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Sample records for analogs permian basin

  1. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  2. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  3. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle

  4. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  5. Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.

    1987-08-01

    The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.

  6. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-Yao Wu

    2014-01-01

    One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust. The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples. The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian, created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia. In addition, a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia, the south of which was a backarc basin. The oceanic basin closed and arc-arc (continent) collision occurred dur-ing the early Early Permian, followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions, named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia. The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and ifnally disappeared during the early Middle Permian. Afterwards, two residual marine basins occurred in northern China, the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region. The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the de-veloping residual marine basins, when they covered a vast area. The basin evolution differenti-ated during the early Late Permian, with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west. The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal ifelds. A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian. Correspondingly, the coal formation entered a lfourishing time, with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds. All of these basins, namely, both the marine and non-marine residual basins, reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  7. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-Yao; Wu

    2014-01-01

    One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust.The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples.The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian,created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia.In addition,a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia,the south of which was a backarc basin.The oceanic basin closed and arc-arc(continent) collision occurred during the early Early Permian,followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions,named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia.The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and finally disappeared during the early Middle Permian.Afterwards,two residual marine basins occurred in northern China,the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region.The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the developing residual marine basins,when they covered a vast area.The basin evolution differentiated during the early Late Permian,with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west.The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal fields.A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian.Correspondingly,the coal formation entered a flourishing time,with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds.All of these basins,namely,both the marine and nonmarine residual basins,reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  8. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  9. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  10. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  11. Faunal migration into the Late Permian Zechstein Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Håkansson, Eckart; Stemmerik, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Late Permian bryozoans from the Wegener Halvø, Ravnefjeld and Schuchert Formations in East Greenland have been investigated. 14 genera are recognised.      Integration of the new bryozoan data from the Upper Permian of East Greenland with data on the distribution of Permian bryozoans along...

  12. Tectonic Evolution of the Junggar Foreland Basin in the Late Carboniferous-Permian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out to subdivide andcorrelate the Upper Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary successions in the Junggar basin based on outcrops and drilling and geophysical data. The study results, combined with geological analyses of the basin's periphery and the basement, as well as studies of the sedimentary rocks within the basin, the unconformities, tectonic geometry, kinematics and geodynamics, lead to the conclusion that the Junggar basin was characterized by the development of foreland basin systems during the Late Carboniferous and Per mian, During that period, three foreland basin systems were developed: (1) the northwest foreland basin system, which trended nearly north-south from Mahu to the Chepaizi Palaeo-mountain during its early stage of development and thus it was also referred to as the west foreland basin system; (2) the Karamaili foreland basin system in the east and (3) the Northern Tianshan foreland basin system in the south. These systems are different in size, development stage and time of formation. The first two are developed earlier than the third, but they are smaller in size. All the structures in the Junggar basin have resulted from the integration and superposition of structural elements in the above three systems. In general, the development of the Junggar basin can be divided into four stages. Stage I was marked by the creation and evolution of the marginal western foreland and the peripheral Karamaili foreland basin systems during the Late Carboniferous-early Early Permian (C3-Pja). Stage Ⅱ was characterized by the development of complicated foreland basin systems during the mid dle-late Early Permian (Pjb-Pf) when the three foreland basin systems took their shapes. Stage Ⅲ was the integration stage of peripheral foreland basin systems during the Middle Permian (P2) in which steady and slow tectonic subsidence prevailed. Stage Ⅳ coincided with the shrinking of foreland basin development during the Late

  13. Palaeotopography-governed sediment distribution—a new predictive model for the Permian Upper Rotliegend in the Dutch sector of the Southern Permian Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijnlieff, H.F.; Geluk, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Southern Permian Basin (SPB) formed a large, elongated saucer-shaped inland depression extending from the UK to Poland and from Belgium to Denmark. During the Middle to early Late Permian the SPB was filled progressively by playa sediments from its centre in northwestern Germany before it was fl

  14. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  15. Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the

  16. Tectonic implications of post-folding Permian magnetizations in the Carapacha Basin, La Pampa province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Melchor, Ricardo N.; MacDonald, William D.

    2006-10-01

    Paleomagnetic results from Permian clastic and igneous rocks of the Carapacha Basin of the Gondwáides orogenic zone of central Argentina are mainly consistent with results reported previously from the same zone further east, e.g., in the Sierra de la Ventana. Three lithologic entities were analysed: the lower member and upper member of the Carapacha Formation, and an andesite intrusive into the upper member. The directions of their characteristic remanences are similar, differ significantly from the present field direction, and are post-folding. The in situ magnetization directions are moreover consistent with directions expected for late Permian poles of the APWP for South America. The in situ pole for the lower Carapacha Formation is 70°S, 049°E, A95=11° (San Roberto pole); the pole for the upper Carapacha, combined with similar directions from the intrusive, is 64°S, 005°E, A95=5° (Río Curacó pole). These magnetizations imply that the Carapacha Formation, with a minimum age of early Late Permian (about 260 Ma.), was deformed before the end of the Permian. Structural evidence, as well as paleomagnetic, IRM, and AMS experimental results, support the interpretations. The paleogeographic implications of these results are interpreted as a significant counterclockwise movement of Gondwana between the early and the late Permian.

  17. Permian continental paleoenvironments in Southeastern Asia: New insights from the Luang Prabang Basin (Laos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Bourquin, Sylvie; Broutin, Jean; Steyer, Jean-Sébastien; Battail, Bernard; Véran, Monette; Vacant, Renaud; Khenthavong, Bounxou; Vongphamany, Sotsy

    2012-10-01

    In Laos (Southeastern Asia), Late Paleozoic sediments were identified by early French explorations across Indochina during the late 19th century (Pavie missions), but little work was undertaken to characterize the sedimentological and stratigraphical context until now. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the depositional environment and of the stratigraphic context of series located on the right bank of the Mekong River in the Luang Prabang Basin where three main formations were described. The silicoclastic Red Claystone Formation, attributed to alluvial plain environment, contains large fragments of unidentified dicynodonts. The Limestones and Sandstones Formation preserves a new macrofloral assemblage displaying affinities with Middle to Late Permian Cathaysian floras of South China. This assemblage occurs as an intercalation within marine calcareous sandstones that have yielded a marine fauna, including the ammonoid Pseudotirolites sp. which indicates a Late Permian (Changhsingian) age. The well-developed Purple Claystones Formation yielded an abundant and well preserved Late Permian fauna composed of a carnivorous amphibian and numerous Dicynodon cranial and postcranial elements. This formation shows a vertical evolution from braided river to alluvial plain with sheet-flood sand bed and bed-load rivers, with a constant supply of volcanic clasts. Results from the analysis of the paleontological associations in the Luang Prabang Basin suggest that a continental communication between Laurussia and the Indochina Block existed during the Permian, allowing for migration of the terrestrial Dicynodon fauna.

  18. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  19. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  20. The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Mlakar

    2003-01-01

    In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are...

  1. The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mlakar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are given.

  2. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  3. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. PMID:26802271

  4. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in the Permian Basin. [Deaf Smith County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Coons, W.E.; Franzone, J.G.; Meyer, D.

    1985-12-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of the Permian Basin. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Permian Basin is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal material used in the seal system in the repository-level rooms and tunnels is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate in response to closure of the repository rooms, to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For Permian Basin Unit 4 salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 700 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 200 years for a seal located in a main passageway within the repository. These analyses are based on uncertain laboratory data regarding intact salt creep rates and crushed salt consolidation characteristics, and must be regarded as preliminary. Bulkheads composed of concrete, as well as bentonite-rich earth fill, are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  5. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B.; Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Sequence stratigraphic analysis can be done on black shales, however it requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Sea-level cycles are expressed even in the middle of a shale basin and are expressed in lithofacies, mineralogy, geochemistry and well logs. The cycles are important for shale gas, impacting gas generation, storage and fracture development. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, located in the Permian Basin of west Texas were discussed in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation discussed the stratigraphy in a black shale, motivation for rock properties research, and factor analysis results. It was concluded that cycles affect gas generation capacity and rock properties. tabs., figs.

  6. Socioeconomic data base report for the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the data base of socioeconomic characteristics of 14 counties and 13 key cities that surround the two locations in the Palo Duro Basin. The information describes the demographic features, economic base, community facilities and services, and governmental and fiscal structure. The land use patterns and zoning requirements for selected cities of varying sizes and complexities and the general social characteristics of the region as a whole are described also. Extensive references, 23 figures, 92 tables

  7. Permian plate margin volcanism and tuffs in adjacent basins of west Gondwana: Age constraints and common characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar

    2006-12-01

    Increasing evidence of Permian volcanic activity along the South American portion of the Gondwana proto-Pacific margin has directed attention to its potential presence in the stratigraphic record of adjacent basins. In recent years, tuffaceous horizons have been identified in late Early Permian-through Middle Permian (280-260 Ma) sections of the Paraná Basin (Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Farther south and closer to the magmatic tract developed along the continental margin, in the San Rafael and Sauce Grande basins of Argentina, tuffs are present in the Early to Middle Permian section. This tuff-rich interval can be correlated with the appearance of widespread tuffs in the Karoo Basin. Although magmatic activity along the proto-Pacific plate margin was continuous during the Late Paleozoic, Choiyoi silicic volcanism along the Andean Cordillera and its equivalent in Patagonia peaked between the late Early Permian and Middle Permian, when extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region. The San Rafael orogenic phase (SROP) interrupted sedimentation along the southwestern segment of the Gondwana margin (i.e., Frontal Cordillera, San Rafael Basin), induced cratonward thrusting (i.e., Ventana and Cape foldbelts), and triggered accelerated subsidence in the adjacent basins (Sauce Grande and Karoo) located inboard of the deformation front. This accelerated subsidence favored the preservation of tuffaceous horizons in the syntectonic successions. The age constraints and similarities in composition between the volcanics along the continental margin and the tuffaceous horizons in the San Rafael, Sauce Grande, Paraná, and Karoo basins strongly suggest a genetic linkage between the two episodes. Radiometric ages from tuffs in the San Rafael, Paraná, and Karoo basins indicate an intensely tuffaceous interval between 280 and 260 Ma.

  8. Significance of new breakthrough in and favorable targets of gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin represents favorable conditions for the formation of natural gas reservoirs. However, only fracture-vuggy limestone gas reservoirs were discovered in early exploration, whose scales and results were limited. In 2014, a high-yield industrial gas flow was produced there in Well Shuangtan 1, the major risk-exploration well, which means a great breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. This plays a strategically important and guiding role in oil and gas exploration in ultra-deep marine formations. This paper illustrates the deployment background of Well Shuangtan 1, major exploration achievements and its significance in the gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. Moreover, exploration potential and subsequent exploration targets of Middle Permian are analyzed in terms of its hydrocarbon source conditions, sedimentary characteristics, reservoir characteristics and areal extension, resources and favorable exploration zones. It is concluded that the Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin is a continent-connected carbonate platform with carbonate deposits being dominant. There are three types of reservoirs, including pore dolomite, karst fracture-vuggy, and fracture, which present considerable natural gas resources and huge exploration potential. Favorable exploration zones classification of Middle Permian in the Sichuan Basin indicates that the most favorable exploration zones are mainly distributed in the central-western Sichuan Basin. In particular, the northwestern Sichuan Basin is the most favorable exploration area which is characterized by the most excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, developed dolomite reservoirs and zonal distribution of structures.

  9. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  10. Distribution, Mineralogy, Petrography, Provenance and Significance of Permian Ash-Carrying Deposits in the Paraná Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacyr Vianna Coutinho

    Full Text Available The study of thin sections taken from drill core samples and outcrops in southern Brazil has demonstrated the occurrenceof repeated ash fall episodes during the Permian period between 280 and 245 Ma. Scattered or concentrated altered volcanicglass shards were detected in strata of Permian sedimentary rocks of the Rio Bonito and Tatui Formations. The shardcarryingsediment is usually a silty or cherty mudstone with variable amounts of calcrete calcite. Burial and alteration ofunstable glass debris led to the development of analcite and less commonly, calcite, silica minerals, zeolites or montmorillonite.Sources of explosive Permian volcanism, responsible for ample ash falls have been sought in South Africa, in the AndeanCordillera and along the Paraná Basin margin. A swarm of rhyolitic centers described in the Cordillera Frontal and in theCentral Argentinian Provincia de La Pampa (Patagonia is here proposed as the most adequate Permian source. In that area,volcanoes must have expelled ashes that traveled thousands of kilometers before settling in deltaic or shallow marineenvironments. Twenty-three occurrences of Permian shard-carrying sediments have been plotted in a Paraná Basin map. Thenumber of ash-carrying sediments decreases northeastward. The authors envisage dense clouds originated in Patagoniatraveling NE, depositing progressively smaller quantities of ashes but reaching Australia in pre-drift Gondwana. Shardcarrying sediments must be distinguished from “tonstein”, ash fall or ash flow tuffs, also recorded in the Permian Gondwana,which would indicate closer ash source area.

  11. Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe: Chapter U in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Oszczepalski, Sławomir; Parks, Heather L.; Bliss, James D.; Borg, Gregor; Box, Stephen E.; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Spieth, Volker; Taylor, Cliff D.

    2015-01-01

    This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits could occur within 2.5 kilometers of the surface, (2) provide a database of known reduced-facies-type sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and significant prospects, and (3) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of undiscovered copper that could be present within each tract. This assessment is a contribution to a global assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  13. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  14. New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Prokop

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France, viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined. In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops.

  15. Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in

  16. Dolomitized cells within chert of the Permian Assistência Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calça, Cléber P.; Fairchild, Thomas R.; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Hachiro, Jorge; Petri, Setembrino; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitic microscopic structures in the form of microspheres, "horseshoe- shaped" objects, and thin botryoidal crusts found within microfossiliferous chert within stromatolites of the Evaporite Bed (EB) of the Permian Assistência Formation, Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The microspheres were identified as dolomitized coccoidal cyanobacteria based on similarity in size, spheroidal and paired hemispheroidal morphologies and colonial habit to co-occurring silicified organic-walled cyanobacteria embedded within the same microfabric and rock samples. The co-occurrence of dolomite, pyrite framboids, and abundant dispersed carbonaceous material and silicified cells is consistent with a hypersaline depositional environment with abundant cyanobacterial mats and elevated Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratios and reducing conditions with active anoxic microbial processes near the water-(bio)sediment interface. The abundance of extracellular polymeric substances facilitated anoxic microbial processes (sulfate reduction), providing essential conditions for possible primary microbially induced dolomitization. In most of the dolomitized cells dolomite occurs only as an external layer; in fully dolomitized cells magnesium is richest in the outermost layer. Presumably, the dolomitization process was favored by the presence of anoxic microbial degraders and negatively charged functional groups at the surface of the cyanobacterial cells. Botryoidal dolomite rims of silica-filled fenestrae formed by a similar process and inherited the botryoidal morphology of the cell as originally lining the fenestrae. Silicification interrupted the dolomitization of the largely organic biosediment, mostly by permineralization, but locally by substitution, thereby preserving not only dolomitic microspheres, but also huge numbers of structurally

  17. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  18. Late Permian Palynology and depositional environment of Chintalapudi sub basin, Pranhita-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Neerja; Pauline Sabina, K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Mahesh, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the palynological dating, correlation and depositional setting of the sediments from bore cores MGP-11 and MGP-4 from Gauridevipet area of Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari master basin, south India. On the basis of palynological studies, three palynoassemblages have been identified, one in bore core MGP-11 a Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus) and Striasulcites assemblage and two in bore core MGP-4; one is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccates and Densipollenites and the other by Striatopodocarpites and Cresentipollenites palynoassemblages. The other stratigraphically significant taxa include Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lunatisporites noviaulensis, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Densoisporites contactus, Chordasporites australiensis, Goubinispora spp., Lundbladispora microconata, Lundbladispora raniganjensis and Klausipollenites schaubergeri. The recovered taxa suggest a Late Permian, Lopingian age for these rocks. This interpretation is based on the correlation of the assemblages with similar assemblages from previous Gondwana studies chiefly Densipollenites magnicorpus Zone of Damodar Basin, India and Late Permian palynoassemblages from Africa, Antarctica, Australia and South America. On the basis of palaeobotanical affinity of the identified microflora it has been inferred that the peat forming plant community was composed mainly of gymnosperm pollen attributable to glossopterids, that includes striate and non-striate bisaccates and paucity of cordaites which includes monosaccates. Spores are subordinate and are derived from lycopsids (Lundbladispora, Densoisporites), sphenopsids (Latosporites) and filicopsids (Horriditriletes, Lophotriletes, Verrucosisporites, Osmundacidites, Leiotriletes, Callumispora, Brevitriletes and Microbaculispora) occurring in variable proportions. The dominance of subarborescent/arborescent vegetation suggests a development in a forest swamp probably in a small distant marginal part of the

  19. The Tunas Formation (Permian) in the Sierras Australes foldbelt, east central Argentina: evidence for syntectonic sedimentation in a foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gamundi, O. R.; Conaghan, P. J.; Rossello, E. A.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1995-04-01

    The Tunas Formation, extensively exposed in the Sierras Australes foldbelt of eastern central Argentina, completes the sedimentation of the Gondwanan (Late Carboniferous-Permian) sequence, locally known as the Pillahuincó Group. The underlying units of the Group show an integrated depositional history which can be explained in terms of glaciomarine sedimentation (Sauce Grande Formation) and postglacial transgression (Piedra Azul and Bonete Formations). This succession also has a rather uniform quartz-rich, sand-sized composition indicative of a cratonic provenance from the Tandilia Massif to the northeast. Early to Late Permian deformation folded and thrusted the southwestern basin margin (Sierras Australes) and triggered the deposition of a 1,500 m — thick, synorogenic prograding wedge, the Tunas Formation, in the adjacent foreland basin (Sauce Grande or Claromecó Basin). Sandstone detrital modes for the Tunas deposits show moderate to low contents of quartz and abundant lithics, mostly of volcanic and metasedimentary origin. Paleocurrents are consistently from the SW. Tuffs interbedded with sandstones in the upper half of Tunas Formation (Early — early Late? Permian) are interpreted as being derived from volcanic glass-rich tuffs settled in a body of water. Extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region during that period. The age constraints and similarities in composition between these volcanics and the tuffaceous horizons present in the Sauce Grande, Parana and Karoo Basins suggest a genetic linkage between these two episodes. The intimate relationship between volcanic activity inboard of the paleo-Pacific margin, deformation in the adjacent orogenic belt and subsidence and sedimentation in the contiguous foreland basin constitutes a common motif in the Sauce Grande and Karoo Basins of southwestern Gondwana.

  20. Diagenesis and Fluid Flow History in Sandstones of the Upper Permian Black Jack Formation, Gunnedah Basin, Eastern Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Guoping; John B. KEENE

    2007-01-01

    The fluid flow history during diagenesis of sandstones in the Upper Permian Black Jack Formation of the Gunnedah Basin has been investigated through integrated petrographic observations, fluid inclusion investigations and stable isotope analyses. The early precipitation of mixed-layer illite/smectite, siderite, calcite, ankerite and kaolin proceeded at the presence of Late Permian connate meteoric waters at temperatures of up to 60℃. These evolved connate pore waters were also parental to quartz, which formed at temperatures of up to 87℃. The phase of maximum burial was characterized by development of filamentous illite and late calcite at temperatures of up to ~90℃. Subsequent uplifting and cooling led to deep meteoric influx from surface, which in turn resulted in dissolution of labile grains and carbonate cements, and formation of second generation of kaolin. Dawsonite was the last diagenetic mineral precipitated and its formation is genetically related to deep-seated mamagtic sourced CO2.

  1. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen

  2. Thermal properties of Permian Basin evaporites to 493 K temperature and 30 MPa confining pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory measurements of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas, were made in conditions ranging from 303 to 473 K in temperature and 0.1 to 31.0 MPa in hydrostatic confining pressure. Within the +-5% measurement resolution neither conductivity nor diffusivity showed a dependence upon pressure in any of the rocks. Conductivity and diffusivity in all rocks had a negative temperature dependence. For the Cycle 4 salt samples, conductivity fell from 5.5 to 3.75 W/m . K, and diffusivity fell from about 2.7 to 1.7 x 10-6 m2/s. One Cycle 5 salt was a single crystal with anomalous results, but the other had a low conductivity with very weak temperature dependence and a high diffusivity. In the nonsalts, conductivity and diffusivity decreased 10 to 20% over the temperature range explored. In measurements of the coefficient of thermal linear expansion for Cycle 5 salt and nonsalts, the coefficient typically varied from about 12 x 10-6 K-1 at P = 3.0 MPa to 4 x 10-6 K-1 at P = 30 MPa for both nonsalt rocks. In anhydrite, it decreased with increasing temperature. In dolomite, the coefficient increased at roughly the same rate. Expansion of the salt ranged from 33 to 38 x 10-6 K-1 and was independent of pressure and temperature

  3. Mixed volcanogenic-lithogenic sources for Permian bauxite deposits in southwestern Youjiang Basin, South China, and their metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenchao; Algeo, Thomas J.; Du, Yuansheng; Zhang, Qilian; Liang, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Bauxite deposits at the base of the Upper Permian Heshan Formation in the Youjiang Basin, South China, contain zircons with dominant age peaks at 263-262 Ma. During the Middle to Late Permian, the Youjiang Basin consisted of a number of isolated and attached carbonate platforms separated by inter-platform troughs. The bauxite deposits are limited to the isolated carbonate platform facies and are not present on attached carbonate platforms and inter-platform troughs. Discriminant plots based on the trace element composition of the zircons indicate a combination of within-plate/anorogenic and arc-related/orogenic sources. Geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the metallogenic materials of the bauxite deposit came from felsic volcanic rocks of the Emeishan Large Igneous Provence (ELIP) in South China and from the Truong Son volcanic arc located between the South China and Indochina cratons. The northwestern and southeastern parts of the Youjiang Basin received larger amounts of ELIP detritus and volcanic arc detritus, respectively. Coarser siliciclastic material in proximal attached carbonate platform and inter-platform trough settings was delivered by rivers, but finer siliciclastics that accumulated on distally located carbonate platforms in isolated deep-water areas was probably transported by wind.

  4. OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Wilt

    2004-02-01

    Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright

  5. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  6. Shallow lacustrine system of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Gondwana, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Raphael Neto; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Bandeira, José; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Period of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil, represented here by deposits from the Pedra de Fogo Formation, records important events that occurred in Western Gondwana near its boundary with the Mesozoic Era. The analysis of outcrop based facies from the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, which is 100 m thick, carried out along the eastern and western borders of the Parnaiba Basin, allowed the identification of eleven sedimentary facies, which were grouped into three distinct facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system associated with mudflats and ephemeral rivers. Bioturbation, desiccation cracks, silcretes and various siliceous concretions characterize the Pedra de Fogo deposits. The FA1 mudflat deposits occur predominantly at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and consist of laminated claystone/mudstone, mudcrack-bearing sandstones/mudstones and sandstones exhibiting cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding. Popcorn-like silicified nodules and casts indicate evaporite deposits. Other common features are silica concretions, silicified tepees and silcretes. FA2 represents nearshore deposits and consists of fine-grained sandstones with evenly parallel lamination, climbing ripple cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding and mudstone/siltstone showing evenly parallel lamination. FA3 refers to wadi/inundite deposits, generally organized as fining-upward cycles of metric size, composed of conglomerates and medium-grained pebbly sandstones showing massive bedding and cross-stratification, as well as claystone/siltstone showing evenly parallel to undulate lamination. Scour-and-fill features are isolated in predominantly tabular deposits composed of mudstones interbedded with fine to medium-grained sandstones showing planar to slightly undulate lamination. Silicified plant remains previously classified as belonging to the Psaronius genus found in the uppermost levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, near the

  7. A comparison of the Iberian and Ebro Basins during the Permian and Triassic, eastern Spain: A quantitative subsidence modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Henar; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; López-Gómez, José; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd; de La Horra, Raúl; Arche, Alfredo

    2009-09-01

    The Permian-Triassic sediments of the Iberian Plate are a well studied case of classical Buntsandstein-Muschelkalk-Keuper facies, with good sedimentological interpretations and precise datings based on pollen and spore assemblages, ammonoids and foraminifera. Synrift-postrift cycles are recorded in these facies, but there are only a few studies of quantitative subsidence analysis (backstripping method) and only a previous one using forward modelling for the quantification of synrift-postrift phases of this period. Here we present the results obtained by the quantitative analysis of fourteen field sections and oil-well electric log records in the Iberian and Ebro Basins, Spain. Backstripping analysis showed five synrift phases of 1 to 3 million years duration followed by postrift periods for the Permian-Triassic interval. The duration, however, shows lateral variations and some of them are absent in the Ebro Basin. The forward modelling analysis, assuming local isostatic compensation, has been applied to each observation point using one-layer and two-layer lithospheric configurations. The second one shows a better fit between observation and model prediction in a systematic way, so a two layer configuration is assumed for the sedimentary basin filling analysis. Lithospheric stretching factors β and δ obtained in the forward modelling analysis are never higher than 1.2, but sometimes β 1 in the same section. If surficial extension is compensated by deep compression either at the roots of the rift basins or in far-away zones is not yet clear, but this anomaly can be explained using a simple shear extensional model for the Iberian and Ebro basins.

  8. The Post-Permian evolution of the Northern Part of the North German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M. B.; Huebscher, C.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Gajewski, D.; Dehghani, A.; Reicherter, K.

    2004-12-01

    In the frame of the Priority Program 1135 of the German Research Foundation (DFG) "Dynamics of sedimentary systems under varying stress conditions by example of the Central European Basin System", the scientific goal of the NeoBaltic project is to describe the post-Permian to recent geological evolution of the entire western Baltic Sea region, with a special emphasis on neotectonic activity and it relation to salt dynamics. The western Baltic Sea comprises the northern part of the North German Basin (NGB), a part of the Central European Basin System (CEBS), and the transitional zone between the NGB and the Baltic Shield. In order to investigate these scientific goals the Universities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Hamburg (Germany) has since 1998 completed seven marine campaigns in the western Baltic Sea, collecting 2D high resolution seismic (HRS), gravity and magnetic data in the entire region during different projects. Since 2003 all these data has been available for the NeoBaltic project. All together the data pool have more than 7000 km HRS, 5000 km gravity and 4000 km magnetic data. Until now the project work has been focused on the completion of the data processing and the digital interpretation of important Mesozoic and Cenozoic markers on the seismic sections from the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg. Furthermore, several maps have been completed from the potential field data (gravity and magnetic). As a result of the digital interpretation of the HRS data, the overall geological evolution of the northern part of the NGB can be subdivided into four distinct periods. During the Triassic and the Early Jurassic, E-W extension and the deposition of clastic sediments initiated the movement of the underlying Zechstein evaporites. This is seen by the presence of several salt pillows in the region. The deposition ceased during the Middle Jurassic, when the entire area was uplifted, due to the Mid North Sea Doming. The uplift resulted in a pronounced erosion of Upper Triassic

  9. Earthquake-controlled event deposits and its tectonic significance from the Middle Permian Wandrawandian Siltstone in the Sydney Basin, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Yuansheng; G.; R.; Shi; GONG; Yiming

    2005-01-01

    The Sydney-Bowen basin in eastern Australia is an elongate back arc-converted foreland basin system situated between the Lachlan Fold Belt in the west and the New England Fold Belt in the east. The Middle Permian Wandrawandian Siltstone at Warden Head near Ulladulla in the southern Sydney Basin is dominated by fossiliferous siltstone and mudstone, with a large amount of dropstones and minor pebbly sandstone beds. Two general types of deposits are recognized from the siltstone unit in view of the timing and mechanism of formation. One is represented by the primary deposits from offshore to subtidal environments with abundant dropstones of glacial marine origin. The second type is distinguished by secondary, soft-sediment deformational deposits and structures, and comprises three layers of mudstone dykes of seismic origin. In the latter type, metre scale, laterally extensive syn-depositional slump deformation structures occur in the middle part of the Wandrawandian Siltstone. The deformation structures vary in morphology and pattern, including large-scale complex-type folds, flexural stratification, concave-up structures, faulting of small displacements accompanied by folding and brecciation. The slumps and associated syn-sedimentary structures are attributed to penecontemporaneous deformations of soft sediments (mostly silty mud) formed as a result of mass movement of unconsolidated and/or semi-consolidated substrate following an earthquake event. The occurrence of the earthquake event deposits supports the current view that the Sydney Basin was located in a back-arc setting near the New England magmatic arc on an active continental margin during the Middle Permian.

  10. 3D seismic interpretation of subsurface eruptive centers in a Permian large igneous province, Tazhong Uplift, central Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiangfeng; Zhu, Wenbin; Guan, Da; Zhu, Beibei; Yuan, Liansheng; Xiang, Xuemei; Su, Jinbao; He, Jingwen; Wu, Xinhui

    2015-12-01

    A 1445-km2 high-resolution 3D seismic reflection dataset is used to analyze the Permian large igneous province in the subsurface of the Tazhong area in the central Tarim Basin in northwestern China. Constrained by the synthetic seismograms of four wells, the top and base of the igneous rocks were identified in the seismic data. Seven large volcanic craters, each >10 km2 in area, have been discovered via the application of coherency and amplitude attributes. The thickness and volume of the igneous rocks were obtained by time-depth transformation. In the study area, all of the igneous rocks, with thicknesses from 120 to 1133 m, were formed by eruptions in the Early Permian. These events produced huge erupted volumes (178 km3) and multiple closely spaced volcanic edifices (eruptive center of the Permian igneous rocks in the Tarim Basin.

  11. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  12. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  13. Evolution of a Permian Arid Lake System, Upper Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Border of the Parnaiba Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Saturnino de Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stratigraphic and facies analysis in the Filadélfia region, TO, BR, at the western of the Parnaíba Basin, allowed redefine the paleoenvironment of the upper portion of the Pedra de Fogo Formation of Permian age. The studied deposits are a series of approximately 100 m thick, predominantly siliciclastic, with subordinate carbonates and evaporites, where were defined 21 sedimentary facies that could be grouped into six facies associations (AF: AF1 Lacustrine with ephemeral river deposits; AF2 Storm wave-influenced lake deposits; AF3 Continental sabkha deposits; AF4 Central lake deposits; AF5 Eolian dunes field deposits; and AF6 Lake/oasis deposits with inunditos. These associations indicate that during Permian, an extensive lacustrine arid system developed adjacent to eolian dunes fields and continental sabkha, as well as with contributions from ephemeral rivers. Fluvial incursions into lakes propitiated the formation of suspension lobes and sheet flows (AF1. Sabkha plains (AF3 were formed in the marginal portions of the lake that eventually were influenced by storms waves (AF2, while central zone were site of intense pelitic deposition (AF4. The low supply of eolian sand in this system resulted in the formation of restricted dune fields (AF5, with development of interdune lakes (oasis, where proliferating giant ferns, sporadically flooded by ephemeral rivers (AF6. The facies associations data, corroborated by the paleogeography of the region during the Late Permian, indicate that settling of the top part of the Pedra de Fogo Formation was laid during a hot and arid climate.

  14. Geothermal energy from the Main Karoo Basin (South Africa): An outcrop analogue study of Permian sandstone reservoir formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Lenhardt, Nils; Dippenaar, Matthys A.; Götz, Annette E.

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the South African Main Karoo Basin has not been addressed in the past, although thick siliciclastic successions in geothermal prone depths are promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Karoo Basin is based on petro- and thermophysical data gained from an outcrop analogue study of Permian sandstones in the Eastern Cape Province, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. A volumetric approach of the sandstones' reservoir potential leads to a first estimation of 2240 TWh (8.0 EJ) of power generation within the central and southern part of the basin. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Karoo for future geothermal resource exploration, development and production. The mainly low permeability lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use becomes reasonable. The data presented here serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modeling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization.

  15. Preliminary report on investigation of salt springs and seeps in a portion of the Permian Basin in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P.R.; Hardt, W.F.

    1965-01-01

    The Permian Basin (fig. 1) comprises a large area in the southern midcontinent region and includes major portions of Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Kansas. Within this basin brine springs and seeps discharge more than 20,000 tons per day of sodium chloride (common table salt). This brine contaminates many streams greatly impairing the utility of their waters. The water in some streams is of such poor quality it cannot be used for municipal and industrial purposes and for irrigation. Nor is the problem limited to the Permian Basin. The contaminated streams leaving the Permian Basin bring salty water to downstream areas of Arkansas and Louisiana, as well as to other parts of Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Kansas. In no comparable area of the interior United States are natural sources of salt water so widespread or deleterious to the fresh water supply of so large a segment of the nation's population and industry. The Brazos River traverses the eastern part of the Permian Basin, and is potentially one of the principal sources of water in Texas. It carries an average daily load of 1,650 tons of sodium chloride (common table salt) into Possum Kingdom Reservoir, about 110 miles west of Dallas. More than 85 percent of this salt is contributed by the Salt Fork Brazos River, and more than one-half originates from Springs and seeps in Croton and Salt Croton Creeks, tributaries to the Salt Fork Brazos River. The undesirably high chloride content of the water impounded in Possum Kingdom Reservoir limits the utility of this water, although it is used for irrigation and by some industries. Understanding of the origin and hydrology of the natural brine is fundamental to consideration of engineering measures to control the flow of salt water to streams, or to general plans to alleviate the situation in any way that includes altering the brine-discharge system. Previous investigations of natural brine features have been directed toward describing the local details of

  16. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  17. Basin-scale distribution of sill intrusions in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia, and the implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik H.; Frolov, Sergei; Akhmanov, Grigorii G.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

    2015-04-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province through the Tunguska Basin is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. Still, the lack of data from the Tunguska Basin represents one of the main uncertainties in understanding this link. Degassing from contact metamorphic aureoles in evaporites is suggested as key to the continental mass extinction, but very little is known about the actual distribution of sills within these lithologies. We present results from a unique borehole database with more than 700 boreholes, where 293 boreholes are studied in detail and presented here. The boreholes cover large parts of the basin, from Norilsk in the north (N69) to Bratsk in the south (N55), with a bias towards petroleum-bearing regions. In total, 93.5% of the selected boreholes contain sill intrusions. The sill thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. Locally, thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tunguska Series sediments. However, on average, the thickest sills in the basin are emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations, with average thicknesses in the 115-130 meter range. Accompanying petrographic investigations of metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. Degassing to the atmosphere took place via explosive pipe degassing and seepage. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the end-Permian mass extinction.

  18. Environmental characterization of bedded salt formations and overlying areas of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes one input to the first stage of site qualification studies. It presents a general environmental characterization of the region that is underlain by the Permian bedded salt formation. The formation covers portions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Permian bedded salt formation is one of a number of deep, stable geologic formations being studied for potential locations for nuclear waste repositories. These studies will not necessarily lead to selection of a site. They are intended only to provide information necessary to evaluate the suitability of locations for repositories. The report is intended as a general characterization of the existing environmental setting of the Permian Region with emphasis on land, water, and air characteristics; resources; plant and animal life; and man's organizations and activities. The report provides background information about the role that this regional study will play in the overall plan for environmental impact assessments and statements deemed necessary as input to the decision-making process. Background information on the present concept of nuclear waste repository design and function is also included. The information presented in this report has been summarized from open literature readily accessible to the public. No field work was conducted nor new data used in developing the descriptions contained herein

  19. Lower Permian facies of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: depositional systems, shelf-margin evolution, paleogeography, and petroleum potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handford, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A Palo geological study suggests that potential hydrocarbon reservoirs occur in shelf-margin carbonates, delta-front sandstones, and fan-delta arkoses. Zones of porous (greater than 10 percent) dolomite are concentrated near shelf margins and have configurations similar to productive Lower Permian shelf-margin trends in New Mexico. Delta-front sandstones (log-computed porosity of 18 to 25 percent) are similar to producing deltaic sandstones of Morris Buie-Blaco Fields in North-Central Texas. Porous (18 percent) fan-delta sandstones along the south flank of the Amarillo Uplift may form reservoirs similiar to that of the Mobeetie Field on the north side of the Amarillo Uplife in Wheeler County, Texas. Potential hydrocarbon source beds occur in slope and basinal environments. Total organic carbon generally ranges from 1 to 2.3 percent by weight and averages 0.589 percent by weight.

  20. A Re-Examination of the Bedout High, Offshore Canning Basin, Western Australia - Possible Impact Site for the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L.; Nicholson, C.; Poreda, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Bedout High, located offshore Canning basin in Western Australia, is an unusual structure and its origin remains problematic. K-Ar dating of volcanic samples encountered at total depth in the Lagrange-1 exploration well indicated an age of about 253+/-5 Ma consistent with the Permian-Triassic boundary event. Gorter (PESA News, pp. 33-34, 1996) speculates that the Bedout High is the uplifted core (30 km) of a circular feature, some 220 km across, formed by the impact of a large bolide (cometary or asteroidal) with the Earth near the end-Permian. Accepting a possible impact origin for the Bedout structure, with the indicated dimensions, would have had profound effects on global climate as well as significant changes in lithotratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic indicators as seen in several Permian-Triassic boundary locations worldwide. In this work, we re-examine some of the structural data previously presented by Gorter (1996) using some additional seismic lines. We have also evaluated several impact tracers including iridium, shocked quartz, productivity collapse, helium-3, chromium-53 and fullerenes with trapped noble gases from some Permian-Triassic boundary sites in the Tethys and Circum-Pacific regions. Our findings suggest that the Bedout structure is a good candidate for an oceanic impact at the end Permian, triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth.

  1. Geochemistry of formation waters from the Wolfcamp and “Cline” shales: Insights into brine origin, reservoir connectivity, and fluid flow in the Permian Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Reyes, Francisco R.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Lin, Ma; Ianno, Adam J.; Westphal, Tiffani M.; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important oil producing provinces in the United States, information on basinal hydrogeology and fluid flow in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico is lacking. The source and geochemistry of brines from the basin were investigated (Ordovician- to Guadalupian-age reservoirs) by combining previously published data from conventional reservoirs with geochemical results for 39 new produced water samples, with a focus on those from shales. Salinity of the Ca–Cl-type brines in the basin generally increases with depth reaching a maximum in Devonian (median = 154 g/L) reservoirs, followed by decreases in salinity in the Silurian (median = 77 g/L) and Ordovician (median = 70 g/L) reservoirs. Isotopic data for B, O, H, and Sr and ion chemistry indicate three major types of water. Lower salinity fluids (100 g/L), isotopically heavy (O and H) water in Leonardian [Permian] to Pennsylvanian reservoirs (2–3.2 km depth) is evaporated, Late Permian seawater. Water from the Permian Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian “Cline” shales, which are isotopically similar but lower in salinity and enriched in alkalis, appear to have developed their composition due to post-illitization diffusion into the shales. Samples from the “Cline” shale are further enriched with NH4, Br, I and isotopically light B, sourced from the breakdown of marine kerogen in the unit. Lower salinity waters (3 km depth), which plot near the modern local meteoric water line, are distinct from the water in overlying reservoirs. We propose that these deep meteoric waters are part of a newly identified hydrogeologic unit: the Deep Basin Meteoric Aquifer System. Chemical, isotopic, and pressure data suggest that despite over-pressuring in the Wolfcamp shale, there is little potential for vertical fluid migration to the surface environment via natural conduits.

  2. Thermal and cementation histories of Permian shelf-edge carbonate rocks in the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.; Parrish, Judith T.; Zahn, Xie; Wenhai, Hu; Scholle, Peter A.; Zhongrui, Su; Yirong, Zhang; Yunming, Huang; Guangxuan, Li

    1989-01-01

    As of 1984, the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China has had almost no exploration by drilling although oil seeps exist among its margins and producing wells occur in adjacent basins.  however, cooperative studies by petroleum geologists and geochemists of the United States and the People's Republic of China (1982-1984) show that calcite-cemented reef and fore-reef carbonate rocks near Ziyun contain bitumen in Upper Permian shelf-edge sediment.  the cementation history consists of three episodes: (1)precipitation of syndepositional marine cement (formerly botryoidal aragonnite and fibrous magnesian calcite); (2)precipitation of post-depositional early cement (radiaxial calcite); and (3)precipitation of late burial cement (white calcite spar).  Hydrocarbons were introduced into the rocks between cementation episodes 2 and 3.  Fluid inclusion analysis of secondary inclusions in the burial cement indicates that the rocks were heated to nearly 200 C after hydrocarbon migration and cementation episode 3.  Bitumen remains in the rocks as evidence of the earlier presence of liquid hydrocarbons.

  3. On a moderately diverse continental ichnofauna from the Permian Ikakern Formation (Argana Basin, Western High Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hminna, Abdelkbir; Voigt, Sebastian; Saber, Hafid; Schneider, Jörg W.; Hmich, Driss

    2012-06-01

    The Permian Ikakern Formation of the Argana Basin yielded important tetrapod skeletal remains but is still poorly known for any other kind of fossils. Here we present a moderately diverse assemblage of invertebrate and vertebrate traces from red beds in the upper part of the formation (Tourbihine Member, T2) near Timezgadiouine. Recorded ichnotaxa include Spongeliomorpha carlsbergi (Bromley and Asgaard, 1979), Striatichnium natalisWalter, 1982, AmphisauropusHaubold, 1970, HyloidichnusGilmore, 1927, ErpetopusMoodie, 1929, and DromopusMarsh, 1894. The traces occur in laminated muddy siltstone and fine-grained sandstone that we interpret as slack-water deposits in an episodically high energy fluvial setting. Including arthropod burrows, arthropod grazing traces and tetrapod footprints, the ichnofossil assemblage corresponds to the Scoyenia ichnofacies. The described trace fossils provide evidence for various invertebrates and vertebrates hitherto unknown from the body fossil record of the study area. By extending the stratigraphic and geographic range of some of the recorded ichnotaxa, our finds strongly emphasise the importance of the Argana Basin for the reconstruction and understanding of Late Palaeozoic terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Geology of permian basin in the northeast of Uruguay: Sedimentology exam about uranium trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium project was prepared from BRGM to DINAMIGE. Its has got three zones of investigation: zone 1 composed by precambrian basin in the N W; zone 2 the precambrian insular shelf and rocks belts; zone 3 wich include parts of the basin Cretaceous in Salto and Santa Lucia

  5. The Permian basin geology in the north of Uruguay.Sedimentology exam about the uranium signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin is located in the Precambrian insular shelf limited to the North. East and South. The North (Brazil) and south (Uruguay) edge are constituted by the insular shelf ancient nucleus which dates from 2000 million years.

  6. Sequence-Stratigraphic Framework from the Carboniferous to the Permian Chuanshanian Epoch in Dianqiangui Basin and Its Adjacent Areas, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Mingxiang; Ma Yongsheng; Deng Jun; Meng Qingfen; Li Donghai

    2005-01-01

    The Carboniferous can be divided into four series in the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas, Southwest China: the Yanguanian series, the Datangian series, the Weiningian series and the Mapingian series. The Maping Formation, traditionally used as the lithostratigraphic unit of the Upper Carboniferous, became an inter-system unit from the Carboniferous to the Permian. Thus, the top part of the Carboniferous and the bottom part of the Permian (Chuanshanian series) constitute a third-order sequence in the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas. In the study area, the Carboniferous system and the Chuanshanian series of the Permian constitute a second-order sequence that can be subdivided into 6 third-order sequences. The bottom boundary of this second-order sequence is an unconformity formed in the principal episode of the Ziyun movement (the second episode), and the top boundary is also an unconformity formed in the principal episode of the Qiangui movement (the second episode). In different paleogeographical backgrounds, the strata from the Carboniferous to the Permian Chuanshanian epoch are marked by different sedimentary features. For example, coal measures and more dolomitic strata are developed in the attached platform; carbonate rocks mainly constitute the isolated platform strata; the inter-platform ditch strata are mainly composed of dark and fine sediments. Therefore, third-order sequences with different architectures of sedimentary-facies succession are formed in different paleogeographical backgrounds. Although the third-order sequences are different in the architecture of sedimentary-succession in space, the processes of their depositional environmental changes due to the third-order relative sea-level changes are simultaneous. Biostratigraphically, the surfaces of the third-order sequences can be correlated and traced in space; the framework of sequence stratigraphy from the Carboniferous to the Chuanshanian epoch of the Permian can be established

  7. Latest Permian to Middle Triassic cyclo-magnetostratigraphy from the Central European Basin, Germany: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurlies, Michael

    2007-09-01

    In Central Germany, the about 1 km thick mainly clastic Germanic Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) consists of about 60 sedimentary cycles, which are considered to reflect variability in precipitation within the epicontinental Central European Basin, most probably due to solar-induced short eccentricity cycles. They provide a high-resolution cyclostratigraphic framework that constitutes the base for creating a composite geomagnetic polarity record, in which this paper presents a Middle Buntsandstein to lowermost Muschelkalk magnetostratigraphy obtained from 6 outcrops and 2 wells where a total of 471 samples was collected. Combined with recently established records, a well-documented magnetostratigraphy for the upper Zechstein to lowermost Muschelkalk (latest Permian to Middle Triassic) of Central Germany has been constructed, encompassing an overall stratigraphic thickness of about 1.3 km and 22 magnetozones derived from about 2050 paleomagnetic samples. Along with available biostratigraphy, this multi-disciplinary study facilitates detailed links to the marine realm, in order to directly refer biostratigraphically calibrated Triassic stage boundaries as well as radioisotopic ages to the Buntsandstein cyclostratigraphy and, conversely, to contribute to calibrating the geologic timescale.

  8. Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Facies in the Lower Member of the Permian Shanxi Formation, Northeastern Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Du; Zaixing Jiang; Ying Zhang; Jie Xu

    2013-01-01

    The Lower Permian Shanxi(山西) Formation is one of the main gas-bearing stratigraphic units in northeastern Ordos(鄂尔多斯) Basin,China.Based on an integrated investigation of well logs,cores,and outcrop,we delineated the sedimentary facies of the lower member of the Shanxi Formation and divided the succession into three third-order sequences from base to top as SQ1,SQ2,and SQ3.The lower region of Shanxi Formation was deposited in the following sedimentary facies or subfacies: subaqueous braided channel,subaqueous interdistributary,mouth bar,swamp and shelf in the Daniudi(大牛地)Gas Field and braided channel,and shelf and lake at Heidaigou(黑岱沟)outcrop.Braided-river deposits form the lowstand systems tract (LST) in each sequence.Braided channels mark the sequence boundaries at Heidaigou outcrop.A shelf and lake depositional environment with dark gray mudstone forms the transgressive systems tract (TST).The location where dark gray mudstone first appears above the braided channel marks the first flooding surface (FFS),and the end of that marks the maximum flooding surface (MFS).The highstand systems tract (HST) deposits are fine-grained sediments with an aggradational parasequence at Heidaigou outcrop and swamp coalbed in the Daniudi Gas Field.Mouth-bar sand bodies in braided delta front,which form the LST in each sequence,form excellent reservoirs in the Daniudi Gas Field.

  9. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-08-15

    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity. PMID:27125684

  10. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-08-15

    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity.

  11. New petrified forest in Maranhão, Permian (Cisuralian) of the Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Domingas Maria; de Andrade, Luiz Saturnino; Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Iannuzzi, Roberto; Pereira, Agostinha Araújo; Machado, Francisco Carlos

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a new fossil plant-bearing area located in the municipalities of Duque Bacelar and Coelho Neto, Maranhão State, Brazil, recovered from lower Permian (Cisuralian) strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, northeastern portion of the Parnaíba Basin. The area comprises more than five exposures with assemblages formed mostly of large gymnosperm woods, a number of them in life-position (reaching up to ∼2.30 m in height and 1.15 m in diameter) and, in lesser degree, of horizontal tree-fern stems (up to 5 m in length), some of them being referable to Psaronius sp. The fossils are recorded in sedimentary beds of continental origin that accumulated in shallow, nearshore areas of large lakes, which eventually were affected by rapid burial episodes generated by non-channelized, high energy fluvial systems. The new fossil assemblages are included within lacustrine rocks placed at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, i.e., Sílex Basal Member, near the contact with the underlying Piauí Formation (Pennsylvanian). This observation contrasts with previous studies at the southwestern portion of the basin, where the stratigraphic position of plant fossils is referred to the upper Pedra de Fogo Formation (Trisidela Member) or even to the overlying Motuca Formation. The new sites currently suffer damage from human activities and require urgent actions in order to protect them. Based on the current laws, some measures of protection for these sites are discussed and proposed herein. xml:lang="pt"

  12. Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori Formation, Satpura Gondwana basin: Palaeogeographic and tectonic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan Chakraborty; Soumen Sarkar

    2005-06-01

    The Upper Permian Bijori Formation of the Satpura Gondwana basin comprising fine- to coarsegrained sandstone, carbonaceous shale/mudstone and thin coal bands was previously interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers. The present study documents abundance of wave ripples, hummocky and swaley cross-stratification and combined flow bedforms in the Bijori Formation, suggesting that a significant part of the formation was deposited in a wave-agitated environment. Evidence of near-emergent depositional conditions provided by repeated occurrence of rootlet beds and hydromorphic paleosols, local flooding surfaces denoting rapid fluctuation of water level, occurrences of temnospondyl vertebrate fossils, and absence of tidal signatures and marine fossils suggest a lacustrine rather than marine depositional regime. Five facies associations recognised within the Bijori Formation are inferred to represent fluvial channels and associated floodplains (FA1), lake shorelines (FA2), subaqueous distributary channels and associated levees (FA3), wave- and storm-affected delta front (FA4), and open lacustrine/lower shoreface (FA5) deposits. The planoconcave fluvial channel-fill sandbodies with unidirectional cross-beds are clearly distinguishable from the delta front bars that show a convexo-plan or bi-convex sandbody geometry and dominance of wave and combined flow bedforms. Some of the distributary channels record interaction of fluvial and wave-dominated basinal processes. Major distributary sandbodies show a north to northwest flow direction while wave-affected delta front sandbodies show very complex flow patterns reflecting interaction between fluvial discharge and wave processes. Wave ripple crest trends show that the lake shoreline had an overall east–northeast to west–southwest orientation. The lack of documented contemporaneous lacustrine or marine sediments in the Satpura Gondwana basin posed a major problem of basin-scale palaeogeographic reconstruction. The

  13. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  14. Radiometric dating of ochoan (permian) evaporites, WIPP site, Delaware basin, New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have attempted radiometric dating of halide-sulfate salts and clay minerals from the Delaware Basin, New Mexico, USA, as part of geochemical study of the stability of the evaporite sequence at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - a US DOE facility) site. They undertook this dating to determine: (1) primary age of evaporite genesis or time(s) of recrystallization, (2) if previously undated evaporite minerals (leonite, polyhalite, kieserite) give useful data, and (3) if the detrital clay minerals have been radiometrically reset at any time following their incorporation into the evaporite medium. They have shown earlier that polyhalites can indeed be successfully dated by the K-Ar method, and once corrections are applied for admixed halide minerals, dates of 210-230 Ma for the Delaware Basin are obtained. Rb-Sr isochrons from early stage sylvites-polyhalites-anhydrites yield 220 +/- 10 Ma, even when some sylvites yield lower K-Ar dates due to loss of 40Ar*. K-Ar dates on leonites and kieserites are also low due to 40Ar* loss, but their Rb-Sr dates are higher. Detrital clay minerals from the Delaware Basin collectively yield a highly scattered isochron (390 +/- 77 Ma), but samples from a local area, such as the WIPP Site, give a much better age of 428 +/- 7 Ma. These dates show that the interaction between the clay minerals and the evaporitic brines was insufficient to reset the clay minerals Rb-Sr systematics. In a related study, they note that a dike emplaced into the evaporite at 34 Ma had only very limited effect on the intruded rocks; contact phenomena were all within 2 m of the dike. All of their geochemical (radio-metric and trace element) studies of the WIPP site argue for preservation of the isotopic and chemical integrity of the major minerals for the past 200 Ma. 19 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  15. Facies pattern of the middle Permian Barren Measures Formation, Jharia basin, India: The sedimentary response to basin tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabir Dasgupta

    2005-06-01

    In the Lower Gondwana succession of the Jharia basin of eastern India, the Barren Measures Formation is characterized by the cyclic disposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits and relatively coarse-grained fluvial deposits. The cyclic variation in the rate of coarse clastic input is attributed to the sedimentary response to basin tectonics. The sandstone–shale alternations of the Barren Measures succession can be correlated with the tectonic cyclothems developed on the hangingwall dip-slope and adjoining trough in a continental half-graben setting. Enhancement of the gradient of the hangingwall dip-slope during reactivation of the basin margin faults led to progradation of the existing fluvial system towards the half-graben trough and deposition of the coarser clastics on the fine-grained lacustrine deposits of the trough. Peneplanation of the hangingwall slope and slow increase in the lake level caused lacustrine transgression and retrogration of the fluvial system on the hangingwall block. The fluvial sediments were onlapped by the fine-grained lacustrine deposits. Episodic rejuvenation of the basin margin faults thus caused development of tectonic cyclothem on the hangingwall block. The paleocurrent pattern indicates that a persistent northward paleoslope was maintained during Barren Measures sedimentation. The inferred depositional settings were much more extensive than the present limit of the outcrop. The faults, presently defining the northern limit of the Barren Measures Formation, were possibly emplaced after Barren Measures sedimentation. The final movement along these fault planes caused preservation of the downthrown hangingwall block and the Barren Measures sediments on the footwall block were eroded during subsequent denudation. The Southern Boundary Fault came into existence after the deposition of the Barren Measures sediments.

  16. Late Permian to Middle Triassic correlations and palaeogeographical reconstructions in south-western European basins: New sedimentological data from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linol, Bastien; Bercovici, Antoine; Bourquin, Sylvie; Diez, José Bienvenido; López-Gómez, José; Broutin, Jean; Durand, Marc; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue

    2009-09-01

    Description of sedimentary sections and interpretations of sequence stratigraphic evolution of Permian-Triassic red beds of Minorca, allow a new proposal of palaeoenvironment reconstructions. The Permian sediments mainly correspond to floodplain and pond deposits with sheetflood sand-bed rivers (environment DE 1), within a warm and semi-arid climate, and the preserved succession forms one complete stratigraphic cycle. The retrogradational phase of this cycle is represented by alluvial/colluvial deposits grading upwards to environment DE 1 and to extensive floodplain and pond deposits. The progradational phase is characterized by increasing fluvial influence (with palaeocurrent mainly oriented to the SW), palaeosol horizons, and preservation of a Late Permian palynoflora. The uppermost part of this succession is truncated by a major erosional surface. The sediments above this unconformity are characterized by braided river deposits (environment DE 2) with palaeocurrent oriented to the SSW within the more basal conglomeratic facies and to the WNW in overlying units. The absence of extensive floodplain deposits, a paucity of evidence for biogenic activity and palaeosols, together with the presence of ventifacts indicate an arid climatic setting for the succession. This environment evolved from braided rivers (palaeocurrents mainly oriented to the SE, environment DE 3) with in situ palaeosols and reworked breccias to fluvial-coastal and shallow marine deposits (environment DE 4) dated as upper Anisian to Ladinian. This succession characterizes a retrogradational trend. Although the transition between DE 2 and DE 3 was not observed, a switch in palaeocurrent directions may indicate a change in source area. A comparison at a regional scale with other Peri-Tethyan basins allows the succession to be placed within a broader palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphic context during Late Permian to Middle Triassic. During the Late Permian, sedimentation occurred in alluvial, playa

  17. No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y; Piasecki, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    Multiple observations have revealed that environmental disturbances may have been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed biotic recovery. Biogeochemical constraints on the temporal and spatial changes of oceanic redox chemistry during the Permian–Triassic interval are essential...... to evaluate global significance of previous hypotheses and to improve our understanding of extinction and recovery processes. To investigate redox ocean chemistry change associated with the end-Permian extinction and subsequent delayed biotic recovery, we examine framboidal pyrites as well as sulfur isotopic....... Our detailed examination of framboidal pyrites challenges a leading hypothesis that euxinia in the photic zone caused the end-Permian ecosystem collapse. We identify several positive and negative S-isotopic shifts before and after the extinction event and demonstrate that a positive S-isotopic shift...

  18. Liassic U-Pb age of the Rabejac pitchblende. Isotopic arguments for a Permian uraniferous preconcentration in the Lodeve basin (Herault)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancelot, J.; Vella, V.

    Located in the basal part of the Saxonian formations of he Lodeve basin, the massive pitchblendes of the Rabejac ore deposit provide an age of 183 +- 4 Ma (Pb-Pb isochron), consistent with a Liassic mobilization of uranium in southern Massif central previously dated in the U ore deposits of Lodeve (Herault), Bertholene (Aveyron) and Pierres-Plantees (Lozere). This mobilization is related to the circulation of rather hot saline fluids (3-14%, 130-250/sup 0/C) induced by the tectonic phase of continental crust thinning (horsts, grabens, tilted blocks) which preceded the opening of the Ligurian-Piemontais ocean. Using Concordias diagrams we discuss the isotopic composition of the initial lead incorporated into the Rabejac pitchblendes during their cristallization which appears to have been radiogenic. This constitutes the first isotopic argument in favour of a primary U concentration during Permian times in the Lodeve basin.

  19. Sills, evaporites, and contact metamorphic gas generation in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia: Implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik H.; Frolov, Sergei; Akhmanov, Grigorii G.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province (LIP) through the Tunguska Basin is regarded as the main process triggering the end-Permian environmental crisis. Still, the lack of data from the Tunguska Basin represents one of the main challenges in understanding the link between the LIP formation and the crisis. Degassing from contact metamorphic aureoles in evaporites is suggested as a key factor to the continental mass extinction, but little is known about the actual distribution of sills and aureoles within these lithologies. Here, we present results from a borehole database with more than 700 wells in the Tunguska Basin, where 293 borehole sare studied in detail and presented. The boreholes cover large parts of the basin, from Norilsk in the north (N69) to Bratsk in the south (N55), with a bias towards petroleum-bearing regions. In total, 93.5% of the studied boreholes contain sill intrusions. The sill thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. Thick sills are emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations, with average thicknesses in the 115-130 meter range. Petrographic investigations of metamorphic sediments, and thermal modelling of sediment heating, demonstrate high temperature devolatilization. Degassing to the atmosphere took place via explosive pipe degassing and gas seepage. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the end-Permian mass extinction.

  20. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  1. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  2. Geochemical characteristics of the Permian basins and their provenances across the Solonker Suture Zone: Assessment of net crustal growth during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Zhao, Guochun; Zhang, Jian; Han, Yigui; Hou, Wenzhu; Liu, Dongxing; Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The Solonker Suture Zone is commonly recognised as the location of the Late Permian to Early Triassic closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean in the southeastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. However, the absence of typical suture-related features, as a consequence of uncommon collisional geometries, gave it a cryptic nature. Thus, the tectonic setting, which led to suturing, still remains enigmatic. A geochemical characterisation of Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks across the suture was carried out. Supplemented with Hf and Nd isotopic analyses, this approach enables not only a better definition of such regional suture, but also estimates on the long-controversial issue of net crustal growth in accretionary tectonic environments. The results indicate short sedimentary transport distances between the arc basins and their provenances, of which the studied volcanic rocks were a major contributor. Similar enrichment and depletion patterns with respect to N-MORB and average continental crust further corroborate a close source-sediment relationship. Immobile element provenance analyses indicate that the active continental northern margin of the North China Craton was a major source for arc basins to the south of the Solonker Suture Zone. To its north, arc basins are interpreted to be sourced by a more complex mixture of provenances, e.g., the Baolidao volcanic arc suite and the heterogenous Precambrian basement of southern Mongolia. An overall collisional tectonic setting across the suture is recognised. The geochemical signature of sedimentary rocks to the south of the suture points at an active continental arc setting, whereas the bimodal geochemical distribution of the samples to the north shows a contemporaneous active oceanic island arc as well as a passive margin environment. These features favour a double-sided subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean beneath the North China Craton and the Mongolian Arcs throughout the Palaeozoic, including back

  3. A comparison of the Iberian and Ebro Basins during the Permian and Triassic, eastern Spain : A quantitative subsidence modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, H.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.M.; López-Gómez, J.; Wees, J.-D. van; Cloetingh, S.; Horra, R. de la; Arche, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Permian-Triassic sediments of the Iberian Plate are a well studied case of classical Buntsandstein-Muschelkalk-Keuper facies, with good sedimentological interpretations and precise datings based on pollen and spore assemblages, ammonoids and foraminifera. Synrift-postrift cycles are recorded in

  4. Sequence-stratigraphic frameworks and their palaeogeographic patterns for the Permian Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Permian Lopingian in the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas is marked by the coal measures of the Wuchiapingian and the carbonate strata of the Changhsingian stages. For the Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas,the diversity of sedimentary facies and the obviousness of facies change provide an advantaged condition on a study of sequence stratigraphy. Approximately,the Wuchiapingian stage constitutes a third-order sequence and the Changhsingian stage forms an-other. For the Wuchiapingian stage in the study area,coal-measures were developed on the attached platform and,in addition,a special coal-measure that is composed of both limestone beds and coal beds was also developed in the central part of some isolated platforms. Grain-bank grainstones and packstones were formed on the margin of the attached platform as well as in the windward part of iso-lated platforms. For the Changhsingian stage in the study area,open-platform limestones were formed on the attached platform,while sponge-reef limestones were developed both on the margin of the at-tached platform and on the isolated platforms. The Lopingian Series is a set of basin-facies muddy shales with interbeds of silicalites in the inter-platform basin,which appears a set of the large-thick coarse clastic strata of molasses covering direct the deep-water strata from the Devonian to the Per-mian Yangsingian in the Qinzhou-Fangcheng region in the southern part of the study area. All of these features indicate the complexity of temporal-spatial facies-changes. Sequence-stratigraphic frame-works could be established,which would illustrate two types of facies-changing surfaces and dia-chronisms in the stratigraphic records,based on the combination of both biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic materials and the regularity reflected by temporal evolutionary succession of sediments as well as spatial distributional patterns of sedimentary facies. Ultimately,features of sedi

  5. Sequence stratigraphic features of the Middle Permian Maokou Formation in the Sichuan Basin and their controls on source rocks and reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Su

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Well Shuangyushi 1 and Well Nanchong l deployed in the NW and central Sichuan Basin have obtained a high-yield industrial gas flow in the dolomite and karst reservoirs of the Middle Permian Maokou Formation, showing good exploration prospects of the Maokou Formation. In order to identify the sequence stratigraphic features of the Maokou Formation, its sequence stratigraphy was divided and a unified sequence stratigraphic framework applicable for the entire basin was established to analyze the stratigraphic denudation features within the sequence framework by using the spectral curve trend attribute analysis, together with drilling and outcrop data. On this basis, the controls of sequence on source rocks and reservoirs were analyzed. In particular, the Maokou Formation was divided into two third-order sequences – SQ1 and SQ2. SQ1 was composed of members Mao 1 Member and Mao 3, while SQ2 was composed of Mao 4 Member. Sequence stratigraphic correlation indicated that the Maokou Formation within the basin had experienced erosion to varying extent, forming “three intense and two weak” denuded regions, among which, the upper part of SQ2 was slightly denuded in the two weak denuded regions (SW Sichuan Basin and locally Eastern Sichuan Basin, while SQ2 was denuded out in the three intense denuded regions (Southern Sichuan Basin–Central Sichuan Basin, NE and NW Sichuan Basin. The development of source rocks and reservoirs within sequence stratigraphic framework was significantly affected by sequence boundary; the grain banks that can form effective reservoir were predominately distributed in SQ1 highstand systems tract (HST, while effective source rocks were predominately distributed in SQ1 transgressive system tract (TST. It is concluded that the sequence division method is objective and reasonable, which can effectively guide oil and gas exploration in this region.

  6. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  7. Dispersal Syndromes of fossil Seeds from the Lower Permian of Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane M. Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological analysis of seeds has been an important subject in modern ecological studies, once it provides evidence about the biology and adaptations of the parent plant. However, this kind of study has been restricted to the ecology of modern plants and is rarely used in interpretations of Paleozoic data. From the understanding of dispersal syndromes analysis as an important tool to paleoecological reconstruction, this study provides a first approach using this tool with seeds from the Lower Permian strata of southern Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul. Based on previously classified seeds and using their biological and taphonomic data, the syndrome of dispersal was interpreted, and their placement in successional groups (pioneer, early-successional and later-successional was suggested. Seven morphospecies were analyzed: Samaropsis gigas, representing a later-successional species living in water bodies with hydrochory as its dispersal syndrome; Samaropsis kurtzii, typical of early-successional species showing anemochory as its dispersal syndrome and living in distal areas in relation to water bodies; Samaropsis aff. S. millaniana, Cordaicarpus aff. C. brasilianus, Cordaicarpus cerronegrensis and Cordaicarpus truncata have typical characteristics of pioneer plants, exhibiting barochory as their primary dispersal syndrome with other syndromes associated.A Análise morfológica das sementes tem sido um importante objeto em estudos ecológicos modernos, uma vez que fornece evidências sobre a biologia e as adaptações das plantas-mãe de sementes. Entretanto, este tipo de estudo tem sido restrito a ecologia de plantas modernas e é raramente utilizado em interpretações de dados paleozóicos. A partir do entendimento da análise das sindromes de dispersão como uma importante ferramenta para reconstruções paleoecológicas, este estudo oferece uma primeira abordagem utilizando essa ferramenta com sementes do Permiano Inferior do Sul da

  8. Geochemical Variability and the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste Water Coproduced with Oil from Permian Basin of the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. A.; Holguin, F. O.; Xu, P.; Engle, M.; Dungan, B.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. generates 21 billion barrels/year of coproduced water from oil and gas exploration, which is generally considered waste water. Growth in unconventional oil and gas production has spurred interest in beneficial uses of produced water, especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico, the largest U.S. tight oil producer. Produced waters have variable chemistries, but generally contain high levels of organics and salts. In order to evaluate the environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of produced water. In the present study, produced water samples were collected from 12 wells across the Permian Basin. Compositional analyses including coupled gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy were conducted. The samples show elevated benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene compared to other heteroaromatics; they also contain complex hydrocarbon compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Van Krevelen diagrams show an increase in the concentration of heteroaromatic hydrocarbons with increasing well depth. The salinity, dominated by sodium-chloride, also increases with depth, ranging from 37-150 g/L TDS. Depth of wells (or producing formation) is a primary control on predicting water quality for treatment and beneficial use. Our results suggest that partial treatment by removing suspended solids and organic contaminants would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse, bioenergy production, and other industrial uses. Due to the high salinity, conventional desalination processes are not applicable or very costly, making beneficial uses requiring low salinity not feasible.

  9. Paleoenvironmental reconstitution of Motuca and Sambaíba formations, Permian-Triassic of the Parnaíba Basin in southwest Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Romério Abrantes Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interval between the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic was marked by paleogeographic and paleoclimatic global changes, partly attributed to catastrophic events. The intense continentalization of the supercontinent Pangaea of End-Permian propitiated the development of extensive deserts that succeeded the coastal and platform environments of Early Permian. The records of these events in northern Brazil are found in intracratonic basins, particularly in the Permo-triassic succession of the Parnaíba Basin. The facies and stratigraphic outcrops analysis of this succession allowed the individualization of 14 sedimentary facies grouped into four facies associations (FA: FA1 and FA2 related to deposits of Motuca Formation and, FA3 and FA4, representative of the base of Sambaíba Formation. The FA1 – Shallow lake/Mudflat consists of red laminated mudstone with lenses of gypsum, calcite and marl, besides lobes of sigmoidal sandstones. The FA2 – Saline pan consists of lenticular bodies of laminated gypsum, nodular gypsum and gypsarenite, overlapped by greenish mudstones with dolomite nodules and palygorskite. The FA3 – sand sheet and FA4 – dunes field are formed, respectively, for orange cream sandstones with even parallel stratification and medium- to large-scale cross-bedding. In the contact between Motuca and Sambaíba formations occurs a deformed interval, laterally continuous for hundreds of kilometers. Brecciated and contorted bedded siltstones and mudstone (Motuca Formation and sandstone with sinsedimentary faults/microfaults, convolute lamination and mud-filled injection dykes (Sambaíba Formation are interpreted as seismites triggered by high magnitude earthquakes (> 8 according Richter scale.

  10. Permian paleogeography of west-central Pangea: Reconstruction using sabkha-type gypsum-bearing deposits of Parnaíba Basin, Northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Francisco R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Soares, Joelson L.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme aridity during Late Permian - Early Triassic period was the main factor for resetting the entire paleoclimate of the planet. Permian evaporite basins and lacustrine red beds were widely distributed along the supercontinent of Pangea. Sulphate deposits in Western Pangea, particularly in Northern Brazil, accumulated in an extensive playa lake system. Outcrop-based facies and stratigraphic analysis of up to 20 m thick evaporite-siliciclastic deposits reveal the predominance of laminated reddish mudstone with subordinate limestone, marl and lenses of gypsum. The succession was deposited in shallow lacustrine and inland sabkha environments associated with saline pans and mudflats. Gypsum deposits comprise six lithofacies: 1) bottom-growth gypsum, 2) nodular/micronodular gypsum, 3) mosaic gypsum, 4) fibrous/prismatic gypsum, 5) alabastrine gypsum, and 6) rosettes of gypsum. Gypsum types 1 and 2 are interpreted as primary deposition in saline pans. Bottom-growth gypsum forms grass-like crusts while nodular/micronodular gypsum indicates displacive precipitation of the crust in shallow water and the groundwater capillary zone. Types 3 and 4 are early diagenetic precipitates. Abundant inclusions of tiny lath-like anhydrite crystals suggest a primary origin of anhydrite. Alabastrine gypsum, fibrous gypsum (satinspar) and rosettes of gypsum probably derived from near-surface hydration of anhydrite. The gypsum-bearing deposits in the Parnaíba Basin contribute towards understanding paleogeographic changes in Western Pangea. A progressive uplift of East Pangea, culminated in the forced regression and retreat of epicontinental seas to the West. Restricted seas or large lakes were formed before the definitive onset of desert conditions in Pangea, leading to the development of extensive ergs.

  11. Comment on “Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain” by S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual [Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. H.; Mayoral, E.

    2010-07-01

    Comments are provided on a published paper on "Lower Permian" strata in SW Spain [S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual, Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain, Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29], which failed to take into account up-to-date information on this most southerly occurrence in western Europe. This generally lacustrine basin commenced with valley fill deposits in a deeply incised palaeotopography and contains mainly red beds with two basaltic intervals and a major acidic volcanic episode linked to a nearby volcanic centre to the Northeast. The stratigraphic succession shows southeasterly onlap. Although a syn-sedimentary fault has been postulated on the NE basin margin, the field evidence disproves this notion as well as the assumption that this "Early Permian" basin would have been controlled by a rejuvenated Ossa-Morena/South Portuguese boundary fault. In fact, this basin lies within the (former) area of Ossa-Morena.

  12. Finding the boundary between evolutionary basins of attraction, and implications for Wright's fitness landscape analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1932 Wright introduced the notion of the fitness landscape. By analogy with a physical landscape, whose gradient predicts a rolling marble's spatial trajectory, the contours of the fitness landscape are meant to predict an evolving population's genetic trajectory. Wright's chief interest was in the possibility that mutational interactions might frustrate natural selection, giving rise to multiple maxima on the fitness landscape. Here we study a dynamical system over the state space defined by allele frequencies and linkage disequilibria between alleles. We first analytically locate the saddle between basins of attraction in infinite-sized populations evolving under the influence of selection and recombination for the simplest two-locus case. We further show numerically that the boundary between basins is approximately linear with respect to linkage disequilibrium, though not allele frequency. We also employ this framework to develop novel perspectives on two venerable results for single-peaked fitness landscapes. Finally we sought the potential function whose contours would predict evolutionary trajectories through this state space. Importantly not every dynamical system can be described by a potential function, and the present problem is provably one such case. Thus in the parlance of Wright's analogy, in locating the floor of the fitness valley we have lost the landscape, and this conclusion is not limited to our choice of parameterization, nor of problem. This result motivates us to carefully review the formal implications and requirements of this widely used analogy

  13. États de contraintes et mécanismes d'ouverture et de fermeture des bassins permiens du Maroc hercynien. L'exemple des bassins des Jebilet et des RéhamnaStates of stresses and opening/closing mechanisms of the Permian basins in Hercynian Morocco. The example of the Jebilet and Réhamna Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Amal; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Ait Brahim, Lahcen; Saidi, Maraim

    The fracturing analysis in the Permian basins of Jebilet and Rehamna (Hercynian Morocco) and the underlying terranes allowed us to suggest a model for their opening. Three tectonic episodes are distinguished: a transtensional episode NNE-SSW-trending (Permian I), occurring during the opening along sinistral wrench faults N70-110-trending, associated with synsedimentary normal faults; a transpressive episode ESE-WNW-trending (Permian II), initiating the closure, the normal faults playing back reverse faults and the N70 trending faults dextral wrench faults; a compressional episode NNW-SSE (post-Permian, ante-Triassic), accentuating the closure and the deformation and putting an end to the Tardi-Hercynian compressive movements. To cite this article: A. Saidi et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 221-226.

  14. Shallow burial dolomitisation of Middle-Upper Permian paleosols in an extensional tectonic context (SE Iberian Basin, Spain): Controls on temperature of precipitation and source of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, M. Isabel; De la Horra, Raúl; López-Gómez, José; Barrenechea, José F.; Luque, Javier; Arche, Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    This work is focused on carbonate paleosols developed in three stratigraphic sections (Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos) of the Middle-Late Permian Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Basin. The Alcotas Formation, of alluvial origin, was deposited in semi-connected half-grabens developed during the early stages of the Permian-Triassic rifting stage that affected the Iberian Basin. The studied sections were located in two of these half-grabens, the Henarejos section being much closer to the basin boundary fault than the other two sections. The mineralogy and texture of the carbonate precursor of paleosols in the three studied sections are not preserved because original carbonate is replaced by coarse crystals of dolomite and/or magnesite. Dolomite crystals are typically euhedral, displaying rhombohedral shapes and reddish luminescence, although in the Henarejos section dolomite displays non-planar boundaries and frequently saddle habit. Micas are deformed and adapted to dolomite crystals, which, in turn, are affected by stylolites, suggesting that dolomite precipitated before mechanical and chemical compaction. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of dolomite from the three sections show different values (δ 13C VPDB mean values = - 6.7‰, - 5.5‰ and - 7.5‰; δ 18O VPDB mean values = - 4.0‰; -5.6‰ and - 8.2‰, at Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos sections, respectively). The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are similar in the three sections yielding values between 0.71391 and 0.72213. The petrographic and geochemical features of dolomite in the three studied sections suggest precipitation from similar fluids and during shallow burial diagenesis. Assuming that the minimum temperature for dolomite precipitation in the Henarejos section was 60 °C (as suggested by the presence of non-planar saddle habit), and that the dolomitizing fluid had similar δ 18O values at the three localities, then dolomite in the Talayuelas and Landete sections precipitated at temperatures

  15. A preliminary biogeochemistry-based quantification of primary productivity of end-Permian deep-water basin in Dongpan Section ,Guangxi ,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; HE Weihong; FENG Qinglai

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper,the mean primary productivity of the Talung Formation in the deep-water basin(50-500 m depth)of Dongpan,Guangxi,South China,was calculated,of the content of the trace element Cu.Results showed that the primary productivity obtained was comparable with the previously-reported data for the black shale of the Phosphoria Formation,a Permian phosphate deposit in the northwest United States,and also similar to that of the modern deposit in the Cariaco basin,Venezuela.It was observed that the primary productivity increased with the enhanced abundance of algae and photosynthetic bacteria,and with the decrease in both the radiolarian individuals and the body size of brachiopods during the faunal mass extinction.This ecological coupling indicates that the changes of primary productivity are closely related to the propagation and the decline of producers(algae and bacteria),and that consumers(radiolarians and brachiopods)probably have little influence on the changes of primary productivity.

  16. Integrative method in lithofacies characteristics and 3D velocity volume of the Permian igneous rocks in H area, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Liu Yongfu; Xie Huiwen; Xu Yongzhong; Sun Qi; Wang Shuangshuang

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces horizon control,seismic control,logging control and facies control methods through the application of the least squares fitting of logging curves,seismic inversion and facies-controlled techniques.Based on the microgeology and thin section analyses,the lithology,lithofacies and periods of the Permian igneous rocks are described in detail.The seismic inversion and facies-controlled techniques were used to find the distribution characteristics of the igneous rocks and the 3D velocity volume.The least squares fitting of the logging curves overcome the problem that the work area is short of density logging data.Through analysis of thin sections,the lithofacies can be classified into eruption airfall subfacies,eruption pyroclastic flow subfacies and eruption facies.

  17. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  18. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  19. 300-Myr-old magmatic CO2 in natural gas reservoirs of the west Texas Permian basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C J; Schoell, M; Coleman, D; Cain, B A

    2001-01-18

    Except in regions of recent crustal extension, the dominant origin of carbon dioxide in fluids in sedimentary basins has been assumed to be from crustal organic matter or mineral reactions. Here we show, by contrast, that Rayleigh fractionation caused by partial degassing of a magma body can explain the CO2/3He ratios and delta13C(CO2) values observed in CO2-rich natural gases in the west Texas Val Verde basin and also the mantle 3He/22Ne ratios observed in other basin systems. Regional changes in CO2/3He and CO2/CH4 ratios can be explained if the CO2 input pre-dates methane generation in the basin, which occurred about 280 Myr ago. Uplift to the north of the Val Verde basin between 310 and 280 Myr ago appears to be the only tectonic event with appropriate timing and location to be the source of the magmatic CO2. Our identification of magmatic CO2 in a foreland basin indicates that the origin of CO2 in other mid-continent basin systems should be re-evaluated. Also, the inferred closed-system preservation of natural gas in a trapping structure for approximately 300 Myr is far longer than the residence time predicted by diffusion models. PMID:11201738

  20. 东北地区二叠纪沉积特征及原型盆地分析%Analysis on Permian Depositional Characteristics and Proto-type Basin of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔军平; 任战利; 史政; 李金翔; 王文青

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of Permian in northeast China is large, and its sedimentary facies types includes half deep sea facies, offshore facies, shore shallow lake facies and half-lake facies. The region in northeast China is in a continental-margin and epicontinental sedimentation environment during Lower Permian to Middle Permian, and the deposition center is in the Wendouermiao-Xilamulun river area. In the Later Permian, this region was a large-scale depression basin, and all suture lines already were closed, while the earth crust was lifting and the sea water was withdrawing, thus the most areas became continental depositing, and partial areas formed residual-marine depositing. As a whole, the rule of sedimentary facies of this region presents a gradual transformation from marine facies in the Early Permian to land facies in the Late Permian. The sedimentation of this region in Late Paleozoic was controlled by the suture line of Xilamulun river, and the suture line became to be closed gradually from west to east during Permian and closed completely until the Late Permian, and the closed time is earlier in west and later in east.%东北地区二叠系分布广泛,沉积相类型主要为半深海相、滨浅海相、滨浅湖相和半深湖相等.早二叠世—中二叠世东北地区主要处于大陆边缘浅海沉积环境,面积大,沉积中心位于南部温都尔庙—西拉木伦河东西向条带区.晚二叠世东北地区为大型坳陷型盆地,东北地区各缝合线均已闭合,随着地壳抬升,海水退出,大部分地区为陆相沉积,局部有残留海相沉积,总体上具有从早二叠世到晚二叠世由海相向陆相逐渐转变的规律.西拉木伦河缝合带对晚古生代沉积起控制作用,在二叠纪整个缝合带由西向东逐渐拼合,直至晚二叠世,两板块拼合完成,闭合时间具有西早东晚的特点.

  1. Othonella araguaiana (Bivalvia, Megadesmidae from the Corumbataí Formation (Midlle Permian, Eastern Margin of the Paraná Basin: Systematic, Evolutionary and Biostratigraphic Significances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Guimarães Simões

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the occurrence of Othonella araguaiana Mendes, a rare bivalve species is reported for the first time in thePinzonella illusa biozone, Middle Permian Corumbataí Formation, in the State of São Paulo. This species was originallydescribed in coeval rocks of the Estrada Nova Formation (= Corumbataí from the Alto Araguaia and Alto Garças regions,State of Mato Grosso. The specimens of O. araguaiana were found in the base of a bioclastic sandstone bed, a proximaltempestite, in the middle of the Corumbataí Formation, in the city of Rio Claro, São Paulo State. The silicified shells andinternal molds are well preserved, showing impressions of muscle scars and other internal anatomic characters (e.g., hinge,never illustrated by previous authors. In his original description, Mendes (1963 called attention to the similarity betweenO. araguaiana and Terraia aequilateralis, a common veneroid of the Corumbataí Formation. Conversely, Runnegar andNewell (1971 suggested that O. araguaiana belongs to Megadesmidae, being a junior synonym of Plesiocyprinella carinata(the commonest megadesmid of the Passa Dois Group. Our study indicates that O. araguaiana is indeed a megadesmid,but is distinct from the P. carinata. The new occurrence of O. araguaiana demonstrates that a the paleobiogeographicdistribution of this species is wider than previously thought (that it was restricted to the northern part of Paraná Basin,Mato Grosso State; b the molluscan fauna of the Corumbataí Formation (P. illusa biozone in the State of São Paulo ismore diverse and dominated by megadesmids; and c the composition of the molluscan fauna of the Corumbataí Formationin Alto Garças, State of Mato Grosso, is essentially the same as that of the P. illusa biozone of the eastern margin of theParaná Basin.

  2. A Middle Permian-Middle Triassic accretionary complex and a Late Triassic foredeep basin: Forerunners of an Indosinian (Late Triassic) thrust complex in the Thailand-Malaysia border area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridd, Michael F.

    2013-10-01

    The Semanggol Formation of NW Peninsular Malaysia is a Middle Permian-Late Triassic sequence of predominantly radiolarian chert, sandstone and mudstone (including turbidites), and conglomerate. The belt of country occupied by this unit extends into Thailand where various names including Na Thawi formation have been applied to its correlatives. Fossil evidence, particularly radiolarian, has established its age but also revealed that it is tectonically complex, with numerous out-of-sequence slices interpreted here to be caused by thrusting. The model proposed here involves, initially, in the Middle Permian, accumulation in the oceanward part of an accretionary complex as Palaeotethys began subducting beneath Indochina/East Malaya. This regime, it is proposed, continued until about the end of the Middle Triassic when Sibumasu collided with Indochina/East Malaya bringing an end to subduction. But as crustal shortening continued into the Late Triassic a foredeep basin formed in front of the now-inactive subduction zone and accretionary complex, and the youngest part of the Semanggol Formation was deposited. During this final stage the whole package of rocks comprising those in the accretionary complex and those deposited in the foredeep basin underwent lateral compression resulting in a thrust complex. The Semanggol Formation and its Thailand correlatives occupy part of a N-S belt of imbricately-thrust, deeper-water, sediments which include slope-deposited Carboniferous and Lower Permian beds. That belt is interpreted as a series of thrust slices juxtaposing rocks of different ages, referred to here as the Songkhla-Semanggol terrane. Its western boundary is a N-S line of inferred thrusting which coincides with a major westward facies change to platform carbonates of Middle Permian to Late Triassic age, called here the Rattaphum-Kodiang tectonic line.

  3. Latest Permian to Middle Triassic cyclo-magnetostratigraphy from the Central European Basin, Germany: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity timescale

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Szurlies

    2007-01-01

    In Central Germany, the about 1 km thick mainly clastic Germanic Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) consists of about 60 sedimentary cycles, which are considered to reflect variability in precipitation within the epicontinental Central European Basin, most probably due to solar-induced short eccentricity cycles. They provide a high-resolution cyclostratigraphic framework that constitutes the base for creating a composite geomagnetic polarity record, in which this paper presents a Middle Buntsands...

  4. Radiometric dating of Ochoan (Permian) evaporites, WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] site, Delaware Basin, New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have attempted radiometric dating of halide-sulfate salts and clay minerals from the Delaware Basin, New Mexico, USA, as part of geochemical study of the stability of the evaporite sequence at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - a US DOE facilty) site. We undertook this dating to determine: (1) primary age of evaporite genesis or time(s) of recrystallization; (2) if previously undated evaporite minerals (leonite, polyhalite, kieserite) give useful data; and (3) if the detrital clay minerals have been radiometrically reset at any time following their incorporation into the evaporite medium. We have shown earlier that polyhalites can indeed be successfully dated by the K-Ar method, and once corrections are applied for admixed halide minerals, dates of 210-230 Ma for the Delaware Basin are obtained. Rb-Sr isochrons from early stage sylvites-polyhalites- anhydrites yield 220 +- 10 Ma, even when some sylvites yield lower K-Ar dates due to loss of *40-Ar. K-Ar dates on leonites and kieserities are also low due to *40-Ar loss, but their Rb-Sr dates are higher. Detrital clay minerals from the Delaware Basin collectively yield a highly scattered isochron (390 +- 77 Ma), but samples from a local area, such as the WIPP Site, give a much better age of 428 +- 7 Ma. These dates show that the interaction between the clay minerals and the evaporitic brines was insufficient to reset the clay minerals Rb-Sr systematics. In a related study, we note that a dike emplaced into the evaporite at 34 Ma had only very limited effect on the intruded rocks; contact phenomena were all within 2 m of the dike. All of our geochemical (radio-metric and trace element) studies of the WIPP site argue for preservation of the isotopic and chemical integrity of the major minerals for the past 200 Ma

  5. Permian bivalves of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, and their biostratigraphic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Guimarães Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A small and poorly diversified bivalve fauna from Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin (State of Santa Catarina,Mafra Municipality, is described in this paper for the first time, based on new findings. The fauna is recorded in a 30 cmthick interval of fine sandstone locally at the top of Taciba Formation, in the Butiá quarry. The studied fossil-bearing sandstonebed is a marine intercalation recording a brief eustatic rise in sea-level, probably following glacier retreat and climateamelioration at the end of a broad glacial scenario. The fauna is mainly dominated by productid brachiopods, which are notdescribed here, and rare mollusk shells (bivalves and gastropods. Two bivalve species were identified: Myonia argentinensis(Harrington, 1955, and Aviculopecten multiscalptus (Thomas, 1928. The presence of Myonia argentinensis is noteworthysince this species is also present in the Baitaca assemblage found in marine siltstones (Baitaca assemblage of theRio do Sul Formation, cropping out at the Teixeira Soares region, Paraná State. This species is also recorded in the bivalvefauna from the Bonete Formation, Pillahinco Group, Sauce Grande Basin, Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina. Hence, themarine bivalves of the Taciba Formation are associated with the transgressive event that characterizes the Eurydesma fauna,indicating a Late Asselian-Sakmarian age for the bivalve fauna. Presence of the Myonia argentinensis megadesmid speciesreinforces the Gondwanic nature of the studied fauna.

  6. Origin of dolomitic rocks in the lower Permian Fengcheng formation, Junggar Basin, China: evidence from petrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shifa; Qin, Yi; Liu, Xin; Wei, Chengjie; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Although dolomitization of calcite minerals and carbonatization of volcanic rocks have been studied widely, the extensive dolomitic rocks that originated from altered volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have not been reported. The dolomitic rocks of the Fengcheng Formation in the Junggar Basin of China appear to be formed under unusual geologic conditions. The petrological and geochemical characteristics indicate that the dolomitizing host rock is devitrified volcanic tuff. After low-temperature alteration and calcitization, these tuffaceous rocks are replaced by Mg-rich brine to form massive dolomitic tuffs. We propose that the briny (with -2 ‰ ~ 6 ‰ of δ13CPDB and -5 ‰ ~ 4 ‰ of δ18OPDB) and Mg-rich marine formation water (with 0.7060 ~ 0.7087 of 87Sr/86Sr ratio), the thick and intermediate-mafic volcanic ashes, and the tectonically compressional movement may have favored the formation of the unusual dolomitic rocks. We conclude that the proposed origin of the dolomitic rocks can be extrapolated to other similar terranes with volcaniclastic rocks, seabed tuffaceous sediment, and fracture filling of sill.

  7. 川西北二叠系栖霞组小有孔虫动物群%Non-fusulinid Foraminiferal Fauna from the Permian Chihsia Formation,Northwestern Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舟; 张廷山; 蓝光志

    2011-01-01

    川西北广元旺苍王家沟剖面二叠系栖霞组小有孔虫动物群由14属27种组成(含比较种、亚种而不含未定种),其中Globivalvulina属及Palaeotextularidae科的物种分异度最高,合计约占总种数的50%.在系统分类的基础上,建立了Globivalvulina组合,作为识别该区二叠纪最大海进时期的标志性动物群.通过对该剖面栖霞组小有孔虫动物群的研究,不仅丰富了四川盆地二叠纪有孔虫的资料,而且为川西北王家沟剖面栖霞组与华南其他地区同期地层的对比提供了更多生物方面的依据.%The Permian non-fusulinid foraminifers of the Chihsia Formation are collected from Wangjiagou section in Wangcang County, Northwestern Sichuan Basin. The Chihsia Formation of Wangjiagou section is a suit of medium-bedded to thick-bedded limestones, with thickness of about 108 meters. Based on the systematic study to the Chihsia Formation, 27 species of 14 genera (including conformis species and subspecies) of the non-fusulinid foraminiferal fauna have been recognized in the Wangjiagou section. The Globivalvulina assemblage is suggested as indicative fauna for recognition of the Permian largest transgressive period. The result of this study not only enriches the fossil database of Sichuan Basin, but also provides more palaeontological evidences for stratigraphic correlation in South China.

  8. The terminal Permian in European Russia: Vyaznikovian Horizon, Nedubrovo Member, and Permian-Triassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovsky, V. R.; Balabanov, Yu. P.; Karasev, E. V.; Novikov, I. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Yaroshenko, O. P.

    2016-07-01

    The comprehensive analysis of the data obtained on terrestrial vertebrata, ostracods, entomologic fauna, megaflora, and microflora in deposits of the Vyaznikovian Horizon and Nedubrovo Member, as well as the paleomagnetic data measured in enclosing rocks, confirms heterogeneity of these deposits. Accordingly, it is necessary to distinguish these two stratons in the terminal Permian of the East European Platform. The combined sequence of Triassic-Permian boundary deposits in the Moscow Syneclise, which is considered to be the most complete sequence in the East European Platform, is as follows (from bottom upward): Vyatkian deposits; Vyaznikovian Horizon, including Sokovka and Zhukovo members; Nedubrovo Member (Upper Permian); Astashikha and Ryabi members of the Vokhmian Horizon (Lower Triassic). None of the sequences of Permian-Triassic boundary deposits known in the area of study characterizes this sequence in full volume. In the north, the Triassic deposits are underlain by the Nedubrovo Member; in the south (the Klyazma River basin), the sections are underlain by the Vyaznikovian Horizon. The Permian-Triassic boundary adopted in the General Stratigraphic Scale of Russia for continental deposits of the East European platform (the lower boundary of the Astashikha Member) is more ancient than the one adopted in the International Stratigraphic Chart. The same geological situation is observed in the German Basin and other localities where Triassic continental deposits are developed. The ways of solving this problem are discussed in this article.

  9. Salt movements in the Northeast German Basin and its relation to major post-Permian tectonic phases—results from 3D structural modelling, backstripping and reflection seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, Magdalena; Bayer, Ulf; Lewerenz, Björn

    2003-01-01

    The NW-SE-striking Northeast German Basin (NEGB) forms part of the Southern Permian Basin and contains up to 8 km of Permian to Cenozoic deposits. During its polyphase evolution, mobilization of the Zechstein salt layer resulted in a complex structural configuration with thin-skinned deformation in the basin and thick-skinned deformation at the basin margins. We investigated the role of salt as a decoupling horizon between its substratum and its cover during the Mesozoic deformation by integration of 3D structural modelling, backstripping and seismic interpretation. Our results suggest that periods of Mesozoic salt movement correlate temporally with changes of the regional stress field structures. Post-depositional salt mobilisation was weakest in the area of highest initial salt thickness and thickest overburden. This also indicates that regional tectonics is responsible for the initiation of salt movements rather than stratigraphic density inversion. Salt movement mainly took place in post-Muschelkalk times. The onset of salt diapirism with the formation of N-S-oriented rim synclines in Late Triassic was synchronous with the development of the NNE-SSW-striking Rheinsberg Trough due to regional E-W extension. In the Middle and Late Jurassic, uplift affected the northern part of the basin and may have induced south-directed gravity gliding in the salt layer. In the southern part, deposition continued in the Early Cretaceous. However, rotation of salt rim synclines axes to NW-SE as well as accelerated rim syncline subsidence near the NW-SE-striking Gardelegen Fault at the southern basin margin indicates a change from E-W extension to a tectonic regime favoring the activation of NW-SE-oriented structural elements. During the Late Cretaceous-Earliest Cenozoic, diapirism was associated with regional N-S compression and progressed further north and west. The Mesozoic interval was folded with the formation of WNW-trending salt-cored anticlines parallel to inversion

  10. A new Permian bivalve-dominated assemblage in the Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil: Faunal turnover driven by regional-scale environmental changes in a vast epeiric sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Matos, Suzana Aparecida; Anelli, Luiz Eduardo; Rohn, Rosemarie; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; David, Juliana Machado

    2015-12-01

    The basal portion of the Permian Rio do Rasto Formation (Serrinha Member), Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, Brazil, records an entirely new bivalve fauna intercalated between the underlying Pinzonella neotropica assemblage (uppermost portion of the Teresina Formation) and the overlying Leinzia similis assemblage (Rio do Rasto Formation). Mollusks of these assemblages lived in marginal shallow-water habitats of an immense epeiric sea and were dominated by endemic bivalve species. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Terraia curvata (60.61%), Astartellopsis prosoclina (19.70%), Cowperesia emerita (10.61%), Leinzia curta (4.55%), Terraia bipleura (3.03%) and Beurlenella elongatella (1.52%), which are associated with conchostracans and plant remains. Species composition, abundance, and dominance in this novel assemblage differ notably from the preceding ones, suggesting a substantial evolutionary turnover. Regional-scale environmental changes recognized based on taphonomy, facies analysis, and geochemical data consist of progressive freshening of the marginal habitats of the Paraná Basin and taxic changes that include the following: (a) loss of genera, (b) decrease in bivalve abundance and ecological guilds, (c) disappearance of the dominant bivalve group (Pinzonellinae) and (d) diversification of Terrainae bivalves. The ecological signature also changed notably because only infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves are present, indicating a significant loss of functional diversity at the regional scale. Likely stressor factors (among others) are tied to freshening events, suggesting profound changes in (a) salinity, (b) primary productivity and (c) a lack of coarse, stable substrates coupled with high bioturbation rates. Hence, our regional example could offer valuable clues to benthic (bivalve) community responses in a habitat subjected to (a) rapid climate changes and (b) freshening events in shallow-water settings. Finally, the stratigraphic range of the

  11. Natural fractures in a United Kingdom shale reservoir analog, Cleveland Basin, northeast England.

    OpenAIRE

    Imber, Jonathan; Armstrong, Howard; Clancy, Sarah; Daniels, Susan; Herringshaw, Liam; McCaffrey, Ken; Rodrigues, Joel; Trabucho-Alexandre, Joao; Warren, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    Faults and fractures within the well-exposed Lower Jurassic Cleveland Ironstone and Whitby Mudstone formations may provide insights into the tectonic history of gas-prospective, Mississippian shale in northern England. Sub-vertical opening mode fractures occur throughout the Cleveland Basin. Bed-parallel fractures, some of which contain blocky calcite fills, occur preferentially within well-bedded, clay-rich mudstones of the Cleveland Ironstone and Whitby Mudstone formations at Jet Wyke and P...

  12. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables

  13. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, L M

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables.

  14. The Permian system in Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rocks of Permian age in Kansas were first recognized in 1895, and by the early 21st century the internationally accepted boundary between the Permian and the...

  15. 蔡希斯坦盆地二叠纪钾盐成矿条件和资源开发利用%An the Overview in on Geologic Setting and Exploitation of Permian Potash in Zechstein Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓峰; 郑绵平; 齐文; 陈文西

    2014-01-01

    The paper is written based on the basis of the author’s’substantive experience on potash exploration and exploitation overseas, personal visits at operating potash mines in Germany,face-to-face communication with German potash institutes and abundant historic data. It is with an overview for on geologic setting, current status of exploitation and mining technologies of German potash.Meanwhile,it this paper aims at providing a reference for domestic potash exploration and as well as its integrated exploitation through the research in geological setting,history of formation and mining technologies of Germany martial-face potash. German potash was formed in Zechstein Basin in Permian period,which was situated relatively steadily in shallow continental shelf area of continental block.Eight cycles have been found in Zechstain Basin (Z1 - Z8 )and each cycle was deposited in similar sequence.The sequence of deposit from bottom to top is:clastic rock → carbonate → anhydrite → halite → sylvite → roof of anhydrite.The discovery of super large-scale Permian potash basin displays that most potash resource in the world,which is normally contained in sub-basin, comes from martial-face. Meanwhile,the change of some specific elements,such as bromine and rubidium,could be indication of potash deposit.The method should be used in the potash exploration in China. Potash could be mined by either conventional mining or solution mining.Conventional mining was more popular in past many years.However,solution mining has been improving and it has more advantages compared with conventional mining.%笔者对德国几个在产钾盐矿山实地考,察以及与德国钾盐研究机构的技术交流,并结合大量文献资料,对德国钾盐地质条件、开发现状以及开采技术的发展进行综述,为国内找钾和钾盐的综合开发利用提供借鉴。德国钾盐产于上二叠纪蔡希斯坦盆地(Zechstein Basin),位于相对稳定的陆块浅海陆

  16. Formation of the Permian basalts and implications of geochemical tracing for paleo-tectonic setting and regional tectonic background in the Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Dingwu; LIU; Yiqun; XING; Xiujuan; HAO; Jianrong; DONG; Yunpeng; OUYANG; Zhengjian

    2006-01-01

    The Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins are the late Paleozoic-Mesozoic-Cenozoic reworked intracontinental basins that superposed on the folded basement of the Paleozoic orogenic belt. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological study of the basalts developed in the basins reveals that the formation period is Permain (293-266 Ma). From geochemical comparison of the basalts, the Santanghu basalts exhibit a strong depletion in Nb and Ta, and a selective enrichment in HFSE, reflecting that the source region is influenced by the subducted components related to subduction of the ancient oceanic crust and characterized with "lagged arc volcanic rocks". In contrast, the Turpan-Hami basalts show a slight depletion in Nb and Ta, high Th/Ta ratio, similar to the basalts formed in an intracontinental extensional zone or in an initial rift. Combined with the formation period of the ophiolite and ophiolite mélange zones and regional magmatic activities occurring on the post-orogenic extensional background in northern Xinjiang, it can be inferred from these geochemical characteristics that the tectonic background for forming the Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins is closely related to the regional extension after the continent-continent collisional orogeny. The basalts of the two basins came from different sources on the post-orogenic extensional background of the similar basin-forming dynamics. Although the settings are all intracontinental rift, the source for the Santanghu basalts is obviously subjected to the metasomatism of the subducted components, implying the existence of the previous subduction.

  17. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    2008-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  18. Study of the Genesis of Permian Volcanic Reservoir in Yuenan Region Tarim Basin%塔里木盆地跃南地区二叠系火山岩储层成因机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文庆; 张巍; 于红枫; 于红娇; 张正红; 关平; 简星

    2013-01-01

    Petrology,mineralogy and geochemistry method such as thin section,cast thin section,scanning electron microscope observation,cathodoluminescence,energy spectrum and major element experiment were used to analyze the genesis of Permian volcanic reservoir in Yuenan Region,Tarim Basin.It is found that Permian volcanic reservoir,dominated by secondary pore space can be regarded as favorable reservoir because the porosity of the primary pore space can reach 14% and 13.1 × 10-3 μm2 respectively.Genesis of the secondary pore and cracks is the weathering,whose intensity increases with the depth decreasing.The porosity and the permeability is positively correlated to weathering.The thickness of weathering effect can reach at least 220 m.The weathering dissolution and leaching process take priority of weak plane,such as large number of primary pores,cooling contracted crack,cryptoexplosion fracture which generate in the cooling of volcanic and cleavage crack,twin stitch of primary mineral.Weathering sequence of feldspar phenocryst and matrix is found in rhyolite,weathering products are mainly illite,with small amounts of montmorillonite,and the entire sequence of clay minerals growth process is preserved.Weathering can modify substantially pore structure on the basis of primary porosity,and improve the porosity and permeability greatly,which is the main controlling factor of Permian volcanic reservoir of Yuenan Region,Tarim Basin.%通过普通薄片及铸体薄片观察、扫描电子显微镜、阴极发光、能谱分析及主量元素分析等岩石学、矿物学、地球化学手段,对塔里木盆地跃南地区二叠系火山岩储层成因机理进行系统研究.研究发现,二叠系火山岩储层中以次生储集空间为主,孔隙度可高达14%,渗透率最高可达13.1×10-3 μm2,可以作为有利的储层.风化作用是次生孔隙和裂缝的主要成因,风化作用强度由深到浅逐渐增大,储层物理性能与之呈正相

  19. Taphonomy of Condensed Shell Storm beds of the Teresina Formation in Rio Preto (State of Paraná, Middle Permian, Paraná Basin: Paleoenvironmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Peixoto Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The deposits of the Permian Teresina Formation are mainly characterized by fi ne-grained siliciclastic rocks and centimetricintercalations of tempestites (bioclastic sandstones and coquinas. Despite the relevance of the bivalve-rich carbonate bedsof the Teresina Formation to paleoenvironmental studies, their taphonomy is still poorly studied. The fossil concentrationstudied in this work was found in a quarry in the city of Irati, Rio Preto district, Paraná State. The fossil concentration is locatedin the middle/upper portion of the unit, far from the top. The studied bed is a bioclastic, intraclastic, peloidal, grainstone/packstone, with abundant bivalve shell fragments, pelitic and micritic intraclasts, peloids, rare ooids and oncoids, as well aspermineralized of Lycophyta microphylles and fi sh scales. The grains of this carbonate concentration show: high degree oftime-averaging, variable degree of packing (dense to disperse, no sorting and chaotic orientation. Notably, the concentrationincludes a mixture of elements which are indicative of: a restrictive, low energy, carbonate environment (peloids, ooidsand oncoids; b subaerial environment surrounding the main body of water (Lycophyta microphylles and c quiet-waterenvironment punctuated by storm events, where the suspension-feeding bivalves thrived. At least four depositional eventscaused by storm fl ows were recorded. The amalgamated nature of the bed is a result of storm events in an intracratonic basinwith very low seafl oor slope and low rates of sedimentation and subsidence.

  20. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; Ram-Awatar; Saurabh Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Palynofloras have been recorded from the Barakar Formation in the Borehole MBKW-3, Barpali–Karmitikra Block, Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Three distinct palynoassemblages have been identified and referred to the following palynoassemblage zones – Gondisporites raniganjensis (Latest Permian); Faunipollenites varius (latest Early Permian), and Scheuringipollenites barakarensis (late Early Permian). It is inferred that these deposits contain the representative palynoassamblages of Early to Late Permian in age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD)s of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, A. ovatus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lundbladispora microconata, Alisporites opii, Klausipollenites sp., and Goubinispora indica (at 41.95, 45.90, 98.35 m depths), indicate the closing phase of Permian, as these elements are the key species that mark a transition from Permian to the Lower Triassic. An attempt has been made here to reconstruct the phytogeographical provincialism on the basis of Guttulapollenites recorded in this basin.

  1. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand-Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Srikanta; Ram-Awatar; Gautam, Saurabh

    2014-12-01

    Palynofloras have been recorded from the Barakar Formation in the Borehole MBKW-3, Barpali-Karmitikra Block, Mand-Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Three distinct palynoassemblages have been identified and referred to the following palynoassemblage zones - Gondisporites raniganjensis (Latest Permian); Faunipollenites varius (latest Early Permian), and Scheuringipollenites barakarensis (late Early Permian). It is inferred that these deposits contain the representative palynoassamblages of Early to Late Permian in age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD)s of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, A. ovatus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lundbladispora microconata, Alisporites opii, Klausipollenites sp., and Goubinispora indica (at 41.95, 45.90, 98.35 m depth), indicate the closing phase of Permian, as these elements are the key species that mark a transition from Permian to the Lower Triassic. An attempt has been made here to reconstruct the phytogeographical provincialism on the basis of Guttulapollenites recorded in this basin.

  2. Sill-induced evaporite- and coal-metamorphism in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia, and the implications for end-Permian environmental crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

    2014-05-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. Petrographic investigations of the metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the crisis.

  3. Extinguishing a Permian World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneebeli-Hermann, E.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the Permian, ca. 252 Ma ago, marine and terrestrial fauna were facing the most extensive mass extinction in Earth history (Raup and Sepkoski, 1982). 80%–95% of all species on Earth, on land and in the oceans, became extinct (Benton et al., 2004) within an estimated time interval of les

  4. Permian division and correlation and distribution of volcanic rocks of Tarim basin%塔里木盆地二叠系划分对比与火山岩分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲仁海; 党晓红; 许璟; 郭倩; 伊红佳

    2011-01-01

    Based on the basin-wide analysis of well, outcrops and tracing of seismic data, the underground Permian petrologic stratigraphy is re-divided and correlated throughout the Tarim Basin. Permian System upward consists of one aggradation interval and three retrogradation intervals of natural gamma ray logs. The aggradation interval belongs to Nanzha Formation, and the other three intervals belong to respectively Kupkuciman Formation, Kaipeleicike Formation and Shajingzi Formation. Nanzha Formation is dominated by rocks of brown gray shales interbedded with thin limestones that represent littoral to neritic deposits during the last transgression in Tarim basin. Kupkuciman and Kaipeleicike Formations are two cycles from basic to acidic volcanic rocks or from basic volcanic to terrestrial clastic rocks. Shajingzi Formation is an allocycle from alluvial fan to branded channel to meandering fluvial deposition resulted from a tectonic movement The Permian volcanic rocks are thicker over the areas from Hetian River to Tazhong to Shuntuoguole. The volcanic rocks are atypically 0 ~ 60m in Kupkuciman Formation, and 0 ~ 200m or locally over 400m in Kaipeleicike Formation. The volcanic rocks of Kaipeleicike Formation are accumulated further northeast compared to that of Kupkuciman Formation. Over the middle to west region of Tarim basin, part of Kupkuciman volcanic rocks might have formed underwater. Volcanic passage and craters seen on seismic sections are distributed extensively on the anticlines or fault nose structures in uplifted region and rarely seen in depression area. Volcanic rocks can serve as cap or shelter rocks of a pool, or be reworked to be one kind of reservoir rocks, but mostly the volcanic activity might have affected or to some extent destroyed the earlier formed oil-gas pools.%根据全盆地钻井与露头剖面对比和地震剖面追踪解释,探讨了塔里木盆地覆盖区二叠系岩石地层的划分对比.二叠系自下而上由一个自然伽

  5. Characterization of an Upper Permian tight aas reservoir : a multidisciplinary, multiscale analysis from the Rotliegend, Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Antrett, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary, multiscale approach to the analysis of tight gas reservoirs. It focused initially on the facies architecture of a Permian tight gas field in the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), East Frisia, Northern Germany. To improve field development, 3D seismic data, wireline and core data were compared to a reservoir analogue in the Panamint Valley, California, United States. Depositional environments of the Permian Upper Rotliegend II included perennial saline la...

  6. The thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt of Irecê Basin, São Francisco Craton: main structural setting and physical analog modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Luis Siqueira Reis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in the central portion of Bahia state, Irecê Basin displays the best exposures of neoproterozoic sedimentary cover at Northern São Francisco Craton. Despite of the large amount of geological studies performed there, some questions remain unsolved, especially concerning the tectonic evolution of the thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt that involves the rocks of the basin. In order to contribute to the understanding of such evolution, the present study reviews the main structural elements of the basin and surroundings, and present new data acquired through sandbox physical analog modeling. The Thin-skinned Fold-and-thrust Belt of Irecê Basin is a great curved feature, confined in the homonymous syncline, whose genesis is related to the development of orogenic belts north of São Francisco Craton. Its evolution was conditioned by a N-S tectonic vector, responsible by the nucleation of E-W folds and thrusts. At basin boundaries, the deformation is accommodated by strike-slip faults, which locally rotated early structures. Towards south, the belt gradually loses its expression, only remaining structures related to the Chapada Diamantina thrust-and-fold system. The sandbox analog model successfully simulated the development of the Thin-skinned Fold-and-thrust Belt of Irecê Basin, and indicates that its map-view curve results from the interaction with the syncline borders, as well as substrate geometry of the foreland belt. The propagation was made through a low-friction detachment, probably conditioned by the rheological contrast between the Una Group carbonates and the underlying Espinhaço Supergroup siliciclastic rocks.

  7. Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Ft. Worth, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

  8. Permian potentiometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devary, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties.

  9. Permian potentiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

  10. Late Permian-Early Triassic Sedimentary Evolution in Sichuan Basin and Its Significance on Gas Accumulation%四川盆地晚二叠世-早三叠世沉积演化及其对天然气富集的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冲; 邹华耀; 郭彤楼

    2015-01-01

    四川盆地上二叠统—下三叠统碳酸盐岩地层中富集天然气,天然气藏的分布受优质烃源岩和礁滩相储层的控制。为了揭示四川盆地沉积演化背景下天然气的富集规律及预测成藏有利区,对晚二叠世—早三叠世扬子古板块地质构造背景进行分析,讨论地质构造背景控制下四川盆地晚二叠世—早三叠世沉积演化特征;根据不同时期构造和沉积演化特征确定优质烃源岩和储层的发育机理和分布范围;结合天然气成藏模式的认识,确定天然气成藏有利区。结果表明:四川盆地晚二叠世—早三叠世海湾及其后陆棚的发育演化控制了该区龙潭组主力烃源岩与长兴组—飞仙关组礁滩相储层的发育分布,形成了下生上储的有利配置关系;川东北地区长兴组—飞仙关组台地边缘礁滩相储层邻近龙潭组海湾相优质烃源岩的区域为天然气成藏最有利区。总之,四川盆地晚二叠世—早三叠世沉积演化特征控制了海相优质烃源岩和储层的发育分布,决定了天然气的富集与分布。%Upper Permian-Low Triassic carbonate formations in Sichuan Basin enrich gas,and the distribution of gas accumulation is controlled by high quality source rocks and reef-shoal facies reservoir.In order to reveal the gas enrichment rule and forecast the favorable areas under the sedimentary evolution settings in Sichuan Basin, the geological structure settings of Late Permian-Early Triassic Yangtze palaeoslab were analyzed, and the characteristics of Late Permian-Early Triassic sedimentary evolution under the geological structure settings were discussed;the development mechanism and distribution of high quality source rocks and reservoirs were explained according to the characteristics of tectonic evolution in different periods;combined with the gas accumulation model,the favorable areas of gas accumulation were divided.The results show that the

  11. By analogy with late paleozoic orogeny in the Venezuelan Andes, Maracaibo Basin is en route to a granitic event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.; Giegengack, R.F.; Lutz, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Postulated stages of orogeny in a continental crustal setting are:- 1. Stresses of plate convergence lead to block uplift and complementary basin subsidence. The basin fills with 12-14 km of illite-rich flysch (1km/3Ma). This about doubles the thickness of K-rich sial. 2. In situ heating of the flysch by radioactive decay provides a thermal gradient of c.35/sup 0/C/km and it is metamorphosed (pre-deformation) to greenschists facies. 3. After maximum crustal subsidence continued compression results in updoming of crust and overlying flysch. Cannibalism of flysch, cooling and mild subsidence follow; autometamorphism declines. 4. Thin deltaic-marine deposits complete basin fill over the meta-flysch. The unconformity (a span of only 5-10 Ma) is of minor import. 5. Resetting of the thermal profile of the depressed crust lags far behind that in the flysch. Parallels to the above in the Maracalbo basin fill are: -thickness (approx.11km), nature (flysch abounds), rate of deposition (c.1km/3-4Ma), thermal gradient (c.33/sup 0/C/km) and overall tesselar shape. Presence of impermeable strata in the Maracaibo Basin suggests that large-scale fluid convection is inhibited; conductive models of heat transfer can be used. Computer modeling suggests that radiogenic heat, augmented by exothermic oxidation of organic matter, and with a normal mantle heat flow will explain the autometamorphism of the flysch. Alternative orogenic models invoking pull-apart basins do not explain the great thickness of sediments and absence of volcanic activity.

  12. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

  13. Origin of lacustrine dolostones of the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin of Xinjiang%新疆三塘湖盆地中二叠统芦草沟组湖相白云岩成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 柳益群; 梁浩; 周小虎; 焦鑫; 刘洪福; 杨锐; 雷川

    2012-01-01

    新疆三塘湖盆地中二叠统芦草沟组发育湖泊背景下的白云岩、灰岩、黑色泥岩、页岩及碎屑岩的互层沉积.白云岩主要有两类:一类为粉—泥晶白云岩,主要由含量约70%的泥晶白云石和含量约30%的粉晶白云石构成,白云石有序度为0.48,扫描电镜下主要有菱形、他形、球状和管状4种微形态,自形程度较好的菱形晶体多为含铁白云石;另一类为方沸钾长白云岩,主要由晶粒为0.08~0.35 mm的细粒方沸石、泥晶钾长石(透长石)、泥晶白云石和铁白云石构成,个别为粗晶白云石,白云石有序度0.58.与粉—泥晶白云岩中的白云石相比,方沸钾长白云岩中的白云石以高的铁、锰含量为特征,扫描电镜下多为半自形的菱形晶体.两类白云岩中白云石的有序度均较低,且均为富Sr白云石,内部均缺乏次生交代证据.通过对两类白云岩成分、微量元素及稳定同位素的差异性分析,认为尽管两类白云岩都形成于浅—半深湖相强还原沉积环境,但是它们的形成机制有所不同,粉—泥晶白云岩具有原生沉淀白云石的特征,其中球状及管状的白云石可能与微生物吸附作用有关,而他形及菱形的白云石为直接沉淀的原生白云石;另一类方沸钾长白云岩中的白云石及铁白云石可能与湖底热泉的啧流沉积作用有关.%The Santanghu Basin is a small intermountain basin located in northeastern Xinjiang, NW China. The Middle Permian comprises the Wulapo, Jingjingzigou, Lucaogou and Hongyanchi Formations from bottom to top. The Lucaogou Formation was formed of interbeded sedimentary rocks such as dolostone, limestone, black mudstone, shale and detrital rock in lacustrine environment. Two kinds of dolostones were found in this basin. One was named silt-micrite dolostone which contains 70 percent of clay-sized dolomite, 30 percent of silt-sized dolomite. The dolomite exhibit weak ordering with degree of 0

  14. Sedimentology and distribution of Upper Permian lowstand fans, Bredehorn Member, Schuchert Dal Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner-Moeller, M.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Permian basin of central East Greenland was characterized by shallow marine platform carbonates along the basin margins and over fault crests, and deeper water siliciclastics in the basin centres during the later stages of deposition. The basinal, siliciclastic-dominated succession includes the organic rich, source prone shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation and sandy and silty sediments of the Schuchert Dal Formation. The traditional view of these formations is that they represent discrete stages of basin evolution. However, renewed fieldwork indicates that the lower part of the sandy Bredehorn Member of the Schuchert Dal Formation is time equivalent to the upper part of the Ravnefjeld Formation. The presentation discusses the details.

  15. Early Permian Pangea `B' to Late Permian Pangea `A'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Kent, Dennis V.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Brack, Peter; Abrahamsen, Niels; Gaetani, Maurizio

    2003-10-01

    The pre-drift Wegenerian model of Pangea is almost universally accepted, but debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana farther to the east by ˜3000 km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. New paleomagnetic data from radiometrically dated Early Permian volcanic rocks from parts of Adria that are tectonically coherent with Africa (Gondwana), integrated with published coeval data from Gondwana and Laurasia, again only from igneous rocks, fully support a Pangea 'B' configuration in the Early Permian. The use of paleomagnetic data strictly from igneous rocks excludes artifacts from sedimentary inclination error as a contributing explanation for Pangea 'B'. The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis by introducing a significant non-dipole (zonal octupole) component in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field. We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset consisting entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from sampling sites confined to one hemisphere from Gondwana as well as Laurasia that the effects of a zonal octupole field contribution would not explain away the paleomagnetic evidence for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore regard the paleomagnetic evidence for an Early Permian Pangea 'B' as robust. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' took place during the Permian because Late Permian paleomagnetic data allow a Pangea 'A' configuration. We therefore review geological evidence from the literature in support of an intra-Pangea dextral megashear system. The transformation occurred after the cooling of the Variscan mega-suture and lasted ˜20 Myr. In this interval, the Neotethys Ocean opened between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian microcontinents in the east, while widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism took place in the west around the Adriatic promontory. The general

  16. A modern analog of past climatic impacts on sedimentary processes and landscape evolution in an intermontane basin: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Sara; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wittmann, Hella; Strecker, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    and debris flows along the steep slopes of the catchment area, which generates sediment of near-zero cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. Farther upstream in the more arid Humahuaca Basin, abandoned fluvial terrace sequences that exceed 100 m in thickness have been linked to wetter episodes during the late Quaternary. Within those fills, preliminary paleo-denudation rates reach values similar to those currently observed in the Del Medio catchment, while modern denudation rates from river sands are similar to the low rates observed from bedrock samples. Taken together, these observations indicate that the Del Medio fan could be a modern analog of those older fill sequences, providing a unique opportunity to link present-day processes in the Del Medio catchment to those that were likely active in the past during wetter climate episodes in the Humahuaca Basin.

  17. Strontium isotope evolution of Late Permian and Triassic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Christoph; Kozur, Heinz W.; Bruckschen, Peter; Veizer, Ján

    2003-01-01

    The 87Sr/ 86Sr values based on brachiopods and conodonts define a nearly continuous record for the Late Permian and Triassic intervals. Minor gaps in measurements exist only for the uppermost Brahmanian, lower part of the Upper Olenekian, and Middle Norian, and only sparse data are available for the Late Permian. These 219 measurements include 67 brachiopods and 114 conodont samples from the Tethyan realm as well as 37 brachiopods and one conodont sample from the mid-European Middle Triassic Muschelkalk Sea. The Late Permian/Lower Triassic interval is characterized by a steep 1.3 × 10 -3 rise, from 0.7070 at the base of the Dzhulfian to 0.7082 in the late Olenekian, a rate of change comparable to that in the Cenozoic. In the mid-Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian), the isotope values fall to 0.7075, followed again by a rise to 0.7081 in the Middle/Late Norian. The 87Sr/ 86Sr values decline again in the Late Norian (Sevatian) and Rhaetian to 0.7076. The sharp rise in the 87Sr/ 86Sr values during the Late Permian/Early Triassic was coincident with widespread clastic sedimentation. Because of the paucity of tectonic uplifts, the enhanced erosion may have been due to intermittent humid phases, during mainly an arid interval, coupled with the absence of a dense protective land plant cover following the mass extinction during the latest Permian. The apex of the 87Sr/ 86Sr curve at the Olenekian/Anisian boundary coincides with cessation of the large-scale clastic sedimentation and also marks the final recovery of land vegetation, as indicated by the renewed onset of coal formation in the Middle Triassic. The rising 87Sr/ 86Sr values from the Middle Carnian to the Late Norian coincide with the uplift and erosion of the Cimmeride-Indosinian orogens marking the closure of the Palaeotethys. The subsequent Rhaetian decline that continues into Jurassic (Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary), on the other hand, coincides with the opening of the Vardar Ocean and its eastern continuation

  18. A new Permagrionidae from the Middle Permian of the South of France (Odonatoptera: Protozygoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate, Caitlin; Lapeyrie, Jean; Nel, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The new permagrionid protozygopteran genus and species Salagoulestes wesleyi is described from the Middle Permian of Lodève Basin, Salagou Formation. It seems to be more closely related to the two genera Scytolestes and Permagrion than to any other Permagrionidae. It increases the diversity of the odonatopteran fauna in the Salagou Formation to 14 different species.

  19. Cuatro Ciénegas Basin an analog of precambrian Earth and possible early mars scenario. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, V.; Eguiarte, L. E.; Sierfert, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the present, the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) is in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. However, in the early Triasic, the sea penetrated the region of CCB with the opening of Pangea and became a continental wetland with the closing the western interior seaway only 35 million years ago. Its particular tectonics made of CCB a valley surrounded by high sierras that rose above the sea level 700 mt. All available molecular data lead us to suggest that these ancient marine microbial mats have persisted for a very long time and during all that time, the living microbial community evolved and diversified locally due to the rarity of migration and sex. The struggle for life in these structured communities generated uncountable new species that had to deal with the environment, the neighbors and most of all with the extreme lack of P. What for a long time represented the most successful community assemblage in the history of planet Earth, became mostly extinct in modern earth. The herbivores and the competition with algae left few relict communities in extreme environments such as CCB, Shark Bay and Guerrero Negro. Lets remember that stromatolite reefs have fossils as old as 3.6 billion years and that they became so successful that they changed the planet atmosphere producing the great oxygenation event. We also have data that at CCB these extensive microbialites are very patchy and differentiated both taxonomically and genetically, implying that, even though they may look as a continuum in the wetlands, each patch has been geographically isolated for a long time allowing each community to diverge in its composition. All these particularities of CCB arise because, due to its unusual geology, the valley floor was never buried, hence its marine sediment, with extensive microbial mats, always had sun and water, maintaining both the ancient lineages and the oligotrophic conditions that characterized early earth. The lack of P (less than 0.05 n

  20. Subaqueous systems fed by glacially derived hyperpycnal flows: a depositional model for Carboniferous-Permian sandstones of the Itarare Group, Parana Basin; Sistemas subaquosos alimentados por fluxos hiperpicnais glaciogenicos: modelo deposicional para arenitos do Grupo Itarare, Permocarbonifero da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Fernando Farias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Estratigrafia]. E-mail: vesely@petrobras.br

    2006-11-15

    The glacial Itarare Group constitutes the lower interval of the Carboniferous-Permian mega sequence in the Parana Basin. Thick glacially related sandstone reservoirs present in this unit contain gas and condensate sourced by Devonian marine shales. Based on outcrop data from the eastern basin margin, the sedimentary facies and stacking patterns were analyzed in order to propose a depositional model for these sandstone successions. It is suggested that the sandstones were deposited subaqueously as pro glacial fans due to melt water-derived highly concentrated hyperpycnal flows. Regional Itarare Group's stratigraphy can be expressed as several unconformity-bounded sequences deposited in a marine glaciated basin during repeated deglaciation episodes. The lower half of each sequence is constituted of thick sand-rich successions typically showing fining-upward and a retrogradational stacking pattern. Eleven facies were recognized, ranging from conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones, massive, graded or stratified. Conglomerates and cross-bedded coarse sandstones represent proximal Subaqueous deposits and were formed as ice-contact out wash fans/aprons due to melt water-derived hyper concentrated and concentrated flows and traction dominated bottom currents. These flows served as feeder systems to stratified, massive or graded turbiditic sandstone lobes deposited more distally. Parallel bedding and climbing ripples present in these beds were formed due to continuous aggradation from waxing and/or waning long-lived turbidity currents. These characteristics typify hyperpycnites and suggest that melt water derived hyperpycnal flows were the main trigger mechanisms to turbidity currents in the Itarare Group. (author)

  1. Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands and surrounding areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses different aspects of the geological development during the Permian and Triassic (300 to 200 Ma) of the Netherlands and surrounding areas. The study area encompasses the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), a large intracratonic basin stretched out from the United Kingdom in the west t

  2. Spectral gamma-ray signature of fluvial deposits: a case study from the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil; Assinatura gamaespectrometrica de depositos fluviais: estudo de caso na Formacao do Rio do Rasto, Permiano Superior da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowek, Guilherme Arruda, E-mail: arruda@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca; Vesely, Fernando Farias, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br, E-mail: vesely@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Setor de Ciencias da Terra; Berton, Fabio, E-mail: fabioberton1@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Fluvial channel-fill deposits form highly heterogeneous hydrocarbon reservoirs. The study of outcrop analogs can help in the characterization of these heterogeneities, which are usually not detected by subsurface geophysical methods. The aim of this research is to compare outcrop log signatures with grain size trends and depositional elements of the fluvial deposits of the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation. A series of vertical gamma-ray logs were assembled in two outcrops in order to: 1) characterize log-facies in a succession composed of alternated flood plain, channel fill and eolian strata; 2) define within-channel spectral gamma-ray variability of a mixed-load composite point bar deposit and its relationship with grain size trends and lithofacies; 3) correlate log signatures observed in the outcrop sections with deep exploratory wells drilled several tens of kilometers from the study area. The results of this study show that gamma-ray logs have good correlation with grain size trends and that different depositional elements have distinct signatures. On the other hand, point bar deposits exhibit strong lateral changes in log signature due variations in grain size and mud content within lateral accretion strata. Although frequent, the classic bell-shaped log motif was not always detected, which means that the amount of fluvial channel-fill deposits recognized in subsurface can be underestimated. Similar log signatures were detected in the boreholes, at least in the closest ones, helping in paleoenvironmental interpretation in the subsurface. (author)

  3. Permian geology of Gondwana countries: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickins, J.M. (Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

    1992-10-01

    Earliest Permian sequences of Antarctica, southern and east-central Africa, the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, peninsular and Himalayan India, Tibet, western and eastern Australia, New Zealand, and South America are all characterized by glacial deposits and cold-water marine faunas. In the course of the Permian, considerable faunal (and floral) and climatic divergence occurred. Although folding is not necessarily present, the effects of the strong compressive tectonic phase (Hunter-Bowen Orogenic Folding Phase of Dickins) beginning in the mid-Permian (traditional two-fold subdivision) and of acidic and intermediate volcano-magmatic activity are apparent in all these regions as in other parts of the world. The progressive continentality of the Upper Permian (worldwide regression) culminates at the Permian-Triassic (Changxingian-Griesbachian) boundary.

  4. Stratigraphy sequence analysis application for multi scalar characterization of paralic reservoirs - an example in the Guata group (E O-Permian) of the Parana Basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Aplicacao da estratigrafia de sequencias para caracterizacao multiescalar de reservatorios paralicos - um exemplo no Grupo Guata (EO-Permiano) da Bacia do Parana, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechle, Juliano [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Geociencias]. E-mail: juk666@zipmail.com.br; Holz, Michael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: michael.holz@ufrgs.br

    2003-07-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis of the Early Permian Rio Bonito and Palermo Formations of the Parana Basin in the region of Sao Gabriel County has been used for a study on reservoir characterization of paralic sandstones. Two main depositional systems were recognized, a fluvial-dominated delta system and a wave-dominated barrier island system. The succession is divided in two third-order depositional sequences, enclosing thirteen fourth-order para sequences. This high-resolution stratigraphic framework was the base for a multi scale approach on reservoir characterization of the sandstone bodies. Reservoir heterogeneities are discussed, staring from the scale of depositional sequence (heterogeneity level 1), passing down to heterogeneity at the scale of systems tracts (heterogeneity level 2) and finalizing with an approach at para sequence scale (heterogeneity level 3). Main control on heterogeneity at the first level is base-level variation as generating mechanism for un conformities at the sediment type and rate. At the second level, the reservoir heterogeneity is controlled by the lateral and vertical variations in thickness of particular systems within the different systems tracts, and at the third level, the heterogeneity occurs controlling reservoir continuity and connectivities between reservoirs. The study supplies a model which is useful as a predictive tool for similar geologic settings in producing oil fields. (author)

  5. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  6. The paleoclimate of the Kazanian (early Late Permian) world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.T. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA)); Peoples, C.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Kazanian (early Late Permian, 258-253 m.y.) marked the onset of a unique interval in the Phanerozoic, distinguished by a classic end-member case of continental assembly, the megacontinent Pangaea. Compilation of biostratigraphic and lithofacies data indicate a warm, extensively arid world, largely ice free, and characterized by the onset of atmospheric conditions that were exceedingly stressful to the biosphere, the worst of the eon. Using Chevron's version of the Community Climate model, the authors report here on two Kazanian paleoclimate seasonal simulations, one using 200 ppm CO{sub 2} and the other with 2,000 ppm CO{sub 2}. The authors consider the knowledge of plate assembly back to the Permian accurate enough to allow employment of a seasonal model. Simulation of a warmer Earth with an elevated greenhouse effect (modeled as CO{sub 2}) fits the observed geology and isotope signals. The increased CO{sub 2} experiment warmed the entire planet with the greatest increases north of 50{degree} latitude and least changes in the tropics. The warming caused the poleward retreat of sea ice in both hemispheres. Precipitation and evaporation increased, but runoff was confined to areas of very intense rainfall. Monsoons are limited to the southern hemisphere, associated with the western Tethys sea and the eastern equatorial Panthalassa ocean. Extreme southeastern Pangaea (northern Australia) was a focus of precipitation throughout the year. Precipitation occurred in the higher latitudes (50-55{degree}) on the western coast, of Pangaea where storm tracks make landfall. High evaporation rates characterized the restricted Permian (US), Zechstein, and Perm (Soviet Union) basins, a time of evaporite, deposition. Interior Pangaea at middle to high latitudes endured frigid winters ({minus}40{degree}C) and torrid summers (60{degree}C).

  7. First evidence for Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism in the Northern Gemericum: geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozárová Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several magmatic events based on U-Pb zircon geochronology were recognized in the Permian sedimentary succession of the Northern Gemeric Unit (NGU. The Kungurian magmatic event is dominant. The later magmatism stage was documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The detrital zircon assemblages from surrounding sediments documented the Sakmarian magmatic age. The post-orogenic extensional/transtensional faulting controlled the magma ascent and its emplacement. The magmatic products are represented by the calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, ranging from basaltic metaandesite to metarhyolite, associated with subordinate metabasalt. The whole group of the studied NGU Permian metavolcanics has values for the Nb/La ratio at (0.44–0.27 and for the Nb/U ratio at (9.55–4.18, which suggests that they represent mainly crustal melts. Magma derivation from continental crust or underplated crust is also indicated by high values of Y/Nb ratios, ranging from 1.63 to 4.01. The new 206U–238Pb zircon ages (concordia age at 269 ± 7 Ma confirm the dominant Kungurian volcanic event in the NGU Permian sedimentary basin. Simultaneously, the Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism at 251 ± 4 Ma has been found for the first time. The NGU Permian volcanic activity was related to a polyphase extensional tectonic regime. Based on the new and previous U-Pb zircon ages, the bulk of the NGU Permian magmatic activity occurred during the Sakmarian and Kungurian. It was linked to the post-orogenic transpression/transtension tectonic movements that reflected the consolidation of the Variscan orogenic belt. The Permian-Triassic boundary magmatism was accompanied by extension, connected with the beginning of the Alpine Wilson cycle.

  8. First evidence for Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism in the Northern Gemericum: geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Anna; Presnyakov, Sergey; Šarinová, Katarína; Šmelko, Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Several magmatic events based on U-Pb zircon geochronology were recognized in the Permian sedimentary succession of the Northern Gemeric Unit (NGU). The Kungurian magmatic event is dominant. The later magmatism stage was documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The detrital zircon assemblages from surrounding sediments documented the Sakmarian magmatic age. The post-orogenic extensional/transtensional faulting controlled the magma ascent and its emplacement. The magmatic products are represented by the calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, ranging from basaltic metaandesite to metarhyolite, associated with subordinate metabasalt. The whole group of the studied NGU Permian metavolcanics has values for the Nb/La ratio at (0.44-0.27) and for the Nb/U ratio at (9.55-4.18), which suggests that they represent mainly crustal melts. Magma derivation from continental crust or underplated crust is also indicated by high values of Y/Nb ratios, ranging from 1.63 to 4.01. The new 206U-238Pb zircon ages (concordia age at 269 ± 7 Ma) confirm the dominant Kungurian volcanic event in the NGU Permian sedimentary basin. Simultaneously, the Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism at 251 ± 4 Ma has been found for the first time. The NGU Permian volcanic activity was related to a polyphase extensional tectonic regime. Based on the new and previous U-Pb zircon ages, the bulk of the NGU Permian magmatic activity occurred during the Sakmarian and Kungurian. It was linked to the post-orogenic transpression/transtension tectonic movements that reflected the consolidation of the Variscan orogenic belt. The Permian-Triassic boundary magmatism was accompanied by extension, connected with the beginning of the Alpine Wilson cycle.

  9. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Eleonora; Bansal, Ruchi

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  10. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Leonie; Bansal, Ruchi

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  11. Depositional model of Early Permian reef-island ocean inEastern Kunlun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Many fusulinid fossils have been found in thin- to middle-bedded limestones which aredistributed between the Early Permian limestone hills and formerly considered as Early Triassic.The fusulinid fossils, identified as Neoshwagerina sp., Verbeekina sp. and Schwagerina sp., canalso be found in massive limestone hills. At the same time, Early Permian radiolarian chert of deepbasin facies was discovered in Animaqing. All the above show that the massive limestone hills,thin- to middle-bedded limestones and radiolarian chert belong to syndeposits in Early Permianocean. The sediments in the study area can roughly be divided into three types: shallow facies,basin facies and transitional facies. The carbonate buildup can be subdivided into massive bioclas-tic limestone and reef framestone. Basin facies contains thin- or middle-bedded limestone, abyssalred mudstone or ooze, blue-green mudstone and radiolarian chert. Transitional facies includes reeftalus and platformal skirt facies. The Early Permian ocean in Eastern Kunlun is recognized as akind of reef-island ocean environment according to distribution and composition of different facies.The reef-island ocean in Eastern Kunlun is characterized by reef islands (or carbonate buildups)alternating with basins, complicated sea-floor topography, sharp facial change and well-developedreefs

  12. Study on the Late Permian Claraia in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There are different opinions on whether Claraia appeared in the Late Permian or not. Itis convinced that Claraia had turned up in the Late Permian through the study on the Upper Per-mian in South China. Pseudoclaraia, Claraioides and Claraia are compared and they are found tobear basically the same features. According to the rule of nomenclatural priority, Pseudoclaraiaand Claraioides should be attributed to the genus Claraia. Late Permian Claraia lived in the mid-dle-lower part of the bathyal continental slope as epifauna, which could swim occasionally. Thestudy on Claraia of the Permian-Triassic transition shows that Triassic Claraia was evolved fromPermian Claraia

  13. 南华北盆地中二叠统“石盒子组”岩相古地理及储、盖特征研究%RESEARCH ON LITHOFACIES PALAEOGEOGRAPHY AND RESERVOIR,CAP ROCK CHARACTERISTICS OF MIDDLE PERMIAN SHIHEZI FORMATION IN SOUTHERN NORTH CHINA BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 田景春; 曹桐生

    2011-01-01

    Based on stratigraphic division and stratigraphic correlation,the division plan of sedimentary facies of southern North China Basin was determined through detailed analysis to field profiles,well and borehole.Middle Permian Shihezi formation in southern North China Basin can be classified into delta facies and lagoonal facies.Thereinto,two forms sedimentary subfacies that are delta plain,delta front and many microfacies are identified from delta facies.Combining with regional seismic profiles,the paper makes thorough study on single well and interwell,then carries on detailed research to the plane distribution and vertical evolution characteristics of lithofacies palaeogeography characteristics of Middle Permian Shihezi formation in southern North China Basin.From the north to the south,the sedimentary facies plane distribution expressed as delta plain-delta front-lagoonal facies during the deposition of the upper and lower Shihezi formation,moreover the paleogeographic features in various phases has both succession and discrepancy.Finally,a research about lithofacies palaeogeography and reservoir,cap rock characteristics of Shihezi formation in southern North China Basin was operated on the basis of research result stated above and synthetical analysis data.The distributary channel,submarine distributary channel and river mouth bars are best reservoir of the study area.The reservoir pore space consists of primary intergranular pore,intergranular dissolved pore,intragranular dissolved pore,moreover the reservoir space of Upper Shihezi formation is superior compared with that of Lower Shihezi formation.As the stable distributed regional mudstone cap,Shihezi formation has the following key features,such as difficult to break through,low permeability,good sealing property of oil and gas,great thickness and distributing stabilization in landscape orientation.The research result about sedimentary facies and oil-gas geological characteristics we have reached wil provide

  14. Radionuclides distribution in blooming of the permian sediments from the Irati Formation of the Parana Basin; Distribuicao de radionuclideos em um afloramento de sedimentos permianos da Formacao Irati na Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this work is to study natural radionuclides in sedimentary rocks. The concentration of them reflects the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment as well as some mineralogical characteristics of the rock matrix, and also more recent events as weathering and erosion. Using gamma ray high resolution spectrometry, the profile of activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was assessed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 32}Th and {sup 40}K in rocks of the Irati Formation belonging to Parana Sedimentary Basin. The samples were collected at a limestone abandoned mine, in the city of Sapopema, (PR). 24 samples were collected, eleven from the exposed vertical profile with approximately 5.50 m, whose stratigraphy is represented by an alternation among decimetrics layers of limestones, bituminous shales, and some rhythmits layers (milimetric sheets of limestone and bituminous shales), 9 repetitions of a sample to study the variability, and three rigolits samples in sequential apprenticeships of weathering. Each sample was dried in the sun during about 48 hours, broken, drizzled in a sieve of 4 mesh and put, in a cylindrical container. The measures were accomplished using a Germanium Hyper Pure detector (HPGe) with relative efficiency of 66%, connected to a standard spectrometry electronic chain. The measured concentrations of activity of {sup 238}U were smaller for the limestones (17.80 {+-}0.09 Bq.Kg{sup -1}), larger for the bituminous shales (125.5 {+-} 2.6 Bq.Kg{sup -1} with enrichment of uranium in the sample (200), 548 {+-} 16 Bq.Kg{sup -1}, upper part of the column), and intermediate for the rhythmits (23.0 {+-} 1,3 Bq.Kg{sup -1}. The ratio eTh/K obtained for the studied profiles has equivalent values, indicating similar mineralogical characteristics for the limestones, bituminous shales, rhythmits and studied rigolits. On the other hand, to the ratio eTh/eU showed that two of the three regolits samples belong to oxidizer

  15. 南祁连盆地下日哈坳陷二叠系泥岩地球化学特征及地质意义%Geochemistry and Geological Significance of the Permian Mudstone in the South Qilian Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢其锋; 周立发; 蔡元峰; 刘羽; 刘志武

    2015-01-01

    为探讨南祁连盆地下日哈坳陷二叠系泥岩的地球化学特征及其沉积环境、构造属性和物源属性,本文对野外系统采集的泥岩样品进行了有机、无机地球化学测试,分析了泥岩有机碳含量、生烃潜力、最高峰温度、主量、微量和稀土元素等。结果表明,二叠系泥岩有机质成熟度较高,以水生生物型为主兼有水生-陆源混合型,处于半封闭水体状态下,缺氧、还原程度一般、盐度中等的沉积环境。草地沟组属Ⅱ2-Ⅲ型干酪根,母质主要来源于海相浮游生物和微生物,为主力烃源岩层系;切尔玛组成熟度相对低,属Ⅲ型干酪根,母质来源于陆源生物,为潜在烃源岩层系。二叠系泥岩构造、物源属性指示二者具有较大的亲缘性,属于活动大陆边缘构造环境,物源主要来自中祁连低缓隆起区的上地壳长英质岩,并有安山质岩石的混入。%This study focused on the Permian mudstones geochemistry in the Xiariha depression,south Qilian basin,their implications to sedimentary environment,tectonic setting,and provenance attribute.On the basis of the organic and inor-ganic geochemistry,we discussed the total organic carbon content,hydrocarbon potential,maximum temperature,major and rare earth elements,and other features.The results showed that:The Permian mudstone organic has higher maturity, produced mainly by aquatic and aquatic-terrestrial mixed organisms,which live in the depositional environment of semi-enclosed,hypoxia,moderate reduction and salinity water bodies.The P 2 c kerogen of Ⅱ 2-Ⅲ type,whose parent material came from marine plankton and microorganisms,is the main source rock in the study area,while the P 3 q,which is the terrestrial materials derived lower maturity type Ⅲ kerogen,is the potentially source rock.The mudstone tectonic setting o-riginates from active continental margin tectonic setting,and the mudstone shows a great

  16. Late Permian carbonate concretions in the marine siliciclastic sediments of the Ravnefjeld Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.K. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hanken, N.M. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Geology, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The investigation of carbonate concretions from the Late Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland forms part of the multi-disciplinary research project Research of the Sedimentary Basins of North and East Greenland (TUPOLAR). The TUPOLAR project focuses on investigations and evaluation of potential hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Upper Permian - Mesozoic sedimentary basins. In this context, the Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation occupies a pivotal position because it contains local mineralization and has source rock potential for hydrocarbons adjacent to potential carbonate reservoir rocks of the partly time-equivalent Wegener Halvoe Formation. A better understanding of the sedimentary facies and diagenesis of the Ravnefjeld Formation is therefore crucial for an evaluation of the economic evaluation of East Greenland. The original fieldwork was carried out in 1998, when sampling was undertaken of representative carbonate concretions and surrounding beds from a limited number of well-exposed sections in the Ravnefjeld Formation. The sampled material was subsequently investigated by a combination of petrography and stable isotope chemistry to decipher the relationships between the diagenetic development of the carbonate concretions and the mineralization in the sequence. The sequential precipitation of the cement generations was analysed in cement-filled primary voids in gastropods because these showed the most complete development of the different cement generations. The geochemistry of stable isotopes was also studied. During the petrographic work, we became aware of a hitherto unrecognised biota dominated by calcispheres. The well-developed cement generations in primary cavities in skeletal material were used to elucidate the diagenesis. (BA)

  17. The Permian seamount stratigraphic sequence in Chiang Mai, North Thailand and its tectogeographic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHONGLAKMANI; Chongpan

    2008-01-01

    The widespread Permian carbonate strata outcropped in northwestern Thailand are considered as the evidence for the Late Paleozoic shallow Tethys. Our investigation, however, shows that basalt can be discovered usually under the Permian carbonate sequence in Chiang Mai-Fang area, northwestern Thailand. The basalt belongs to subalkalic basalt and potassic trachybasalt. They are characterized by high P and Ti in major elements, by high content, enriching LREE, lacking δEu anomaly in rare earth elements, and by enrichment of the large ion lithophile element (LILE) (K, Rb, Ba) and high field strength element (HFSE) (Nb, Ta, Zr) in trace elements, which can be compared with the characters of the oceanic island basalt in Three Rivers (Jinsha River, Lancang River, and Nujiang River) area, southwestern China. Therefore, the Permian carbonate in the studied area was deposited on a sea-mount, rather than on a stable carbonate platform. The oceanic basin is correlated to the Late Paleozoic ocean represented by the Changning-Menglian Belt in southwestern China and they are a major basin of the Paleo-Tethyan Archipelagoes Ocean. The result indicates nonexistence of a Shan-Thai Block in the Late Paleozoic.

  18. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  19. Sandrewia, n. gen., a problematical plant from the Lower Permian of Texas and Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Sandrewia, n. gen., monotypified by S. texana, n. sp., is a plant from Lower Permian beds of north-central Texas and east-central Kansas. It is characterized by stout axes with spirally disposed, laxly inserted, petiolate leaves; the laminae are broadly flabelliform with coarse, open venation. The leaves are reminiscent of the vojnovskyalean Nephropsis, of the Permian Petchora Basin, U.S.S.R., but biologic relationships are only speculative because of limited material. However, leaf characteristics render Sandrewia easily identifiable. Its presently limited stratigraphic range, along with floristic associations, indicates it may be a useful guide fossil and supports the author's beliefs regarding important times and places in Paleozoic plant evolution. ?? 1975.

  20. Pangean Reconstruction of the Yucatan Block and its Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic Geologic and Tectonic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M.

    2004-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of Paleozoic sedimentary and plutonic rocks demonstrate that the Yucatan Block lay inverted off the NW coast of South America (SA) in Pangea, and rotated in a series of clockwise motions as SA and NA separated. Mid-Permian Yucatan was a fragment of the western margin of Pangea, just south of the equator. By 230 Ma, Yucatan rotated ˜20° clockwise and moved to the equator. Clockwise rotation continued through the Jurassic: ˜54° between 230 Ma and about Oxfordian, and another ˜32° between ˜Oxfordian and Tithonian, when the approximate present orientation was achieved. Passage of the Yucatan Block into the gap created by the separation of North and South America requires left-lateral motion relative to North America, perhaps by translation along the Mojave Sonora megashear. One remanence, carried by magnetite in red bed strata from the margins of the marine Santa Rosa basin (Maya Mtns), decays exceedingly linearly to the origin of orthogonal-axes plots. Biostratigraphy indicates a Late Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian age, and the presence of dual polarities in a 110 m, four polarity, magnetostratigraphic sequence demonstrates a post-Late Paleozoic Reversed Superchron (i.e., Middle Permian) age. Plutonic rocks exhibit a second, also dual-polarity, remanence, which corresponds to a paleopole 60° clockwise of the mid-Permian pole. The spatial relationship between the Permian and pluton paleopoles is very similar to that of the North American Permian and Late Triassic poles. Moreover, exceedingly uniform K/Ar ages of 231±7 Ma characterize all Maya Mtns plutons and the southern volcanic complex, indicating a 230 Ma resetting of the K/Ar radiometric systems of plutons dated by U/Pb as Late Silurian (Steiner and Walker, 1996). Metamorphic aureoles developed in the Pennsylvanian-Permian Santa Rosa strata bordering the Silurian plutonic complexes suggest the occurrence of a post-intrusion hydrothermal event. The 230 Ma reset K/Ar systems

  1. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  2. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, G.R.; McLoughlin, S.; Drinnan, A.N.; Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest

  3. Grain-rimming kaolinite in Permian Rotliegend reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Svenja; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Upper Rotliegend sediments of Permian age from the northeast Netherlands show moderate to good reservoir qualities. The predominant control is by the presence of authigenic grain-rimming kaolinite, which has a negative, but in some parts also a positive, effect on reservoir quality. To better understand the formation and distribution of grain-rimming kaolinite, reservoir rocks were studied in terms of composition and diagenetic processes. Petrographic evidence, summarized as a paragenetic sequence, is integrated with geochemical modeling results to identify early mesodiagenetic water-rock interactions under the participation of gases, i.e., CO2 and H2S, released from underlying Carboniferous source rocks. The sediments investigated were deposited at varying distance from the southern flank of the Southern Permian Basin. Sediments near the basin margin are mainly attributed to a fluvial environment and comprise medium to coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates. There, vermicular kaolinite occurs with a lath-like structure. Distal to the basin margin, mainly in sandstones intercalated with fine-grained playa sediments, comparatively high amounts of grain-rimming kaolinite occur. There, the presence of this mineral has a significant influence on the rock properties and the reservoir quality. Geochemical modeling suggests that the formation of such kaolinites cannot be explained exclusively by in situ feldspar dissolution. The modeling results support evidence that kaolinite can be formed from precursor clay minerals under the presence of CO2-rich formation waters. Such clay minerals could be corrensite, smectite-chlorite mixed-layer minerals, or chlorite that is potentially present in Rotliegend sediments during early diagenesis. Furthermore, the geochemical modeling can reflect several mineral reactions that were identified from petrographic analysis such as the formation of illite and kaolinite at the expense of feldspar dissolution and consequent silica

  4. Characteristics and Mechanism of Permian Shanxi Tight Reservoir of Changbei Gas Field,Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯盆地长北气田山西组二段低孔低渗储层特征及形成机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海涛; 钟大康; 张湘宁; 柳慧林

    2011-01-01

    Changbei gas field is located in Yishan Slope of the northern center of the Ordos Basin,China.The main pay zone reservoir is Upper Paleozoic Lower Permian Shanxi P1S2 quartz arenite,which deposited in distributary channel of delta plain.The reservoir is low porosity low permeability tight reservoir with average porosity of 5.2% and average permeability of 0.7×10-3 μm2 in a current depth of 2 700~2 950 m.Integrated study on depositional environment,lithology,diagenesis and tectonic background has been conducted.The reasons cause this low porosity low permeability tight reservoir features are considered as the following two factors.(1) On one hand,the reservoir was deposited in a coaly bearing acid environment of deltaic distributary channel,the original pore water is acid water with non saturated calcium carbonate,which can not form earlier cementation within the sandstone reservoir.However,compaction has significantly reduce the original pore and pore volume.On the other hand,this acid diagenesis environment cause large amounts of secondary quartz cementation fill the pores left out during compaction of sandstone reservoir.This is the main reasons cause the low porosity low permeability tight reservoir features in the region.Observation from thin section indicate that calcium carbonate cementation is not developed in the pore of sandstone reservoir especially in the earlier stage,the average component of calcium carbonate cementation is 1%~3%,authigenic kaolinite cementation is well developed with an average component of 7%~10%,illite segmentation is also less developed 3%,secondary quartz cementation well develop,mostly reach Ⅱ—Ⅲ level with an average component of 5%~10%,some layer can reach 10%~18% and maximum is 23%,this phenomenon indicated the acid diagenesis environment of P1S2 quartz arenite reservoir in Changbei gas field.(2) Tectonic study indicated that Changbei gas field is located in Ordos Basin tectonically stable at the time

  5. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil

  6. Permian Basin, Texas: Volume 1, Text: Final preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) at the proposed 49 acre site located 21 miles north of Hereford, Texas in Deaf Smith County. Department of Energy must conduct in situ testing at depth to ascertain the engineering and environmental suitability of the site for further consideration for nuclear waste repository development. The ESF includes the construction of two 12-ft diameter engineered shafts for accessing the bedded salt horizon to conduct in situ tests to ascertain if the site should be considered a candidate site for the first High Level Nuclear Waste Repository. This report includes pertinent engineering drawings for two shafts and all support facilities necessary for shaft construction and testing program operation. Shafts will be constructed by conventional drill-and-blast methods employing ground freezing prior to shaft construction to stabilize the existing groundwater and soil conditions at the site. A watertight liner and seal system will be employed to prevent intermingling of aquifers and provide a stable shaft throughout its design life. 38 refs., 37 figs., 14 tabs

  7. A paleoclimatic simulation of the Late Permian greenhouse world and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.T.; Jacobson, S.R.; Hayashida, D.N. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Sea-floor spreading assembled all the major cratonic blocks into a single supercontinent once in the Phanerozoic Eon. This unique Late Permian crustal tectonic event produced Pangaea and an enormous oceanic basin volume that dropped sea level to a global lowstand unrivaled in the Phanerozoic. Two paleoclimatic simulations using a numerical three-dimensional general circulation model tested changes in the greenhouse effect. The authors conclude that for a simulation to fit the Late Permian geologic record, the paleoatmosphere must contain an enhanced greenhouse gas effect. A third simulation tested changes of paleogeography in southern Pangaea (Gondwana) that did not appreciably alter the harsh continental paleoclimate. The simulated paleoclimatic changes provide extraordinarily warm ocean and atmosphere, and a significant reduction in continental rainfall and runoff. These conditions inevitably lead to more aridity and less vegetation on land, gradually reduce the delivery of vital nutrients from continental sources to marine margins, systematically liberate CO{sub 2} dissolved in ocean water, and incrementally increase stress on marine and terrestrial biotas. These consequences severely disrupted rates of oxygen and carbon cycling. Their quantitative paleoclimatic simulation is consistent with distributions of red beds, evaporites, coals, marine shelf areas, seawater isotope trends, and paleontologic originations and extinctions. Thus, the Pangaean plate assembly probably triggered an inexorable sequence of geophysical, geochemical, and biological events that forced an elevated greenhouse effect in the Late Permian, nearly annihilating the Phanerozoic biota.

  8. Severest crisis overlooked-Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian-Triassic mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A; Sanson-Barrera, Anna; Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Bucher, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Generally Early Triassic floras are believed to be depauperate, suffering from protracted recovery following the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Here we present palynological data of an expanded East Greenland section documenting recovered floras in the basal Triassic (Griesbachian) and a subsequent fundamental floral turnover, postdating the Permian-Triassic boundary extinction by about 500 kyrs. This event is marked by a swap in dominating floral elements, changing from gymnosperm pollen-dominated associations in the Griesbachian to lycopsid spore-dominated assemblages in the Dienerian. This turnover coincides with an extreme δ(13)Corg negative shift revealing a severe environmental crisis, probably induced by volcanic outbursts of the Siberian Traps, accompanied by a climatic turnover, changing from cool and dry in the Griesbachian to hot and humid in the Dienerian. Estimates of sedimentation rates suggest that this environmental alteration took place within some 1000 years. Similar, coeval changes documented on the North Indian Margin (Pakistan) and the Bowen Basin (Australia) indicate the global extent of this crisis. Our results evidence the first profound disruption of the recovery of terrestrial environments about 500kyrs after the Permian-Triassic extinction event. It was followed by another crisis, about 1myrs later thus, the Early Triassic can be characterised as a time of successive environmental crises. PMID:27340926

  9. Chemo- and palyno-stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic transition in the Boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Els; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik; Twitchett, Richard; Polozov, Alexander; Kürschner, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Late Permian and early Triassic sediments from Boreal regions are studied using palynological and organic geochemical tools. We present preliminary results from two sites: a Norwegian site which is represented by a 100-m long borehole core and outcrops from Deltadalen on Spitsbergen, and a Russian site which is represented by outcrops and short cores collected near Norilsk in northern Siberia. The main goals of the project are to improve the stratigraphy and to study the environmental changes at high resolution. There is a growing scientific consensus that end Permian biotic crisis was linked to the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (LIP) event. However, direct evidence for a stratigraphic correlation of the marine and terrestrial extinction events, with the volcanic successions in the Siberian basin, is rather limited. The Permian-Triassic boundary successions in the Arctic are crucial for direct correlation eastwards to the Siberian Traps. The magnitude and timing of a carbon isotope excursion near the Permian-Triassic boundary is an important stratigraphical tool that may help to unravel the sequence of the events happening during this important period. Preliminary results from the Deltadalen core near the base of the Vikinghøgda Formation show shifts in δ13C from -24.5 to -32.7‰ in the interval expected to span the Permian/Triassic boundary. New Rock-Eval pyrolysis data will shed further light on the origin of the organic matter (e.g. marine versus terrestrial) and may help to understand how much of the δ13C signal can be explained by changes in organic matter source and how much may be attributed to a global change in the carbon isotope signature. Furthermore, compound specific isotope analysis will be done on terrestrial derived lipids (long chain n-alkanes) to reconstruct changes in atmospheric carbon isotopes. In addition to chemostratigraphy, the palynological record will be used for biostratigraphical studies at both Deltadalen and Norilsk

  10. 乌尔禾—风城地区二叠系白云质岩类岩石学特征及成因分析%Petrological Characteristics and Origin of Permian Fengcheng Formation Dolomitic Rocks in Wuerhe-Fengcheng Area, Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 何周; 徐怀宝; 季换成; 袁青; 史基安; 鲁新川

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the dolomite origin of Permian ( Fengcheng Formation) in the northwest edge of Junggar basin. This article take the rock-mineral analysis, thin-section analysis and geochemical analysis, and systematically analyzed this set of dolomite geochemistry characteristics and their origin. The research indicated that the dolomite mainly could divide into muddy dolostone, dolomitic tuff and dolomitic mudstones. The crystal size of dolomite greatly varies, mainly consisting of powder crystal, fine or micrite dolomites, which crystals are euhedral or subhedral. Dolo- mite fills in bedding or cracks or distribute in rocks with patterns of strip belts, laminated structure or gobbets. Dolo- mitization is not incompletely, residual calcite still be found in rocks. Dolostone commonly show ribbon, crumb, sau- sage or lens shapes in rocks, partly laminate and satellite. Sr content varies greatly between 95.9 - 783.6 txg/g with an average of 447 p~g/g because of replenishment of freshwater and intense evaporation. Conclusion can be reached that sedimentary environment is mainly salt water with little amount of freshwater supplement and related to evaporative lake. V/Ni ratio varies greatly, and largely distribute in an range of 1.2 -2.9. It refers to dolomitic rocks form in brackish lacustrine environment with complex setting and various salinity. Mn content is relatively low, varies between 133 - 985 μg/g with an average of 579 μg/g. From Mn data, we can conclude that aragonite forms in relatively deep water. In studying area, 813C is low and distributes in an range of-1.6%-5.2%(PDB) with an average of 2.9%v (PDB). 8180 data still be low, and varies between 14.8%v - 3.2 with average of 3.01 . The characteristics of petromineralogy and the data of geochemical analyzation in Fengcheng Formation show that the dolomite in this area mainly formed in a peaceful, deep and high salinity semi-closed bay environment. Permian periods climate is hot, speedy evaporation and

  11. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Sou...

  12. The source and reservoir system analysis of volcanic rock in depositional basin: Taking Fengcheng Formation of Lower Permian in Wuxia Zhungeer,Xingjiang as an example%沉积盆地火山岩油气生储系统分析:以新疆准噶尔盆地乌夏地区早二叠世风城组为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉善; 白新民; 桑洪; 罗新霞; 刘新年

    2011-01-01

    通过对乌夏地区早二叠世风城组油气生储特征研究,认为该区的火山作用不仅能在近火山口相的流纹质弱熔结角砾凝灰岩中,形成以裂缝-气孔为主要组合的油气储集体,而且能使远火山口相白云质凝灰岩和凝灰质白云岩,在有机质丰富的条件下,共同发育为烃原岩;而这种烃源岩由于裂缝系统发育不但构成了源岩型的自生自储的油气藏,而且在横向上还可与同层异相的裂缝-气孔型储层构成自生自储油气藏,形成一套一源两相的生储系统(其中的源、藏共一系统勘探意义重要).应用地化生标、岩石类型和自生矿物等相关资料,对富含火山物质的有机相、火山岩储集类型和储集性能进行了对比和论证.同时,根据大型火山岩油气藏多与近距离的烃源岩关系密切:近源运聚或可自生自储成藏等特点提出:从不同沉积盆地和不同火山机构,总结火山岩油气生储系统分布规律是指导火山岩油气勘探的有利途径.%By studying the feature of source rock and reservoir nature on Fengcheng Formation of the Lower Permian in Wuxia, it is suggested that, owing to the influence of volcanic action, not only the fracture-air hole reservoir can be formed in rhyotaxitic weak alloying rubble tuff near craters, but also higher bearing source rocks, such as dolomitic tuff and tuffaceous dolomite can be generated in crater facies. Because of this kind of source rocks, a petroleum system of two kinds of reservoirs with one source is formed, in which the reservoirs are the self-generating and self-preserving reservoir of mother rock and the horizontal fracture-air hole reservoir (the former is more important). Using the geochemistry index, rock type and authigene, the organic facies' correlation with volcanic construction has been emphatically studied. According to the fact that big volcanic rock reservoirs contacting with source rock in short distance have the feature

  13. Carboniferous-Permian coal-bearing depositional system and its controlling role of coalbed methane in Hancheng area in Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯韩城地区石炭-二叠系含煤沉积体系及其控气作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小洪; 刘大锰; 姚艳斌; 谢忱

    2013-01-01

    The geological conditions for coalbed methane are complicated in Hancheng area of the Ordos Basin. The characteristics of coal-bearing depositional system work as the main controlling factor for the enrichment of coalbed methane. According to the features of coal-bearing sediments in Carboniferous and Permian in Hancheng area, the Taiyuan Formation constitutes of lagoon-tidal-barrier island sedimentation and carbonate flat sedimen-tation while the Shanxi Formation constitutes of fluvial-dominated delta sedimentation. The changes of sedimenta-tion, the thickness of coalbed, the petrophysical property and the lithology of roof and floor of coalbed are direct-ly concerned to analyze the influence of sedimentary environment on CBM enrichment. The coalbed no.3 is thin and even pinches out locally. The coalbed no.5, which is thick and stable, is widespread in the study area. The roof and floor of coalbed are mainly mudstone, sandstone and siltstone. The coalbed with stable structure and thick mudstone as roof and floor is favorable for the enrichment and accumulation of coalbed methane. The area to the east of Baimatan town is the exploration target for 2 sets of coalbed.%鄂尔多斯韩城地区煤层气地质条件复杂,含煤沉积体系特征是影响煤层气富集的重要因素之一。通过对韩城地区石炭-二叠系含煤沉积特征的研究,发现太原组主要为潟湖-潮坪-障壁岛沉积和陆表海碳酸盐岩台地沉积,山西组主要为河控三角洲沉积。从主要可采煤层的沉积相变、煤层厚度变化、煤岩物性变化及煤层顶底板封盖特征方面分析了沉积作用对煤层气富集的影响。研究表明:3号煤厚度较小,甚至出现变薄尖灭的现象;5号煤在全区发育且厚度较大,横向连续性好。煤层顶底板主要以泥岩、砂岩、粉砂岩为主,其中以厚层泥岩为顶底板的结构稳定的煤层更有利于煤层气的富集成藏。白马滩镇以东地区为2套煤层的有利开发区块。

  14. Precarious rock and overturned transformer evidence for ground shaking in the Ms 7.7 Kern County earthquake: An analog for disastrous shaking from a major thrust fault in the Los Angeles basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, J.N.; Anooshehpoor, A.; Shi, B.; Zheng, Yen

    2004-01-01

    Precariously balanced rocks and overturned transformers in the vicinity of the White Wolf fault provide constraints on ground motion during the 1952 Ms 7.7 Kern County earthquake, a possible analog for an anticipated large earthquake in the Los Angeles basin (Shaw et al., 2002; Dolan et al., 2003). On the northeast part of the fault preliminary estimates of ground motion on the footwall give peak accelerations considerably lower than predicted by standard regression curves. On the other hand, on the hanging-wall, there is evidence of intense ground shattering and lack of precarious rocks, consistent with the intense hanging-wall accelerations suggested by foam-rubber modeling, numerical modeling, and observations from previous thrust fault earthquakes. There is clear evidence of the effects of rupture directivity in ground motions on the hanging-wall side of the fault (from both precarious rocks and numerical simulations). On the southwest part of the fault, which is covered by sediments, the thrust fault did not reach the surface ("blind" thrust). Overturned and damaged transformers indicate significant transfer of energy from the hanging wall to the footwall, an effect that may not be as effective when the rupture reaches the surface (is not "blind"). Transformers near the up-dip projection of the fault tip have been damaged or overturned on both the hanging-wall and footwall sides of the fault. The transfer of energy is confirmed in a numerical lattice model and could play an important role in a similar situation in Los Angeles. We suggest that the results of this study can provide important information for estimating the effects of a large thrust fault rupture in the Los Angeles basin, specially given the fact that there is so little instrumental data from large thrust fault earthquakes.

  15. Amphibian and Paleoisciforms from the Lower Part of the Taquaral Member of the Permian Irati Formation, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Chahud

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the east-central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, good exposures of Permo-Carboniferous sequences of theParaná intracratonic basin are found. These sequences start with the Tubarão Supergroup deposits, the PermocarboniferousItararé Group, and the earliest Permian Guatá Group, of which the Tatuí Formation is the only unit occurring in the Stateof São Paulo. The Permian Passa Dois Group overlies the Tubarão Supergroup, with the Early Permian Irati Formation andthe Middle Permian Corumbataí Formation. Two members are recognized in the Irati Formation, Taquaral and Assistência.Most beds of the Taquaral Member are gray laminated siltic-argillaceous, but sandstone beds are present in lower outcropsof this member. One of these sandstones, 9.5 cm thick unconformably overlying sedimentos of the Tatuí Formation, exhibitsdiversifi ed vertebrate remains. The present paper deals with a Palaeonisciformes mandible fragment, one amphibianTemnospondyli tooth, and one Temnospondyli mandible fragment. These fossils are associated to Chondrichthyes andOsteichthyes. It is an open question whether the Parnaíba Basin Palaeonisciformes Brasilichthys macrognathus and theTemnospondyli Prionosuchus plummery belong to the same taxa of the Paraná Basin fossils. Only better preserved fossilsmight solve this question.

  16. Pumping test and fluid sampling report - Mansfield No. 1 (PD-4) well, Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains pumping test and fluid sampling data collected at Mansfield No. 1 well, located in Oldham County, in the Permian Basin of Texas. These data were collected by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation to support studies of fluid migration and age relationships in the Permian Basin. The testing and sampling took place between October 1981 and October 1982. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated. 4 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  17. Trace fossil evidence for late Permian shallow water condition in Guryul ravine, Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcha, Suraj; Horacek, Micha; Krystyn, Leopold; Pandey, Shivani

    2015-04-01

    The present study is focused on the Late Permian (Changhsingian) succession, present in the Guryul ravine, Kashmir Basin. The basin has a complete Cambro-Triassic sequence and thus contains a unique position in the geology of Himalaya. The Guryul Ravine Permian mainly comprises of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments deposited in a shallow-shelf or ramp setting. The present assemblage of Ichnofossils is the first significant report of trace fossils in the Guryul ravine since early reports in the 1970s. The Ichnofossils reported from this section include: Diplichnites, Dimorphichnus, Monomorphichnus, Planolites, Skolithos along with burrow, scratch marks and annelid worm traces?. The ichnofossils are mainly preserved in medium grain sandstone-mudstone facies. The Ichnofossils are widely distributed throughout the section and are mostly belonging to arthropods and annelid origin, showing behavioral activity, mainly dwelling and feeding, and evidence the dominant presence of deposit feeders. The vertical to slightly inclined biogenic structures are commonly recognized from semi-consolidated substrate which are characteristic features of the near shore/foreshore marine environment, with moderate to high energy conditions. The topmost layer of silty shale contains trace fossils like Skolithos and poorly preserved burrows. The burrow material filled is same as that of host rock. The studied Zewan C and D sequence represents the early to late part of the Changhsingian stage, from 40 to 5 m below the top of Zewan D member with bioturbation still evident in some limestone layers till 2 metres above. No trace fossils could be recognized in the topmost 3 m beds of Zewan D due to their gliding related amalgamated structure. The widespread distribution of traces and their in situ nature will be useful for interpretation of the paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Permian in the Guryul ravine of Kashmir.

  18. Petroleum geology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palo Duro Basin, Permian Basin, Texas is an asymmetric, relatively shallow, intracratonic basin in the southern Texas Panhandle filled mostly by Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian sedimentary rocks. Although deeper and prolific prolific petroleum-producing basins adjoin it on the north (Anadarko Basin), south (Midland Basin), and east (Hardeman Basin), the Palo Duro Basin has produced remarkably small amounts of oil and gas to date. This is all the more noteworthy because the sedimentary sequence and rock types of the basin are similar to those of the adjacent basins. Analyses of the stratigraphic succession and structural configuration of the Palo Duro Basin suggest that adequate reservoir rocks, top-seals, and geologic structures are present. Most of the structures formed early enough to have trapped hydrocarbons if they were migrating in the rock column. Although additional work is under way to properly address the question of the petroleum source rocks, generation, and migration, the general absence of production in the basin may relate to an overall deficiency in hydrocarbon generation within the basin. Geologic information in this report will form part of the basis for further analysis and conclusions on hydrocarbon potential in the Palo Duro Basin

  19. Successor Characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Songliao Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongquan; Timothy KUSKY; YING Danlin; GUO Xiaoyu; LI Hongkui

    2008-01-01

    The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleoforeland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.

  20. PERMIAN FUSULINID ASSEMBLAGES AND STRATIGRAPHY OF THE TRANSCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNST JA LEVEN

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Permian sequence of the Transcaucasia, which comprises the Davaly, Asni, Gnishik, Arpa, Khachik, and Akhura Formations, is described. A precise dating of the formations based on the analysis of fusulinid assemblages is also provided. The Davaly Formation corresponds to the Bolorian Stage of the Lower Permian (Cisuralian; the Asni Formation corresponds to the Kubergandian Stage, and to the lower half of the Murgabian Stage of the Middle Permian (Guadalupian; the Gnishik Formation corresponds approximately to the upper half of the Murgabian Stage; and the Arpa and Khachik Formations represent the entire Midian Stage of the Middle Permian. Only the uppermost Chanakhchy Beds of the Khachik Formation are referred to the upper series of the Permian (Lopingian, based on the latest proposal of the International Subcommission on Permian Stratigraphy concerning series boundaries. The Akhura Formation encompasses the Dzhulfian and Dorashamian Stages of the Upper Permian. Refined correlations between the Permian sequence of the Transcaucasia and the most complete Permian sequences of the Tethyan region (Central Iran, southestern Pamirs, South China, Japan are presented. The transgressive overlapping of the Permian deposits is recorded in these areas, similar to the Transcaucasia. Although the transgression began during the Bolorian, it reached the widest extent in the Kubergandian and therefore, in most sections the transgressive series begins with deposits of Kubergandian age. The Middle and Upper Permian deposits of the Transcaucasia, Iran, and southern Turkey belonged to a single carbonate platform. Similar extensive carbonate platforms are recorded in the southern parts of Afghanistan and China. A change in the sedimentary regime was recorded in all these platforms at the boundary between the Guadalupian and Lopingian epochs. The Guadalupian time was marked by the intensive accumulation of biolitithic and detrital limestones produced by benthic

  1. The contorted New England Orogen (eastern Australia): New evidence from U-Pb geochronology of early Permian granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Rubatto, Daniela

    2012-02-01

    A series of sharp bends (oroclines) are recognized in the Paleozoic to early Mesozoic New England Orogen of eastern Australia. The exact geometry and origin of these bends is obscured by voluminous magmatism and is still debated. Here we present zircon U-Pb ages that confirm the lateral continuation of early Permian (296-288 Ma) granitoids and shed new light on the oroclinal structure. Orogenic curvature is defined by the alignment of early Permian granitoids parallel to the structural grain of the orogen, as well as the curved geometry of sub-vertical deformation fabrics, forearc basin terranes, and serpentinite outcrops. Alternative geometrical interpretations may involve two bends (Texas and Coffs Harbour Oroclines), three bends (+Manning Orocline), or even four bends (+Nambucca Orocline). We argue that the model involving four bends is most consistent with available data, although further kinematic constraints are required to confirm the existence of the Manning and Nambucca Oroclines. A subsequent phase of younger magmatism (Bowen orogeny.

  2. Supersequence and composite sequence carbonate platform growth: Permian and Triassic outcrop data of the Arabian platform and Neo-Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, O.; Bernecker, M.

    2003-05-01

    Permian and Triassic carbonate platforms of the Arabian Peninsula (Gondwana) and seamounts of the Neo-Tethys (Hawasina and Batain basins) are characterized by distinctive supersequences (second order, duration 5-20 million years, my) and composite sequences (third order, duration 0.5-5 my). The presented sequence stratigraphic framework will be compared with existing sea level curves to discuss the validity of different regional oscillations during the dispersal of Pangea. The carbonate succession of the Haushi and Akhdar Groups of the Arabian platform is composed of four Permian (P1-P4) and four Triassic supersequences (Tr1-Tr4). Isolated platforms of the Hawasina and Batain basins comprise two Permian supersequences and one Triassic supersequence. In contrast to the continuous development of the Arabian shield, carbonate platform growth of the seamounts was restricted to the Guadalupian-Lopingian and to the Middle-Upper Triassic, and ceased after drowning events. Composite sequences exhibit a well-developed stacking pattern during the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Saiq Formation). Lowstand systems tracts (LSTs) occur during the Cisuralian (Gharif Formation, Haushi Group) and Triassic (Mahil Formation, Akhdar Group). Open-marine depositional environments prevail during transgressive systems tracts (TSTs) with diverse biota including rugose and scleractinian corals, chaetetids, bryozoans, and crinoids. Highstand system tracts (HSTs) exhibit a twofold pattern: During the transgressive phase of supersequences, composite sequence highstands are dominated by reef or level-bottom communities with corals. Cyclic platform deposits or monotonous mud- and wackestone accumulated during the turnaround or late second-order highstand of a supersequence. Correlation of maximum flooding surfaces with published data suggests that supersequences P1, P2, and Tr4 can be traced across the Arabian platform into the Neo-Tethys basins, while supersequences P3, P4, and Tr1-Tr3 resulted from

  3. Analog and VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Featuring hundreds of illustrations and references, this book provides the information on analog and VLSI circuits. It focuses on analog integrated circuits, presenting the knowledge on monolithic device models, analog circuit cells, high performance analog circuits, RF communication circuits, and PLL circuits.

  4. Solonker ophiolite in Inner Mongolia, China: A late Permian continental margin-type ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-wen; Xu, Bei; Shi, Guan-zhong; Zhao, Pan; Faure, M.; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The Solonker ophiolite is exposed along the border between Mongolia and China within the Solonker zone, the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and it is composed dominantly of serpentinized peridotite with subordinate gabbro, basaltic lava, radiolarian-bearing siliceous rocks, and minor plagiogranite. Meanwhile, layered mafic-ultramafic cumulates are not ubiquitous. In this study, zircon grains from two gabbros and a plagiogranite yield 206Pb/238U ages of 259 ± 6 Ma, 257 ± 3 Ma and 263 ± 1 Ma. These data were interpreted to represent the formation age of the Solonker ophiolite. The studied gabbros and basalts have a tholeiitic composition, showing a MORB affinity. They are also characterized by enrichment of Pb and depletion of Nb relative to La and Th. Furthermore, the studied gabbros contain inherited zircon grains and display a large range of zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(t) = - 5.27 to + 10.19). These features imply that crustal contamination played an important role in the generation of these mafic rocks. Major elements derived from the radiolarian-bearing siliceous rocks suggest a continental margin setting. This is confirmed by rock association. Terrigenous rocks (sandstones and siltstones) interstratified with siliceous rocks. U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains in sandstones from both the northern and southern sides of the Solonker ophiolite belt, along with published data, reveals that the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian strata in fault contact with the Solonker ophiolite was deposited above Early Paleozoic orogens. The lines of petrological, geochemical, geochronological, and isotopic evidence led us to propose that the Solonker ophiolite is a Late Permian continental margin-type body formed during the early stages of opening of an ocean basin, following rifting and break-up of the Early Paleozoic orogens. Accordingly, the Permian Solonker zone is characterized by an intra-continental extensional setting.

  5. Structure and Hydrocarbons in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆春; 田在艺

    2002-01-01

    Having undergone four basin-forming tectonic cycles--Hercynian, Indosinian, Yanshanian, and Himalayan, the Junggar basin becomes a multi-cyclic superposed basin of old and hard mediun block pattern. Its multi-cyclic tectonic and sedimentary evolution results in five series of hydrocarbon source rock formations--Carboniferous, Permian, Upper Triassic, Middle-lower Jurassic, and Lower Tertiary, correspondingly forming five petroleum generation systems, of which the Permian and Middle-lower Jurassic petroleum generation systems are the most important with the highest exploration degree. Hydrocarbons are controlled by basin structure as follows: 1) Hydrocarbon accumulations are controlled by the structural styles of paleo-uplifts, paleo-overthrust belts and contorted anticline belts formed in multi-cyclic tectonic movements; 2) Important pathways for long distance lateral and vertical migration are provided respectively by unconformities and faults; 3) The pool-forming characteristics of the Permian petroleum system are controlled by paleo-structure; 4) The pool-forming characteristics of Jurassic and Tertiary petroleum system are controlled by recent structures.

  6. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  7. Carboniferous-Permian rugose coral Cyathaxonia faunas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Cyathaxonia faunas are widely distributed in the Carboniferous and Permian strata in China.The fauna in China contains 12 families and 40 genera,and can be recognized as three episodes from Early Carboniferous to the end-Permian in terms of their occurrence and composition:1) Mississippian;2) Pennsylvanian-Early Permian;3) Middle Permian-Late Permian.They were relatively abundant in episodes 1 and 2.A decrease of family Antiphyllidae and an increase of family Hapsiphyllidae can be observed from Early Carboniferous to the end-Permian.Two case studies are given to illustrate the bio-facies of the Cyathaxonia faunas,which are from the Mississippian of Baoshan,West Yunnan and the Mississippian of Chaohu,South Anhui.In both areas,Cyathaxonia faunas occur just below the large dissepimented solitary and compound coral assemblages in a continuous sequence in a single section,which implies that the occurrence of these small,non-dissepimented solitary corals is not strictly related with Gondwanan or Peri-gondwanan cold water environment,but might be controlled by such benthic conditions as deeper,mud-rich,quieter,and darker sedimentary environments.

  8. Dynamic anoxic ferruginous conditions during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, M. O.; Wood, R. A.; Poulton, S. W.; Richoz, S.; Newton, R. J.; Kasemann, S. A.; Bowyer, F.; Krystyn, L.

    2016-07-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction, ~252 million years ago, is notable for a complex recovery period of ~5 Myr. Widespread euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) oceanic conditions have been proposed as both extinction mechanism and explanation for the protracted recovery period, yet the vertical distribution of anoxia in the water column and its temporal dynamics through this time period are poorly constrained. Here we utilize Fe-S-C systematics integrated with palaeontological observations to reconstruct a complete ocean redox history for the Late Permian to Early Triassic, using multiple sections across a shelf-to-basin transect on the Arabian Margin (Neo-Tethyan Ocean). In contrast to elsewhere, we show that anoxic non-sulfidic (ferruginous), rather than euxinic, conditions were prevalent in the Neo-Tethys. The Arabian Margin record demonstrates the repeated expansion of ferruginous conditions with the distal slope being the focus of anoxia at these times, as well as short-lived episodes of oxia that supported diverse biota.

  9. Provenance of Permian Malužiná Formation sandstones (Hronicum, Western Carpathians: evidence from monazite geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozárová Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Permian Malužiná Formation and the Pennsylvanian Nižná Boca Formation are Upper Paleozoic volcano- sedimentary complexes in the Hronicum nappe system. Sandstones, shales and conglomerates are the dominant lithological members of the Malužiná Formation sequence. Detrital monazites were analysed by electron microprobe, to obtain Th-U-Pb ages of the source areas. The majority of detrital monazites showed Devonian-Mississippian ages, ranging from 330 to 380 Ma with a weighted average of 351 ± 3.3 (2σ, that correspond well with the main phase of arcrelated magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians. Only a small portion of detrital monazites displayed Permian ages in the range of 250-280 Ma, with a significant maximum around 255 Ma. The weighted average corresponds to 255 ± 6.2 Ma. These monazites may have been partially derived from the synsedimentary acid volcanism that was situated on the margins of the original depositional basin. However, some of the Triassic ages (230-240 Ma, reflect, most likely, the genetic relationship with the overheating connected with Permian and subsequent Triassic extensional regime. Detrital monazite ages document the Variscan age of the source area and also reflect a gradual development of the Hronicum terrestrial rift, accompanied by the heterogeneous cooling of the lithosphere.

  10. An upwelling model for the Phosphoria sea: A Permian, ocean-margin sea in the northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Link, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    The Permian Phosphoria Formation, a petroleum source rock and world-class phosphate deposit, was deposited in an epicratonic successor basin on the western margin of North America. We calculate the seawater circulation in the basin during deposition of the lower ore zone in the Meade Peak Member from the accumulation rates of carbonate fluorapatite and trace elements. The model gives the exchange rate of water between the Phosphoria sea and the open ocean to the west in terms of an upwelling rate (84 m yr-1) and residence time (4.2 yr) of seawater in the basin. These hydrographic properties supported a mean rate of primary productivity of 0.87 g m-2 d-1 of carbon in the uppermost few tens of meters of the water column (the photic zone) and denitrifying redox conditions in the bottom water (below approximately 150 m depth). High rain rates, onto the sea floor, of the organic matter that hosted the phosphate and several trace elements contributed to the accumulation of phosphorite, chert, and black shales and mudstones. Evaporation in the Goose Egg basin to the east of the Phosphoria basin ensured the import of surface seawater from the Phosphoria sea. Budgets of water, salt, phosphate, and oxygen, plus the minor accumulation of the biomarker gammacerane, show that exchange of water between the two basins was limited, possibly by the shallow carbonate platform that separated the two basins.

  11. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  12. Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (δ98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for δ98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in δ98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced

  13. Sedimentary environments of organic matter from Middle Permian source rocks in northern Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Jianyu; KOU Hansheng; ZHOU Lifa; HAN Zhongyuan

    2006-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the inorganic and organic geochemistry of Middle Permian source rocks comprising carbonate rocks and mudstones was carried out, with samples collected from the outcrop and bore of the Junggar, Turpan and Ili basins in northern Xinjiang. This study confirmed that sedimentary parameters for an ancient water body, such as inorganic geochemistry and paleosalinity, have a close relation to the organic matter of source rocks. It is also disclosed that phytane predominance in the source rocks is mainly due to a reducing environment. Biomarkers, such as gammacerane and β-carotene, in the samples reflect a specific salinity in the sedimentary environments. Sedimentary zones with a strong reducing environment are more likely to produce deposits of primary organic matter, which will be buried and preserved contemporarily. Consequently, the source rocks are generally high in organic content and better in organic type than ordinary ones, and vice versa.

  14. Exploration Area and Potential of Natural Gas in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haibo; Chen Lei; Qian Yongxin; Li Chen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Junggar Basin, located in Northern Xinjiang between Altai and Tianshan Mountains, is the second largest basin in China with its sedimentary area being about 130,000square kilometers. A group of caprocks are developed over Carboniferous of the basin, including the Permian,Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene,among which the biggest sedimentary caprock is 15,000meters thick. The formation and accumulation of oil and gas in the basin can be characterized by multistage and multisource after undergoing multiperiod structural movements such as Late Hercynian, Indosinian,Yanshanian, and Himalaya, etc.

  15. Water mass denitrification during the latest Permian extinction in the Panthalassic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, J.; Grasby, S.; Beauchamp, B.; Schubert, C.

    2012-04-01

    The latest Permian extinction (LPE) event, about 252 Myr ago, resulted in the disappearance of >90 % of marine and terrestrial species. Possible explanations invoke, Siberian Trap volcanism, anoxia, H2S poisoning draw down of bioessential elements or a combination of these. Recent observation of coal ash dispersion into global oceans prior to LPE suggest global ash fall could have created toxic marine (terrestrial) conditions. Recent work also suggests volcanic mercury emissions may have added to toxic marine conditions. While development of marine euxinic conditions in the Tethyan region across the LPE is widely accepted, inferences on the redox and environmental conditions of the Panthalassic Ocean more equivocal. Indications of (photic zone) euxinia occur in marginal areas of Panthalassa. In central pelagic areas, however, expansion of low oxygen conditions across the LPE may be restricted to the oxygen minimum zone rather than towards the photic zone or the seafloor. Here, we report the ?15N isotopic signature in Late Permian - Early Triassic sediments from the Buchanan Lake section in the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic. Deep water marine sedimentation in the Sverdrup Basin, connected to Panthalassa via a western seaway, allows inferences on the nitrogen cycling across the LPE. We confirm that expansion of low oxygen conditions in the Panthalassic Ocean began prior to the paleo-Tethys Ocean. Further, the detailed correspondence of changes in denitrification, nitrate utilization/fixation across the LPE in both oceans indicate rapid reorganization of the marine ecosystem in response to changes in nutrient inventories, probably mediated through the eruption of the Siberian Traps.

  16. Permian paleoclimate data from fluid inclusions in halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benison, K.C.; Goldstein, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study has yielded surface water paleotemperatures from primary fluid inclusions in mid Permian Nippewalla Group halite from western Kansas. A 'cooling nucleation' method is used to generate vapor bubbles in originally all-liquid primary inclusions. Then, surface water paleotemperatures are obtained by measuring temperatures of homogenization to liquid. Homogenization temperatures ranged from 21??C to 50??C and are consistent along individual fluid inclusion assemblages, indicating that the fluid inclusions have not been altered by thermal reequilibration. Homogenization temperatures show a range of up to 26??C from base to top of individual cloudy chevron growth bands. Petrographic and fluid inclusion evidence indicate that no significant pressure correction is needed for the homogenization temperature data. We interpret these homogenization temperatures to represent shallow surface water paleotemperatures. The range in temperatures from base to top of single chevron bands may reflect daily temperatures variations. These Permian surface water temperatures fall within the same range as some modern evaporative surface waters, suggesting that this Permian environment may have been relatively similar to its modern counterparts. Shallow surface water temperatures in evaporative settings correspond closely to local air temperatures. Therefore, the Permian surface water temperatures determined in this study may be considered proxies for local Permian air temperatures.

  17. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  18. Ground-water hydraulics of the deep-basin brine aquifer, Palo Duro Basin, Texas panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deep-Basin Brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin (Texas Panhandle) underlies thick Permian bedded evaporites that are being evaluated as a potential high-level nuclear waste isolation repository. Potentiometric surface maps of 5 units of the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer were drawn using drill-stem test (DST) pressure data, which were analyzed by a geostatistical technique (kriging) to smooth the large variation in the data. The potentiometric surface maps indicate that the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer could be conceptually modeled as 5 aquifer units; a Lower Permian (Wolfcamp) aquifer, upper and lower Pennsylvanian aquifers, a pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer, and a Pennsylvanian to Wolfcampian granite-wash aquifer. The hydraulic head maps indicate that ground-water flow in each of the units is west to east with a minor northerly component near the Amarillo Uplift, the northern structural boundary of the basin. The Wolfcamp potentiometric surface indicates the strongest component of northerly flow. Inferred flow direction in Pennsylvanian aquifers is easterly, and in the pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer near its pinch-out in the basin center, flow is inferred to be to the north. In the granite-wash aquifer the inferred flow direction is east across the northern edge of the basin and southeast along the Amarillo Uplift

  19. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Dubiel, Russell F.

    2014-01-01

    The geological model for the development of the Total Petroleum Systems (TPSs) within the Paradox Basin formed the foundation of the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources in the basin. Five TPSs were defined, of which three have known production and two are hypothetical. These TPSs are based on geologic elements of the basin and the potential development of Precambrian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian-Mississippian, and Cretaceous source rock intervals.

  20. Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic boundary sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Abundant occurrences of the palynomorph Reduviasporonites have been described as "fungal spike" from several Permian/Triassic boundary sections and related to the supposed destruction of woody vegetation by fungal pathogens during the Permian/Triassic extinction event. The biological affinity of this taxa considered by some authors of fungal origin is still controversially discussed since there is geochemical evidence that it is most probably related to algae. The abundance peak of this species is used by some authors as a stratigraphic marker, notably in terrestrial Permian/Triassic boundary sections from South China. Illustrations of the reported fungal remains however show potentially erroneous taxonomic identification of Reduviasporonites, and, based on differences in thermal maturation, they may represent recent contamination. Here Reduviasporonites chalastus of Early Triassic age is illustrated together with recent fungal remains originating from a strongly weathered and otherwise barren sample from a Middle Triassic section.

  1. Group classification of mixed oils in central Junggar Basin, Northwest China and their migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xulong; SHI Xinpu; CAO Jian; LAN Wenfang; TAO Guoliang; HU Wenxuan; YAO Suping

    2010-01-01

    The produced oils in central Junggar Basin are commonly mixed in origin. In this paper, in order to reveal this complexity and thereby provide valuable clues to the study of oil source and formation mechanism, genetic groups of the mixed oils were classified and their migration/accumulation was investigated. Based on the artificial oil mixing experiments, some representative biomarkers of the mixed oils showed varying tendencies according to mixing ratios of the oils. Hence, these biomarkers are useful for determining the origin of the mixed oils. According to the criteria, oils in the area were divided into four basic groups, i.e., the Lower Permian Fengcheng oil, the Middle Permian Lower Wuerhe oil, the Jurassic source derived oil, and the mixed oil (including the Lower and Middle Permian mixed oil and the Permian and Jurassic mixed oil). Oil migration and accumulation were discussed in combination with the geological background.

  2. Insulin analogs and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSciacca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, insulin analogs are used in millions of diabetic patients. Insulin analogs have been developed to achieve more physiological insulin replacement in terms of time course of the effect. Modifications in the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule change the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the analogs in respect to human insulin. However, these changes can also modify the molecular and biological effects of the analogs. The rapid-acting insulin analogs, lispro, aspart and glulisine, have a rapid onset and shorter duration of action. The long-acting insulin analogs glargine and detemir have a protracted duration of action and a relatively smooth serum concentration profile. Insulin and its analogs may function as growth factors and therefore have a theoretical potential to promote tumor proliferation. A major question is whether analogs have an increased mitogenic activity in respect to insulin. These ligands can promote cell proliferation through many mechanisms like the prolonged stimulation of the insulin receptor, stimulation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R, prevalent activation of the ERK rather than the AKT intracellular post-receptor pathways. Studies on in vitro models indicate that short-acting analogs elicit molecular and biological effects that are similar to those of insulin. In contrast, long-acting analogs behave differently. Although not all data are homogeneous, both glargine and detemir have been found to have a decreased binding to IR but an increased binding to IGF-1R, a prevalent activation of the ERK pathway, and an increased mitogenic effect in respect to insulin. Recent retrospective epidemiological clinical studies have suggested that treatment with long-acting analogs (specifically glargine may increase the relative risk for cancer. Results are controversial and methodologically weak. Therefore prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the possible tumor growth-promoting effects of these insulin

  3. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  4. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  5. From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandretti, Luciano; Machado, Rômulo; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Assine, Mario Luis; Lana, Cristiano

    2016-10-01

    The Late Permian sedimentary succession of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil, provide a valuable source of information about sediment provenance, tectonic processes and, consequently, the paleogeography of the southwestern Gondwana supercontinent. In order to understand the patterns of sedimentary dispersal and reconstruct the Late Permian source-to-sink dynamic, we report a complete series of U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from the Rio do Rasto Formation sandstones allied with detailed paleocurrent and sedimentologic data. Our integrated provenance study reveals a consistent sediment transport from the south to the north and northwest. According to the evaluation of zircon ages and Hf isotopes, it was possible to determine four distinct source areas: (i) a distant Late Paleozoic active magmatic arc located in the southwestern Gondwana margin (i.e. Gondwanides Orogen), corresponding to the North Patagonian Massif; (ii) recycling of orthoquartzites from the uplifted Paleozoic Ventania Fold Belt and immature sandstones from the Claromecó Foreland Basin in central-eastern Argentina and the Silurian-Devonian successions of the southern Paraná Basin (central-northern Uruguay) and North Patagonian Massif; (iii) exhumed areas of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement and Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic mobile belts of the Damara in southwestern Africa and Ribeira Fold Belt in Uruguay and southern Brazil; and (iv) southeastward provenance of Grenvillian (1.2-1.0 Ga) zircons coming from the mafic to intermediate Mesoproterozoic igneous units of the Namaqua-Natal Belt in South Africa and Namibia. These data allow us to argue that sediments deposited in the Paraná Basin during the Late Permian come from both short- and long-distance source areas. In this context, an important population of Permian detrital zircons comes from the Gondwanides Orogen in the south, probably carried by transcontinental alluvial systems. Close to the source area

  6. Genesis of Marine Carbonate Natural Gas in the Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qu; TENGER; MENG Qingqiang; QIN Jianzhong; JIANG Qigui; ZHENG Lunju

    2008-01-01

    Sichuan Basin is one of the structurally stable and gas-rich basins, being regarded as one of China's important natural gas industry bases. Puguang and Jiannan gas fields, located in the eastern Sichuan Basin are two large fields with gas derived from Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate. The genesis of marine carbonate natural gas was examined using carbon isotope composition and hydrocarbon components of natural gas samples from the eastern and western Sichuan Basin, and compared with that of acidolysis gas derived from marine source rock in the eastern Sichuan Basin. It is concluded that the natural gas in the marine carbonate reservoir originated from pyrolysis of the earlier crude oil and light-oil, and then mixed with kerogen pyrolysis gas of the Permian and Lower Silurian source rock.

  7. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP Ages from the Late Paleozoic Turpan-Hami Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mao; Jianghai Li; Huatian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Permian volcanic rocks are widely distributed in the Turpan-Hami Basin, which is part of the Central Asian orogenic belt. Here we present SHRIMP zircon data for the rhyolite in Well Baocan 1, one of the deepest wells in the basin. The 283.9±2.7 Ma reported in our study provides the best precise age determination for the Yierxitu Formation, the oldest Permian layer of Hami Depression, one of the three substructural units of the Turpan-Hami Basin, and a potential hydrocarbon reservoir in this ba-sin. Our data refines earlier imprecise39Ar-40Ar ages and shows that the volcanic rocks both inside the Turpan-Hami Basin and along its margin are almost coeval. We delineate a collisional orogenesis, and the new age of 283.9±2.7 Ma may limit the latest time of the collision orogenesis.

  8. Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Jiao, Dan; Engel, Michael H.; Looy, Cindy V.; Visscher, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Excessive acid rainfall associated with emplacement of the Siberian Traps magmatic province is increasingly accepted as a major contributing factor to the end-Permian biosphere crisis. However, direct proxy evidence of terrestrial acidification is so far not available. In this paper, we seek to dete

  9. Extinction pattern of reef ecosystems in latest Permian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YaSheng; FAN JiaSong; JIANG HongXia; YANG Wan

    2007-01-01

    Studies of two Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections on top of a Changhsingian reef in Ziyun, Guizhou Province, southwestern China indicate that the end-Permian mass extinction of reef ecosystems occurred in two steps. The first step is the extinction of all stenotropic organisms such as calcisponges and fusulinids in the latest Permian (in the Clarkina yini conodont zone). The biota after the first extinction is simple, comprising eurytropic organisms including microgastropods, ostracods, and some small burrowing organisms, or only algal mats. At the beginning of the Early Triassic (I.e. the beginning of the Hindeodus parvus zone), the environments became anoxic, and the microgastropod dominated biota or algal mats disappeared, which constituted the second episode of the mass extinction. The biota after the second extinction comprises small spherical microproblematica, some kinds of specialized organisms tolerant of anoxic or oxygen-poor conditions. As the environments became oxygenated, the specialized biota was replaced by a microgastropod-dominated simple biota. When the environmental conditions improved further, the simple biota was replaced by a diverse biota with normal-sized ammonoids, bivalves, and gastropods, representing restoration of normal oceanic conditions. Comparison with PTB sections in Dolomites, Italy and Meishan, Zhejiang Province shows that non-reef ecosystems had a similar first episode of mass extinction in the latest Permian. In the case that oceanic anoxia happened, non-reef ecosystems had a second extinction episode similar to that of reef ecosystems.

  10. Terrestrial Permian - Triassic boundary sections in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Vajda, Vivi

    2016-08-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary interval in China comprises a significant record of faunal and floral changes during this important extinction event. Here we discuss the details of palynomorph preservation at the classical Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan sections in an effort to expand the stratigraphy and paleontology from these earlier studies.

  11. Study on the Late Permian Claraia in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Fengqing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Nakazawa, K., On Claraia of Kashmir and Iran, J. Paleont. Soc. Idia., 1977, 20: 194-204.[2]Kulikov, M. V., Tkachuk, G. A., On finding of Claraia (Bivalvia) in Upper Permian deposits of Northern Caucasus,Doklady Akad. Nauk. USSR, 1979, 245(4): 905-908.[3]Yin. H. F.. Uppermost Permian (Changxingian) Pectinacea from South China, Riv. Ital. Paleont., 1982, 88(3): 337-386.[4]Yin. H. F.. Bivalves near the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China, J. Paleo.,1985, 59(3): 572-600.[5]Yang. Z. Y.. Yin H. F., Wu, S. B. et al., Permian-Triassic Boundary Stratigraphy and Fauna of South China (in Chinese).Geological Memoirs, Ser. 2, No. 6, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1987, 56-57, 236-237.[6]Guo. F. X.. Bivalves Fossil of Yunnan (in Chinese), Kunming: Yunnan Technology Press, 1985.[7]Fang. Z. J., Discussion on Late Permian “Claraia”, Act. Palaeo. Sini. (in Chinese),1993, 2(6):653-661.[8]Zhang. Z. M.. Discussion on the ligament structure of Claraia and its evolution, Act. Palaeo. Sini. (in Chinese), 1980,19(6): 433-443.[9]Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia Sinica, The Bivalves of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1976.[10]Zhou. Z. R.. Two ecological types of Permian Ammonoids, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. B, 1985, (7): 648-657.[11] Stanley. S. M., Relation of shell form to life habitats of the Bivalvia (Mollusca), Geol. Soc. Amer., 1970, 125: 1-496.[12]Stanley, S. M.. tunctional morphology and evolution of byssally attached bivalve mollusks, J. Paleont, 1972, 46(2): 165-207.[13]Yin, H. F.. Ding, M. H., Zhang, K. X. et al., Late Permian-Middle Triassic Ecostratigraphy of the Yangtze Platform and Its Margins, Beijing: Science Press, 1995, 69-76.[14]Leonardi, E. Trias inferiore delle Venezie, Mem. Inst. Geol. Univ. Padova., 1935, II, 1-136.[15]Ichikawa. K. Zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Triadischen Pteriidae (Lamellibranch), Palaeotog., 1958, III, A, 132-212.

  12. Analog pulse processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  13. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  14. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; Boom, van den Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2002-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is off

  15. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; Boom, van den Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is off

  16. Depositional environment and organic geochemistry of the Upper Permian Ravenfjeld Formation source rock in East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, F.G.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L. (Geologoical Survey of Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Telnaes, N. (Norsk Hydro Research Center, Bergen (Norway))

    1993-09-01

    The Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland is composed of shales that laterally pass into carbonate buildups and platforms of the Wegener Halvo Formation. The Ravnefjeld Formation is subdivided into five units that can be traced throughout the Upper Permian depositional basin. Two of the units are laminated and organic rich and were deposited under anoxic conditions. They are considered good to excellent source rocks for liquid hydrocarbons with initial average TOC (total organic carbon) values between 4 and 5% and HI (hydrogen index) between 300 and 400. The cumulative source rocks are separated and enclosed by three units of bioturbated siltstone with a TOC of less than 0.5% and an HI of less than 100. These siltstones were deposited under relatively oxic conditions. The organic geochemistry of the source rocks is typical for marine source rocks with some features normally associated with carbonate/evaporite environments [low Pr/Ph (pristane/phytane), low CPI (carbon preference index), distribution of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes]. The establishment of anoxic conditions and subsequent source rock deposition was controlled by eustatic sea level changes. The subenvironment (paleogeographic setting, influx of carbonate material, water depth, salinity) has some influence on a number of bulk parameters [TOC-HI relations, TOC-TS (total sulfur) relations] and, in particular, biomarker parameters such as Pr/Ph and terpane ratios. All the basal shales or shales in the vicinity of carbonate buildups of platforms are characterized by low Pr/Ph, high C[sub 23] tricyclic terpanes, and high C[sub 35] and C[sub 33] hopanes. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neerja Jha; M Basava Chary; Neha Aggarwal

    2012-10-01

    The entire 606 m-thick sedimentary sequence in borecore MCP-7 from Chintalapudi area, Chintalapudi sub-basin has been lithologically designated as Kamthi Formation. However, the palynological investigation revealed five distinct palynoassemblages, which essentially fall under two groups, one group (Palynoassemblage-I, II and III) having dominance of striate disaccates along with presence of some stratigraphically significant taxa, belongs to Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora, while the other group (Palynoassemblages IV and V) shows sharp decline in percentage of characteristic taxa of first group, i.e., striate disaccates, and consequent rise or dominance of taeniate and cingulate cavate spores, belongs to Early Triassic (Panchet) palynoflora. Palynoassemblage-I, II and III (Group I) are characterized by dominance of striate disaccates chiefly, Striatopodocarpites spp. and Faunipollenites spp. Along with presence of rare but stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Gondisporites raniganjensis, Falcisporites nuthaliensis, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Chordasporites sp., Striomonosaccites, ovatus, Crescentipollenites multistriatus, Verticipollenites debiles, Strotersporites crassiletus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, G. gondwanensis, Hamiapollenites insolitus, Corisaccites alutus, Lunatisporites ovatus, Weylandites spp. and Vitreisporites pallidus. Palynoassemblage-I is distinguished by significant presence of Densipollenites spp. while Palynoassemblage-II shows significant presence of Crescentipollenites spp. and Palynoassemblage-III differs from the above two assemblages in having significant presence of Guttulapollenites hannonicus. Palynoassemblage-IV (Group II) is characterized by high percentage of taeniate disaccates chiefly Lunatisporites spp., while Palynoassemblage-V (Group II) is characterized by cingulate-cavate trilete spores chiefly, Lundbladispora spp. and Densoisporites spp. Striate disaccates show a sharp decline in these two assemblages. In

  18. Microbialite of anoxic condition from Permian-Triassic transition in Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YaSheng; JIANG HongXia; YANG Wan; FAN JiaSong

    2007-01-01

    Spherical microfossils are present in the Hindeodus parvus zone of the Lower Triassic in Ziyun, Guizhou Province. They generally range from 0.15 to 0.30 mm across, with micritic wall and filled by micro-sparry calcites, and are evenly scattered in micritic matrix. Their abundance makes the rock assigned to microbialites. The accompanied organisms include ostracods and algal mat, but no gastropods or bivalves. Presence of small (<7 μm) pyrite framboids indicates that this bed formed in anoxic conditions. In some sections, this bed is overlain and underlain by tidal-flat micritic limestone with microgastropods and small burrows. Occurrence only in deposits on reef top indicates that the microbial organism was benthic, and needed sunlight in life. The size of the microbial fossil exceeds that of any bacteria or cyanobacteria. Thus, it does not belong to these two phyla. It may belong to lower green algae, and is assigned to a new species in a new genus, Ziyunosphaeridium sinensis gen. et sp. nov. Up to now, the rocks described as microbialites from the Permian-Triassic transition include six types: (1) porous micritic limestone such as that descried from Japan by Sano and Nakashima (1997), (2) limestone with rich globular microfossils such as that described from the Nanpanjiang Basin in China by Lehrmann (1999), (3) dendroidal limestone such as that described from the vicinity of Chongqing by Kershaw et al. (1999), (4) spherical microbial limestone adapted to anoxic environments described from Ziyun, Guizhou reported in this paper, (5) limestone with cyanobacterial fossils such as that described by Wang et al. (2005), and (6) stromatolites. All these microbialites are not reefs in the proper sense, and the argument that Permian reef ecosystems extended into the Mesozoic is incorrect.

  19. Microbialite of anoxic condition from Permian-Triassic transition in Guizhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Spherical microfossils are present in the Hindeodus parvus zone of the Lower Triassic in Ziyun,Guizhou Province. They generally range from 0.15 to 0.30 mm across,with micritic wall and filled by micro-sparry calcites,and are evenly scattered in micritic matrix. Their abundance makes the rock as-signed to microbialites. The accompanied organisms include ostracods and algal mat,but no gastro-pods or bivalves. Presence of small (<7 μm) pyrite framboids indicates that this bed formed in anoxic conditions. In some sections,this bed is overlain and underlain by tidal-flat micritic limestone with microgastropods and small burrows. Occurrence only in deposits on reef top indicates that the micro-bial organism was benthic,and needed sunlight in life. The size of the microbial fossil exceeds that of any bacteria or cyanobacteria. Thus,it does not belong to these two phyla. It may belong to lower green algae,and is assigned to a new species in a new genus,Ziyunosphaeridium sinensis gen. et sp. nov. Up to now,the rocks described as microbialites from the Permian-Triassic transition include six types: (1) porous micritic limestone such as that descried from Japan by Sano and Nakashima (1997),(2) limestone with rich globular microfossils such as that described from the Nanpanjiang Basin in China by Lehrmann (1999),(3) dendroidal limestone such as that described from the vicinity of Chongqing by Kershaw et al. (1999),(4) spherical microbial limestone adapted to anoxic environments described from Ziyun,Guizhou reported in this paper,(5) limestone with cyanobacterial fossils such as that described by Wang et al. (2005),and (6) stromatolites. All these microbialites are not reefs in the proper sense,and the argument that Permian reef ecosystems extended into the Mesozoic is incorrect.

  20. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  1. Carbon isotope evidence for a vigorous biological pump in the wake of end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Yu, M.; Jost, A. B.; Payne, J.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean anoxia and euxinia have long been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and the subsequent Early Triassic interval of delayed biotic recovery. This anoxic, sulfidic episode has been ascribed to both low- and high-productivity states in the marine water column, leaving the causes of euxinia and the mechanisms underlying delayed recovery poorly understood. To examine the nature of the end-Permian and Early Triassic biological production, we measured the carbon isotopic composition of carbonates from an exceptionally preserved carbonate platform in the Nanpanjiang Basin of south China. 13C of limestones from 5 stratigraphic sections displays a gradient of approximately 4‰ from shallow to deep water within the Lower Triassic. The limestones are systematically enriched in the platform interior relative to coeval slope and basin margin deposits by 2-4‰ at the peaks of correlative positive and negative δ13C excursions. This gradient subsequently collapses to less than 1‰ in the Middle Triassic, coincident with accelerated biotic recovery and cessation of δ13C excursions. Based on the relationship between δ18O and δ13C, trace metal analyses, and lithostratigraphic context, we conclude that the carbon isotope gradient is unlikely to reflect meteoric diagenesis, organic matter remineralization, or changes in the mixing ratio of sediment sources and minerals across the platform. Instead, we interpret the relatively depleted δ13C values toward the basin as reflecting DIC input from 13C-depleted deep waters during early diagenesis in a nutrient-rich, euxinic ocean. These observations suggest that a vigorous prokaryote-driven biological pump sustained Early Triassic ocean anoxia and inhibited recovery of animal ecosystems.

  2. Structural evolution of the early Permian Nambucca Block (New England Orogen, eastern Australia) and implications for oroclinal bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Vasconcelos, Paulo

    2014-07-01

    The Paleozoic to early Mesozoic southern New England Orogen of eastern Australia exhibits a remarkable ear-shaped curvature (orocline), but the geodynamic processes responsible for its formation are unclear. Oroclinal bending took place during the early Permian, simultaneously with the deposition of the rift-related Sydney, Gunnedah, and Bowen basins, which bound the oroclines to the west. The Nambucca Block is another early Permian rift basin, but it is situated in the core of the oroclinal structure. Here we present new stratigraphic, structural, and geochronological data from the Nambucca Block in an attempt to better understand its tectonic history and relationships to the formation of the oroclines. We recognized four phases of folding and associated structural fabrics (S1-4), with the second phase (S2) dated at 275-265 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of muscovite. This age overlaps with independent constraints on the timing of oroclinal bending, suggesting that the earlier two phases of deformation in the Nambucca Block (F1 and F2) were associated with orocline formation. We propose that oroclinal bending involved three major stages. The first stage (basins in a hot extensional back-arc setting. This was followed by a second stage of oroclinal bending, possibly linked to dextral wrench faulting, which involved ~ N-S contraction (F1). Subsequent deformation at 275-265 Ma involved formation of nappe-style structures (F2). This phase of contractional deformation may have resulted from an increased plate coupling that was possibly linked to flat-slab subduction.

  3. Bringing dicynodonts back to life: paleobiology and anatomy of a new emydopoid genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Castanhinha

    Full Text Available Dicynodontia represent the most diverse tetrapod group during the Late Permian. They survived the Permo-Triassic extinction and are central to understanding Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. Although extensively studied, several aspects of dicynodont paleobiology such as, neuroanatomy, inner ear morphology and internal cranial anatomy remain obscure. Here we describe a new dicynodont (Therapsida, Anomodontia from northern Mozambique: Niassodon mfumukasi gen. et sp. nov. The holotype ML1620 was collected from the Late Permian K5 formation, Metangula Graben, Niassa Province northern Mozambique, an almost completely unexplored basin and country for vertebrate paleontology. Synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography (SRµCT, combined with a phylogenetic analysis, demonstrates a set of characters shared with Emydopoidea. All individual bones were digitally segmented allowing a 3D visualization of each element. In addition, we reconstructed the osseous labyrinth, endocast, cranial nerves and vasculature. The brain is narrow and the cerebellum is broader than the forebrain, resembling the conservative, "reptilian-grade" morphology of other non-mammalian therapsids, but the enlarged paraflocculi occupy the same relative volume as in birds. The orientation of the horizontal semicircular canals indicates a slightly more dorsally tilted head posture than previously assumed in other dicynodonts. In addition, synchrotron data shows a secondary center of ossification in the femur. Thus ML1620 represents, to our knowledge, the oldest fossil evidence of a secondary center of ossification, pushing back the evolutionary origins of this feature. The fact that the specimen represents a new species indicates that the Late Permian tetrapod fauna of east Africa is still incompletely known.

  4. Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central Basin Platform, Delaware Basin, and Midland Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian Basin were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform.

  5. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  6. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  7. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  8. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  9. Synthesis of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhibing

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most successful anti-cancer drugs, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For the investigation of the interaction between paclitaxel and MD-2 protein, and development of new antagonists for lipopolysaccharide, several C10 A-nor-paclitaxel analogs have been synthesized and their biological activities have been evaluated. In order to reduce the myelosuppression effect of the paclitaxel, several C3â ² and C4 paclitaxel analogs have been synth...

  10. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  11. Depositional Environments of the Upper Permian Quartzose Sandstone (Shandong Province, North China):Insight from Trace Element Geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei L; Zengxue Li; Jitao Chen; Ying Liu; Zengqi Zhang; Jipo Liang; Haiyan Liu

    2015-01-01

    The depositional environment of the Upper Permian quartzose sandstone (Kuishan sand-stone in Shihezi Formation of Upper Permian) in the North China epicontinental basin is controversial. In order to test the previous hypotheses, we analyzed sedimentological characteristics of the Kuishan sandstones in outcrops and boreholes, and carried out trace element geochemical analysis by electron probe microanalyzer. Three lithofacies were recognized, including normal-graded conglomerate (Cng), trough and planar cross-bedded coarse sandstone (CStpc), and planar cross-bedded medium sandstone (MSpc). Normal-graded conglomerate (Cng) formed in the meandering river or deltaic distributary channels. Trough and planar cross-bedded coarse sandstone (CStpc) formed in meandering river or distributary channels of near-source deltaic plain. Planar cross-bedded medium sandstone (MSpc) formed in the siliciclastic beach with high-to moderate-energy conditions. By the petrology and trace elements analysis, three relatively large-scale transgressions were revealed. Each transgression was re-flected by the lower content of Ba and ratios of Fe/Mn, and the high content of B and ratios of B/Ga. The ratios of Ni/Co of all samples are all lower than 2, suggesting oxygen-enriched shallower water en-vironment during deposition of the Kuishan sandstones.

  12. Tectonic evolution of Tethyan tectonic field, formation of Northern Margin basin and explorative perspective of natural gas in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing the characteristics of the Tethyan tectonic field, the authors think that the Tethyan tectonic field underwent three evolutional stages: closing of Paleo-Tethys and rifting of Neo-Tethys from early Permian to late Triassic, subduction of Neo-Tethys and collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasia plate from Jurassic to early of low Tertiary, and collision between the Arab plate and the Eurasia plate and the A-type subduction of Indian plate from late of low Tertiary to the present. Combining the evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt with the characteristics of the Northern Margin basin, it is suggested that the sedimentary and tectonic characteristics and types of the Northern Mar-gin basin are controlled by the formation and evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt and the ingression of Tethys. The evolution of Northern Margin basin can be divided into three development stages: back-arc foreland basin from late Permian to Triassic, the back-arc fault subsidence and depression from Jurassic to the early of low Tertiary, and the reactive foreland basin from the late of low Tertiary to the present. The Northern Margin basin in the Tethyan tectonic field is an important region for natural gas accumulation, and the Tarim Basin is a part of this region.

  13. Characteristics of Late Permian Deep-Water Sedimentary Environments: A Case Study of Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yongqun; Yang Fengqing; Peng Yuanqiao

    2005-01-01

    Sediments of carbonate gravity flows and terrigenous debris turbidites, and normal bathyal deposits were found at the Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Through grain-size analysis of some typical sediments at this section, the changing patterns of the grain parameters and the grain-size cumulations were recovered. Results show that the study area was deposited under turbidite control during the Late Permian period, which we also recognized at the outcrop section upon sedimentary characteristics of the sediments. In addition, fossils are abundant in the Upper Permian of the Shaiwa Section, including radiolarians, sponge-spicules, bivalves, brachiopods, ammonoids and trace fossils. Radiolarians and siliceous sponge-spicules are typical deep water assemblages. Bivalves are dominated by genera of Hunanopecten and Claraia, both showing deep water living characteristics. Ammonoids are composed of planktonic types, showing characteristics of smooth and flat shells. Brachiopods are dominated by a small and thin shelled assemblage, which are commonly flat in shape and usually of slight ornamentations on shells. In addition, trace fossils found at the Shaiwa Section are also common types of deep water facies. Thus, the fossil evidence of the Shaiwa Section also suggests a deep water environment, possibly from the bathyal slope to the basin margin facies, of the studied area during the Late Permian period.

  14. Palaeoecological aspects of some invertebrate trace fossils from the mid- to Upper Permian Middleton Formation (Adelaide Subgroup, Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup), Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Linkermann, Sean; Prevec, Rose

    2011-10-01

    Ichnological and sedimentological analyses in the Eastern Cape allowed the first description of a Cochlichnus-dominated ichnofossil site from the mid- to Upper Permian Middleton Formation (Karoo Supergroup) in South Africa. The locality is within the uppermost Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone, a biostratigraphic interval characterized by a low vertebrate biodiversity at the turn of the mid- to Late Permian. Our field data indicates that the surficial bioturbation of very fine to fine-grained sand layers resulted from life activities of shallow infaunal and epifaunal invertebrates (possibly annelids, aquatic oligochaetes, nematodes, insect larvae) and fish. The morphology of the trails, their relationship to the substrate and the behaviour inferred from them indicate that the tracemakers developed a strategy that facilitated the optimization of low food resources in a permanently submerged freshwater setting. Combined ichnological and sedimentological evidence suggests a low-energy, freshwater lacustrine depositional environment, where occasional higher energy currents brought nutrients. Data also imply that colonization of these erratic event beds by opportunistic sediment-feeders was short-lived and followed by longer intervals of lower energy deposition under possibly poorly oxygenated conditions. We propose that these event beds as well as the sporadic red mudstones of the Middleton Formation may have formed during short-term, higher storm-frequency and dryer periods, signalling changes in the otherwise humid climate in this part of the main Karoo Basin during the mid- to Late Permian.

  15. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  16. Source, evolution and emplacement of Permian Tarim Basalts: Evidence from U-Pb dating, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics and whole rock geochemistry of basalts from the Keping area, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dayu; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Jowitt, Simon M.; Fan, Yu; Liu, Shuai

    2012-04-01

    Permian basalts distribute at least 250,000 km2, and underlie the southwest Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest China. This vast accumulation of basalt is the main part of the Tarim Large Igneous Province (LIP). The basaltic units in the Lower Permian Kupukuziman and Kaipaizileike Formations in the Keping area, Tarim Basin; were the best exposure of the Permian basalt sequence in the basin. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon from the basal basaltic unit in the section gives an age of 291.9 ± 2.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.30, n = 17); this age, combined with previously published geochronological data, indicates that the basalts in the Tarim Basin were emplaced between 292 Ma and 272 Ma, with about 90% of the basalts being emplaced between 292 and 287 Ma. Basalts from the Keping area have high FeOT (10.8-18.6 wt.%), low Mg#s (0.26-0.60), and exhibit primitive mantle normalized patterns with positive Pb, P and Ti but negative Zr, Y and Ta anomalies. The basalts from both formations have similar 206Pb/204Pb (18.192-18.934), 207Pb/204Pb (15.555-15.598) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.643-38.793) ratios. The basalts also have high ɛSr(t) (45.7-62.1), low ɛNd(t) (-3.6 to -2.2) and low zircon ɛHf(t) (-4.84 to -0.65) values. These characteristics are typical of alkali basalts and suggest that the basalts within the Tarim Basin were derived from an OIB-type mantle source and interacted with enriched mantle (EMI-type) before emplacement. Rare earth element systematics indicate that the parental melts for the basalts were high-degree partial melts derived from garnet lherzolite mantle at the base of the lithosphere. Prior to emplacement, the Tarim Permian Basalts (TPB) underwent fractional crystallization and assimilated crustal material; the basalts were finally emplaced during crustal extension in an intra-plate setting. The wide distribution, deep source and high degree partial melting of the TPB was consistent with a mantle plume origin. The TPB and other coeval igneous

  17. The Permian-Triassic boundary & mass extinction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian Metcalfe; Lance Black; Qu Xun; Mao Xiaodong; Robert S. Nicoll; Roland Mundil; Clinton Foster; Jonathan Glen; John Lyons; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Cheng-yuan; Paul R. Renne

    2001-01-01

    @@ The first appearance of Hindeodus parvus (Kozur & Pjatakova) at the Permian-Triassic (P-T) GSSP level (base of Bed 27c) at Meishan is here confirmed. Hindeodus changxingensis Wang occurs from Beds 26 to 29 at Meishan and appears to be restricted to the narrow boundary interval immediately above the main mass extinction level in Bed 25. It is suggested that this species is therefore a valuable P-T boundary interval index taxon.

  18. Petrogenesis of the flood basalts from the Early Permian Panjal Traps, Kashmir, India: Geochemical evidence for shallow melting of the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Bhat, Ghulam M.; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Brookfield, Michael E.; Jahn, Bor-Ming; Dostal, Jaroslav

    2014-09-01

    The Early Permian Panjal Traps of northern India represent a significant eruption of volcanic rocks which occurred during the opening of the Neotethys Ocean. Basaltic, basaltic-andesites, dacitic and rhyolitic rocks collected from Guryal Ravine and Pahalgam show evidence for subaerial and subaqueous eruptions indicating that they are contemporaneous with the formation of a shallow marine basin. The major and trace element geochemistry of the basalts is consistent with a within-plate setting and there are basalts which have high-Ti (TiO2 > 2.0 wt.%) and low-Ti (TiO2 < 1.8 wt.%) compositions. The ‘high-Ti’ basalts are similar to OIB whereas the ‘low-Ti’ basalts are similar to continental tholeiites. The identification of ‘high- and low-Ti’ basalts within the Panjal Traps is analogous to other large igneous provinces (e.g. Karoo, Deccan, Parana, Emeishan). The Sr-Nd isotopic values (εNd(T) = - 5.3 to + 1.3; ISr = 0.70432 to 0.71168) of both types of basalts overlap indicating that the rocks may have originated from the same ancient subcontinental lithospheric (i.e. EMII-like) mantle source (TDM = ~ 2000 Ma). The two groups of basalts can be modeled by using a primitive mantle source and different degrees of partial melting where the high-Ti rocks are produced by ~ 1% partial melting of a spinel peridotite source whereas the low-Ti rocks are produced by ~ 8% partial melting. Trace elemental and isotope modeling indicates that some of the basalts assimilated ≤ 10% crustal material. In contrast, the basaltic-andesites are likely formed by mixing between basaltic magmas and crustal melts which produced rocks with higher SiO2 (~ 55 wt.%) content and enriched isotopic signatures (εNd(T) = - 6.1; ISr = 0.70992). The Panjal Trap volcanism was likely due to partial melting of the SCLM within a passive extensional setting related to the rifting of Cimmeria from Gondwana. Contemporaneous volcanic and plutonic granitic rocks throughout the Himalaya are probably

  19. Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

  20. Spiral-shaped graphoglyptids from an Early Permian intertidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Buatois, Luis A.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Braddy, Simon J.; Smith, Joshua A.

    2006-12-01

    Spiral-shaped foraging trace fossils, assigned to the grapho glyptid cf. Spirorhaphe azteca, are reported from an Early Permian intertidal flat in the Robledo Mountains of southern New Mexico, USA. Remarkably similar spiral-shaped structures are produced in modern intertidal flats by the paraonid polychaete Paraonis fulgens, and function as traps to capture mobile microorganisms migrating in the sediment in response to tides. We envisage a similar function for the Early Permian trace fossils. Previous studies have suggested that the lack of P. fulgens type traces from ancient intertidal deposits indicates that such behavior only evolved geologically recently in such settings. However, this report demonstrates that such specialized foraging behavior was present in intertidal settings by at least the Early Permian. Graphoglyptids are typical of deep-marine settings, and characteristic of the Nereites ichnofacies. This represents their first undoubted occurrence in intertidal facies in the geological record. We postulate that the occurrence of graphoglyptids in deep-marine and intertidal settings is related to the predictability of resources. The scarcity of intertidal graphoglyptids in the geological record is most likely a preservational effect.

  1. Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

    2014-02-01

    The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale. PMID:23876495

  2. A statistical test on diversity changes of Early and Middle Permian fusulinacean fauna in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Yukun; YANG; Xiangning

    2005-01-01

    The rarefaction analysis has been conducted to test the species diversity changes of the Early and Middle Permian fusulinacean fauna in South China. The results reveal that the number of species dramatically increased since the earliest Permian and quickly reached the maximum value in the early Zisongian representing the highest species diversity for the whole Early and Middle Permian. The species diversity stabilized in the plateau through the Zisongian;however, it started to decline in the following Longlinian and sustained a longstanding low level during the mid-Early Permian. With the appearance of new fusulinacean taxa with septulum structures, the number of species raised again in the late-Early Permian, followed by a decline in the Middle Permian Neoschwagerina simplex zone. Although the species diversity increased apparently in the Kuhfengian, it never rebounded back to the same level as in the Early Permian.In the mid-Middle Permian, species diversity began to decrease continuously and led to the disappearance of most fusulinacean species by the end of the Middle Permian.

  3. Permian U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages from Australia and China: Constraining the time scale of environmental and biotic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyszyn, S. W.; Mundil, R.; Metcalfe, I.; He, B.

    2010-12-01

    In eastern Australia, the interconnected Bowen and Sydney Basins are filled with terrestrial sediments of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. These sedimentary units record significant evolutionary events of eastern Gondwana during the time interval between two major mass extinctions (end Middle Permian and Permian-Triassic), and also provide lithological evidence for the Carboniferous-Permian Late Paleozoic Ice Age of southern Pangea, considered to be divisible into up to seven discrete glaciation events in Australia [e.g., 1]. These glaciations are currently assigned ages that indicate that the last of the glaciations predate the end Middle Permian mass extinction at ca. 260 Ma. However, the estimates for the time and durations are largely based on biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy that, in the absence of robust and precise radioisotopic ages, are unacceptably fragile for providing an accurate high-resolution framework. Interbedded with the sediments are numerous tuff layers that contain zircon, many of which are associated with extensive coal measures in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. Published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages [2, 3] have been shown to be less precise and inaccurate when compared to ages applying the CA-TIMS method to the same horizons. Also within the late Middle Permian, the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts in SW China has been proposed to have caused the end Middle Permian mass extinction [e.g., 4], though a causal link between these events demands a rigorous test that can only be provided by high-resolution geochronology. We present new U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages on tuff layers from the Sydney and Bowen Basins, with the purpose of generating a timescale for the Upper Permian of Australia to allow correlation with different parts of the world. Initial results, with permil precision, date a tuff layer within the uppermost Bandanna Fm. to ca. 252 Ma, a tuff within the Moranbah Coal Measures to ca. 256 Ma, and a tuff within the Ingelara Fm. to

  4. Upper Cisuralian palynology and palaeoclimate of Manuguru area Godavari basin, and their global correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pauline Sabina K; Neerja Jha

    2014-10-01

    The Permian system of the Palaeozoic Erathem is divided into three series, the Early Permian Cisuralian Series, the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, and the Late Permian Lopingian Series. The Cisuralian Series encompasses the Asselian to Kungurian stages which constitute the basal part of the Gondwana supersequence I. In India, they are represented lithostratigraphically by the Talchir, Karharbari, and Barakar formations. This paper presents the palynological results from the Barakar Formation of the Upper Cisuralian Series from Manuguru which lies in the southeastern part of the Godavari basin. The succession studied comprises 35 subsurface samples from bore hole 1007 represented by clay, shale, sandstone, and coal. The palynofloras in this sequence have a homogenous composition demonstrating that not many significant floral changes took place through the considered stratigraphic range. The entire sequence is characterized by the dominance of nonstriate bisaccate genus Scheuringipollenites and subdominance of striate bisaccate genus Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus). The other pollen genera among the nonstriate bisaccates are Rhizomaspora, Primuspollenites, Ibisporites, and Platysaccus. The striate bisaccates include Striatites, Striatopodocarpites, and Stroterosporites. The taeniate taxa are represented by Lueckisporites and Lunatisporites. The common monosaccate genera include Caheniasaccites, Potoniesporites, and Barakarites. Spores are less common and include Latosporites, Brevitriletes, Horriditriletes, Microbaculispora, and Callumispora. They characterize the palynofloral composition of the Lower Barakar Formation. The correlation of this assemblage with some of the biostratigraphic palynozones proposed previously for the Cisuralian sequences of the Paraná Basin of South America, Kalahari Karoo Basin of South Africa, Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania, East Africa as well as palynoassemblages from South Victoria Land and Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and Collie

  5. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume I. Dalhart Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and highly variable prcipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  6. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  7. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  8. Numerical modeling of regional ground-water flow in the deep-basin brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedded Permian-age evaporite sequences in the Palo Duro Basin are being considered for a permanent nuclear waste repository by the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of this modeling study is to provide an understanding of regional ground-water flow in the formations beneath the Permian evaporite section. From this understanding, more detailed, smaller scale studies can be designed. This study is also intended to provide a better understanding of the boundary conditions and permeabilities of the aquifer and aquitard system as well as provide estimates of ground-water travel times across the basin. Numerical simulations were made of the Wolfcamp aquifer modeled as a single layer and of the entire Deep-Basin Brine aquifer system, including the Wolfcamp aquifer, modeled as a single layer

  9. Repository site data and information in bedded salt: Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of data from the literature on the Palo Duro Basin. The Palo Duro Basin is a structural basin, about 150 miles long and 80 miles wide, that is a part of the much larger Permian Basin. The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin as a potentially suitable area for the site of a repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Sediments overlying the Precambrian basement range from about 5000 to about 11,000 ft in thickness and from Cambrian to Holocene in age. The strata in the Palo Duro Basin that are of primary interest to the Department of Energy are the bedded salts of the Permian San Andres Formation. The total thickness of the bedded salts is about 2000 ft. The geology of the Palo Duro Basin is well understood. A great deal of information exists on the properties of salt, although much of the available information was not collected in the Palo Duro Basin. Mineral resources are not currently being exploited from the center of the Palo Duro Basin at depth, although the possibility of exploration for and development of such resources can not be ruled out. The continued existence of salts of Permian age indicates a lack of any large amount of circulating ground water. The hydrology of the pre-Tertiary rocks, however, is currently too poorly understood to carry out detailed, site-specific hydrologic modeling with a high degree of confidence. In general, ground water flows from west to east in the Basin. There is little or no hydraulic connection between aquifers above and below the salt sequences. Potable water is pumped from the Ogallala aquifer. Most of the other aquifers yield only nonpotable water. More extensive hydrological data are needed for detailed future modeling in support of risk assessment for a possible repository for high-level waste in the Palo Duro Basin. 464 references

  10. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren Measures from Raniganj field, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annapurna Boruah; S Ganapathi

    2015-07-01

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of Damodar Basin were analysed to evaluate their gas generation potential using Rock–Eval pyrolysis techniques. Petrographic analysis brings out the lithofacies of Barren Measures as carbonaceous silty shale, iron rich claystone and sand-shale intercalation. The total organic content (TOC) of the shale units of Barren Measures ranges from 3.75 to 20.9 wt%, whereas hydrogen index (HI) ranges from 58.45 to 125.34 mg HC/g TOC. Present study suggests early to late maturated (0.6–1%) organic matters in Barren Measures with gas prone type III kerogen. The study analysed the effect of burial history on the preservation and maturation of organic matters. The organic richness, kerogen type, thermal maturity and petrographic properties of Barren Measures signify fair to excellent gas generation potential.

  11. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  12. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  13. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  14. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  15. Permian and Triassic Sequence Stratigraphy and Sea Level Changes of Eastern Yangtze Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Permian and marine Triassic of eastern Yangtze platform, situated in eastern China, involve 19 orthosequences lasting about 2.7 Ma on average, which can be combined into five orthosequence sets ranging from 8 Ma to 12 Ma. Affected by the regional Dongwu and Indosinian movements, the sequence stratigraphic pattern and sea level changes in the Permian and Triassic of this region are distinctive and obviously different from most other regions in the world, but typical in the broad eastern Tethys and its neighboring areas. In this region not only did the continuous marine Permian and Triassic boundary sequences cause the orthosequence crossing the boundary belonging to type-Ⅱ sequence but also the mesosequence including these stratigraphic intervals had its basal boundary in the upper Longlinian (Artinskian) (ca. 278 Ma), that is, the traditional Carboniferous and Permian boundary, and its top boundary moved from the Permian and Triassic boundary upward into the Anisian of Middle Triassic.

  16. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    . Negative δ13C excursions are related to low-stand deposits and caused by diagenetic processes during subaerial exposure. The comparison with δ13C records from other parts of the world demonstrate that δ13C values are high in most unaltered samples, an overall negative trend during the Permian, as recently...... published, is not obvious and negative excursions related to changes in the carbon isotope composition of the global oceanic carbon pool cannot be confirmed, except for the Permian–Triassic boundary interval....

  17. Late Early Permian continental ichnofauna from Lake Kemp, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, S.G.; Voigt, S.; Lerner, A.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Continental trace fossils of Early Permian age are well known in the western United States from Wolfcampian (~. Asselian to Artinskian) strata, but few examples are known from Leonardian (~. Kungurian) deposits. A substantial ichnofauna from strata of the lower part of the Clear Fork Formation at Lake Kemp, Baylor County, Texas, augments the meager North American record of Leonardian continental trace fossil assemblages. Ichnofossils at Lake Kemp occur in the informally-named Craddock dolomite member of the Clear Fork Formation, which is 12-15. m above the local base of the Clear Fork. The trace-bearing stratum is an up-to-0.3. m thick, laminated to flaser-bedded, dolomitic siltstone that also contains mud cracks, raindrop impressions, microbially induced mat structures, and some land-plant impressions. We interpret the Craddock dolomite member as the feather-edge of a marine transgressive carbonate deposit of an irregular coastline marked by shallow bays or estuaries on the eastern shelf of the Midland basin, and the trace-fossil-bearing stratum at Lake Kemp is an unchannelized flow deposit on a muddy coastal plain. The fossil site at Lake Kemp yields a low to moderately diverse fauna of invertebrate and vertebrate traces. A sparse invertebrate ichnofauna consists of arthropod feeding and locomotion traces assigned to Walpia cf. W. hermitensis White, 1929 and Diplichnites gouldi Gevers in Gevers et al., 1971. Tetrapod footprints are most common and assigned to Batrachichnus salamandroides (Geinitz, 1861), cf. Amphisauropus kablikae (Geinitz and Deichm??ller, 1882), and Dromopus lacertoides (Geinitz, 1861), which represent small temnospondyl, seymouriamorph, and basal sauropsid trackmakers. Both the traces and sedimentary features of the fossil horizon indicate a freshwater setting at the time of track formation, and the trace assemblage represents the Scoyenia ichnofacies and the Batrachichnus ichnofacies in an overbank environment with sheet flooding and shallow

  18. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  19. USW area analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of and methodology for the development of a set of environmental analogs of operational Undersea Warfare (USW) areas within fleet training areas. It is primarily a discussion of the identification of parameters that characterize the tactical USW environment, prioritization of these parameters, identification of existing databases that contain these parameters and an outline of the processes required to extract the desired data fro...

  20. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  1. DICKINSARTELLA FAUNA FROM THE SAIWAN FORMATION (OMAN: A BIVALVE FAUNA TESTIFYING TO THE LATE SAKMARIAN (EARLY PERMIAN CLIMATIC AMELIORATION ALONG THE NORTH-EASTERN GONDWANAN FRINGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The transitional faunas of the Permian Huqf succession of Oman make it one of the key-sections for the intercalibration of Early to Middle Permian biostratigraphical scales. The abundance of fossils improved the knowledge of some marine faunas which populated the North-Eastern Gondwanan fringe during times of climatic changes in the Permian. A Sterlitamakian (upper Sakmarian, Lower Permian bivalve fauna from the Saiwan Formation in the Huqf area, informally named "Dickinsartella Fauna", is described in the present paper. The specimens examined were collected from the "Pachycyrtella Bed" (Auctorum, the basal bed of the Formation in its type locality. The Dickinsartella Fauna can be identified for the presence of the new genus Dickinsartella, which dominates the bivalve thanatocoenosis with D. pistacina sp. n. (type species. The bivalve fauna from the Pachycyrtella Bed includes the new species Stutchburia sangallii and Promytilus  mazzolenii, and also Astartella obliqua Dickins, 1963, Nuculopsis cf. bangarraensis Dickins, 1963, ?Oriocrassatella sp., and indeterminable aviculopectinids. This fauna shows a low taxonomic diversity. Nevertheless, some species are represented by a high number of generally well-preserved specimens, i.e. some specimens of S. sangallii sp. n. and A. obliqua show part of the ligament.  The good preservation of the shells permitted the microstructural analysis of D. pistacina sp. n. and S. sangallii sp. n. The microstructure of S. sangallii sp. n. supports the close phylogenetical link between modiomorphids and crassatelloids recognized by some previous authors.The new genus Dickinsartella includes the more recent species belonging to the important Paleozoic Order Cyrtodontida Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971. The discovery of Dickinsartella gen. n. and other taxa of the Pachycyrtella Bed, present also in the Sakmarian levels of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins in Western Australia,  indicates a wider distribution of the

  2. The Permian post-orogenic collapse in the Alps: insights from the Campo unit (Austroalpine nappes, N-Italy, SE-Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Benoît; Mohn, Geoffroy; Štípská, Pavla; Manatschal, Gianreto; Schulmann, Karel

    2014-05-01

    The final stage of the Variscan orogeny (310-270 Ma) is characterized by an intense tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic event. During the Permian, acid and mafic intrusions were emplaced at all crustal levels and are associated to high-temperature contact metamorphism. While most of the studies focus either on the formation of Permian basins or on the lower crustal magmatic and metamorphic evolution, the characterization of the middle crust is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to unravel the processes active at mid-crustal levels during the Permian. We investigate the contact aureole of the Sondalo gabbro emplaced in a mid-crustal position during the Permian, exposed in the Austroalpine Campo unit (N-Italy). This work is based on a multidisciplinary approach linking structural geology, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The country rock of the gabbroic intrusion is composed of Grt-St micaschists and paragneisses indicating a prograde path in the amphibolite facies associated with the formation of a N-W steeply dipping S2 foliation. This foliation is pervasively reworked by a N-E trending sub-vertical S3 fabric made of Ms-Bt metasediments. This S3 fabric is also found in metapelitic septa in the core of the mafic intrusion, whereas in the narrow contact aureole a moderately dipping S4 fabric roughly parallel to the margins of the pluton is developed. From host-rock to the center of the intrusion, the metapelites show destabilization of muscovite, appearance of sillimanite, spinel, cordierite, crystallization of a large amount of garnet and finally disappearance of biotite and potassic feldspar. As a consequence, the kinzigitic restites of the contact aureole are replaced by Grt-Sil-Crd-Spl granulites in an intra-plutonic position. Qualitative P-T estimates indicate a barrovian prograde path during D2, similar to P-T evolutions found in other Austroalpine units (e.g. Ulten zone). Thermodynamic modelling of the high-grade granulites due to the thermal effect of

  3. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  4. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iannuzzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii

  5. Panjal Paleomagnetism: Implications for Early Permian Gondwana break-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, D.; Aitchison, J.; Ali, J. R.; Ahmad, T.; Ahmad Dar, R.; Agarwal, A.; Roeder, T.

    2013-12-01

    The mid-Early Permian represents an important phase in Pangaea's development marking the time when the >13,000 km-long string of terranes that are collectively known as 'Cimmeria' separated from Gondwana's Tethyan margin (northern Africa-NE Arabia-northern India-NW and northern Australia). The ~289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are one of a number of mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto the Indian block possibly during the separation of the Lhasa/SE Qiangtang block. Herein, we report data from the first modern paleomagnetic study of the unit. Results from four quarry sections (15 individual cooling units) from a locality close to Srinagar together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning 2-3 km of stratigraphy. The derived direction and paleopole yield key new information concerning (1) the Early Permian location of India, and by inference that of central Gondwana, and (2) inform debates related to Cimmeria's breakup from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, they provide a new independent control for assessing NW Greater India's extent prior to its collision with Asia and the amount of vertical-axis rotation this sector of the Himalayan range experienced in the mid to late Cenozoic.

  6. Flourishing ocean drives the end-Permian marine mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas; Strauss, Harald; Korn, Dieter; Korte, Christoph

    2015-08-18

    The end-Permian mass extinction, the most severe biotic crisis in the Phanerozoic, was accompanied by climate change and expansion of oceanic anoxic zones. The partitioning of sulfur among different exogenic reservoirs by biological and physical processes was of importance for this biodiversity crisis, but the exact role of bioessential sulfur in the mass extinction is still unclear. Here we show that globally increased production of organic matter affected the seawater sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope signature that has been recorded in carbonate rock spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary. A bifurcating temporal trend is observed for the strata spanning the marine mass extinction with carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope excursions toward decreased and increased values, respectively. By coupling these results to a box model, we show that increased marine productivity and successive enhanced microbial sulfate reduction is the most likely scenario to explain these temporal trends. The new data demonstrate that worldwide expansion of euxinic and anoxic zones are symptoms of increased biological carbon recycling in the marine realm initiated by global warming. The spatial distribution of sulfidic water column conditions in shallow seafloor environments is dictated by the severity and geographic patterns of nutrient fluxes and serves as an adequate model to explain the scale of the marine biodiversity crisis. Our results provide evidence that the major biodiversity crises in Earth's history do not necessarily implicate an ocean stripped of (most) life but rather the demise of certain eukaryotic organisms, leading to a decline in species richness. PMID:26240323

  7. Paleomagnetism of Permian and Triassic rock, central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Randall D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Mpodozis, Constantino; Davidson, John

    The first paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic formations west of the Andean divide are presented. Four formations of Permian or Triassic age in the central Chilean Andes have been investigated: two are located in the coastal ranges, and two are in the main cordillera. Of the formations in the main cordillera (Pastos Blancos and Matahuaico formations), only the Pastos Blancos Formation has yielded characteristic directions. While a fold test is absent, magnetizations are most likely secondary and yield pre-tilt corrected concordant inclinations, but yield declinations discordant 30° clockwise in comparison to the South American apparent polar wander path. Both formations from the coastal ranges (Cifuncho and Pichidangui formations) yielded stable directions. Postfolding magnetizations in the Cifuncho Formation also show declinations discordant 30° clockwise and concordant inclinations. The Pichidangui Formation has two stable components: one of postfolding age is concordant to apparent polar wander path data, and one of probable prefolding (Late Triassic) age is concordant in declination, but discordant in inclination. Further work is needed to better define the prefolding magnetizations in the Pichidangui Formation, but at present these preliminary results are the first paleomagnetic signs of displaced terranes along the Pacific margin of Chile. If correct, the results suggest that the Pichidangui Formation was some 15° of latitude farther south during the Late Triassic and had likely moved northward to its present latitudinal position with respect to cratonic South America by Middle to Late Jurassic.

  8. Depositional Environment of Permian Tak Fa Formation, Nakhonsawan, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketwetsuriya, Chatchalerm; Nützel, Alexander; Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong

    2016-04-01

    The carbonate rocks of the study area at Amphoe Tak Fa and Amphoe Takhli, Changwat Nakhon Sawan belong to the Tak Fa Formation, Saraburi Group. This formation crops out in the Khao Khwang Platform and consists of late Palaeozoic carbonate platform deposits. It reaches a thickness of 900 meters and crops out in a vast area. The exposures have been measured and samples were collected for petrographic study. The rock consists of limestones, argillaceous limestones, mudstones and dolomites with nodular and banded cherts, which comprise many invertebrate fossils such as fusulinids, ammonoid, pelecypod, gastropod, coral and bryozoa. Many of the fossils are silicified. The gastropod assemblage is currently under study and represents one of the most diverse faunas reported from SE Asia. The age of the rock is Yakhtashian or Artinskian (late Early Permian) to Midian or Capitanian (late Middle Permian). The study of carbonate facies and fauna indicates that the depositional environment was on shelf lagoon within the carbonate platform varying from shallow marine to barrier bar.

  9. The Age of Analog Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiussi, Claudio; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Marbach, Daniel; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Dürr, Peter; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Floreano, Dario; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)

    2008-01-01

    A large class of systems of biological and technological relevance can be described as analog networks, that is, collections of dynamical devices interconnected by links of varying strength. Some examples of analog networks are genetic regulatory networks, metabolic networks, neural networks, analog electronic circuits, and control systems. Analog networks are typically complex systems which include nonlinear feedback loops and possess temporal dynamics at different timescales. When tackled b...

  10. Carbonate reservoir plays in the South Atlantic and worldwide analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohriak, Webster

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a summary of the geological, geophysical and petrophysical challenges for interpretation of post-salt and presalt carbonate rocks that constitute one of the main reservoirs in the hydrocarbon accumulations in the South Atlantic, particularly in the Campos and Santos basins offshore Brazil and in the Angola -Gabon conjugate margins. Carbonate rocks associated with salt tectonics constitute one of the main exploratory plays in several basins worldwide, and recently have yielded large petroleum discoveries in the southeastern Brazilian continental margin (Santos Basin) and also in Angola (Kwanza Basin) . The presalt microbialite reservoirs are sealed by evaporites and the origin of these rocks is still controversial. One current of interpretation assumes they are associated with reefs and carbonate buildups formed during periods of sea-level rises in a desiccating basin. Other currents of interpretation assume that these rocks might be associated with hydrothermal fluids and chemical precipitation of carbonates in a basin affected by volcanic episodes, resulting in travertine deposits with secondary biogenic growth. We present examples of post-salt oil fields involving Albian carbonates in the South Atlantic, and also discuss the presalt plays recently drilled in ultradeep waters. The presalt carbonate reservoirs are compared with possible microbialite analogs in the sedimentary basins of Brazil dating from Neoproterozoic to Recent, and their similarities and differences in terms of depositional setting and petrophysical parameters from the Late Aptian presalt carbonate rocks that have been sampled in the Santos and Kwanza basins.

  11. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  12. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  13. The Permian volcanism of Sardinia revisited: new geochronological and geochemical data as a key for geodynamic evolution of the western Peri-Tethian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Gretter, Nicola; Lago, Marceliano; Langone, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Ronchi, Ausonio

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have confirmed the important role played by magmatism affecting Sardinian basins during the latest Carboniferous and Permian age (Cortesogno et al. 1998; Buzzi et al., 2008; Casini et al., 2012). To-date, most of the geochronological analysis performed on the Permian volcanic events in the island are methodologically overcome and frequently not in tune with the stratigraphy. In the north-western and central-southeastern Sardinian basins (Nurra, Perdasdefogu, Seui-Seulo and Escalaplano), the late-post Variscan tectonic collapse favored the emplacement of a calc-alkaline products not only in the form of generally shallow intrusions but also volcanism within intramontane strike-slip basins. This magmatism is expressed both as pyroclastic rocks-lava flows filling small half-graben basins and hypabyssal intrusions (lava-domes and dykes). These volcano-sedimentary troughs generally include both external and internal igneous eruptions as well as the detrital products eroded from the surrounding structural highs. Rhyolites, andesites and dacites are the main rock types while trachydacites and trachyandesites are less represented. Our goal is to couple the petrographic and geochemical features of 17 selected samples stratigraphically constrained and new U-Pb ages data on zircons from the post-Variscan effusive rocks in Sardinia. The whole-rock and REE geochemical features confirm a progressive evolution in the post-Variscan extensional, trans-tensile regime in with and fits an origin in a stacking of nappes associated with thermal re-equilibration of lithospheric mantle and telescopic partial melting of the thickened crust. The process is dominated by AFC. As far as the geochronological analysis is concerned, a preliminary cathodoluminescence study has been performed on all mounted crystals in order to select the precise location of the shot points. Each crystal has been analyzed for U, Th and Pb in the epoxy mount by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma

  14. The Cathaysia Flora and the Mixed Late Permian Cathaysian-Angaran Floras in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Cathaysia flora, one of the most prominent floras of the Carboniferous and Permian, was mainly distributed in East Asia and was characterized by numerous endemic elements. China is one of the most important localities of the Cathaysia flora and it is also the center of origin of this flora. This paper reviews and discusses the characteristics of the Cathaysia flora and the biogeographically mixed Permian Cathaysian-Angaran floras of East Asia. In addition, the formative mechanism of the mixed Permian floras is also discussed.

  15. Astronomical tuning of the end-Permian extinction and the Early Triassic Epoch of South China and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Ogg, James; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chunju; Hinnov, Linda; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zou, Zhuoyan

    2016-05-01

    The timing of the end-Permian mass extinction and subsequent prolonged recovery during the Early Triassic Epoch can be established from astronomically controlled climate cycles recorded in continuous marine sedimentary sections. Astronomical-cycle tuning of spectral gamma-ray logs from biostratigraphically-constrained cyclic stratigraphy through marine sections at Meishan, Chaohu, Daxiakou and Guandao in South China yields an integrated time scale for the Early Triassic, which is consistent with scaling of magnetostratigraphy from climatic cycles in continental deposits of the Germanic Basin. The main marine mass extinction interval at Meishan is constrained to less than 40% of a 100-kyr (kilo-year) cycle (i.e., extinction. The durations of the Griesbachian, Dienerian, Smithian and Spathian substages, including the uncertainty in placement of widely used conodont biostratigraphic datums for their boundaries, are 1.4 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.1, 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 myr, implying a total span for the Early Triassic of 5.1 ± 0.1 myr. Therefore, relative to an assigned 251.902 ± 0.024 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary from the Meishan GSSP, the ages for these substage boundaries are 250.5 ± 0.1 Ma for base Dienerian, 249.9 ± 0.1 Ma for base Smithian (base of Olenekian stage), 248.2 ± 0.1 Ma for base Spathian, and 246.8 ± 0.1 Ma for the base of the Anisian Stage. This astronomical-calibrated timescale provides rates for the recurrent carbon isotope excursions and for trends in sedimentation accumulation through the Early Triassic of studied sections in South China.

  16. Application of Fluid Inclusions in the Study of Natural Gas Geology in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ai-ping; YANG Ren-chao; FENG Qiao; LIU Yi-qun; HAN Zuo-zhen

    2006-01-01

    The new recently demonstrated reserves of oil and gas in the Ordos basin are found at the top of petroliferous basins in China. Gas pools discovered in recent years in the Permian system have become the main natural gas resource in the basin. Therefore, synthetic research on fluid inclusions should be done in order to ascertain the pool-forming stage, the maturity of organic matters and the properties of Paleo-fluids. The main types of fluid inclusions in the Permian system in the basin include brine inclusions, carbon dioxide inclusions and organic inclusions. Homogenization temperatures (HT) of brine inclusions can be divided into four intervals: 66-83 ℃, 86-108 ℃, 112-138 ℃ and 142-153 ℃. The fluid inclusions in the interval of 112-138 ℃ are much more than that of other intervals, indicating that the second stage of hydrocarbon migration associated with the third temperature interval is the most important stage of gas pool formations. The fluid inclusion has extensive applications in the study of gas geology, not only in ascertaining the formation stage of gas pools, but also in estimating the maturity of organic matter and restoring Paleo-fluids. The result of testing the HT of brine inclusions shows that there are two stages of gas pool formations in the Permian system occurring ±150 Ma and ±100 Ma. The maturity of organic matter is moderate to high, a conclusion based on the color of fluid inclusions (radiated by fluorescence). The high salinity of Paleo-fluids of the NaCl-H2O and CaCl2-H2O systems shows good preservation conditions of the Paleo-fluids. Two stages of reservoir filling, high maturity of organic matter and good preservation conditions are factors favorable for the formation and preservation of large-scale gas pools in the Permian system in the Ordos basin.

  17. Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald Eugene;

    2013-01-01

    and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied...... ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon...... (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland...

  18. Calculating eustatic amplitude of Middle Permian from reefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚生; 范嘉松

    2002-01-01

    Methods for calculating ancient eustatic change amplitudes according to reef fabric- facies are proposed, with a new method for determining sediment-loading subsidence. Compared with methods based on non-reefal deposits, these methods are more accurate in restoration of original sediment thickness, determination of sediment-loading subsidence, as well as restoration of ancient water depth. According to the reef in Guangxi, China, the amplitude of sea-level rise during Middle Permian (Neoschwagerina-Yabeina zone) is 249.5 m. According to the coeval reef of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas, the coeval sea-level rise is 247 m. With these effective methods available, it is feasible to establish more accurate eustatic curve of Phanerozoic.

  19. Mg Isotopes of the Late Permian Evaporites, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C.; Gao, C. H.; Chang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Mg isotope holds promise to decipher the evaporative environment of evaporites. High-precision Mg isotope compositions of the late Permian langbeinites have been measured by using MC-ICPMS. The equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation factor between langbeinite and aqueous Mg2+ solutions has been determined using quantum chemistry calculations. All computations are employed at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level and solvation effects are treated by solvent model ("water-droplet" approach), mineral structures are constructed using volume variable cluster models (VVCM). The Mg isotope compositions of the langbeinite samples, whose total formation thickness ranges up to 100 meters, are extremely isotopically lighter than that of modern seawater and relatively homogeneous (δ26MgDSM3 is from -4.12±0.03‰ to -3.81±0.07‰ v.s. -0.83‰ of modern seawater). The computed equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation factors between langbeinite and aqueous Mg2+ solutions are -2.73‰, -2.66‰ and -2.53‰ at 25, 30 and 40 ℃, respectively. These significant equilibrium fractionation factors indicate that a huge equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation between langbeinite and its parent brine can happen during langbeinite depositions, and langbeinites are enriched in isotopically light 24Mg comparing to the brine. Using the computed fractionation factors to simulate a Rayleigh fractionation process of langbeinite Mg precipitation, we find that a significant Mg isotope difference between langbeinite and its growing brine (seawater) is indeed present but the Mg isotope composition of langbeinite merely increase monotonically in a closed system. Because of that, the homogenous Mg isotope compositions of such a thick evaporite sequence suggest a disequlibrium effect rather than an equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation behavior during its formation. Combined with its prevailing Mg-bearing character, the homogenous Mg isotope compositions reveal that this the late Permian langbeinite sequence has

  20. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azman A Ghani; Fatin Izzani Hazad; Azmiah Jamil; Quek Long Xiang; Wan Nur Atiqah Wan Ismail; Sun-Lin Chung; Yu-Ming Lai; Muhammad Hatta Roselee; Nur Islami; Kyaw Kyaw Nyein; Meor Hakif Amir Hassan; Mohd Farid Abu Bakar; Mohd Rozi Umor

    2014-12-01

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2–97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK=1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09–2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32–8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806°C is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian.

  1. Lithostratigraphic classification and depositional history of the Permian rocks in Al Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M. A.

    1993-04-01

    Surface and subsurface investigations on the Permian rocks (Khuff Formation) in Al Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia led to the subdivision of these rocks into two formal rock units. The lower is the Sark Formation and the upper is the Al Watah Formation. The Sark Formation consists of carbonates with interbeds of claystones and marl. Its type locality lies south of Unayzah (lat. 26° 02' N and long.44° 00' E). The Al Watah comprises two members, the lower is the Midhnab Shale Member and the upper is the Khartam Limestone Member. The type section of the Al Watah Formation lies at Jal Al Watah (lat. 26° 30'N and long. 44° 02' E). The Sark Formation exhibits facies change along the strike of the Arabian basin. Southeastwards at Al Arid, the environment was coastal marine, while at Al Mulayh the environment was quiet marine shelf, where the facies are fine-grained wackestones. In Al Qasim Province, the environment is open marine platform where the sequence consists of shallowing-upward carbonate cycles which were deposited under subtidal-supratidal conditions. The Al Watah Formation also shows gradual transition from one environment to another along southeast-northwest direction. At Al Arid, the depositional environment is coastal marine which changes northwestwards at Al Mulayh to lagoonal shelf since the facies are mostly of fine-grained dolostones. In Al Qasim Province, deeper open marine is recognized depositing the Midhnab Shale Member in low sea level and the Khartam Limestone Member in submerged platform (subtidal zone).

  2. A Major Unconformity Between Permian and Triassic Strata at Cape Kekurnoi, Alaska Peninsula: Old and New Observations on Stratigraphy and Hydrocarbon Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Sralla, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    A major angular unconformity separates carbonates and shales of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation from an underlying unnamed sequence of Permian agglomerate, volcaniclastic rocks (sandstone), and limestone near Puale Bay on the Alaska Peninsula. For the first time, we photographically document the angular unconformity in outcrop, as clearly exposed in a seacliff ~1.3 mi (2.1 km) west of Cape Kekurnoi in the Karluk C?4 and C?5 1:63,360-scale quadrangles. This unconformity is also documented by examination of core chips, ditch cuttings, and (or) open-hole electrical logs in two deep oil-and-gas-exploration wells (Humble Oil & Refining Co.?s Bear Creek No. 1 and Standard Oil Co. of California?s Grammer No. 1) drilled along the Alaska Peninsula southwest of Puale Bay. A third well (Richfield Oil Corp.?s Wide Bay Unit No. 1), south of and structurally on trend with the other two wells, probed deeply into the Paleozoic basement, but Triassic strata are absent, owing to either a major unconformity or a large fault. Here we briefly review current and newly acquired data on Permian and Triassic rocks of the Puale Bay-Becharof Lake-Wide Bay area on the basis of an examination of surface and subsurface materials. The resulting reinterpretation of the Permian and Triassic stratigraphy has important economic ramifications for oil and gas exploration on the Alaska Peninsula and in the Cook Inlet basin. We also present a history of petroleum exploration targeting Upper Triassic reservoirs in the region.

  3. Preliminary Study on the PGE Geochemistry of the Permian Basalts in the Jinping Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Hong; Shen Wei; Zhang Xueshu

    2006-01-01

    To disclose and study the magma genesis of the Permian basalts in the Jinping (金平)area, the PGE and Au contents of the Permian basalts in the Jinping area were assayed by use of the ICP-MS method. The PGE data show relatively strong differentiation of basaltic magma in comparison with the primitive mantle. The primitive mantle-normalized pattern is a left-dipping curve of the Pd-Pt enriched type. The Pd/Ir ratios of the PGE of the Permian basalts in the Jinping area are higher than those of the primitive mantle and the upper primitive mantle and the chondrite meteorite. The Pd/Ir ramaterial source. It is concluded that they are derived from the basaltic magma of the upper mantle source with a lower melting degree, which shares the similar magma material source with the Emeishan Permian basalts as a whole.

  4. New evidence for 250 Ma age of halotolerant bacterium from a Permian salt crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Cindy L.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Vreeland, Russell H.; Rosenzweig, William D.; Powers, Dennis W.

    2005-04-01

    The purported oldest living organism, the spore-forming bacterium Virgibacillus sp. Permian strain 2 9-3, was recently cultured from a brine inclusion in halite of the 250 Ma Permian Salado Formation. However, the antiquity of Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3 has been challenged; it has been argued that the halite crystal and the fluid inclusion from which the bacterial spores were extracted may be younger than the Permian Salado salts. Here we report that brine inclusions from the same layer of salt that housed Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3 are composed of evaporated Late Permian seawater that was trapped in halite cement crystals precipitated syndepositionally from shallow groundwater brines at temperatures of 17 37 °C. These results support the 250 Ma age of the fluid inclusions, and by inference, the long-term survivability of microorganisms such as Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3.

  5. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  6. Vorticity in analog gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  7. The Lopingian Series of China and End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yugan; SHEN Shuzhong; WANG Xiangdong; WANG Yue; CAO Changqun

    2011-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction is the greatest bioevent in the geological history, which wiped out nearly 95% of the marine species and 75% of the terrestrial species,followed by a biological winter for more than five million years.The cause and the process of the end-Permian mass extinction remain an unsolved mystery in earth science and one of the most difficult and interesting scientific problems.

  8. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  9. Analog and digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baher, H.

    The techniques of signal processing in both the analog and digital domains are addressed in a fashion suitable for undergraduate courses in modern electrical engineering. The topics considered include: spectral analysis of continuous and discrete signals, analysis of continuous and discrete systems and networks using transform methods, design of analog and digital filters, digitization of analog signals, power spectrum estimation of stochastic signals, FFT algorithms, finite word-length effects in digital signal processes, linear estimation, and adaptive filtering.

  10. Fractured Anhydrite as a Geothermal Source in a Low Enthalpy Context (Southern Permian Basin, Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexandros; Herber, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Increased heat flow associated with the presence of salt domes could be beneficial for geothermal energy applications in a low enthalpy nvironment. Anhydrite layers within such salt domes could be a potential geothermal target. These layers are known to undergo brittle deformation, which in turn can

  11. Effect of Relative Permeability on History Matching a Permian Basin Oil Well

    OpenAIRE

    Silseth, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Production from shale oil and gas has increased significantly the last couple of decades. The industry is constantly developing horizontal well and stimulation technology to increase production from these wells. Data acquisition is fairly well established and reliable in conventional reservoirs. This, however, is not the case in unconventional shale reservoirs. In shales the data is usually limited to drilling logs, temperature and pressure measurements and fluid samples. Even the fluid sampl...

  12. Oxidoreduction processus in a uranium deposit (Aumance - Cerilly Permian basin, Allier (France))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratigraphic and tectonic data are briefly reviewed. Then a method giving the oxidoreducing properties of elements and using the chemical oxygen demand is exposed. The study of secondary textures shows the effects of the oxidoreducing process. Three pyrite textures were identified at Cerilly by petrographic observations. They are always bound to a secondary enrichment in uranium and they can be used as an exploration guide. Application of factor analysis confirms the studied phenomenon

  13. Declining Petroleum Production and the Effect Upon Communities in New Mexico's Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Ryan D.

    The petroleum industry, a vital component of New Mexico's economy, is in a gradual decline. As petroleum production is primarily focused in the southeastern corner of the state, this decline phenomenon is particularly relevant to area residents. The problem addressed in this study was that little information is available regarding the lived experiences of business and community leaders concerning this phenomenon, particularly in terms of future economic sustainability. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to interview a purposive sample of business and community leaders regarding their lived experiences and perceptions relating to the economic sustainability of the region. Research questions asked about the general awareness of the decline of oil production---data collected from federal and state databases---and potential options for alternative economic development. Coded data were analyzed and themes and patterns were identified. Findings included a general lack of awareness of area residents regarding a decline of production, assumed economic stability, and resistance to change based on a lack of incentive. Included in the findings were potential options for strategic economic diversification. Recommendations included a campaign to promote awareness of the decline of oil, provide incentives for change, and economic diversification as method of moving the local economy away from dependence upon the petroleum industry. Implications for positive social change were that the affected region can use the findings to identify sustainable alternative industries to support the communities into the future.

  14. Pore pressure evolution and induced seismicity within the Permian Basin, Southeast New Mexico USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Zhang, Y.; Mozley, P.; Broadhead, R.; Bilek, S.; Edel, S.

    2015-12-01

    We used three-dimensional hydrologic modeling to assess the potential linkages between crystalline basement seismicity (up to M3.2) beneath the Dagger Draw oil field in response to saline water reinjection. Production began in 2004 and preceded an increase in seismicity by about 5 years. Reinjection of produced brines occurred within the basal Ellenberger Group carbonate reservoir (yellow square). Published core permeability measurements for the Ellenberger vary between about 10-15 to 10-12 m2. Evidence for seismicity being triggered by injection include observations that the largest injection rates (> 106 barrels/month) occurred within wells closest to the induced seismicity (red circle about 15 km to the west of the injection well in A-C). Arguing against triggered seismicity is the apparent lack of temporal correlation between peak injection and felt seismicity as well as the extreme depth of the earthquakes (about 10-12 km below land surface). We conducted a numerical sensitivity study in which we varied the permeability of the basal reservoir as well as the crystalline basement rocks over several orders of magnitude. Assuming a crystalline basement permeability of 10-16 m2 and a basal reservoir permeability of 10-13 m2 produced about 50 m of excess heads in the seismogenic crust about 1900 days (D) after injection started. Prior studies suggest that excess heads of only a few meters could induce failure along critically stressed faults. The lag between injection and seismicity can be explained by the time required for the pressure envelope to propagate laterally 15 km and downward into the crystalline basement 11 km. Peak injection occurred 1900 days before recent increases in seismicity were observed. Future work will include assessing the potential role of relatively permeable Proterozoic faults in transmitting high fluid pressures into the crystalline basement.

  15. FET comparator detects analog signal levels without loading analog device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, H. L.

    1966-01-01

    FET comparator circuit detects discrete analog computer output levels without excessively loading the output amplifier of the computer. An FET common source amplifier is coupled by a differential amplifier to a bistable transistor flip-flop. This circuit provides a digital output for analog voltages above or below a predetermined level.

  16. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  17. Permian-Triassic boundary interval as a model for forcing marine ecosystem collapse by long-term atmospheric oxygen drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, O.; Kiessling, W.; Flügel, E.

    2003-11-01

    Ecological traits of reefs across the Permian-Triassic boundary interval coincide with a modeled decline of atmospheric oxygen throughout the Permian Period. Selective extinction and recovery patterns within the reef system are observed both at the end of the middle Permian (end-Guadalupian) and at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The end-Guadalupian event selectively affected corals and broke down the cool-water carbonate factory. Sponges, however, were largely unaffected and bloomed in reefs toward the end of the Permian. The end-Permian total destruction of the metazoan reef system only left behind poorly diverse microbial communities. The temporal reef patterns are thus similar to spatial patterns of modern benthic communities approaching oxygen minimum zones. This observation suggests that a decline in oxygen concentrations was at least partly involved in the destruction of reefs, even where there is no direct evidence of oceanic anoxia.

  18. Metallogenic conditions and prospecting direction for Permian manganess deposits in Northern Guizhou%黔北二叠纪锰矿成矿条件与找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小全

    2011-01-01

    黔北地区二叠纪锰矿是中国南方重要的沉积锰矿床类型,在贵州的锰矿资源中占有重要的地位.开展区内二叠纪锰矿成矿条件与找矿方向的研究与探讨,对锰矿勘查工作部署意义重大.文章拟从黔北成锰盆地的古地理环境、岩相特征、锰质来源和锰矿赋存规律4个方面,分析区内二叠纪锰矿成矿条件,在此基础上提出找矿方向并对资源前景预测.%The Permian manganese deposits in Northern Guizhou, a main aedimentary type manganese deposit in Southem Chi na, play an important role in manganese mineral resources of Guizhou. It is meaningful to study regional metallogenic condition of Per mian manganese deposit for exploration. In this paper, the author analyzed metallogenic conditions of Permian manganese deposits from four aspects, i. e. , the paleo - geographical environment of the basin in which manganese deposit developed, lithofacie8 characteris ticts, source of mangancse, and hosting regularity of manganese deposits, and then proposed the prospecting direction and forecasting potential resource.

  19. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  20. Pumping test and fluid sampling report - Sawyer No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes pumping test and fluid sampling activities performed at the Sawyer No. 1 well, Donley County, Texas. Sawyer No. 1 well is located along the eastern margin of the Palo Duro Basin in an area of active dissolution within the Permian salt section. These data were collected by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation working in conjunction with the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology as part of a nationwide program to identify potential locations for a nuclear waste repository. These data support studies to determine the hydrologic characteristics of deep water-bearing formations. Formation fluid studies samples were analyzed in order to evaluate fluid migration and age relationships in the Permian Basin. These data were collected from June until October, 1981. Zone isolation for pump testing was accomplished in November, 1981. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated

  1. FIRST AMPHIBIAN FIND IN EARLY PERMIAN FROM SARDINIA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUSONIO RONCHI

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available An amphibian fauna from Permo-Carboniferous boundary beds is recorded for the first time in Italy. A thin fossiliferous level has been found in the Perdasdefogu Basin in southeastern Sardinia;it yields several speciments of Branchiosaurus cf."B." petrolei Gaudry 1875, often in mass mortality assemblages.Repeated mass mortality events testify to sudden changes in the environment of the basin, possibly due to seasonal variations. The finding of speciments very close to Branchiosaurus petrolei,which is a common species in the Central France basins,confirms that Sardinia at the time belonged to the same hydrographic basin of continental Europe, with no seaway in between.Furthermore, though not the primary focus of this note, we report the first discovery of the xenacanth teeth and acanthodian spines in Italy.  

  2. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  3. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  4. A taphonomic model for the Mesosauride assemblage of the Irati Formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M B

    2003-01-01

    The Irati Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin, Brazil) is made up of a succession of black bituminous and nonbituminous shales and mudstones with interbedded carbonate layers, which record deposition in marine environments. Mesosaur remains are abundant at several sites in this formation, where they occur preserved in centimetre- thick beds and displaying various degrees of skeletal disarticulation. This paper seeks to establish a model to explain the processes that generated the mesosaurian tap...

  5. The Pattern and Evolution of the Permian Palaeobiogeography and Tectonic Palaeogeography in Jilin and Heilongjiang Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xiangdong; Li Xiaomin; Liu Pengju

    2000-01-01

    The orogenic belt locates between the North China plate and Siberia plate. The Permian palaeobiogeography and tectonic palaeogeography changed quickly and clearly. The line from Changchun to Yanji is an important palaeobiogeographic provincing line, which may be the collission suture belt of the North China plate and north middle massifs. The orogenic belt has been divided into 2 regions: the North middle massif region and the North Margin of North China plate, the pattern and evolution of Permian palaeobiogeography in the present area were discussed and the Permian biota mixture and its significants were analysed. Then, Based on the above, the Permian tectonic palaeogeography of the orogenic belt is reconstructed.

  6. Evolución tectono-magmática durante el Pérmico al Jurásico temprano en la Cordillera del Viento (37°05´S - 37°15´S: nuevas evidencias geológicas y geoquímicas del inicio de la cuenca Neuquina Tectono-magmatic evolution during the Permian to the Early Jurassic in the Cordillera del Viento (37°05´S - 37°15´S: new geological and geochemical evidences for the early stages of the Neuquén basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Llambías

    2007-06-01

    podría explicar la forma no lineal de la cuenca Neuquina en la provincia del Neuquén.The southern extremity of the Cordillera del Viento is mainly composed of volcanic sequences, which form the basement of the Neuquén basin. The oldest rocks are the sediments in the Huaraco Formation, Andacollo Group, of Upper Carboniferous age. After being folded by the San Rafael orogenic phase during the Lower Permian, these sediments were intruded by granodioritic and monzogranitic plutons along with dikes and domes of rhyolitic nature. They were then covered in angular unconformity by rhyolitic ignimbrites, which are co-genetic with the intrusives. The resulting volcanic-plutonic complex is suggested to be correlative with the Permian Choiyoi Group exposed in the Cordillera Frontal and the Bloque de San Rafael geological provinces. This volcanic-plutonic complex was subjected to strong erosion during the Early to Middle Triassic. The development of an undulated erosion surface (Huarpican unconformity resulted in the exposure of the cupolas of the plutons. This surface support the Cordillera del Viento Formation (ex Groeber's Choiyoilitense, which consists of a volcanic sequence of andesitic to rhyolitic composition up to 1.300 meters thick. The next unit, the Milla Michicó Formation, was also deposited unconformably. This unit is composed of bedded flows of basalts, andesitic basalts and rhyolites with thickness up to 200 meters. The succession continued with the unconformable deposition of the La Primavera Formation, which is the oldest unit of the Cuyo Group. It is composed of marine sediments interbedded with basaltic flows at the base and rhyolitic ignimbrites in the upper levels. The thickness varies from a few meters up to 400 meters. The La Primavera Formation is covered in apparent conformity by the Los Molles Formation, which has limestones at the base and contains pelites with andesitic lahar intercalations deposited in a turbiditic regime. Regionally, the Huarpican

  7. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  8. An Early Permian fusuline fauna from southernmost Peninsular Thailand: Discovery of Early Permian warming spikes in the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Katsumi; Arita, Michiko; Meno, Satomi; Sardsud, Apsorn; Saesaengseerung, Doungrutai

    2015-05-01

    An Early Permian fusuline fauna is reported from the Tarn To Formation of the Yala area in southernmost Peninsular Thailand, which geotectonically belongs to the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block. The fauna consists of Pseudofusulina and Praeskinnerella? species, including forms closely resembling Tethyan and Panthalassan Pseudofusulina fusiformis and Pseudofusulina ex gr. kraffti. A Yakhtashian-Bolorian age is estimated for this fauna. In Sibumasu, shallow-marine biotas showing similar Tethyan affinities, such as the fusulines Misellina and alatoconchid bivalves, also occur in the Early Permian succession of the Kinta Valley area in western Peninsular Malaysia. These unusual Tethyan faunas within Early Permian peri-Gondwanan fossil records suggest episodic influences from paleo-tropical Tethyan biotas. They are here interpreted as showing short-term warming spikes during the late Yakhtashian-Bolorian transgression, which would facilitate sporadic migration and temporal inhabitation of warm-water dwellers into the eastern Cimmerian areas. The Yala and Kinta Valley fusuline and other invertebrate faunas would give us a new insight for the Permian geohistory and environmental change of the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block.

  9. Fullerenes and interplanetary dust at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreda, Robert J; Becker, Luann

    2003-01-01

    We recently presented new evidence that an impact occurred approximately 250 million years ago at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth. We used a new extraterrestrial tracer, fullerene, a third carbon carrier of noble gases besides diamond and graphite. By exploiting the unique properties of this molecule to trap noble gases inside of its caged structure (helium, neon, argon), the origin of the fullerenes can be determined. Here, we present new evidence for fullerenes with extraterrestrial noble gases in the PTB at Graphite Peak, Antarctica, similar to PTB fullerenes from Meishan, China and Sasayama, Japan. In addition, we isolated a (3)He-rich magnetic carrier phase in three fractions from the Graphite Peak section. The noble gases in this magnetic fraction were similar to zero-age deep-sea interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and some magnetic grains isolated from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The helium and neon isotopic compositions for both the bulk Graphite Peak sediments and an isolated magnetic fraction from the bulk material are consistent with solar-type gases measured in zero-age deep-sea sediments and point to a common source, namely, the flux of IDPs to the Earth's surface. In this instance, the IDP noble gas signature for the bulk sediment can be uniquely decoupled from fullerene, demonstrating that two separate tracers are present (direct flux of IDPs for (3)He vs. giant impact for fullerene).

  10. Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

    2001-05-01

    During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

  11. Electrokinetic transport behavior of phenol in upper Permian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, R.; Zorn, R.; Czurda, K.; Ruthe, H. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments with upper Permian, phenol contaminated soils ('Solaris'-area Chemnitz) were performed. Bench scale results show the successful removal of phenol. The developing soil-pH during electroremediation tests is found to affect the transport behavior of phenol strongly. If buffer solutions are used at the electrode compartments, phenol could be removed from the soils. By neutralizing the generating hydrogen ions at the anode reservoir the hydroxyl ions developing at the cathode by the electrolysis of water enter the soil and propagate to the anode by increasing the soil pH. The pH dependent dehydroxylation of phenol promotes the electromigration of negative charged phenolate ions from the cathode to the anode. At the anode the coupling of phenoxyl-radicals supports the formation of non toxic, water insoluble polyoxyphenylene by electro-polymerization. In the case of buffering the pH at the cathode uncharged phenol is transported by electroosmosis from the anode to the cathode because of the nonexisting base front and the unhindered production of hydrogen ions at the anode. (orig.)

  12. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  13. Coexistence and inherence of diverse energy resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xiangchun; WANG Mingzhen; HAN Zuozhen

    2006-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is abundant in oil, natural gas, coal, coalbed gas and sandstone-type uranium deposits. Oil pools are hosted mainly in the Triassic and Jurassic systems in the southern part of the basin. Gas reservoirs which occur dominantly in the northern part of the basin are situated vertically beneath the oil pools. Coal measures are widely distributed in the Carboniferous, Permian, Jurassic and Triassic systems. Developed at the margin of the basin are the sandstone-type uranium deposits and coalbed gas. The investigations of sources and timing of various energy resources indicated that there are certain genetic connections among them. Especially the contributions of coal measures to natural gas, the supplement of coalbed gas to deep basin gas and the reduction of uranium deposits by natural gas are relatively remarkable.

  14. DETERMINATION OF TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF A SEDIMENTARY BASIN FROM SANDSTONE COMPONENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei SHAO; Chuanlian LIU; Karl STATTEGGER

    2001-01-01

    Terrigenous sedimentary rocks are the dominant rock types in continental sedimentary basin, the components of these rocks are mainly controlled by source rocks. Through systematically analyzing the components of terrigenous sedimentary rocks, the tectonic evolution of a sedimentary basin can be reconstructed. The Turpan Basin was examined using sandstone petrological and geochemical methods.The consistency of the petrographical and geochemical results shows that the tectonic evolution of the basin can be subdivided into four stages: the first stage covers the Permian; the second stage the Triassic;the third stage from the Lower Jurassic to Upper Jurassic and the fourth stage from the Cretaceous to Tertiary. The components of sandstones among these stages are different, which reflect the influence of tectonics movements on the evolution of the basin and surrounding areas.

  15. Application of Markov chain and entropy analysis to lithologic succession – an example from the early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Chandra Tewari; D P Singh; Z A Khan

    2009-10-01

    A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model and entropy function is used to prove that the early Permian Barakar Formation of the Bellampalli coal field developed distinct cyclicities during deposition.From results,the transition path of lithological states typical for the Bellampalli basin is as:coarse to medium-grained sandstone → interbedded fine-grained sandstone/shale → shale → coal and again shale.The majority of cycles are symmetrical but asymmetrical cycles are present as well.The chi-square stationarity test implies that these cycles are stationary in space and time.The cycles are interpreted in terms of in-channel,point bar and overbank facies association in a fluvial system.The randomness in the occurrence of facies within a cycle is evaluated in terms of entropy,which can be calculated from the Markov matrices.Two types of entropies are calculated for every facies state;entropy after deposition (post)and entropy before deposition (pre),which together form entropy set;the entropy for the whole system is also calculated.These values are plotted and compared with Hattori ’s idealized plots,which indicate that the sequence is essentially a symmetrical cycle (type-B of Hattroi). The symmetrical cyclical deposition of early Permian Barakar Formation is explained by the lateral migration of stream channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition across the alluvial plain.In addition,the fining upward cycles in the upper part enclosing thick beds of fine clastics,as well as coal may represent differential subsidence of depositional basin.

  16. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  17. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  18. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  19. Sulfonimidamide analogs of oncolytic sulfonylureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, J E; Grindey, G B; Ehlhardt, W J; Ray, J E; Boder, G B; Bewley, J R; Klingerman, K K; Gates, S B; Rinzel, S M; Schultz, R M; Weir, L C; Worzalla, J F

    1997-03-14

    A series of sulfonimidamide analogs of the oncolytic diarylsulfonylureas was synthesized and evaluated for (1) in vitro cytotoxicity against CEM cells, (2) in vivo antitumor activity against subaxillary implanted 6C3HED lymphosarcoma, and (3) metabolic breakdown to the o-sulfate of p-chloroaniline. The separated enantiomers of one sulfonimidamide analog displayed very different activities in the in vivo screening model. In general, several analogs demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity in the 6C3HED model when dosed orally or intraperitoneally. A correlative structure-activity relationship to the oncolytic sulfonylureas was not apparent.

  20. Bioessential element-depleted ocean following the euxinic maximum of the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kaiho, Kunio; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We describe variations in trace element compositions that occurred on the deep seafloor of palaeo-superocean Panthalassa during the end-Permian mass extinction based on samples of sedimentary rock from one of the most continuous Permian-Triassic boundary sections of the pelagic deep sea exposed in north-eastern Japan. Our measurements revealed low manganese (Mn) enrichment factor (normalised by the composition of the average upper continental crust) and high cerium anomaly values throughout the section, suggesting that a reducing condition already existed in the depositional environment in the Changhsingian (Late Permian). Other redox-sensitive trace-element (vanadium [V], chromium [Cr], molybdenum [Mo], and uranium [U]) enrichment factors provide a detailed redox history ranging from the upper Permian to the end of the Permian. A single V increase (representing the first reduction state of a two-step V reduction process) detected in uppermost Changhsingian chert beds suggests development into a mildly reducing deep-sea condition less than 1 million years before the end-Permian mass extinction. Subsequently, a more reducing condition, inferred from increases in Cr, V, and Mo, developed in overlying Changhsingian grey siliceous claystone beds. The most reducing sulphidic condition is recognised by the highest peaks of Mo and V (second reduction state) in the uppermost siliceous claystone and overlying lowermost black claystone beds, in accordance with the end-Permian mass extinction event. This significant increase in Mo in the upper Changhsingian led to a high Mo/U ratio, much larger than that of modern sulphidic ocean regions. This trend suggests that sulphidic water conditions developed both at the sediment-water interface and in the water column. Above the end-Permian mass extinction horizon, Mo, V and Cr decrease significantly. On this trend, we provide an interpretation of drawdown of these elements in seawater after the massive element precipitation event

  1. Depositional model of Permian Luodianian volcanic island and its impact on the distribution of fusulinid assemblage in southern Qinghai, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU ZhiJun; XU AnWu; WANG JianXiong; DUAN QiFa; ZHAO XiaoMing; YAO HuaZhou

    2008-01-01

    resulting from calm shallow water was deposited at the interior of the Qamdo Block from the Devonian to early Early Permian. At the beginning of the peak period of activity of pan-riftzation (Luodianian), alternate volcanic island and shallow marine environment within continent crust came into being. Uniform and stable shallow-water carbonate platform was formed during the Xiangboan. This suggested that the activity of rift basin was evidently weakened. Subsequently the instability of the basin appreciably increased with the occurrence of basalt in late Kuhfengian. At last the whole Qamdo Block turned into the closure period of rift during the Late Permian.

  2. Depositional model of Permian Luodianian volcanic island and its impact on the distribution of fusulinid assemblage in southern Qinghai,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    sequence re-sulting from calm shallow water was deposited at the interior of the Qamdo Block from the Devonian to early Early Permian. At the beginning of the peak period of activity of pan-riftzation (Luodianian), al-ternate volcanic island and shallow marine environment within continent crust came into being. Uni-form and stable shallow-water carbonate platform was formed during the Xiangboan. This suggested that the activity of rift basin was evidently weakened. Subsequently the instability of the basin appre-ciably increased with the occurrence of basalt in late Kuhfengian. At last the whole Qamdo Block turned into the closure period of rift during the Late Permian.

  3. Calcimicrobialite after end-Permian mass extinction in South China and its palaeoenvironmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongbiao; TONG Jinnan; WANG Jiasheng; ZHOU Xiugao

    2005-01-01

    Calcimicrobialites, which could be correlated to the layer 27 in Meishan section according to the Hindeodus parvus, occur abruptly on the end-Permian mass extinction boundary in South China. Microbialites mainly distribute on the top of reef facies or shallow carbonate platforms, thinning into deep facies. All the microbialites discovered are composed of micrite and coarse crystal digitate carbonate or patch carbonate. Microfossils usually dominate in the microbialites, and small gastropods, bivalves and ostracodes can also be found. This fossil assemblage represents a simple but particular remanent biota after the end-Permian mass extinction on the top of reefs or shallow carbonate platforms.Abrupt occurrence of microbialites above the mass extinction boundary is the ecological response to the end-Permian global event in reef or shallow carbonate facies. Many studies have been done on the Permian-Triassic boundary and event in deep water facies sections or middle to lower shelf facies sections. However, the calcimicrobialites in South China are mainly located above reef facies or shallow carbonate platform facies. It will surely be helpful for people to know more about the different responses in different depths of ancient marine environment during the transition between Permian and Triassic by the study of petrology,palaeontology and palaeoecology of the calcimicrobialites.

  4. Two pulses of oceanic environmental disturbance during the Permian-Triassic boundary crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Feng, Qinglai; Algeo, Thomas J.; Li, Chao; Planavsky, Noah J.; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Mingliang

    2016-06-01

    Pyrite morphology, iron speciation, and pyrite sulfur isotope data from the Xiakou section (Hubei Province, South China) were integrated to explore oceanic environmental variations through the Permian-Triassic transition and their possible relations to the largest mass extinction in Earth history. High ratios of highly-reactive iron to total iron (FeHR/FeT > 0.6) and pyrite iron to highly-reactive iron (FePy/FeHR > 0.7) together with a high abundance of small (mean diameter 0.6) along with lower values of FePy/FeHR (<0.7) and more variable framboid content among samples indicate anoxic but dominantly ferruginous conditions punctuated by episodic euxinic events in the latest Permian to earliest Triassic (post-extinction interval). The largest fluctuations of these redox proxies are observed in the ∼1.0 m of strata directly overlying the first (latest Permian) extinction horizon, indicating unsettled marine environmental conditions marked by frequent perturbations during the ∼60-kyr interval immediately following the mass extinction. The two largest redox events at Xiakou coincided with deposition of volcanic ash layers that have been correlated with Beds 25 and 28 of the Meishan D section, each of which was associated with an extinction pulse (the first and second extinction horizons of latest Permian and earliest Triassic age, respectively). Thus, our observations document two pulses of oceanic environmental change during the Permian-Triassic transition, each associated with a faunal crisis and possibly triggered by contemporaneous volcanic activity.

  5. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  6. Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Standard, J C

    2003-01-01

    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

  7. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  8. Evolution of the Northeast German Basin — inferences from a 3D structural model and subsidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, M.; Bayer, U.

    1999-11-01

    A 3D structural model of the Northeast German Basin was evaluated with special emphasis on its evolution as an intracontinental depression. The study includes investigations on subsidence history and structural setting of the basin. Thickness evolution and calculated tectonic subsidence volumes of Permian to Quaternary sediments in the Northeast German Basin indicate that the subsidence history was related to five stages of basin evolution which differ in their subsidence mechanisms. For the initial rift phase in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, a dominant thermal event and subordinate horizontal stresses were indicated by thickness variation evolution and by structural evidence. The main part of basin subsidence occurred in a NW-SE-oriented basin in the subsequent phase of thermal relaxation with maximum subsidence from Early Permian (Rotliegend) to Middle Triassic (Muschelkalk). From Middle Triassic the thermal subsidence pattern was superposed by further tectonic events. In the Middle Triassic regional extension led to a reconfiguration of the southern part of the basin, where new NNE-SSW-trending troughs (Rheinsberg and Gifhorn Troughs) developed. In the Jurassic the northwestern part of the basin was uplifted while in the south the Keuper subsiding areas continued to sink and NW-SE-trending depressions, related to salt margins, became important. Differentiation continued into Cretaceous times when regional compression caused uplift of the southeastern part of the basin and basin margins. A final subsidence phase occurred in the Cenozoic. This was accompanied by intensive salt movement. Recent basin configuration reflects the superposition of structural elements resulting from different evolution stages. The main structural characteristics of the basin are: (1) a vertical tectonic zonation in a pre-Zechstein succession, which lacks significant internal structures, and a strongly deformed post-Zechstein succession, which was decoupled due to the thick

  9. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  10. Distribution of the Permian Monodiexodina in Karakorum and Kunlun and its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jianxin; WANG Naiwen; XIAO Xuchang; JI Zhansheng; WU Guichun; WU Zhenjie; LI Boqin; WANG Jun; WANG Yong; ZHAI Qingguo

    2009-01-01

    The Permian fusulinoidean genus Monodiexodina is widely distributed in east Tethys. The genus might be an important indicator for the northern margin of Gondwana in northwestern China, but this is disputed. Monodiexodina.bearing areas can be restored as in either northern or southern middle latitudes with a symmetrical distribution between a high latitudinal, cool/cold water climatic realm and a paleotropical, warm water realm. Permian strata bearing Monodiexodina in Karakornm, Muztag Pear, and Buka Daban Pear of the east Kunlun Mountains can be correlated with each other. Faunal analyses and the stratigraphical position of Monodiexodina.bearing strata indicate that both Karakorum, east Kunlun, and the Pamirs were formed in a cool temperate sea area of the northern hemisphere in middle latitudes during the Permian, rather than at the Gondwana margin.

  11. Permian reptilian fauna from the Kundaram Formation, Pranhita-Godavari Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sanghamitra

    1999-07-01

    The Kundaram Formation of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley yields the only Permian reptilian fauna in India. It is composed essentially of a dicynodont assemblage and includes Endothiodon, Cistecephalus, Pristerodon, Oudenodon and Emydops-like forms. The only non-dicynodont member is a captorhinid reptile. These taxa allow the correlation of the Kundaram Formation with the Tropidostoma and/or Cistecephalus Assemblage Zones of the Beaufort Group of South Africa, the basal beds of Madumabisa Mudstones of Zambia, the Ruhuhu and lower part of the Kawinga Formation of Tanzania and the Morro Pelado member of the Rio do Rasto Formation of Brazil, indicating a Late Permian (Tatarian) age. The Kundaram fauna helps in fixing the upper age of the coal-bearing Damuda Group more precisely at Tatarian. The distribution of the Late Permian dicynodonts in the now widely separated geographic areas suggests the close proximity of the continents and a lack of endemism or provinciality.

  12. Analyses of Sequence Stratigraphy and Environments across Permian-Triassic Boundary in Liaotian, Northwestern Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the study of lithology, sedimentology and paleontology at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Liaotian, Northwestern Jiangxi Province, the sequence stratigraphy and depositional environments across the boundary are reconstructed. The top part of the Upper Permian Changxing Formation is composed of very thick-bedded light-colored dolomitic limestone formed in high deposition rate on carbonate ramp, which indacates a transgression systems tract (TST). The Lower Triassic Qinglong Formation shows continuous deposition with the underlying Upper Permian. The lower member of Qinglong Formation consists of calcareous shale, shelly limestome and dolomitic limestone with abundant bivalves (Claraia sp. )and trace fossils (Chondrites). The calcareous shale at the bottom of Lower Triassic indicates a calm deep water environment to form the condensed section (CS). The shelly limestome and dolomitic limestone with shell fossils, intraclast, algal ooide show clean but turbulent environment of carbonate ramp, which produce the deposition of highstand systems tract (TST).

  13. Evolutionary patterns of Productida (Brachiopoda) morphology during the Permian in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary patterns of Productida (brachiopod) morphology throughout the Permian show that while the percentage proportion of Productida (brachiopod) with strongly concentric and radial ornamentation declined from the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian, and then increased towards the Changhsingian via Wuchiapingian, the percentage proportion of Productida (brachiopod) with fine concentric and radial ornamentation distinctly increased from the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian, slightly declined towards the Wuchiapingian, and then increased towards the Changhsingian. From the Cisuralian to the Changhsingian, the percentage proportion of brachiopods with spinose ornamentation shows a persistent declining trend. The shell size generally indicates a miniaturization trend at species level during the Wuchiapingian to Changhsingian (including the transitional bed). These evolutionary patterns of brachiopod ornamentation and size are possibly related to the anoxia, food shortage, sea-level fluctuation, and change of substrate in the Permian (including the Permian-Triassic transitional interval) in South China.

  14. Provenance and structural constraints of the early Permian Nambucca Block (eastern Australia), and implications for the origin of the New England oroclines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Wormald, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic southern New England Orogen of eastern Australia exhibits a remarkable omega-shaped orogenic curvature (orocline), but the geodynamic processes responsible for the formation of the orogenic curvatures (oroclines) are still unclear. Oroclinal bending took place during the early Permian, simultaneously with the development of rift-related sedimentary basins (Sydney, Gunnedah and Bowen basins), which bound the oroclines to the west. The Nambucca Block is part of another early Permian rift basin that is situated farther east, in the core of the oroclinal structure. We present new stratigraphic, structural and geochronological data from the Nambucca Block in an attempt to better understand its provenance, tectonic history and its role in the formation of the oroclines. Four phases of folding and associated structural fabrics are recognised in the Nambucca Block. 40Ar/39Ar age of metamorphic micas from the second deformational phase provides a minimum depositional age constraint at 275-265 Ma. This age overlaps with the timing of oroclinal bending, suggesting that the first two phases of deformation resulted from the same mechanism that formed the oroclines. Detrital zircon geochronology (U/Pb ICP-MS ages) of six samples from the Nambucca Block constrains the maximum depositional age of the sequence to 280 Ma. The sedimentary succession, though extremely polymictic, is unimodal in its sources, and is therefore interpreted to consist mainly of recycled detritus from a Devonian-Carboniferous accretionary complex. We propose a model for oroclinal bending involving three stages. The first stage, starting at about 293 Ma and including the deposition of the sequence of Nambucca (i.e. overlaps with the 280-265 Ma time constraint), was associated with formation of rift basins in an extensional backarc setting. This was followed by N-S contraction, which gave rise to second-order oroclinal structures. The third and final stage involved

  15. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyron, A.

    1991-08-01

    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  16. Events during Early Triassic recovery from the end-Permian extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jinnan; Zhang, Suxin; Zuo, Jingxun; Xiong, Xinqi

    2007-01-01

    The Palaeozoic-Mesozoic transition is characterized not only by the biggest Phanerozoic mass extinction, at the end of Permian, but also a prolonged period of recovery of the biota during the succeeding Early Triassic. The delayed recovery is generally attributed to the effects of extreme environmental conditions on the Early Triassic ecosystem. However, there has been very little study of the cause and mechanism of the environmental conditions that prevailed during the period of extinction and subsequent recovery. Research on the Permian-Triassic boundary and Lower Triassic, especially that on environmental events at the beginning of the Triassic in South China, indicates that the slowness of the recovery may be the result of three factors: (1) extreme environmental conditions that persisted through the transitional period and which were maintained by, for example, intermittent contemporary volcanism; (2) a passive evolutionary and ecologic strategy of the biota, in which r-selection taxa were dominant and K-selection forms insignificant; (3) an immature, poorly functioning ecosystem, which had difficulty in responding to and withstanding extreme environmental changes. According to data from South China, environmental changes were frequent during the Late Permian, and especially serious at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The Late Permian ecosystem was well structured and fully functioning as a result of a long period of steady development during the late Palaeozoic, and was capable of resisting general environmental changes. However, increasingly frequent and probably more extreme environmental events in the latest Permian may have led to a general collapse of this ecosystem and to the mass extinction at the end of the Permian. The Early Triassic ecosystem was immature, functioned poorly, and was unable to respond effectively to environmental changes, so that persisting extreme environmental conditions slowed ecosystem reconstruction considerably, and the recovery

  17. All-optical analog comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  18. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  19. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  20. Multilateral Collaborations in Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. l.

    2016-01-01

    International collaborations in studies utilizing ground-based space flight analogs are an effective means for answering research questions common to participating agencies. These collaborations bring together worldwide experts to solve important space research questions. By collaborating unnecessary duplication of science is reduced, and the efficiency of analog use is improved. These studies also share resources among agencies for cost effective solutions to study implementation. Recently, NASA has engaged in collaborations with international partners at a variety of analog sites. The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) is currently hosting investigator studies from NASA and from the German Space Agency (DLR). These isolation studies will answer questions in the areas of team cohesion, sleep and circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral correlates to function. Planning for the next HERA campaign is underway as proposal selections are being made from the International Life Sciences Research Announcement (ILSRA). Studies selected from the ILSRA will be conducted across 4 HERA missions in 2017. NASA is planning collaborative studies with DLR at the :envihab facility in Cologne, Germany. Investigations were recently selected to study the effects of 0.5% CO2 exposure over 30 days of bed rest. These studies will help to determine the fidelity of this ground-based analog for studying the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome. NASA is also planning a multilateral collaboration at :envihab with DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA) to examine artificial gravity as a countermeasure to mitigate the effects of 60 days of bed rest. NASA is also considering collaborations with the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in studies that will utilize their Ground-based Experimental Facility (NEK). The NEK is comprised of 4 interconnected modules and a Martian surface simulator. This isolation analog can support 3 -10 crew members for long duration

  1. Significance of Caucasian Sections for Working out Carbon-Isotope Standard for Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) and Their Correlation with the Permian of North-Eastern Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri D Zakharov; Alexander S Biakov; Aymon Baud; Heinz Kozur

    2005-01-01

    Data obtained on conodont distribution in the Permian-Triassic Sovetashen Section of Transcaucasia provide further limitations on the age of the carbon-isotopic anomalies discovered by Baud et al. (1989). The significance of Caucasian sections for working out the carbon-isotope standard for the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) is shown. Original data on carbon-isotope composition of bivalve and brachiopod shells from Permian sediments of North-Eastern Russia (Omolon and Okhotsk areas) have been obtained, which may be used for their correlation.

  2. A tale of two extinctions : converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Wignall, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    The end-Permian (c. 252 Ma) and end-Triassic (c. 201 Ma) mass-extinction events are commonly linked to the emplacement of the large igneous provinces of the Siberia Traps and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively. Accordingly, scenarios for both extinctions are increasingly convergent and

  3. Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kimberly V; Maher, Kate; Altiner, Demir; Kelley, Brian M; Kump, Lee R; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Weaver, Karrie L; Yu, Meiyi; Payne, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and (238)U/(235)U isotopic compositions (δ(238)U) of Upper Permian-Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ(238)U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and -0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and -0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans-characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves-global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe. PMID:26884155

  4. Phosphatic Permian rocks of the Adobe Range, Nevada, and their environment of deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith Brindley

    1979-01-01

    Permian sedimentary rocks in the Adobe range, northern Nevada, are phosphatic, and although the particles of phosphate are relatively more disseminated, they closely resemble the rocks of the Phosphoria Formation. In the northern Adobe Range, where the entire Permian sequence is approximately correlative with the Phosphoria Formation, it is 200 m thick and averages 1.7 percent P2O5 . In the southern Adobe Range, the Permian sequence is more than 1,700 m thick, and the upper half which is roughly correlative with the Phosphoria Formation averages more than 2 percent P2O5. Some thin beds in rocks of Permian age contain more than 20 percent P2O5. Phosphatic rocks of the Adobe Range were deposited in shallow water among islands in the western part of the epicontinental Phosphoria sea. The continental margin and the open ocean lay far to the west. At the same time, the Phosphoria Formation was being deposited in the eastern and central parts of the Phosphoria sea. Theories based on the work of Kasakov done in 1937 relating phosphate deposition directly to sites of upwelling oceanic waters are questioned. Nondeposition of diluent materials such as detritus and carbonate is probably of more importance in producing phosphate in economic concentrations than is geographic position with respect to upwelling waters.

  5. Taeniopterid lamina on Phasmatocycas megasporophylls (Cycadales) from the Lower Permian of Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    New specimens of Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris from the original Lower Permian locality in Kansas demonstrate organic attachment of the two and corroborate Mamay's hypothesis that Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris were parts of the same plant. These forms also suggest that cycads evolved from taxa with entire leaves; i.e. Taeniopteris, rather than from pteridosperms with compound leaves. ?? 1986.

  6. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Celâl Şengör, A. M.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (∼270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction.

  7. The continental Permian-Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szurlies, M.; Geluk, M.C.; Krijgsman, W.; Kürschner, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In Central and NW Europe, the transition from the Permian to the Triassic (i.e., the Zechstein–Buntsandstein boundary interval) is developed mainly in red bed facies. This continental sedimentary succession is marked by relatively high sedimentation rates providing a high temporal resolution favorab

  8. Anatomy of a Permian Erg sequence: the De La Cuesta Formation (northwestern Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the Permian red beds of the La Cuesta Formation (Sierra de Narvaez, northwestern Argentina) which is composed of sandstones associated with mud stones and subordinate conglomerates. The sediments obtained from the interaction between aeolian and ephemeral fluvial systems, are represented by aeolian dune, dry aeolian inter dune and aeolian sand sheet, mud flat, wet aeolian inter dune, and fluvial deposits

  9. The Permian Rotliegend reservoir architecture of the Dutch Koekoekspolder geothermal doublet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijnlieff, H.F.; Bloemsma, M.R.; Donselaar, M.E.; Henares, S.; Redjosentono, A.E.; Veldkamp, J.G.; Weltje, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Koekoekspolder geothermal doublet was drilled in 2011 targeting the Permian Rotliegendreservoir. The encountered reservoir properties were less favorable than expected pre-drill. Post-drill integrated evaluation of vintage data and the new data from the geothermal wells resulted in a refin

  10. The Saint Martin de Belleville syncline and its uraniferous permian sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation (these de specialite) is a study of the geology of the St.Martin d.B. syncline and the uranium prospect 'le Cochet' in the Carboniferous Brianconnais Zone of Savoy. Stratigraphy and sedimentology: This syncline presents continental detrital sediments ranging from U.Carboniferous to L.Triassic. In the U.Carboniferous, magmatic activity begins with the Moriaz Layers acid volcanics that are considered as a lateral equivalent of the Stephanian Courchevel Conglomerates. In Permian times, parts of an alluvial fan seem to occupy the north of the study area (gray and green conglomeratic sandstone). Southwards these inter-finger with flood plain sediments (red slate) including a locally oolitic limestone. Volcanic detritus is important in the Permian. Tourmalinite pebbles are frequent and seem to be related to the regional Permian magmatism. Albitization of feldspars is general in the Carboniferous and the Permian. The Permo-triassic typically shows microcline bearing dolomitic sandstones. In the Scythian quartzites orthoclase is the dominant feldspar. The quartzites are overlain by L.Triassic evaporites identified by the sulfur isotope ratio of their gypsum. The morphology of the zircons in the sandstones has been investigated using the typological method of J.P. Pupin. Regional Permian magmatism apparently produces volcanics of the calc-alkalic and tholeiitic series as well as a high level granitic intrusion of anatectic origin. The uranium occurrences are strata-bound on a kilometric and hecto-metric scale. They are developed almost exclusively in the gray variety of the Permian sandstones whose gray and red varieties are always barren. Within this unit, the mineralization impregnates irregularly distributed lenses and pods of coal material. Uranium is accompanied by vanadium occurring as roscoelite. The association U-V, of bio-philic character, reflects the concentration in the sedimentary environment and argues for a quite indirect relation with the

  11. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Minikh, Alla V.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

    2005-02-01

    Fossil fishes and tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 81 localities in the Upper Permian of the Southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. A continental succession, some 3 km thick, of mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones, deposited on mudflats and in small rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span the last two stages of the Permian (Kazanian, Tatarian). The succession is divided into seven successive units of Kazanian (Kalinovskaya, Osinovskaya, and Belebey svitas, in succession) and Tatarian age, which is further subdivided into the early Tatatian Urzhumian Gorizont (Bolshekinelskaya and Amanakskaya svitas, in succession), and the late Tatarian Severodvinian (Vyazovskaya and Malokinelskaya svitas, of equivalent age) and Vyatkian gorizonts (Kulchumovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas, of equivalent age). This succession documents major climatic changes, with increasing aridity through the Late Permian. The climate changes are manifested in changing sedimentation and the spread of dryland plants, and peak aridity was achieved right at the Permo-Triassic (PTr) boundary, coincident with global warming. Uplift of the Urals and extinction of land plants led to stripping of soils and massive run-off from the mountains; these phenomena have been identified at the PTr boundary elsewhere (South Africa, Australia) and this may be a key part of the end-Permian mass extinction. The succession of Late Permian fish and tetrapod faunas in Russia documents their richness and diversity before the mass extinction. The terminal Permian Kulchomovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas have yielded

  12. Long-term atmospheric oxygen decrease an underestimated factor forcing the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, O.; Kiessling, W.; Flügel, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Permian mass extinction encompasses the end-Guadalupian (Middle Permian) and the end-Lopingian (Late Permian) events, which sum up to the most severe Phanerozoic crisis. Berner (2002) evaluated popular hypotheses explaining the Permian mass extinction and suggested a synergistic combination of causes, notably various short-term perturbations of the carbon cycle and its far-reaching reorganization with a shift of the depo-center from the land to the sea. While massive volcanic eruptions, oceanic CO2-poisoning or anoxia, a bolide impact, and methane release have been considered as abrupt killing mechanisms, there has been little interest in how atmospheric oxygen variations affected the metazoan diversities. Differing from contemporary values of 21%, atmospheric oxygen reached maximum concentrations of about 35% during the late Carboniferous, gradually dropped to minimum concentrations possibly as low as 15% by the end of Permian, and increased during the Triassic to modelled values of about 18% (Berner &Canfield 1989). The possible links of these secular fluctuations to macroevolutionary processes are underexplored, but the stratigraphic coincidence of reconstructed atmospheric oxygen concentrations and biospheric perturbations suggest that this relation may be stronger than admitted. Although feedback mechanisms between decreasing atmospheric oxygen content and metazoan evolution have been ruled out, modern oxygen minimum zone inhabitants, directly respond to oxygen deficiency with opportunistic faunas. We analysed 30 million years Middle Permian to Middle Triassic reef distribution, reef carbonate production as well as reef builder extinction/recovery patterns and compared the results with the modeled atmospheric oxygen concentrations and the extinction data from terrestrial and deep-marine ecosystems. We propose that (i) the Permian double reef crisis resulted from long-term atmospheric O2 depletion in conjunction with abrupt killing mechanisms and that (ii

  13. 49205 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course 49205 Analog and Digital Filters...

  14. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  15. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, R.

    1985-08-01

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer.

  16. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body

  17. Analogy between Thermodynamics and Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    Establishes and illustrates a formal analogy between the motion of a particle and the "motion" of the equilibrium state of a homogeneous system in a quasistatic process. The purpose is to show that there is a much larger set of natural coordinate transformations in thermodynamics. (GA)

  18. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer

  19. Sedimentary environments of the Middle Permian phosphorite chert complex from the northeastern Yangtze platform, China; the Gufeng Formation: a continental shelf radiolarian chert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kametaka, Masao; Takebe, Masamichi; Nagai, Hiromi; Zhu, Sizhao; Takayanagi, Yukio

    2005-02-01

    Radiolarian chert deposited on a continental shelf occurs in the Middle Permian Gufeng Formation on the northeastern Yangtze platform, China. The sedimentary environments of radiolarian cherts from accretionary complexes have been well studied; however, there are few studies about radiolarian chert deposited on continental shelves. Therefore we have completed a sedimentological and geochemical study of the Gufeng Formation. The Gufeng Formation is subdivided into the Phosphate Nodule-bearing Mudstone Member (PNMM) and the Siliceous Rock Member (SRM) in ascending order. The basal PNMM consists of glauconite-bearing mudstone, which indicates deposition under aerobic shallow-marine conditions, whereas the upper PNMM is composed of mudstone including abundant phosphate nodules, suggesting deposition near the outer shelf in suboxic conditions. The SRM consists mainly of alternating beds of black chert, mudstone, and siliceous mudstone, with minor tuffaceous mudstone and porous chert beds. The black chert contains abundant radiolarians, sponge spicules, and organic matter. Framboidal pyrite occurs in the black chert. Porous chert in the SRM includes abundant rhombohedral cavities, which are dolomite moulds surrounded by quartz, suggesting dolomitization before silicification during early diagenesis. The Gufeng Chert is characterized by high Si, Mo, Ni, Cu, and Zn contents, and extremely low Mn content. The Gufeng Chert has high normal paraffin concentrations with petroleum-like markers. These geochemical features suggest that the Gufeng Chert was deposited under sulfate-reducing conditions; and is not hydrothermal, but rather biogenic in origin. The sedimentological and geochemical data suggest that the Gufeng Formation was deposited mainly on the outer shelf in suboxic-anoxic conditions caused by organic matter produced during upwelling. The upwelling probably led to high radiolarian productivity. Abundant silica and organic matter were deposited in the Gufeng basin

  20. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  1. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment

  2. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  3. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahid Ghazi; Nigel P Mountney; Aftab Ahmad Butt; Sadaf Sharif

    2012-10-01

    The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage (Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode

  4. Coring and High-Resolution Imaging of the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Deltadalen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Permian-Triassic extinction was likely triggered by the voluminous igneous activity of the Siberian Traps. There are, however, limited information available about the effects of the Siberian Traps volcanism in Permian to Triassic sedimentary successions outside Siberia. We drilled two boreholes across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) in Deltadalen, Svalbard, in August 2014, to better document the extinction event and environmental changes in the sedimentary succession in this region. Even though the PTB event is studied in several outcrops to varying degree if scrutiny on Svalbard, a scientific core is important for understanding the details of the PTB event, as outcrops may not permit studies at the appropriate levels of resolution, exposure or confidence. The Deltadalen site was chosen as an optimal drilling location after field work in the Isfjorden area in 2013 and early 2014. The almost 100 m deep holes were fully cored and penetrated the Triassic Vikinghøgda Formation (about 85 m recovered) and the Permian Kapp Starostin Formation (about 15 m). The main lithologies include Permian chert-rich green glauconitic sandstones and Triassic mudstones. A 10 m thick sedimentary reference outcrop section across the PTB was further logged and sampled in a nearby river valley. A comprehensive core analysis program is now underway. High-resolution XRF, MST and hyperspectral core scanning has been completed along the entire core surface, while high-resolution CT scanning has been carried out for whole core sections. The DD-1 core has subsequently been split, photographed, described, and sampled for geochemical, micropaleontological, petrological and magnetic analyses. Almost 10 bentonite layers have furthermore been sampled for volcanological and geochronological studies. Our goal is that the cores will become an important future reference section of the PTB in Svalbard and the high-Arctic, and help constrain the extent of the regional effects of explosive volcanism

  5. Geological event sequences of the Permian-Triassic transition recorded in the microfacies in Meishan section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO ChangQun; ZHENG QuanFeng

    2009-01-01

    The microfacies sequence in the key interval of Beds 24-29 of the Meishan section comprehensively recorded the geological events during the Permian-Triassic transition, including the anoxia, storm disturbance, hard-ground/firm-ground form, volcanic eruption, weathering input, and microbialite de-velopment. This investigation of event sequences on the microfacies provided synthetically some clues to clarifying the previously proposed mechanisms of the end-Permian extinction. The deposit succession in Bed 24 of the Changxing Formation was developed dominantly with organic-rich lamina, but interrupted intermittently by storm disturbances. It indicates characteristically a stagnated, strati-fled and anoxic ocean during the latest Permian. The latest Permian transgression occurred rapidly at the top of Bed 24d and was characterized by the hard-ground interface. Abundant clay mineral of illite indicates the occurrence of persistent weathering of continental volcanics and then buried in ocean throughout this key Permo-Triassic transitional interval. However, the "boundary ash clay" of Bed 25 yielding normal grading of hyaloclastite was the result of precipitation of volcanic dusts. The firm-ground substrate in Unit 27-2 was lithe and excavated intensively by trace fossil Glossifungites; it means also the occurrence of the earliest Triassic rapid transgression and coincides with the first ap-pearance of conodont Hindeodus parvus. Dune-shaped microbialite in Unit 27-5 defines biostrati-graphically that its development, especially in the carbonate platform of South China, should corre-spond to the earliest Triassic; and it also indicates the final episode of the end-Permian extinction event.

  6. Geological event sequences of the Permian-Triassic transition recorded in the microfacies in Meishan section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The microfacies sequence in the key interval of Beds 24―29 of the Meishan section comprehensively recorded the geological events during the Permian-Triassic transition, including the anoxia, storm disturbance, hard-ground/firm-ground form, volcanic eruption, weathering input, and microbialite development. This investigation of event sequences on the microfacies provided synthetically some clues to clarifying the previously proposed mechanisms of the end-Permian extinction. The deposit succession in Bed 24 of the Changxing Formation was developed dominantly with organic-rich lamina, but interrupted intermittently by storm disturbances. It indicates characteristically a stagnated, stratified and anoxic ocean during the latest Permian. The latest Permian transgression occurred rapidly at the top of Bed 24d and was characterized by the hard-ground interface. Abundant clay mineral of illite indicates the occurrence of persistent weathering of continental volcanics and then buried in ocean throughout this key Permo-Triassic transitional interval. However, the "boundary ash clay" of Bed 25 yielding normal grading of hyaloclastite was the result of precipitation of volcanic dusts. The firm-ground substrate in Unit 27-2 was lithe and excavated intensively by trace fossil Glossifungites; it means also the occurrence of the earliest Triassic rapid transgression and coincides with the first appearance of conodont Hindeodus parvus. Dune-shaped microbialite in Unit 27-5 defines biostrati-graphically that its development, especially in the carbonate platform of South China, should corre-spond to the earliest Triassic; and it also indicates the final episode of the end-Permian extinction event.

  7. Late Permian basalts in the northwestern margin of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province: Implications for the origin of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; LÜ, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Zhiguo

    2016-07-01

    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are reported for two types of basalts (Type I and Type II) from a Permian volcanic-pyroclastic succession in the Tubagou section, Baoxing area along the southeastern margin of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane (SGT) in the Sichuan province of SW China. Zircons from the uppermost basaltic flows yield crystallization age of 257.3 ± 2.0 Ma, which may represent the time of culmination the basaltic eruption. Type I shows alkaline affinity with εNd(t) values of + 2.4 to + 2.9, and is characterized by oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type light rare earth element (LREE) and trace-element patterns. In contrast, Type II rocks are tholeiitic, and close to initial rift tholeiite (IRT)-like REE and trace element patterns, and are relatively depleted in highly incompatible elements with slightly negative Nb-Ta anomaly. The εNd(t) values of Type II are between + 1.8 to + 2.2. The geochemical characteristics suggest the Type I has not been significantly crustally contaminated, whereas Type II maybe have experienced minor crustal contamination. Clinopyroxene crystallization temperature is ~ 80-120°C higher than that of the normal asthenospheric mantle, implying anomalous thermal input from mantle source and a possible plume-head origin for the Tubagou lava. The geochemical and isotopic fes, reflecting progressive lithosphere thinning probably through plume-lithosphere interaction. The spatial and temporal coincidence between the Dashibao basalt eruptions, reflecting progressive lithosphere thinning probably through plume-lithosphere interaction. The spatial and temporal coincidence between the Dashibao basalt eruption and continental rifting suggest that continental break-up and the opening of an extensional basin was probably related to the Late Permian Emeishan plume, which triggered the breakup between the SGT and the Yangtze craton.

  8. Integrating petroleum and sulfur data to map the Guadalupian-Ochoan (Middle to Upper Permian) Boundary of the Delaware Basis, Trans-Pecos, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishron, Joseph B.

    2011-12-01

    The Delaware Basin of the Permian Basin is a classic intra-cratonic basin of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico. Hydrocarbon exploration and production have occurred in the region since the early 1920s, and, as a result, the formations related to these oil and gas reserves have been studied in great detail. Some formations in the Delaware Basin, however, have not been studied in such detail, and this thesis examines one, lesser-known unit that could have economic potential. The Lamar Limestone (Lamar Lime) of the Bell Canyon Formation has commonly been dismissed as a production interval; rather, it has been described as a source and seal rock for the Ramsey Sand of the lower Bell Canyon Formation. However, recent studies found that the Lamar Lime was contributing to production, and it has been described by Trentham (2006) as a potentia "mini Barnett" reservoir. The depths of these deposits are in a range that is ideal for oil accumulation. This study made use of data from wells and test holes drilled in the western Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas. Many oil and gas wells have been drilled in the western Delaware Basin, but they are concentrated in the north and east portions of Culberson County. In addition, sulfur wells were drilled in the area in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Analyses of the well logs of these wells and of core and outcrop studies were completed to gain a better understanding of the distribution and economic potential of the Lamar. Both datasets were combined to provide information not readily available in the oil and gas dataset. The Lamar Lime is an excellent marker bed because it underlies thick evaporites. The evaporite sequences are Ochoan in age, and, therefore, the contact of the Lamar Lime (Bell Canyon Formation) and the Castile Formation is the approximate boundary for the Guadalupian-Ochoan Series. The Castile Formation, the Salado Formation, and the Rustler Formation (from oldest to youngest) are the evaporite units that

  9. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  10. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  11. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  12. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  13. Splitting Compounds by Semantic Analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Daiber, Joachim; Quiroz, Lautaro; Wechsler, Roger; Frank, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Compounding is a highly productive word-formation process in some languages that is often problematic for natural language processing applications. In this paper, we investigate whether distributional semantics in the form of word embeddings can enable a deeper, i.e., more knowledge-rich, processing of compounds than the standard string-based methods. We present an unsupervised approach that exploits regularities in the semantic vector space (based on analogies such as "bookshop is to shop as...

  14. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. δ13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). δ34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive δ13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ∑REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in δ13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of δ34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior

  15. Shallow marine ecosystem feedback to the Permian/Triassic mass extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongbiao WANG; Zheng MENG; Wei LIAO; Zeting WENG; Hao YANG

    2011-01-01

    Late Permian reefs developed widely on shallow marine carbonate platforms in South China but disappeared far below the main mass extinction level of the latest Permian. The collapse of reef ecosystem may be related to the enhanced volcanism at the end of Late Permian. Notably, some colony corals and reef-building sponges were found to occur near the mass extinction boundary, inferring the eclipse of reef ecosystem is ahead of the disappearance of reef-building organisms, and the triggers would be present long before the main mass extinction. As the primary producers, the calcareous algae are rich in platform limestones of Late Permian and played a very important role in maintaining the shallow benthic ecosystems. The calcareous algae were found to disappear synchronously with the great reduction of foraminifers,which were ecologically associated with these algae. The extinction of Late Permian calcareous algae greatly reduced the biodiversity of primary producers in the shallow marine environment and destroyed in part the structure and the base of the shallow marine ecosystems,which in turn cause the extinction of ecologically associated metazoan. Microbialites developed on carbonate platforms immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction, representing a simple and unique microbial ecosystem. Widespread occurrence of microbialites symbolized the deterioration of marine environmental conditions and the dramatic revolution of marine ecosystems. As the new primary producers instead of the extinguished calcareous algae, cyanobacteria in the microbialites were an important base of this peculiar ecosystem and contributed greatly to the survival of the remnant faunas after the mass extinction. Widespread occurrence of microbialites in shallow marine environment is suggested to be related to the elevated level of volcanism-induced greenhouse gases and enhanced evaporation and hypersaline condition in addition to the decrease of metazoan grazing pressure. The change

  16. Molecular carbon isotope variations in core samples taken at the Permian-Triassic boundary layers in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiliang; Zhang, Shuichang; Brassell, Simon; Wang, Jiaxue; Lu, Zhengyuan; Ming, Qingzhong; Wang, Xiaomei; Bian, Lizeng

    2012-07-01

    Stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of carbonate sediments and the molecular (biomarker) characteristics of a continuous Permian-Triassic (PT) layer in southern China were studied to obtain geochemical signals of global change at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Carbonate carbon isotope values shifted toward positive before the end of the Permian period and then shifted negative above the PTB into the Triassic period. Molecular carbon isotope values of biomarkers followed the same trend at and below the PTB and remained negative in the Triassic layer. These biomarkers were acyclic isoprenoids, ranging from C15 to C40, steranes (C27 dominates) and terpenoids that were all significantly more abundant in samples from the Permian layer than those from the Triassic layer. The Triassic layer was distinguished by the dominance of higher molecular weight (waxy) n-alkanes. Stable carbon isotope values of individual components, including n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids such as phytane, isop-C25, and squalane, are depleted in δ13C by up to 8-10‰ in the Triassic samples as compared to the Permian. Measured molecular and isotopic variations of organic matter in the PT layers support the generally accepted view of Permian oceanic stagnation followed by a massive upwelling of toxic deep waters at the PTB. A series of large-scale (global) outgassing events may be associated with the carbon isotope shift we measured. This is also consistent with the lithological evidence we observed of white thin-clay layers in this region. Our findings, in context with a generally accepted stagnant Permian ocean, followed by massive upwelling of toxic deep waters might be the major causes of the largest global mass extinction event that occurred at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  17. Discussion of gas enrichment mechanism and natural gas origin in marine sedimentary basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are abundant natural gas resources in Chinese marine sedimentary basin. The exploration hot shots of natural gas are the Palaeozoic marine strata here in recent years, and several large scale gas fields have been discovered. Chinese Palaeozoic high-post matured and coal measure hydrocarbon source rocks are mainly prone to gas generation in the present. This research considered that gas source rocks and TSR are the key cause of gas enrichment of marine strata. High-quality argillaceous and coal measure hydrocarbon rocks are distributed widely in the Palaeozoic marine strata, which have been in highly matured phase in the present. The argillaceous source rock generally contains various sulfates that could accelerate crude oil cracking to gas for TSR occurrence, and coal measure source rock mainly generates gas, so Chinese marine basin gives priority to accumulating gas. Marine strata have not founded oil reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin, and they consist mainly of dry gas. Marine natural gases are the mixed gases of oil cracking gas and coal-formed gas in a general way,oil cracking gases contain usually some H2S and CO2. Hydrocarbon carbon isotopes are very complicated, and methane and ethane isotopic values bear apparent reversal caused by thermal evolution and mixing among different genetic types of natural gas. Coal-formed gases are the main component of Chinese marine natural gas. The Upper Permian of the Sichuan Basin and the Carboniferous-Permian of the Ordos Basin coal measure hydrocarbon source rock present large hydrocarbon generation potential, which are the prospecting highlight of marine natural gas hereafter. Oil cracking gas exploration will be paid much attention to in the Tarim Basin because of the lack of coal measure hydrocarbon source rock.

  18. A Global Analog of Cheshire Charge

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a model with a spontaneously broken global symmetry can support defects analogous to Alice strings, and a process analogous to Cheshire charge exchange can take place. A possible realization in superfluid He-3 is pointed out.

  19. Benthic aquatic ecosystems across the Permian-Triassic transition: record from biogenic structures in fluvial sandstones, central Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. F.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of the Permian extinction in communities inhabiting sandy stream bottoms can be evaluated using trace fossils as proxies for body fossils. Permian and Triassic sandstones exposed in the Beardmore and Shackleton Glacier areas (central Transantarctic Mountains) were deposited in sandy braided streams and contain four types of trace fossils (vertical shafts and horizontal, bilobed and chevron traces). These traces were produced by a single type of animal that moved in the top 30 cm of sediment and dominated the benthic community. Evidence for a single producer includes similar size (diameter) of all traces and change within single specimens from one trace type to another. The animal was not affected by the Permian extinction event, as evidenced by its equal abundance within the Permian (Buckley Formation) and Triassic (Fremouw Formation) fluvial sandstones in the Beardmore Glacier area. Based on trace morphology and on domination of modern sandy river ecosystems by insects, the producer most likely was an insect, although its more precise identity is problematic. Although families of insects with modern aquatic burrowers are not known before the Jurassic, these trace fossils may show that these burrowers were present earlier than the insect body-fossil record suggests. Alternatively, archaic insect groups, many of which became extinct at the end-Permian and are known to have been aquatic but not infaunal, may have included some active burrowers that were unscathed by the Permian extinction.

  20. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  1. Formation and Evolution of the Junggar basin basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D.

    2015-12-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth.Based on the borehole data from over 300 wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a 1:50,000 scale), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and process and later evolution on basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Precambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan-Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan-Baijiahai-Qitai respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending retro-arc or inter-arc basin belts from north to south, such as Santanghu-Suosuoquan-Emin, Wucaiwan-Dongdaohaizi-Mahu (Mahu block sunk as a bathyal basin during this phase) and Fukang-western well Pen1 accordingly. Thirdly, the closure of these retro-arc or inter-arc basins gradually toward the south led to the occurrence of collision and amalgamation of the above-mentioned island arcs during the Carboniferous, constituting the basic framework of the Junggar "block". Fourthly, the emplacement of large-scale mantle-derived magmas occurred in the latest Carboniferous or Early Permian. For instance, the well Mahu 5 penetrate the latest Carboniferous basalts with a thickness of over 20m, and these mantle-derived magmas concreted the above-mentioned island arc-collaged body. Therefore, the Junggar basin basement mainly comprises pre-Carboniferous collaged basement, and its formation is characterized by two-stage growth model, involving the

  2. Study on REEs as tracers for late permian coal measures in Bijie City, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YANG Ruidong

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in 13 coal samples collected from Late Permian coal measures of Bijie City in western Guizhon Province were conducted using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results indicated that REEs patterns were not controlled by materials from the sea, whereas the contribution of land plants was about 1%. The major sources of REEs were from terrigenous material as indicated by negative Eu anomaly. There were similar distribution curves of REEs between Bijie's coal and Emeishan basalt. M12 coal seam, which had the highest ∑REE, appeared near the boundary between Longtan Formation and Changxing Formation, which was closely correlated to the eruption of Emeishan basalt. The Emeishan basalt contributed to REEs enrichment of M12. So the sources of REEs were controlled by terrigenous material, and the Emeishan basalt was the predominant source of terrigenous material, which dominated the enrichment and pattern of REEs in Late Permian coal measure from Bijie.

  3. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Joachimski, Michael M.; Korn, Dieter;

    2014-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction has been associated with severe global warming. Main stage volcanism of the Siberian Traps occurred at or near the extinction interval and has been proposed as a likely greenhouse catalyst. In this study, a high-resolution δ18O record is established using diageneti......The end-Permian mass extinction has been associated with severe global warming. Main stage volcanism of the Siberian Traps occurred at or near the extinction interval and has been proposed as a likely greenhouse catalyst. In this study, a high-resolution δ18O record is established using...... to over 35°C. The results are consistent with re-calculated SSTs of the South Chinese sections. Warming was associated with an enhanced hydrological cycle involving increased tropical precipitation and monsoonal activity in the Tethys Sea. Global warming, intensification of the hydrological cycle...

  4. Episodic perturbations of end-Permian atmosphere recorded in plant spore chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley; Lomax, Barry; Beerling, David; James, David; Pyle, John; Self, Stephen; Sephton, Mark; Wellman, Charles

    2016-04-01

    The largest marine Phanerozoic extinction occurred 251 million years ago at the end of the Permian period with a contemporaneous major reorganisation of terrestrial. Previous work suggests the eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province could have generated substantial volumes of ozone depleting substances; the result being a partial collapse of the stratospheric ozone layer, and commensurate increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315nm) radiation. Increased UV-B flux would contribute additional pressures to an already stressed environment and flora and fauna. Here we present data utilising a new biogeochemical proxy for UV-B radiation to analyse clubmoss (lycophyta) megaspores to track UV-B radiation across the end-Permian interval. Our biogeochemical data when combined with published work on spore and pollen mutations suggests a highly dynamic global atmospheric system, oscillating between episodes of high and low UV-B flux, most likely driven by pulsed eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  5. A natural analogue for copper waste canisters: The copper-uranium mineralised concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Hards, V.L. [Natural Environment Research Council (United Kingdom). British Geological Survey

    2000-08-01

    mineralisation and alteration that can be related to the burial and diagenetic history of the Permian strata. The native copper mineralisation exhibits close temporal association with the formation of uraniferous and vanadiferous concretions (known as 'fish-eyes') in the same rocks. Petrographical relationships indicate that both the copper and the 'fish-eye' concretions formed during burial diagenesis but before the maximum compaction of the host mudstone and siltstone. The regional burial history Wessex Basin, indicates that the maximum compaction of the Permian strata would have been achieved by at least the end of the Lower Jurassic (possibly even in the Triassic). Therefore, the native copper mineralisation is older than 176 Ma. The native copper sheets display a complex sequence of alteration and subsequent mineral growth of minerals on their surfaces. The earliest alteration was to copper oxides - principally cuprite with minor tenorite, indicating a change to more oxidising groundwater conditions. The dissolution of native silver and the growth of fringes of copper arsenides followed this. Nickel arsenides and chalcocite, associated with the precipitation of uranium silicates occurred in the later stages of alteration. This suggests a return to a more reducing pore water environment. Again, petrographical relationships indicate that this alteration and subsequent mineralisation is geologically old (i.e. Lower Jurassic or older). Secondary malachite, intimately intergrown copper sulphate and copper oxides, copper chloride, copper-uranium arsenate and uranium vanadates have formed as late-stage alteration products of the native copper and earlier diagenetic cuprite, chalcocite, copper-nickel arsenide and uranium silicate alteration and mineralisation. This latest stage alteration is most probably attributable to near-surface weathering processes. Although the native copper is affected by corrosion, the study has shown that a significant proportion (30

  6. Permian Palaeotemperature and Ice Volumes History: Evidence from Carbon and Oxygen isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution oxygen isotope record based on 356 measurements of conodont apatite from several low latitudinal sections in South China, USA and Iran was composed in order to unravel Permian palaeotemperature and ice volume history. Oxygen isotope analyses of different conodont taxa suggest that Streptognathodus and Hindeodus lived in near-surface seawater and recorded surface waters temperature, whereas the habitat of gondolellid genera was variable depending on sea level, with both near-su...

  7. Prolonged Permian–Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Bottjer, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effec...

  8. Reverse magnetic anomaly controlled by Permian Igneous rocks in the Iberian Chain (N Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Calvín,P. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra; Casas, A. M. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra; Villalaín, J. J.; Tierz, P. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra

    2014-01-01

    Two important reverse dipolar magnetic anomalies in the Iberian Chain (Spain) are located over Permian igneous rocks. A detailed study of one of them, the Loscos magnetic anomaly, where the geological structure is well constrained, reveals that the source of the anomaly must be a reverse remanent magnetisation carried by igneous rocks, acquired during the period of the Kiaman reverse magnetic superchron. Magnetic and gravimetric detailed survey (with 50 new gravimetric measurements and 8 main...

  9. Inter-taxa differences in extinction process of Maokouan (Middle Permian) fusulinaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨湘宁; 施贵军; 刘家润; 陈云棠; 周建平

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of the extinction process of fusulinacean in the Maokouan (Middle Permian) biotic crisis have revealed remarkable differences between taxa with various morphological features. Nankinellinids suffered a heavy loss of species in the early stage of the Maokouan event. Schwagerinids and neoschwagerinids both showed a stepwise decrease in species diversity, but the pulses of species extinction occurred in different stages of the extinction process. The species extinction of verbeekinids happened primarily in the Late Maokouan.

  10. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ju; Guiting Hou

    2014-01-01

    The South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions of Central Asia are located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The formation of South Tianshan Orogen was a diachronous, scissors-like process, which took place during the Palaeozoic, and its western segment was accepted as a site of the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent, which occurred in the late Palaeozoic. However, the post-collisional tectonic evolution of the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions remains debatable. Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I) late Ordovicianeearly Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean;(II) middle Silurianemiddle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III) late Devonianelate Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks;(IV) early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting;(V) late PermianeTriassic the first intraplate orogeny;(VI) JurassicePalaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII) NeoceneeQuaternary intraplate orogeny.

  11. Abrupt environmental and climatic change during the deposition of the Early Permian Haushi limestone, Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Michael; Angiolini, Lucia; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; Berra, F.; F. Jadoul; G. Gambacorta; Verna, V.; Al Beloushi, B.

    2008-01-01

    During the late Sakmarian (Early Permian), the Haushi limestone was deposited in a shallow embayment of the Neotethys Ocean covering what is now north Oman and parts of southeast Saudi Arabia. The sea persisted through the late Sakmarian, but by the time of the deposition of the ?Artinskian Middle Gharif Member, limestone deposition had ceased and generally arid fluvial and minor lacustrine palaeonvironments in a low accommodation space setting had become established. Analysis of three subsur...

  12. Behavior of lophophorates during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Catherine M.; Bottjer, David J.

    2009-11-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction devastated most marine communities and the recovery was a protracted event lasting several million years into the Early Triassic. Environmental and biological processes undoubtedly controlled patterns of recovery for marine invertebrates in the aftermath of the extinction, but are often difficult to single-out. The global diversity and distribution of marine lophophorates during the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction indicates that stenolaemate bryozoans, rhynchonelliform brachiopods, and lingulid brachiopods displayed distinct recovery patterns. Bryozoans were the most susceptible of the lophophorates, experiencing relatively high rates of extinction at the end of the Permian, and becoming restricted to the Boreal region during the Early Triassic. The recovery of bryozoans was also delayed until the Late Triassic and characterized by very low diversity and abundance. Following the final disappearance of Permian rhynchonelliform brachiopod survivors, Early Triassic rhynchonelliform brachiopod abundance remained suppressed despite a successful re-diversification and a global distribution, suggesting a decoupling between global taxonomic and ecological processes likely driven by lingering environmental stress. In contrast with bryozoans and rhynchonelliforms, lingulid brachiopods rebounded rapidly, colonizing shallow marine settings left vacant by the extinction. Lingulid dominance, characterized by low diversity but high numerical abundance, was short-lived and they were once again displaced back into marginal settings as environmental stress changed through the marine recovery. The presence in lingulid brachiopods of the respiratory pigment hemerythrin, known to increase the efficacy of oxygen storage and transport, when coupled with other morphological and physiological adaptations, may have given lingulids a survival advantage in environmentally stressed Early Triassic settings.

  13. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Béatrice Forel; Pierre-Yves Collin; Yue Li; Stephen Kershaw; Sylvie Crasquin

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1) problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, wh...

  14. Quantitative Evaluation of the Sea-level Drop at the End-Permian: Based on Reefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The amplitude of pre-Quaternary sea level drop, H, can be calculated by using the formula H = D + To, where To is the original thickness from the top of the tidal deposits on the reef core to the bottom of the tidal deposits on the reef front, or to the bottom of the ancient meteoric vadose zone, or to the edge of the mixed-water dolostone zone. The identity and similarity between the sea-level drop amplitudes calculated from different reefs far away from each other indicates that such sea-level changes are eustatic rather than relative changes. Evidence of an end-Permian sea-level drop has been found on the Changxingian (i.e. the end of the Palaeofusulina zone) reefs at Ziyun in South China, including algal laminated deposits, sabkha-related dolostone, desiccation cracks, dissolution collapse breccia. According to calculation based on the meteoric dissolution zone of the reef-core sequence at Ziyun, Guizhou province, the amplitude of the sea-level drop at the end-Permian is about 89.3 m. Calculation via the dolomitized upper part of the Changxingian reef in Lichuan, Hubei Province, yields an 88.9 m amplitude of the sea-level drop at the end-Permian. Comparison shows that the sea-level drop recorded in the two distantly located reefs may be of eustatic type. So the amplitude of the sea level drop of the Tethys Sea at the end-Permian might be at least 89.3 m.

  15. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  16. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  17. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  18. Classical analogy of Fano resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analogy of Fano resonances in quantum interference to classical resonances in the harmonic oscillator system. It has a manifestation as a coupled behaviour of two effective oscillators associated with propagating and evanescent waves. We illustrate this point by considering a classical system of two coupled oscillators and interfering electron waves in a quasi-one-dimensional narrow constriction with a quantum dot. Our approach provides a novel insight into Fano resonance physics and provides a helpful view in teaching Fano resonances

  19. Size variation of the end Permian conodont Neogondolella at Meishan Section, Changxing, Zhejiang and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on both a generic and species level investigation of the individual size of the latest Permian conodont Neogondolella Pa elements collected from Meishan Section A, Changxing, Zhejiang Province. In this study, an obvious size reduction of Neogondolella Pa elements within bed 24e of the upper Changxing Limestone is recognized. The size variation of the Neogondolella occurs simultaneously with some important events including the negative shift of δ13C, change in the ratio of the abundance of cyanobacterial biomarkers versus that of other general bacterial biomarkers and the shallowing of the sea water. Through the investigation of the paleoenvironmental changes and the analysis of the paleoecology of the conodont genus Neogondolella, the authors propose that the major factors for the size reduction of species of the conodont genus Neogondolella are food shortages caused by the mass extinction, the shallowing of the sea water as well as the increase in opacity of the sea water during the end Permian. The same phenomenon of Neogondolella size reduction is also observed in preliminary research from the same horizon at Shangsi Section, Sichuan Province. All the evidence suggests that there was a mass extinction that occurred at the horizon of bed 24e, and the evidence supports the viewpoint of a multi-phase mass extinction during the Permian and Triassic transition in South China.

  20. Earth's biggest 'whodunnit': unravelling the clues in the case of the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rosalind V.

    2002-12-01

    The mass extinction that occurred at the end of the Permian period, 250 million years ago, was the most devastating loss of life that Earth has ever experienced. It is estimated that ca.96% of marine species were wiped out and land plants, reptiles, amphibians and insects also suffered. The causes of this catastrophic event are currently a topic of intense debate. The geological record points to significant environmental disturbances, for example, global warming and stagnation of ocean water. A key issue is whether the Earth's feedback mechanisms can become unstable on their own, or whether some forcing is required to precipitate a catastrophe of this magnitude. A prime suspect for pushing Earth's systems into a critical condition is massive end-Permian Siberian volcanism, which would have pumped large quantities of carbon dioxide and toxic gases into the atmosphere. Recently, it has been postulated that Earth was also the victim of a bolide impact at this time. If further research substantiates this claim, it raises some intriguing questions. The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 65 million years ago, was contemporaneous with both an impact and massive volcanism. Are both types of calamity necessary to drive Earth to the brink of faunal cataclysm? We do not presently have enough pieces of the jigsaw to solve the mystery of the end-Permian extinction, but the forensic work continues.

  1. Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Zhuo

    2012-03-27

    Plant communities of the geologic past can be reconstructed with high fidelity only if they were preserved in place in an instant in time. Here we report such a flora from an early Permian (ca. 298 Ma) ash-fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, a time interval and area where such information is filling a large gap of knowledge. About 1,000 m(2) of forest growing on peat could be reconstructed based on the actual location of individual plants. Tree ferns formed a lower canopy and either Cordaites, a coniferophyte, or Sigillaria, a lycopsid, were present as taller trees. Noeggerathiales, an enigmatic and extinct spore-bearing plant group of small trees, is represented by three species that have been found as nearly complete specimens and are presented in reconstructions in their plant community. Landscape heterogenity is apparent, including one site where Noeggerathiales are dominant. This peat-forming flora is also taxonomically distinct from those growing on clastic soils in the same area and during the same time interval. This Permian flora demonstrates both similarities and differences to floras of the same age in Europe and North America and confirms the distinct character of the Cathaysian floral realm. Therefore, this flora will serve as a baseline for the study of other fossil floras in East Asia and the early Permian globally that will be needed for a better understanding of paleoclimate evolution through time.

  2. New Late Permian paleomagnetic data from Argentina: Refinement of the apparent polar wander path of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeier, Mathew; van der Voo, Rob; Tohver, Eric; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Vizan, Haroldo; Torsvik, Trond H.; Kirshner, Jordan

    2011-07-01

    The Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic apparent polar wander path of Gondwana is largely constructed from relatively old paleomagnetic results, many of which are considered unreliable by modern standards. Paleomagnetic results derived from sedimentary sequences, which are generally poorly dated and prone to inclination shallowing, are especially common. Here we report the results of a joint paleomagnetic-geochronologic study of a volcanic complex in central Argentina. U-Pb dating of zircons has yielded a robust age estimate of 263.0 +1.6/-2.0 Ma for the complex. Paleomagnetic analysis has revealed a pretilting (primary Permian) magnetization with dual polarities. Rock magnetic experiments have identified pseudo-single domain (titano)magnetite and hematite as the mineralogic carriers of the magnetization. Lightning-induced isothermal remagnetizations are widespread in the low-coercivity magnetic carriers. The resulting paleomagnetic pole is 80.1°S, 349.0°E, A95 = 3.3°, N = 35, and it improves a Late Permian mean pole calculated from a filtered South American paleomagnetic data set. More broadly, this new, high-quality, igneous-based paleomagnetic pole falls between the previously distinct Late Permian segments of the Laurussian and Gondwanan apparent polar wander paths, suggesting that the long-recognized disparity between these large paleomagnetic data sets may be primarily due to the inclusion of low-quality or systemically biased data.

  3. Mid-Permian Phosphoria Sea in Nevada and the Upwelling Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith B.

    2009-01-01

    The Phosphoria Sea extended at least 500 km westward and at least 700 km southwestward from its core area centered in southeastern Idaho. Throughout that extent it displayed many characteristic features of the core: the same fauna, the same unique sedimentary assemblage including phosphate in mostly pelletal form, chert composed mainly of sponge spicules, and an association with dolomite. Phosphoria-age sediments in Nevada display ample evidence of deposition in shallow water. The chief difference between the sediments in Nevada and those of the core area is the greater admixture of sandstone and conglomerate in Nevada. Evidence of the western margin of the Phosphoria Sea where the water deepened and began to lose its essential characteristics is located in the uppermost part of the Upper Devonian to Permian Havallah sequence, which has been displaced tectonically eastward an unknown distance. The relatively deep water in which the mid-Permian part of the Havallah was deposited was a sea of probably restricted east-west width and was floored by a very thick sequence of mainly terrigenous sedimentary rocks. The phosphate content of mid-Permian strata in western exposures tends to be relatively low as a percentage, but the thickness of those strata tends to be high. The core area in and near southeastern Idaho where the concentration of phosphate is highest was separated from any possible site of upwelling oceanic waters by a great expanse of shallow sea.

  4. Carbon isotope excursions across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Meishan section, Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Both gradual and sharp decrease in organic and carbonate carbon isotope values were detected across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing, Zhejiang Province, China. The gradual decrease in organic carbon isotope values started at the bottom of Bed 23, coinciding with the strong oscillations of total organic carbon (TOC) contents, indicates increasing fluxes from carbonate to organic carbon reservoir during this interval. A 2.3‰ sharp drop of inorganic carbon isotope values occurred at the uppermost part of Bed 24e. A 3.7‰ sharp drop of organic carbon isotope values occurred in Bed 26. The dramatic drop of inorganic carbon isotope value of 8‰ reported previously is not confirmed from the unweathered carbonate samples in Bed 27. The large-scale fluctuation of organic carbon isotope values in the Yinkeng Formation reflects different extent of mixing of marine and terrestrial organic matters. The gradual depletion and subsequent sharp drop of carbon isotopes near the Permian-Triassic boundary might indicate complex causes of the end-Permian mass extinction.

  5. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession from Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield, Jharkhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; Archana Tripathi; B Chakraborti; U P Singh

    2014-12-01

    Palynological investigations are carried out on approximately 538.00-m thick Gondwana strata from borehole SKB-1, Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield in Jharkhand. Based on the distribution pattern of age marker palynotaxa, two distinct palynoassemblages are identified. Palynoassemblage-I in the lithologically designated Barren Measures and Barakar formations, between 552.00 and 53.20 m depth show dominance of striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites, Crescentipollenites, and Faunipollenites) and abundance of nonstriate bisaccate (Scheuringipollenites). Upward the Palynoassemblage-II (39.50–13.80 m depth) is rich in striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites and Crescentipollenites) and significant enveloping monosaccate Densipollenites magnicorpus pollen. These strata have been equated with Raniganj Formation of Latest Permian age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD) of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, Playfordiaspora cancellosa, Alisporites sp., Falcisporites sp. and Krempipollenites indicus observed at 13.80 and 39.50 m depth, mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic. The FADs of Guttulapollenites spp. at 49.10 and 504.70 m, Goubinispora morondavensis at 415.90 m, Alisporites ovalis and Arcuatipollenites sp. at 526.70 m is observed and suggest that these sediments are equivalent to Raniganj Formation, Late Permian in age.

  6. Permian-Triassic Conodonts from Dajiang (Guizhou, South China) and Their Implication for the Age of Microbialite Deposition in the Aftermath of the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haishui Jiang; Xulong Lai; Yadong Sun; Paul B Wignall; Jianbo Liu; Chunbo Yan

    2014-01-01

    The widespread microbialites deposition that followed the End-Permian mass extinction in the Tethyan realm have been intensively studied because of the evidence they provide on the nature of this crisis and its aftermath. However, the age of the microbialite event remains controversial. New conodont collection across the Permian-Triassic (P-T) transition from Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China) in this study enable us to discriminate four conodont zones, in ascending order, they are:Hindeodus parvus zone, Isarcicella lobata zone, Isarcicella isarcica zone and Hindeodus sosioensis zone. The age of microbialite in the P-T transition at the Dajiang Section is considered to be within the Hindeodus parvus zone and thus to clearly post-date the main extinction crisis. Reviewing the age of onset of microbialites throughout the Tethyan regions reveals two different ages: a Hindeodus changxingensis zone age is dominant in south-western and westernmost Tethys, whilst most other re-gions show microbialite deposition began in the Hindeodus parvus zone. Our investigation also indicates that two conodont changes occur at this time:an increase of hindeodid species immediately following a sequence boundary and the mass extinction, and a phase of extinction losses in the earliest Triassic Isarcicella isarcica zone during highstand development.

  7. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  8. Approaches to synthetic platelet analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modery-Pawlowski, Christa L; Tian, Lewis L; Pan, Victor; McCrae, Keith R; Mitragotri, Samir; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    Platelet transfusion is routinely used for treating bleeding complications in patients with hematologic or oncologic clotting disorders, chemo/radiotherapy-induced myelosuppression, trauma and surgery. Currently, these transfusions mostly use allogeneic platelet concentrates, while products like lyophilized platelets, cold-stored platelets and infusible platelet membranes are under investigation. These natural platelet-based products pose considerable risks of contamination, resulting in short shelf-life (3-5 days). Recent advances in pathogen reduction technologies have increased shelf-life to ~7 days. Furthermore, natural platelets are short in supply and also cause several biological side effects. Hence, there is significant clinical interest in platelet-mimetic synthetic analogs that can allow long storage-life and minimum side effects. Accordingly, several designs have been studied which decorate synthetic particles with motifs that promote platelet-mimetic adhesion or aggregation. Recent refinement in this design involves combining the adhesion and aggregation functionalities on a single particle platform. Further refinement is being focused on constructing particles that also mimic natural platelet's shape, size and elasticity, to influence margination and wall-interaction. The optimum design of a synthetic platelet analog would require efficient integration of platelet's physico-mechanical properties and biological functionalities. We present a comprehensive review of these approaches and provide our opinion regarding the future directions of this research. PMID:23092864

  9. New Paleomagnetic Data from Upper Permian and Lower Triassic Volcanic Sequences from Hua Binh, Quynh Nhai, and Thuan Chau Localities, Northwest Veitnam and Their Bearing on the Accretion History of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.; Chi, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    -Early Triassic SCB apparent polar wander path, the data show that volcanic crustal elements of northwest Vietnam, east of the Song Ma suture zone, have been close to, but not unequivocally a coherent part of the SCB, since the Late Permian. Development of the parallel NW-SE striking Song Ma and Song Chay orogenic belts did not involve the closure of wide (> 500 km) ocean basins.

  10. Neopaleozoic biostratigraphy of the Parana Basin; Bioestratigrafia do neopaleozoico da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemon, Roberto Ferreira; Quadros, Luiz Padilha de

    2006-11-15

    Surface samples and cores from 31 exploratory wells were chosen as being the most representative among those drilled by PETROBRAS across the Parana Sedimentary Basin, from Mato Grosso and Goias to Rio Grande do Sul. Their analysis yielded a large amount or Saccites, Monoletes and Monocolpates spores, in addition to representatives of Tasmanales. From the great number of identified forms, 40 species - characterized by their wide geographical distribution allied to a short vertical range - were selected and used as a basis for the biostratigraphical subdivision of the Gondwana section of this sedimentary basin. This biostratigraphic column was divided into six main intervals, designated by the letters G to L, some with further subdivisions. The comparison of the species with those described from other regions provided sufficient geochronological data for the dating of the different intervals. It also demonstrated that the Upper Paleozoic sedimentary sequence in the Parana Basin ranges from the Upper Pennsylvanian (Stephanian C) to the Upper Permian (Kazanian). To complete the paleogeologic data the previously established zonation of the Devonian section was also included. The correlation of the biostratigraphic intervals across the basin and their relationship with the rock-stratigraphic units are demonstrated in several sections. The interpretation of these sections and of the biostratigraphic interval isopachous maps provided important information on the paleogeographic development of the basin. Among the more significant results is evidence of the start of the Permo-Carboniferous sedimentation in the northern regional depression, of a subsequent southward tilting of the basin accompanied by the progressive advance of the deposits toward the Rio Grande do Sul shield and of a Lower Permian lacuna in eastern Parana indicating the beginning of the epeirogenic process which culminated with the rise of the Ponta Grossa arch. The paper also presents some paleoecological

  11. Late Permian Tsunamites in Guryul Ravine (Kashmir, India) - revisited and rejected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystyn, Leopold; Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer; Parcha, Suraj

    2014-05-01

    Recent claims for tsunami-related event beds induced by the Siberian Trap basalts in this section (Brookfield et al., 2013) have to be questioned. Identical storm generated carbonate beds occur not only during a short interval close to the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary but through a major part of the late Permian (Changhsingian) succession there - as low as 26 m below the so-called tsunami beds. Moreover, during our recent study in a closely neighbouring place called Mandakpal (less than 10 km to the southeast), no signs of tsunamites have been detected in time-correlative finegrained sediments. Based on sedimentary and trace fossil evidence we interpret the late Permian of Guryul as relatively shallow, neritic and delta-influenced. The so-called tsunamites are shelly-enriched discontinuous carbonate lenses fed downslope through local channels. Judging from the distinct facies change from the storm related "tsunamites" to thinly bedded mud turbidites above, the sudden deepening may be explained by local and still rift-related tectonics along the NIM (North-Indian Gondwana Margin) which led to episodic seismic induced sediment redeposition in the area of Guryul. Synsedimentary tectonic activity with tilting and eventual Horst and Graben structure building along the large NIM is indicated by margin inversion during the P-T boundary interval leading to sedimentary breaks and 20 times thinner, condensed limestone deposits far offshore from Guryul in Spiti (Krystyn et al., 2004) and Tibet (Orchard et al., 1994). Thus, local seismic activity seems to be a far more logic explanation of the Guryul "tsunamites" than the eruption of the Siberian Traps more than 6000 km away. References Brookfield, M. E., Algeo, T. J., Hannigan, R., Williams, J and Bhat, G. M., 2013: Shaken and Stirred: Seismites and Tsunamites at the Permian-Triassic boundary, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, India. Palaios, v. 28, 568-582. Krystyn, L., Balini, M. and Nicora, A., 2004: Lower and Middle Triassic

  12. Further paleomagnetic results for lower Permian basalts of the Baoshan Terrane, southwestern China, and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingchao; Yang, Zhenyu; Tong, Ya-Bo; Wang, Heng; Gao, Liang; An, Chunzhi

    2015-05-01

    The Baoshan Terrane of southwestern China is considered to have been part of the Cimmerian block during the late Paleozoic; consequently, knowledge of its paleoposition and geological evolution can provide constraints on the Permian breakup of northern East Gondwana. Therefore, we conducted paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic studies on lower Permian basalts from four localities in the Baoshan Terrane. The basalts hold a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) at high temperatures (300-680 °C) that is carried by magnetite, maghemite, and hematite with both pseudo-single and multiple domains. To test the reliability of data from these volcanic rocks, we analyzed the geomagnetic secular variation (GSV) and reliability of both the present data and previous paleomagnetic data. The results from 23 sites yield a single reversed polarity directed downwards to the southwest, giving a site-mean direction of Dg/Ig = 156.7°/56.6° (kg = 8.0, α95 = 11.4°) before tilt correction, and Ds/Is = 218.3°/60.1° (ks = 14.1, α95 = 8.4°) after tilt correction. The result passed the fold test, but the GSV was able to be averaged out in only two sections. All available data were examined section-by-section using the angular dispersion (SB) of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) to ensure that the GSV was completely averaged out. Because the dispersion in declinations is likely to have been affectedby subsequent tectonic deformation, the paleosecular variation (PSV) could not be evaluated from all the data amassed from different sections, and the PSV was able to be removed from only four (combined) sections. A small-circle fit of these VGPs gives an averaged paleocolatitude of 51.9° ± 3.7° (N = 31 sites) centered on 24°N, 99°E. The result indicates that the sampled area of the Baoshan Terrane was located at a latitude of 38°S ± 3.7° during the late early Permian. A comparison of this result with early Permian data from Gondwanan blocks suggests that the Baoshan Terrane

  13. Lower Permian formations of different geodynamic environments in A'nyemaqen ophiolitic zone (Buqingshan Mts., eastern Kunlun, Qinghai Province, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Lower Permian formations within the Buqingshan Mountains (A'nyemaqen ophiolitic zone, eastern sector of the eastern Kunlun) were formed in the following paleogeodynamic environments (from north to south): ( 1 ) shelf and slope of a passive continental margin in a marginal sea; (2) partially Permian metamorphic rocks of subduction-accretion complexes and volcanogenic rocks of an ensimatic island arc, of the age limited from above by the Asselian - Sakmarian;and (3) an island arc slope and oceanic trench. Subduction-accretion complexes and the island arc volcanites are overlain with a sharp angular unconformity by a carbonate-conglomerate sequence, which presents as local molasse of the Early Permian age. Based on fusulinids from the basal limestone, the age of the local molasse is first defined as the Yakhtashian-Bolorian, i.e. Artinskian-Kungurian (?). The thorough investigations revealed that the initial closure of the eastern Paleotethys within the eastern Kunlun corresponded to the Sakmarian-Yakhtashian (Artinskian) boundary, whereas in the western Paleotethys sector (Northern Pamirs) the closure occurred considerably earlier, prior to the Late Bashkirian.Thus, the idea that the Paleotethys in the eastern Kunlun reached its maximum width in the Permian, is highly questionable.During the Early Permian the A'nyemaqen branch of the Paleotethys intensely decreased. Beginning from the Bolorian (Kungurian) and up to the end of the Permian this branch represented its relict in the form ora marginal sea depression. It may be suggested that the Paleotethys closure in the A'nyemaqen took place gradually from the west to the east and covered a long period from the Late Carboniferous to the terminal Early Permian.

  14. Global taxonomic diversity of anomodonts (tetrapoda, therapsida and the terrestrial rock record across the Permian-Triassic boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Fröbisch

    Full Text Available The end-Permian biotic crisis (~252.5 Ma represents the most severe extinction event in Earth's history. This paper investigates diversity patterns in Anomodontia, an extinct group of therapsid synapsids ('mammal-like reptiles', through time and in particular across this event. As herbivores and the dominant terrestrial tetrapods of their time, anomodonts play a central role in assessing the impact of the end-Permian extinction on terrestrial ecosystems. Taxonomic diversity analysis reveals that anomodonts experienced three distinct phases of diversification interrupted by the same number of extinctions, i.e. an end-Guadalupian, an end-Permian, and a mid-Triassic extinction. A positive correlation between the number of taxa and the number of formations per time interval shows that anomodont diversity is biased by the Permian-Triassic terrestrial rock record. Normalized diversity curves indicate that anomodont richness continuously declines from the Middle Permian to the Late Triassic, but also reveals all three extinction events. Taxonomic rates (origination and extinction indicate that the end-Guadalupian and end-Permian extinctions were driven by increased rates of extinction as well as low origination rates. However, this pattern is not evident at the final decline of anomodont diversity during the Middle Triassic. Therefore, it remains unclear whether the Middle Triassic extinction represents a gradual or abrupt event that is unique to anomodonts or more common among terrestrial tetrapods. The end-Permian extinction represents the most distinct event in terms of decline in anomodont richness and turnover rates.

  15. Geohydrology surrounding a potential high level nuclear waste repository in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle is being investigated as a potential high level nuclear waste repository site. As groundwater is the most likely mechanism for radionuclide movement, it is desirable to locate a repository in a hydrologic regime which is favorable for waste isolation and containment. The Palo Duro Basin consists of deep brine aquifers of low regional permeability underlying a thick Permian age evaporite section. The overlying Permian age evaporites are the Dockum and Ogallala fresh water aquifiers. Observed potentiometric data in the principal aquifers indicate a potential for downward flow from the surficial aquifiers to the deep brine aquifers. Groundwater movement in these deep aquifers is very slow. Modeling efforts indicate flow times of hundreds of thousands to over a million years for groundwater to reach the basin margins. Investigative methods have included drill-stem testing similar to oil field methodology, modified drill-stem testing with tools developed for low-permeability formations and long term production tests similar to conventional water well pumping tests. Testing has generally indicated permeability of .1-10 millidarcies in the water transmitting units

  16. Petroleum geology of the Puguang sour gas field in the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yongsheng; Guo, Tonglou; Zhu, Guangyou; Cai, Xunyu [SINOPEC Southern Exploration and Development Company, Kunming, Yunnan 650200 (China); Zhang, Shuichang [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Maowen [Geological Survey of (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    The Puguang sour gas field in northeastern Sichuan Basin is the largest gas discovery in the Paleozoic marine strata in China, with at least 9 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of proven gas reserves. It is one of the many anticlinal structures formed during the Indo-Sinian orogeny, with gas being trapped in a composite structure-lithology pool. The presence of the Upper Permian coal measures, Lower Silurian and Lower Cambrian marine shales provided excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. The Lower Triassic and Upper Permian oolitic dolomites serve as high quality reservoir rocks, with 10-25% porosity and 1-1000 mD permeability, largely due to diagenetically produced secondary porosity. The Lower and Middle Triassic evaporate beds have acted as the direct top seal for the large Lower Triassic-Upper Permian gas accumulation. The thick Upper Triassic and Jurassic mudstone beds regionally cap the underlying marine carbonate strata. The deep-seated basement faults acted as vertical hydrocarbon migration conduits during faulting, and became effective flow barriers when the faulting ceased. The deep burial of a paleo-oil accumulation in reservoirs rich in sulfate resulted in extensive thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This, together with the new gas injection and structural reconfiguration, transformed a paleo-oil pool to a large sour gas pool. (author)

  17. Paleomagnetism and Thermal History of the Permian Succession of the Velebit Mts (Dinarides, Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, M.; Werner, T.; Vlahovic, I.; Srodon, J.; Anczkiewicz, A.; Velic, I.; Sidorczuk, M.

    2012-12-01

    The studied area of Velebit Mts, a part of the Adria Microplate, belonged to a NE margin of Gondwana during the Carboniferous and Permian. While Permian is characterised by clastics, post-Permian sedimentation is dominated by a thick sequence of carbonate rocks. Today, the entire sequence, representing a stratigraphic range from Carboniferous to Recent, is in places more than 10,000 m thick. The mid-Permian deposits of the core part of the Velebit Mt. at Kosna and Crne Grede localities were investigated using paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements, supported by XRD, AFT and K-Ar studies of the clastic part of the profile (Carboniferous to Triassic). Hysteresis studies revealed that magnetic susceptibility of reddish siltstones/sandstones as well as underlying conglomerates is mostly carried by the paramagnetic matrix with a significant but varying contribution of hematite and some SP/SD magnetite. AMS fabric with low anisotropy ratio (1-3%) is strongly oblate at Kosna and weakly prolate at Crne Grede, reflecting differences in the contribution of magnetic phases. Thermal enhancement of AMS results in substantial increase of susceptibility, anisotropy ratio and more oblate fabric due to growth of SP magnetite fraction,.Enhanced AMS fabric tends to mimic tectonic fabric supporting that SP/SD magnetite is younger syntectonic phase more prone to record younger remagnetization. The paleotemperatures have been estimated by clay minerals analyses of the Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic shales. K-Ar and apatite fission track analyses (AFT) provided time constraints for the maximum paleotemperature and the uplift event, respectively. The paleotemperature estimates gave a range from ca. 140 to more than 200°C. Generally, the highest paleotemperatures are recorded within the Carboniferous rocks. K-Ar measurements of multiple fractions of illite-smectite separated from Triassic bentonites gave a consistent range of the Late Cretaceous ages of the maximum

  18. Petroleum geological investigations in East greenland: project `Resources of the sedimentary basins of North and East Greenland`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmerik, L.; Clausen, O.R.; Larsen, M.; Piasecki, S.; Therkelsen, J. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Korstgaard, J. [Univ. of Aarhus, Geological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark); Seidler, L.; Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The multidisciplinary research project `Resources of the sedimentary basins of North and East Greenland` was initiated in 1995. The 1996 field work in East Greenland concentrated on integrated structural, sedimentological and biostratigraphical studies of the Upper Permian and Mesozoic successions. The most important new results arising from the 1996 field work are: 1) Re-interpretation of the Upper Permian Schuchert Dal Formation as a low stand turbidite unit within the Ravnefjeld Formation; 2) Recognition of Middle Jurassic deposits and thick lowermost Cretaceous sandstones on Hold with Hope; 3) Interpretation of a full spectrum of scarp-derived coarse-clastic mass movement deposits inter-bedded with Cretaceous shales on eastern Traill Oe; 4) The presence of a thick sand-rich Cretaceous turbidite succession on eastern Traill Oe; 5) Re-interpretation of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fault systems on Traill Oe and Geographical Society Oe. (EG) 24 refs.

  19. Palynodating of subsurface sediments, Raniganj Coalfield, Damodar Basin, West Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; B Chakraborti; M D Roy

    2010-10-01

    The Gondwana sediments comprising fine-grained shales,carbonaceous shales,sandstones and the coal horizon in borecore RT-4 (approximately 547.00 m thick)from Tamra block,Raniganj Coal field,Damodar Basin,are analyzed palynologically.Based on the distribution pattern of marker palynotaxa,two assemblage zones are identi fied.In the Barren Measures Formation,dominance of enveloping monosaccate (Densipollenites) along with striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites,Fauni- pollenites) pollen taxa,and the FAD ’s of Kamthisaccites and Arcuatipollenites observed at 30.75, have equated this strata (30.75 –227.80 m thick)with the Raniganj Formation of Late Permian in age.Downwards in the Barakar Formation,between 423.80 –577.70 m depths,an abundance of non-striate (Scheuringipollenites )and striate(Faunipollenites and Striatopodocarpites )bisaccate pollen taxa is observed,that dates late Early Permian in age. Fair occurrences of hyaline,distorted and blackish-brown plant matter is observed within 231.00 –408.40 m depths.Present study infers the existence of the Raniganj Formation in the lithologically delimited Barren Measures Formation in the study area,and the underlying unproductive strata (approx.177.40 m)might represent the part of the Barren Measures Formation.

  20. Thermal history of the periphery of the Junggar Basin, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J.D.; Yang, J.; Pu, F.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemical analysis of rock core samples show that the basin periphery has experienced low thermal stress; present-day heat flows are in the range of 25-35 mW/m2 and have not been significantly higher than the worldwide mean of approx. 63 mW/m2 since the mid-Permian. Present day heat flows were determined from corrected borehole temperatures and rock thermal conductivities. Paleo-heat flows were determined by first-order reaction kinetic modeling of several geochemical paleothermometers (vitrinite reflectance, clay mineral diagenesis and relative proportions of sterane and hopane biological marker diastereomers). ?? 1994.

  1. Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    More than 300 sinkholes, fissures, depressions, and other collapse features occur along a 70 km (45 mi) dissolution front of the Permian Supai Formation, dipping northward into the Holbrook Basin, also called the Supai Salt Basin. The dissolution front is essentially coincident with the so-called Holbrook Anticline showing local dip reversal; rather than being of tectonic origin, this feature is likely a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure caused by the northward migrating dissolution front. Three major areas are identified with distinctive attributes: (1) The Sinks, 10 km WNW of Snowflake, containing some 200 sinkholes up to 200 m diameter and 50 m depth, and joint controlled fissures and fissure-sinks; (2) Dry Lake Valley and contiguous areas containing large collapse fissures and sinkholes in jointed Coconino sandstone, some of which drained more than 50 acre-feet ({approximately}6 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water overnight; and (3) the McCauley Sinks, a localized group of about 40 sinkholes 15 km SE of Winslow along Chevelon Creek, some showing essentially rectangular jointing in the surficial Coconino Formation. Similar salt karst features also occur between these three major areas. The range of features in Supai salt are distinctive, yet similar to those in other evaporate basins. The wide variety of dissolution/collapse features range in development from incipient surface expression to mature and old age. The features began forming at least by Pliocene time and continue to the present, with recent changes reportedly observed and verified on airphotos with 20 year repetition. The evaporate sequence along interstate transportation routes creates a strategic location for underground LPG storage in leached caverns. The existing 11 cavern field at Adamana is safely located about 25 miles away from the dissolution front, but further expansion initiatives will require thorough engineering evaluation.

  2. QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  3. Analog computing by Brewster effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Amir; Zangeneh-Nejad, Farzad; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Khavasi, Amin

    2016-08-01

    Optical computing has emerged as a promising candidate for real-time and parallel continuous data processing. Motivated by recent progresses in metamaterial-based analog computing [Science343, 160 (2014)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1242818], we theoretically investigate the realization of two-dimensional complex mathematical operations using rotated configurations, recently reported in [Opt. Lett.39, 1278 (2014)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.39.001278]. Breaking the reflection symmetry, such configurations could realize both even and odd Green's functions associated with spatial operators. Based on such an appealing theory and by using the Brewster effect, we demonstrate realization of a first-order differentiator. Such an efficient wave-based computation method not only circumvents the major potential drawbacks of metamaterials, but also offers the most compact possible device compared to conventional bulky lens-based optical signal and data processors.

  4. U-Pb Geochronology, Geochemistry and Kinematic Analyses of Subduction-Related Late Triassic Basins in Northern Chile (24.5º-26ºS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    In northern Chile (24.5°-26°S) two Pre-Andean depocenters crop out: the Cifuncho basin in the Coastal Cordillera and the Profeta basin in the Precordillera. These basins have been classically interpreted as a continental rifting unrelated to subduction during the period prior to the Andean orogenic cycle. However, recent petrographic and geochemical data suggest the development of these basins in an active subduction system. In order to test this hypothesis and to establish the geologic evolution of the basins and the strain field during the rifting process, we present preliminary U-Pb geochronological and geochemical data together with structural analyses of synrift structures. The geochronological data along the Cifuncho and Profeta basins, show a main continental sedimentary deposition during the Norian to Raethian. Volcanosedimentary rocks show a main detrital supply of Early Permian age (~297-283 Ma). This input can be associated with the volcanic La Tabla Formation and/or the exhumation of Permian granitoids. A minor supply close to ~478 Ma is related to a source from the Lower Ordovician arc (~480 Ma), suggesting the tectonic exhumation of this source to the east of the Profeta basin during the Late Triassic. On the other hand, structural analysis was carried in third and four order extensional faults (<10 m of slip) along the Profeta basin. Most of the faults show a clear synrift character with the development of fault controlled growing strata. The kinematic analyses evidence a variability in the orientation of the maximum strain axes from a main northwest to a subordinate northeast direction of extension. Thus, the intimate relation between the continental sedimentary deposition and a proximal volcanism of intermediate composition and calk-alkaline affinity, suggests the development of these basins in a supra-subduction setting during the Late Triassic. Structural data probably reflect local variation in the strain field across the basins.

  5. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems. PMID:25784574

  6. High-resolution seismic analysis of the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (North German Basin): the pre-Alpine evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, H.; Reicherter, K.; Schikowsky, P.

    2008-09-01

    The pre-Alpine structural and geological evolution in the northern part of the North German Basin have been revealed on the basis of a very dense reflection seismic profile grid. The study area is situated in the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (Germany), part of the southwestern Baltic Sea. From the central part of the North German Basin to the northern basin margin in the Grimmen High area a series of high-resolution maps show the evolution from the base Zechstein to the Lower Jurassic. We present a map of basement faults affecting the pre-Zechstein. The pre-Alpine structural evolution of the region has been determined from digital mapping of post-Permian key horizons traced on the processed seismic time sections. The geological evolution of the North German Basin can be separated into four distinct periods in the Rerik study area. During Late Permian and Early Triassic evaporites and clastics were deposited. Salt movement was initiated after the deposition of the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk. Salt pillows, which were previously unmapped in the study area, are responsible for the creation of smaller subsidence centers and angular unconformities in the Late Triassic Keuper, especially in the vicinity of the fault-bounded Grimmen High. In this area, partly Lower Jurassic sediments overlie the Keuper unconformably. The change from extension to compression in the regional stress field remobilized the salt, leading to a major unconformity marked at the base of the Late Cretaceous.

  7. Dissolution of the Upper Seven Rivers and Salado salt in the interior Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Revision: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Upper Seven Rivers and Salado Formations contain the uppermost salts within the interior Palo Duro Basin, Stratigraphic and structural evidence based on geophysical well logs indicate that both dissolution and facies change have influenced the thickness of these uppermost salts. The magnitude of vertical salt loss due to dissolution is interminable at this time because original salt thickness is unknown. Gradual thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation is recognized from south to north across the Palo Duro Basin. Anhydrites within the formation pinch out toward the basin margins, indicating that section loss is in part depositionally controlled. Additionally, informal subdivision of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation suggests that salt dissolution has occurred in the uppermost salt. A northeast-trending zone of thin Upper Seven Rivers Formation in portions of Deaf Smith, Randall, Castro, and Parmer Counties is possibly related to Tertiary dissolution. In New Mexico, local thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation may be associated with faulting. Triassic erosion on uplifted fault blocks has affected the Upper Permian section. The Salado salt margin is located within the interior Palo Duro Basin. Geophysical well logs and core evidence indicate that the salt margin has migrated basinward as a result of dissolution. Permian dissolution probably contributed to some salt loss. 106 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Dynamics for multistage pool formation of Lunnan low uplift in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Lunnan area in the Tarim Basin has become an important onshore oil production base in China. Formation of the oil and gas pools in the low uplift of Lunnan has experienced a comparatively complex process of dynamics. Based on the hydrocarbon generation period of source rocks, the formation period of cap rocks and traps, the analysis of organic inclusion and the analysis of bitumen in the reservoir, this paper draws the conclusion that the low uplift area of Lunnan has experienced three pool formation periods: the Permian period, the Cretaceous-Early Tertiary period and the Late Tertiary-Quaternary period and two oil and gas reservoir adjustment periods: the Late Permian period and the Late Tertiary-Quaternary period. The comprehensive study indicates that the large-scale Ordovician buried hill, formed in Early Hercynian, became the reservoir during the Permian period, because the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician oil was discharged laterally into the reservoir along the top of the Ordovician weathering crust from south to north. The reservoir experienced a complicated process--reconstruc- tion in the end of Permian, adjustment in Cretaceous-Early Tertiary and re-discharging process in Late Tertiary-Qua- ternary, leading to the early original heavy oil reservoir of marine facies and the late original light oil reservoir and gas pool. Carboniferous, Triassic and Jurassic oil and gas reservoirs result from upward adjustment and re-distribution of Ordovician oil and gas reservoirs. Of those results, the formation of Triassic-Jurassic oil and gas pools came under the influence of the northward-tilting structure. The oil and gas sourcing from the different hydrocarbon source rock intervals vertically migrated into the base unconformity of Triassic system. Then the oil and gas migrated laterally from north to south and accumulated into the reservoir.

  9. Rapid Carbonate Depositional Changes Following the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction:Sedimentary Evidence from South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tian; Jinnan Tong; David Bottjer; Daoliang Chu; Lei Liang; Huyue Song; Haijun Song

    2015-01-01

    Various environmental changes were associated with the Permian-Triassic mass extinc-tion at 252.2 Ma. Diverse unusual sediments and depositional phenomena have been uncovered as re-sponses to environmental and biotic changes. Lithological and detailed conodont biostratigraphic cor-relations within six Permian-Triassic boundary sections in South China indicate rapid fluctuations in carbonate deposition. Four distinct depositional phases can be recognized:(1) normal carbonate depo-sition on the platform and slope during the latest Permian;(2) reduced carbonate deposition at the on-set of the main extinction horizon; (3) expanded areas of carbonate deposition during the Hindeodus changxingsensis Zone to the H. parvus Zone;and (4) persistent mud-enriched carbonate deposition in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic transition. Although availability of skeletal carbonate was sig-nificantly reduced during the mass extinction, the increase in carbonate deposition did not behave the same way. The rapid carbonate depositional changes, presented in this study, suggest that diverse envi-ronmental changes played key roles in the carbonate deposition of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and onset of its aftermath. An overview of hypotheses to explain these changes implies enhanced terres-trial input, abnormal ocean circulation and various geobiological processes contributed to carbonate saturation fluctuations, as the sedimentary response to large volcanic eruptions.

  10. CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY AT THE LUKAC SECTION IN WESTERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEA KOLAR-JURKOVSEK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Detailed conodont biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Late Permian and Early Triassic beds were studied at the LukaC section in western Slovenia. The analyzed section is composed of the Bellerophon Formation ("evaporite-dolomite member" and the newly introduced Lukaè Formation ("transitional beds", "streaky limestone member" and "carbonate-clastic beds member". The Permian-Triassic boundary interval is represented by "transitional beds" of carbonate facies deposited in shallow restricted marine conditions. The presence of H. parvus in sample L1 in the "transitional beds" marks the systemic boundary between Permian and Triassic. The studied interval is characterized by a diverse microfauna that contain conodonts, foraminifers, ostracods and gastropods. Six conodont zones have been recognized, in ascending order, the latest Changhsingian (uppermost Permian praeparvus Zone, and the Griesbachian (lowermost Triassic parvus, lobata, staeschei-isarcica, postparvus and anceps zones. This faunal succession represents the first known and the most complete conodont biozonation across the Permian-Triassic interval from the entire Dinaric region. The recognized conodont biozones can be correlated with the biozonation of the Southern Alps and of the GSSP Meishan D section. 

  11. Xampling: Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Mishali, Moshe; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2011-01-01

    Xampling generalizes compressed sensing (CS) to reduced-rate sampling of analog signals. A unified framework is introduced for low rate sampling and processing of signals lying in a union of subspaces. Xampling consists of two main blocks: Analog compression that narrows down the input bandwidth prior to sampling with commercial devices followed by a nonlinear algorithm that detects the input subspace prior to conventional signal processing. A variety of analog CS applications are reviewed wi...

  12. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitaniak, T.; Zyczkowski, K.; Feudel, U.; Grebogi, C.

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we d...

  13. Structural relations between Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins of west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R.; Smith, K.J.

    1985-02-01

    The Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins and related uplifts formed the major structural elements of the southwestern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic. In contrast with the relatively simple relationships where the southern Oklahoma aulacogen intersects the Ouachita orogenic belt, structural relationships in the area of these basins are very complex. Various geologic evidence points to an allochthonous Marathon basin. However, a prominent gravity anomaly is associated with the Ouachita system as it extends from western Arkansas through Oklahoma and Texas into northern Mexico. If this anomaly is the signature of the early Paleozoic continental margin, then the location of the Marathon basin with respect to this anomaly suggests lateral displacements have been only on the scale of tens of kilometers. The Delaware basin seems clearly analogous to the Anadarko basin in that it formed as a result of reactivation of a major crustal flaw (not necessarily a rift). This reactivation was a result of the Ouachita orogeny. The Marfa basin is also flanked by a linear gravity high and basement uplift. The relationship of this anomaly to the gravity high associated with the Ouachita system suggests that the Marfa basin may be more analogous to the Delaware basin that foreland basins such as the Ft. Worth and Arkoma. A prominent gravity high that extends into northern Mexico is associated with the Devil's River uplift, and the relationships between this feature, the Val Verde basin, and adjacent structures suggest major deformation on a crustal scale.

  14. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  15. The thermal and mechanical evolution of the Anadarko basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, David L.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1984-08-01

    During the late Mississippian the style of subsidence and sedimentary facies in the Anadarko Basin changed significantly. This marked an interval of rapid subsidence that was unrelated to the pre-existing Cambro-Ordovician trough referred to as the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen. The sedimentary facies changed from black shales and carbonates to predominantly elastics of the Mississippian-Springer series. At the same time, widespread deposition changed to deposition in a narrow, geographically isolated trough. During a span of close to 23 m.y., extending into the middle Pennsylvanian, nearly 3.5 km of these clastic sediments were deposited in the narrow trough. On the south side of the basin, during the latter half of this time interval, reverse faulting and uplift of the Wichita Mountains accompanied subsidence in the basin. The timing of the uplift indicates that north-south shortening in the basin was not the primary cause of subsidence. This early narrow phase was followed by a return to widespread deposition in late Des Moinesian time, although with continued clastic sedimentation. During the early Permian, elastics graded into evaporites. Subsidence slowed continuously throughout this final widespread phase of subsidence. We model the formation of the Anadarko Basin in terms of elastic flexure of the lithosphere. In order to accommodate the early narrow phase, subsidence is attributed to crustal thinning accompanied by faulting. We show that the final widespread phase of subsidence was accommodated by lithospheric flexure and that the flexural rigidity of the elastic lithosphere increased from D = 4.1·10 30 dyne cm to D = 1.9·10 31 dyne cm during this period. This increase can be attributed to a decrease in heat flow with time. These two phases of subsidence in the Anadarko Basin are consistent with crustal thinning followed by thermal subsidence.

  16. How shallow drilling would be useful in establishing a reference section for syntectonic Pennsylvania and Permian sedimentation patterns adjacent to the Wichita uplift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, R.N. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian tectonism that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. The principal effect of this tectonism was to either invert or accentuate the existing section into uplifts and syntectonic basins respectively. As a result of the Wichita uplift, the Paleozoic sedimentary section of the aulacogen was stripped off, resulting in the exposure of the Cambrian igneous fill. At the same time sediments shed from the uplift into the adjacent Anadarko (to the north) and Hardeman-Hollis (to the south) basins constitute an inverted record of this erosion. Collectively these sedimentary rocks are referred to as the Granite Wash' in the subsurface and the Post Oak Conglomerate' at the surface. In both situations the rocks were deposited as a complex of alluvial fans or fan deltas. In addition to being a tangible record of contemporary uplift and erosion, these rocks also bear the imprint of a gradually changing climate (humid to arid) that reflects the northward drift of the craton. Although the Granite Wash is encountered in drilling (and in places is a hydrocarbon reservoir), it is rarely cored and, because of the complexity of its facies, difficult to correlate. Similarly the overlying Post Oak Conglomerate is poorly exposed and equally difficult to correlate. Furthermore, the Post Oak is only a partial analogue of the Granite Wash in the sense that it is a deposit related to relief reduction rather than contemporary tectonism. It follows that a complete core or series of cores taken from both flanks of the Wichita uplift would be an invaluable reference to an understanding of the interractions between tectonic, climatic, depositional and diagenetic factors that have influenced these rocks.

  17. An abrupt extinction in the Middle Permian (Capitanian) of the Boreal Realm with a causal link to anoxia, acidification and mercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David; Wignall, Paul; Joachimski, Michael; Sun, Yadong; Savov, Ivan; Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Blomeier, Dierk

    2016-04-01

    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) extinction event is mostly known from equatorial latitudes and consequently its global extent is poorly resolved. We demonstrate that there were two, severe extinctions amongst brachiopods in northern Boreal latitudes (Spitsbergen), in the Middle to Late Permian, separated by a recovery phase. New age dating of the Kapp Starostin Formation of Spitsbergen using strontium and carbon isotopic trends suggests that the first crisis occurred in the Capitanian. This age assignment indicates that this Middle Permian extinction is manifest at higher latitudes. Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the Boreal crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen depletion, implicating anoxia in the extinction scenario. The highly toxic metal mercury becomes enriched in strata at the Middle Permian extinction level implicating death-by-toxicity (and a possible link to volcanism). Finally, the near-total loss of carbonates across the Boreal Realm in the Middle to Late Permian also suggests a role for acidification. New in prep. data from Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (samples collected July 2015) tentatively suggests that this potent "three strikes and you're out" extinction mechanism was a Boreal-wide phenomenon. The Late Permian recovery interval saw the appearance of new brachiopod and bivalve taxa alongside survivors, and an increased mollusk dominance, resulting in an assemblage reminiscent of younger Mesozoic assemblages. The subsequent end-Permian mass extinction terminated this Late Permian radiation.

  18. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    retro-arc or inter-arc basin belts from north to south, such as Santanghu-Suosuoquan-Emin, Wucaiwan-Dongdaohaizi-Mahu (Mahu block sunk as a bathyal basin during this phase) and Fukang-western well Pen1 sag accordingly. Thirdly, the closure of these retro-arc or inter-arc basins migrating gradually toward the south led to the collision and amalgamation between the above-mentioned island arcs during the Carboniferous, constituting the basic framework of the Junggar 'block'. Fourthly, the emplacement of large-scale mantle-derived magmas occurred in the latest Carboniferous to Early Permian. For instance, the well Mahu 5 penetrate the latest Carboniferous basalts with a thickness of over 20 m, and these mantle-derived magmas consolidated the above-mentioned island arc-collaged blocks. Therefore, the Junggar basin basement mainly comprises pre-Carboniferous collaged basement, and its formation is characterized by two-stage growth model, involving the Carboniferous lateral growth of island arcs and the latest Carboniferous to Early Permian vertical crustal growth related to emplacement and underplating of the mantle-derived magmas. In the Middle Permian, the Junggar Basin is dominated by a series of stable intra-continental sag basins from west to east, such as Mahu, Shawan, western Well Pen1, Dongdaohaizi-Wucaiwan-Dajing, Fukang-Jimusaer sag lake-basins and so on. The Middle Permian (e.g., Lower Wu'erhe, Lucaogou, and Pingdiquan Formations) thick source rocks developed in these basins, suggesting that the Junggar Basin had been entered 'intra-cratonic sag' basin evolution stage. Since then, no strong thermal tectonic event could result in crust growth. The present crustal thickness of Junggar Basin is 45-52 km, which was mainly formed before the latest Early Permian. Subsequently, the Junggar Basin experienced a rapid cooling process during the Late Permian to Triassic. These events constrain the formation timing of the Junggar basin basement to be before the latest Early

  19. A calcium isotope test of end-Permian ocean acidification using biogenic apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J.; Brown, S. T.; DePaolo, D. J.; Paytan, A.; Shen, S.; Chen, J.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    Submarine erosional truncation of uppermost Permian carbonate strata has been interpreted to reflect ocean acidification coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction. Although this scenario is consistent with carbon isotope and paleontological data, several alternative scenarios, such as ocean overturn or collapse of the biological pump, can also account for the carbon isotope and paleontological evidence. Calcium isotopes provide a geochemical proxy to test between acidification and alternative scenarios. Specifically, a negative shift in the calcium isotope composition (δ44/40Ca) of seawater is predicted under the acidification scenario but not the alternatives. The δ44/40Ca of carbonate rocks from south China exhibits a negative excursion of approximately 0.3%, but this shift could result from either a change in the δ44/40Ca of seawater or a change in carbonate mineralogy because calcite and aragonite exhibit substantially different fractionation factors relative to seawater. To test whether the negative shift in δ44/40Ca reflects seawater δ44/40Ca or carbonate mineralogy, we measured the δ44/40Ca of conodont microfossils (calcium hydroxyapatite) from the global stratotype section for the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, China. The conodont δ44/40Ca record shows a negative excursion similar in stratigraphic position and magnitude to that previously observed in carbonate rocks. Parallel negative excursions in the δ44/40Ca of carbonate rocks and conodont microfossils cannot be accounted for by a change in carbonate mineralogy but are consistent with a negative shift in the δ44/40Ca of seawater. These data add further support for the ocean acidification scenario, pointing toward strong similarities between the greatest catastrophe in the history of animal life and anticipated global change during the 21st century.

  20. Blastoid Body Size - Changes from the Carboniferous to the End-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Tolosa, R.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate, known for affecting biodiversity within genera of animal species, is often addressed as a major variable of geological systems. The Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous was noted for its lush, tropical climate that sustained a variety of biological life. In contrast, the Permian era was marked primarily by an ice age that had started earlier during the Pennsylvanian. The blastoids, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, were in existence from the Silurian (443.4 Ma) to the end of the Permian (252.28 Ma). This study focused on whether climate affected blastoid theca size over the span of those one hundred million years between the Mississippian and the Permian or if was simply a negligible factor. We analyzed size data from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology and correlated it to both Cope's Rule, which states that size increases with geologic time, and Bergmann's Rule, which states that latitude and temperature are catalysts for size change. CO2 levels from known records served as a proxy for global temperature. Our results indicated that the blastoids increased in size by 59% over geologic time. The size of the blastoids increased over geologic time, following Cope's Rule. According to our graphs in R, there was an inverse relationship between volume and climate. Size decreased as temperature increased, which follows Bergmann's Rule. However, we also wanted to observe spatial factors regarding Bergmann's Rule such as paleolatitude and paleolongitude. This info was taken from the Paleobiology Database and showed that a majority of the blastoids were found near the equator, which, according to the other part of Bergmann's Rule, suggests that they would therefore increase in size. Further tests implied strong correlations between temperature, volume, and paleolocation. We ultimately believe that although Cope's Rule is in effect, Bergmann's mechanisms for size may not apply to the blastoids due to the environments that the blastoids lived in or

  1. A comparison of the Iberian and Ebro Basins during the Permian and Triassic, eastern Spain: A quantitative subsidence modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Hernández, Henar María; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; López Gómez, José; Wes, Jan-Diederik Van; Cloething, Sierd; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Arche, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The Permian–Triassic sediments of the Iberian Plate are a well studied case of classical Buntsandstein– Muschelkalk–Keuper facies, with good sedimentological interpretations and precise datings based on pollen and spore assemblages, ammonoids and foraminifera. Synrift–postrift cycles are recorded in these facies, but there are only a few studies of quantitative subsidence analysis (backstripping method) and only a previous one using forward modelling for the quantification of synr...

  2. 77 FR 65446 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Control Exemption-Cape Rail, Inc. and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... interest in Cape, the parent company of Mass Coastal, from the two existing Cape shareholders, Podgurski... operates a network of about 100 miles of track and trackage rights in southeastern Massachusetts and...

  3. Rare earth elements stratigraphic significance in late Permian coal measure from Bijie City, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YANG Ruidong; BAO Miao

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are good geological indicators. In order to understand REEs stratigraphic significance, REEs m Late Permian coal measure from Bijie City, western Guizhou Province, China were studied. The results showed that the contents of both light rare earth element (LREE) and ∑ REE were sharply increased in the boundary between Longtan Formation and Changxing Formation, which resulted from the gyration and discontinuity eruption of Emeishan basalt (REEs source) and frequent transgression-regression during forming coal. The coal measure and strata could be subdivided and correlate, and the sea-level change could be under stood by studying REEs content variation in coal measure.

  4. Paleomagnetism of Lower Permian Abo and Yeso Formation, Carizzo Arroyo, Lucero Uplift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, M. S.; Geissman, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    We report paleomagnetic data from Lower Permian hematite-cemented sandstones and siltstones from Carrizo Arroyo, on the eastern edge of the Lucero uplift along the west-side of the middle Rio Grande rift, to test the hypothesis that the rift margins have accommodated extensional strain via vertical axis rotation. In addition, we present a revised interpretation of the structural setting and deformation history of the area, were late-Tertiary transtensional stresses have produced the majority of the structures in the area. The paleomagnetic data are discussed in the context of this hypothesis. In the Rio Grande rift area, a mid-Cenozoic and younger extensional feature defining the eastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, relatively little work has been done to assess the magnitude and sense of vertical axis rotations of fault-bounded crustal blocks within and at the margins of the plateau. A growing body of evidence shows that the Colorado Plateau has experienced some degree of vertical axis rotation and some magnitude of northward translation, although the magnitudes of the rotation and translation have been subject to considerable debate. Eight to ten oriented samples from 50 sites have been fully demagnetized with all sites yielding interpretable results: 41 sites from three sections in the Lower Permian Abo Formation, and 9 sites in the Meseta Blanca Member of the overlying Yeso Formation. In most cases, progressive thermal demagnetization resulted in a nearly univectorial decay of the magnetization to the origin that is well grouped at the site level. After correcting for modest dip of strata, the 50 sites in Carrizo Arroyo yield an estimate group mean (D = 162.1°, I = -4.1°, α95 = 6.8°, k = 10.18). Overall, the data from this part of the west side of the rift are discordant, in a clockwise since, with Early Permian (about D = 140°, I = -2.0°) and mid-Permian (about D = 145°, I = -4.0°) expected directions. We interpret the paleomagnetic data from

  5. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  6. An optical analog signal transmitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudzita, K.; Itida, T.; Tanaka, Kh.

    1984-01-11

    An optical laser analog signal transmitter employing an amplitude modulated subcarrier is patented; this transmitter performs stable and high quality transmission of information signals over great distances. A feature of the proposed transmitter is a special transmitter operational mode in which the light emission reflected off the connection point to the fiber optic conduit is sent back to the laser diode in a transient period. As a result, the critical mode of the generated emission is not influenced by the reflected signal. The transmitter consists of a laser diode with biasing near the cutoff point, an amplitude modulator with a subcarrier frequency oscillator, a section of flexible fiber-optic cable of length L, which connects the laser diode to the primary optical fiber conduit, and the connector itself. The subcarrier frequency may vary over wide ranges to establish the necessary correlation between the length of the light conduit section L and the return propagation time of the reflected light signal from the connection point to the laser diode. The difference between the lasing time of the light signal and the return time to the laser diode of the signal reflected off the connector is determined by the relation tau equals 2nL/c - mtauc, where L is the length of the connecting section; n is the refractivity of the optical fiber; c is the velocity of light; tauc is the period of the high frequency subcarrier signal; and m is an integer.

  7. A Mechanical Analogy for the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Milan S.; Djordjevich, Alexandar

    2006-01-01

    Analogy is a potent tool in the teacher's repertoire. It has been particularly well recognized in the teaching of science. However, careful planning is required for its effective application to prevent documented drawbacks when analogies are stretched too far. Befitting the occasion of the World Year of Physics commemorating Albert Einstein's 1905…

  8. A physical analogy to fuzzy clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides an interpretation of the membership assignment in the fuzzy clustering algorithm fuzzy c-means. The membership of a data point to several clusters is shown to be analogous to the gravitational forces between bodies of mass. This provides an alternative way to explain...... the algorithm to students. The analogy suggests a possible extension of the fuzzy membership assignment equation....

  9. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…

  10. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  11. Several Forms of Fuzzy Analogical Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchon-Meunier, B; Delechamp, J.; Marsala, C.; Rifqi, M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a general framework representing analogy, on the basis of a link between variables and measures of comparison between values of variables. This analogical scheme is proven to represent a common description of several forms of reasoning used in fuzzy control or in the management of knowledge-based systems, such as deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning or prototypical reasoning, gradual reasoning.

  12. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavitavya Nijampatnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity.

  13. Analogical Processes and College Developmental Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Although a solid body of research concerning the role of analogies in reading processes has emerged at a variety of age groups and reading proficiencies, few of those studies have focused on analogy use by readers enrolled in college developmental reading courses. The current study explores whether 232 students enrolled in mandatory (by placement…

  14. Analogies in biology textbooks in zoology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Cézar Seiffert Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The biologic structures of living creatures are of difficult understanding for students, because they are usually unknown by those, in needs of strategic didactics in order to facilitate the student understanding. There are several strategies and methods for teaching, such as, analogies, metaphors, descriptions, among others. In this article we aim to identify, assess and classify the analogies used in the Higher School Biology textbooks, commonly used in Public State Schools of Manaus – AM, related to the zoology theme. The methodological procedure includes: a analysis of the whole zoological content of the most used textbooks in the public state network of Amazonas throughout the year; b three didactic textbooks have been specifically analyzed in order to specify the class taxon of “Fish” for the comparison of possible variations of types and quantities of analogies. The adopted classification of analogies was of Curtis & Reigeluth (1984 and the model of enriching analysis was according to the TWA Glynn model (Harrison & Treagust, 1993. It has been concluded that the use of analogies is greater in the content of invertebrates than that of vertebrates. Most Analogies are presented in a simple and direct manner, comparing structures, concrete to concrete, and of verbal mediation, almost nothing is presented in a diverse and heuristic manner of Zoology content on the LD. The development of limits of comparison and reflexion about the analogies was rare, only the presentation of the analogue and the target of analogy occurred.

  15. The origin and early evolution of Sauria: reassessing the permian Saurian fossil record and the timing of the crocodile-lizard divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín D Ezcurra

    Full Text Available Sauria is the crown-group of Diapsida and is subdivided into Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. The split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. Saurians have a very rich Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil record, but their late Paleozoic (Permian record is problematic. Several Permian specimens have been referred to Sauria, but the phylogenetic affinity of some of these records remains questionable. We reexamine and review all of these specimens here, providing new data on early saurian evolution including osteohistology, and present a new morphological phylogenetic dataset. We support previous studies that find that no valid Permian record for Lepidosauromorpha, and we also reject some of the previous referrals of Permian specimens to Archosauromorpha. The most informative Permian archosauromorph is Protorosaurus speneri from the middle Late Permian of Western Europe. A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. The supposed protorosaur Eorasaurus olsoni from the Late Permian of Russia is recovered among Archosauriformes and may be the oldest known member of the group but the phylogenetic support for this position is low. The assignment of Archosaurus rossicus from the latest Permian of Russia to the archosauromorph clade Proterosuchidae is supported. Our revision suggests a minimum fossil calibration date for the crocodile-lizard split of 254.7 Ma. The occurrences of basal archosauromorphs in the northern (30°N and southern (55°S parts of Pangea imply a wider paleobiogeographic distribution for the group during the Late Permian than previously appreciated. Early archosauromorph

  16. STUDY ON REGULATIONS OF.SULFUR OCCURRENCE AND PYRITE MAGNETISM OF LATE PERMIAN COALS IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任德贻; 唐跃刚; 雷加锦

    1994-01-01

    The Permian coal In southwest China contains highest sulfur among the Chinese coal. Compositional variations of sulfur in coal are mainly controlled by paiaogeographicai environments during peat accumulation. High organic sulfur coal is formed in peat swamp developing in tidal flat of limited carbonate platform, and it is provided with especial petrological and geochemical characteristics, and its organosuLfur-containing compounds are mainly thiophene series. The macroscopical and microscopical shapes or types of pyrites in Late Permian coal are diversified. Bituminous coal and anthracite are diamagnetic, but the pyrites are paramagnetic. The magnetic susceptibility of the pyrites is depended on the content of paramagnatic elements associated with pyrites.

  17. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. [National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1996-12-31

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  19. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. (National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1996-01-01

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  20. An Analog Earth Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The earth climate is broadly governed by the radiative power of the sun as well as the heat retention and convective cooling of the atmosphere. I have constructed an analog earth model for an undergraduate climate class that simulates mean climate using these three parameters. The ‘earth’ is a hollow, black, bronze sphere (4 cm diameter) mounted on a thin insulated rod, and illuminated by two opposite optic fibers, with light focused on the sphere by a set of lenses. The sphere is encased in a large double-walled aluminum cylinder (34 cm diameter by 26 cm high) with separate water cooling jackets at the top, bottom, and sides. The cylinder can be filled with a gas of choice at a variety of pressures or can be run in vacuum. The exterior is cladded with insulation, and the temperature of the sphere, atmosphere and walls is monitored with thermocouples. The temperature and waterflow of the three cooling jackets can be monitored to establish the energy output of the whole system; the energy input is the energy yield of the two optic fibers. A small IR transmissive lens at the top provides the opportunity to hook up the fiber of a hyper spectrometer to monitor the emission spectrum of the black ‘earth’ sphere. A pressure gauge and gas inlet-outlet system for flushing of the cell completes it. The heat yield of the cooling water at the top is the sum of the radiative and convective components, whereas the bottom jacket only carries off the radiative heat of the sphere. Undergraduate E&ES students at Wesleyan University have run experiments with dry air, pure CO2, N2 and Ar at 1 atmosphere, and a low vacuum run was accomplished to calibrate the energy input. For each experiment, the lights are flipped on, the temperature acquisition routine is activated, and the sphere starts to warm up until an equilibrium temperature has been reached. The lights are then flipped off and the cooling sequence towards ambient is registered. The energy input is constant for a given

  1. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  2. A Proposed Area for Study of Accessory Section and Point of Terrestrial Permian-Triassic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After the establishment of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB), the definition of the accessory section and point (ASP) of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (TPTB) is now on the agenda. However, all good TPTB sections so far known have the following shortcomings: (1) the exact TPTB horizon is difficult to define paleontologically with high-resolution, and (2) accurate correlation between marine and terrestrial PTBs is hard to attain. In order to enhance the understanding of the nature of the global life crisis in both the marine and terrestrial environments across the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition, these shortcomings need to be addressed. In western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, Southwest China, some fossiliferous PTB sections which include marine, paralic and terrestrial are well-developed, allowing bed-to-bed correlation of the PTB sequences.Fortunately, the marine PTB sequence in this area is almost the same as found at the Meishan Section,where the GSSP of the PTB is located, which may provide a reliable auxiliary marker for high-resolution demarcation of the TPTB. These features found in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan make this area a good place to study the ASP of the TPTB, so we propose to study the ASP of the TPTB in this area.

  3. Filamentous cyanobacteria fossils and their significance in the Permian-Triassic boundary section at Laolongdong, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG HongXia; WU YaSheng; CAI ChunFang

    2008-01-01

    The microbial communities blooming immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction represent abnormally extreme environments, and vary in different areas. In this study, filamentous cyanobacterial biota was found in the strata after the extinction in the famous Permian-Triassic boundary section at Laolongdong, Chongqing, southwest China. In thin sections, the filamentous cyanobacterial fossils are below 1 mm in length, and generally taper to one end, with the widest diameter up to 0.08 mm. Some of them are curved, indicating that they are soft in life. Their walls are composed of cryptocrystalline to microcrystalline calcites. The filaments have round cross section, and are internally filled with micrites and fine sparry calcites, which indicate that the filaments are originally empty. They are randomly dis-tributed in the rocks, but in some places, they tend to be distributed in radial pattern. The filamentous organisms are morphologically similar to Rivularia of Rivulariaceae, Cyanobacteria Phylum, but with calcified sheaths, and are tentatively regarded as an indeterminate new species in Rivularia: Rivularia sp. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic autotrophic, and can survive in dysoxic condition. The blooming of this organism and the absence of other organisms may indicate that the environment was oxygen-deficient and shallow, since this photosynthetic autotrophic organism needed to live within photic zone.

  4. Research on Outcrop Sequence Stratigraphy of Permian in Middle-Lower Yangtze Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the latest International Chronostratigraphic Scheme (ICS, 2000), the Permian in the Middle-Lower Yangtze region of South China can be divided into three series and nine stages relevant to the traditional six stages of South China. From Assellian to Changxingian of Permian, 44 Ma in age range, the strata are composed of 14 third-order sequences, each of which is 3.14 Ma in average age range. There is one third-order sequence of Zisongian, equivalent to middle and upper Chuanshan Formation or equal to Asselian and two thirds of Sakmarian. There are two third-order sequences, corre sponding to Liang-shan Formation or Zhenjiang Formation and upper Chuanshan Formation, which are assigned to Longlingian, coinciding with Artinskian and one third of Sakmarian. In addition, three third-order sequences, equal to Qixia Formation, are attributed to Chihsian, corresponding to Kubergandian and one third of Roadian. Four third-order sequences, comprising Gufeng, Maokou, Yanqiao,Yinping and Wuxue formations, are assigned to Maokouan, equivalent to two thirds of Roadian, Word ian and Capitanian. Two third-order sequences, equal to Longtan Formation or Wujiaping Formation,are included in Wuchiapingian. Other two third-order sequences, corresponding to Changxing Formation or Dalong Formation, are assigned to Changhsingian. In brief, these above third-order sequences can be incorporated into 4 sequences sets.

  5. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Early-Middle Permian Reef Frameworks and Reef-building Models in the Eastern Kunlun Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田树刚; 范嘉松

    2001-01-01

    Reef frameworks and building models of the Early-Middle Permian in the eastern Kunlun Mountains have been verified through studies of reef-building communities, palaeoecology and carbonate facies. The eastern Kunlun reefs are built mainly by 6 reef-building communities, which include 11 major categories of frame-building organisms and 6 categories of reef-associated organisms. Eight types of reef-frames have been distinguished and eleven kinds of rocks identified to belong to 6 reef facies. Three sorts of reefs classified by previous researchers, namely mudmounds, knoll reefs and walled reefs, are well developed in the study area. Such reef-facies association and reef distribution show that there are 4 models of reef growth and development, i.e. the tidal-bank knoll-reef model, the plateau-margin wall-reef model, the composite wall-reef model and the deep-water mudmound model. The reefs are mainly constructed by calcareous sponge and calcareous algae, which are similar to all Permian reefs in other areas of South China and the world. Their great scales indicate a secular stable platform-marginal environment.

  7. The Siberian Traps and the End-Permian mass extinction: a critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy SAUNDERS; Marc REICHOW

    2009-01-01

    The association between the Siberian Traps,the largest continental flood basalt province,and thelargest-known mass extinction event at the end of the Permian period,has been strengthened by re-cently-published high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dates from widespread localities across the Siberian prov-ince[i].We argue that the impact of the volcanism was amplified by the prevailing late Permian envi-ronmental conditions-in particular,the hothouse climate,with sluggish oceanic circulation,that wasleading to widespread oceanic anoxia.Volcanism released large masses of sulphate aerosols andcarbon dioxide,the former triggering short-duration volcanic winters,the latter leading to long-termwarming.Whilst the mass of CO2 released from individual eruptions was small compared with the totalmass of carbon in the atmosphere-ocean system,the long 'mean lifetime' of atmospheric C02,com-pared with the eruption flux and duration,meant that significant accumulation could occur over periodsof 10s years.Compromise of the carbon sequestration systems (by curtailment of photosynthesis,de-struction of biomass,and warming and acidification of the oceans) probably led to rapid atmosphericCO2 build-up,warming,and shallow-water anoxia,leading ultimately to mass extinction.

  8. Application of seismic facies and attributes analysis on the identification of Permian igneous rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yongzhong; Yang Haijun; Liu Yongfu; Wang Shuangshuang; Yang Peng; Zhao Jixiang

    2012-01-01

    Seismic facies and attributes analysis techniques are introduced.The geological characteristics of some oil fields in western China are used in conjunction with drilling results and logging data to identify the lithology,intrusion periods,and distribution range of the Permian igneous rocks in this area.The lithologic classification,the vertical and horizontal distribution,and the intrusion periods of igneous rock were deduced through this study.Combining seismic facies and attributes analysis based on optimization can describe the igneous rock in detail.This is an efficient way to identify lithology and intrusion periods.Using geological data and GR-DT logging cross-plots the Permian igneous rock from TP to TT was divided into three periods.The lithology of the first period is tuff and clasolite with a thickness ranging from 18 to 80 ms.The second is basalt with a thickness ranging from 0 to 20 ms.The third is tuff and clasolite and dacite whose thickness ranges from 60 to 80 ms.These results can help understand the clasolite trap with low amplitude and the lithologic trap of the Carboniferous and Silurian.They can also guide further oil and/or gas exploration.

  9. Functional diversity of marine ecosystems after the Late Permian mass extinction event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J.; Twitchett, Richard J.

    2014-03-01

    The Late Permian mass extinction event about 252 million years ago was the most severe biotic crisis of the past 500 million years and occurred during an episode of global warming. The loss of around two-thirds of marine genera is thought to have had substantial ecological effects, but the overall impacts on the functioning of marine ecosystems and the pattern of marine recovery are uncertain. Here we analyse the fossil occurrences of all known benthic marine invertebrate genera from the Permian and Triassic periods, and assign each to a functional group based on their inferred lifestyle. We show that despite the selective extinction of 62-74% of these genera, all but one functional group persisted through the crisis, indicating that there was no significant loss of functional diversity at the global scale. In addition, only one new mode of life originated in the extinction aftermath. We suggest that Early Triassic marine ecosystems were not as ecologically depauperate as widely assumed. Functional diversity was, however, reduced in particular regions and habitats, such as tropical reefs; at these smaller scales, recovery varied spatially and temporally, probably driven by migration of surviving groups. We find that marine ecosystems did not return to their pre-extinction state, and by the Middle Triassic greater functional evenness is recorded, resulting from the radiation of previously subordinate groups such as motile, epifaunal grazers.

  10. Structure and evolution of Middle Permian palaeo-seamounts in Bayan Har and its adjacent area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yongbiao

    2005-01-01

    Middle Permian palaeo-seamounts in the area of Bayan Har are generally composed of volcanic basement and carbonate cap. Basaltic lava, volcanic breecia and polymictic breccia can be identified as the main kinds of rock in the basement of palaeo-seamounts. Massive bioclastic limestone and reef framestone formed the carbonate cap of the palaeo-sea- mounts. The contact relationship between carbonate cap and volcanic basement is a kind of conformity or depositional unconformity. Study of the structure and petrology of palaeo-sea- mounts suggests that the evolution history of the palaeo-seamounts in this area can be divided into five stages at least. They are the origin of the first volcanic basement, the formation of the first carbonate cap, the breaking of the first carbonate cap by renewed volcanism, the deposition of red calcareous mudstone and the rebuilding of the second carbonate cap at last. In one of the palaeo-seamounts, volcanic activation took place even after the reconstruction of the second carbonate cap. Lots of fusulinid fossils, such as Neoschwagerina craticulifera Schwager, Schwagerina sp. and Verbeekina sp., were found both in the carbonate cap and volcanic basement, showing that the palaeo-seamounts were originated and developed within the Maokou stage of Middle Permian.

  11. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here, we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon-cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the LOSCAR model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6oC.

  12. Research on Genesis of Pyrite near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Meishan, Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yao-fa; TANG Yue-gang; CHOU Chen-lin

    2006-01-01

    The content and crystal forms of pyrite and sulfur isotope composition of pyrite sulfur as well as its vertical distribution near the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing county, Zhejiang province, China were studied using geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical methods (techniques). The result showed that the genesis of abundant pyrites in bed 24e2 at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation in the Meishan section may be related to volcanic activity. In bed 24e2 of the Meishan section, pyrite has its highest content of 1.84% and the sulfur isotope composition has the highest δ34S value at +2.2‰ which is very similar to that of the average value of volcanic gas. There are some volcanic products such as β-quartz, siliceous cylinders and siliceous spherules which coexisted with pyrites in beds 24e2 and 24f. It can be concluded that a large quantity of volcanic ash fell into the South China Sea and was incorporated into marine sediments during the formation of limestone at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation. The volcanic eruption with massive amounts of H2S and SO2 gas at the end of the Permian period resulted in the enrichment of H2S in the South China Sea areas. The reaction of H2S with reactive iron minerals formed the mass of abundant pyrites.

  13. Evidence for oceanic crust in the Herodotus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roi

    2016-04-01

    Some of the fundamental tectonic problems of the Eastern Mediterranean remain unresolved due to the extremely thick sedimentary cover (10 to 15 km) and the lack of accurate magnetic anomaly data. I have collected 7,000 km of marine magnetic profiles (2012-2014) across the Herodotus and Levant Basins, Eastern Mediterranean, to study the nature and age of the underlying igneous crust. The towed magnetometer array consisted of two Overhauser sensors recording the total magnetic anomaly field in a longitudinal gradiometer mode, and a fully oriented vector magnetometer. The total field data from the Herodotus Basin reveal a newly detected short sequence of long-wavelength NE-SW lineated anomalies that straddle the entire basin suggesting a deep two-dimensional magnetic source layer. The three components of the magnetic vector data indicate that an abrupt transition from a 2D to 3D magnetic structure occurs east of the Herodotus Basin, along where a prominent NE-SW gravity feature is found. Altogether, these new findings confirm that the Herodotus Basin preserves remnants of oceanic crust that formed along the Neotethyan mid-ocean ridge system. The continuous northward and counterclockwise motion of the African Plate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic allow predicting the evolution of remanent magnetization directions, which in-turn dictate that shape of the anomalies. The shape of the Herodotus anomalies best fit Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (300±20 Myr old) magnetization directions. Finally, I will discuss the implications of these results on the tectonic architecture of the region as well as on various geodynamic processes.

  14. Widespread inclination shallowing in Permian and Triassic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia: Support from new paleomagnetic data from Middle Permian shallow intrusions in southern Illinois (USA) and virtual geomagnetic pole distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeier, M.; Van Der Voo, R.; Denny, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent paleomagnetic work has highlighted a common and shallow inclination bias in continental redbeds. The Permian and Triassic paleomagnetic records from Laurentia are almost entirely derived from such sedimentary rocks, so a pervasive inclination error will expectedly bias the apparent polar wander path of Laurentia in a significant way. The long-standing discrepancy between the apparent polar wander paths of Laurentia and Gondwana in Permian and Triassic time may be a consequence of such a widespread data-pathology. Here we present new Middle Permian paleomagnetic data from igneous rocks and a contact metamorphosed limestone from cratonic Laurentia. The exclusively reversed Middle Permian magnetization is hosted by low-Ti titanomagnetite and pyrrhotite and yields a paleomagnetic pole at 56.3??S, 302.9??E (A95=3.8, N=6). This pole, which is unaffected by inclination shallowing, suggests that a shallow inclination bias may indeed be present in the Laurentian records. To further consider this hypothesis, we conduct a virtual geomagnetic pole distribution analysis, comparing theoretical expectations of a statistical field model (TK03.GAD) against published data-sets. This exercise provides independent evidence that the Laurentian paleomagnetic data is widely biased, likely because of sedimentary inclination shallowing. We estimate the magnitude of this error from our model results and present and discuss several alternative corrections. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  16. Analogies: Explanatory Tools in Web-Based Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…

  17. Paleozoic Structural Deformation of Bachu Uplift,Tarim Basin of Northwest China: Implications for Plate Drifting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Guangyu; He Zhiliang; Zhang Hongan; Lin Lu; Chen Qianglu; Qian Yixiong; Gu Yi; Zhu Zhixin; Zhu Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Based on high-resolution 2D seismic profiles,the Paleozoic structural deformation characteristics of Bachu (巴楚) uplift of northwestern Tarim basin,NW China,are exhibited in this article The deformation happened during three main geological periods: the end of Middle-Late Ordovician (O2-3),the end of Early-Middle Devonian (D1-2),and the end of Late Permian (P2).In the Bachu uplift,there developed a series of NW-trending thrust faults and imbricate structures due to the effect of the NW-SE compression stress towards the end of Middle-Late Ordovician (O2-3) (middle Caledonian movement),and there developed some NNE-trending thrust faults and fault blocks under the control of the NEE-SWW compression stress at the end of Early-Middle Devonian (D1-2) (early Hercynian movement).However,at the end of Late Permian (P2) (late Hercynian movement),some NE-trending thrust faults and associated folds developed as a result of the NE-SW compression stress.The first-stage (O2-3) deformation is obviously more violent than those of the latter two stages (D1-2and P2),which implies that the Tarim plate drifted quickly to the north at around the same time basin.

  18. Molecular correlation of free oil and inclusion oil of reservoir rocks in the Junggar Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchun Pan; Jiamo Fu; Guoying Sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangdong (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry; Jianqiang Yang [Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Xinjiang (China)

    2003-03-01

    Free oils and inclusion oils (oil-bearing fluid inclusions) of 12 samples collected from the sandstone reservoir formations in the central, eastern and northern areas of the Junggar Basin, northwest China, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Analytical results indicate very similar biomarker distributions within each of the free oils and their associated inclusion oils in the two samples collected, respectively, from the northwestern and eastern border of the Junggar Basin. The free oil and inclusion oil of sample MD1-1, collected from the northwestern border, correlate well with the Permian source rock of the Fencheng Formation, while those of sample DN1-1 from the eastern border correlate with the Permian source rock of the Pingdiquan Formation. In contrast, in the central area, the free and inclusion oils vary significantly in most cases, which suggests variations of sources for oil charges during the filling process. These data, and the correlation between the free and inclusion oils, are consistent with the field and seismic data, which show that in areas where samples MD1-1 and DN1-1 are located, only one available source rock exists, while in the central area, multiple source rocks are present. (author)

  19. A computational model of analogical reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 赵沁平

    1997-01-01

    A computational model of analogical reasoning is presented, which divides analogical reasoning process into four subprocesses, i.e. reminding, elaboration, matching and transfer. For each subprocess, its role and the principles it follows are given. The model is discussed in detail, including salient feature-based reminding, relevance-directed elaboration, an improved matching model and a transfer model. And the advantages of this model are summarized based on the results of BHARS, which is an analogical reasoning system implemented by this model.

  20. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitaniak, T; Feudel, U; Grebogi, C

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we discuss the sources of errors that are inevitable in physical realizations of such systems and suggest methods for error reduction.

  1. Photonic analog computing with integrated silicon waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoleng; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    The spectra of silicon integrated waveguides are tailored to process analog computing (i.e.,differential and integral) in optical domain with huge bandwidth.With the theory of signal and system, we design some silicon integrated devices to implement photonic differentiator and optical differential equation solver. The basic principle is to tailor the spectra of silicon integrated waveguides to meet the requirements of analog computing circuits. These analog photonic integrated circuits are very promising in future computing systems with high speed, low cost, and compact size. We also plan to employ these basic computing units in more complex computing modules.

  2. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  3. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  4. Structural styles of the intracratonic reactivation of the Perimbó fault zone, Paraná basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Rigoti, Augustinho; Kraft, Ronaldo Paulo

    2003-08-01

    The style and origin of intracratonic deformation along the Perimbó fault zone (PFZ) in the Paraná basin, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, is defined by the integration of outcrop, borehole, aerial photography, and digital terrain modeling data. Typical structures are high-angle strike-slip and oblique-slip normal faults in the Permian sedimentary cover that propagate upward from medium-angle reverse faults in the underlying Precambrian basement. Regional and minor structures suggest blind transtensional faulting and tilting of the overlying strata controlled by the basement heritage. A hypothesis linking deformation between the cover and the basement is proposed on the basis of a structural analysis of a branched fault pattern striking N40-50E and N70-80E. Semi-detailed scale mapping shows that the PFZ has a complex history of polyphase reactivation and is characterized as a plate margin fault in the Proterozoic, evolving to an intracratonic fault in the Phanerozoic, with a main period of reactivation in Permian or Permian-Triassic transition times. The reported data imply that fault reactivation is characterized by normal to left-lateral strike-slip faulting produced by strain propagation from the La Ventana orogenic belt toward the continental interior.

  5. Timing of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary biotic crisis:Implications from U-Pb dating of authigenic zircons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Late Permian to Early Triassic transition represents one of the most important Phanerozoic mass extinction episodes. The cause of this event is still in debate between catastrophic and gradual mechanisms. This study uses the U-Pb method on zircons from the uppermost Permian/lowermost Triassic clay deposits at Chahe (Guizhou Province, SW China) to examine time constraints for this event. The results of both this and previous studies show that the ages of Bed 68a and 68c (the upper clay bed of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB)) respectively are 252.6±2.8 and 247.5±2.8 Ma. This age (within the margin of error) almost accords with the upper clay bed (Bed 28) age of Meishan and the eruption age of Tunguss Basalt, and is so far the most accurate age obtained from terrestrial PTB. The claystone of Bed 68 was formed in the earliest Triassic. The biotic crisis occurred at nearly the same time in terrestrial and marine environments during Permian-Triassic interval; however the extinction patterns and processes are different. The extinction pattern of the terrestrial plants shows a major decline at the PTB after long-term evolution, followed by a retarded extinction of the relicts in the earliest Triassic.

  6. Massive volcanism at the Permian-Triassic boundary and its impact on the isotopic composition of the ocean and atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Pande, P.; Kalia, P.;

    2010-01-01

    Bulk carbonate and conodonts from three Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary sections at Guryul Ravine (Kashmir), Abadeh (central Iran) and Pufels/Bula/Bulla (Italy) were investigated for d13C and d18O. Carbon isotope data highlight environmental changes across the P-T boundary and show the following ...

  7. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-01-07

    During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as

  8. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Asep K. Permana; Ward, C. R.; L. W. Gurba

    2014-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax) of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite), are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI) market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quar...