selectivity against human lung cancer cells (H460) and human lung normal cells (MRC-5).

  3. Discovery of α-Substituted Imidazole-4-acetic Acid Analogues as a Novel Class of ρ1 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Antagonists with Effect on Retinal Vascular Tone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krall, Jacob; Brygger, Benjamin M.; Sigurðardóttir, Sara B.

    2016-01-01

    The ρ-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA Rs) play an important role in controlling visual signaling. Therefore, ligands that selectively target these GABAA Rs are of interest. In this study, we demonstrate that the partial GABAA R agonist imidazole-4-acetic acid (IAA) is able...... to penetrate the blood-brain barrier in vivo; we prepared a series of α- and N-alkylated, as well as bicyclic analogues of IAA to explore the structure-activity relationship of this scaffold focusing on the acetic acid side chain of IAA. The compounds were prepared via IAA from l-histidine by an efficient...

  4. Analogues of desferrioxamine B designed to attenuate iron-mediated neurodegeneration: synthesis, characterisation and activity in the MPTP-mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsbacher, Michael P; Telfer, Thomas J; Witting, Paul K; Double, Kay L; Finkelstein, David I; Codd, Rachel

    2017-07-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of the brain and formation of α-synuclein-containing intracellular inclusions. Excess intraneuronal iron in the SNpc increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), which identifies removing iron as a possible therapeutic strategy. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB, 1) is an iron chelator produced by bacteria. Its high Fe(iii) affinity, water solubility and low chronic toxicity is useful in removing iron accumulated in plasma from patients with transfusion-dependent blood disorders. Here, lipophilic analogues of DFOB with increased potential to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been prepared by conjugating ancillary compounds onto the amine terminus. The ancillary compounds included the antioxidants rac-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (rac-trolox, rac-TLX (a truncated vitamin E variant)), R-TLX, S-TLX, methylated derivatives of 3-(6-hydroxy-2-methylchroman-2-yl)propionic acid (α-CEHC, γ-CEHC, δ-CEHC), or 4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)benzoic acid (carboxylic acid derivative of edaravone, EDA). Compounds 2-8 could have dual function in attenuating ROS by chelating Fe(iii) and via the antioxidant ancillary group. A conjugate between DFOB and an ancillary unit without antioxidant properties (3,5-dimethyladamantane-1-carboxylic acid (AdA dMe )) was included (9). Compounds 2-9 were more lipophilic (log P -0.05 to 3.39) than DFOB (log P -2.62) and showed an average plasma protein binding 6 times greater than DFOB. The ABTS˙ + radical assay indicated 2-8 had antioxidant activity ascribable to the ancillary fragment. Administration of 2 and 9 in the mouse model of PD using the neurotoxin prodrug 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which recapitulates elevated iron of human PD, resulted in significant neuronal protection (p compounds for PD.

  5. Enzymatic syntheses of some 11C-labelled analogues of L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurling, P.; Malmborg, P.; Langstroem, B.

    1990-01-01

    In the elucidation of biochemical processes by use of positron emission tomography (PET), the multi-tracer approach can be valuable. In previous work, the authors have been studying the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurosystems by use of 11 C-labelled L-DOPA and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, respectively. They have now developed the syntheses of several analogues of tyrosine and tryptophan, labelled with 11 C in the β-position, which are of interest for use in similar applications

  6. 7-{[2-(4-Hydroxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-1,3-thiazol-4-yl-2-(methoxyiminoacetyl]amino}-3-{[(2-methyl-5,6-dioxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-ylsulfanyl]methyl}-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Fareed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel 7-{[2-(4-hydroxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-1,3-thiazol-4-yl-2-(methoxyiminoacetyl]amino}-3-{[(2-methyl-5,6-dioxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-ylsulfanyl]methyl}-8-oxo-5-thia-1azabicyclo [4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid was prepared by condensation of ceftriaxone disodium (1 with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2 in ethanol under reflux conditions for 3–4 h. The structure of synthesized compound was elucidated using LCMS, 1H-NMR, and CHN techniques.

  7. Bioisosteric modifications of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Peters, Dan

    2004-01-01

    2-Arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) have recently been presented as the first series of selective noncompetitive GluR5 antagonists. In this paper we have modified the acidic moiety of the AUBAs by introducing different acidic and neutral groups, and similarly, we have replaced the urea linker...... of the AUBAs with other structurally related linkers. Replacing the acid with neutral substituents led to inactive compounds in all instances, showing that an acidic moiety is necessary for activity. Replacing the carboxylic moiety in 2a with a sulfonic acid (5c) or a tetrazole ring (5d) improved the potency...

  8. Chemical consequences resulting from multi-millicurie preparation of 6-[18F]-fluoro-6-deoxy-L-ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, P.J.; Finn, R.D.; Bornmann, W.G.; Agus, D.B.; Vera, J.C.; Larson, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is required for human physiology and is particularly important in maintaining normal connective tissue and host defense. Our interest in this carboxylic acid stems from its similarity in transport with glucose in human cells. In order to investigate these phenomena, we report a refined synthesis of 6-[ 18 F]-fluoro-6-deoxy-L-ascorbic acid ( 18 F-FAA) via nucleophilic displacement of the cyclic sulfate with Kryptofix 2.2.2/K 18 F complex which results in multi-millicurie quantities of high specific activity product. The trace carrier-added synthesis has resulted in a decay corrected radiochemical yield of 31.6±3.4% with a specific activity approaching 180 mCi/μmol. Our preliminary experience with the assessment of the chemical stability of both the radiolabelled and stable product is also presented. (orig.)

  9. Copolymers Based on Indole-6-Carboxylic Acid and 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene as Platinum Catalyst Support for Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzi-Yi Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indole-6-carboxylic acid (ICA and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT are copolymerized electrochemically on a stainless steel (SS electrode to obtain poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes (P(ICA-co-EDOTs. The morphology of P(ICA-co-EDOTs is checked using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the SEM images reveal that these films are composed of highly porous fibers when the feed molar ratio of ICA/EDOT is greater than 3/2. Platinum particles can be electrochemically deposited into the P(ICA-co-EDOTs and PICA films to obtain P(ICA-co-EDOTs-Pt and PICA-Pt composite electrodes, respectively. These composite electrodes are further characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, SEM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The SEM result indicates that Pt particles disperse more uniformly into the highly porous P(ICA3-co-EDOT2 fibers (feed molar ratio of ICA/EDOT = 3/2. The P(ICA3-co-EDOT2-Pt nanocomposite electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of methanol in these electrodes, which reveals that P(ICA3-co-EDOT2-Pt nanocomposite electrodes are more promising for application in an electrocatalyst as a support material.

  10. Radioiodinated 4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine, a system L selective artificial amino acid: molecular design and transport characterization in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikano, Naoto, E-mail: sikano@ipu.ac.j [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kotani, Takashi; Nakajima, Syuichi; Ogura, Masato; Nakazawa, Shinya [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Sagara, Jun-ichi [Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan); Baba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto [Center for Medical Science, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kubota, Nobuo [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: High expression of the system L amino acid transporter has been observed in clinically important tissues including tumors and the blood-brain barrier. We examined amino acid transport system L selectivity of {sup 14}C(U)-L-tyrosine ({sup 14}C-Tyr), {sup 125}I-4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (4-{sup 125}I-mTyr), {sup 125}I-6-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (6-{sup 125}I-mTyr), {sup 125}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine ({sup 125}I-IMT) and {sup 125}I-3-iodo-L-tyrosine (3-{sup 125}I-Tyr) using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). Methods: Cells in the exponential growth phase were incubated with 18.5 kBq of labeled amino acid in 2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline-based uptake solution and an uptake solution with/without Na{sup +} at 37{sup o}C or 4{sup o}C. We examined the effects of the following compounds (1.0 mM) on transport: 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (a specific inhibitor of system A, in Na{sup +}-containing uptake solution); 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (a specific inhibitor of system L, in Na{sup +}-free uptake solution); sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol (NaN{sub 3} and DNP, inhibitors of the generation of adenosine triphosphate); p-aminohippurate and tetraethylammonium (PAH and TEA, inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters); and L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids. Results: {sup 14}C-Tyr exhibited affinity for systems L, A and ASC. 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr and 3-{sup 125}I-Tyr exhibited high specificity for system L, whereas 6-{sup 125}I-mTyr and {sup 125}I-IMT exhibited affinity for both systems L and ASC. Uptake of 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr was markedly reduced by incubation at 4 {sup o}C, and was not significantly inhibited by NaN{sub 3}, DNP, PAH or TEA. The inhibition profiles of the L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids indicated that system L mediates the transport of 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr. Conclusions: 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr exhibited the greatest system L specificity (93.46{+-}0.13%) of all of the tested amino acids.

  11. Hepatic Metabolism of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and Polycholorotrifluoroethylene: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-14

    I14JAN93 Annual Technical Report 15DEC91-1ý+JAN9 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hepatic Metabolism of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and G-FS...13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report describes our studies of the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanolc acid (PFDA) on...metabolism. 31 p NMR was used to examine the effects of PFDA. PFOA. and clofibrate (C LOF) in both rats and guinea pigs. A unique effect is revealed in

  12. N-Alkylation Using Sodium Triacetoxyborohydride with Carboxylic Acids as Alkyl Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Satoru; Sato, Keigo; Kawano, Tomikazu

    2018-01-01

    A versatile N-alkylation was performed using sodium triacetoxyborohydride and carboxylic acid as an alkyl source. The combination of these reagents furnished products different from those given previously by a similar reaction. Moreover, the mild conditions of our method allowed some functional groups to remain through the reaction, whereas they would react and be converted into other moieties in the similar reductive N-alkylation reported previously. Herein, we provide a new procedure for the preparation of various compounds containing nitrogen atoms.

  13. Organic carboxylate anions effect on the structures of a series of Mn(II) complexes based on 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuli; Chen Yongqiang; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan; Zhang Jinxia

    2009-01-01

    In our efforts to tune the structures of Mn(II) complexes by selection of organic carboxylic acid ligands, six new complexes [Mn(PIP) 2 Cl 2 ] (1), [Mn(PIP) 2 (4,4'-bpdc)(H 2 O)].2H 2 O (2), [Mn(PIP) 2 (1,4-bdc)] (3), [Mn(PIP)(1,3-bdc)] (4), [Mn(PIP) 2 (2,6-napdc)].H 2 O (5), and [Mn(PIP)(1,4-napdc)].H 2 O (6) were obtained, where PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4'-H 2 bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H 2 bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 1,3-H 2 bdc=benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-H 2 napdc=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H 2 napdc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid. All complexes have been structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses show that complexes 1 and 2 possess mononuclear structures, complexes 3, 4, and 5 feature chain structures, and complex 6 exhibits a 2D (4,4) network. The structural difference of 1-6 indicates that organic carboxylate anions play important roles in the formation of such coordination architectures. Furthermore, the thermal properties of complexes 1-6 and the magnetic property of 4 have been investigated. - Graphical Abstract: Through selecting organic carboxylate anions, six Mn(II) complexes have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  14. Organic reactions for the electrochemical and photochemical production of chemical fuels from CO2--The reduction chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives as bent CO2 surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Oana R; Fenwick, Aidan Q

    2015-11-01

    The present review covers organic transformations involved in the reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels. In particular, we focus on reactions of CO2 with organic molecules to yield carboxylic acid derivatives as a first step in CO2 reduction reaction sequences. These biomimetic initial steps create opportunities for tandem electrochemical/chemical reductions. We draw parallels between long-standing knowledge of CO2 reactivity from organic chemistry, organocatalysis, surface science and electrocatalysis. We point out some possible non-faradaic chemical reactions that may contribute to product distributions in the production of solar fuels from CO2. These reactions may be accelerated by thermal effects such as resistive heating and illumination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Charge-transfer excited state in pyrene-1-carboxylic acids adsorbed on titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, S.; Nawrocka, A.; Zdyb, A.

    2018-06-01

    The electronic structure of excited photosensitizer adsorbed at the surface of a solid is the key factor in the electron transfer processes that underlie the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysts. In this work, Stark effect (electroabsorption) spectroscopy has been used to measure the polarizability and dipole moment changes in electronic transitions of pyrene-1-carboxylic (PCA), -acetic (PAA) and -butyric (PBA) acids in ethanol, both free and adsorbed on colloidal TiO2, in glassy ethanol at low temperature. The lack of appreciable increase of dipole moment in the excited state of free and adsorbed PAA and PBA points that two or more single bonds completely prevent the expansion of π-electrons from the aromatic ring towards the carboxylic group, thus excluding the possibility of direct electron injection into TiO2. In free PCA, the pyrene's forbidden S0 → S1 transition has increased intensity, exhibits a long progression in 1400 cm-1 Ag mode and is associated with |Δμ| of 2 D. Adsorption of PCA on TiO2 causes a broadening and red shift of the S0 → S1 absorption band and an increase in dipole moment change on electronic excitation to |Δμ| = 6.5 D. This value increased further to about 15 D when the content of acetic acid in the colloid was changed from 0.2% to 2%, and this effect is ascribed to the surface electric field. The large increase of |Δμ| points that the electric field effect can not only change the energetics of electron transfer from the excited sensitizer into the solid, but can also shift the molecular electronic density, thus directly influencing the electronic coupling factor relevant for electron transfer at the molecule-solid interface.

  16. Determination of dissociation constants or propionic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) by potentiometry and conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeeduddin; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociation constants of propionic acid and 2-hydroxypropionic acid (lactic acid) have been studied at different temperatures between 25 to 50 deg. C interval. Propionic acid is analyzed by conductometry while 2-hydroxypropionic acid is analyzed by potentiometry. Both investigated compounds are symmetrical carboxylic acids having same length of carbon chain but are markedly different in ionic behavior. We were interested to see how the hydroxyl group (-OH) induction in propionic acid affects on pKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid. We observed that as temperature increases pKa values increase. The increase is observed for both the investigated compounds. PKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid are lower as compared to propionic acid because of electron withdrawing (-OH). (author)

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of cigarette ingredients: aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Liu, Jianmin; Merski, Jerome A; Werley, Michael S; Oldham, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids are present in tobacco and tobacco smoke. A battery of tests was used to compare the toxicity of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes containing eight aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids and the salt of one acid that were added individually at three different levels (lowest and highest target inclusions were 100 and 90,000 ppm, respectively). Mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing each of the test ingredients was evaluated using analytical chemistry and assays to measure in vitro cytotoxicity (neutral red uptake) and Salmonella (five strains) mutagenicity. For four of the compounds (citric, lactic, benzoic acids, and sodium benzoate), 90-day rodent inhalation studies were also performed. Although sporadic statistically significant differences in some experimental cigarette smoke constituents occurred, none resulted in significant changes in mutagenicity or cytotoxicity responses, nor in responses measured in the inhalation studies, except for lactic acid (LA). Inclusion of LA resulted in dose-dependent increase in water and caused a dose-dependent decrease in cytotoxicity. Incorporation of LA into cigarettes resulted in several dose-related reductions in histopathology, which were largely restricted to the nasal passages. Incorporation of LA also ameliorated some of the typical decrease in body weight gain seen in cigarette smoke-exposed rats. Inclusion of these ingredients at exaggerated use levels resulted in sporadic dose-related and treatment effects for some smoke constituents, but no toxicological response was noted in the in vitro and in vivo tests performed.

  18. Electrocatalytic carboxylation of chloroacetonitrile at a silver cathode for the synthesis of cyanoacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scialdone, Onofrio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: scialdone@dicpm.unipa.it; Galia, Alessandro; Filardo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: Abdirisak.ahmedisse@unipd.it; Gennaro, Armando [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2008-12-30

    The electrocatalytic carboxylation of chloroacetonitrile to cyanoacetic acid performed at silver cathodes was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Silver exhibits powerful electrocatalytic activities towards the reduction of chloroacetonitrile. In CO{sub 2}-saturated CH{sub 3}CN, reduction of NCCH{sub 2}Cl occurs at potentials that are about 0.7 V more positive than those observed at glassy carbon and gives cyanoacetic acid in good yields. Theoretical considerations on the effect of operative parameters on the performances of the process were confirmed by electrocarboxylation experiments performed in undivided cells equipped with sacrificial anodes both in a bench-scale electrochemical batch reactor and in a continuous batch recirculation reaction system equipped with a parallel plate electrochemical cell. Selectivities and Faradic efficiencies higher than 80% were obtained by working under anhydrous conditions both under amperostatic and potentiostatic alimentation at proper values of either current density or applied potential.

  19. Varic acid analogues from fungus as PTP1B inhibitors: Biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenlong; Zhuang, Chunlin; Li, Xia; Zhang, Bowei; Lu, Xinhua; Zheng, Zhihui; Dong, Yuesheng

    2017-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors as potential therapies for diabetes and obesity have attracted much attention in recent years. Six varic acid analogues were isolated from two strains of fungi and evaluated for PTP1B inhibition activities. The structure-activity relationships were also characterized and predicted by molecular modeling. Further kinetic studies indicated the reversible and competitive inhibition manner of varic acid analogues. Trivaric acid showed insulin-sensitizing effect not only in vitro but also in vivo, representing a promising lead compound for further optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Convenient One-Pot Method for the Synthesis of N-Methoxy-N-methyl Amides from Carboxylic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong Gon; Jang, Doo Ok

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mild and convenient method for one-pot synthesis of Weinreb amides from carboxylic acids. The process is general for the preparation of Weinreb amides from a variety of carboxylic acids. The reaction was also applicable to the preparation of α-amino Weinreb amides and proceeded without deprotection of the N-Fmoc protecting group or racemization of the stereogenic centers. N-Methoxy-N-methyl amides, or Weinreb amides, have been widely used as versatile synthetic intermediates in organic syntheses. These amides serve as excellent acylating agents for organolithium or organomagnesium reagents and as robust aldehyde group equivalents. The utility of Weinreb amides has been extended to the preparation of N-protected amino aldehydes, useful intermediates for many chemoselective transformations in peptide chemistry

  1. Phospholipid analogue distributions of Iranian isolates of candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, A.; Brucker, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse polar lipids of candida species isolated from Ahwas (Iran) by fast Atom bombardment mass spectrometry . Nine isolates of Candida Sp. were identified by growth at 45 d ig c , production of chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar, colonial colour on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube production and ID 32 C kits. Then polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cultures and analysed using Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. The most intense carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species anions were of m/z 281 (C 1 8 : 1 ) and m/z 515 (PA 23:2). However, the most intense carboxylate and phospholipid analogues in Candida Parapsilosis were 292 (Un) and 555 (PA 26:3), which differed from other yeasts. Isolates were grouped by single linkage clustering based on correlation coefficient for strain pairs calculated with carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species distributions. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry can differentiate the C. albicans based on analysis of polar lipid distributions.These findings support that differentiation between C. albicans and other species is possible based on polar lipids

  2. Rationalization of Benzazole-2-carboxylate versus Benzazine-3-one/Benzazine-2,3-dione Selectivity Switch during Cyclocondensation of 2-Aminothiophenols/Phenols/Anilines with 1,2-Biselectrophiles in Aqueous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhameliya, Tejas M; Chourasiya, Sumit S; Mishra, Eshan; Jadhavar, Pradeep S; Bharatam, Prasad V; Chakraborti, Asit K

    2017-10-06

    The cyclocondensation reaction of 2-aminothiophenols with 1,2-biselectrophiles such as ethyl glyoxalate and diethyl oxalate in aqueous medium leads to the formation of benzothiazole-2-carboxylates via the 5-endo-trig process contrary to Baldwin's rule. On the other hand, the reaction of 2-aminophenols/anilines produced the corresponding benzazine-3-ones or benzazine-2,3-diones via the 6-exo-trig process in compliance with Baldwin's rule. The mechanistic insights of these cyclocondensation reactions using the hard-soft acid-base principle, quantum chemical calculations (density functional theory), and orbital interaction studies rationalize the selectivity switch of benzothiazole-2-carboxylates versus benzazine-3-ones/benzazine-2,3-diones. The presence of water facilitates these cyclocondensation reactions by lowering of the energy barrier.

  3. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a series of 4-substituted glutamate analogues and pharmacological characterization at human glutamate transporters subtypes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaux, Sebastien; Kusk, Mie; Sagot, Emanuelle

    2005-01-01

    A series of nine L-2,4-syn-4-alkylglutamic acid analogues (1a-i) were synthesized in high yield and high enantiomeric excess (>99% ee) from their corresponding 4-substituted ketoglutaric acids (2a-i), using the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) from pig heart or E. coli. The synthesized com...... subtypes EAAT1-3 while maintaining inhibitory activity....

  4. Effect of carboxylic acids as compatibilizer agent on mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch and polypropylene blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Bercini; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2016-01-01

    In this work, polypropylene/thermoplastic starch (PP/TPS) blends were prepared as an alternative material to use in disposable packaging, reducing the negative polymeric environmental impact. Unfortunately, this material displays morphological characteristics typical of immiscible polymer blends and a compatibilizer agent is needed. Three different carboxyl acids: myristic (C14), palmitic (C16) and stearic acids (C18) were used as natural compatibilizer agent (NCA). The effects of NCA on the mechanical, physical, thermal and morphological properties of PP/TPS blends were investigated and compared against PP/TPS with and without PP-grafted maleic anhydride (PPgMA). When compared to PP/TPS, blends with C18, PPgMA and C14 presented an improvement of 25, 22 and 17% in tensile strength at break and of 180, 194 and 259% in elongation at break, respectively. The highest increase, 54%, in the impact strength was achieved with C14 incorporation. Improvements could be seen, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, in the compatibility between the immiscible components by acids incorporation. These results showed that carboxylic acids, specifically C14, could be used as compatibilizer agent and could substitute PPgMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stereospecific synthesis of syn-α-oximinoamides by a three-component reaction of isocyanides, syn-chlorooximes, and carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali, Tracey; Mossetti, Riccardo; Galli, Simona; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2011-07-15

    A stereospecific multicomponent reaction among isocyanides, syn-chlorooximes, and carboxylic acids provides an efficient synthesis of biologically relevant syn-α-oximinoamides. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric investigation of n-alkanes and carboxylic acids in bottom sediments of the northern Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzhegaliev, Akimgali; Zhumagaliev, Sagat; Kenzhegalieva, Dina; Orazbayev, Batyr

    2018-03-01

    Prior to the start of experimental oil production in the Kashagan field (northern part of the Caspian Sea), n-alkanes and carboxylic acids contained in samples obtained from bottom sediments in the area of artificial island "D" were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of 10 n-alkanes (composed of C10-C13, C15-C20) and 11 carboxylic acids (composed of C6-C12, C14-C16) were identified and measured. Concentrations of individual alkanes and carboxylic acids in bottom sediments of the various samples varied between 0.001 ÷ 0.88 μg/g and 0.001 ÷ 1.94 μg/g, respectively. Mass spectra, in particular the M+ molecular ion peak and the most intense peaks of fragment ions, are given. The present study illustrates the stability of molecular ions to electronic ionisation and the main fragment ions to the total ion current and shows that the initial fragmentation of alkanes implies radical cleavage of C2H5 rather than CH3. All aliphatic monocarboxylic acids studied were characterised by McLafferty rearrangement leading to the formation of F4 cation-radical with m/z 60 and F3 cation-radical with m/z 88 in the case of ethylhexanoic acid. The formation of oxonium ions presents another important aspect of acid fragmentation. Using mass numbers of oxonium ions and rearrangement ions allows determination of the substitution character in α- and β- C atoms. The essence of our approach is to estimate the infiltration of hydrocarbon fluids from the enclosing formation into sea water, comprising an analysis of derivatives of organic compounds in bottom sediments. Thus, concentrations of derived organic molecules can serve as a basis for estimates of the depth at which hydrocarbon fluids leak, i.e., to serve as an auxiliary technique in the search for hydrocarbon deposits and to repair well leaks.

  8. Inhibition of Procarcinogen Activating Enzyme CYP1A2 Activity and Free Radical Formation by Caffeic Acid and its Amide Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narongchai, Paitoon; Niwatananun, Kanokporn; Narongchai, Siripun; Kusirisin, Winthana; Jaikang, Churdsak

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CAF) and its amide analogues, ethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (EDPA), phenethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PEDPA), phenmethyl 1- (3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PMDPA) and octyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (ODPA) were investigated for the inhibition of procarcinogen activating enzyme. CYP1A2 and scavenging activity on formation of nitric oxide, superoxide anion, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical. It was found that they inhibited CYP1A2 enzyme by uncompetitive inhibition. Apparent Ki values of CAF, EDPA, PEDPA, PMDPA and ODPA were 0.59, 0.39, 0.45, 0.75 and 0.80 µM, respectively suggesting potent inhibitors of CYP1A2. Moreover, they potentially scavenged nitric oxide radical with IC 50 values of 0.12, 0.22, 0.28, 0.22 and 0.51 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of superoxide anion scavenging were 0.20, 0.22, 0.44, 2.18 and 2.50 mM, respectively. 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability, shown as IC50 values, were 0.41, 0.29, 0.30, 0.89 and 0.84 mM, respectively. Moreover, the hydroxyl radical scavenging in vitro model was shown as IC50 values of 23.22, 21.06, 17.10, 17.21 and 15.81 µM, respectively. From our results, caffeic acid and its amide analogues are in vitro inhibitors of human CYP1A2 catalytic activity and free radical formation. They may be useful to be developed as potential chemopreventive agents that block CYP1A2-mediated chemical carcinogenesis.

  9. Copper-Catalyzed N-Arylation of Amides Using (S-N-Methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylate as the Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Ma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available (S-N-methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylate, a derivative of natural L-proline, was found to be an efficient ligand for the copper-catalyzed Goldberg-type N-arylation of amides with aryl halides under mild conditions. A variety of N-arylamides were synthesized in good to high yields.

  10. Cofactor balance by nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) coordinates reductive carboxylation and glucose catabolism in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Paulo A; Laviolette, Laura A; Kelleher, Joanne K; Iliopoulos, Othon; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-05-03

    Cancer and proliferating cells exhibit an increased demand for glutamine-derived carbons to support anabolic processes. In addition, reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate by isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and 2 (IDH2) was recently shown to be a major source of citrate synthesis from glutamine. The role of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) cofactors in coordinating glucose and glutamine utilization in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is not well understood, with the source(s) of NADPH for the reductive carboxylation reaction remaining unexplored. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is a mitochondrial enzyme that transfers reducing equivalents from NADH to NADPH. Here, we show that knockdown of NNT inhibits the contribution of glutamine to the TCA cycle and activates glucose catabolism in SkMel5 melanoma cells. The increase in glucose oxidation partially occurred through pyruvate carboxylase and rendered NNT knockdown cells more sensitive to glucose deprivation. Importantly, knocking down NNT inhibits reductive carboxylation in SkMel5 and 786-O renal carcinoma cells. Overexpression of NNT is sufficient to stimulate glutamine oxidation and reductive carboxylation, whereas it inhibits glucose catabolism in the TCA cycle. These observations are supported by an impairment of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratios. Our findings underscore the role of NNT in regulating central carbon metabolism via redox balance, calling for other mechanisms that coordinate substrate preference to maintain a functional TCA cycle.

  11. Vitual screening and binding mode elucidation of curcumin analogues on Cyclooxygenase-2 using AYO_COX2_V1.1 protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatsari, E.; Mumpuni, E.; Herfian, A.

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin is yellow colored phenolic compounds contained in Curcuma longa. Curcumin is known to have biological activities as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-infective agent [1]. Synthesis of curcumin analogue compounds has been done and some of them had biological activity like curcumin. In this research, the virtual screening of curcumin analogue compounds has been conducted. The purpose of this research was to determine the activity of these compounds as selective Cyclooxygenase-2inhibitors in in-silico. Binding mode elucidation was made by active and inactive representative compounds to see the interaction of the amino acids in the binding site of the compounds. This research used AYO_COX2_V.1.1, a structure-based virtual screening protocol (SBVS) that has been validated by Mumpuni E et al, 2014 [2]. AYO_COX2_V.1.1 protocol using a variety of integrated applications such as SPORES, PLANTS, BKchem, OpenBabel and PyMOL. The results of virtual screening conducted on 49 curcumin analogue compounds obtained 8 compounds with 4 active amino acid residues (GLY340, ILE503, PHE343, and PHE367) that were considered active as COX-2 inhibitor.

  12. 2-(Biphenyl-4-ylacetic acid (felbinac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne S. Taylor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, C14H12O2, displays the expected intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic acid groups, forming dimers. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 27.01 (7°.

  13. Transport of the alpha-amino-mono-carboxylic acid L-alanine by the beta-alanine carrier of the rabbit ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G

    1987-01-01

    The proposal that the beta-alanine carrier of the rabbit ileum is a high affinity carrier of the neutral amino acids was examined by means of measurements of influx across the brush border membrane of the intact epithelium using L-alanine as a representative of the neutral amino acids. Confirming...... the proposal, evidence was provided for mutual competitive inhibition between beta-alanine and L-alanine; and it was also demonstrated that a process contributes to the influx of L-alanine, which is characterized by a maximum rate of transport equal to that of beta-alanine and a Kt, which is equal to the Ki...... of L-alanine against the influx of beta-alanine. In the concentration range 0.01 to 0.125 mM the influx of L-alanine was found to be linearly related to the concentration indicating a significant unstirred layer influence on present and previous estimates of the Kt values for influx of amino acids...

  14. Crystal structures of two 1:2 dihydrate compounds of chloranilic acid with 2-carboxypyridine and 2-carboxyquinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Gotoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the 1:2 dihydrate compound of chloranilic acid (systematic name: 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone with 2-carboxypyridine (another common name: picolinic acid; systematic name: pyridine-2-carboxylic acid, namely, 2C6H5.5NO20.5+·C6HCl2O4−·2H2O, (I, has been determined at 180 K, and the structure of the 1:2 dihydrate compound of chloranilic acid with 2-carboxyquinoline (another common name: quinaldic acid; systematic name: quinoline-2-carboxylic acid, namely, 2C10H7NO2·C6H2Cl2O4·2H2O, (II, has been redetermined at 200 K. This determination presents a higher precision crystal structure than the previously published structure [Marfo-Owusu & Thompson (2014. X-ray Struct. Anal. Online, 30, 55–56]. Compound (I was analysed as a disordered structure over two states, viz. salt and co-crystal. The salt is bis(2-carboxypyridinium chloranilate dihydrate, 2C6H6NO2+·C6Cl2O42−·2H2O, and the co-crystal is bis(pyridinium-2-carboxylate chloranilic acid dihydrate, 2C6H5NO2·C6H2Cl2O4·2H2O, including zwitterionic 2-carboxypyridine. In both salt and co-crystal, the water molecule links the chloranilic acid and 2-carboxypyridine molecules through O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The 2-carboxypyridine molecules are connected into a head-to-head inversion dimer by a short O—H...O hydrogen bond, in which the H atom is disordered over two positions. Compound (II is a 1:2 dihydrate co-crystal of chloranilic acid and zwitterionic 2-carboxyquinoline. The water molecule links the chloranilic acid and 2-carboxyquinoline molecules through O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The 2-carboxyquinoline molecules are connected into a head-to-tail inversion dimer by a pair of N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  15. Aerosol volatility and enthalpy of sublimation of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Kent; Jonsson, Asa M; Andersson, Patrik U; Hallquist, Mattias

    2010-04-08

    The enthalpy of sublimation has been determined for nine carboxylic acids, two cyclic (pinonic and pinic acid) and seven straight-chain dicarboxylic acids (C(4) to C(10)). The enthalpy of sublimation was determined from volatility measurements of nano aerosol particles using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) set-up. Compared to the previous use of a VTDMA, this novel method gives enthalpy of sublimation determined over an extended temperature range (DeltaT approximately 40 K). The determined enthalpy of sublimation for the straight-chain dicarboxylic acids ranged from 96 to 161 kJ mol(-1), and the calculated vapor pressures at 298 K are in the range of 10(-6)-10(-3) Pa. These values indicate that dicarboxylic acids can take part in gas-to-particle partitioning at ambient conditions and may contribute to atmospheric nucleation, even though homogeneous nucleation is unlikely. To obtain consistent results, some experimental complications in producing nanosized crystalline aerosol particles were addressed. It was demonstrated that pinonic acid "used as received" needed a further purification step before being suspended as a nanoparticle aerosol. Furthermore, it was noted from distinct differences in thermal properties that aerosols generated from pimelic acid solutions gave two types of particles. These two types were attributed to crystalline and amorphous configurations, and based on measured thermal properties, the enthalpy of vaporization was 127 kJ mol(-1) and that of sublimation was 161 kJ mol(-1). This paper describes a new method that is complementary to other similar methods and provides an extension of existing experimental data on physical properties of atmospherically relevant compounds.

  16. Influence of indium-tin oxide surface structure on the ordering and coverage of carboxylic acid and thiol monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, Marta; Rhodes, Crissy; Losego, Mark; Efremenko, Alina; Maria, Jon-Paul; Fischer, Daniel; Franzen, Stefan; Genzer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the variability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formation on ITO depending on the substrate surface features. In particular, we report on the formation of carboxylic acid- and thiol-based SAMs on two lots of commercially prepared indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films. Contact angle measurements, electrochemical experiments, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy showed that the quality of monolayers formed differed substantially between the two ITO batches. Only one of the two ITO substrates was capable of forming well-organized thiol- and carboxylic acid-based SAMs. In order to rationalize these observations, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, and SAMs were prepared on ITO substrates fabricated by sputtering in our laboratories. An attempt was made to influence the film microstructure and surface morphology by varying substrate temperatures during ITO deposition. Good-quality thiol and carboxylic acid SAMs were obtained on one of the ITO substrates prepared in-house. While our characterization could not single out conclusively one specific parameter in ITO surface structure that could be responsible for good SAMs formation, we could point out homogeneous surface morphology as a relevant factor for the quality of the SAMs. Evidence was also found for ITO crystallographic orientation to be a parameter influencing SAMs organization

  17. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nano-graphene oxide carboxylation for efficient bioconjugation applications: a quantitative optimization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Rana; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati, E-mail: semami@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, Shahab, E-mail: shahabeddin.faghihi@mail.mcgill.ca, E-mail: sfaghihi@nigeb.ac.ir [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Division (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A method for carboxylation of graphene oxide (GO) with chloroacetic acid that precisely optimizes and controls the efficacy of the process for bioconjugation applications is proposed. Quantification of COOH groups on nano-graphene oxide sheets (NGOS) is performed by novel colorimetric methylene blue (MB) assay. The GO is synthesized and carboxylated by chloroacetic acid treatment under strong basic condition. The size and morphology of the as-prepared NGOS are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of acid to base molar ratio on the physical, chemical, and morphological properties of NGOS is analyzed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, and zeta potential. For evaluation of bioconjugation efficacy, the synthesized nano-carriers with different carboxylation ratios are functionalized by octaarginine peptide sequence (R8) as a biomolecule model containing amine groups. The quantification of attached R8 peptides to graphene nano-sheets’ surface is performed with a colorimetric-based assay which includes the application of 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The results show that the thickness and lateral size of nano-sheets are dramatically decreased to 0.8 nm and 50–100 nm after carboxylation process, respectively. X-ray analysis shows the nano-sheets interlaying space is affected by the alteration of chloroacetic acid to base ratio. The MB assay reveals that the COOH groups on the surface of NGOS are maximized at the acid to base ratio of 2 which is confirmed by FTIR, XRD, and zeta potential. The TNBS assay also shows that bioconjugation of the optimized carboxylated NGOS sample with octaarginine peptide is 2.5 times more efficient compared to bare NGOS. The present work provides evidence that treatment of GO by chloroacetic acid under an optimized condition would create a functionalized high

  19. Nano-graphene oxide carboxylation for efficient bioconjugation applications: a quantitative optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Rana; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati; Faghihi, Shahab

    2015-02-01

    A method for carboxylation of graphene oxide (GO) with chloroacetic acid that precisely optimizes and controls the efficacy of the process for bioconjugation applications is proposed. Quantification of COOH groups on nano-graphene oxide sheets (NGOS) is performed by novel colorimetric methylene blue (MB) assay. The GO is synthesized and carboxylated by chloroacetic acid treatment under strong basic condition. The size and morphology of the as-prepared NGOS are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of acid to base molar ratio on the physical, chemical, and morphological properties of NGOS is analyzed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, and zeta potential. For evaluation of bioconjugation efficacy, the synthesized nano-carriers with different carboxylation ratios are functionalized by octaarginine peptide sequence (R8) as a biomolecule model containing amine groups. The quantification of attached R8 peptides to graphene nano-sheets' surface is performed with a colorimetric-based assay which includes the application of 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The results show that the thickness and lateral size of nano-sheets are dramatically decreased to 0.8 nm and 50-100 nm after carboxylation process, respectively. X-ray analysis shows the nano-sheets interlaying space is affected by the alteration of chloroacetic acid to base ratio. The MB assay reveals that the COOH groups on the surface of NGOS are maximized at the acid to base ratio of 2 which is confirmed by FTIR, XRD, and zeta potential. The TNBS assay also shows that bioconjugation of the optimized carboxylated NGOS sample with octaarginine peptide is 2.5 times more efficient compared to bare NGOS. The present work provides evidence that treatment of GO by chloroacetic acid under an optimized condition would create a functionalized high surface

  20. Nano-graphene oxide carboxylation for efficient bioconjugation applications: a quantitative optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani, Rana; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati; Faghihi, Shahab

    2015-01-01

    A method for carboxylation of graphene oxide (GO) with chloroacetic acid that precisely optimizes and controls the efficacy of the process for bioconjugation applications is proposed. Quantification of COOH groups on nano-graphene oxide sheets (NGOS) is performed by novel colorimetric methylene blue (MB) assay. The GO is synthesized and carboxylated by chloroacetic acid treatment under strong basic condition. The size and morphology of the as-prepared NGOS are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of acid to base molar ratio on the physical, chemical, and morphological properties of NGOS is analyzed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, and zeta potential. For evaluation of bioconjugation efficacy, the synthesized nano-carriers with different carboxylation ratios are functionalized by octaarginine peptide sequence (R8) as a biomolecule model containing amine groups. The quantification of attached R8 peptides to graphene nano-sheets’ surface is performed with a colorimetric-based assay which includes the application of 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The results show that the thickness and lateral size of nano-sheets are dramatically decreased to 0.8 nm and 50–100 nm after carboxylation process, respectively. X-ray analysis shows the nano-sheets interlaying space is affected by the alteration of chloroacetic acid to base ratio. The MB assay reveals that the COOH groups on the surface of NGOS are maximized at the acid to base ratio of 2 which is confirmed by FTIR, XRD, and zeta potential. The TNBS assay also shows that bioconjugation of the optimized carboxylated NGOS sample with octaarginine peptide is 2.5 times more efficient compared to bare NGOS. The present work provides evidence that treatment of GO by chloroacetic acid under an optimized condition would create a functionalized high

  1. Uranium (IV) carboxylates - I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satpathy, K C; Patnaik, A K [Sambalpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-11-01

    A few uranium(IV) carboxylates with monochloro and trichloro acetic acid, glycine, malic, citric, adipic, o-toluic, anthranilic and salicylic acids have been prepared by photolytic methods. The I.R. spectra of these compounds are recorded and basing on the spectral data, structure of the compounds have been suggested.

  2. A novel method for the functionalization of aminoacids L-glycine, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine on maghemite/magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A. J.; Correa, J. R.; Peláez-Abellán, E.; Urones-Garrote, E.

    2018-06-01

    Nanoparticles of maghemite/magnetite functionalized with L-glycine, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were synthesized by a novel method. The novel procedure consists in an alternative of that reported by Massart for the precipitation of magnetite in which the aminoacid is added in the carboxylate form. The amounts of aminoacid in the initial molar concentrations were 35%, 45% and 65% with respect to the ferrophase. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and magnetometry. The IR spectroscopy confirmed that the selected aminoacids were functionalized on the surface of iron oxide. XRD and EELS confirm that iron oxide consists of a maghemite-magnetite intermediate phase with an average particle size about 6 nm, which was measured by transmission electron microscopy. The superparamagnetic character of the nanoparticles was evaluated by magnetometry.

  3. Desenvolvimento de látices nitrílicos carboxilados Development of carboxylated nitrile latices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luzia O. Macedo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentando um estudo sobre o desenvolvimento de um processo de polimerização em emulsão de acrilonitrila, butadieno e ácido carboxílico, em escala piloto. O objetivo desse estudo é a produção de látex nitrílico carboxilado com alto teor de sólidos diretamente no processo de polimerização, sem a necessidade de etapas pós-reação de concentração. Foi estudado o efeito da temperatura, do tipo e quantidade de emulsificante, do tipo e quantidade de iniciador, do tipo de agitador e da velocidade de agitação e das etapas de adição incremental. Para isso, foram realizadas 32 reações, das quais somente 7 chegaram ao alvo de teor de sólidos desejado (50%. Os látices obtidos foram caracterizados quanto ao seu teor de sólidos, tamanho e distribuição de tamanhos das partículas, e por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho para determinação da composição monomérica. Foram obtidos látices com até 57% de sólidos totais. O tamanho médio de partícula variou de 130 a 230 nm.An emulsion polymerization process of acrylonitrile, butadiene and carboxylic acid was studied, in a pilot plant, for producing carboxylated nitrile latices with high solids content directly from the polymerization process, without the need of post-reaction steps of concentration. The effect of temperature, type and amount of emulsifier, type and amount of initiator, type of stirring system, stirring speed and incremental additions for producing high solid latices was studied. To attain this goal, 32 polymerization reactions were carried out, but only 7 attained the target for total solids (50%. The solids content, the average particle size and its distribution and the monomer composition were determined. A latex containing up to 57% of total solids was obtained. The average particle size ranged from 130 to 230 nm.

  4. Derivatization of carboxylic acids with 4-APEBA for detection by positive-ion LC-ESI-MS(/MS) applied for the analysis of prostanoids and NSAID in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, A.; Giera, M.A.; Wijtmans, M.; de Vries, L.; Lingeman, H.; Irth, H.; Niessen, W.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a generic positive ionization ESI LC-MS method for a variety of interesting substance classes, a new derivatization strategy for carboxylic acids was developed. The carboxylic acid group is labeled with the bromine containing 4-APEBA reagent based on carbodiimide chemistry. The

  5. Radiation fibrosis of guinea pig skin after. beta. irradiation and an attempt at its suppression with proline analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohuchi, K.; Chang, L.F.; Tabachnick, J.

    1979-08-01

    The skins of adult, male albino guinea pigs were irradiated with a dose of 3500-rad ..beta.. rays from a /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y sealed source on 25 x 25-mm flank areas. Abnormal collagen deposition (fibrosis) occurred between the first and fourth months as evidenced by the replacement of the normal thick random whorls of collagen fibers by embryonic-like thin fibers parallel to the hyperplastic epidermis. These histologic changes were confined primarily to about 0.4 mm of upper dermis. By the fourth month and up to 2.5 years postirradiation, there was a decreased content of acid-soluble and -insoluble collagen in the irradiated upper dermis concomitant with an increase in noncollageneous protein. With the exception of occluded arterioles in the lower dermis, there were no obvious chemical or histological changes in collagen of remaining dermis. Injection for 4 months or longer of the proline analogs, DL-3,4-dehydroproline, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, or cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline significantly decreased the small amount of metabolically active soluble collagen but had no effect on the content of insoluble fibrous collagen nor the abnormal deposition of collagen fibers in the upper dermis. The data indicate that the proline analogs are of little or no value in suppressing radiation fibrosis in skin.

  6. Design, synthesis, molecular docking, anti-Proteus mirabilis and urease inhibition of new fluoroquinolone carboxylic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammed A A; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din A A; Abdelhafez, El-Shimaa M N; Hassan, Heba A; Abd El-Baky, Rehab M

    2017-02-01

    New hydroxamic acid, hydrazide and amide derivatives of ciprofloxacin in addition to their analogues of levofloxacin were prepared and identified by different spectroscopic techniques. Some of the prepared compounds revealed good activity against the urease splitting bacteria, Proteus mirabilis. The urease inhibitory activity was investigated using indophenol method. Most of the tested compounds showed better activity than the reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). The ciprofloxacin hydrazide derivative 3a and levofloxacin hydroxamic acid 7 experienced the highest activity (IC 50 =1.22μM and 2.20μM, respectively). Molecular docking study revealed high spontaneous binding ability of the tested compounds to the active site of urease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzymatic production of α-ketoglutaric acid from l-glutamic acid via l-glutamate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Panqing; Dong, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Yuancai; Liu, Liming

    2014-06-10

    In this study, a novel strategy for α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) production from l-glutamic acid using recombinant l-glutamate oxidase (LGOX) was developed. First, by analyzing the molecular structure characteristics of l-glutamic acid and α-KG, LGOX was found to be the best catalyst for oxidizing the amino group of l-glutamic acid to a ketonic group without the need for exogenous cofactor. Then the LGOX gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in a soluble and active form, and the recombinant LGOX activity reached to a maximum value of 0.59U/mL at pH 6.5, 30°C. Finally, the maximum α-KG concentration reached 104.7g/L from 110g/L l-glutamic acid in 24h, under the following optimum conditions: 1.5U/mL LGOX, 250U/mL catalase, 3mM MnCl2, 30°C, and pH 6.5. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Nitroglycerin enhances the propagation of cortical spreading depression: comparative studies with sumatriptan and novel kynurenic acid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp L

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Levente Knapp,1 Bence Szita,1 Kitti Kocsis,1,2 László Vécsei,2,3 József Toldi1,2 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Neuroscience, University of Szeged, 2MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Centre, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Background: The complex pathophysiology of migraine is not yet clearly understood; therefore, experimental models are essential for the investigation of the processes related to migraine headache, which include cortical spreading depression (CSD and NO donor-induced neurovascular changes. Data on the assessment of drug efficacy in these models are often limited, which prompted us to investigate a novel combined migraine model in which an effective pharmacon could be more easily identified. Materials and methods: In vivo electrophysiological experiments were performed to investigate the effect of nitroglycerin (NTG on CSD induced by KCl application. In addition, sumatriptan and newly synthesized neuroactive substances (analogues of the neuromodulator kynurenic acid [KYNA] were also tested. Results: The basic parameters of CSDs were unchanged following NTG administration; however, propagation failure was decreased compared to the controls. Sumatriptan decreased the number of CSDs, whereas propagation failure was as minimal as in the NTG group. On the other hand, both of the KYNA analogues restored the ratio of propagation to the control level. Discussion: The ratio of propagation appeared to be the indicator of the effect of NTG. This is the first study providing direct evidence that NTG influences CSD; furthermore, we observed different effects of sumatriptan and KYNA analogues. Sumatriptan changed the generation of CSDs, whereas the analogues acted on the propagation of the waves. Our experimental design overlaps with a large spectrum of processes present in migraine pathophysiology, and it can be a useful experimental model

  9. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue lowers blood pressure through vasodilation and sodium channel inhibition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, M. A. H.; Pavlov, T. S.; Christain, S. V.; Neckář, Jan; Staruschenko, A.; Gauthier, K. M.; Capdevila, J. H.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, W. B.; Imig, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 7 (2014), s. 463-474 ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : angiotensin II * epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) * epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.598, year: 2014

  10. Investigation of supramolecular synthons and structural characterisation of aminopyridine-carboxylic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemamalini, Madhukar; Loh, Wan-Sin; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    Co-crystal is a structurally homogeneous crystalline material that contains two or more neutral building blocks that are present in definite stoichiometric amounts. The main advantage of co-crystals is their ability to generate a variety of solid forms of a drug that have distinct physicochemical properties from the solid co-crystal components. In the present investigation, five co-crystals containing 2-amino-6-chloropyridine (AMPY) moiety were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of 2-amino-6-chloropyridine (AMPY) (I), and the robustness of pyridine-acid supramolecular synthon were discussed in four stoichiometry co-crystals of AMPY…BA (II), AMPY…2ABA (III), AMPY…3CLBA (IV) and AMPY…4NBA (V). The abbreviated designations used are benzoic acid (BA), 2-aminobenzoic acid (2ABA), 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3CLBA) and 4-nitrobenzoic acid (4NBA). All the crystalline materials have been characterized by (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, IR, photoluminescence, TEM analysis and X-ray diffraction. The supramolecular assembly of each co-crystal is analyzed and discussed. Extensive N---H · · · N/N---H · · · O/O---H · · · N hydrogen bonds are found in (I-V), featuring different supramolecular synthons. In the crystal structure, for compound (I), the 2-amino-6-chloropyridine molecules are linked together into centrosymmetric dimers by hydrogen bonds to form homosynthon, whereas for compounds (II-V), the carboxylic group of the respective acids (benzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 3-chlorobenzoic acid and 4-nitrobenzoic acid) interacts with pyridine molecule in a linear fashion through a pair of N---H · · · O and O---H · · · N hydrogen bonds, generating cyclic hydrogen-bonded motifs with the graph-set notation [Formula: see text] , to form heterosynthon. In compound (II), another intermolecular N---H · · · O hydrogen bonds further link these heterosynthons into zig-zag chains. Whereas in compounds (IV) and (V

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance titration studies of simple host-guest amine-carboxylic acid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahinay, Myrna S.; Lindoy, Leonard F.

    1999-01-01

    Adduct formation for the open-chain 1,2-diaminoethane and its N-methyl derivatives [N,N-dimethyl-ethylenediamine (N,N-DMEN),N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine (N,N'-DMEN);N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-ethylenediamine (N,N,N',N'-TMEN)]; 1,4-diaminobutane; diethylenetriamine (DIEN); triethylenetramine (TRIEN); and the carboxylic acid systems in polar CD 3 OH and nonpolar CDCl 3 solvents were elucidated by nmr titration. The stoichiometries of the adducts were found to correspond to the number of nitrogen present in the amine species with the exception of ligand incorporating N-donors of low basicity; that is, whose log K values for the protonated species in water were less than approximately 6 to 7.(Author)

  12. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Clopidogrel Bisulfate, Its Carboxylic Acid Metabolite, and Atorvastatin in Human Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Croitoru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, and specific reversed phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of clopidogrel, its carboxylic acid metabolite, and atorvastatin in human serum. Plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and ibuprofen was chosen as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on an BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm via gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of 10 mM phosphoric acid (sodium buffer solution (pH = 2.6 adjusted with 85% orthophosphoric acid : acetonitrile : methanol with flow rate of 1 mL·min−1. Detection was achieved with PDA detector at 220 nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantification, and stability tests. Calibration curves of the analytes were found to be linear in the range of 0.008–2 μg·mL−1 for clopidogrel, 0.01–4 μg·mL−1 for its carboxylic acid metabolite, and 0.005–2.5 μg·mL−1 for atorvastatin. The results of accuracy (as recovery with ibuprofen as internal standard were in the range of 96–98% for clopidogrel, 94–98% for its carboxylic acid metabolite, and 90–99% for atorvastatin, respectively.

  13. Morphology and In Vitro Behavior of Electrospun Fibrous Poly(D,L-lactic acid for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Inami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the fabrication, optimization, and characterization of electrospun fibrous poly(D,L-lactic acid (PDLLA for biomedical applications. The influences of the polymer concentration of the electrospinning solution (5, 10, or 15 wt% and the solution flow rate (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mL/h on the morphology of the obtained fibrous PDLLA were evaluated. The in vitro biocompatibility of two types of PDLLA, ester terminated PDLLA (PDLLA-R and carboxyl terminated PDLLA (PDLLA-COOH, was evaluated by monitoring apatite formation on samples immersed in Hanks’ balanced salt (HBS solution. 15 wt% polymer solution was the most beneficial for preparing a fibrous PDLLA structure. Meanwhile, no differences in morphology were observed for PDLLA prepared at various flow rates. Apatite precipitate is formed on both types of PDLLA only 1 day after immersion in HBS solution. After 7 days of immersion, PDLLA-COOH showed greater apatite formation ability compared with that of PDLLA-R, as measured by thin-film X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that the carboxyl group is effective for apatite precipitation in the body environment.

  14. The effect of omega-3 carboxylic acids on apolipoprotein CIII-containing lipoproteins in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Allyson M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Lee, Jane; Amerine, William; Davidson, Michael H; Sacks, Frank M

    Lipoprotein subspecies containing apoCIII adversely affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; for example, low density lipoprotein (LDL) with apoCIII is a stronger CVD predictor than LDL without apoCIII. The Epanova for Lowering Very High Triglycerides (EVOLVE) trial showed that Epanova (omega-3 carboxylic acids [OM3-CA]) significantly lowered TG and apoCIII but raised LDL-C. However, it is unknown what subspecies of LDL were affected by treatment. To determine how lipoprotein subspecies are affected by omega-3 fatty acid treatment, we studied the effect of OM3-CA on apoCIII concentrations in high density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and on the concentrations of subspecies of HDL, LDL, and VLDL that contain or do not contain apoCIII. We analyzed plasma from a subset of subjects from the EVOLVE trial, a 12-week double-blind study of 399 subjects with fasting TG of 500 to 2000 mg/dL who were randomized to OM3-CA 2, 3, or 4 g/d or olive oil (placebo). OM3-CA significantly reduced plasma apoCIII relative to placebo, as well as apoCIII in HDL, and apoCIII in LDL. Treatment did not significantly affect the concentration of LDL with apoCIII, a subspecies highly associated with CVD risk. OM3-CA increased selectively the concentration of LDL that does not contain apoCIII, a subspecies with a weak relation to coronary heart disease. The reduction in apoCIII was associated with plasma increases in eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid and decreases in linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids. Reduction in apoCIII may be a mechanism for the TG-lowering effects of OM3-CA. The increase in LDL-C seen in the EVOLVE trial may not be associated with increased risk of CVD. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Indium-Catalyzed Reductive Dithioacetalization of Carboxylic Acids with Dithiols: Scope, Limitations, and Application to Oxidative Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kota; Minato, Kohei; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Ogiwara, Yohei; Sakai, Norio

    2017-04-07

    In this study an InI 3 -TMDS (1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane) reducing system effectively catalyzed the reductive dithioacetalization of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with 1,2-ethanedithiol or 1,3-propanedithiol leading to the one-pot preparation of either 1,3-dithiolane derivatives or a 1,3-dithiane derivative. Also, the intact indium catalyst continuously catalyzed the subsequent oxidative desulfurization of an in situ formed 1,3-dithiolane derivative, which led to the preparation of the corresponding aldehydes.

  16. Dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic structures obtained from multifunctional carboxylic acids and amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric properties of several supramolecular ionic polymers and networks, linked by the ammonium salts of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers and two short bis carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (Di......COOH-PEG), are reported in this paper. All supramolecular ionic polymers and networks exhibit very high relative dielectric permittivities ( 3 0 )( 10 2 – 10 6 ) at low frequencies, and signi fi cantly lower values (from 1 up to 26) at high frequencies. Additionally, the dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic......), are investigated. Here the relative dielectric permittivities of the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the multifunctional carboxylic acids were lower than those from the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the two carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s....

  17. Crystal structure of caesium hydrogen (L)-aspartate and an overview of crystalline compounds of aspartic acid with inorganic constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, M. [Universitaet Wien (Austria). Institut fuer Mineralogie und Kristallographie; Emmerich, R.; Bohaty, L. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Austria). Institut fuer Kristallographie

    2010-08-15

    The crystal structure of the new polar compound caesium hydrogen (L)-aspartate, Cs(C{sub 4}H{sub 6}NO{sub 4}), (abbreviated: Cs(L -AspH)) was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data; it comprises two crystallographically different L -AspH anions that are connected via caesium cations to form a three dimensional framework. The Cs ions are irregularly sevenfold[Cs1O{sub 7}] respectively eightfold[Cs2O{sub 8}] coordinated to all {alpha}- and {beta}- carboxylate oxygen atoms. Cs(L -AspH) represents a novel structure type of its own, as do most compounds of (L)-aspartic acid with inorganic constituents. A brief summary of such structurally known aspartates is given. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Ethylene-enhanced catabolism of [14C]indole-3-acetic acid to indole-3-carboxylic acid in citrus leaf tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagee, O.; Riov, J.; Goren, J.

    1990-01-01

    Exogenous [ 14 C]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is conjugated in citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissues to one major substance which has been identified as indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp). Ethylene pretreatment enhanced the catabolism of [ 14 C]IAA to indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), which accumulated as glucose esters (ICGlu). Increased formation of ICGlu by ethylene was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in IAAsp formation. IAAsp and ICGlu were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Formation of ICGlu was dependent on the concentration of ethylene and the duration of the ethylene pretreatment. It is suggested that the catabolism of IAA to ICA may be one of the mechanisms by which ethylene endogenous IAA levels

  19. Determination and confirmation of nicotinic acid and its analogues and derivates in pear and apple blossoms using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, Thomas; Vrhovsek, Urska; Pertot, Ilaria; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2009-11-11

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, a serious disease of apple and pear. The bacterial pathogen colonizes the flower stigma and hypanthium, where it multiplies and then invades through natural openings (nectarthodes). E. amylovora requires nicotinic acid as growth factor, and competition for nicotinic acid is being explored as a novel biocontrol strategy. The ability of E. amylovora to substitute nicotinic acid with analogues or derivates as growth factors has not been investigated yet. Furthermore, the presence and/or variable concentration of nicotinic acid and its analogues/derivates in the hypanthium could be associated with the different susceptibilities to fire blight of hosts and nonhosts and with the differential sensitivity to the disease among apple and pear varieties. Currently, no methods to specifically quantify nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid analogues/derivates in the hypanthium of apple and pear blossoms are available. This study demonstrates that E. amylovora can grow using nicotinamide and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid as alternative growth factors to nicotinic acid, but not using 2-hydroxynicotinic acid. A novel HPLC/ES-MS method was developed for the detection and quantification of nicotinic acid and its analogues/derivates directly in the hypanthium of apple and pear blossoms. Analyses established the presence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, whereas no detectable amounts of 6-hydroxynicotinic acid and 2-hydroxynicotinic acid were observed. Mean nicotinic acid content in the pear hypanthium was found to be approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than in the apple hypanthium, which may contribute to the differential susceptibility of these two host species to fire blight. Contents of nicotinamide were in contrast similar. Nicotinic acid can therefore be considered a relevant factor in the pathogen establishment in pear blossoms, whereas nicotinamide could cover a primary role in apple blossoms.

  20. Corrosion of stainless steel in alcohol solutions of the simplest carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, V.I.; Korneeva, T.V.; Tsygankova, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of stainless Kh18N10T steel is considered in the methanol and ethanol solutions of formic and acetic acids, respectively. Consideration is given to the effect of the concentration (C) of the acid (0.01-1.00 N), water (0.1-20.0 mass.%) and temperature (room temperature, 40 and 60 deg C). Curves of anodic polarization were plotted. In the course of time in 1.0 and 0.5 N anhydrous methanol solutions of HCOOH at room temperature in the absence of the external anode current one can observe an increase in the electrode potential. Continued reduction of the formic acid concentration results in an improvement on the initial potential (psi) and a practical constancy of psi in time. It is shown that depending on the acid concentration the additions of water are capable of producing both a passivating and an activating effect. It is assumed that the growth in the length of the hydrocarbon radical of carboxylic acid promotes the adsorption displacement of water and alcohols from the metal surface and enhancement of the corrosion rate

  1. Multicomponent hydrogen-bonding organic solids constructed from 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and N-heterocycles: Synthesis, structural characterization and synthon discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yingxia; Shao, Hui; Pang, Yanyan; Wang, Debao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Seven novel multicomponent crystals involving various substituted organic amine molecules and 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were prepared and characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Crystal structures with 1,4-bis(imidazol) butane (L1) 1, 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (L2) 2, 1-phenyl piperazine 3, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine 4, 4,4'-bipyridine 5, 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridine 6, 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine 7 were determined. Among the seven molecular complexes, total proton transfer from 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid to coformer has occurred in crystals 1-4, while the remaining were cocrystals. X-ray single-crystal structures of these complexes reveal that strong hydrogen bonding O-H···O/N-H···O/O-H···N and weak C-H···O/C-H···π/π···π intermolecular interactions direct the packing modes of molecular crystals together. The analysis of supramolecular synthons in the present structures shows that some classical supramolecular synthons like pyridine-carboxylic acid heterosynthon R22 (7) and aminopyridine-carboxylic acid heterosynthon R22 (8), are again observed in constructing the hydrogen-bonding networks in this paper. Besides, we noticed that water molecules act as a significant hydrogen-bonding connector in constructing supramolecular architectures of 3, 4, 6, and 7.

  2. Complexation and biodistribution study of 111In complexes of bifunctional phosphinic acid analogues of H4DOTA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forsterová, Michaela; Zimová, Jana; Petrík, M.; Lázníček, M.; Lázníčková, A.; Hermann, P.; Melichar, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 337 (2007), s. 34-34 ISSN 1619-7070 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : bifunctional H4DOTA ligands * phosphinic acid analogues, * complexation of 111In Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  3. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids: a critical review of physicochemical properties, levels and patterns in waters and wastewaters, and treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2009-10-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are an emerging class of environmental contaminants present in various environmental and biological matrices. Two major PFA subclasses are the perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The physicochemical properties and partitioning behavior for the linear PFA members are poorly understood and widely debated. Even less is known about the numerous branched congeners with varying perfluoroalkyl chain lengths, leading to confounding issues around attempts to constrain the properties of PFAs. Current computational methods are not adequate for reliable multimedia modeling efforts and risk assessments. These compounds are widely present in surface, ground, marine, and drinking waters at concentrations that vary from pg L(-1) to microg L(-1). Concentration gradients of up to several orders of magnitude are observed in all types of aquatic systems and reflect proximity to known industrial sources concentrated near populated regions. Some wastewaters contain PFAs at mg L(-1) to low g L(-1) levels, or up to 10 orders of magnitude higher than present in more pristine receiving waters. With the exception of trifluoroacetic acid, which is thought to have both significant natural and anthropogenic sources, all PFSAs and PFCAs are believed to arise from human activities. Filtration and sorption technologies offer the most promising existing removal methods for PFAs in aqueous waste streams, although sonochemical approaches hold promise. Additional studies need to be conducted to better define opportunities from evaporative, extractive, thermal, advanced oxidative, direct and catalyzed photochemical, reductive, and biodegradation methods. Most PFA treatment methods exhibit slow kinetic profiles, hindering their direct application in conventional low hydraulic residence time systems.

  4. Analysis of carboxylate coordination function of the isomeric lanthanide pyridinedicarboxylates by means of vibration spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntus, L.; Zolin, V.; Kudryashova, V.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of IR spectra of salts of six isomers of pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDA): 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4- and 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acids, have demonstrated that properties of these salts are dependent on the bonding manner of carboxylate groups and on coordination of heterocyclic nitrogen atom. The most prominent differences in properties and spectra of 2,6- and 3,4-PDA salts are conditioned correspondingly by monodentate and bidentate coordination functions of the carboxylate groups in these compounds. The correlation of the breathing vibration frequency, reflecting the rigidity of the heterocyclic ring, with position of the carboxylate substituents, conditioning intramolecular charge transfer (CT), was postulated and proved by shifts of the breathing vibration frequency dependent on the structure of isomeric ligand

  5. Cofactor Balance by Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase (NNT) Coordinates Reductive Carboxylation and Glucose Catabolism in the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Paulo A.; Laviolette, Laura A.; Kelleher, Joanne K.; Iliopoulos, Othon; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and proliferating cells exhibit an increased demand for glutamine-derived carbons to support anabolic processes. In addition, reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate by isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and 2 (IDH2) was recently shown to be a major source of citrate synthesis from glutamine. The role of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ cofactors in coordinating glucose and glutamine utilization in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is not well understood, with the source(s) of NADPH for the reductive carboxylation reaction remaining unexplored. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is a mitochondrial enzyme that transfers reducing equivalents from NADH to NADPH. Here, we show that knockdown of NNT inhibits the contribution of glutamine to the TCA cycle and activates glucose catabolism in SkMel5 melanoma cells. The increase in glucose oxidation partially occurred through pyruvate carboxylase and rendered NNT knockdown cells more sensitive to glucose deprivation. Importantly, knocking down NNT inhibits reductive carboxylation in SkMel5 and 786-O renal carcinoma cells. Overexpression of NNT is sufficient to stimulate glutamine oxidation and reductive carboxylation, whereas it inhibits glucose catabolism in the TCA cycle. These observations are supported by an impairment of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratios. Our findings underscore the role of NNT in regulating central carbon metabolism via redox balance, calling for other mechanisms that coordinate substrate preference to maintain a functional TCA cycle. PMID:23504317

  6. Lipase catalyzed epoxidation of fatty acid methyl esters derived from unsaturated vegetable oils in absence of carboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustaita-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Ramos-Sánchez, Víctor H; Camacho-Dávila, Alejandro A; Zaragoza-Galán, Gerardo; Espinoza-Hicks, José C; Chávez-Flores, David

    2018-04-11

    Nowadays the industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes as lipases are increasing its use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters obtained from transesterification of vegetable oils have recently found applications as polymer plasticizer, agrochemical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food additives. In this research article, grapeseed, avocado and olive oils naturally containing high percents of mono and poly unsaturations were used as starting materials for the production of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. The effect of lauric acid as an active oxygen carrier was studied on epoxidation reactions where unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were converted to epoxy fatty acid methyl esters using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase type B as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxygen donor at mild temperature and pressure conditions. After this study it was confirmed by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and GC-MS that the addition of lauric acid to the enzymatic reaction is unnecessary to transform the alkenes in to epoxides. It was found that quantitative conversions were possible in despite of a carboxylic acid absence.

  7. L-Cysteine/D,L-homocysteine-regulated ileum motility via system L and B°(,+) transporter: Modification by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide synthesis and dietary treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Satoshi; Nomura, Ryouya; Yanagihara, Madoka; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that L-cysteine treatments decreased motility in gastrointestinal tissues including the ileum via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is formed from sulfur-containing amino acids such as L-cysteine and L-homocysteine. However, the amino acid transport systems involved in L-cysteine/L-homocysteine-induced responses have not yet been elucidated in detail; therefore, we investigated these systems pharmacologically by measuring electrical stimulation (ES)-induced contractions with amino acids in mouse ileum preparations. The treatments with L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine inhibited ES-induced contractions in ileum preparations from fasted mice, and these responses were decreased by the treatment with 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (BCH), an inhibitor of systems L and B°(,+). The results obtained using ileum preparations and a model cell line (PC12 cells) with various amino acids and BCH showed that not only L-cysteine, but also aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine, which act as H2S synthesis inhibitors, appeared to be taken up by these preparations/cells in L and B°(,+) system-dependent manners. The L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine responses were delayed and abolished, respectively, in ileum preparations from fed mice. Our results suggested that the regulation of ileum motility by L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine was dependent on BCH-sensitive systems, and varied depending on feeding in mice. Therefore, the effects of aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine on transport systems need to be considered in pharmacological analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannels, S.R.; Gallaher, K.J.; Wallin, R.; Rannels, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Rat type II pneumocytes expressed vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity that incorporated 14 CO 2 into microsomal protein precursors of molecular weights similar to those of surfactant-associated proteins (SAP). Compared to carboxylated precursor proteins present in the liver, these molecules appeared to be unique to the lung. Antibodies raised against purified rat surfactant reacted with SAP resolved by NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and with surfactant-containing lamellar bodies in type II pneumocyte cytoplasm. NaDodSO 4 /PAGE of microsomal proteins, after carboxylase-catalyzed incorporation of 14 CO 2 , demonstrated radiolabeled, immunoreactive products identical to SAP. The presence of γ-carboxyglutamic acid in these proteins was confirmed by HPLC analysis of SAP hydrolysates. Furthermore, lung carboxylase activity and SAP matured over similar time courses during fetal lung development. These results show that SAP are carboxylated by type II cells via a vitamin K-dependent pathway analogous to that for hepatic carboxylation of clotting factors. Further analogy to the clotting system suggest that γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues in SAP polypeptides play a role in Ca 2+ binding and thus in the known requirements for both cation and SAP in the physiological function of pulmonary surfactant

  9. Meso-ester and carboxylic acid substituted BODIPYs with far-red and near-infrared emission for bioimaging applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ni, Yong; Zeng, Lintao; Kang, Namyoung; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Liang; Zeng, Zebing; Chang, Young-Tae; Wu, Jishan

    2014-01-01

    -6) become partially soluble in water, and their absorptions and emissions are located in the far-red or near-infrared region. Three synthetic approaches are attempted to access the meso-carboxylic acid (COOH)-substituted BODIPYs 7 and 8 from the meso

  10. Supported L-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid-4-hydrogen sulphate on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pounds.2 Furthermore, a field of increasing interest is the synthesis of useful ... MCRs is of interest.3–5 β-Acetamido ketones .... we decide to introduce a new, simple, mild and effective .... Financial support for this study by the Research Affairs.

  11. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  12. Reactions and reaction intermediates on iron surfaces--1. Methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol on Fe(100). 2. Hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benziger, J.B.; Madix, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    Temperature-programed desorption and ESCA showed that the alcohols formed alkoxy intermediates on Fe(100) surfaces at room temperature, but that the methoxy and ethoxy species were much more stable than the isopropoxy intermediate. The alkoxy species reacted above 400/sup 0/K by decomposing into carbon monoxide and hydrogen, hydrogenation to alcohol, and scission of C-C and C-O bonds with hydrogenation of the hydrocarbon fragments. Ethylene, acetylene, and cis-2-butene formed stable, unidentified surface species. Methyl chloride formed stable surface methyl groups which decomposed into hydrogen and surface carbide at 475/sup 0/K. Formic and acetic acids yielded stable carboxylate intermediates which decomposed above 490/sup 0/K to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The studies suggested that the alkoxy surface species may be important intermediates in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction on iron.

  13. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Otto, Nicola; Win, Khaing; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Carter, Pauline; King, Payton; Reid, Alicia E.; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed interest in their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics and the relationship of these properties to their therapeutic and side effect profiles. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these drugs in primates, we synthesized their carbon-11 labeled analogues and performed dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) in six female baboons over 90 min. The carbon-11 labeled carboxylic acids were prepared by using 11 CO 2 and the appropriate Grignard reagents. [ 11 C]BA was metabolized rapidly (only 20% of the total carbon-11 in plasma was parent compound at 5 min post injection) whereas for VPA and PBA 98% and 85% of the radioactivity were the unmetabolized compound at 30 min after their administration respectively. The brain uptake of all three carboxylic acids was very low ( VPA > PBA), which is consistent with the need for very high doses for therapeutic efficacy. Most of the radioactivity was excreted through the kidneys and accumulated in the bladder. However, the organ biodistribution between the drugs differed. [ 11 C]BA showed relatively high uptake in spleen and pancreas whereas [ 11 C]PBA showed high uptake in liver and heart. Notably, [ 11 C]VPA showed exceptionally high heart uptake possibly due to its involvement in lipid metabolism. The unique biodistribution of each of these drugs may be of relevance in understanding their therapeutic and side effect profile including their teratogenic effects

  14. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  15. Enhancing Cooperativity in Bifunctional Acid–Pd Catalysts with Carboxylic Acid-Functionalized Organic Monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, Patrick D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Ellis, Lucas D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Griffin, Michael B. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Schwartz, Daniel K. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Medlin, J. Will [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States

    2018-03-01

    Cooperative catalysts containing a combination of noble metal hydrogenation sites and Bronsted acid sites are critical for many reactions, including the deoxygenation (DO) of biomass-derived oxygenates in the upgrading of pyrolysis oil. One route toward the design of cooperative catalysts is to tether two different catalytically active functions so that they are in close proximity while avoiding undesirable interactions that can block active sites. Here, we deposited carboxylic acid (CA)-functionalized organophosphonate monolayers onto Al2O3-supported Pd nanoparticle catalysts to prepare bifunctional catalysts containing both Bronsted acid and metal sites. Modification with phosphonic acids (PAs) improved activity and selectivity for gas-phase DO reactions, but the degree of improvement was highly sensitive to both the presence and positioning of the CA group, suggesting a significant contribution from both the PA and CA sites. Short spacer lengths of 1-2 methylene groups between the phosphonate head and CA tail were found to yield the best DO rates and selectivities, whereas longer chains performed similarly to self-assembled monolayers having alkyl tails. Results from a combination of density functional theory and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the enhanced catalyst performance on the optimally positioned CAs was due to the generation of strong acid sites on the Al2O3 support adjacent to the metal. Furthermore, the high activity of these sites was found to result from a hydrogen-bonded cyclic structure involving cooperativity between the phosphonate head group and CA tail function. More broadly, these results indicate that functional groups tethered to supports via organic ligands can influence catalytic chemistry on metal nanoparticles.

  16. The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase IIα Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5 μM , HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3 μM, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0 μM, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2 μM were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe2+ caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe2+ of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1 and alkylating agents (G2. BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation.

  17. CARBOXYLATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FOR THE IMMOBILIZATION OF β-GALACTOSIDASE AND ITS EFFICACY IN GALACTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed Ansari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the carboxylation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by 1:3 nitric acid-sulfuric acid mixtures for immobilizing Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase. Carboxylated AgNPs retained 93% enzyme upon immobilization and the enzyme did not leach out appreciably from the modified nanosupport in the presence of 100 mmol L-1 NaCl. Atomic force micrograph revealed the binding of β-galactosidase on the modified AgNPs. The optimal pH for soluble and carboxylated AgNPs adsorbed β-galactosidase (IβG was observed at pH 4.5 while the optimal operating temperature was broadened from 50 ºC to 60 ºC for IβG. Michaelis constant, Km was increased two and a half fold for IβG while Vmax decreases slightly as compared to soluble enzyme. β-galactosidase immobilized on surface functionalized AgNPs retained 70% biocatalytic activity even at 4% galactose concentration as compared to enzyme in solution. Our study showed that IβG produces greater amount of galacto-oligosaccharides at higher temperatures (50 ºC and 60 ºC from 0.1 mol L-1 lactose solution at pH 4.5 as compared to previous reports.

  18. Megasphaera hexanoica sp. nov., a medium-chain carboxylic acid-producing bacterium isolated from a cow rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byoung Seung; Kim, Seil; Sang, Byoung-In

    2017-07-01

    Strain MHT, a strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, spherical coccus or coccoid-shaped microorganism, was isolated from a cow rumen during a screen for hexanoic acid-producing bacteria. The microorganism grew at 30-40 °C and pH 5.5-7.5 and exhibited production of various short- and medium-chain carboxylic acids (acetic acid, butyric acid, pentanoic acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid and octanoic acid), as well as H2 and CO2 as biogas. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that MHT represents a member of the genus Megasphaera, with the closest relatives being Megapsphaera indica NMBHI-10T (94.1 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity), Megasphaera elsdenii DSM 20460T (93.8 %) and Megasphaera paucivorans DSM 16981T (93.8 %). The major cellular fatty acids produced by MHT included C12 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1cis 9, and C18 : 0, and the DNA G+C content of the MHT genome is 51.8 mol%. Together, the distinctive phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of MHT indicate that this microorganism represents a novel species of the genus Megasphaera, for which the name Megasphaera hexanoica sp. nov. is herein proposed. The type strain of this species is MHT (=KCCM 43214T=JCM 31403T).

  19. Comparative in vitro toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Cecon T; Damayanti, Nur P; Guffey, Samuel C; Serafin, Jennifer S; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2017-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly bioaccumulative and persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an eight-carbon chain perfluorinated carboxylic acid, was used heavily for the production of fluoropolymers, but concerns have led to its replacement by shorter carbon chain homologues such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). However, limited toxicity data exist for these substitutes. We evaluated the toxicity of PFOA, PFHxA and PFBA on a zebrafish liver cell line and investigated the effects of exposure on cell metabolism. Gross toxicity after 96 h of exposure was highest for PFOA and PFO - , while PFHxA and PFBA exhibited lower toxicity. Although the structural similarity of these compounds to fatty acids suggests the possibility of interference with the transport and metabolism of lipids, we could not detect any differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (ppar-α, -β and -γ), fabp3 and crot genes after 96 h exposure to up to 10 ppm of the test compounds. However, we observed localized lipid droplet accumulation only in PFBA-exposed cells. To study the effects of these compounds on cell metabolism, we conducted fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using naturally fluorescent biomarkers, NADH and FAD. The fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD and the bound/free ratio of each of these coenzymes decreased in a dose- and carbon length-dependent manner, suggesting disruption of cell metabolism. In sum, our study revealed that PFASs with shorter carbon chains are less toxic than PFOA, and that exposure to sublethal dosage of PFOA, PFHxA or PFBA affects cell metabolism. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Mechanism of MenE inhibition by acyl-adenylate analogues and discovery of novel antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarlo, Joe S; Evans, Christopher E; Sharma, Indrajeet; Lavaud, Lubens J; Ngo, Stephen C; Shek, Roger; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; French, Jarrod B; Tan, Derek S; Tonge, Peter J

    2015-10-27

    MenE is an o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) synthetase in the bacterial menaquinone biosynthesis pathway and is a promising target for the development of novel antibacterial agents. The enzyme catalyzes CoA ligation via an acyl-adenylate intermediate, and we have previously reported tight-binding inhibitors of MenE based on stable acyl-sulfonyladenosine analogues of this intermediate, including OSB-AMS (1), which has an IC50 value of ≤25 nM for Escherichia coli MenE. Herein, we show that OSB-AMS reduces menaquinone levels in Staphylococcus aureus, consistent with its proposed mechanism of action, despite the observation that the antibacterial activity of OSB-AMS is ∼1000-fold lower than the IC50 for enzyme inhibition. To inform the synthesis of MenE inhibitors with improved antibacterial activity, we have undertaken a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study stimulated by the knowledge that OSB-AMS can adopt two isomeric forms in which the OSB side chain exists either as an open-chain keto acid or a cyclic lactol. These studies revealed that negatively charged analogues of the keto acid form bind, while neutral analogues do not, consistent with the hypothesis that the negatively charged keto acid form of OSB-AMS is the active isomer. X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis confirm the importance of a conserved arginine for binding the OSB carboxylate. Although most lactol isomers tested were inactive, a novel difluoroindanediol inhibitor (11) with improved antibacterial activity was discovered, providing a pathway toward the development of optimized MenE inhibitors in the future.

  1. Analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in soils II: optimization of chromatography and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, John W; Henderson, W Matthew; Ellington, J Jackson; Jenkins, Thomas M; Evans, John J

    2008-02-15

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary phases, two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems, and eight combinations of sample-extract pretreatments, extractions and cleanups on three test soils. For the columns and systems we tested, we achieved the greatest analytical sensitivity for PFCAs using a column with a C(18) stationary phase in a Waters LC/MS/MS. In this system we achieved an instrument detection limit for PFOA of 270 ag/microL, equating to about 14 fg of PFOA on-column. While an elementary acetonitrile/water extraction of soils recovers PFCAs effectively, natural soil organic matter also dissolved in the extracts commonly imparts significant noise that appears as broad, multi-nodal, asymmetric peaks that coelute with several PFCAs. The intensity and elution profile of this noise is highly variable among soils and it challenges detection of low concentrations of PFCAs by decreasing the signal-to-noise contrast. In an effort to decrease this background noise, we investigated several methods of pretreatment, extraction and cleanup, in a variety of combinations, that used alkaline and unbuffered water, acetonitrile, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, dispersed activated carbon and solid-phase extraction. For the combined objectives of complete recovery and minimization of background noise, we have chosen: (1) alkaline pretreatment; (2) extraction with acetonitrile/water; (3) evaporation to dryness; (4) reconstitution with tetrabutylammonium-hydrogen-sulfate ion-pairing solution; (5) ion-pair extraction to methyl-tert-butyl ether; (6) evaporation to dryness; (7) reconstitution with 60/40 acetonitrile/water (v/v); and (8) analysis by LC/MS/MS. Using this method, we

  2. High fluorescence emission of carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene/BaTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites and rare earth metal complexes: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X. T.; Showkat, A. M.; Wang, Z.; Lim, K. T., E-mail: ktlim@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-30

    Noble fluorescence nanocomposite compound based on barium titanate nanoparticles (BTO), polystyrene (PSt), and terbium ion (Tb{sup 3+}) was synthesized by a combination of surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and coordinate chemistry. Initially, a modification of surface of BTO was conducted by an exchange process with S-benzyl S’-trimethoxysilylpropyltrithiocarbonate to create macro-initiator for polymerization of styrene. Subsequently, aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene grafted barium titanate (BTO-g-PSt-COOH) was generated by substitution reaction between 4-(Chloromethyl) benzoic acid and PSt chains. The coordination of the nanohybrids with Tb{sup 3+} ions afforded fluorescent Tb{sup 3+} tagged aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene grafted barium titanate (BTO-g-PSt-Tb{sup 3+}) complexes. Structure, morphology, and fluorescence properties of nanohybrid complexes were investigated by respective physical and spectral studies. FT-IR and SEM analyses confirmed the formation of BTO-g-PSt-Tb{sup 3+}nanohybrids. Furthermore, TGA profiles demonstrated the grafting of aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene on BTO surface. Optical properties of BTO-g-PSt-Tb{sup 3+} complexes were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  3. Towards modelling the vibrational signatures of functionalized surfaces: carboxylic acids on H-Si(111) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giresse Tetsassi Feugmo, Conrard; Champagne, Benoît; Caudano, Yves; Cecchet, Francesca; Chabal, Yves J.; Liégeois, Vincent

    2012-03-01

    In this work, we investigate the adsorption process of two carboxylic acids (stearic and undecylenic) on a H-Si(111) surface via the calculation of structural and energy changes as well as the simulation of their IR and Raman spectra. The two molecules adsorb differently at the surface since the stearic acid simply physisorbs while the undecylenic acid undergoes a chemical reaction with the hydrogen atoms of the surface. This difference is observed in the change of geometry during the adsorption. Indeed, the chemisorption of the undecylenic acid has a bigger impact on the structure than the physisorption of the stearic acid. Consistently, the former is also characterized by a larger value of adsorption energy and a smaller value of the tilting angle with respect to the normal plane. For both the IR and Raman signatures, the spectra of both molecules adsorbed at the surface are in a first approximation the superposition of the spectra of the Si cluster and of the carboxylic acid considered individually. The main deviation from this simple observation is the peak of the stretching Si-H (ν(Si-H)) mode, which is split into two peaks upon adsorption. As expected, the splitting is bigger for the chemisorption than the physisorption. The modes corresponding to atomic displacements close to the adsorption site display a frequency upshift by a dozen wavenumbers. One can also see the disappearance of the peaks associated with the C=C double bond when the undecylenic acid chemisorbs at the surface. The Raman and IR spectra are complementary and one can observe here that the most active Raman modes are generally IR inactive. Two exceptions to this are the two ν(Si-H) modes which are active in both spectroscopies. Finally, we compare our simulated spectra with some experimental measurements and we find an overall good agreement.

  4. Towards modelling the vibrational signatures of functionalized surfaces: carboxylic acids on H-Si(111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsassi Feugmo, Conrard Giresse; Champagne, Benoît; Liégeois, Vincent; Caudano, Yves; Cecchet, Francesca; Chabal, Yves J

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the adsorption process of two carboxylic acids (stearic and undecylenic) on a H-Si(111) surface via the calculation of structural and energy changes as well as the simulation of their IR and Raman spectra. The two molecules adsorb differently at the surface since the stearic acid simply physisorbs while the undecylenic acid undergoes a chemical reaction with the hydrogen atoms of the surface. This difference is observed in the change of geometry during the adsorption. Indeed, the chemisorption of the undecylenic acid has a bigger impact on the structure than the physisorption of the stearic acid. Consistently, the former is also characterized by a larger value of adsorption energy and a smaller value of the tilting angle with respect to the normal plane. For both the IR and Raman signatures, the spectra of both molecules adsorbed at the surface are in a first approximation the superposition of the spectra of the Si cluster and of the carboxylic acid considered individually. The main deviation from this simple observation is the peak of the stretching Si-H (ν(Si-H)) mode, which is split into two peaks upon adsorption. As expected, the splitting is bigger for the chemisorption than the physisorption. The modes corresponding to atomic displacements close to the adsorption site display a frequency upshift by a dozen wavenumbers. One can also see the disappearance of the peaks associated with the C=C double bond when the undecylenic acid chemisorbs at the surface. The Raman and IR spectra are complementary and one can observe here that the most active Raman modes are generally IR inactive. Two exceptions to this are the two ν(Si-H) modes which are active in both spectroscopies. Finally, we compare our simulated spectra with some experimental measurements and we find an overall good agreement. (paper)

  5. Synthesis, crystal structures, and luminescent properties of two series' of new lanthanide (III) amino-carboxylate-phosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Hua; Yi, Fei-Yan; Li, Pei-Xin; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2010-02-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of lanthanide(III) chlorides with 4-HOOC-C(6)H(4)-CH(2)NHCH(2)PO(3)H(2) (H(3)L) at different ligand-to-metal (L/M) ratios afforded nine new lanthanide(III) carboxylate-phosphonates with two types of 3D network structures, namely, LnCl(HL)(H(2)O)(2) (Ln = Sm, 1; Eu, 2; Gd, 3; Tb, 4; Dy, 5; Er, 6) and [Ln(2)(HL)(H(2)L)(L)(H(2)O)(2)].4H(2)O (Ln = Nd, 7; Sm, 8; Eu, 9). Compounds 1-6 are isostructural and feature a 3D network in which the LnO(7)Cl polyhedra are interconnected by bridging CPO(3) tetrahedra into 2D inorganic layers parallel to the bc plane. These layers are further cross-linked by organic groups of the carboxylate-phosphonate ligands via the coordination of the carboxylate groups into a pillared-layered architecture. Compounds 7-9 are also isostructural and feature a 3D open-framework composed of 1D lanthanide(III) phosphonate inorganic slabs which are further bridged by organic groups of the carboxylate-phosphonate liagnds via the coordination of the carboxylate groups, forming large 1D tunnels along the b-axis which are filled by lattice water molecules. Luminescent measurements indicate that compounds 2, 4, and 5 show strong emission bands in red, green, and yellow light region, respectively. Magnetic properties of 2, 3, 5, and 7 have also been studied.

  6. Discovery and Evaluation of Thiazinoquinones as Anti-Protozoal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kaiser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pure compound screening has identified the dioxothiazino-quinoline-quinone ascidian metabolite ascidiathiazone A (2 to be a moderate growth inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 3.1 μM and Plasmodium falciparum (K1 dual drug resistant strain (IC50 3.3 μM while exhibiting low levels of cytotoxicity (L6, IC50 167 μM. A series of C-7 amide and Δ2(3 analogues were prepared that explored the influence of lipophilicity and oxidation state on observed anti-protozoal activity and selectivity. Little variation in anti-malarial potency was observed (IC50 0.62–6.5 μM, and no correlation was apparent between anti-malarial and anti-T. brucei activity. Phenethylamide 7e and Δ2(3-glycine analogue 8k exhibited similar anti-Pf activity to 2 but with slightly enhanced selectivity (SI 72 and 93, respectively, while Δ2(3-phenethylamide 8e (IC50 0.67 μM, SI 78 exhibited improved potency and selectivity towards T. brucei rhodesiense compared to the natural product hit. A second series of analogues were prepared that replaced the quinoline ring of 2 with benzofuran or benzothiophene moieties. While esters 10a/10b and 15 were once again found to exhibit cytotoxicity, carboxylic acid analogues exhibited potent anti-Pf activity (IC50 0.34–0.035 μM combined with excellent selectivity (SI 560–4000. In vivo evaluation of a furan carboxylic acid analogue against P. berghei was undertaken, demonstrating 85.7% and 47% reductions in parasitaemia with ip or oral dosing respectively.

  7. Transition metal-catalyzed carboxylation reactions with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruben; Tortajada, Andreu; Juliá-Hernández, Francisco; Borjesson, Marino; Moragas, Toni

    2018-05-03

    Driven by the inherent synthetic potential of CO2 as an abundant, inexpensive and renewable C1 chemical feedstock, the recent years have witnessed renewed interest in devising catalytic CO2 fixations into organic matter. Although the formation of C-C bonds via catalytic CO2 fixation remained rather limited for a long period of time, a close look into the recent literature data indicates that catalytic carboxylation reactions have entered a new era of exponential growth, evolving into a mature discipline that allows for streamlining the synthesis of carboxylic acids, building blocks of utmost relevance in industrial endeavours. These strategies have generally proven broadly applicability and convenient to perform. However, substantial challenges still need to be addressed reinforcing the need to cover metal-catalyzed carboxylation arena in a conceptual and concise manner, delineating the underlying new principles that are slowly emerging in this vibrant area of expertise. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effect of a Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A Small-angle Neutron Scattering Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arum Patriati; Edy Giri Rachman Putra

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 COOH and hexadecanoic acid, CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 COOH as a co-surfactant in the 0.3M SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Here, the present of dodecanoic acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 21.7 Armstrong to 35.5 Armstrong at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Armstrong in the present of 0.005M to 0.1M dodecanoic acid. Nevertheless, this effect was not shown in the present of hexadecanoic acid with the same concentration range. The present of hexadecanoic acid molecules gave a small effect on growth of SDS micelles where the major axis of the micelle was simply elongated from 21.5 Armstrong to 23.5 Armstrong. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules is one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure. (author)

  9. Solar photoelectro-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid optimized by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Almeida, Lucio Cesar; Bocchi, Nerilso; Brillas, Enric

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The herbicide MCPA is quickly mineralized by solar photoelectro-Fenton. → A CCRD allowed the optimization of current, Fe 2+ content and solution pH. → TOC, MCE and energy consumption are described by response surface methodology. → Generated hydroxyl radical destroys MCPA and its aromatic oxidation by-products. → UV light of solar irradiation photolyzes the Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes produced. - Abstract: A central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the experimental variables of the solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) treatment of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). The experiments were made with a flow plant containing a Pt/air-diffusion reactor coupled to a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) under recirculation of 10 L of 186 mg L -1 MCPA solutions in 0.05 M Na 2 SO 4 at a liquid flow rate of 180 L h -1 with an average UV irradiation intensity of about 32 W m -2 . The optimum variables found for the SPEF process were 5.0 A, 1.0 mM Fe 2+ and pH 3.0 after 120 min of electrolysis. Under these conditions, 75% of mineralization with 71% of current efficiency and 87.7 kWh kg -1 TOC of energy consumption were obtained. MCPA decayed under the attack of generated hydroxyl radicals following a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Hydroxyl radicals also destroyed 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, methylhydroquinone and methyl-p-benzoquinone detected as aromatic by-products. Glycolic, maleic, fumaric, malic, succinic, tartronic, oxalic and formic acids were identified as generated carboxylic acids, which form Fe(III) complexes that are quickly photodecarboxylated by the UV irradiation of sunlight at the CPC photoreactor. A reaction sequence for the SPEF degradation of MCPA was proposed.

  10. Methyl 3-(Quinolin-2-ylindolizine-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumaissa Belguedj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel compound, methyl 3-(quinolin-2-ylindolizine-1-carboxylate (2 has been synthesized by cycloaddition reaction of 1-(quinolin-2-ylmethylpyridinium ylide (1 with methyl propiolate in presence of sodium hydride in THF. The structure of this compound was established by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS data

  11. Simultaneous determination of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric impurities in SSS-octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Zhao; Zeng, Su; Hu, Gong Yun; Wang, Dan Hua

    2009-04-10

    SSS-Octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid (SSS-Oic) is a key intermediate used in the synthesis of some angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The separation of diastereoisomers and enantiomers of Oic was performed using a pre-column derivatization chiral HPLC method. Phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) was used as the derivatization reagent. Three PITC derivatives of Oic stereoisomers were separated on an Ultron ES-OVM chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). Derivatization conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time and derivatization reagent concentration were investigated. The chromatographic conditions for separation of the three PITC-Oic derivatives were optimized. The method was successfully applied in the diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric purity test of SSS-Oic.

  12. The Ameliorative Effects of L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects and the mechanism of action of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC on acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, APAP only treated group, APAP + 25 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 50 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 100 mg/kg OTC, and APAP + 100 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC as a reference control group. OTC treatment significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a dose dependent manner. OTC treatment was markedly increased glutathione (GSH production and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px activity in a dose dependent manner. The contents of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in liver tissues were significantly decreased by administration of OTC and the inhibitory effect of OTC was similar to that of NAC. Moreover, OTC treatment on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity significantly reduced the formation of nitrotyrosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive areas of liver tissues in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the activity of caspase-3 in liver tissues was reduced by administration of OTC in a dose dependent manner. The ameliorative effects of OTC on APAP-induced liver damage in mice was similar to that of NAC. These results suggest that OTC has ameliorative effects on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice through anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic processes.

  13. Experimental and theoretical elucidation of structural and antioxidant properties of vanillylmandelic acid and its carboxylate anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimić, Dušan; Milenković, Dejan; Ilić, Jelica; Šmit, Biljana; Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina

    2018-06-01

    Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), an important metabolite of catecholamines that is routinely screened as tumor marker, was investigated by the various spectroscopic techniques (IR, Raman, UV-Vis, antioxidant decolorization assay and NMR). Structures optimized by the employment of five common functionals (M05-2X, M06-2X, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP-D3) were compared with the crystallographic data. The M05-2X functional reproduced the most reliable experimental bond lengths and angles (correlation coefficient >0.999). The importance of intramolecular hydrogen bonds for structural stability was discussed and quantified by the NBO analysis. The most prominent bands in vibrational spectrum were analyzed and compared to the experimental data. The positions of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in NMR spectra were well reproduced. The differences in UV-Vis spectrum were investigated by adding the explicit solvent and by performing NBO and QTAIM analyses. The discrepancy in the two spectra of about 50 nm could be explained by the solvent effect on carboxyl group. The most probable antioxidant activity mechanism was discussed for VMA and its carboxylate anion. The Molecular Docking study with the C - reactive protein additionally proved that variety of functional groups present in VMA and its anion allowed strong hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions.

  14. Solid state structure of thorium(IV) complexes with common aminopoly-carboxylate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structures of the complexes formed by reaction of thorium(IV) nitrate with iminodiacetic acid (H 2 IDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (H 3 NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (H 4 EDTA) under hydrothermal conditions are reported. In [Th(HIDA) 2 (C 2 O 4 )].H 2 O (1), the metal atom is chelated by two carboxylate groups from two HIDA - anions and by two oxalate ligands formed in situ; two additional oxygen atoms from two more HIDA - anions complete the ten-coordinate environment of bi-capped square anti-prismatic geometry. The uncoordinated nitrogen atom is protonated and involved in hydrogen bonding. Two different ligands are present in [Th(NTA)(H 2 NTA)(H 2 O)].H 2 O (2), one of them being a O 3 ,N-chelating tri-anion which acts also as a bridge toward two neighboring metal ions, and the other being a bis-monodentate bridging species with an uncoordinated carboxylic arm and a central ammonium group. An aqua ligand completes the nine-coordinated, capped square anti-prismatic metal environment. The EDTA 4- anion in [Th(EDTA)(H 2 O)].2H 2 O (3) is chelating through one oxygen atom from each carboxylate group and the two nitrogen atoms, as in a previously reported molecular complex. Two carboxylate groups are bridging, which, with the addition of an aqua ligand, gives a capped square anti-prismatic coordination polyhedron. Aminopoly-carboxylate ligands have been much investigated in relation with actinide decorporation and nuclear wastes management studies, and the present results add to the structural information available on their complexes with thorium(IV), which has mainly been obtained up to now by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. In particular, the bridging (non-chelating) coordination mode of H 2 NTA - is a novel feature in this context. All three complexes crystallize as two-dimensional assemblies and are thus novel examples of thorium-organic coordination polymers. (author)

  15. l-2-Nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutyun A. Karapetyan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H10N4O4·H2O, crystallizes with two independent formula units in the asymmetric unit, their geometric parameters being quite similar. The conformations of the 1,3-diazepane rings are also similar and close to a twist-boat. All ten O- and N-bound H atoms are involved in hydrogen bonds, two of which are intra- and eight intermolecular linking crystallographically independent molecules, into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  16. Synthetic Nucleic Acid Analogues in Gene Therapy: An Update for Peptide–Oligonucleotide Conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Maria; Mantsiou, Anna; Astakhova, Kira

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to provide an update on synthetic nucleic acid analogues and nanoassemblies as tools in gene therapy. In particular, the synthesis and properties of peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs), which have high potential in research and as therapeutics, are described...

  17. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer.

  18. Structural transformations on N-acetylneuraminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    1986-01-01

    Structural transformations on N-Acetylneuraminic acid are of special interest because of the biological importance of this compound. Although many stereo- and regioselective variations (especially for pyranoid derivatives) have been reported, no detailed studies of the furanoid derivatives from N-Acetylneuramino-1, 4-lactone diethyl dithioacetal have been described hitherto. Therefore a series of derivatives of the Neu5Ac-lactone diethyl dithioacetal has been investigated by n.m.r. spectroscopic techniques. The complete assignment of the 1 H and 13 C resonances was achieved by relaxation time measurements, decoupling experiments and 2-D - shiftcorrelation spectroscopy. The influence of different substituents on the conformational behavior is also discussed. For the Tetra-O-Acetyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid-γ-lactone diethyl dithioacetal the conformation in solution could be determined. The observed data were explained by a zigzag conformation of the backbone as described for the acetylated mannose diethyl dithioacetal. The synthesis of the tetrazole-analogue of N-Acetylneuraminic acid is also described. This compound is of special biological interest because there is a similarity in acidity between the carboxyl-group and the tetrazole-function and the metabolic stability of the tetrazole function is enhanced in comparison with the carboxyl-group. Many of the biological functions of N-Acetylneuraminic acid are connected with the presence of the carboxyl-group. It was therefore interesting to transform this group to the bioisostere tetrazole-function to investigate the influence of the tetrazole-group of this compound on biological activity in the future. During the application of protective groups in the field of Neuraminic acid chemistry a new compound, an ortholactone-derivative of Neu5Ac, was discovered. It's structure is similar to an adamantanecage and the chemistry of such an orthoester function opens new possibilities for structural transformations on N

  19. Cellular uptake of misonidazole and analogues with acidic or basic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, M.F.; Stratford, M.R.L.; Wardman, P.; Watts, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Average intracellular concentrations of five radiosensitizers in hamster fibroblast-like V79-379A cells in vitro were measured by high performance liquid chromatography, varying the extracellular pH(pHsub(e)) and estimating the apparent intracellular pH from the distribution of 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione. The intracellular: extracellular concentration ratio for the 2-nitroimidazole, misonidazole was constant at about 0.7 for pHsub(e)=6.6-7.6, whereas the weak base, Ro 03-8799 (1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-N-piperidino-2-propanol) was concentrated intracellularly at pHsub(e)=7.3-7.4 by a factor of 3.3, the factor increasing from about 0.8 at pHsub(e)=6.0, to 7.5 at pHsub(e)=7.85. The weak acid, azomycin (2-nitroimidazole) showed approximately constant uptake (factor 1.1) between pHsub(e)=6.0-7.0, decreasing to 0.8 at pHsub(e)=7.3 and 0.4 at pHsub(e)=7.8. Measurements of intracellular uptake of Ro 31-0052 (the more hydrophilic and less basic 3'-hydroxypiperidino analogue of Ro 03-8799) and of Ro 31-0258 (3-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)propionic acid, a stronger acid than azomycin) were made for comparison. The results were compared with theoretical calculations of pH-induced concentration gradients; the time dependence of the uptake of the bases is not at present clearly understood. (author)

  20. Cellular Inhibition of Checkpoint Kinase 2 (Chk2) and Potentiation of Camptothecins and Radiation by the Novel Chk2 Inhibitor PV1019 [7-Nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl}-amide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobson, Andrew G.; Lountos, George T.; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Llamas, Jenny; Connelly, John; Cerna, David; Tropea, Joseph E.; Onda, Akikazu; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Kondapaka, Sudhir; Zhang, Guangtao; Caplen, Natasha J.; Cardellina, II, John H.; Yoo, Stephen S.; Monks, Anne; Self, Christopher; Waugh, David S.; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Pommier, Yves; (NIH)

    2010-04-05

    Chk2 is a checkpoint kinase involved in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated pathway, which is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage, leading to either cell death (apoptosis) or cell cycle arrest. Chk2 provides an unexplored therapeutic target against cancer cells. We recently reported 4,4'-diacetyldiphenylurea-bis(guanylhydrazone) (NSC 109555) as a novel chemotype Chk2 inhibitor. We have now synthesized a derivative of NSC 109555, PV1019 (NSC 744039) [7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {l_brace}4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-amide], which is a selective submicromolar inhibitor of Chk2 in vitro. The cocrystal structure of PV1019 bound in the ATP binding pocket of Chk2 confirmed enzymatic/biochemical observations that PV1019 acts as a competitive inhibitor of Chk2 with respect to ATP. PV1019 was found to inhibit Chk2 in cells. It inhibits Chk2 autophosphorylation (which represents the cellular kinase activation of Chk2), Cdc25C phosphorylation, and HDMX degradation in response to DNA damage. PV1019 also protects normal mouse thymocytes against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, and it shows synergistic antiproliferative activity with topotecan, camptothecin, and radiation in human tumor cell lines. We also show that PV1019 and Chk2 small interfering RNAs can exert antiproliferative activity themselves in the cancer cells with high Chk2 expression in the NCI-60 screen. These data indicate that PV1019 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Chk2 with chemotherapeutic and radiosensitization potential.

  1. Protein haze formation in wines revisited. The stabilising effect of organic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, L.; Monteiro, L.; Loureiro, V.; Teixeira, A.R.; Ferreira, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    The effect on the wine protein haze potential of five organic acids commonly encountered in wines (L(+)- tartaric, L( )-malic, citric, succinic and gluconic acids) was assessed. All five acids, tested at 20 mM, reduced dramatically the haze potential of proteins, either in wine or dissolved in water, throughout the range of pH values typical of wines (i.e., from 2.8 through 3.8). Subtle differences among the acid effects did not correlate with the number of their carboxyl groups, ...

  2. Selectivity of substrate binding and ionization of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luanloet, Thikumporn; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2015-08-01

    2-Methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid (MHPC) oxygenase (EC 1.14.12.4) from Pseudomonas sp. MA-1 is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes a hydroxylation and aromatic ring cleavage reaction. The functional roles of two residues, Tyr223 and Tyr82, located ~ 5 Å away from MHPC, were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis, along with ligand binding, product analysis and transient kinetic experiments. Mutation of Tyr223 resulted in enzyme variants that were impaired in their hydroxylation activity and had Kd values for substrate binding 5-10-fold greater than the wild-type enzyme. Because this residue is adjacent to the water molecule that is located next to the 3-hydroxy group of MHPC, the results indicate that the interaction between Tyr223, H2 O and the 3-hydroxyl group of MHPC are important for substrate binding and hydroxylation. By contrast, the Kd for substrate binding of Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. However, only ~ 40-50% of the substrate was hydroxylated in the reactions of both variants, whereas most of the substrate was hydroxylated in the wild-type enzyme reaction. In free solution, MHPC or 5-hydroxynicotinic acid exists in a mixture of monoanionic and tripolar ionic forms, whereas only the tripolar ionic form binds to the wild-type enzyme. The binding of tripolar ionic MHPC would allow efficient hydroxylation through an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism. For the Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants, both forms of substrates can bind to the enzymes, indicating that the mutation at Tyr82 abolished the selectivity of the enzyme towards the tripolar ionic form. Transient kinetic studies indicated that the hydroxylation rate constants of both Tyr82 variants are approximately two- to 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Altogether, our findings suggest that Tyr82 is important for the binding selectivity of MHPC oxygenase towards the tripolar ionic species, whereas the

  3. Synthesis, structure and stability of a chiral imine-based Schiff-based ligand derived from L-glutamic acid and its [Cu4] complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche, Simon; Levacheva, Irina; Samsonova, Olga; Biernasiuk, Anna; Malm, Anna; Lonsdale, Richard; Popiołek, Łukasz; Bakowsky, Udo; Hołyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the stability of a ligand derived from L-glutamic acid and ortho-vanillin and its new [Cu4] complex are presented. The [Cu4] complex contains a heterocubane [CuII4O4] core and pendant carboxylic groups increasing its solubility in water, also under basic conditions. The stability of the complex in different solvents is confirmed with ESI-MS studies and such experiments as successful recrystallization. The complex is stable also under physiological conditions whereas the ligand is partly decomposed to L-glutamic acid and ortho-vanillin.

  4. Laboratory Studies of Aedes aegypti Attraction to Ketones, Sulfides, and Primary Chloroalkanes Tested Alone and in Combination with L-Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Ulrich R; Kline, Daniel L; Allan, Sandra A; Barnard, Donald R

    2015-03-01

    The attraction of female Aedes aegypti to single compounds and binary compositions containing L-lactic acid and an additional saturated compound from a set of ketones, sulfides, and chloroalkanes was studied using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. These chemical classes were studied because of their structural relation to acetone, dimethyl disulfide, and dichloromethane, which have all been reported to synergize attraction to L-lactic acid. Human odors, carbon dioxide, and the binary mixture of L-lactic acid and CO₂served as controls for comparison of attraction responses produced by the binary mixtures. All tested mixtures that contained chloroalkanes attracted mosquitoes at synergistic levels, as did L-lactic acid and CO₂. Synergism was less frequent in mixtures of L-lactic acid with sulfides and ketones; in the case of ketones, synergistic attraction was observed only for L-lactic acid combined with acetone or butanone. Suppression or inhibition of attraction response was observed for combinations that contained ketones of C7-C12 molecular chain length (optimum in the C8-C10 range). This inhibition effect is similar to that observed previously for specific ranges of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and alcohols.

  5. Hydrothermal syntheses, characterizations and crystal structures of a new lead(II) carboxylate-phosphonate with a double layer structure and a new nickel(II) carboxylate-phosphonate containing a hydrogen-bonded 2D layer with intercalation of ethylenediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J.-L.; Mao, J.-G.; Sun, Y.-Q.; Zeng, H.-Y.; Kremer, R.K.; Clearfield, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of N,N-bis(phosphonomethyl)aminoacetic acid (HO 2 CCH 2 N(CH 2 PO 3 H 2 ) 2 ) with metal(II) salts afforded two new metal carboxylate-phosphonates, namely, Pb 2 [O 2 CCH 2 N(CH 2 PO 3 )(CH 2 PO 3 H)]·H 2 O (1) and {NH 3 CH 2 CH 2 NH 3 }{Ni[O 2 CCH 2 N(CH 2 PO 3 H) 2 ](H 2 O) 2 } 2 (2). Among two unique lead(II) ions in the asymmetric unit of complex 1, one is five coordinated by five phosphonate oxygen atoms from 5 ligands, whereas the other one is five-coordinated by a tridentate chelating ligand (1 N and 2 phosphonate O atoms) and two phosphonate oxygen atoms from two other ligands. The carboxylate group of the ligand remains non-coordinated. The bridging of above two types of lead(II) ions through phosphonate groups resulted in a double layer with the carboxylate group of the ligand as a pendant group. These double layers are further interlinked via hydrogen bonds between the carboxylate groups into a 3D network. The nickel(II) ion in complex 2 is octahedrally coordinated by a tetradentate chelating ligand (two phosphonate oxygen atoms, one nitrogen and one carboxylate oxygen atoms) and two aqua ligands. These {Ni[O 2 CCH 2 N(CH 2 PO 3 H) 2 ][H 2 O] 2 } - anions are further interlinked via hydrogen bonds between non-coordinated phosphonate oxygen atoms to form a hydrogen bonded 2D layer. The 2H-protonated ethylenediamine cations are intercalated between two layers, forming hydrogen bonds with the non-coordinated carboxylate oxygen atoms. Results of magnetic measurements for complex 2 indicate that there is weak Curie-Weiss behavior with θ=-4.4 K indicating predominant antiferromagnetic interaction between the Ni(II) ions. Indication for magnetic low-dimension magnetism could not be detected

  6. Determination of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic, sulfonic, and phosphonic acids in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Alsberg, Tomas; Vestergren, Robin; Berger, Urs

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive and accurate method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and phosphonic acids (PFPAs) at low picograms per gram concentrations in a variety of food matrices. The method employed extraction with acetonitrile/water and cleanup on a mixed-mode co-polymeric sorbent (C8 + quaternary amine) using solid-phase extraction. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mobile phase gradient containing 5 mM 1-methyl piperidine for optimal chromatographic resolution of PFPAs. A quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometer operating in negative ion mode was used as detector. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002 to 0.02 ng g(-1) for all analytes. Sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) recoveries at a spiking level of 0.1 ng g(-1) to a baby food composite were in the range of 59 to 98 %. A strong matrix effect was observed in the analysis of PFPAs in food extracts, which was tentatively assigned to sorption of PFPAs to the injection vial in the solvent-based calibration standard. The method was successfully applied to a range of different food matrices including duplicate diet samples, vegetables, meat, and fish samples.

  7. Synthesis of omega-hydroxy carboxylic acids and alpha,omega-dimethyl ketones using alpha,omega-diols as alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuchi, Yosuke; Hyotanishi, Megumi; Miller, Brittany E; Maeda, Kensaku; Obora, Yasushi; Ishii, Yasutaka

    2010-03-05

    Synthesis of omega-hydroxy carboxylic acids and alpha,omega-dimethyl diketones was successfully achieved by using alpha,omega-diols as alkylating agents under the influence of an iridium catalyst. For example, the alkylation of butyl cyanoacetate with 1,13-tridecanediol in the presence of [IrCl(cod)](2) or [IrCl(coe)(2)](2) gave rise to butyl 2-cyano-15-hydroxypentadecanoate in good yield which is easily converted to cyclopentadecanolide (CPDL). In addition, the alkylation of acetone with 1,10-decanediol in the presence of [IrCl(cod)](2) and KOH resulted in an important muscone precursor, 2,15-hexadecanedione (HDDO), in good yield.

  8. Effects of humic acid and solution chemistry on the aggregation and dispersion of carboxyl-functionalized carbon black nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G.; Gomez-Flores, A.; Choi, S.; Han, Y., , Dr; Kim, H.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of humic acid, ionic strength and ionic species on the aggregation and dispersion of carboxyl-functionalized carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs) was systemically investigated in aqueous media. The experimental conditions of stability tests were selected to the changes in the solution chemistry (0.1-10 mM NaCl and 0.01-1 mM CaCl2) and in the presence/absence of humic acid (1 and 5 mg L-1) in an aquatic environment. The CB-NPs suspension was more rapidly settled in NaCl solution than in CaCl2. Specifically, in the case of NaCl, the aggregation rate of CB-NPs increased with ionic strength. Contrary, CB-NPs dispersed in CaCl2 were insensitive to the aggregation as the ionic strength increased; that was because specific adsorption of the divalent cation Ca2+ occurred since the zeta potential of the CB-NPs is reversed to a positive charge with increasing of the ionic strength. It was confirmed that humic acid greatly influences the stability of the CB-NPs. In particular, the dispersion of CB-NPs was improved in the whole range of ionic strengths of NaCl as well as of CaCl2. To support the results, the interaction energy between CB-NPs was calculated for each condition by using the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and modified-DLVO theories. In the presence of humic acid, the improved stability of CB-NPs is attributed to the steric repulsive force.This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2015R1D1A3A01020766), the Ministry of Education (MOE) and National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) through the Human Resource Training Project for Regional Innovation (2015H1C1A1035930) and Korea Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering Program (KEMREP).

  9. Novel Isoniazid cocrystals with aromatic carboxylic acids: Crystal engineering, spectroscopy and thermochemical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Luan F.; Souza, Matheus S.; Carvalho, Paulo S.; da Silva, Cecilia C. P.; D'Vries, Richard F.; Ellena, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Four novel cocrystals of the anti-tuberculosis drug Isoniazid (INH), including two polymorphs, with the aromatic carboxylic acids p-nitrobenzoic (PNBA), p-cyanobenzoic (PCNBA) and p-aminobenzoic (PABA) were rationally designed and synthesized by solvent evaporation. Aiming to explore the possible supramolecular synthons of this API, these cocrystals were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (SCXRD, PXRD), spectroscopic (FT-IR) and thermal (TGA, DSC, HSM) techniques. The cocrystal formation was found to be mainly driven by the synthons formed by the pyridine and hydrazide moieties. In both INH-PABA polymorphs, the COOH acid groups are H-bonded to pyridine and hydrazide groups giving rise to the acid⋯pyridine and acid⋯hydrazide heterosynthons. In INH-PNBA and INH-PCNBA cocrystals these acid groups are only related to the pyridine moiety. In addition to the structural study, supramolecular and Hirshfeld surface analysis were also performed based on the structural data. The cocrystals were identified from the FT-IR spectra and their thermal behaviors were studied by a combination of DSC, TGA and HSM techniques.

  10. Design, Recombinant Fusion Expression and Biological Evaluation of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Analogue as Novel Antimicrobial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides represent an emerging category of therapeutic agents with remarkable structural and functional diversity. Modified vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP (VIP analogue 8 with amino acid sequence “FTANYTRLRRQLAVRRYLAAILGRR” without haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity displayed enhanced antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 25922 than parent VIP even in the presence of 180 mM NaCl or 50 mM MgCl2, or in the range of pH 4–10. VIP analogue 8 was expressed as fusion protein thioredoxin (Trx-VIP8 in E. coli BL21(DE at a yield of 45.67 mg/L. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the recombinant VIP analogue 8 against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922 were 2 μM. These findings suggest that VIP analogue 8 is a promising candidate for application as a new and safe antimicrobial agent.

  11. X-ray studies on crystalline complexes involving amino acids and peptides. XXXII. Effect of chirality on ionisation state, stoichiometry and aggregation in the complexes of oxalic acid with DL- and L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, J; Prabu, M M; Vijayan, M

    1997-08-01

    Crystals of the oxalic acid complex of DL-lysine (triclinic P1; a = 5.540(1), b = 10.764(2), c = 12.056(2) A, alpha = 77.8(1), beta = 80.6(1), gamma = 75.6(1).; R = 4.7% for 2023 observed reflections) contain lysine and semioxalate ions in the 1:1 ratio, whereas the ratio of lysine and semioxalate/oxalate ions is 2:3 in the crystals of the L-lysine complex (monoclinic P2(1); alpha = 4.906(1), b = 20.145(4), c = 12.455(1) A, beta = 92.5(1).; R = 4.4% for 1494 observed reflections). The amino acid molecule in the L-lysine complex has an unusual ionisation state with positively charged alpha- and side-chain amino groups and a neutral carboxyl group. The unlike molecules aggregate into separate alternating layers in the DL-lysine complex in a manner similar to that observed in several of the amino acid complexes. The L-lysine complex exhibits a new aggregation pattern which cannot be easily explained in terms of planar features, thus emphasizing the fundamental dependence of aggregation on molecular characteristics. Despite the differences in stoichiometry, ionisation state and long-range aggregation patterns, the basic element of aggregation in the two complexes exhibits considerable similarity.

  12. Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-05-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant.

  13. Surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanopowders grafted with unsaturated carboxylic acids studied with inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Magdalena; Krzywania-Kaliszewska, Alicja; Zaborski, Marian

    2012-09-28

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was applied at infinite dilution to evaluate the surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the effect of surface grafted unsaturated carboxylic acid on the nanopowder donor-acceptor characteristics. The dispersive components (γ(s)(D)) of the free energy of the nanopowders were determined by Gray's method, whereas their tendency to undergo specific interactions was estimated based on the electron donor-acceptor approach presented by Papirer. The calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles exhibited high surface energies (79 mJ/m² and 74 mJ/m², respectively). Modification of nanopowders with unsaturated carboxylic acids decreased their specific adsorption energy. The lowest value of γ(s)(D) was determined for nanopowders grafted with undecylenic acid, approximately 55 mJ/m². The specific interactions were characterised by the molar free energy (ΔG(A)(SP)) and molar enthalpy (ΔH(A)(SP)) of adsorption as well as the donor and acceptor interaction parameters (K(A), K(D)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid-phase synthesis of new saphenamycin analogues with antimicrobial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jane B.; de Visser, P.C.; Nielsen, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    in parallel with a series of differently substituted benzoic acid derivatives. Treatment with TFA-CH2Cl2 (5:995) released the expected saphenamycin analogues into solution. These new analogues were purified, characterized and screened for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis...