Sample records for analogs permian basin

  1. Discovery of Early Permian Reefs in Xichang Basin, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jianxiong; Zeng Yunfu; Wu Yong


    @@ In 1992, Lower Permian reefs were found in various stratigraphic sections in such counties as Ganluo,Puge, and Butuo, in Xichang Basin. This discovery not only promotes the development of Lower Permain sedimentology in Xichang Basin, but also is of great significance for oil-gas exploration along the western margin of Yangtze platform.

  2. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.


    The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle

  3. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimenta

  4. Abrupt and gradual extinction among Late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo basin, South Africa. (United States)

    Ward, Peter D; Botha, Jennifer; Buick, Roger; De Kock, Michiel O; Erwin, Douglas H; Garrison, Geoffrey H; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Smith, Roger


    The Karoo basin of South Africa exposes a succession of Upper Permian to Lower Triassic terrestrial strata containing abundant terrestrial vertebrate fossils. Paleomagnetic/magnetostratigraphic and carbon-isotope data allow sections to be correlated across the basin. With this stratigraphy, the vertebrate fossil data show a gradual extinction in the Upper Permian punctuated by an enhanced extinction pulse at the Permian-Triassic boundary interval, particularly among the dicynodont therapsids, coinciding with negative carbon-isotope anomalies.

  5. 40 CFR 81.242 - Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.242 Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial area... Quality Control Region. 81.242 Section 81.242 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.


    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  7. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.


    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  8. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.


    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  9. Faunal migration into the Late Permian Zechstein Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Håkansson, Eckart; Stemmerik, Lars


    Late Permian bryozoans from the Wegener Halvø, Ravnefjeld and Schuchert Formations in East Greenland have been investigated. 14 genera are recognised.      Integration of the new bryozoan data from the Upper Permian of East Greenland with data on the distribution of Permian bryozoans along...

  10. Palaeotopography-governed sediment distribution—a new predictive model for the Permian Upper Rotliegend in the Dutch sector of the Southern Permian Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijnlieff, H.F.; Geluk, M.


    The Southern Permian Basin (SPB) formed a large, elongated saucer-shaped inland depression extending from the UK to Poland and from Belgium to Denmark. During the Middle to early Late Permian the SPB was filled progressively by playa sediments from its centre in northwestern Germany before it was fl

  11. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016 (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Lillis, Paul G.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Finn, Thomas M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  12. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu


    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  13. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016 (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  14. Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.


    During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the

  15. Petroleum geological atlas of the southern permian basin area -Overview SPB-atlas project-organisation and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornenbal, J.C.; Abbink, O.A.; Pagnier, H.J.M.; Wees, J.D. van


    The Southern Permian Basin (also referred to as Central European Basin) is Europe s largest sedimentary basin. It is a typical intracontinental basin that evolved from latest Carboniferous to recent times and extends from eastern England to the Belarussian-Polish border and from Denmark to South Ger

  16. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia (United States)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.


    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably

  17. Tectonic implications of post-folding Permian magnetizations in the Carapacha Basin, La Pampa province, Argentina (United States)

    Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Melchor, Ricardo N.; MacDonald, William D.


    Paleomagnetic results from Permian clastic and igneous rocks of the Carapacha Basin of the Gondwáides orogenic zone of central Argentina are mainly consistent with results reported previously from the same zone further east, e.g., in the Sierra de la Ventana. Three lithologic entities were analysed: the lower member and upper member of the Carapacha Formation, and an andesite intrusive into the upper member. The directions of their characteristic remanences are similar, differ significantly from the present field direction, and are post-folding. The in situ magnetization directions are moreover consistent with directions expected for late Permian poles of the APWP for South America. The in situ pole for the lower Carapacha Formation is 70°S, 049°E, A95=11° (San Roberto pole); the pole for the upper Carapacha, combined with similar directions from the intrusive, is 64°S, 005°E, A95=5° (Río Curacó pole). These magnetizations imply that the Carapacha Formation, with a minimum age of early Late Permian (about 260 Ma.), was deformed before the end of the Permian. Structural evidence, as well as paleomagnetic, IRM, and AMS experimental results, support the interpretations. The paleogeographic implications of these results are interpreted as a significant counterclockwise movement of Gondwana between the early and the late Permian.

  18. End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century? (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.


    The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for twenty-first century oceans.

  19. Permian continental paleoenvironments in Southeastern Asia: New insights from the Luang Prabang Basin (Laos) (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Bourquin, Sylvie; Broutin, Jean; Steyer, Jean-Sébastien; Battail, Bernard; Véran, Monette; Vacant, Renaud; Khenthavong, Bounxou; Vongphamany, Sotsy


    In Laos (Southeastern Asia), Late Paleozoic sediments were identified by early French explorations across Indochina during the late 19th century (Pavie missions), but little work was undertaken to characterize the sedimentological and stratigraphical context until now. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the depositional environment and of the stratigraphic context of series located on the right bank of the Mekong River in the Luang Prabang Basin where three main formations were described. The silicoclastic Red Claystone Formation, attributed to alluvial plain environment, contains large fragments of unidentified dicynodonts. The Limestones and Sandstones Formation preserves a new macrofloral assemblage displaying affinities with Middle to Late Permian Cathaysian floras of South China. This assemblage occurs as an intercalation within marine calcareous sandstones that have yielded a marine fauna, including the ammonoid Pseudotirolites sp. which indicates a Late Permian (Changhsingian) age. The well-developed Purple Claystones Formation yielded an abundant and well preserved Late Permian fauna composed of a carnivorous amphibian and numerous Dicynodon cranial and postcranial elements. This formation shows a vertical evolution from braided river to alluvial plain with sheet-flood sand bed and bed-load rivers, with a constant supply of volcanic clasts. Results from the analysis of the paleontological associations in the Luang Prabang Basin suggest that a continental communication between Laurussia and the Indochina Block existed during the Permian, allowing for migration of the terrestrial Dicynodon fauna.

  20. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)


    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  1. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight


    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  2. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.


    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  3. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin. (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C


    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  4. Permian plate margin volcanism and tuffs in adjacent basins of west Gondwana: Age constraints and common characteristics (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar


    Increasing evidence of Permian volcanic activity along the South American portion of the Gondwana proto-Pacific margin has directed attention to its potential presence in the stratigraphic record of adjacent basins. In recent years, tuffaceous horizons have been identified in late Early Permian-through Middle Permian (280-260 Ma) sections of the Paraná Basin (Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Farther south and closer to the magmatic tract developed along the continental margin, in the San Rafael and Sauce Grande basins of Argentina, tuffs are present in the Early to Middle Permian section. This tuff-rich interval can be correlated with the appearance of widespread tuffs in the Karoo Basin. Although magmatic activity along the proto-Pacific plate margin was continuous during the Late Paleozoic, Choiyoi silicic volcanism along the Andean Cordillera and its equivalent in Patagonia peaked between the late Early Permian and Middle Permian, when extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region. The San Rafael orogenic phase (SROP) interrupted sedimentation along the southwestern segment of the Gondwana margin (i.e., Frontal Cordillera, San Rafael Basin), induced cratonward thrusting (i.e., Ventana and Cape foldbelts), and triggered accelerated subsidence in the adjacent basins (Sauce Grande and Karoo) located inboard of the deformation front. This accelerated subsidence favored the preservation of tuffaceous horizons in the syntectonic successions. The age constraints and similarities in composition between the volcanics along the continental margin and the tuffaceous horizons in the San Rafael, Sauce Grande, Paraná, and Karoo basins strongly suggest a genetic linkage between the two episodes. Radiometric ages from tuffs in the San Rafael, Paraná, and Karoo basins indicate an intensely tuffaceous interval between 280 and 260 Ma.

  5. Significance of new breakthrough in and favorable targets of gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Shen


    Full Text Available The Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin represents favorable conditions for the formation of natural gas reservoirs. However, only fracture-vuggy limestone gas reservoirs were discovered in early exploration, whose scales and results were limited. In 2014, a high-yield industrial gas flow was produced there in Well Shuangtan 1, the major risk-exploration well, which means a great breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. This plays a strategically important and guiding role in oil and gas exploration in ultra-deep marine formations. This paper illustrates the deployment background of Well Shuangtan 1, major exploration achievements and its significance in the gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. Moreover, exploration potential and subsequent exploration targets of Middle Permian are analyzed in terms of its hydrocarbon source conditions, sedimentary characteristics, reservoir characteristics and areal extension, resources and favorable exploration zones. It is concluded that the Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin is a continent-connected carbonate platform with carbonate deposits being dominant. There are three types of reservoirs, including pore dolomite, karst fracture-vuggy, and fracture, which present considerable natural gas resources and huge exploration potential. Favorable exploration zones classification of Middle Permian in the Sichuan Basin indicates that the most favorable exploration zones are mainly distributed in the central-western Sichuan Basin. In particular, the northwestern Sichuan Basin is the most favorable exploration area which is characterized by the most excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, developed dolomite reservoirs and zonal distribution of structures.

  6. Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight [Petroleum Tech Transfer Council, Oak Hill, VA (United States)


    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  8. Illite/smectite clays preserving porosity at depth in Lower Permian Reservoirs, Northern Perth Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.D. Ferdinando; J.C. Baker; A. Gongora; B.A. Pidgeon


    The appraisal well Hovea-2, drilled in July 2002, was the first well in the onshore Perth Basin to discover commercial volumes of gas in sandstone reservoirs of the Artinskian (Early Permian) High Cliff Sandstone sealed beneath basal shales and siltstones of the Irwin River Coal Measures. A drill stem test in this formation, in the interval 2,370-419 mMDRT (measured depth below rotary table), flowed gas to surface at 16.5 MMcfd. Thereafter, the High Cliff Sandstone became an important play for exploration in the basin; however, no additional discoveries have been made in this reservoir, even though it has been tested in another seven wells (Jingemia-1, Eremia-1, Kunzia-1, Corybas-1, Yardarino-6, Hakia-2 and Bunjong-1).

  9. Assessment of continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016 (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.


    The U.S. Geological Survey completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous petroleum resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas. This is the first U.S. Geological Survey evaluation of continuous resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin. Since the 1980s, the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin has been part of the “Wolfberry” play. This play has traditionally been developed using vertical wells that are completed and stimulated in multiple productive stratigraphic intervals that include the Wolfcamp shale and overlying Spraberry Formation. Since the shift to horizontal wells targeting the organic-rich shale of the Wolfcamp, more than 3,000 horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in the Midland Basin Wolfcamp section. The U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of associated gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin.

  10. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.


    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  11. New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Prokop


    Full Text Available Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France, viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined. In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops.

  12. Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Parana Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Hartmann, Leo Afraneo; Formoso, Milton Luis Laquintinie [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, Joao Orestes Schneider [Centre for Global Targeting, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Ketzer, Joao Marcelo [Instituto de Meio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Avenida Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)


    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6 {+-} 1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained to the Middle Sakmarian. The {+-} 2 Ma time interval of deposition supports the hypothesis that the coal-generating process was quite rapid in terms of geological time. In a general context, Faxinal and Candiota coals are assigned, into the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone, besides some paleocological differences evidenced by palynological studies. This bio-interval does not correspond to a consistent palynostratigraphic tool and more accurate biostratigraphic zonation for the Carboniferous-Permian interval must be delineated. The new results have far-reaching significance for correlations of the Basin with sequences of the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and also with the Karoo Basin, with the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). This new evidence supports the presence of an active and widespread Lower Permian explosive volcanic event in western Gondwana, which is interpreted as the same volcanism which produced the Choiyoi Group in western Argentina. According to this correlation the ash-fall source is located about 1400 km to the southwest of their area of deposition. (author)

  13. Dolomitized cells within chert of the Permian Assistência Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Calça, Cléber P.; Fairchild, Thomas R.; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Hachiro, Jorge; Petri, Setembrino; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti


    Dolomitic microscopic structures in the form of microspheres, "horseshoe- shaped" objects, and thin botryoidal crusts found within microfossiliferous chert within stromatolites of the Evaporite Bed (EB) of the Permian Assistência Formation, Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The microspheres were identified as dolomitized coccoidal cyanobacteria based on similarity in size, spheroidal and paired hemispheroidal morphologies and colonial habit to co-occurring silicified organic-walled cyanobacteria embedded within the same microfabric and rock samples. The co-occurrence of dolomite, pyrite framboids, and abundant dispersed carbonaceous material and silicified cells is consistent with a hypersaline depositional environment with abundant cyanobacterial mats and elevated Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratios and reducing conditions with active anoxic microbial processes near the water-(bio)sediment interface. The abundance of extracellular polymeric substances facilitated anoxic microbial processes (sulfate reduction), providing essential conditions for possible primary microbially induced dolomitization. In most of the dolomitized cells dolomite occurs only as an external layer; in fully dolomitized cells magnesium is richest in the outermost layer. Presumably, the dolomitization process was favored by the presence of anoxic microbial degraders and negatively charged functional groups at the surface of the cyanobacterial cells. Botryoidal dolomite rims of silica-filled fenestrae formed by a similar process and inherited the botryoidal morphology of the cell as originally lining the fenestrae. Silicification interrupted the dolomitization of the largely organic biosediment, mostly by permineralization, but locally by substitution, thereby preserving not only dolomitic microspheres, but also huge numbers of structurally

  14. Descartes highlands: Possible analogs around the Orientale Basin, part D (United States)

    Carroll, A. H.


    Two possible analogs, although not entirely satisfactory, offer reasonable alternatives to the volcanic interpretation of the Descartes highlands. Reconsideration of this complex terrain, prompted by the preliminary results of the Apollo 16 mission, will lead to the revision of some theories on lunar volcanism and also to a better understanding of the landforms caused by the formation of multi-ring basins.

  15. Late Permian Palynology and depositional environment of Chintalapudi sub basin, Pranhita-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Jha, Neerja; Pauline Sabina, K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Mahesh, S.


    The present study deals with the palynological dating, correlation and depositional setting of the sediments from bore cores MGP-11 and MGP-4 from Gauridevipet area of Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari master basin, south India. On the basis of palynological studies, three palynoassemblages have been identified, one in bore core MGP-11 a Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus) and Striasulcites assemblage and two in bore core MGP-4; one is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccates and Densipollenites and the other by Striatopodocarpites and Cresentipollenites palynoassemblages. The other stratigraphically significant taxa include Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lunatisporites noviaulensis, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Densoisporites contactus, Chordasporites australiensis, Goubinispora spp., Lundbladispora microconata, Lundbladispora raniganjensis and Klausipollenites schaubergeri. The recovered taxa suggest a Late Permian, Lopingian age for these rocks. This interpretation is based on the correlation of the assemblages with similar assemblages from previous Gondwana studies chiefly Densipollenites magnicorpus Zone of Damodar Basin, India and Late Permian palynoassemblages from Africa, Antarctica, Australia and South America. On the basis of palaeobotanical affinity of the identified microflora it has been inferred that the peat forming plant community was composed mainly of gymnosperm pollen attributable to glossopterids, that includes striate and non-striate bisaccates and paucity of cordaites which includes monosaccates. Spores are subordinate and are derived from lycopsids (Lundbladispora, Densoisporites), sphenopsids (Latosporites) and filicopsids (Horriditriletes, Lophotriletes, Verrucosisporites, Osmundacidites, Leiotriletes, Callumispora, Brevitriletes and Microbaculispora) occurring in variable proportions. The dominance of subarborescent/arborescent vegetation suggests a development in a forest swamp probably in a small distant marginal part of the

  16. No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y; Piasecki, Stefan


    compositions of pyrites from the East Greenland Basin. The size distributions of framboidal pyrites in sediments from a continuous section across the Permian–Triassic boundary reveal that sulfidic conditions in water columns were established about 0.7 m above the extinction event in the East Greenland Basin...... is not indicative of an abrupt change of redox chemistry in water columns, in contrast to previous claims. The integration of isotope and framboidal pyrite data provides a nearly continuous record of ocean chemistry evolution and new insights into the end-Permian extinction and delayed biotic recovery in the East...

  17. Why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important : an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering


    This presentation explained why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important. The presentation provided an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, located in western Texas. Several illustrations were presented to demonstrate a stratigraphic sequence in black shale. Other topics that were discussed included geologic settings; paleogeography; silled basins; motivation for rock properties research; and factor analysis results. It was concluded that sequence stratigraphic analyses in black shales requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach. The presentation showed that third and fourth order stratigraphic cycles are indicated by the repetition of exotic beds whose composition vary regionally. tabs., figs.

  18. Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Fordyce


    Full Text Available Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids (‘mammal-like’ reptiles that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the TropidostomaAssemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface punctures and a broken tooth of an unidentified carnivore associated with it. Here we report on the nature of the bone damage, and the identity of the carnivore that lost a canine tooth whilst scavenging the dicynodont carcass. The morphological characteristics of the serrations on the unidentified tooth were compared with those of contemporaneous carnivores, the gorgonopsians and therocephalians. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of a silicone cast of the unidentified tooth revealed distinctive 0.5-mm square-shaped serrations. Our comparative assessment of the tooth size, curvature, cross-sectional shape and morphology of the serrations revealed that the unidentified canine most closely matched Aelurognathus,a gorgonopsian known from the same assemblage zone.

  19. Diagenesis and Fluid Flow History in Sandstones of the Upper Permian Black Jack Formation, Gunnedah Basin, Eastern Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Guoping; John B. KEENE


    The fluid flow history during diagenesis of sandstones in the Upper Permian Black Jack Formation of the Gunnedah Basin has been investigated through integrated petrographic observations, fluid inclusion investigations and stable isotope analyses. The early precipitation of mixed-layer illite/smectite, siderite, calcite, ankerite and kaolin proceeded at the presence of Late Permian connate meteoric waters at temperatures of up to 60℃. These evolved connate pore waters were also parental to quartz, which formed at temperatures of up to 87℃. The phase of maximum burial was characterized by development of filamentous illite and late calcite at temperatures of up to ~90℃. Subsequent uplifting and cooling led to deep meteoric influx from surface, which in turn resulted in dissolution of labile grains and carbonate cements, and formation of second generation of kaolin. Dawsonite was the last diagenetic mineral precipitated and its formation is genetically related to deep-seated mamagtic sourced CO2.

  20. Regional implications of new chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic data from the Early Permian Darwin Basin, east-central California (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.


    The Darwin Basin developed in response to episodic subsidence of the western margin of the Cordilleran continental shelf from Late Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. Subsidence of the basin was initiated in response to continental truncation farther to the west and was later augmented by thrust emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This deep-water basin was filled by voluminous fine-grained siliciclastic turbidites and coarse-grained limestone-gravity-flow deposits. Most of this sediment was derived from the Bird Spring carbonate shelf and cratonal platform to the northeast or east, but some came from an offshore tectonic ridge (Conglomerate Mesa Uplift) to the west that formed at the toe of the Last Chance allochthon. At one point in the late Artinskian the influx of extrabasinal sediment was temporarily cut off, resulting in deposition of a unique black limestone that allows precise correlation throughout the basin. Deep-water sedimentation in the Darwin Basin ended by Kungurian time when complex shallow-water to continental sedimentary facies spread across the region. Major expansion of the Darwin Basin occurred soon after the middle Sakmarian emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This tectonic event was approximately coeval with deformation in northeastern Nevada that formed the deep-water Dry Mountain Trough. We herein interpret the two basins to have been structurally continuous. Deposition of the unique black limestone is interpreted to mark a eustatic sea level rise that also can be recognized in Lower Permian sections in east-central Nevada and central Arizona.

  1. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)


    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen

  2. Mixed volcanogenic-lithogenic sources for Permian bauxite deposits in southwestern Youjiang Basin, South China, and their metallogenic significance (United States)

    Yu, Wenchao; Algeo, Thomas J.; Du, Yuansheng; Zhang, Qilian; Liang, Yuping


    Bauxite deposits at the base of the Upper Permian Heshan Formation in the Youjiang Basin, South China, contain zircons with dominant age peaks at 263-262 Ma. During the Middle to Late Permian, the Youjiang Basin consisted of a number of isolated and attached carbonate platforms separated by inter-platform troughs. The bauxite deposits are limited to the isolated carbonate platform facies and are not present on attached carbonate platforms and inter-platform troughs. Discriminant plots based on the trace element composition of the zircons indicate a combination of within-plate/anorogenic and arc-related/orogenic sources. Geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the metallogenic materials of the bauxite deposit came from felsic volcanic rocks of the Emeishan Large Igneous Provence (ELIP) in South China and from the Truong Son volcanic arc located between the South China and Indochina cratons. The northwestern and southeastern parts of the Youjiang Basin received larger amounts of ELIP detritus and volcanic arc detritus, respectively. Coarser siliciclastic material in proximal attached carbonate platform and inter-platform trough settings was delivered by rivers, but finer siliciclastics that accumulated on distally located carbonate platforms in isolated deep-water areas was probably transported by wind.

  3. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))


    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  4. Shallow lacustrine system of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Gondwana, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Araújo, Raphael Neto; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Bandeira, José; Angélica, Rômulo Simões


    The Permian Period of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil, represented here by deposits from the Pedra de Fogo Formation, records important events that occurred in Western Gondwana near its boundary with the Mesozoic Era. The analysis of outcrop based facies from the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, which is 100 m thick, carried out along the eastern and western borders of the Parnaiba Basin, allowed the identification of eleven sedimentary facies, which were grouped into three distinct facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system associated with mudflats and ephemeral rivers. Bioturbation, desiccation cracks, silcretes and various siliceous concretions characterize the Pedra de Fogo deposits. The FA1 mudflat deposits occur predominantly at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and consist of laminated claystone/mudstone, mudcrack-bearing sandstones/mudstones and sandstones exhibiting cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding. Popcorn-like silicified nodules and casts indicate evaporite deposits. Other common features are silica concretions, silicified tepees and silcretes. FA2 represents nearshore deposits and consists of fine-grained sandstones with evenly parallel lamination, climbing ripple cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding and mudstone/siltstone showing evenly parallel lamination. FA3 refers to wadi/inundite deposits, generally organized as fining-upward cycles of metric size, composed of conglomerates and medium-grained pebbly sandstones showing massive bedding and cross-stratification, as well as claystone/siltstone showing evenly parallel to undulate lamination. Scour-and-fill features are isolated in predominantly tabular deposits composed of mudstones interbedded with fine to medium-grained sandstones showing planar to slightly undulate lamination. Silicified plant remains previously classified as belonging to the Psaronius genus found in the uppermost levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, near the

  5. Rare Earth Elements of the Permian-Triassic Conodonts from Shelf Basin to Shallow Platform: Implications for Oceanic Redox Conditions immediately After the End-Permian Mass Extinction (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, Y.


    Rare-earth elements (REEs) can provide information regarding the influence of weathering fluxes and hydrothermal inputs on seawater chemistry as well as processes that fractionate REEs between solid and aqueous phases. Of these, cerium (Ce) distributions may provide information about variations in dissolved oxygen in seawater, and thus assess the redox conditions. The short residence times of REEs in seawater (~300-1,000 yr) can result in unique REE signatures in local watermasses. REE patterns preserved in biogenic apatite such as conodonts are ideal proxies for revealing original seawater chemistry. Here, we measured the REE content of in-situ, single albid crowns using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with an ArF (λ=193 nm) excimer laser (Lambda Physiks GeoLas 2005) and quadrupole ICP-MS (Agilent 7500a). LA-ICP-MS is ideally suited for analyzing conodonts due to its ability to measure compositional variation within single conodont elements. It has the capability to determine, with high spatial resolution, continuous compositional depth profiles through the concentric layered structure of component histologies. To evaluate paleoceanographic conditions immediately after the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) mass extinction in various depositional settings, we sampled a nearly contemporaneous strata unit, the P-Tr boundary bed, just above the extinction horizon from six sections in South China. They represent various depositional settings from shelf basin (Chaohu and Daxiakou sections), lower part of ramp (Meishan section), normal shallow platform (Yangou section), and platform microbialite (Chongyang and Xiushui sections). The sampled unit is constrained by conodonts Hindeodus changxingensis, H. parvus, and H. staeschei Zones in Meishan. REE results obtained from conodont albid crowns show that the seawater in lower ramp and shelf basin settings contains much higher REE concentrations than that in shallow platform. Ce

  6. Thermal properties of Permian Basin evaporites to 493 K and 30 MPa confining pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C.; Boro, C.O.; Keller, K.T.; Ralph, W.E.; Trimmer, D.A.


    Laboratory measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering the Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Measurement conditions ranged from 303 to 473 K in temperature, and 0.1 to 31.0 MPa in hydrostatic confining pressure. Within the +-5% measurement resolution neither conductivity nor diffusivity showed a dependence upon pressure in any of the rocks. Conductivity and diffusivity in all rocks had a negative temperature dependence. For the two Cycle 4 salt samples, conductivity over the temperature range explored fell from 5.5 to 3.75 W/m.K, and diffusivity fell from about 2.7 to 1.7 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s. One of the Cycle 5 salts was a single crystal which had anomalous results, but the other had a low conductivity, about 3.4 W/m.K, with very weak temperature dependence, and a high diffusivity, 3.8 to 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s over the temperature range. In the nonsalts, conductivity and diffusivity decreased 10 to 20% over the temperature range explored, which was 308 < T < 373 K. Typical values at 308 K for conductivity were 5.4 W/m.K for both anhydrites and 3.4 and 2.6 W/m.K for the two different dolomite samples. Approximate values at 308 K for diffusivity were 2.3 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s for the anhydrites and 1.4 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s for both the dolomites. The coefficient of thermal linear expansion was measured for the Cycle 5 salt and nonsalts over 308 < T < 493 and 0.1 < P < 30.0 MPa. Typically, the coefficient varied from about 12 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ at P = 3.0 MPa to 4 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ at P = 30 MPa for both nonsalt rocks. In anhydrite, it decreased with increasing temperature at a rate of roughly 5 x 10/sup -8/ K/sup -2/ at all pressures. In dolomite, the coefficient increased at roughly the same rate. Expansion of the salt ranged from 33 to 38 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ and was independent of pressure

  7. Lower Permian stems as fluvial paleocurrent indicators of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil (United States)

    Capretz, Robson Louiz; Rohn, Rosemarie


    A comprehensive biostratinomic study was carried out with abundant stems from the Lower Permian Motuca Formation of the intracratonic Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil. The fossils represent a rare tropical to subtropical paleofloristic record in north Gondwana. Tree ferns dominate the assemblages (mainly Tietea, secondarily Psaronius), followed by gymnosperms, sphenophytes, other ferns and rare lycophytes. They are silica-permineralized, commonly reach 4 m length (exceptionally more than 10 m), lie loosely on the ground or are embedded in the original sandstone or siltstone matrix, and attract particular attention because of their frequent parallel attitudes. Many tree fern stems present the original straight cylindrical to slightly conical forms, other are somewhat flattened, and the gymnosperm stems are usually more irregular. Measurements of stem orientations and dimensions were made in three sites approximately aligned in a W-E direction in a distance of 27.3 km at the conservation unit "Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument". In the eastern site, rose diagrams for 54 stems indicate a relatively narrow azimuthal range to SE. These stems commonly present attached basal bulbous root mantles and thin cylindrical sandstone envelopes, which sometimes hold, almost adjacent to the lateral stem surface, permineralized fern pinnae and other small plant fragments. In the more central site, 82 measured stems are preferentially oriented in the SW-NE direction, the proportion of gymnosperms is higher and cross-stratification sets of sandstones indicate paleocurrents mainly to NE and secondarily to SE. In the western site, most of the 42 measured stems lie in E-W positions. The predominantly sandy succession, where the fossil stems are best represented, evidences a braided fluvial system under semiarid conditions. The low plant diversity, some xeromorphic features and the supposedly almost syndepositional silica impregnation of the plants are coherent with marked dry

  8. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson


    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz


    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  10. Evolution of a Permian Arid Lake System, Upper Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Border of the Parnaiba Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Saturnino de Andrade


    Full Text Available Stratigraphic and facies analysis in the Filadélfia region, TO, BR, at the western of the Parnaíba Basin, allowed redefine the paleoenvironment of the upper portion of the Pedra de Fogo Formation of Permian age. The studied deposits are a series of approximately 100 m thick, predominantly siliciclastic, with subordinate carbonates and evaporites, where were defined 21 sedimentary facies that could be grouped into six facies associations (AF: AF1 Lacustrine with ephemeral river deposits; AF2 Storm wave-influenced lake deposits; AF3 Continental sabkha deposits; AF4 Central lake deposits; AF5 Eolian dunes field deposits; and AF6 Lake/oasis deposits with inunditos. These associations indicate that during Permian, an extensive lacustrine arid system developed adjacent to eolian dunes fields and continental sabkha, as well as with contributions from ephemeral rivers. Fluvial incursions into lakes propitiated the formation of suspension lobes and sheet flows (AF1. Sabkha plains (AF3 were formed in the marginal portions of the lake that eventually were influenced by storms waves (AF2, while central zone were site of intense pelitic deposition (AF4. The low supply of eolian sand in this system resulted in the formation of restricted dune fields (AF5, with development of interdune lakes (oasis, where proliferating giant ferns, sporadically flooded by ephemeral rivers (AF6. The facies associations data, corroborated by the paleogeography of the region during the Late Permian, indicate that settling of the top part of the Pedra de Fogo Formation was laid during a hot and arid climate.

  11. Geothermal energy from the Main Karoo Basin (South Africa): An outcrop analogue study of Permian sandstone reservoir formations (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Lenhardt, Nils; Dippenaar, Matthys A.; Götz, Annette E.


    The geothermal potential of the South African Main Karoo Basin has not been addressed in the past, although thick siliciclastic successions in geothermal prone depths are promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Karoo Basin is based on petro- and thermophysical data gained from an outcrop analogue study of Permian sandstones in the Eastern Cape Province, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. A volumetric approach of the sandstones' reservoir potential leads to a first estimation of 2240 TWh (8.0 EJ) of power generation within the central and southern part of the basin. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Karoo for future geothermal resource exploration, development and production. The mainly low permeability lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use becomes reasonable. The data presented here serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modeling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization.

  12. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans


    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  13. Basin-scale distribution of sill intrusions in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia, and the implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik H.; Frolov, Sergei; Akhmanov, Grigorii G.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre


    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province through the Tunguska Basin is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. Still, the lack of data from the Tunguska Basin represents one of the main uncertainties in understanding this link. Degassing from contact metamorphic aureoles in evaporites is suggested as key to the continental mass extinction, but very little is known about the actual distribution of sills within these lithologies. We present results from a unique borehole database with more than 700 boreholes, where 293 boreholes are studied in detail and presented here. The boreholes cover large parts of the basin, from Norilsk in the north (N69) to Bratsk in the south (N55), with a bias towards petroleum-bearing regions. In total, 93.5% of the selected boreholes contain sill intrusions. The sill thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. Locally, thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tunguska Series sediments. However, on average, the thickest sills in the basin are emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations, with average thicknesses in the 115-130 meter range. Accompanying petrographic investigations of metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. Degassing to the atmosphere took place via explosive pipe degassing and seepage. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the end-Permian mass extinction.

  14. Coricladus quiteriensis gen. et sp. nov., a new conifer in Southern-Brazil Gondwana (Lower Permian, Paraná Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper André


    Full Text Available A new taxon of conifers (Coricladus quiteriensis is described based on megafloristic remains from the roofshale level at the Quitéria Outcrop (Rio Bonito Formation - Lower Permian - Southern Paraná Basin - Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. This megafloristic community is included in the Botrychiopsis Zone - Botrychiopsis valida Sub-Zone (Kungurian/Roadian. The assemblage, preserved as impressions, do not present remains of epidermic characters, and is composed mainly of isolated vegetative branches with spirally disposed acicular leaves, presenting a conspicuous central vein and also isolated fertile branches with sparse and irregular leaves and terminal cones. Leafless principal branches, organically connected with sterile and fertile branches, are rare. Reproductive feminine scales, disposed in a plane, are organized in lax terminal cones on branches, composed by 4 (four distal ovuliferous scales, and 8 (eight elliptical-elongated anatropous seeds. Paleoecological data pointed out to a mesophylous to higrophylous habitat in swampy environments.

  15. A Re-Examination of the Bedout High, Offshore Canning Basin, Western Australia - Possible Impact Site for the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction Event? (United States)

    Becker, L.; Nicholson, C.; Poreda, R. J.


    The Bedout High, located offshore Canning basin in Western Australia, is an unusual structure and its origin remains problematic. K-Ar dating of volcanic samples encountered at total depth in the Lagrange-1 exploration well indicated an age of about 253+/-5 Ma consistent with the Permian-Triassic boundary event. Gorter (PESA News, pp. 33-34, 1996) speculates that the Bedout High is the uplifted core (30 km) of a circular feature, some 220 km across, formed by the impact of a large bolide (cometary or asteroidal) with the Earth near the end-Permian. Accepting a possible impact origin for the Bedout structure, with the indicated dimensions, would have had profound effects on global climate as well as significant changes in lithotratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic indicators as seen in several Permian-Triassic boundary locations worldwide. In this work, we re-examine some of the structural data previously presented by Gorter (1996) using some additional seismic lines. We have also evaluated several impact tracers including iridium, shocked quartz, productivity collapse, helium-3, chromium-53 and fullerenes with trapped noble gases from some Permian-Triassic boundary sites in the Tethys and Circum-Pacific regions. Our findings suggest that the Bedout structure is a good candidate for an oceanic impact at the end Permian, triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth.

  16. Stratigraphy and paleogeographic significance of a Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian channeled slope sequence in the Darwin Basin, southern Darwin Hills, east-central California (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.; Ritter, Scott M.


    The complex stratigraphy of late Paleozoic rocks in the southern Darwin Hills consists of regionally extensive Mississippian and Early to Middle Pennsylvanian rocks overlain by latest Pennsylvanian to Early Permian rocks, herein called the Darwin Hills sequence. Deposition of this latter sequence marked the beginning of the Darwin Basin. In Mississippian time, a carbonate platform prograded westward over slightly older slope deposits. In the Late Mississippian this platform was exposed to erosion and siliciclastic sediments were deposited. In Early to Middle Pennsylvanian time the area subsided, forming a west-facing ramp that was subjected to deformation and erosion in Middle or early Late Pennsylvanian time. Later this area was tilted westward and deep-water sediments were deposited on this slope. In latest Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian time, a major channel was cut through the older Pennsylvanian rocks and into the Upper Mississippian strata. This channel was gradually filled with increasingly finer grained, deep-water sediment as the area evolved into a basin floor by Early Permian (Sakmarian) time. Expansion of the Darwin Basin in Artinskian time led to a second phase of deposition represented by strata of the regionally extensive Darwin Canyon Formation. The geology in this small area thus documents tectonic events occurring during the early development of the Darwin Basin.

  17. Geochemistry of formation waters from the Wolfcamp and “Cline” shales: Insights into brine origin, reservoir connectivity, and fluid flow in the Permian Basin, USA (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Reyes, Francisco R.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Lin, Ma; Ianno, Adam J.; Westphal, Tiffani M.; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.


    Despite being one of the most important oil producing provinces in the United States, information on basinal hydrogeology and fluid flow in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico is lacking. The source and geochemistry of brines from the basin were investigated (Ordovician- to Guadalupian-age reservoirs) by combining previously published data from conventional reservoirs with geochemical results for 39 new produced water samples, with a focus on those from shales. Salinity of the Ca–Cl-type brines in the basin generally increases with depth reaching a maximum in Devonian (median = 154 g/L) reservoirs, followed by decreases in salinity in the Silurian (median = 77 g/L) and Ordovician (median = 70 g/L) reservoirs. Isotopic data for B, O, H, and Sr and ion chemistry indicate three major types of water. Lower salinity fluids (100 g/L), isotopically heavy (O and H) water in Leonardian [Permian] to Pennsylvanian reservoirs (2–3.2 km depth) is evaporated, Late Permian seawater. Water from the Permian Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian “Cline” shales, which are isotopically similar but lower in salinity and enriched in alkalis, appear to have developed their composition due to post-illitization diffusion into the shales. Samples from the “Cline” shale are further enriched with NH4, Br, I and isotopically light B, sourced from the breakdown of marine kerogen in the unit. Lower salinity waters (3 km depth), which plot near the modern local meteoric water line, are distinct from the water in overlying reservoirs. We propose that these deep meteoric waters are part of a newly identified hydrogeologic unit: the Deep Basin Meteoric Aquifer System. Chemical, isotopic, and pressure data suggest that despite over-pressuring in the Wolfcamp shale, there is little potential for vertical fluid migration to the surface environment via natural conduits.

  18. When and how did the terrestrial mid-Permian mass extinction occur? Evidence from the tetrapod record of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. (United States)

    Day, Michael O; Ramezani, Jahandar; Bowring, Samuel A; Sadler, Peter M; Erwin, Douglas H; Abdala, Fernando; Rubidge, Bruce S


    A mid-Permian (Guadalupian epoch) extinction event at approximately 260 Ma has been mooted for two decades. This is based primarily on invertebrate biostratigraphy of Guadalupian-Lopingian marine carbonate platforms in southern China, which are temporally constrained by correlation to the associated Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP). Despite attempts to identify a similar biodiversity crisis in the terrestrial realm, the low resolution of mid-Permian tetrapod biostratigraphy and a lack of robust geochronological constraints have until now hampered both the correlation and quantification of terrestrial extinctions. Here we present an extensive compilation of tetrapod-stratigraphic data analysed by the constrained optimization (CONOP) algorithm that reveals a significant extinction event among tetrapods within the lower Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, in the latest Capitanian. Our fossil dataset reveals a 74-80% loss of generic richness between the upper Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone (AZ) and the mid-Pristerognathus AZ that is temporally constrained by a U-Pb zircon date (CA-TIMS method) of 260.259 ± 0.081 Ma from a tuff near the top of the Tapinocephalus AZ. This strengthens the biochronology of the Permian Beaufort Group and supports the existence of a mid-Permian mass extinction event on land near the end of the Guadalupian. Our results permit a temporal association between the extinction of dinocephalian therapsids and the LIP volcanism at Emeishan, as well as the marine end-Guadalupian extinctions.

  19. Assessment of Permian coalbed gas resources of the Karoo Basin Province, South Africa and Lesotho, 2016 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 5.27 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Karoo Basin Province.

  20. Sequence-Stratigraphic Framework from the Carboniferous to the Permian Chuanshanian Epoch in Dianqiangui Basin and Its Adjacent Areas, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Mingxiang; Ma Yongsheng; Deng Jun; Meng Qingfen; Li Donghai


    The Carboniferous can be divided into four series in the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas, Southwest China: the Yanguanian series, the Datangian series, the Weiningian series and the Mapingian series. The Maping Formation, traditionally used as the lithostratigraphic unit of the Upper Carboniferous, became an inter-system unit from the Carboniferous to the Permian. Thus, the top part of the Carboniferous and the bottom part of the Permian (Chuanshanian series) constitute a third-order sequence in the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas. In the study area, the Carboniferous system and the Chuanshanian series of the Permian constitute a second-order sequence that can be subdivided into 6 third-order sequences. The bottom boundary of this second-order sequence is an unconformity formed in the principal episode of the Ziyun movement (the second episode), and the top boundary is also an unconformity formed in the principal episode of the Qiangui movement (the second episode). In different paleogeographical backgrounds, the strata from the Carboniferous to the Permian Chuanshanian epoch are marked by different sedimentary features. For example, coal measures and more dolomitic strata are developed in the attached platform; carbonate rocks mainly constitute the isolated platform strata; the inter-platform ditch strata are mainly composed of dark and fine sediments. Therefore, third-order sequences with different architectures of sedimentary-facies succession are formed in different paleogeographical backgrounds. Although the third-order sequences are different in the architecture of sedimentary-succession in space, the processes of their depositional environmental changes due to the third-order relative sea-level changes are simultaneous. Biostratigraphically, the surfaces of the third-order sequences can be correlated and traced in space; the framework of sequence stratigraphy from the Carboniferous to the Chuanshanian epoch of the Permian can be established

  1. Dispersal syndromes of fossil seeds from the Lower Permian of Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (United States)

    Souza, Juliane M; Iannuzzi, Roberto


    The morphological analysis of seeds has been an important subject in modern ecological studies, once it provides evidence about the biology and adaptations of the parent plant. However, this kind of study has been restricted to the ecology of modern plants and is rarely used in interpretations of Paleozoic data. From the understanding of dispersal syndromes analysis as an important tool to paleoecological reconstruction, this study provides a first approach using this tool with seeds from the Lower Permian strata of southern Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul. Based on previously classified seeds and using their biological and taphonomic data, the syndrome of dispersal was interpreted, and their placement in successional groups (pioneer, early-successional and later-successional) was suggested. Seven morphospecies were analyzed: Samaropsis gigas, representing a later-successional species living in water bodies with hydrochory as its dispersal syndrome; Samaropsis kurtzii, typical of early-successional species showing anemochory as its dispersal syndrome and living in distal areas in relation to water bodies; Samaropsis aff. S. millaniana, Cordaicarpus aff. C. brasilianus, Cordaicarpus cerronegrensis and Cordaicarpus truncata have typical characteristics of pioneer plants, exhibiting barochory as their primary dispersal syndrome with other syndromes associated.

  2. Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Facies in the Lower Member of the Permian Shanxi Formation, Northeastern Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Du; Zaixing Jiang; Ying Zhang; Jie Xu


    The Lower Permian Shanxi(山西) Formation is one of the main gas-bearing stratigraphic units in northeastern Ordos(鄂尔多斯) Basin,China.Based on an integrated investigation of well logs,cores,and outcrop,we delineated the sedimentary facies of the lower member of the Shanxi Formation and divided the succession into three third-order sequences from base to top as SQ1,SQ2,and SQ3.The lower region of Shanxi Formation was deposited in the following sedimentary facies or subfacies: subaqueous braided channel,subaqueous interdistributary,mouth bar,swamp and shelf in the Daniudi(大牛地)Gas Field and braided channel,and shelf and lake at Heidaigou(黑岱沟)outcrop.Braided-river deposits form the lowstand systems tract (LST) in each sequence.Braided channels mark the sequence boundaries at Heidaigou outcrop.A shelf and lake depositional environment with dark gray mudstone forms the transgressive systems tract (TST).The location where dark gray mudstone first appears above the braided channel marks the first flooding surface (FFS),and the end of that marks the maximum flooding surface (MFS).The highstand systems tract (HST) deposits are fine-grained sediments with an aggradational parasequence at Heidaigou outcrop and swamp coalbed in the Daniudi Gas Field.Mouth-bar sand bodies in braided delta front,which form the LST in each sequence,form excellent reservoirs in the Daniudi Gas Field.

  3. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development. (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A


    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity.

  4. New petrified forest in Maranhão, Permian (Cisuralian) of the Parnaíba Basin, Brazil (United States)

    da Conceição, Domingas Maria; de Andrade, Luiz Saturnino; Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Iannuzzi, Roberto; Pereira, Agostinha Araújo; Machado, Francisco Carlos


    This work presents a new fossil plant-bearing area located in the municipalities of Duque Bacelar and Coelho Neto, Maranhão State, Brazil, recovered from lower Permian (Cisuralian) strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, northeastern portion of the Parnaíba Basin. The area comprises more than five exposures with assemblages formed mostly of large gymnosperm woods, a number of them in life-position (reaching up to ∼2.30 m in height and 1.15 m in diameter) and, in lesser degree, of horizontal tree-fern stems (up to 5 m in length), some of them being referable to Psaronius sp. The fossils are recorded in sedimentary beds of continental origin that accumulated in shallow, nearshore areas of large lakes, which eventually were affected by rapid burial episodes generated by non-channelized, high energy fluvial systems. The new fossil assemblages are included within lacustrine rocks placed at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, i.e., Sílex Basal Member, near the contact with the underlying Piauí Formation (Pennsylvanian). This observation contrasts with previous studies at the southwestern portion of the basin, where the stratigraphic position of plant fossils is referred to the upper Pedra de Fogo Formation (Trisidela Member) or even to the overlying Motuca Formation. The new sites currently suffer damage from human activities and require urgent actions in order to protect them. Based on the current laws, some measures of protection for these sites are discussed and proposed herein. xml:lang="pt"

  5. Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori Formation, Satpura Gondwana basin: Palaeogeographic and tectonic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan Chakraborty; Soumen Sarkar


    The Upper Permian Bijori Formation of the Satpura Gondwana basin comprising fine- to coarsegrained sandstone, carbonaceous shale/mudstone and thin coal bands was previously interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers. The present study documents abundance of wave ripples, hummocky and swaley cross-stratification and combined flow bedforms in the Bijori Formation, suggesting that a significant part of the formation was deposited in a wave-agitated environment. Evidence of near-emergent depositional conditions provided by repeated occurrence of rootlet beds and hydromorphic paleosols, local flooding surfaces denoting rapid fluctuation of water level, occurrences of temnospondyl vertebrate fossils, and absence of tidal signatures and marine fossils suggest a lacustrine rather than marine depositional regime. Five facies associations recognised within the Bijori Formation are inferred to represent fluvial channels and associated floodplains (FA1), lake shorelines (FA2), subaqueous distributary channels and associated levees (FA3), wave- and storm-affected delta front (FA4), and open lacustrine/lower shoreface (FA5) deposits. The planoconcave fluvial channel-fill sandbodies with unidirectional cross-beds are clearly distinguishable from the delta front bars that show a convexo-plan or bi-convex sandbody geometry and dominance of wave and combined flow bedforms. Some of the distributary channels record interaction of fluvial and wave-dominated basinal processes. Major distributary sandbodies show a north to northwest flow direction while wave-affected delta front sandbodies show very complex flow patterns reflecting interaction between fluvial discharge and wave processes. Wave ripple crest trends show that the lake shoreline had an overall east–northeast to west–southwest orientation. The lack of documented contemporaneous lacustrine or marine sediments in the Satpura Gondwana basin posed a major problem of basin-scale palaeogeographic reconstruction. The

  6. Palaeomagnetic studies in the Permian Basin of Largentière and implications for the Late Variscan rotations in the French Massif Central (United States)

    Henry, B.; Becq-Giraudon, J. F.; Rouvier, H.


    Detailed geological observations and palaeomagnetic analyses were carried out in the Largentière Stephano-Autunian basin and on the Stephanian deposits of the Alès coalfield, both located at the southeastern margin of the French Massif Central. Because of unfavourable rock types, the Alès Stephanian deposits did not yield any results. The palaeomagnetic pole (164.9 degE, 45.4 degN, K=89, A_95=4.1 deg) deduced from a study of the Autunian sediments of the Largentière Basin agrees very well with the reference pole for stable Europe. The Lodève-Largentière area, that is the southeastern border of the Massif Central, has been stable since Early Permian time with respect to stable Europe, whereas the western part (the Saint-Affrique Rodez Basin and, probably, the Brive Basin) has been rotated counterclockwise.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans


    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  8. Facies pattern of the middle Permian Barren Measures Formation, Jharia basin, India: The sedimentary response to basin tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabir Dasgupta


    In the Lower Gondwana succession of the Jharia basin of eastern India, the Barren Measures Formation is characterized by the cyclic disposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits and relatively coarse-grained fluvial deposits. The cyclic variation in the rate of coarse clastic input is attributed to the sedimentary response to basin tectonics. The sandstone–shale alternations of the Barren Measures succession can be correlated with the tectonic cyclothems developed on the hangingwall dip-slope and adjoining trough in a continental half-graben setting. Enhancement of the gradient of the hangingwall dip-slope during reactivation of the basin margin faults led to progradation of the existing fluvial system towards the half-graben trough and deposition of the coarser clastics on the fine-grained lacustrine deposits of the trough. Peneplanation of the hangingwall slope and slow increase in the lake level caused lacustrine transgression and retrogration of the fluvial system on the hangingwall block. The fluvial sediments were onlapped by the fine-grained lacustrine deposits. Episodic rejuvenation of the basin margin faults thus caused development of tectonic cyclothem on the hangingwall block. The paleocurrent pattern indicates that a persistent northward paleoslope was maintained during Barren Measures sedimentation. The inferred depositional settings were much more extensive than the present limit of the outcrop. The faults, presently defining the northern limit of the Barren Measures Formation, were possibly emplaced after Barren Measures sedimentation. The final movement along these fault planes caused preservation of the downthrown hangingwall block and the Barren Measures sediments on the footwall block were eroded during subsequent denudation. The Southern Boundary Fault came into existence after the deposition of the Barren Measures sediments.

  9. A new mid-Permian burnetiamorph therapsid from the Main Karoo Basin of South Africa and a phylogenetic review of Burnetiamorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Day


    Full Text Available Discoveries of burnetiamorph therapsids in the last decade and a half have increased their known diversity but they remain a minor constituent of middle–late Permian tetrapod faunas. In the Main Karoo Basin of South Africa, from where the clade is traditionally best known, specimens have been reported from all of the Permian biozones except the Eodicynodon and Pristerognathus assemblage zones. Although the addition of new taxa has provided more evidence for burnetiamorph synapomorphies, phylogenetic hypotheses for the clade remain incongruent with their appearances in the stratigraphic column. Here we describe a new burnetiamorph specimen (BP/1/7098 from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone and review the phylogeny of the Burnetiamorpha through a comprehensive comparison of known material. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that BP/1/7098 is closely related to the Russian species Niuksenitia sukhonensis. Remarkably, the supposed mid-Permian burnetiids Bullacephalus and Pachydectes are not recovered as burnetiids and in most cases are not burnetiamorphs at all, instead representing an earlier-diverging clade of biarmosuchians that are characterised by their large size, dentigerous transverse process of the pterygoid and exclusion of the jugal from the lateral temporal fenestra. The evolution of pachyostosis therefore appears to have occurred independently in these genera. The resulting biarmosuchian tree is significantly more congruent with the stratigraphic appearance of its constituent taxa than in previous phylogenetic hypotheses and, consequently, does not necessarily constrain the diversification of the Burnetiamorpha to before the Capitanian.

  10. Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son–Mahanadi Basin, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal Jeet Singh; Srikanta Murthy; Anju Saxena; Husain Shabbar


    Faunipollenites–Gondisporites assemblage zone of Tiwari and Tripathi (1992) of Late Permian (Lopingian) Raniganj Formation in Damodar Basin. The FAD’s of Alisporites,Klausipollenites, Falcisporites, Arcuatipollenites pellucidus and Playfordiaspora cancellosa palynotaxa in this assemblage enhance the end Permian level of the Jhingurdah Top seam, as these elements are the key species to mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic.

  11. Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son-Mahanadi Basin, central India (United States)

    Singh, Kamal Jeet; Murthy, Srikanta; Saxena, Anju; Shabbar, Husain


    -Faunipollenites-Gondisporites assemblage zone of Tiwari and Tripathi (1992) of Late Permian (Lopingian) Raniganj Formation in Damodar Basin. The FAD's of Alisporites, Klausipollenites, Falcisporites, Arcuatipollenites pellucidus and Playfordiaspora cancellosa palynotaxa in this assemblage enhance the end Permian level of the Jhingurdah Top seam, as these elements are the key species to mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic.

  12. Sills, evaporites, and contact metamorphic gas generation in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia: Implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik H.; Frolov, Sergei; Akhmanov, Grigorii G.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre


    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province (LIP) through the Tunguska Basin is regarded as the main process triggering the end-Permian environmental crisis. Still, the lack of data from the Tunguska Basin represents one of the main challenges in understanding the link between the LIP formation and the crisis. Degassing from contact metamorphic aureoles in evaporites is suggested as a key factor to the continental mass extinction, but little is known about the actual distribution of sills and aureoles within these lithologies. Here, we present results from a borehole database with more than 700 wells in the Tunguska Basin, where 293 borehole sare studied in detail and presented. The boreholes cover large parts of the basin, from Norilsk in the north (N69) to Bratsk in the south (N55), with a bias towards petroleum-bearing regions. In total, 93.5% of the studied boreholes contain sill intrusions. The sill thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. Thick sills are emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations, with average thicknesses in the 115-130 meter range. Petrographic investigations of metamorphic sediments, and thermal modelling of sediment heating, demonstrate high temperature devolatilization. Degassing to the atmosphere took place via explosive pipe degassing and gas seepage. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the end-Permian mass extinction.

  13. Geochemical characteristics of the Permian basins and their provenances across the Solonker Suture Zone: Assessment of net crustal growth during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean (United States)

    Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Zhao, Guochun; Zhang, Jian; Han, Yigui; Hou, Wenzhu; Liu, Dongxing; Wang, Bo


    The Solonker Suture Zone is commonly recognised as the location of the Late Permian to Early Triassic closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean in the southeastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. However, the absence of typical suture-related features, as a consequence of uncommon collisional geometries, gave it a cryptic nature. Thus, the tectonic setting, which led to suturing, still remains enigmatic. A geochemical characterisation of Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks across the suture was carried out. Supplemented with Hf and Nd isotopic analyses, this approach enables not only a better definition of such regional suture, but also estimates on the long-controversial issue of net crustal growth in accretionary tectonic environments. The results indicate short sedimentary transport distances between the arc basins and their provenances, of which the studied volcanic rocks were a major contributor. Similar enrichment and depletion patterns with respect to N-MORB and average continental crust further corroborate a close source-sediment relationship. Immobile element provenance analyses indicate that the active continental northern margin of the North China Craton was a major source for arc basins to the south of the Solonker Suture Zone. To its north, arc basins are interpreted to be sourced by a more complex mixture of provenances, e.g., the Baolidao volcanic arc suite and the heterogenous Precambrian basement of southern Mongolia. An overall collisional tectonic setting across the suture is recognised. The geochemical signature of sedimentary rocks to the south of the suture points at an active continental arc setting, whereas the bimodal geochemical distribution of the samples to the north shows a contemporaneous active oceanic island arc as well as a passive margin environment. These features favour a double-sided subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean beneath the North China Craton and the Mongolian Arcs throughout the Palaeozoic, including back

  14. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.


    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  15. Sequence-stratigraphic frameworks and their palaeogeographic patterns for the Permian Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI MingXiang; MA YongSheng; DENG Jun; CHU HanMin; ZHENG KuanBing


    The Permian Lopingian in the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas is marked by the coal measures of the Wuchiapingian and the carbonate strata of the Changhsingian stages. For the Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas, the diversity of sedimentary facies and the obviousness of facies change provide an advantaged condition on a study of sequence stratigraphy. Approximately,the Wuchiapingian stage constitutes a third-order sequence and the Changhsingian stage forms another. For the Wuchiapingian stage in the study area, coal-measures were developed on the attached platform and, in addition, a special coal-measure that is composed of both limestone beds and coal beds was also developed in the central part of some isolated platforms. Grain-bank grainstones and packstones were formed on the margin of the attached platform as well as in the windward part of isolated platforms. For the Changhsingian stage in the study area, open-platform limestones were formed on the attached platform, while sponge-reef limestones were developed both on the margin of the attached platform and on the isolated platforms. The Lopingian Series is a set of basin-facies muddy shales with interbeds of silicalites in the inter-platform basin, which appears a set of the large-thick coarse clastic strata of molasses covering direct the deep-water strata from the Devonian to the Permian Yangsingian in the Qinzhou-Fangcheng region in the southern part of the study area. All of these features indicate the complexity of temporal-spatial facies-changes. Sequence-stratigraphic frameworks could be established, which would illustrate two types of facies-changing surfaces and diachronisms in the stratigraphic records, based on the combination of both biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic materials and the regularity reflected by temporal evolutionary succession of sediments as well as spatial distributional patterns of sedimentary facies. Ultimately, features of sedimentary

  16. Sequence-stratigraphic frameworks and their palaeogeographic patterns for the Permian Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Permian Lopingian in the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas is marked by the coal measures of the Wuchiapingian and the carbonate strata of the Changhsingian stages. For the Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas,the diversity of sedimentary facies and the obviousness of facies change provide an advantaged condition on a study of sequence stratigraphy. Approximately,the Wuchiapingian stage constitutes a third-order sequence and the Changhsingian stage forms an-other. For the Wuchiapingian stage in the study area,coal-measures were developed on the attached platform and,in addition,a special coal-measure that is composed of both limestone beds and coal beds was also developed in the central part of some isolated platforms. Grain-bank grainstones and packstones were formed on the margin of the attached platform as well as in the windward part of iso-lated platforms. For the Changhsingian stage in the study area,open-platform limestones were formed on the attached platform,while sponge-reef limestones were developed both on the margin of the at-tached platform and on the isolated platforms. The Lopingian Series is a set of basin-facies muddy shales with interbeds of silicalites in the inter-platform basin,which appears a set of the large-thick coarse clastic strata of molasses covering direct the deep-water strata from the Devonian to the Per-mian Yangsingian in the Qinzhou-Fangcheng region in the southern part of the study area. All of these features indicate the complexity of temporal-spatial facies-changes. Sequence-stratigraphic frame-works could be established,which would illustrate two types of facies-changing surfaces and dia-chronisms in the stratigraphic records,based on the combination of both biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic materials and the regularity reflected by temporal evolutionary succession of sediments as well as spatial distributional patterns of sedimentary facies. Ultimately,features of sedi

  17. Sequence stratigraphic features of the Middle Permian Maokou Formation in the Sichuan Basin and their controls on source rocks and reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Su


    Full Text Available Well Shuangyushi 1 and Well Nanchong l deployed in the NW and central Sichuan Basin have obtained a high-yield industrial gas flow in the dolomite and karst reservoirs of the Middle Permian Maokou Formation, showing good exploration prospects of the Maokou Formation. In order to identify the sequence stratigraphic features of the Maokou Formation, its sequence stratigraphy was divided and a unified sequence stratigraphic framework applicable for the entire basin was established to analyze the stratigraphic denudation features within the sequence framework by using the spectral curve trend attribute analysis, together with drilling and outcrop data. On this basis, the controls of sequence on source rocks and reservoirs were analyzed. In particular, the Maokou Formation was divided into two third-order sequences – SQ1 and SQ2. SQ1 was composed of members Mao 1 Member and Mao 3, while SQ2 was composed of Mao 4 Member. Sequence stratigraphic correlation indicated that the Maokou Formation within the basin had experienced erosion to varying extent, forming “three intense and two weak” denuded regions, among which, the upper part of SQ2 was slightly denuded in the two weak denuded regions (SW Sichuan Basin and locally Eastern Sichuan Basin, while SQ2 was denuded out in the three intense denuded regions (Southern Sichuan Basin–Central Sichuan Basin, NE and NW Sichuan Basin. The development of source rocks and reservoirs within sequence stratigraphic framework was significantly affected by sequence boundary; the grain banks that can form effective reservoir were predominately distributed in SQ1 highstand systems tract (HST, while effective source rocks were predominately distributed in SQ1 transgressive system tract (TST. It is concluded that the sequence division method is objective and reasonable, which can effectively guide oil and gas exploration in this region.

  18. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo


    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  19. Dispersal Syndromes of fossil Seeds from the Lower Permian of Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane M. Souza


    Full Text Available The morphological analysis of seeds has been an important subject in modern ecological studies, once it provides evidence about the biology and adaptations of the parent plant. However, this kind of study has been restricted to the ecology of modern plants and is rarely used in interpretations of Paleozoic data. From the understanding of dispersal syndromes analysis as an important tool to paleoecological reconstruction, this study provides a first approach using this tool with seeds from the Lower Permian strata of southern Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul. Based on previously classified seeds and using their biological and taphonomic data, the syndrome of dispersal was interpreted, and their placement in successional groups (pioneer, early-successional and later-successional was suggested. Seven morphospecies were analyzed: Samaropsis gigas, representing a later-successional species living in water bodies with hydrochory as its dispersal syndrome; Samaropsis kurtzii, typical of early-successional species showing anemochory as its dispersal syndrome and living in distal areas in relation to water bodies; Samaropsis aff. S. millaniana, Cordaicarpus aff. C. brasilianus, Cordaicarpus cerronegrensis and Cordaicarpus truncata have typical characteristics of pioneer plants, exhibiting barochory as their primary dispersal syndrome with other syndromes associated.A Análise morfológica das sementes tem sido um importante objeto em estudos ecológicos modernos, uma vez que fornece evidências sobre a biologia e as adaptações das plantas-mãe de sementes. Entretanto, este tipo de estudo tem sido restrito a ecologia de plantas modernas e é raramente utilizado em interpretações de dados paleozóicos. A partir do entendimento da análise das sindromes de dispersão como uma importante ferramenta para reconstruções paleoecológicas, este estudo oferece uma primeira abordagem utilizando essa ferramenta com sementes do Permiano Inferior do Sul da

  20. Geochemical Variability and the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste Water Coproduced with Oil from Permian Basin of the Southwest USA (United States)

    Khan, N. A.; Holguin, F. O.; Xu, P.; Engle, M.; Dungan, B.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.


    The U.S. generates 21 billion barrels/year of coproduced water from oil and gas exploration, which is generally considered waste water. Growth in unconventional oil and gas production has spurred interest in beneficial uses of produced water, especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico, the largest U.S. tight oil producer. Produced waters have variable chemistries, but generally contain high levels of organics and salts. In order to evaluate the environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of produced water. In the present study, produced water samples were collected from 12 wells across the Permian Basin. Compositional analyses including coupled gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy were conducted. The samples show elevated benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene compared to other heteroaromatics; they also contain complex hydrocarbon compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Van Krevelen diagrams show an increase in the concentration of heteroaromatic hydrocarbons with increasing well depth. The salinity, dominated by sodium-chloride, also increases with depth, ranging from 37-150 g/L TDS. Depth of wells (or producing formation) is a primary control on predicting water quality for treatment and beneficial use. Our results suggest that partial treatment by removing suspended solids and organic contaminants would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse, bioenergy production, and other industrial uses. Due to the high salinity, conventional desalination processes are not applicable or very costly, making beneficial uses requiring low salinity not feasible.

  1. Middle Permian paleomagnetism of the Sydney Basin, Eastern Gondwana: Testing Pangea models and the timing of the end of the Kiaman Reverse Superchron (United States)

    Belica, M. E.; Tohver, E.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; Jourdan, F.; Denyszyn, S.; George, A. D.


    Paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from the eastern margin of Gondwana have been obtained from the Gerringong Volcanics in the southern Sydney Basin, Australia. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole at 56.9°S, 154.8°E (N = 131; A95 = 9.1°) has a 40Ar/39Ar plagioclase plateau age of 265.05 ± 0.35 [0.46] Ma from the Bumbo Latite, and overlaps with recent radio-isotopic and paleomagnetic results published from Western Gondwana. The long-documented inconsistency between Middle Permian Eastern and Western Gondwanan paleomagnetic datasets is most likely an artefact of a lack of reliable paleomagnetic data from Eastern Gondwana for this period. A number of well-dated and recently published ca. 265 Ma paleomagnetic results from Gondwana and Laurussia are shown to be consistent with the Wegenerian Pangea A configuration, with a loose N-S fit of the continents for the Middle Permian. The lack of crustal overlap negates the need for a Pangea B configuration, which if valid must have been assembled to Pangea A by ca. 265 Ma. The reverse polarity Bumbo Latite was sampled from the Kiaman type-section located in the southern Sydney Basin. Three cases of normal polarity were detected in the overlying Saddleback, Dapto, and Berkeley Latites, previously assigned to the Kiaman Reverse Superchron (KRS). We review KRS-aged magnetostratigraphic data and propose that an age assignment of 265 Ma most likely represents the termination of the non-reversing field, with longer stable intervals of normal polarity recorded and able to be correlated globally.

  2. Paleoenvironmental reconstitution of Motuca and Sambaíba formations, Permian-Triassic of the Parnaíba Basin in southwest Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Romério Abrantes Júnior


    Full Text Available The interval between the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic was marked by paleogeographic and paleoclimatic global changes, partly attributed to catastrophic events. The intense continentalization of the supercontinent Pangaea of End-Permian propitiated the development of extensive deserts that succeeded the coastal and platform environments of Early Permian. The records of these events in northern Brazil are found in intracratonic basins, particularly in the Permo-triassic succession of the Parnaíba Basin. The facies and stratigraphic outcrops analysis of this succession allowed the individualization of 14 sedimentary facies grouped into four facies associations (FA: FA1 and FA2 related to deposits of Motuca Formation and, FA3 and FA4, representative of the base of Sambaíba Formation. The FA1 – Shallow lake/Mudflat consists of red laminated mudstone with lenses of gypsum, calcite and marl, besides lobes of sigmoidal sandstones. The FA2 – Saline pan consists of lenticular bodies of laminated gypsum, nodular gypsum and gypsarenite, overlapped by greenish mudstones with dolomite nodules and palygorskite. The FA3 – sand sheet and FA4 – dunes field are formed, respectively, for orange cream sandstones with even parallel stratification and medium- to large-scale cross-bedding. In the contact between Motuca and Sambaíba formations occurs a deformed interval, laterally continuous for hundreds of kilometers. Brecciated and contorted bedded siltstones and mudstone (Motuca Formation and sandstone with sinsedimentary faults/microfaults, convolute lamination and mud-filled injection dykes (Sambaíba Formation are interpreted as seismites triggered by high magnitude earthquakes (> 8 according Richter scale.

  3. Palaeobotanical evidence of wildfires in the Late Palaeozoic of South America - Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (United States)

    Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Mosbrugger, Volker


    Fossil charcoal, as direct evidence of palaeowildfires, has repeatedly been reported from several plant-bearing deposits from the Late Palaeozoic of the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast charcoal reports from the Late Palaeozoic deposits of the Southern Hemisphere are relatively rare in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere. Although the presence of pyrogenic coal macerals has repeatedly been reported from Late Palaeozoic coals from South America, no detailed anatomical investigations of such material have been published so far. Here is presented an anatomical analysis of charcoal originating from Early Permian sediments of the Quitéria Outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, located in the central-eastern portion of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This charcoal comes from two different coaly facies, and it was possible to scrutinize between three types, based on anatomical characters of the charcoal. Two of these charcoal types can be correlated to gymnosperm woods, and the other type corresponds to strongly permineralized bark with characteristic features of lycopsids. The presence of charcoal in different facies, ranging from parautochtonous to allochtonous origin, indicates that different vegetation types, i.e. plants which grew under wet conditions in the lowland as well as in the more dry hinterland, have experienced wildfires. Taking into account previous petrographic and lithological analyses from the facies in which the charcoal occurs and from the conditions of the wood and bark fragments, it was possible to speculate that the intensity of such wildfires most probably corresponds to forest-crown fires. Moreover, it is possible to state that wildfires have been a more or less common element in distinct Late Palaeozoic terrestrial ecosystems in the South American part of Gondwana. The data support previous assumptions on the occurrence of wildfires in the Early Permian of the Paraná Basin which were based solely on coal-petrographic data.

  4. Comment on “Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain” by S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual [Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29 (United States)

    Wagner, R. H.; Mayoral, E.


    Comments are provided on a published paper on "Lower Permian" strata in SW Spain [S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual, Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain, Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29], which failed to take into account up-to-date information on this most southerly occurrence in western Europe. This generally lacustrine basin commenced with valley fill deposits in a deeply incised palaeotopography and contains mainly red beds with two basaltic intervals and a major acidic volcanic episode linked to a nearby volcanic centre to the Northeast. The stratigraphic succession shows southeasterly onlap. Although a syn-sedimentary fault has been postulated on the NE basin margin, the field evidence disproves this notion as well as the assumption that this "Early Permian" basin would have been controlled by a rejuvenated Ossa-Morena/South Portuguese boundary fault. In fact, this basin lies within the (former) area of Ossa-Morena.

  5. A preliminary biogeochemistry-based quantification of primary productivity of end-Permian deep-water basin in Dongpan Section ,Guangxi ,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; HE Weihong; FENG Qinglai


    In this Paper,the mean primary productivity of the Talung Formation in the deep-water basin(50-500 m depth)of Dongpan,Guangxi,South China,was calculated,of the content of the trace element Cu.Results showed that the primary productivity obtained was comparable with the previously-reported data for the black shale of the Phosphoria Formation,a Permian phosphate deposit in the northwest United States,and also similar to that of the modern deposit in the Cariaco basin,Venezuela.It was observed that the primary productivity increased with the enhanced abundance of algae and photosynthetic bacteria,and with the decrease in both the radiolarian individuals and the body size of brachiopods during the faunal mass extinction.This ecological coupling indicates that the changes of primary productivity are closely related to the propagation and the decline of producers(algae and bacteria),and that consumers(radiolarians and brachiopods)probably have little influence on the changes of primary productivity.

  6. Integrative method in lithofacies characteristics and 3D velocity volume of the Permian igneous rocks in H area, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Liu Yongfu; Xie Huiwen; Xu Yongzhong; Sun Qi; Wang Shuangshuang


    This paper introduces horizon control,seismic control,logging control and facies control methods through the application of the least squares fitting of logging curves,seismic inversion and facies-controlled techniques.Based on the microgeology and thin section analyses,the lithology,lithofacies and periods of the Permian igneous rocks are described in detail.The seismic inversion and facies-controlled techniques were used to find the distribution characteristics of the igneous rocks and the 3D velocity volume.The least squares fitting of the logging curves overcome the problem that the work area is short of density logging data.Through analysis of thin sections,the lithofacies can be classified into eruption airfall subfacies,eruption pyroclastic flow subfacies and eruption facies.

  7. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.


    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  8. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.


    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  9. 东北地区二叠纪沉积特征及原型盆地分析%Analysis on Permian Depositional Characteristics and Proto-type Basin of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔军平; 任战利; 史政; 李金翔; 王文青


    The distribution of Permian in northeast China is large, and its sedimentary facies types includes half deep sea facies, offshore facies, shore shallow lake facies and half-lake facies. The region in northeast China is in a continental-margin and epicontinental sedimentation environment during Lower Permian to Middle Permian, and the deposition center is in the Wendouermiao-Xilamulun river area. In the Later Permian, this region was a large-scale depression basin, and all suture lines already were closed, while the earth crust was lifting and the sea water was withdrawing, thus the most areas became continental depositing, and partial areas formed residual-marine depositing. As a whole, the rule of sedimentary facies of this region presents a gradual transformation from marine facies in the Early Permian to land facies in the Late Permian. The sedimentation of this region in Late Paleozoic was controlled by the suture line of Xilamulun river, and the suture line became to be closed gradually from west to east during Permian and closed completely until the Late Permian, and the closed time is earlier in west and later in east.%东北地区二叠系分布广泛,沉积相类型主要为半深海相、滨浅海相、滨浅湖相和半深湖相等.早二叠世—中二叠世东北地区主要处于大陆边缘浅海沉积环境,面积大,沉积中心位于南部温都尔庙—西拉木伦河东西向条带区.晚二叠世东北地区为大型坳陷型盆地,东北地区各缝合线均已闭合,随着地壳抬升,海水退出,大部分地区为陆相沉积,局部有残留海相沉积,总体上具有从早二叠世到晚二叠世由海相向陆相逐渐转变的规律.西拉木伦河缝合带对晚古生代沉积起控制作用,在二叠纪整个缝合带由西向东逐渐拼合,直至晚二叠世,两板块拼合完成,闭合时间具有西早东晚的特点.

  10. Othonella araguaiana (Bivalvia, Megadesmidae from the Corumbataí Formation (Midlle Permian, Eastern Margin of the Paraná Basin: Systematic, Evolutionary and Biostratigraphic Significances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Guimarães Simões


    Full Text Available In this study, the occurrence of Othonella araguaiana Mendes, a rare bivalve species is reported for the first time in thePinzonella illusa biozone, Middle Permian Corumbataí Formation, in the State of São Paulo. This species was originallydescribed in coeval rocks of the Estrada Nova Formation (= Corumbataí from the Alto Araguaia and Alto Garças regions,State of Mato Grosso. The specimens of O. araguaiana were found in the base of a bioclastic sandstone bed, a proximaltempestite, in the middle of the Corumbataí Formation, in the city of Rio Claro, São Paulo State. The silicified shells andinternal molds are well preserved, showing impressions of muscle scars and other internal anatomic characters (e.g., hinge,never illustrated by previous authors. In his original description, Mendes (1963 called attention to the similarity betweenO. araguaiana and Terraia aequilateralis, a common veneroid of the Corumbataí Formation. Conversely, Runnegar andNewell (1971 suggested that O. araguaiana belongs to Megadesmidae, being a junior synonym of Plesiocyprinella carinata(the commonest megadesmid of the Passa Dois Group. Our study indicates that O. araguaiana is indeed a megadesmid,but is distinct from the P. carinata. The new occurrence of O. araguaiana demonstrates that a the paleobiogeographicdistribution of this species is wider than previously thought (that it was restricted to the northern part of Paraná Basin,Mato Grosso State; b the molluscan fauna of the Corumbataí Formation (P. illusa biozone in the State of São Paulo ismore diverse and dominated by megadesmids; and c the composition of the molluscan fauna of the Corumbataí Formationin Alto Garças, State of Mato Grosso, is essentially the same as that of the P. illusa biozone of the eastern margin of theParaná Basin.

  11. Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey) (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix


    This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

  12. Coal petrology of coal seams from the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Lower Permian of the Parana Basin, Brazil - Implications for coal facies interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.B. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Geologica, Departamento de Geociencias, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Av. Italia km 08, Campus Carreiros, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    In the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul the coal seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin, Brazil and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. This study is the first detailed investigation on the coal petrographic characterization of the coal-bearing sequence in relation to the depositional settings of the precursor mires, both in terms of whole seam characterization and in-seam variations. The study is based on the analyses of nine coal seams (I2, CI, L4, L3, L2, L1, S3, S2, S1), which were selected from core of borehole D-193, Leao-Butia and represent the entire coal-bearing sequence. The interpretation of coal facies and depositional environment is based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses using different facies-critical petrographic indices, which were displayed in coal facies diagrams. The seams are characterized by the predominance of dull lithotypes (dull, banded dull). The dullness of the coal is attributed to relatively high mineral matter, inertinite and liptinite contents. The petrographic composition is dominated by vitrinite (28-70 vol.% mmf) and inertinite (> 30 vol.% mmf) groups. Liptinite contents range from 7 to 30 vol.% (mmf) and mineral matter from 4-30 vol.%. Microlithotypes associations are dominated by vitrite, duroclarite, carbominerite and inertite. It is suggested that the observed vertical variations in petrographic characteristics (lithotypes, microlithotypes, macerals, vitrinite reflectance) were controlled by groundwater level fluctuations in the ancient mires due to different accommodation/peat accumulation rates. Correlation of the borehole strata with the general sequence-stratigraphical setting suggests that the alluvial fan system and the coal-bearing mudstone succession are linked to a late transgressive systems tract of sequence 2. Based on average compositional values obtained from coal facies diagrams, a deposition in a limno-telmatic to limnic coal

  13. Permian bivalves of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, and their biostratigraphic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Guimarães Simões


    Full Text Available A small and poorly diversified bivalve fauna from Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin (State of Santa Catarina,Mafra Municipality, is described in this paper for the first time, based on new findings. The fauna is recorded in a 30 cmthick interval of fine sandstone locally at the top of Taciba Formation, in the Butiá quarry. The studied fossil-bearing sandstonebed is a marine intercalation recording a brief eustatic rise in sea-level, probably following glacier retreat and climateamelioration at the end of a broad glacial scenario. The fauna is mainly dominated by productid brachiopods, which are notdescribed here, and rare mollusk shells (bivalves and gastropods. Two bivalve species were identified: Myonia argentinensis(Harrington, 1955, and Aviculopecten multiscalptus (Thomas, 1928. The presence of Myonia argentinensis is noteworthysince this species is also present in the Baitaca assemblage found in marine siltstones (Baitaca assemblage of theRio do Sul Formation, cropping out at the Teixeira Soares region, Paraná State. This species is also recorded in the bivalvefauna from the Bonete Formation, Pillahinco Group, Sauce Grande Basin, Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina. Hence, themarine bivalves of the Taciba Formation are associated with the transgressive event that characterizes the Eurydesma fauna,indicating a Late Asselian-Sakmarian age for the bivalve fauna. Presence of the Myonia argentinensis megadesmid speciesreinforces the Gondwanic nature of the studied fauna.

  14. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results (United States)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.


    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  15. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China (United States)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.


    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but typical CO2 carbon isotope ratios in sour gases remained about -4‰ V-PDB showing that it was not solely derived from the oxidation of alkanes. Instead CO2 may partly result from reaction of sour gas with carbonate reservoir minerals, such as Fe-rich dolomite or calcite, resulting in pyrite growth as well as CO2-generation.

  16. 柴达木盆地及其邻区早—中二叠世构造-岩相古地理格局%Early-middle Permian Tectonic-lithofacies Palaeogeographic Characteristics in Qaidam Basin and Its Adjacent Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守建; 陈奋宁; 计文化; 李荣社; 洛长义; 刘荣利; 李国栋


    通过大量野外观察、分析测试和综合研究,结合覆盖全区不同比例尺的区域地质调查资料,对柴达木盆地及其邻区早—中二叠世构造-岩相古地理格局进行了研究,并探讨了其形成机制.结果表明:柴达木盆地及其邻区中、北部早—中二叠世为陆内盆山-裂谷系统,主体处于伸展构造背景,总体表现为堑垒相间的构造古地理格局;南部为巴颜喀拉洋盆,早—中二叠世是巴颜喀拉洋盆扩张最为剧烈且规模最大的时期,巴颜喀拉洋盆中洋岛、海山遍布;早—中二叠世晚期强烈的华力西构造运动使古板块间的相对运动加剧,巴颜喀拉洋盆大洋岩石圈板块向北强烈俯冲,形成东昆仑陆缘岩浆弧及其南部增生带,东昆仑陆缘岩浆弧岩浆活动十分强烈,宗务隆山—西秦岭陆源裂谷盆地进一步发育,形成十分复杂的构造-岩相古地理格局.早—中二叠世是研究区地球动力学机制从强烈扩张到强烈汇聚的转折时期,加强其构造-岩相古地理研究对建立该区地层序列、探讨其地质演化历史以及指导找矿等均具有重要意义.%Through the field observation, the analysis of test data, the comprehensive regional geological survey and the previous research result, the forming mechanism and tectonic-lithofacies paleogeography during the Early-middle Permian in Qaidam Basin and its adjacent areas were discussed. The results showed that the Early-middle Permian in the central and northern parts of Qaidam Basin and its adjacent areas was intracontinental basin-and-range and rift valley system, and mainly located on extensional tectonic setting, and the tectonic paleogeography was graben and horst alternately! the Early-middle Permian in the southern part was the period with most violent expansion cosmically in Bayankala ocean basin, and ocean-island and seamount were all over the ocean basinj the strong Hualixi tectonic movement in the late of Early

  17. Origin of dolomitic rocks in the lower Permian Fengcheng formation, Junggar Basin, China: evidence from petrology and geochemistry (United States)

    Zhu, Shifa; Qin, Yi; Liu, Xin; Wei, Chengjie; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wei


    Although dolomitization of calcite minerals and carbonatization of volcanic rocks have been studied widely, the extensive dolomitic rocks that originated from altered volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have not been reported. The dolomitic rocks of the Fengcheng Formation in the Junggar Basin of China appear to be formed under unusual geologic conditions. The petrological and geochemical characteristics indicate that the dolomitizing host rock is devitrified volcanic tuff. After low-temperature alteration and calcitization, these tuffaceous rocks are replaced by Mg-rich brine to form massive dolomitic tuffs. We propose that the briny (with -2 ‰ ~ 6 ‰ of δ13CPDB and -5 ‰ ~ 4 ‰ of δ18OPDB) and Mg-rich marine formation water (with 0.7060 ~ 0.7087 of 87Sr/86Sr ratio), the thick and intermediate-mafic volcanic ashes, and the tectonically compressional movement may have favored the formation of the unusual dolomitic rocks. We conclude that the proposed origin of the dolomitic rocks can be extrapolated to other similar terranes with volcaniclastic rocks, seabed tuffaceous sediment, and fracture filling of sill.

  18. Prolonged Permian Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages. (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E; Bottjer, David J


    The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. Here we analyze relative abundance counts of >33,000 fossil individuals from 24 silicified Middle and Late Permian paleocommunities, documenting a substantial ecological shift to numerical dominance by molluscs in the Late Permian, before the major taxonomic shift at the end-Permian mass extinction. This ecological change was coincident with the development of fluctuating anoxic conditions in deep marine basins, suggesting that numerical dominance by more tolerant molluscs may have been driven by variably stressful environmental conditions. Recognition of substantial ecological deterioration in the Late Permian also implies that the end-Permian extinction was the climax of a protracted environmental crisis. Although the Late Permian shift to molluscan dominance was a pronounced ecological change, quantitative counts of 847 Carboniferous-Cretaceous collections from the Paleobiology Database indicate that it was only the first stage in a stepwise transition that culminated with the final shift to molluscan dominance in the Late Jurassic. Therefore, the ecological transition from brachiopods to bivalves was more protracted and complex than their simple Permian-Triassic switch in diversity.

  19. Chemostratigraphic and sedimentologic evolution of Wajid Group (Wajid Sandstone): An outcrop analog study from the Cambrian to Permian, SW Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed A.; Abdullatif, Osman M.


    The Paleozoic age succession in Saudi Arabia represents one of the most prolific petroleum producing systems in the Arabian Peninsula. This succession is also considered important for unconventional tight gas and shale gas reservoirs. The Wajid Group (Wajid Sandstone) in SW Saudi Arabia consists of four formations, namely, Dibsiyah (Lower and Upper), Sanamah, Khusayyayn and Juwayl from bottom to top. This study investigates the major oxides, trace and rare earth elements for the Wajid Group formations in southwestern Saudi Arabia. We characterize and compare the sandstone types, provenance, tectonic setting, and climate. Moreover, we applied the chemostratigraphic technique for stratigraphic differentiation. Concentrations of certain elements indicate that Wajid Group was deposited in a passive continental margin. The geochemical analysis reveals that Wajid Group sediments were likely derived from the upper and bulk continental crust and mafic igneous provenance. The elemental geochemical data has been applied in this study to improve the stratigraphic subdivision and correlation. Using selected elements, geochemical vertical profiles, binary, and ternary diagrams allow clearly distinguishing between Wajid Group formations. Thus supports the established formation boundaries that constructed using lithostratigraphy and sedimentology. The geochemical elements variation between formations can be related to differences in rock-forming minerals, facies change, climate, and provenance. The results of this study may help in constraining and correlating complex facies strata and can be used as a guide for stratigraphic correlations in the subsurface within the Wajid basin and other equivalent stratigraphic successions within Saudi Arabia.

  20. The terminal Permian in European Russia: Vyaznikovian Horizon, Nedubrovo Member, and Permian-Triassic boundary (United States)

    Lozovsky, V. R.; Balabanov, Yu. P.; Karasev, E. V.; Novikov, I. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Yaroshenko, O. P.


    The comprehensive analysis of the data obtained on terrestrial vertebrata, ostracods, entomologic fauna, megaflora, and microflora in deposits of the Vyaznikovian Horizon and Nedubrovo Member, as well as the paleomagnetic data measured in enclosing rocks, confirms heterogeneity of these deposits. Accordingly, it is necessary to distinguish these two stratons in the terminal Permian of the East European Platform. The combined sequence of Triassic-Permian boundary deposits in the Moscow Syneclise, which is considered to be the most complete sequence in the East European Platform, is as follows (from bottom upward): Vyatkian deposits; Vyaznikovian Horizon, including Sokovka and Zhukovo members; Nedubrovo Member (Upper Permian); Astashikha and Ryabi members of the Vokhmian Horizon (Lower Triassic). None of the sequences of Permian-Triassic boundary deposits known in the area of study characterizes this sequence in full volume. In the north, the Triassic deposits are underlain by the Nedubrovo Member; in the south (the Klyazma River basin), the sections are underlain by the Vyaznikovian Horizon. The Permian-Triassic boundary adopted in the General Stratigraphic Scale of Russia for continental deposits of the East European platform (the lower boundary of the Astashikha Member) is more ancient than the one adopted in the International Stratigraphic Chart. The same geological situation is observed in the German Basin and other localities where Triassic continental deposits are developed. The ways of solving this problem are discussed in this article.

  1. A new Permian bivalve-dominated assemblage in the Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil: Faunal turnover driven by regional-scale environmental changes in a vast epeiric sea (United States)

    Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Matos, Suzana Aparecida; Anelli, Luiz Eduardo; Rohn, Rosemarie; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; David, Juliana Machado


    The basal portion of the Permian Rio do Rasto Formation (Serrinha Member), Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, Brazil, records an entirely new bivalve fauna intercalated between the underlying Pinzonella neotropica assemblage (uppermost portion of the Teresina Formation) and the overlying Leinzia similis assemblage (Rio do Rasto Formation). Mollusks of these assemblages lived in marginal shallow-water habitats of an immense epeiric sea and were dominated by endemic bivalve species. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Terraia curvata (60.61%), Astartellopsis prosoclina (19.70%), Cowperesia emerita (10.61%), Leinzia curta (4.55%), Terraia bipleura (3.03%) and Beurlenella elongatella (1.52%), which are associated with conchostracans and plant remains. Species composition, abundance, and dominance in this novel assemblage differ notably from the preceding ones, suggesting a substantial evolutionary turnover. Regional-scale environmental changes recognized based on taphonomy, facies analysis, and geochemical data consist of progressive freshening of the marginal habitats of the Paraná Basin and taxic changes that include the following: (a) loss of genera, (b) decrease in bivalve abundance and ecological guilds, (c) disappearance of the dominant bivalve group (Pinzonellinae) and (d) diversification of Terrainae bivalves. The ecological signature also changed notably because only infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves are present, indicating a significant loss of functional diversity at the regional scale. Likely stressor factors (among others) are tied to freshening events, suggesting profound changes in (a) salinity, (b) primary productivity and (c) a lack of coarse, stable substrates coupled with high bioturbation rates. Hence, our regional example could offer valuable clues to benthic (bivalve) community responses in a habitat subjected to (a) rapid climate changes and (b) freshening events in shallow-water settings. Finally, the stratigraphic range of the

  2. The main texture of dolomite of Middle Permian, western Sichuan basin: Concurrently on the differences with Upper Permian-Triassic, Northeast Sichuan basin%四川盆地西部中二叠统白云岩/石的主要结构类型——兼论其与川东北上二叠统一三叠系白云岩/石的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思静; 吕杰; 兰叶芳; 黄可可; 王春梅


    白云岩/石的结构在白云岩成因研究中具有重要意义.四川盆地西部中二叠统栖霞组的白云岩具有与盆地东北部上二叠统长兴组-三叠系不同的结构:盆地西部中二叠统栖霞组除存在一部分斑状晶白云岩以外,总体上缺乏原始结构保存的白云岩,白云石具有特征的非平直晶面他形晶和鞍形晶,且晶体较大;盆地东北部上二叠统长兴组-三叠系非常发育原始结构保存的白云岩,结晶白云岩也以晶体较小的平直晶面自形晶-半自形晶为主.对碳酸盐岩中白云石含量的分布模式而言,盆地西部中二叠统栖霞组出现频率最高的是白云石含量40% ~60%的过渡岩石类型,这是一种非经典的分布模式,而盆地东北部上二叠统长兴组-三叠系则缺乏这样的过渡岩石类型,出现频率最高的是白云石含量大于90%和小于10%的端元岩石类型,这是一种经典的分布模式.白云岩/石的结构特征的差异反映盆地西部中二叠统栖霞组白云岩较高的结晶温度、较低的流体Mg/Ca比值、较短的白云化作用持续时间和不彻底的回头白云化作用;盆地东北部上二叠统长兴组-三叠系则主要是相对低温的,高Mg/Ca比值海源流体的彻底白云化作用.%The dolomite texture is significant in the study of dolomite genesis. The textures of Middle Permian Qixia dolomite in western Sichuan basin are different from those of Upper Permian-Triassic dolomite in northeastern Sichuan basin. Besides the dolomite with porphyrotopic crystals, the Qixia dolomite, as a whole, is lack of fabric-preserving textures, but characterized by coarser non-planar anhedral to euhedral saddle-like dolomite crystals. However, the fabric-preserving dolomites are well developed in Upper Permian-Triassic carbonates in northeastern Sichuan basin, including predominantly finer planar euhedral to subhedral dolomite crystals. The distribution model of dolomite content of

  3. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, L M


    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables.

  4. The Permian system in Kansas (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rocks of Permian age in Kansas were first recognized in 1895, and by the early 21st century the internationally accepted boundary between the Permian and the...

  5. 蔡希斯坦盆地二叠纪钾盐成矿条件和资源开发利用%An the Overview in on Geologic Setting and Exploitation of Permian Potash in Zechstein Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓峰; 郑绵平; 齐文; 陈文西


    The paper is written based on the basis of the author’s’substantive experience on potash exploration and exploitation overseas, personal visits at operating potash mines in Germany,face-to-face communication with German potash institutes and abundant historic data. It is with an overview for on geologic setting, current status of exploitation and mining technologies of German potash.Meanwhile,it this paper aims at providing a reference for domestic potash exploration and as well as its integrated exploitation through the research in geological setting,history of formation and mining technologies of Germany martial-face potash. German potash was formed in Zechstein Basin in Permian period,which was situated relatively steadily in shallow continental shelf area of continental block.Eight cycles have been found in Zechstain Basin (Z1 - Z8 )and each cycle was deposited in similar sequence.The sequence of deposit from bottom to top is:clastic rock → carbonate → anhydrite → halite → sylvite → roof of anhydrite.The discovery of super large-scale Permian potash basin displays that most potash resource in the world,which is normally contained in sub-basin, comes from martial-face. Meanwhile,the change of some specific elements,such as bromine and rubidium,could be indication of potash deposit.The method should be used in the potash exploration in China. Potash could be mined by either conventional mining or solution mining.Conventional mining was more popular in past many years.However,solution mining has been improving and it has more advantages compared with conventional mining.%笔者对德国几个在产钾盐矿山实地考,察以及与德国钾盐研究机构的技术交流,并结合大量文献资料,对德国钾盐地质条件、开发现状以及开采技术的发展进行综述,为国内找钾和钾盐的综合开发利用提供借鉴。德国钾盐产于上二叠纪蔡希斯坦盆地(Zechstein Basin),位于相对稳定的陆块浅海陆

  6. Role of sea-level change in deep water deposition along a carbonate shelf margin, Early and Middle Permian, Delaware Basin: implications for reservoir characterization (United States)

    Li, Shunli; Yu, Xinghe; Li, Shengli; Giles, Katherine A.


    The architecture and sedimentary characteristics of deep water deposition can reflect influences of sea-level change on depositional processes on the shelf edge, slope, and basin floor. Outcrops of the northern slope and basin floor of the Delaware Basin in west Texas are progressively exposed due to canyon incision and road cutting. The outcrops in the Delaware Basin were measured to characterize gravity flow deposits in deep water of the basin. Subsurface data from the East Ford and Red Tank fields in the central and northeastern Delaware Basin were used to study reservoir architectures and properties. Depositional models of deep water gravity flows at different stages of sea-level change were constructed on the basis of outcrop and subsurface data. In the falling-stage system tracts, sandy debris with collapses of reef carbonates are deposited on the slope, and high-density turbidites on the slope toe and basin floor. In the low-stand system tracts, deep water fans that consist of mixed sand/mud facies on the basin floor are comprised of high- to low-density turbidites. In the transgression and high-stand system tracts, channel-levee systems and elongate lobes of mud-rich calciturbidite deposits formed as a result of sea level rise and scarcity of sandy sediment supply. For the reservoir architecture, the fan-like debris and high-density turbidites show high net-to-gross ratio of 62 %, which indicates the sandiest reservoirs for hydrocarbon accumulation. Lobe-like deep water fans with net-to-gross ratio of 57 % facilitate the formation of high quality sandy reservoirs. The channel-levee systems with muddy calciturbidites have low net-to-gross ratio of 30 %.

  7. Formation of the Permian basalts and implications of geochemical tracing for paleo-tectonic setting and regional tectonic background in the Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dingwu; LIU Yiqun; XING Xiujuan; HAO Jianrong; DONG Yunpeng; OUYANG Zhengjian


    The Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins are the late Paleozoic-Mesozoic-Cenozoic reworked intracontinental basins that superposed on the folded basement of the Paleozoic orogenic belt. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological study of the basalts developed in the basins reveals that the formation period is Permain (293-266 Ma). From geochemical comparison of the basalts, the Santanghu basalts exhibit a strong depletion in Nb and Ta, and a selective enrichment in HFSE, reflecting that the source region is influenced by the subducted components related to subduction of the ancient oceanic crust and characterized with "lagged arc volcanic rocks". In contrast, the Turpan-Hami basalts show a slight depletion in Nb and Ta, high Th/Ta ratio, similar to the basalts formed in an intracontinental extensional zone or in an initial rift. Combined with the formation period of the ophiolite and ophiolite mélange zones and regional magmatic activities occurring on the post-orogenic extensional background in northern Xinjiang, it can be inferred from these geochemical characteristics that the tectonic background for forming the Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins is closely related to the regional extension after the continent-continent collisional orogeny. The basalts of the two basins came from different sources on the post-orogenic extensional background of the similar basin-forming dynamics. Although the settings are all intracontinental rift, the source for the Santanghu basalts is obviously subjected to the metasomatism of the subducted components, implying the existence of the previous subduction.

  8. Photogeology: Part D: Descartes highlands: possible analogs around the Orientale Basin (United States)

    Hodges, Carroll Ann


    The Descartes highlands are adjacent to the terra plain on which the Apollo 16 lunar module landed (fig. 29-13). A variety of volcanic origins was proposed for the highlands before the mission (refs. 29-4, 29-21, and 29-35 to 29-37), but the returned samples of the area consist almost exclusively of nonvolcanic breccias. The breccias obtained from Stone Mountain have not been identified conclusively as sample materials of the Descartes Mountains (ref. 29-35). A volcanic origin is thus not yet precluded (sec. 6 of this report), but a review of possible impact-related origins seems to be appropriate. The orbital photography acquired during the Apollo 16 mission provides excellent imagery on which geomorphic interpretations may be based. No obvious local crater is a plausible source of the material, but there may be a relation to either the Nectaris or Imbrium Basin. The less degraded Orientale Basin (fig. 29-24) provides a model by which these comparisons can be made (part F of this section).

  9. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.


    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  10. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; Ram-Awatar; Saurabh Gautam


    Palynofloras have been recorded from the Barakar Formation in the Borehole MBKW-3, Barpali–Karmitikra Block, Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Three distinct palynoassemblages have been identified and referred to the following palynoassemblage zones – Gondisporites raniganjensis (Latest Permian); Faunipollenites varius (latest Early Permian), and Scheuringipollenites barakarensis (late Early Permian). It is inferred that these deposits contain the representative palynoassamblages of Early to Late Permian in age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD)s of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, A. ovatus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lundbladispora microconata, Alisporites opii, Klausipollenites sp., and Goubinispora indica (at 41.95, 45.90, 98.35 m depths), indicate the closing phase of Permian, as these elements are the key species that mark a transition from Permian to the Lower Triassic. An attempt has been made here to reconstruct the phytogeographical provincialism on the basis of Guttulapollenites recorded in this basin.

  11. Taphonomy of Condensed Shell Storm beds of the Teresina Formation in Rio Preto (State of Paraná, Middle Permian, Paraná Basin: Paleoenvironmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Peixoto Neves


    Full Text Available The deposits of the Permian Teresina Formation are mainly characterized by fi ne-grained siliciclastic rocks and centimetricintercalations of tempestites (bioclastic sandstones and coquinas. Despite the relevance of the bivalve-rich carbonate bedsof the Teresina Formation to paleoenvironmental studies, their taphonomy is still poorly studied. The fossil concentrationstudied in this work was found in a quarry in the city of Irati, Rio Preto district, Paraná State. The fossil concentration is locatedin the middle/upper portion of the unit, far from the top. The studied bed is a bioclastic, intraclastic, peloidal, grainstone/packstone, with abundant bivalve shell fragments, pelitic and micritic intraclasts, peloids, rare ooids and oncoids, as well aspermineralized of Lycophyta microphylles and fi sh scales. The grains of this carbonate concentration show: high degree oftime-averaging, variable degree of packing (dense to disperse, no sorting and chaotic orientation. Notably, the concentrationincludes a mixture of elements which are indicative of: a restrictive, low energy, carbonate environment (peloids, ooidsand oncoids; b subaerial environment surrounding the main body of water (Lycophyta microphylles and c quiet-waterenvironment punctuated by storm events, where the suspension-feeding bivalves thrived. At least four depositional eventscaused by storm fl ows were recorded. The amalgamated nature of the bed is a result of storm events in an intracratonic basinwith very low seafl oor slope and low rates of sedimentation and subsidence.

  12. Extinguishing a Permian World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneebeli-Hermann, E.


    At the end of the Permian, ca. 252 Ma ago, marine and terrestrial fauna were facing the most extensive mass extinction in Earth history (Raup and Sepkoski, 1982). 80%–95% of all species on Earth, on land and in the oceans, became extinct (Benton et al., 2004) within an estimated time interval of les

  13. Provenance analysis of sandstone of the Upper Carboniferous to Middle Permian in Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯盆地上石炭统-中二叠统砂岩物源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全红; 李文厚; 刘昊伟; 李克永; 庞军刚; 郭艳琴; 袁珍


    Based on comprehensive study of regional geology, stratigraphic contact relations, sandstone fragment components, heavy mineral and trace elements, the Upper Carboniferous to Middle Permian provenance area for the north Ordos Basin mainly come from recycling orogeny area, and can be divided into three provenance areas that are Wuhai-Yinchuan, Hangjinqi-Dongsheng, Zhungeer-Fugu. But affected by variation provenance and bounded by Hangjinqi-Dongsheng, the distribution of quartz sandstone of Ordos Basin that was derived from Alashan ancient land has obvious west-east trending divisional feature and is mainly distributed in west Ordos Basin, but lithic sandstone that came from Yin Mountains mainly distributed in east Ordos Basin. South and southwest trending source sandstone that came from steady tectonic area and recycling orogeny area are strongly related to the evolution of Qin-Qi orogenic belt, and has the duplex characteristic of activity and stabilization. So the south provenance can be divided into three provenance areas that are Haiyuan and Tongxin-Zhongwei, Pingliang-Guyuan and Huaixian, Yaoxian-Yijun and Fuxian. The catchment area of south and north provenance with NWW trending shoestring extension is located in Huanxian-Fuxian-Xianning area, and the catchment area gradually transfers to south Ordos Basin during Shanxi to He-8 period. Until He-8 period, the west provenance began to supply coarse clastic sediments. In Liuyehe Basin, Zhouzhi, as the outer margin of Ordos Basin, which is the intermontane basin of Qinling orogenic belt and has continuous transitional relationship between them, the Upper Carboniferous to Middle Permian sandstone came from recycling orogeny area and continental blocks.%对区域地质、地层接触关系、砂岩组分、重矿物及微量元素等的综合分析与研究结果表明,鄂尔多斯盆地北部上石炭统-中二叠统砂岩的物源区主要为再旋回造山带物源区,并可划分出乌海-银川、杭锦

  14. 塔里木盆地巴楚及塔中地区二叠系层序地层学分析%Analysis of Sequence Stratigraphy of Permian inBachu and Tazhong of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辰生; 郭建华; 张琳婷


    通过钻井、测井以及野外剖面等资料的综合分析,塔里木盆地巴楚及塔中地区二叠系可识别出6个层序边界.除B4为Ⅱ型层序边界外,其他各层序边界均为Ⅰ型层序边界,并以侵蚀下切为特征.根据6个层序边界可将二叠系划分为5个三级层序,这些层序均符合Vail经典层序地层学模式.SQ4层序可识别出湖侵体系域和高位体系域,SQ1、SQ2、SQ3、SQ5层序可识别出低位体系域、海(湖)侵体系域和高位体系域.低位体系域为河流相性质的侵蚀沟谷充填沉积,海(湖)侵体系域为滨浅湖和半深湖沉积,高位体系域为半深湖-滨浅湖以及三角洲沉积,另外,SQ3层序高位体系域上部还发育火山岩.河流相侵蚀沟谷充填沉积和三角洲沉积主要分布在塔东隆起西部斜坡上.%Based on analysis of drilling data, logging data and outcrop section data, 6 sequence boundaries were recognized in Permian in Tarim Basin. Except that boundary B4 belonged to type Ⅱ sequence boundary, the others boundaries were type Ⅰ sequence boundary, characteried by erosion and down-cutting. According to 6 sequence boundaries, 5 three order sequences could be recognized in Permian, and all the sequences corresponded with classic sequence models of vail. Sequence SQ4 could be used to recognize trangressive system tract (TST) and highstand system tract (HST). Sequences SQ1, SQ2, SQ3, SQ5 could be adopted to recognize lowstand system tract (LST), trangressive system tract (TST) and highstand system tract (HST). LST was deposited by incised channel characterized by fluvial facies. TST was deposited by lacustrine shore and semi-deep to deep lacustrine. HST was deposited by semi-deep to deep lacustrine and delta. What's more, lava rocks were presented at the top part of HST in sequence SQ3. The incised channel infilling distributed mainly around basin,and delta mainly in southwest and south area.

  15. Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia (United States)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik H.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Hammer, Øyvind


    Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. "Breccia coating" magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.

  16. Rare Carboniferous and Permian glacial and non-glacial bryophytes and associated lycophyte megaspores of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: A new occurrence and paleoenvironmental considerations (United States)

    Ricardi-Branco, Fresia; Rohn, Rosemarie; Longhim, Marcia Emilia; Costa, Juliana Sampaio; Martine, Ariel Milani; Christiano-de-Souza, Isabel Cortez


    Fossil bryophytes are rare because their preservation is compromised by the presence of a thin cuticle (if any) and a lack of lignin. Except for the occurrence of one bryophyte in the glacial Dwyka Group of the Karoo Basin, the other rare Late Paleozoic records in Gondwana are notably from the Paraná Basin in Southeast/South Brazil. Four bryophyte sites (including a newly discovered one) were found in the lower part of the thick Permo-Carboniferous glacial succession of the Itararé Group, and one was found in the Guadalupian Teresina Formation, which was roughly assigned to an epeiric sea (or "lake") dominated by a warm, semi-arid climate. This study describes the fossils from the new occurrence from the Itararé Group and discusses the context in which the bryophyte beds originated in the basin. The new samples confirm that all of the bryophytes of the Itararé Group can be classified as Dwykea araroii Ricardi-Branco et al. (a possible pleurocarp) and are associated with the lycophyte megaspore Sublagenicula brasiliensis (Dijkstra) Dybová-Jachowicz. In the much younger Teresina Formation, the bryophytes are Yguajemanus yucapirus Cristiano-de-Souza et al. and Capimirinus riopretensis Cristiano-de-Souza et al., and abundant charophytes and rare dwarf lycophyte stems and bracts are present in the same layers. Although the two stratigraphic units represent distinct paleoenvironments and climates, they seem to share some characteristics: a) the bryophyte assemblages were transported very little; b) they were deposited in very calm environments; c) they were the main components (along with some lycophytes) of local or poorly diversified regional vegetation. The low number of species, which is characteristic of opportunistic communities, can be explained by local or regional conditions that would have been stressful for the vascular plants in other areas. During the deposition of the Itararé Group, the main control was probably the cold climate in addition to a

  17. The thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt of Irecê Basin, São Francisco Craton: main structural setting and physical analog modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Luis Siqueira Reis


    Full Text Available Located in the central portion of Bahia state, Irecê Basin displays the best exposures of neoproterozoic sedimentary cover at Northern São Francisco Craton. Despite of the large amount of geological studies performed there, some questions remain unsolved, especially concerning the tectonic evolution of the thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt that involves the rocks of the basin. In order to contribute to the understanding of such evolution, the present study reviews the main structural elements of the basin and surroundings, and present new data acquired through sandbox physical analog modeling. The Thin-skinned Fold-and-thrust Belt of Irecê Basin is a great curved feature, confined in the homonymous syncline, whose genesis is related to the development of orogenic belts north of São Francisco Craton. Its evolution was conditioned by a N-S tectonic vector, responsible by the nucleation of E-W folds and thrusts. At basin boundaries, the deformation is accommodated by strike-slip faults, which locally rotated early structures. Towards south, the belt gradually loses its expression, only remaining structures related to the Chapada Diamantina thrust-and-fold system. The sandbox analog model successfully simulated the development of the Thin-skinned Fold-and-thrust Belt of Irecê Basin, and indicates that its map-view curve results from the interaction with the syncline borders, as well as substrate geometry of the foreland belt. The propagation was made through a low-friction detachment, probably conditioned by the rheological contrast between the Una Group carbonates and the underlying Espinhaço Supergroup siliciclastic rocks.

  18. Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retallack, G.J.; Metzger, C.A.; Greaver, T.; Jahren, A.H.; Smith, R.M.H.; Sheldon, N.D. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Science


    The end-Permian mass extinction has been envisaged as the nadir of biodiversity decline due to increasing volcanic gas emissions over some 9 million years. We propose a different tempo and mechanism of extinction because we recognize two separate but geologically abrupt mass extinctions on land, one terminating the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) at 260.4 Ma and a later one ending the Permian Period at 251 Ma. Our evidence comes from new paleobotanical, paleopedological, and carbon isotopic studies of Portal Mountain, Antarctica, and comparable studies in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Extinctions have long been apparent among marine invertebrates at both the end of the Guadalupian and end of the Permian, which were also times of warm-wet greenhouse climatic transients, marked soil erosion, transition from high- to low-sinuosity and braided streams, soil stagnation in wetlands, and profound negative carbon isotope anomalies. Both mass extinctions may have resulted from catastrophic methane outbursts to the atmosphere from coal intruded by feeder dikes to flood basalts, such as the end-Guadalupian Emeishan Basalt and end-Permian Siberian Traps.

  19. Organic-rich shales from internal Betic basins (SE Spain): potential source rocks analogs for the pre-Messinian Salt play in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A.; Jorge, R.; Baudino, R.; Gilbert, L.


    Southeastern Spain has a large number of Late Neogene basins with substantial evaporitic deposits that developed under an overall NNW-SSE compressional regime related to the African-European tectonic plates collision. Located in the Betic Cordillera, they can be considered as marginal Mediterranean basins that became gradually isolated during the Tortonian and Early Messinian due to tectonic uplift. Different evaporitic units accumulated in these basins during isolation and, in several cases, evaporitic conditions were associated to episodes of important organic matter accumulation. Results obtained from Late Tortonian to Early Messinian shales collected from boreholes, mines and outcrops in the internal Betic basins of Las Minas de Hellín, Cenajo and Socovos are presented. The organic matter was studied under fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the main geochemical characteristics defined. They show a relation between organic-rich intervals with high potential of hydrocarbon generation, native sulfur, bio-induced dolomite and evaporitic deposits. These organicrich shales can be found before, during and after the evaporitic episodes. Results from the present study are compared with those previously obtained in the pre-evaporitic deposits of the Lorca Basin that showed high oil generation potential, a restricted-marine origin of the organic matter and a low degree of maturity. The occurrence of such potential source rocks in several basins points to a broad regional distribution. At a larger scale, in the Mediterranean Basin, organic-rich sediments were deposited before and during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The studied examples could represent analogs for potential source rocks of the pre-Messinian salt play in the Western Mediterranean. (Author)

  20. An accurately delineated Permian-Triassic Boundary in continental successions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Permian-Triassic Boundary Stratigraphic Set (PTBST), characteristic of the GSSP section of Meishan and widespread in marine Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) sequences of South China, is used to trace and recognize the PTB in a continental sequence at Chahe (Beds 66f―68c). Diversified Permian plant fossils extended to the PTBST, and a few relicts survived above that level. Sporomorphs are dominated by fern spores of Permian nature below the PTBST, above which they are replaced by gymnosperm pollen of Triassic aspect. In the nearby Zhejue Section, the continental PTBST is characterized by the fungal 'spike' recorded in many places throughout the world. The boundary claybeds (66f and 68a,c) of the PTBST are composed of mixed illite-montmorillonite layers analogous with those at Meishan. They contain volcanogenic minerals such as β quartz and zircon. U/Pb dating of the upper claybed gives ages of 247.5 and 252.6 Ma for Beds 68a and 68c respectively, averaging 250 Ma. In contrast to the situation in Xinjiang and South Africa, the sediment sequence of the Permian-Triassic transition in the Chahe section (Beds 56―80) become finer upward. Shallowing and coarsening upward is not, therefore, characteristic of the Permian-Triassic transition everywhere. The occurrence of relicts of the Gigantopteris Flora in the Kayitou Fm. indicates that, unlike most marine biota, relicts of this paleophytic flora survived into the earliest Triassic. It is concluded that Bed 67 at Chahe corresponds to Bed 27 at Meishan, and that the PTB should be put within the 60-cm-thick Bed 67b④, now put at its base tentatively. This is the most accurate correlation of the PTB in continental facies with that in the marine GSSP.

  1. Altered river morphology in south africa related to the permian-triassic extinction (United States)

    Ward; Montgomery; Smith


    The Permian-Triassic transition in the Karoo Basin of South Africa was characterized by a rapid and apparently basin-wide change from meandering to braided river systems, as evidenced by preserved sedimentary facies. This radical changeover in river morphology is consistent with geomorphic consequences stemming from a rapid and major die-off of rooted plant life in the basin. Evidence from correlative nonmarine strata elsewhere in the world containing fluvial Permian-Triassic boundary sections suggests that a catastrophic terrestrial die-off of vegetation was a global event, producing a marked increase in sediment yield as well as contributing to the global delta(13)C excursion across the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  2. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy (United States)

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver


    Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

  3. Characteristics and Formation Mechanism for Dolomite Reservoir of Permian Fengcheng Formation in Junggar Basin%准噶尔盆地二叠系风城组白云岩储层特征及成因机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶晶; 孙靖; 朱筱敏; 刘巍; 朱世发


    Recently, dolomitic-rock exploration of Junggar Basin has made a sustained breakthrough and opened a completely new exploration field. Definition of dolomitic-rock is concluded, and the effective reservoir type, characteristics of occurrence and formation mechanism of dolomite are determined based on previous research conclusions, core observation, thin section, and so on. The dolomitic-rock with special lithology and limited distribution mainly develops in Permian Fengcheng Formation of Wuxia district of the northwest margin. The dolomite has seven types of occurrence, including lameltate, uniform distribution, snow shape, irregular layered shape, crumb shape, fracture filling shape and exotic dolomite elastics. Corresponding, dolomite has five types of formation mechanism, including para-syngenetic dolomitization, mixed dolomitization, buried dolo-mitization, diagenetic dolomitization and weathering-transportation of external dolostone. The effective dolomitic-rock reservoirs whose space is microfissure, include dolomitic-siltstone, dolomitic-mudstone, muddy dolomite, and so on. Development degree and dispositional relationship of fissure and karst cave have an important impact on the level of capacity. Overall, the micro-and macro-distribution characteristics of different types of dolomite are different, and their superimposed effect controls the whole features of the present dolomite.%准噶尔盆地云质岩勘探近年来持续获得重大突破,打开了全新的勘探领域.通过岩心观察、薄片观察和分析等方法,结合前人研究成果,初步归纳了盆地云质岩的定义,明确有效储集岩类型及其产出特征和成因机理.云质岩具有岩性独特和分布局限的特点,主要产出于西北缘乌夏地区二叠系风城组.研究表明,盆地白云岩有纹层状、均匀分布状和雪花状等7种产出类型,共有准同生白云化作用、混合白云化作用和埋藏白云化作用等5种成因机理.风城组有效云

  4. By analogy with late paleozoic orogeny in the Venezuelan Andes, Maracaibo Basin is en route to a granitic event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.; Giegengack, R.F.; Lutz, T.M.


    Postulated stages of orogeny in a continental crustal setting are:- 1. Stresses of plate convergence lead to block uplift and complementary basin subsidence. The basin fills with 12-14 km of illite-rich flysch (1km/3Ma). This about doubles the thickness of K-rich sial. 2. In situ heating of the flysch by radioactive decay provides a thermal gradient of c.35/sup 0/C/km and it is metamorphosed (pre-deformation) to greenschists facies. 3. After maximum crustal subsidence continued compression results in updoming of crust and overlying flysch. Cannibalism of flysch, cooling and mild subsidence follow; autometamorphism declines. 4. Thin deltaic-marine deposits complete basin fill over the meta-flysch. The unconformity (a span of only 5-10 Ma) is of minor import. 5. Resetting of the thermal profile of the depressed crust lags far behind that in the flysch. Parallels to the above in the Maracalbo basin fill are: -thickness (approx.11km), nature (flysch abounds), rate of deposition (c.1km/3-4Ma), thermal gradient (c.33/sup 0/C/km) and overall tesselar shape. Presence of impermeable strata in the Maracaibo Basin suggests that large-scale fluid convection is inhibited; conductive models of heat transfer can be used. Computer modeling suggests that radiogenic heat, augmented by exothermic oxidation of organic matter, and with a normal mantle heat flow will explain the autometamorphism of the flysch. Alternative orogenic models invoking pull-apart basins do not explain the great thickness of sediments and absence of volcanic activity.

  5. 三塘湖盆地二叠系干酪根热模拟气体产物的地球化学特征%Geochemical characterization of gaseous pyrolysates from a Permian kerogen of Santanghu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军艳; 程斌; 廖泽文


    针对三塘湖盆地的主力烃源岩二叠系芦草沟组泥质烃源岩开展封闭体系和半开放体系热模拟实验,前者将干酪根密封在金管中开展实验、后者直接对烃源岩样品进行压机半开放体系热解模拟,对实验中生成气体的组分和稳定碳同位素进行分析。实验结果显示,两种热解方法以无机气体生成为主,包括CO2、H2、H2S 和 N2等,其中 CO2含量最丰富,这与样品干酪根中丰富的氧含量一致。半开放体系模拟实验温度达到480℃时,气态烃的含量达40.64%,其中甲烷含量达到26.10%,封闭体系中随着模拟温度升高烃类气体产物的碳同位素呈现先变轻后变重的趋势,但同位素分馏程度不大, CH4气体的δ13C 值分布在-40.2‰~-46.6‰之间, C2H6分布在-34.3‰~-38.0‰之间, C3H8分布在-33.6‰~-36.0‰之间,而CO2气体δ13C值分布在-32.8‰~-28.8‰之间。三塘湖盆地针对气藏的勘探已经有所发现,但有关气藏的地球化学特征报道较少,该工作中的模拟实验结果可为三塘湖盆地深入的气藏地球化学勘探提供基础数据。%This work was carried out to study the geochemical characteristics of gaseous pyrolysates from Permian argillaceous source rocks of Santanghu Basin, from the closed and semi-open systems, respectively. Kerogens prepared from the source rocks were sealed into golden tubes for the closed-pyrolysis, while the source rocks were used directly for the semi-open system. The composition and stable carbon isotope of the gas generated were analyzed. The results show that, for both pyrolysis systems, inorganic gas were the main products including CO2, H2, H2S, N2. The proportion of CO2 was the highest due to the abundant oxygen content in the kerogens; for the semi-open system, the relative percentage of gaseous hydrocarbons can be up to 40.64%, and the relative percentage of methane is as high as 26.10% when the temperature reaches

  6. Sedimentology and distribution of Upper Permian lowstand fans, Bredehorn Member, Schuchert Dal Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner-Moeller, M.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L.


    The Upper Permian basin of central East Greenland was characterized by shallow marine platform carbonates along the basin margins and over fault crests, and deeper water siliciclastics in the basin centres during the later stages of deposition. The basinal, siliciclastic-dominated succession includes the organic rich, source prone shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation and sandy and silty sediments of the Schuchert Dal Formation. The traditional view of these formations is that they represent discrete stages of basin evolution. However, renewed fieldwork indicates that the lower part of the sandy Bredehorn Member of the Schuchert Dal Formation is time equivalent to the upper part of the Ravnefjeld Formation. The presentation discusses the details.

  7. LA-ICPMS U-Pb Dating of Zircons from Tuffs of the Upper Permian-Middle Triassic in Youjiang Basin,Guangxi Province and Its Geological Significance%右江盆地上二叠统—中三叠统凝灰岩年龄及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虎; 杨江海; 杜远生; 黄宏伟; 黄志强; 谢春霞; 胡丽沙


    Upper Permian-Middle Triassic sections in Youjiang basin contain many volcanic tuff horizons. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of 4 volcanic tuff samples from the bottom of the Luolou and Baifeng formations in the Jiuxu and Lizhou areas, Guangxi Province, yield the depositional ages of 252. 8 + 1. 8, 253. 0 + 2. 4, 247. 2+1. 5 and 239. 3±2. 7 Ma, respectively, which, together with the inherited or xenocrystal zircon ages (with peak values of 264 and 267 Ma), indicate that episodical volcanism occurred during Middle Permian Gudalupian and Middle Triassic Bithynian in southwestern China The appearance of the inherited zircon ages (260-270 Ma) from the volcanic tuffs around the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) indicate the volcanic events in South China may have caused the End-Permian extinction. The depositional age of 247. 2 + 1. 5 Ma from the volcanic tuff at the bottom of the Middle Triassic Baifeng Formation indicates it is more appropriate to place the Early to Middle Trissic boundary at 247. 2 Ma. The petrographical study of the volcanic tuffs indicates the Youjiang basin expierenced the tectonic transition from extension to compression after Middle Triassic, and especially after Bithynian, which resulted in the great tectonic subsidence of the basin.%右江盆地上二叠统—中三叠统地层中常含有多层凝灰岩,对采自广西河池九圩及田林利周罗楼组和百逢组底部的4件凝灰岩样品进行锆石原位LA-ICPMS方法U-Pb同位素定年,结果显示凝灰岩的形成年龄分别为252.8±1.8Ma、253.0±2.4 Ma、247.2±1.5Ma和239.3±2.7Ma,指示晚二叠世末期到中三叠世Bithynian期华南地块西南缘存在多期火山活动,其可能与华南西南缘陆块的裂解与汇聚有关.凝灰岩中继承或捕虏锆石年龄(260~270Ma)记录了中晚二叠世峨眉山大火成岩省岩浆活动或华南西南缘岛弧火山活动事件.凝灰岩的岩相学研究表明,中三叠世特别是Bithynian期之后右江盆地由伸展

  8. Early Permian Pangea `B' to Late Permian Pangea `A' (United States)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Kent, Dennis V.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Brack, Peter; Abrahamsen, Niels; Gaetani, Maurizio


    The pre-drift Wegenerian model of Pangea is almost universally accepted, but debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana farther to the east by ˜3000 km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. New paleomagnetic data from radiometrically dated Early Permian volcanic rocks from parts of Adria that are tectonically coherent with Africa (Gondwana), integrated with published coeval data from Gondwana and Laurasia, again only from igneous rocks, fully support a Pangea 'B' configuration in the Early Permian. The use of paleomagnetic data strictly from igneous rocks excludes artifacts from sedimentary inclination error as a contributing explanation for Pangea 'B'. The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis by introducing a significant non-dipole (zonal octupole) component in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field. We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset consisting entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from sampling sites confined to one hemisphere from Gondwana as well as Laurasia that the effects of a zonal octupole field contribution would not explain away the paleomagnetic evidence for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore regard the paleomagnetic evidence for an Early Permian Pangea 'B' as robust. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' took place during the Permian because Late Permian paleomagnetic data allow a Pangea 'A' configuration. We therefore review geological evidence from the literature in support of an intra-Pangea dextral megashear system. The transformation occurred after the cooling of the Variscan mega-suture and lasted ˜20 Myr. In this interval, the Neotethys Ocean opened between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian microcontinents in the east, while widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism took place in the west around the Adriatic promontory. The general

  9. 准噶尔盆地中拐地区石炭—二叠纪火山岩特征及构造环境分析%Geochemical characteristics and tectonic setting of the Carboniferous-Permian volcanic rocks in Zhongguai area northwestern Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国强; 史基安; 张顺存; 陈吉; 贾艳艳


    中拐地区位于准噶尔盆地西北缘,是在石炭纪—早二叠世挤压应力场作用下形成的宽缓鼻状古隆起.石炭—二叠纪火山岩是主要的含油层系之一,到目前为止已发现了多个油气藏和出油气点,显示出良好的勘探前景.根据系统、精细的地震资料解释,中拐地区在石炭—二叠纪时期主要存在4期构造运动,分别对应4个不整合面:1)石炭系与二叠系之间;2)二叠系佳木河组与下乌尔禾组之间;3)二叠系下乌尔禾组与上乌尔禾组之间;4)二叠系上乌尔禾组与三叠系百口泉组之间.通过对中拐地区石炭—二叠纪火山岩的全岩元素分析表明,该区域主要为中-酸性的安山岩、英安岩和流纹岩及火山角砾岩和凝灰岩为主,其中SiO2的含量普遍较高,平均含量达到了67%,判定中拐地区的石炭—二叠纪火山岩喷发环境应位于岛弧体系的大陆内侧,在喷发过程中经历过陆壳的熔融作用.结合前人对周缘火山岩的研究,认为石炭—二叠纪时期中拐地区由岛弧环境逐渐进入陆内演化阶段,三叠纪开始进入稳定的沉积演化时期.%Zhong-Guai area is located in the Northwest margin of Junggar Basin, it is a broad nose palaeohigh formed in compressional stress field of Carboniferous Early Permain Period. Carboniferous-Permain volcanic rock is one of the mainly oil-bearing series, until now many hydrocarbon reservoirs and oil entry points are discovered, and showing good exploration prospects. According to systematic and elaborate seismic data interpretation, Zhong-Guai area have four tectonic movements in the Carboniferous-Permian period, corresponding to four unconformity respectively: 1 ) Between the Carboniferous and Permian system; 2) Between the Jiamuhe and Xiawuerhe Formation of Permian system; 3 ) Between the Xiawuerhe and Shangwuerhe Formation of Permian system; 4) Between the Xiawuerhe Formation of Permian system and Baikouquan Formation of

  10. Using Moving North Pacific Index to Improve Rainy Season Rainfall Forecast over the Yangtze River Basin by Analog Error Correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new analog error correction (AEC) scheme based on the moving North Pacifi c index (MNPI) is designed in this study. This scheme shows obvious improvement in the prediction skill of the operational coupled general circulation model (CGCM) of the National Climate Center of China for the rainy season rainfall (RSR) anomaly pattern correlation coeffi cient (ACC) over the mid-to-lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLRYR). A comparative analysis indicates that the eff ectiveness of the new scheme using the MNPI is better than the system error correction scheme using the North Pacifi c index (NPI). A Euclidean distance-weighted mean rather than a traditional arithmetic mean, is applied to the integration of the analog year’s prediction error fi elds. By using the MNPI AEC scheme, independent sample hindcasts of RSR during the period 2003–2009 are then evaluated. The results show that the new scheme exhibited a higher forecast skill during 2003–2009, with an average ACC of 0.47;while the ACC for the NPI case was only 0.19. Furthermore, the forecast skill of the RSR over the MLRYR is examined. In the MNPI case, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) was used in the degree compression of the prediction error fi elds from the CGCM, whereas the AEC scheme was applied only to its fi rst several EOF components for which the accumulative explained variance accounted for 80%of the total variance. This further improved the ACC of the independent sample hindcasts to 0.55 during the 7-yr period.

  11. A new Permagrionidae from the Middle Permian of the South of France (Odonatoptera: Protozygoptera). (United States)

    Fate, Caitlin; Lapeyrie, Jean; Nel, Andre


    The new permagrionid protozygopteran genus and species Salagoulestes wesleyi is described from the Middle Permian of Lodève Basin, Salagou Formation. It seems to be more closely related to the two genera Scytolestes and Permagrion than to any other Permagrionidae. It increases the diversity of the odonatopteran fauna in the Salagou Formation to 14 different species.

  12. Photic Zone Euxinia During the Permian-Triassic Superanoxic Event (United States)

    Grice, Kliti; Cao, Changqun; Love, Gordon D.; Böttcher, Michael E.; Twitchett, Richard J.; Grosjean, Emmanuelle; Summons, Roger E.; Turgeon, Steven C.; Dunning, William; Jin, Yugan


    Carbon and sulfur isotopic data, together with biomarker and iron speciation analyses of the Hovea-3 core that was drilled in the Perth Basin, Western Australia, indicate that euxinic conditions prevailed in the paleowater column during the Permian-Triassic superanoxic event. Biomarkers diagnostic for anoxygenic photosynthesis by Chlorobiaceae are particularly abundant at the boundary and into the Early Triassic. Similar conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous seas off South China. Our evidence for widespread photic-zone euxinic conditions suggests that sulfide toxicity was a driver of the extinction and a factor in the protracted recovery.

  13. Palynology of Permian Gondwana sequence of Umrer coalfield, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, N.; Tewari, R.; Rajanikanth, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    Quantitative and qualitative palynological analysis of Early Permian sediments, Umrer Coalfield, Wardha Basin has been carried out. The microspore assemblage consists of 22 genera and 40 species. It is characterized by dominance of radial monosaccates chiefly, Parasacciles and subdominance of non-striate disaccates chiefly, Scheuringipollenites. Presence of Crucisaccites and Caheniasaccites suggests Upper Karharbari (Late Sakmarian-Early Artinskian) affinity. The presence of the Karharbari palynozone has been demarcated in lithologically designated Barakar Formation. The present finding corroborates the earlier studies by Bharadwaj and Anand Prakash (1974).

  14. Subaqueous systems fed by glacially derived hyperpycnal flows: a depositional model for Carboniferous-Permian sandstones of the Itarare Group, Parana Basin; Sistemas subaquosos alimentados por fluxos hiperpicnais glaciogenicos: modelo deposicional para arenitos do Grupo Itarare, Permocarbonifero da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Fernando Farias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Estratigrafia]. E-mail:


    The glacial Itarare Group constitutes the lower interval of the Carboniferous-Permian mega sequence in the Parana Basin. Thick glacially related sandstone reservoirs present in this unit contain gas and condensate sourced by Devonian marine shales. Based on outcrop data from the eastern basin margin, the sedimentary facies and stacking patterns were analyzed in order to propose a depositional model for these sandstone successions. It is suggested that the sandstones were deposited subaqueously as pro glacial fans due to melt water-derived highly concentrated hyperpycnal flows. Regional Itarare Group's stratigraphy can be expressed as several unconformity-bounded sequences deposited in a marine glaciated basin during repeated deglaciation episodes. The lower half of each sequence is constituted of thick sand-rich successions typically showing fining-upward and a retrogradational stacking pattern. Eleven facies were recognized, ranging from conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones, massive, graded or stratified. Conglomerates and cross-bedded coarse sandstones represent proximal Subaqueous deposits and were formed as ice-contact out wash fans/aprons due to melt water-derived hyper concentrated and concentrated flows and traction dominated bottom currents. These flows served as feeder systems to stratified, massive or graded turbiditic sandstone lobes deposited more distally. Parallel bedding and climbing ripples present in these beds were formed due to continuous aggradation from waxing and/or waning long-lived turbidity currents. These characteristics typify hyperpycnites and suggest that melt water derived hyperpycnal flows were the main trigger mechanisms to turbidity currents in the Itarare Group. (author)

  15. Cuatro Ciénegas Basin an analog of precambrian Earth and possible early mars scenario. (Invited) (United States)

    Souza, V.; Eguiarte, L. E.; Sierfert, J.


    In the present, the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) is in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. However, in the early Triasic, the sea penetrated the region of CCB with the opening of Pangea and became a continental wetland with the closing the western interior seaway only 35 million years ago. Its particular tectonics made of CCB a valley surrounded by high sierras that rose above the sea level 700 mt. All available molecular data lead us to suggest that these ancient marine microbial mats have persisted for a very long time and during all that time, the living microbial community evolved and diversified locally due to the rarity of migration and sex. The struggle for life in these structured communities generated uncountable new species that had to deal with the environment, the neighbors and most of all with the extreme lack of P. What for a long time represented the most successful community assemblage in the history of planet Earth, became mostly extinct in modern earth. The herbivores and the competition with algae left few relict communities in extreme environments such as CCB, Shark Bay and Guerrero Negro. Lets remember that stromatolite reefs have fossils as old as 3.6 billion years and that they became so successful that they changed the planet atmosphere producing the great oxygenation event. We also have data that at CCB these extensive microbialites are very patchy and differentiated both taxonomically and genetically, implying that, even though they may look as a continuum in the wetlands, each patch has been geographically isolated for a long time allowing each community to diverge in its composition. All these particularities of CCB arise because, due to its unusual geology, the valley floor was never buried, hence its marine sediment, with extensive microbial mats, always had sun and water, maintaining both the ancient lineages and the oligotrophic conditions that characterized early earth. The lack of P (less than 0.05 n

  16. The Dynamic Response of Marine Life to Extreme Temperature and Low Oxygen Events Following the End-Permian Mass Extinction. (United States)

    Pietsch, C.; Bottjer, D. J.


    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most devastating taxonomic and ecological crisis in the history of life on Earth. The recovery lasted 5 My making it the longest in geologic history, although the cause of the delay is still heavily debated. We find that additional environmental changes during the recovery interval reset the attempts that marine communities made toward ecological complexity, resulting in the overall appearance of a stagnant recovery. The extinction mechanisms during the end-Permian include extreme temperature change and low oxygen environments resulting from the volcanic emission of carbon dioxide and other toxic gasses to the atmosphere. The biotic response to ancient environmental change is a direct analog for the ecological impacts of modern anthropogenic climate change. We applied an ecological recovery rubric to benthic, sea floor dwelling, communities throughout the Early Triassic recovery in two major ocean basins. Newly collected bulk fossil data from the Moenkopi and Thaynes Formations from the Southwest US and the Werfen Formation in Italy were analyzed along with literature data. In Italy, directly following the extinction, low oxygen environments prevented an ecological rebound. Once low oxygen conditions receded, 600 kyr after the extinction, taxonomic diversity, fossil body size, and trace fossil complexity rebounded. A little more than 1 My into the Early Triassic, an extreme temperature event resulted in a reset of community complexity in both Italy and the Southwest US. The body size of gastropods and the repopulation of echinoderms were significantly inhibited as was trace fossil complexity. Low oxygen conditions that developed in the last ~2My of the Early Triassic limited diversity and body size in the Southwest United States. The stagnant recovery is re-interpreted as dynamic resets and rapid rebounds driven by environmental perturbations throughout the Early Triassic.

  17. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of Permian volcanic rocks in Yingen-Ejin Banner basin and its neighboring areas, western Inner Mongolia%内蒙古西部银根-额济纳旗盆地及邻区二叠纪火山岩的地球化学特征和构造环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党犇; 赵虹; 林广春; 仵康林; 康晓燕; 葛海影; 吴斌; 刘少红


    Permian volcanic rocks are widespread in Yingen-Ejin Banner basin and its neighboring areas, and their genesis and tectonic setting remain a problem of much controversy. Based on a petrologic and geochemical analysis of Permian volcanic rocks in the study area, this paper attempts to clarify the palaeo-tectonic setting and provides independent evidence for understanding the nature of the basin. The volcanic rocks are dominated by basalts, basaltic-andesite and andesite, which fall into the sub-alkaline series. Mg# content of this suite ranges from 0.53 to 0.86, exhibiting strong depletion of the high field strength elements Nb, Ta and Ti and slight enrichment of LREE. In terms of REE, (La/Yb)N content ranges from 1.68 to 6.10, showing insignificant Eu depletion (δEu=0.64~0.99)and slightly right-oblique REE distribution patterns. These data show not only the characteristics of an intraplate setting on the whole but also the signature of a subduction zone. Combined with the sedmentary formation characteristics, the authors have reached the conclusion that the Permian magmatic activity of the study area was generated in an intraplate setting, with variable degrees of contamination of the crust during magmatic ascending, related probably to the mantle plume event.%银-额(银根-额济纳旗)盆地及其邻区二叠纪火山岩分布广泛,目前对其成因和构造背景研究还很薄弱.对该区火山岩岩石学和元素地球化学特征进行研究,为恢复二叠纪盆地性质与古构造环境提供了岩石地球化学约束.分析的二叠纪火山岩主要岩石类型为玄武岩、玄武安山岩和安山岩,显示亚碱性系列的特征.Mg#介于0.5~0.86之间,高场强元素Nb、Ta、Ti明显亏损,岩石轻度富集轻稀土元素(LREE),(La/Yb)N=1.68~6.10,Eu亏损不明显(δEu=0.64~0.99),稀土元素配分曲线右倾较缓.总体上既显示了板内构造环境的特征,又具有俯冲带地球化学的印记.综合沉积建造特征和

  18. Spectral gamma-ray signature of fluvial deposits: a case study from the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil; Assinatura gamaespectrometrica de depositos fluviais: estudo de caso na Formacao do Rio do Rasto, Permiano Superior da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowek, Guilherme Arruda, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca; Vesely, Fernando Farias, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Setor de Ciencias da Terra; Berton, Fabio, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    Fluvial channel-fill deposits form highly heterogeneous hydrocarbon reservoirs. The study of outcrop analogs can help in the characterization of these heterogeneities, which are usually not detected by subsurface geophysical methods. The aim of this research is to compare outcrop log signatures with grain size trends and depositional elements of the fluvial deposits of the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation. A series of vertical gamma-ray logs were assembled in two outcrops in order to: 1) characterize log-facies in a succession composed of alternated flood plain, channel fill and eolian strata; 2) define within-channel spectral gamma-ray variability of a mixed-load composite point bar deposit and its relationship with grain size trends and lithofacies; 3) correlate log signatures observed in the outcrop sections with deep exploratory wells drilled several tens of kilometers from the study area. The results of this study show that gamma-ray logs have good correlation with grain size trends and that different depositional elements have distinct signatures. On the other hand, point bar deposits exhibit strong lateral changes in log signature due variations in grain size and mud content within lateral accretion strata. Although frequent, the classic bell-shaped log motif was not always detected, which means that the amount of fluvial channel-fill deposits recognized in subsurface can be underestimated. Similar log signatures were detected in the boreholes, at least in the closest ones, helping in paleoenvironmental interpretation in the subsurface. (author)

  19. Stratigraphy sequence analysis application for multi scalar characterization of paralic reservoirs - an example in the Guata group (E O-Permian) of the Parana Basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Aplicacao da estratigrafia de sequencias para caracterizacao multiescalar de reservatorios paralicos - um exemplo no Grupo Guata (EO-Permiano) da Bacia do Parana, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechle, Juliano [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Geociencias]. E-mail:; Holz, Michael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    Detailed stratigraphic analysis of the Early Permian Rio Bonito and Palermo Formations of the Parana Basin in the region of Sao Gabriel County has been used for a study on reservoir characterization of paralic sandstones. Two main depositional systems were recognized, a fluvial-dominated delta system and a wave-dominated barrier island system. The succession is divided in two third-order depositional sequences, enclosing thirteen fourth-order para sequences. This high-resolution stratigraphic framework was the base for a multi scale approach on reservoir characterization of the sandstone bodies. Reservoir heterogeneities are discussed, staring from the scale of depositional sequence (heterogeneity level 1), passing down to heterogeneity at the scale of systems tracts (heterogeneity level 2) and finalizing with an approach at para sequence scale (heterogeneity level 3). Main control on heterogeneity at the first level is base-level variation as generating mechanism for un conformities at the sediment type and rate. At the second level, the reservoir heterogeneity is controlled by the lateral and vertical variations in thickness of particular systems within the different systems tracts, and at the third level, the heterogeneity occurs controlling reservoir continuity and connectivities between reservoirs. The study supplies a model which is useful as a predictive tool for similar geologic settings in producing oil fields. (author)

  20. Permian geology of Gondwana countries: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickins, J.M. (Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))


    Earliest Permian sequences of Antarctica, southern and east-central Africa, the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, peninsular and Himalayan India, Tibet, western and eastern Australia, New Zealand, and South America are all characterized by glacial deposits and cold-water marine faunas. In the course of the Permian, considerable faunal (and floral) and climatic divergence occurred. Although folding is not necessarily present, the effects of the strong compressive tectonic phase (Hunter-Bowen Orogenic Folding Phase of Dickins) beginning in the mid-Permian (traditional two-fold subdivision) and of acidic and intermediate volcano-magmatic activity are apparent in all these regions as in other parts of the world. The progressive continentality of the Upper Permian (worldwide regression) culminates at the Permian-Triassic (Changxingian-Griesbachian) boundary.

  1. Lunar Analog (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.


    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  2. Geology and hydrocarbon concentrations of the Permian strata in the eastern section of the North German Basin; Zur Geologie und Kohlenwasserstoff-Fuehrung des Perm im Ostteil der Norddeutschen Senke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, E.P. [comp.; Porth, H. [comp.


    Between World War II and the German unification, East Germany made intensive effects in petroleum and natural gas prospecting. More than 2000 exploratory boreholes were drilled, most of them in the Zechstein and Rotliegendes but also in the pre-Permian underground. The analyses of sites and drill cores provided an excellent database of the geology and hydrocarbon concentrations of deep underground formations in East Germany. Little was published of the exploration results, and no detailed information on petroleum geology or economic aspects was made available to the public or to experts in West Germany. The first exchange of information took place in 1989 at Brunswick during a symposium of the Academy of Geosciences of Niedersachsen. 6 papers of the symposium at Zinnowitz in November 1990 are available as separate records in this database. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] In den Jahrzehnten zwischen Kriegsende und der Vereinigung der beiden deutschen Staaten wurde in der ehemaligen DDR intensiv auf Erdoel und Erdgas gebohrt. Es wurden ueber 2000 Bohrungen, vornehmlich auf Zechstein und Rotliegendes, aber auch auf den praepermischen Untergrund, niedergebracht. Durch die intensive wissenschaftliche Bearbeitung der Bohrungen und des umfangreichen Kernmaterials wurde eine exzellente Datenbasis ueber die Geologie und KW-Fuehrung des tieferen Untergrundes Ostdeutschlands geschaffen. Ueber die Ergebnisse dieser intensiven Exploration wurde relativ wenig publiziert, und dies meist in allgemeiner Form. Erdoelgeologische Detailinformationen oder gar Untersuchungsergebnisse von wirtschaftlicher Relevanz gelangten nicht in die Oeffentlichkeit und damit auch nicht ins westliche Deutschland. Ein erster Meilenstein auf dem Weg zu einem normalen Erfahrungsaustausch zwischen den Erdoelgeologen aus Ost und West war das Symposium der Niedersaechsischen Akademie fuer Geowissenschaften im Oktober 1989 in Braunschweig, wo von ostdeutschen Kollegen erstmalig fuer ein westdeutsches Auditorium ein


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宜勤; 文华国; 祁利祺; 张锡新; 李云


    二叠系风城组为准噶尔盆地乌尔禾地区重要的勘探层系,也是成因非常特殊的深湖相含盐火山-沉积建造.通过14口钻井岩心观察,296片薄片鉴定,30块扫描电镜和28件X衍射等分析技术手段,较为详细地研究了风城组盐类矿物及伴生矿物的各项特征,识别出硅硼钠石、碳酸钠钙石、白云石等主要盐类矿物和硬石膏、石膏、玉髓、黄铁矿和蒙脱石等伴生矿物,确定风城组深湖相含盐火山-沉积建造与同期相间发生的火山喷发和湖底热液喷流活动有关,其成因可与酒西盆地下沟组湖相喷流岩和东非裂谷坦噶尼喀湖现代深湖底热液喷流沉积作用相类比,提出“深水湖盆热液喷流含盐火山-沉积建造模式”.%In the Urho area of Junggar Basin,the Permian Fengcheng Formation is an important exploration stratam characterized by very special deep lake salt-bearing volcanic-sedimentary for-mation. Based on the core observation,thin section identification,scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis,a more detailed study was made on the characteristics of the salt minerals and their associated minerals in the Fengcheng Formation. Salt minerals in the Fengcheng Formation consist of reedmergnerite,shortite, trona,ankerite and associated with an-hydrite, gypsum,chalcedony,pyrite and smectite. It was indicated that the Fengcheng Formation were related to the interphase volcanic eruption and lake hydrothermal exhalative activities in the same period. Their characters and genesis can be compared with the lacustrine exhalative rocks of Xiagou Formation in Jiuxi Basin and the modern deep lacustrine hydrothermal exhalative deposi-tion in Tanga Nika Lake, East African rift Valley. Accordingly,a hydrothermal exhalative salt-bearing volcano-sedimentary mode in the deep lake basin was proposed in the paper.

  4. The paleoclimate of the Kazanian (early Late Permian) world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.T. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA)); Peoples, C.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))


    The Kazanian (early Late Permian, 258-253 m.y.) marked the onset of a unique interval in the Phanerozoic, distinguished by a classic end-member case of continental assembly, the megacontinent Pangaea. Compilation of biostratigraphic and lithofacies data indicate a warm, extensively arid world, largely ice free, and characterized by the onset of atmospheric conditions that were exceedingly stressful to the biosphere, the worst of the eon. Using Chevron's version of the Community Climate model, the authors report here on two Kazanian paleoclimate seasonal simulations, one using 200 ppm CO{sub 2} and the other with 2,000 ppm CO{sub 2}. The authors consider the knowledge of plate assembly back to the Permian accurate enough to allow employment of a seasonal model. Simulation of a warmer Earth with an elevated greenhouse effect (modeled as CO{sub 2}) fits the observed geology and isotope signals. The increased CO{sub 2} experiment warmed the entire planet with the greatest increases north of 50{degree} latitude and least changes in the tropics. The warming caused the poleward retreat of sea ice in both hemispheres. Precipitation and evaporation increased, but runoff was confined to areas of very intense rainfall. Monsoons are limited to the southern hemisphere, associated with the western Tethys sea and the eastern equatorial Panthalassa ocean. Extreme southeastern Pangaea (northern Australia) was a focus of precipitation throughout the year. Precipitation occurred in the higher latitudes (50-55{degree}) on the western coast, of Pangaea where storm tracks make landfall. High evaporation rates characterized the restricted Permian (US), Zechstein, and Perm (Soviet Union) basins, a time of evaporite, deposition. Interior Pangaea at middle to high latitudes endured frigid winters ({minus}40{degree}C) and torrid summers (60{degree}C).

  5. Depositional model of Early Permian reef-island ocean inEastern Kunlun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Many fusulinid fossils have been found in thin- to middle-bedded limestones which aredistributed between the Early Permian limestone hills and formerly considered as Early Triassic.The fusulinid fossils, identified as Neoshwagerina sp., Verbeekina sp. and Schwagerina sp., canalso be found in massive limestone hills. At the same time, Early Permian radiolarian chert of deepbasin facies was discovered in Animaqing. All the above show that the massive limestone hills,thin- to middle-bedded limestones and radiolarian chert belong to syndeposits in Early Permianocean. The sediments in the study area can roughly be divided into three types: shallow facies,basin facies and transitional facies. The carbonate buildup can be subdivided into massive bioclas-tic limestone and reef framestone. Basin facies contains thin- or middle-bedded limestone, abyssalred mudstone or ooze, blue-green mudstone and radiolarian chert. Transitional facies includes reeftalus and platformal skirt facies. The Early Permian ocean in Eastern Kunlun is recognized as akind of reef-island ocean environment according to distribution and composition of different facies.The reef-island ocean in Eastern Kunlun is characterized by reef islands (or carbonate buildups)alternating with basins, complicated sea-floor topography, sharp facial change and well-developedreefs

  6. Sedimentary evolution of Rio do Rastro formation (permian-triassic of the Parana Basin) at central south portion of Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Evolucao sedimentar da Formacao Rio do Rastro (Permo-Triassico da Bacia do Parana) na porcao centro sul do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Roldan, Luis Fernando; Steiner, Samar dos Santos; Chamani, Marlei Antonio Carrari [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica]. E-mail:; Almeida, Renato Paes de; Hachiro, Jorge; Machado, Romulo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental


    Between the Late Carboniferous and the Early Triassic, the south portion of the Gondwana Supercontinent witnessed the development of intracratonic basins related with the coeval Sanrafaelic Orogeny. The continuous subsidence and consequent generation accommodation space resulted in the formation of a large confined water body and the accumulation of a transgressive regressive sequence between the Late Permian and the Early Triassic. The progradational nature of the upper portion of this sequence, represented by de Rio do Rasto e Piramboia formations, culminated with the complete filling of the water body. In the south-eastern portion of Santa Catarina State (Southern Brazil), the Rio do Rasto Formation overlies the Teresina formation and is overlain by the Piramboia formation, both contacts being characterized by lithological transition. The lower portion of the Rio do Rasto Formation is characterized by architectural elements deposited in offshore environments subject to storm action. A marked change of the color of the pelitic facies, from gray to red and purple occurs at the top of the unit. At this stratigraphic level, there is also a predominance of deltaic and eolian architectural elements. The intercalation of near shore and offshore architectural elements can be explained by the strong auto cyclic character expected in deltaic depositional systems and by the variation of relative rates of base-level rise. The occurrence of eolian architectural elements interbedded with subaquatically deposited sediments on the second third of the unit can be considered an evidence of continentalization to the top, materialized as the transition to the Piramboia desert system. (author)

  7. The end-Permian mass extinction: A complex, multicausal extinction (United States)

    Erwin, D. H.


    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most extensive in the history of life and remains one of the most complex. Understanding its causes is particularly important because it anchors the putative 26-m.y. pattern of periodic extinction. However, there is no good evidence for an impact and this extinction appears to be more complex than others, involving at least three phases. The first began with the onset of a marine regression during the Late Permian and resulting elimination of most marine basins, reduction in habitat area, and increased climatic instability; the first pulse of tetrapod extinctions occurred in South Africa at this time. The second phase involved increased regression in many areas (although apparently not in South China) and heightened climatic instability and environmental degradation. Release of gas hydrates, oxidation of marine carbon, and the eruption of the Siberian flood basalts occurred during this phase. The final phase of the extinction episode began with the earliest Triassic marine regression and destruction of nearshore continental habitats. Some evidence suggests oceanic anoxia may have developed during the final phase of the extinction, although it appears to have been insufficient to the sole cause of the extinction.

  8. Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Sidor, Christian A; Vilhena, Daril A; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Huttenlocker, Adam K; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Peecook, Brandon R; Steyer, J Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A


    In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ∼257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ∼242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic.

  9. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd


    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  10. Radionuclides distribution in blooming of the permian sediments from the Irati Formation of the Parana Basin; Distribuicao de radionuclideos em um afloramento de sedimentos permianos da Formacao Irati na Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira


    The objective of this work is to study natural radionuclides in sedimentary rocks. The concentration of them reflects the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment as well as some mineralogical characteristics of the rock matrix, and also more recent events as weathering and erosion. Using gamma ray high resolution spectrometry, the profile of activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was assessed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 32}Th and {sup 40}K in rocks of the Irati Formation belonging to Parana Sedimentary Basin. The samples were collected at a limestone abandoned mine, in the city of Sapopema, (PR). 24 samples were collected, eleven from the exposed vertical profile with approximately 5.50 m, whose stratigraphy is represented by an alternation among decimetrics layers of limestones, bituminous shales, and some rhythmits layers (milimetric sheets of limestone and bituminous shales), 9 repetitions of a sample to study the variability, and three rigolits samples in sequential apprenticeships of weathering. Each sample was dried in the sun during about 48 hours, broken, drizzled in a sieve of 4 mesh and put, in a cylindrical container. The measures were accomplished using a Germanium Hyper Pure detector (HPGe) with relative efficiency of 66%, connected to a standard spectrometry electronic chain. The measured concentrations of activity of {sup 238}U were smaller for the limestones (17.80 {+-}0.09 Bq.Kg{sup -1}), larger for the bituminous shales (125.5 {+-} 2.6 Bq.Kg{sup -1} with enrichment of uranium in the sample (200), 548 {+-} 16 Bq.Kg{sup -1}, upper part of the column), and intermediate for the rhythmits (23.0 {+-} 1,3 Bq.Kg{sup -1}. The ratio eTh/K obtained for the studied profiles has equivalent values, indicating similar mineralogical characteristics for the limestones, bituminous shales, rhythmits and studied rigolits. On the other hand, to the ratio eTh/eU showed that two of the three regolits samples belong to oxidizer

  11. 四川盆地二叠纪-三叠纪开江-梁平陆棚形成演化与礁滩发育%Formation and evolution of Permian-Triassic Kaijiang-Liangping shelf and development of reef-shoal reservoirs in Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    四川盆地北部开江-梁平陆棚的形成与峨眉“地裂运动”有关。通过对野外露头、钻探资料及地震资料系统分析,其发展和消亡过程对区内上二叠统吴家坪组-下三叠统飞仙关组沉积相的演化有着明显的控制作用,决定了生物礁和鲕粒滩的分布,从而也决定了礁、滩气藏的类型、规模及分布。上二叠统吴家坪组为碳酸盐岩缓坡沉积,至长兴期,受拉张作用进一步加剧影响,陆棚相区进一步下沉,陆棚边缘的生物礁及高能滩集中快速生长,沉积模式由碳酸盐缓坡演化为镶边台地沉积。随着台地的不断增生,鲕粒滩分布区不断向东往陆棚一侧迁移,发育层位从台地向陆棚亦逐渐抬升,开江-梁平陆棚逐渐萎缩并最终消亡。%The Kaijiang-Liangping shelf in the north of Sichuan Basin was formed by the Emei Mantle Plume event during Permian to Triassic periods.Through analysing the outcrops,drilling data and seismic data,it is found that its formation,evolution and extinction have exerted clear controls on the sedimentary facies of the Wujiaping Formation-Feixianguan Formation and the distribution of the reef and oolitic shoal carbonate rocks.Thereby,the shelf controls the type,scale and distribution of the reef-shoal gas pools.During the Late Permian Wujiaping period,carbonate rocks were deposited in a carbonate rock ramp.Then,due to the sink of the shelf caused by the regional stretching,the Changxing Formation was characterized by the rapid growth of reefs and high-energy shoals.These reef and shoal carbonate rocks composed a platform margin and a rimmed platform formed.With the growth of the platform,oolitic beach migrated from the west to the east of the shelf.The shelf finally shrivelled and disappeared.

  12. On a new stereospondylomorph temnospondyl from the Middle-Late Permian of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Strapasson


    Full Text Available A new temnospondyl is described from the Middle–Upper Permian sequence of the Paraná Basin (Rio do Rasto Formation in southern Brazil. The material consists of disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements, preserved in association. The cranial elements include part of the orbital region of the skull roof, the basicranium, a number of endocranial elements, stapes and a right hemimandible. The postcranial elements include vertebrae, ribs, pectoral girdle elements, a right femur and a cluster of scales. The new species displays a rhinesuchid pattern, which is similar to the South African rhinesuchids from the Upper Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin, but differs from them by the presence of a robust and elongated epipterygoid with a blade-like anterior process in addition to elongated and deeper muscular pockets on the parasphenoid, which allow the assignment of this specimen to a new species. However, the phylogenetic analysis grouped the material described herein and Australerpeton cosgriffi inside Stereospondylomorpha, in a transitional position between the Laurasian assemblages and South African temnospondyls. This result supports a connection between the Brazilian and Eastern European Permian fauna and provides important data for future biostratigraphic studies.

  13. The Permian seamount stratigraphic sequence in Chiang Mai, North Thailand and its tectogeographic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHONGLAKMANI; Chongpan


    The widespread Permian carbonate strata outcropped in northwestern Thailand are considered as the evidence for the Late Paleozoic shallow Tethys. Our investigation, however, shows that basalt can be discovered usually under the Permian carbonate sequence in Chiang Mai-Fang area, northwestern Thailand. The basalt belongs to subalkalic basalt and potassic trachybasalt. They are characterized by high P and Ti in major elements, by high content, enriching LREE, lacking δEu anomaly in rare earth elements, and by enrichment of the large ion lithophile element (LILE) (K, Rb, Ba) and high field strength element (HFSE) (Nb, Ta, Zr) in trace elements, which can be compared with the characters of the oceanic island basalt in Three Rivers (Jinsha River, Lancang River, and Nujiang River) area, southwestern China. Therefore, the Permian carbonate in the studied area was deposited on a sea-mount, rather than on a stable carbonate platform. The oceanic basin is correlated to the Late Paleozoic ocean represented by the Changning-Menglian Belt in southwestern China and they are a major basin of the Paleo-Tethyan Archipelagoes Ocean. The result indicates nonexistence of a Shan-Thai Block in the Late Paleozoic.

  14. The Permian seamount stratigraphic sequence in Chiang Mai, North Thailand and its tectogeographic sisnificance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG QingLai; YANG WenQiang; SHEN ShangYue; CHONGLAKMANI Chongpan; MALILA Kitsana


    The widespread Permian carbonate strata outcropped in northwestern Thailand are considered as the evidence for the Late Paleozoic shallow Tethys. Our investigation, however, shows that basalt can be discovered usually under the Permian carbonate sequence in Chiang Mai-Fang area, northwestern Thailand. The basalt belongs to subalkalic basalt and potassic trachybasalt. They are characterized by high P and Ti in major elements, by high content, enriching LREE, lacking o"Eu anomaly in rare earth elements, and by enrichment of the large ion lithophile element (LILE) (K, Rb, Ba) and high field strength element (HFSE) (Nb, Ta, Zr) in trace elements, which can be compared with the characters of the oceanic island basalt in Three Rivers (Jinsha River, Lancang River, and Nuiiang River) area,southwestern China. Therefore, the Permian carbonate in the studied area was deposited on a seamount, rather than on a stable carbonate platform. The oceanic basin is correlated to the Late Paleozoic ocean represented by the Changning-Menglian Belt in southwestern China and they are a major basin of the Paleo-Tethyan Archipelagoes Ocean. The result indicates nonexistence of a Shan-Thai Block in the Late Paleozoic.

  15. Late Permian carbonate concretions in the marine siliciclastic sediments of the Ravnefjeld Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.K. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hanken, N.M. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Geology, Tromsoe (Norway)


    The investigation of carbonate concretions from the Late Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland forms part of the multi-disciplinary research project Research of the Sedimentary Basins of North and East Greenland (TUPOLAR). The TUPOLAR project focuses on investigations and evaluation of potential hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Upper Permian - Mesozoic sedimentary basins. In this context, the Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation occupies a pivotal position because it contains local mineralization and has source rock potential for hydrocarbons adjacent to potential carbonate reservoir rocks of the partly time-equivalent Wegener Halvoe Formation. A better understanding of the sedimentary facies and diagenesis of the Ravnefjeld Formation is therefore crucial for an evaluation of the economic evaluation of East Greenland. The original fieldwork was carried out in 1998, when sampling was undertaken of representative carbonate concretions and surrounding beds from a limited number of well-exposed sections in the Ravnefjeld Formation. The sampled material was subsequently investigated by a combination of petrography and stable isotope chemistry to decipher the relationships between the diagenetic development of the carbonate concretions and the mineralization in the sequence. The sequential precipitation of the cement generations was analysed in cement-filled primary voids in gastropods because these showed the most complete development of the different cement generations. The geochemistry of stable isotopes was also studied. During the petrographic work, we became aware of a hitherto unrecognised biota dominated by calcispheres. The well-developed cement generations in primary cavities in skeletal material were used to elucidate the diagenesis. (BA)

  16. Middle Permian palaeobiogeography study in East Kunlun, A'nyêmaqên and Bayan Har

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yongbiao; YANG; Hao


    Three regions can easily be identified in the study area according to the Middle Permian palaeobiogeographic distribution of biota, they are the southern slope of East Kunlun, A'nyêmaqên and Bayan Har. Biotic constitution and ecology in the southern slope of East Kunlun and Bayan Har are very similar. Both the diversity and abundance of organisms in these two areas are very high and reefs are widely developed. However, biotic diversity and abundance in A'nyêmaqên which is between the above two areas are obviously low. Differentiation of palaeobiogeographic distribution in these areas should be due to the baring of A'nyêmaqên ocean in the time of Middle Permian. Middle Permian radiolarian chert and thick abyssal red ooze are widely spread in A'nyêmaqên, implying that the A'nyêmaqên ocean had a great scale in size. Vast scale of deep ocean basin became an impassable gulf for some of the benthos, and as a result, only part of the organisms could have the chance to get to the isolated islands situated in ocean basin. Small living space and hard conditions in the islands further limited the abundance and diversity of biota. Tectonic background reflected by the geochemical study of basalt in the three areas is coupling well enough with the palaeobiogeographic division.

  17. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R. [School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); McLoughlin, S. [School of Natural Resource Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Drinnan, A.N. [School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20092 (United States)


    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest

  18. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.


    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands th

  19. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG


    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  20. Grain-rimming kaolinite in Permian Rotliegend reservoir rocks (United States)

    Waldmann, Svenja; Gaupp, Reinhard


    Upper Rotliegend sediments of Permian age from the northeast Netherlands show moderate to good reservoir qualities. The predominant control is by the presence of authigenic grain-rimming kaolinite, which has a negative, but in some parts also a positive, effect on reservoir quality. To better understand the formation and distribution of grain-rimming kaolinite, reservoir rocks were studied in terms of composition and diagenetic processes. Petrographic evidence, summarized as a paragenetic sequence, is integrated with geochemical modeling results to identify early mesodiagenetic water-rock interactions under the participation of gases, i.e., CO2 and H2S, released from underlying Carboniferous source rocks. The sediments investigated were deposited at varying distance from the southern flank of the Southern Permian Basin. Sediments near the basin margin are mainly attributed to a fluvial environment and comprise medium to coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates. There, vermicular kaolinite occurs with a lath-like structure. Distal to the basin margin, mainly in sandstones intercalated with fine-grained playa sediments, comparatively high amounts of grain-rimming kaolinite occur. There, the presence of this mineral has a significant influence on the rock properties and the reservoir quality. Geochemical modeling suggests that the formation of such kaolinites cannot be explained exclusively by in situ feldspar dissolution. The modeling results support evidence that kaolinite can be formed from precursor clay minerals under the presence of CO2-rich formation waters. Such clay minerals could be corrensite, smectite-chlorite mixed-layer minerals, or chlorite that is potentially present in Rotliegend sediments during early diagenesis. Furthermore, the geochemical modeling can reflect several mineral reactions that were identified from petrographic analysis such as the formation of illite and kaolinite at the expense of feldspar dissolution and consequent silica

  1. The Late Permian Ocean: What's the Big Stink? (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Ridgwell, A.; Kump, L. R.


    Since the ocean is (and has been) sulfate rich, the development of basinal to global anoxia is often associated with the buildup of hydrogen sulfide in anoxic waters. Bacterial sulfate reduction begins to dominate after oxygen and nitrate have been depleted, producing hydrogen sulfide. Hence, low atmospheric oxygen content, warm surface ocean temperatures, and high O2 demand reduce oceanic oxygen content and favor the establishment of euxinia. Biomarker evidence for photic zone sulfide and biogeochemical calculations suggest that the end-Permian mass extinction was one interval during which extreme anoxia may have led to H2S buildup. We hypothesize that H2S release to the atmosphere would be possible if the upward flux of sulfide from deep water in a largely euxinic ocean exceeded the oxygen flux into the surface ocean from wind mixing. In this scenario, destabilization of the chemocline (oxygen-sulfide interface) would cause sulfide poisoning in both the marine and terrestrial realms and contribute to the extinction. We used the end-Permian configuration of GENIE (, an energy-moisture-balance atmosphere model coupled to a 3-D, non-eddy-resolving, frictional geostrophic model to evaluate this hypothesis. This model includes marine biogeochemistry and capably simulates processes associated with the transition to oceanic anoxia. We performed a series of simulations designed to identify the conditions necessary for widespread euxinia and chemocline destabilization. We characterized the magnitude of hydrogen sulfide flux as a function of increasing oceanic phosphate content resulting from P release from sediments in anoxic environments. Significant ocean-atmosphere fluxes of H2S result from 6- to 10-fold increases in ocean phosphate at modern oxygen levels. These fluxes are focused in upwelling regions, although toxic H2S concentrations are also observed in the surface waters of nearshore equatorial regions. Our initial simulations support the

  2. Assessment of Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Permian Gondwana Coals, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir Hossain


    Full Text Available This paper represents the geochemical characteristics of Gondwana coals from the Barapukuria coal mine, Bangladesh in order to investigate the potential for hydrocarbon generation. A total number of twenty three coal samples were analyzed Rock-Eval pyrolysis, CHNS elemental analyses, maceral analysis and vitrinite reflectance. The samples were collected from drill hole GDH-40 of the Barapukuria coal mine encountered within Gondwana succession of Permian age. The TOC contents of the coal samples range between ~50 and 76 wt.% and the organic matter consists predominantly of type III and type IV kerogen with respect to hydrocarbon generation. The GP, HI, PI and Tmax values range between 7 and 35 mg HC/g rock, 20 and 62 mg HC/g TOC, 0.02 and 0.04, and 430 and 437oC, respectively. The organic matter is mainly gas prone and thermally immature to early mature level. The potential coal bed methane (CBM generation of the Barapukuria basin is estimated to be 11 Gm3. Thus, underground coal gasification (UCG is helpful for better development of subsurface coals at the Barapukuria basin, Bangladesh.

  3. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Amiruddin


    Full Text Available active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil

  4. Characteristics and Mechanism of Permian Shanxi Tight Reservoir of Changbei Gas Field,Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯盆地长北气田山西组二段低孔低渗储层特征及形成机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海涛; 钟大康; 张湘宁; 柳慧林


    Changbei gas field is located in Yishan Slope of the northern center of the Ordos Basin,China.The main pay zone reservoir is Upper Paleozoic Lower Permian Shanxi P1S2 quartz arenite,which deposited in distributary channel of delta plain.The reservoir is low porosity low permeability tight reservoir with average porosity of 5.2% and average permeability of 0.7×10-3 μm2 in a current depth of 2 700~2 950 m.Integrated study on depositional environment,lithology,diagenesis and tectonic background has been conducted.The reasons cause this low porosity low permeability tight reservoir features are considered as the following two factors.(1) On one hand,the reservoir was deposited in a coaly bearing acid environment of deltaic distributary channel,the original pore water is acid water with non saturated calcium carbonate,which can not form earlier cementation within the sandstone reservoir.However,compaction has significantly reduce the original pore and pore volume.On the other hand,this acid diagenesis environment cause large amounts of secondary quartz cementation fill the pores left out during compaction of sandstone reservoir.This is the main reasons cause the low porosity low permeability tight reservoir features in the region.Observation from thin section indicate that calcium carbonate cementation is not developed in the pore of sandstone reservoir especially in the earlier stage,the average component of calcium carbonate cementation is 1%~3%,authigenic kaolinite cementation is well developed with an average component of 7%~10%,illite segmentation is also less developed 3%,secondary quartz cementation well develop,mostly reach Ⅱ—Ⅲ level with an average component of 5%~10%,some layer can reach 10%~18% and maximum is 23%,this phenomenon indicated the acid diagenesis environment of P1S2 quartz arenite reservoir in Changbei gas field.(2) Tectonic study indicated that Changbei gas field is located in Ordos Basin tectonically stable at the time

  5. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)


    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  6. Severest crisis overlooked-Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A; Sanson-Barrera, Anna; Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Bucher, Hugo


    Generally Early Triassic floras are believed to be depauperate, suffering from protracted recovery following the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Here we present palynological data of an expanded East Greenland section documenting recovered floras in the basal Triassic (Griesbachian) and a subsequent fundamental floral turnover, postdating the Permian-Triassic boundary extinction by about 500 kyrs. This event is marked by a swap in dominating floral elements, changing from gymnosperm pollen-dominated associations in the Griesbachian to lycopsid spore-dominated assemblages in the Dienerian. This turnover coincides with an extreme δ(13)Corg negative shift revealing a severe environmental crisis, probably induced by volcanic outbursts of the Siberian Traps, accompanied by a climatic turnover, changing from cool and dry in the Griesbachian to hot and humid in the Dienerian. Estimates of sedimentation rates suggest that this environmental alteration took place within some 1000 years. Similar, coeval changes documented on the North Indian Margin (Pakistan) and the Bowen Basin (Australia) indicate the global extent of this crisis. Our results evidence the first profound disruption of the recovery of terrestrial environments about 500kyrs after the Permian-Triassic extinction event. It was followed by another crisis, about 1myrs later thus, the Early Triassic can be characterised as a time of successive environmental crises.

  7. A paleoclimatic simulation of the Late Permian greenhouse world and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.T.; Jacobson, S.R.; Hayashida, D.N. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (United States))


    Sea-floor spreading assembled all the major cratonic blocks into a single supercontinent once in the Phanerozoic Eon. This unique Late Permian crustal tectonic event produced Pangaea and an enormous oceanic basin volume that dropped sea level to a global lowstand unrivaled in the Phanerozoic. Two paleoclimatic simulations using a numerical three-dimensional general circulation model tested changes in the greenhouse effect. The authors conclude that for a simulation to fit the Late Permian geologic record, the paleoatmosphere must contain an enhanced greenhouse gas effect. A third simulation tested changes of paleogeography in southern Pangaea (Gondwana) that did not appreciably alter the harsh continental paleoclimate. The simulated paleoclimatic changes provide extraordinarily warm ocean and atmosphere, and a significant reduction in continental rainfall and runoff. These conditions inevitably lead to more aridity and less vegetation on land, gradually reduce the delivery of vital nutrients from continental sources to marine margins, systematically liberate CO{sub 2} dissolved in ocean water, and incrementally increase stress on marine and terrestrial biotas. These consequences severely disrupted rates of oxygen and carbon cycling. Their quantitative paleoclimatic simulation is consistent with distributions of red beds, evaporites, coals, marine shelf areas, seawater isotope trends, and paleontologic originations and extinctions. Thus, the Pangaean plate assembly probably triggered an inexorable sequence of geophysical, geochemical, and biological events that forced an elevated greenhouse effect in the Late Permian, nearly annihilating the Phanerozoic biota.

  8. Stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and C-isotopes of the Permian-Triassic non-marine sequence at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China (United States)

    Metcalfe, I.; Foster, C. B.; Afonin, S. A.; Nicoll, R. S.; Mundil, R.; Xiaofeng, Wang; Lucas, S. G.


    Measured lithostratigraphic sections of the classic Permian-Triassic non-marine transitional sequences covering the upper Quanzijie, Wutonggou, Guodikeng and lower Jiucaiyuan Formations at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China are presented. These measured sections form the framework and reference sections for a range of multi-disciplinary studies of the P-T transition in this large ancient lake basin, including palynostratigraphy, vertebrate biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. The 121 m thick Wutonggou Formation at Dalongkou includes 12 sandstone units ranging in thickness from 0.5 to 10.5 m that represent cyclical coarse terrigenous input to the lake basin during the Late Permian. The rhythmically-bedded, mudstone-dominated Guodikeng Formation is 197 m and 209 m thick on the north and south limbs of the Dalongkou anticline, respectively, and 129 m thick at Lucaogou. Based on limited palynological data, the Permian-Triassic boundary was previously placed approximately 50 m below the top of this formation at Dalongkou. This boundary does not coincide with any mappable lithologic unit, such as the basal sandstones of the overlying Jiucaiyuan Formation, assigned to the Early Triassic. The presence of multiple organic δ13C-isotope excursions, mutant pollen, and multiple algal and conchostracan blooms in this formation, together with Late Permian palynomorphs, suggests that the Guodikeng Formation records multiple climatic perturbation signals representing environmental stress during the late Permian mass extinction interval. The overlap between the vertebrates Dicynodon and Lystrosaurus in the upper part of this formation, and the occurrence of late Permian spores and the latest Permian to earliest Triassic megaspore Otynisporites eotriassicus is consistent with a latest Permian age for at least part of the Guodikeng Formation. Palynostratigrahic placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Junggar Basin remains problematic

  9. Chemo- and palyno-stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic transition in the Boreal region (United States)

    van Soelen, Els; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik; Twitchett, Richard; Polozov, Alexander; Kürschner, Wolfram


    Late Permian and early Triassic sediments from Boreal regions are studied using palynological and organic geochemical tools. We present preliminary results from two sites: a Norwegian site which is represented by a 100-m long borehole core and outcrops from Deltadalen on Spitsbergen, and a Russian site which is represented by outcrops and short cores collected near Norilsk in northern Siberia. The main goals of the project are to improve the stratigraphy and to study the environmental changes at high resolution. There is a growing scientific consensus that end Permian biotic crisis was linked to the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (LIP) event. However, direct evidence for a stratigraphic correlation of the marine and terrestrial extinction events, with the volcanic successions in the Siberian basin, is rather limited. The Permian-Triassic boundary successions in the Arctic are crucial for direct correlation eastwards to the Siberian Traps. The magnitude and timing of a carbon isotope excursion near the Permian-Triassic boundary is an important stratigraphical tool that may help to unravel the sequence of the events happening during this important period. Preliminary results from the Deltadalen core near the base of the Vikinghøgda Formation show shifts in δ13C from -24.5 to -32.7‰ in the interval expected to span the Permian/Triassic boundary. New Rock-Eval pyrolysis data will shed further light on the origin of the organic matter (e.g. marine versus terrestrial) and may help to understand how much of the δ13C signal can be explained by changes in organic matter source and how much may be attributed to a global change in the carbon isotope signature. Furthermore, compound specific isotope analysis will be done on terrestrial derived lipids (long chain n-alkanes) to reconstruct changes in atmospheric carbon isotopes. In addition to chemostratigraphy, the palynological record will be used for biostratigraphical studies at both Deltadalen and Norilsk

  10. Amphibian and Paleoisciforms from the Lower Part of the Taquaral Member of the Permian Irati Formation, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Chahud


    Full Text Available In the east-central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, good exposures of Permo-Carboniferous sequences of theParaná intracratonic basin are found. These sequences start with the Tubarão Supergroup deposits, the PermocarboniferousItararé Group, and the earliest Permian Guatá Group, of which the Tatuí Formation is the only unit occurring in the Stateof São Paulo. The Permian Passa Dois Group overlies the Tubarão Supergroup, with the Early Permian Irati Formation andthe Middle Permian Corumbataí Formation. Two members are recognized in the Irati Formation, Taquaral and Assistência.Most beds of the Taquaral Member are gray laminated siltic-argillaceous, but sandstone beds are present in lower outcropsof this member. One of these sandstones, 9.5 cm thick unconformably overlying sedimentos of the Tatuí Formation, exhibitsdiversifi ed vertebrate remains. The present paper deals with a Palaeonisciformes mandible fragment, one amphibianTemnospondyli tooth, and one Temnospondyli mandible fragment. These fossils are associated to Chondrichthyes andOsteichthyes. It is an open question whether the Parnaíba Basin Palaeonisciformes Brasilichthys macrognathus and theTemnospondyli Prionosuchus plummery belong to the same taxa of the Paraná Basin fossils. Only better preserved fossilsmight solve this question.

  11. 准噶尔盆地乌夏地区二叠系风城组云质岩类成因研究%Origin of Dolomitic Reservoir Rock in the Permian Fengcheng Formation in Wu-Xia Area of the Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世发; 朱筱敏; 陶文芳; 刘诗奇; 陈贺贺; 张越迁


    The dolomitic rocks of the Permian Fengcheng Formation are formed under special geologic conditions, and are important hydrocarbon reservoir rocks in Wu-Xia area in the Junggar Basin. Data of petrologic characteristics, SEM EDS and stable isotope composition indicate that dolomitizing host rocks are volcaniclassic rocks. Dolomitizing fluids probably came from brine from nearshore and shallow-water lake deposits in the Fengcheng Formation, which formed under arid climatic conditions, and from residual Mg-rich seawater from underlying Jiamuhe Formation and Carboniferous strata. Tuff has a significant content of plagioclase, in which anorthite and labradorite hydrolysis by CO2 can be couple with calcite precipitation. Later, Mg-rich brine percolate and replace calcite of the first stage to precipitate dolostones. The dolomitizing fluid has been driven by the thermal convection flow generated by volcanic eruption. At the same time, the overthrust of the Wu-Xia growth fault have speeded up the flow of deep Mg-rich water upwards, and induced the water to quickly penetrate and horizontally migrate in the strata. Fracture and fault play important role in controlling the formation of dolostone and the distribution of favorable reservoir.%  准噶尔盆地乌夏地区风城组发育的云质岩类是一套特殊成因的、重要的油气储层。岩石学、扫描电镜能谱和稳定同位素分析表明,发生白云岩化作用的母岩是火山凝灰物质,白云岩化的流体来自风城组干旱气候条件下形成的咸化滨浅湖卤水以及下伏佳木河组和石炭系残留的富镁海水。凝灰岩中富含大量的斜长石,其中的富钙长石在二氧化碳参与下水解蚀变,沉淀方解石(即方解石化)。后期富镁卤水渗滤早期形成的方解石,成岩交代形成白云岩。富镁流体运移受火山喷发产生的热流驱动,产生热对流环。同时,乌夏断裂同生逆掩活动加快深层

  12. The Donets Basin (Ukraine/Russia). Coalification and thermal history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Rainer, T.; Shymanovskyy, V.A. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A. [Donetsk State Technical University, Artem str., UA-84000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Zhykalyak, M.V. [Donetsk State Regional Geological Survey, Sybirtseva str. 17, UA-84500 Artemovsk (Ukraine); Bueker, C. [Institute of Geology, and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen (Germany); Panova, E.A. [UkrNIMI, Tchelyuskintsev str. 291, UA-83121 Donetsk (Ukraine); Stephenson, R. [Research School of Sedimentary Geology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    The Donets Basin (Donbas) is one of the major late Paleozoic coal basins in the world. The Donbas Foldbelt is an inverted part of the Donets Basin characterized by WNW-ESE-trending folds and faults. The age of basin inversion is under discussion. Large parts of the Donets Basin host anthracite and meta-anthracite. Low-rank coals are restricted to the western and northern basin margins. Vitrinite reflectance patterns along the Gorlovka Anticline indicate syn-deformational coalification. Vitrinite reflectance isolines are displaced along thrusts, clear evidence that main coalification predates late faulting. 1-D and 2-D numerical models were applied to elucidate the factors that control coalification in the western Donets Basin (Krasnoarmeisk Monocline, Kalmius-Torets Depression, South Syncline). The models indicate that the depth of the seams and the heat flow during maximum (Permian) burial are the most important parameters. The thickness of late Carboniferous and Permian rocks increased from the southwestern basin margin towards the basin center. Permian erosion along the Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and in the Kalmius-Torets Depression was on the order of 2-3 km. More rocks were eroded southeast of the Donetsk-Kadievka Fault Zone (4-5 km). Heat flow during maximum burial was in the range of 40-75 mW/m{sup 2}. Heat flow in the Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and the Kalmius-Torets Depression increased in a northeastward direction from 40 to 55 mW/m{sup 2}. Heat flow at the eastern edge of the Kalmius-Torets Depression and in the South Syncline was in the range of 60-75 mW/m{sup 2} and increased towards the southeast. The resulting coalification pattern in this area was overprinted by thermal events in the northern Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and the South Syncline. These are probably related to (Permian?) magmatic intrusions. Coked coal occurs at the contact to presumed Permian sills and dikes southwest of Donetsk.

  13. Characteristics and development mechanism of dolomite and dolomitic quartzite reservoirs of the Middle Permian Maokou Formation in eastern Sichuan Basin%四川盆地东部中二叠统茅口组白云岩及云质硅岩储层特征与发育规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪松; 谭秀成; 刘宏; 马腾; 苏成鹏; 程雪莹; 陈虹宇; 曹剑


    Unique dolomite and dolomitic quartzite reservoirs occur in the Middle Permian Maokou Formation in eastern Sichuan Basin.They are commonly believed to be of “fault-controlled hydrothermal”origin.However,most of the ex-plorary wells targeting at these reservoirs are unsuccessful ,thus further study needs to be performed .The characteristics and development mechanism of these reservoirs are studied by means of comparative analysis of the outcrops on the pe -riphery of the basin and cores inside the basin .The results indicate the main reservoir rocks in the Maokou Formation are crystalline dolomite,siliceous dolomite and dolomitic quartzite ,whose distributions are mainly related to the karst sys-tems,thus are uneven both laterally and vertically .Most of the crystalline dolomite occurs on the periphery of the karst systems,and their reservoir properties are poor .On the contrary,the siliceous dolomite and dolomitic quartzite are mostly distributed within the karst systems and have favorable reservoir properties .The development of reservoirs obeys the law of“facies-controlled karst”.Specifically , grain-beach facies provided the material basis for the reservoirs , and facies-con-trolled eogenetic karst was the key for the formation of high-quality reservoirs .The following hydrothermal dolomitzation made it possible for the preservation of reservoir pores .The siliceous hydrothermal activities and later calcite cementation resulted in the filling of some pores .The unique siliceous dolomite and dolomitic quartzite finally came into being .Ac-cording to these results , it is proposed to further strength study on “facies-controlled karst” reservoirs in addition to “fault-controlled hydrotherm”reservoirs,so as to improve the accuracy of reservoior prediction .%四川盆地东部中二叠统茅口组发育了独具特色的白云岩及云质硅岩类储层,主流观点是“断控热液”成因,但勘探多有落空,说明需要重新认识。通

  14. Mud-dominated basin margin progradation: processes and implications


    Poyatos-Moré, M; Jones, GD; Brunt, RL; Hodgson, DM; Wild, RJ; Flint, SS


    The accretion of coarse-grained material at the shelf-edge rollover has been emphasized in studies of basin margin progradation, despite fine grained sediment (clay and silt) representing a volumetrically more significant component of subaqueous clinothems. The timing and processes of fine-grained sediment transport across the shelf and onto the slope remains an understudied facet of sedimentary basin stratigraphy. Three exhumed basin margin-scale clinothems of the Permian Waterford Formation...

  15. Precarious rock and overturned transformer evidence for ground shaking in the Ms 7.7 Kern County earthquake: An analog for disastrous shaking from a major thrust fault in the Los Angeles basin (United States)

    Brune, J.N.; Anooshehpoor, A.; Shi, B.; Zheng, Yen


    Precariously balanced rocks and overturned transformers in the vicinity of the White Wolf fault provide constraints on ground motion during the 1952 Ms 7.7 Kern County earthquake, a possible analog for an anticipated large earthquake in the Los Angeles basin (Shaw et al., 2002; Dolan et al., 2003). On the northeast part of the fault preliminary estimates of ground motion on the footwall give peak accelerations considerably lower than predicted by standard regression curves. On the other hand, on the hanging-wall, there is evidence of intense ground shattering and lack of precarious rocks, consistent with the intense hanging-wall accelerations suggested by foam-rubber modeling, numerical modeling, and observations from previous thrust fault earthquakes. There is clear evidence of the effects of rupture directivity in ground motions on the hanging-wall side of the fault (from both precarious rocks and numerical simulations). On the southwest part of the fault, which is covered by sediments, the thrust fault did not reach the surface ("blind" thrust). Overturned and damaged transformers indicate significant transfer of energy from the hanging wall to the footwall, an effect that may not be as effective when the rupture reaches the surface (is not "blind"). Transformers near the up-dip projection of the fault tip have been damaged or overturned on both the hanging-wall and footwall sides of the fault. The transfer of energy is confirmed in a numerical lattice model and could play an important role in a similar situation in Los Angeles. We suggest that the results of this study can provide important information for estimating the effects of a large thrust fault rupture in the Los Angeles basin, specially given the fact that there is so little instrumental data from large thrust fault earthquakes.

  16. Petroleum in the Junggar basin, northwestern China (United States)

    Taner, Irfan; Kamen-Kaye, Maurice; Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The Junggar basin occupies a large triangular area of some 130 000 km 2 in northwestern China. Situated between the Altay Shan (Altay Range) on the northeast and the Tian Shan (Tian Range) on the southwest, and between lesser ranges around the remainder of its periphery, the Junggar basin is completely intermontane. Its history as a basin began in the Permian, and continued as various uplifts and downwarps evolved. Through the Paleozoic the characteristics of the Junggar basin area were largely geosynclinal and marine. Its post-Permian development took place exclusively in continental regimes. Inhabitants of the Junggar basin have known and utilized its numerous oil and asphalt seeps and its spectacular spreads of asphalt for more than 2000 years, especially in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt near the northwestern rim. The first discovery of oil in the modern sense came at Dushanzi, one of the steeply folded anticlines of theÜrümqi foredeep near the southern rim. The first shallow oil in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt came in 1937, followed by commercial production in the Karamay field in 1955. Output continued to be modest until wells were drilled through local thrusts and reverse faults in the early 1980s. By 1985, cumulative production of the Karamay group of fields had reached 42,000,000 t (metric tonnes) (306,000,000 bbl), with a calculated minimum ultimate recovery of 280,000,000 t (2 billion bbl). Principal production comes from Permian and Triassic strata in continental facies. Apart from marine Mid and Upper Carboniferous strata, source rocks occur mainly in fine-grained lacustrine detrital beds of the Permian, the Triassic, the Jurassic and the Tertiary. Several uplifts and downwarps elsewhere in the Junggar basin remain to be drilled comprehensively. Results from such drilling may enhance the very important position that the Junggar already has attained in the hierarchy of China's onshore basins.

  17. Successor Characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Songliao Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongquan; Timothy KUSKY; YING Danlin; GUO Xiaoyu; LI Hongkui


    The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleoforeland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.

  18. Trace fossil evidence for late Permian shallow water condition in Guryul ravine, Kashmir, India (United States)

    Parcha, Suraj; Horacek, Micha; Krystyn, Leopold; Pandey, Shivani


    The present study is focused on the Late Permian (Changhsingian) succession, present in the Guryul ravine, Kashmir Basin. The basin has a complete Cambro-Triassic sequence and thus contains a unique position in the geology of Himalaya. The Guryul Ravine Permian mainly comprises of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments deposited in a shallow-shelf or ramp setting. The present assemblage of Ichnofossils is the first significant report of trace fossils in the Guryul ravine since early reports in the 1970s. The Ichnofossils reported from this section include: Diplichnites, Dimorphichnus, Monomorphichnus, Planolites, Skolithos along with burrow, scratch marks and annelid worm traces?. The ichnofossils are mainly preserved in medium grain sandstone-mudstone facies. The Ichnofossils are widely distributed throughout the section and are mostly belonging to arthropods and annelid origin, showing behavioral activity, mainly dwelling and feeding, and evidence the dominant presence of deposit feeders. The vertical to slightly inclined biogenic structures are commonly recognized from semi-consolidated substrate which are characteristic features of the near shore/foreshore marine environment, with moderate to high energy conditions. The topmost layer of silty shale contains trace fossils like Skolithos and poorly preserved burrows. The burrow material filled is same as that of host rock. The studied Zewan C and D sequence represents the early to late part of the Changhsingian stage, from 40 to 5 m below the top of Zewan D member with bioturbation still evident in some limestone layers till 2 metres above. No trace fossils could be recognized in the topmost 3 m beds of Zewan D due to their gliding related amalgamated structure. The widespread distribution of traces and their in situ nature will be useful for interpretation of the paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Permian in the Guryul ravine of Kashmir.

  19. Late Permian-earliest Triassic high-resolution organic carbon isotope and palynofacies records from Kap Stosch (East Greenland) (United States)

    Sanson-Barrera, Anna; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Weissert, Helmut; Adatte, Thierry; Bernasconi, Stefano M.


    During and after the end Permian mass extinction terrestrial and marine biota underwent major changes and reorganizations. The latest Permian and earliest Triassic is also characterized by major negative carbon isotope shifts reflecting fundamental changes in the carbon cycle. The present study documents a high-resolution bulk organic carbon isotope record and palynofacies analysis spanning the latest Permian-earliest Triassic of East Greenland. An almost 700 meter thick composite section from Kap Stosch allowed discriminating 6 chemostratigraphic intervals that provide the basis for the correlation with other coeval records across the world, and for the recognition of basin wide transgressive-regressive events documenting tectonic activity during the opening of the Greenland-Norway Basin. The identification of the main factors that influenced the organic carbon isotope signal during the earliest Triassic (Griesbachian to Dienerian) was possible due to the combination of bulk organic carbon isotope, palynofacies and Rock-Eval data. Two negative carbon isotopic shifts in the Kap Stosch record can be correlated with negative shifts recorded in coeval sections across the globe. A first negative shift precedes the base of the Triassic as defined by the first occurrence of the conodont Hindeodus parvus in the Meishan reference section, and the second one coincides with the suggested Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary. This new organic carbon isotope record from the extended Kap Stosch section from the Boreal Realm documents regional and global carbon cycle signals of the interval between the latest Palaeozoic and the onset of the Mesozoic.

  20. Permian Mengkarang coal facies and environment, based on organic petrology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Suwarna


    Full Text Available Permian Mengkarang Coal Measures is situated in the middle part of Sumatera Island. Some fresh outcrop samples of the Permian Mengkarang coals have been analyzed both macroscopically and microscopically, to asses their depositional environment. On the basis of organic-petrological analysis, the coal seams show variation in the predominance of some macerals, indicating successions of environmental changes. The dominant maceral group is vitrinite, present in very low to very high values; whilst the minor one is inertinite showing low amount. Environmental information derived from the organic facies study shows that the coals were deposited in wet zone of mire, ranges from wet limnic-telmatic zone to telmatic wet forest swamp under rapid burial condition, due to rapid basin subsidence. The organic facies concept is thus applicable in basin studies context and has potential to become an additional tool for interpretation of depositional environment.    


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The diversity curve of Permian fusulinid genera shows two peaks corresponding to the Asselian-Sakmarian and Midian times. The minimal generic diversity is recorded in the late Bolorian. The most significant extinction events occurred at the end of the Midian (71% of all genera, Bolorian (48%, Asselian (27% and Sakmarian (23% ages. The fusulinid assemblage was most notably changed by the appearance of new genera (52% of the total number in the Kubergandian age. These data  identify two main stages (Asselian-Bolorian and Kubergandian-Dorashamian and four second-order stages (Asselian-Sakmarian, Yakhtashian-Bolorian, Kubergandian-Midian, and Dzhulfian-Dorashamian in the Permian history of fusulinids. The main stages correspond to two Permian series of the East European scale, which can be considered as subsystems named Cisuralian and Tethysian, respectively. The latter are subdivided into the Uralian, Darvasian, Yanghsingian and Lopingian series which correspond to the second-order stages. The scale suggested does not contradict the traditional two-member subdivision and has an advantage over the accepted global three-member chronostratigraphic scale because the series suggested are more proportional to each other in scope and reflect natural evolutionary processes of the marine biota. In addition, the application of the global scale to the Tethyan sequences is hampered by a limited number of criteria used in the drawing of series and stage boundaries, as evidenced by the existing different views on the position of the lower Guadalupian boundary in the Tethyan sections. 

  2. The carbon and sulfur cycles and atmospheric oxygen from middle Permian to middle Triassic (United States)

    Berner, Robert A.


    The results of a theoretical isotope mass balance model are presented for the time dependence of burial and weathering-plus-degassing fluxes within the combined long-term carbon and sulfur cycles. Averaged data for oceanic δ 13C and δ 34S were entered for every million years from 270 to 240 Ma (middle Permian to middle Triassic) to study general trends across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Results show a drop in the rate of global organic matter burial during the late Permian and a predominance of low values during the early-to-middle Triassic. This overall decrease with time is ascribed mainly to epochs of conversion of high biomass forests to low biomass herbaceous vegetation resulting in a decrease in the production of terrestrially derived organic debris. Additional contributions to lessened terrestrial carbon burial were increased aridity and a drop in sea level during the late Permian which led to smaller areas of low-lying coastal wetlands suitable for coal and peat deposition. Mirroring the drop in organic matter deposition was an increase in the burial of sedimentary pyrite, and a dramatic increase in the calculated global mean ratio of pyrite-S to organic-C. High S/C values resulted from an increase of deposition in marine euxinic basins combined with a decrease in the burial of low-pyrite associated terrestrial organic matter. The prediction of increased oceanic anoxia during the late Permian and early Triassic agrees with independent studies of the composition of sedimentary rocks. Weathering plus burial fluxes for organic carbon and pyrite sulfur were used to calculate changes in atmospheric oxygen. The striking result is a continuous drop in O 2 concentration from ˜30% to ˜13% over a twenty million year period. This drop was brought about mainly by a decrease in the burial of terrestrially derived organic matter. but with a possible contribution from the weathering of older organic matter on land. It must have exerted a considerable influence on


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Permian sequence of the Transcaucasia, which comprises the Davaly, Asni, Gnishik, Arpa, Khachik, and Akhura Formations, is described. A precise dating of the formations based on the analysis of fusulinid assemblages is also provided. The Davaly Formation corresponds to the Bolorian Stage of the Lower Permian (Cisuralian; the Asni Formation corresponds to the Kubergandian Stage, and to the lower half of the Murgabian Stage of the Middle Permian (Guadalupian; the Gnishik Formation corresponds approximately to the upper half of the Murgabian Stage; and the Arpa and Khachik Formations represent the entire Midian Stage of the Middle Permian. Only the uppermost Chanakhchy Beds of the Khachik Formation are referred to the upper series of the Permian (Lopingian, based on the latest proposal of the International Subcommission on Permian Stratigraphy concerning series boundaries. The Akhura Formation encompasses the Dzhulfian and Dorashamian Stages of the Upper Permian. Refined correlations between the Permian sequence of the Transcaucasia and the most complete Permian sequences of the Tethyan region (Central Iran, southestern Pamirs, South China, Japan are presented. The transgressive overlapping of the Permian deposits is recorded in these areas, similar to the Transcaucasia. Although the transgression began during the Bolorian, it reached the widest extent in the Kubergandian and therefore, in most sections the transgressive series begins with deposits of Kubergandian age. The Middle and Upper Permian deposits of the Transcaucasia, Iran, and southern Turkey belonged to a single carbonate platform. Similar extensive carbonate platforms are recorded in the southern parts of Afghanistan and China. A change in the sedimentary regime was recorded in all these platforms at the boundary between the Guadalupian and Lopingian epochs. The Guadalupian time was marked by the intensive accumulation of biolitithic and detrital limestones produced by benthic

  4. 准噶尔盆地西北缘下二叠统油气储层中火山物质蚀变及控制因素%Alteration of volcanics and its controlling factors in the Lower Permian reservoirs at northwestern margin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世发; 朱筱敏; 吴冬; 刘英辉; 李盼盼; 姜淑贤; 刘学超


    通过岩心分析、显微镜下观察(常规、铸体薄片和扫描电镜)、岩石地球化学分析测试等技术手段,以准噶尔盆地西北缘下二叠统油气储层为实例,研究了火山岩、火山碎屑岩和火山岩屑质砂砾岩中的火山玻璃、火山碎屑、长石以及辉石、角闪石等火山物质的低温-埋藏蚀变作用。镜下观察发现,在含火山物质油气储层中,常见对储集空间具有重要影响的自生矿物主要有绿泥石、沸石(包括方沸石、片沸石和浊沸石)、方解石、钠长石和自生的石英。结合共生关系、元素组成和元素迁移,分析了自生矿物的微观特征和成因,建立了火山物质蚀变的成岩演化序列,可以概括为:①火山玻璃水化-蒙脱石化-沸石化及各种沸石的转化---钠长石化;②铁镁矿物影响的绿泥石化;③长石蚀变向绿泥石和方解石转化,后期发生钠长石化。在研究区,火山物质的蚀变和自生矿物的析出与中-基性的母岩物质组成密切相关,并受地层温度、压力、孔隙水的化学性质控制。研究火山物质蚀变的产物、蚀变过程及控制因素,能够明确含火山物质的油气储层质量差异机理,为优质储层预测提供科学的依据。%Based on observations of available cores ,thin-sections and SEM and analysis of rock geochemistry ,we studied low-temperature-burial metamorphism ( alteration ) of volcanics in the Lower Permian at northwestern margin of Junggar Basin .These volcanics include volcanic glass , volcanic clasts , feldspar , and mafic minerals such as pyroxene and horn-blende,etc.,which originate from lavas,pyroclastic rocks,and volcaniclastic sandstones or conglomerates .In oil/gas reservoirs containing volcanics ,the authigenic minerals that are common but important to pore spaces include chlorite ,ze-olites(like analcime,heulandite,and laumontite),calcite,albite,and authigenic quartz.Based on

  5. 准噶尔盆地西北缘下二叠统火山岩岩性、岩相及其与储层的关系%Early Permian Volcanic Lithology, Lithofacies and Their Relations to Reservoir in Northwestern Margin of the Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜本忠; 牛花朋; 朱筱敏; 董国栋; 朱世发; 安思奇


    Early Permian volcanic rocks in northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin have different rock types and lithofacies. In this paper, data from core, thin sections and element chemistry were used to study volcanic lithology and their relations to reservoir quality. The Jiamuhe Formation is characterized by lava and volcanoclastic rocks, which are mainly basaltic andesites, andesites and quartz andesites. The lithology of volcanic rocks in the Fengcheng Formation are different in different areas. Lava including basaltic andesitoid and tephrite was the main type in Kebai area, while welded pyroclastic rock and volcaniclastic lava of rhyolite, pollenite and andesitoid are the main types in Wuxia area. The high-quality reservoir developed in eruptive breccias and lava such as andesite in the Jiamuhe Formation and in the Fengcheng Formation of the Kebai area, and in welded pyroclastic rock and breccias lava with stone bubbles in the Fengcheng Formation of the Wuxia area. Besides, same volcanic rock would have different reservoir quality because of different volcanic environments. In the studied area, although diagenesis was diverse in different parts, high-quality volcanic rock reservoir developed mainly in the upper effusive sub-facies, air fall, and pyroclastic subfacies in explosive facies. Effusive and explosive facies were common in the Jiamuhe Formation, while effusive facies and pyroclastic flow subfacies in explosive facies were the main facies in Fengcheng Formation of Kebai area and of Wuxia area, respectively. Therefore, distinct explorative targets should be chosen in different layers in different areas. Lithofacies was another important controlling factor for volcanic reservoir besides fracturing in fault zones and leaching under the regional unconformable surface.%  与石炭系相比,准噶尔盆地西北缘下二叠统火山岩岩性、岩相类型丰富,研究程度低。本文利用岩心、薄片及元素地球化学资料,开展了火山岩

  6. Rare earth element geochemistry of dolostones and its indicative significance of the Permian Changxing Formation in Yuanba Gasfield,northern Sichuan Basin%川北元坝气田二叠系长兴组白云岩稀土元素地球化学特征及其指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余新亚; 李平平; 邹华耀; 王广伟; 张毅


    Rare earth element (REE) and Yttrium (Y) concents were determined from 49 carbon-ate samples of the Permian Changxing Formation of Yuanba Gasfield in northern Sichuan Basin,and the results show that the total content of rare earth elements (REE ) is generally low (average 1 .50 ×1 0 -6 ),which indicates that rock samples were almost without any terrigenous clastics,and not be affect-ed by the deep hydrothermal fluids.Shale-normalized REE characteristics of dolostone including light rare earth element (LREE) depletion,positive La anomalies,negative Ce anomalies (0.49 to 1 .08,aver-age 0.75),positive Eu anomalies (0.89 to 46.00,average 4.68)of different degrees and the higher Y /Ho ratios (28.82 to 63.47,average 43.04)recorded seawater-like REE and Y signatures,which show that the dolomitization fluids is reductive seawater derived,and the dolomitization occurred in a buri-al environment.The brecciated or zebra typical structure of hydrothermal dolostones were not observed in the cores and petrographic thin sections.Flattened structure and the horizontal continuous distribution of dolomite reservoirs and the higher δ1 8O value (-7.07‰ to -2.92‰,average -4.95‰) illustrate that no obvious hydrothermal activities occurred in the study area,and the higher degree of positive Eu anomalies have no relationship with the deep hydrothermal fluids.Many elemental sulfurs and sulfur-rich pyrobitumen originated from thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR)can be observed by scanning electron micro-scope,which indicates that TSR created an extremely reducing environment of stratal seawater,and then caused the higher degree of positive Eu anomalies,which in turn explains that TSR had a certain dissolu-tion on dolomite reservoirs.%川北元坝气田二叠系长兴组49个碳酸盐岩样品的稀土元素(REE)和钇(Y)含量的测试结果表明:稀土元素总量(ΣREE)普遍较低(平均1.50×10-6),说明岩石样品几乎无陆源碎屑的混入,

  7. Review of the Permian Camptoneuritidae (Insecta:Grylloblattida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danil S.ARISTOV; Sergey Yu.STOROZHENKO; CUI Yingying


    The Permian family Camptoneuritidae (Insecta:Grylloblattida) is reviewed.New synonymies are proposed:Camptoneuritidae Martynov,1930=Demopteridae Carpenter,1950,syn.nov.,= Jabloniidae Kukalova,1964,syn.nov.Key to genera of Camptoneuritidae is given.All genera are redescribed and illustrated.Camptoneurites soyanensis sp.nov.from Soyana locality (Middle Permian,Kazanian Stage;Arkhangelsk Region,Russia) and Tyulkinia bashkuevi sp.nov.from Tyulkino locality (Lower Permian,Kungurian Stage;Perm Region,Russia) are described.

  8. Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Bambach, R. K.; Canfield, D. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.


    The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into surficial environments. The predicted physiological and climatic consequences for marine and terrestrial organisms are in good accord with the observed timing and selectivity of Late Permian mass extinction.

  9. Calibrating the end-Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Shen, Shu-zhong; Crowley, James L; Wang, Yue; Bowring, Samuel A; Erwin, Douglas H; Sadler, Peter M; Cao, Chang-qun; Rothman, Daniel H; Henderson, Charles M; Ramezani, Jahandar; Zhang, Hua; Shen, Yanan; Wang, Xiang-dong; Wang, Wei; Mu, Lin; Li, Wen-zhong; Tang, Yue-gang; Liu, Xiao-lei; Liu, Lu-jun; Zeng, Yong; Jiang, Yao-fa; Jin, Yu-gan


    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe biodiversity crisis in Earth history. To better constrain the timing, and ultimately the causes of this event, we collected a suite of geochronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic data on several well-preserved sedimentary sections in South China. High-precision U-Pb dating reveals that the extinction peak occurred just before 252.28 ± 0.08 million years ago, after a decline of 2 per mil (‰) in δ(13)C over 90,000 years, and coincided with a δ(13)C excursion of -5‰ that is estimated to have lasted ≤20,000 years. The extinction interval was less than 200,000 years and synchronous in marine and terrestrial realms; associated charcoal-rich and soot-bearing layers indicate widespread wildfires on land. A massive release of thermogenic carbon dioxide and/or methane may have caused the catastrophic extinction.

  10. Extension of Cathaysian flora during the Permian. Climatic and paleogeographic constraints (United States)

    Fluteau, F.; Besse, J.; Broutin, J.; Berthelin, M.


    Recent paleobotanic investigations have been described during the Late Permian intermingled Cathaysian (South China block), Gondwanian and Euramerian flora assemblage in Oman (Arabian plate). By analogy with present rainforest flora, Cathaysian floral elements in northeastern Gondwana require permanent precipitation, even if a short dry season may be endured. On the contrary, Eurasian flora is most probably adapted to dryness. We investigate the temporal and spatial extension of this surprising flora assemblage using numerical climatic simulations and paleomagnetic reconstructions. We suggest that the settlement of Cathaysian flora was possible as soon as this area reached about 20°S. According to paleomagnetic data, the southeastern Arabian plate reached this latitude during Late Permian, which exactly corresponds to the age of the oldest discovered Cathaysian flora elements in Oman. Moreover, the paleomagnetic configuration of plates allows for easy Chinese to Gondwana connections using migrating blocks in the Tethys or island arcs. However, the climatic simulations suggest the presence of a dry season lasting about 5 months in southeastern Arabia. Such precipitation conditions would probably prevent the settlement of Cathaysian plants. We thus propose that the intermingled assemblage reflected the paleoenvironmental conditions: Cathaysian plants grew in a flood plain with perennial water supply, whereas Euramerian plants lived out of the flood plain over adjacent hills where water was only supplied by seasonal precipitation. Migration paths of these different floras are also discussed.

  11. Permian stratigraphy and correlation of Northeast China: A review (United States)

    Shen, S.-Z.; Zhang, H.; Shang, Q. H.; Li, W.-Z.


    Palaeontological, lithostratigraphical data from the Permian strata and correlation of the Permian successions for different tectonic units in Northeast China are reviewed and summarized in this paper. Permian strata in Northeast China are dominated by brachiopods, fusulinoideans and land plants, with limited ammonoids, conodonts and bivalves. The Cisuralian (Early Permian) in the northern margin of the North China Block and in the Manchuride Belt is composed mostly of marine massive limestone with the characteristic Pseudoschwagerina Zone in the Asselian and Sakmarian and the Misellina claudiae Zone in the Kungurian. The Cisuralian in the Xing'an Block and the northeastern part of Inner Mongolia is dominated by huge terrestrial deposits with fossil plants. The Guadalupian (Middle Permian) in the Manchuride, Altaid and Yanbian Belts are characterized by bi-temperate Roadian or early Wordian Monodiexodina fauna and the late Wordian-Capitanian Codonofusiella- Schwagerina or Neoschwagerina- Yabeina faunas, the mixed brachiopod faunas between the Boreal/antitropical and the Palaeoequatorial Cathaysian forms, the Roadian or early Wordian solitary coral faunas, and the late Wordian-Capitanian compound Waagenophyllum- Wentzelella fauna. The Nadanhada Terrane contains some exotic limestone blocks with a typical Cathaysian Neoschwagerina- Yabeina fauna in a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous mélange, which is related to Mesozoic subduction in the western Circum-Pacific region. The Lopingian (Late Permian) in Northeast China is mostly characterized by terrestrial molasse deposits with a mixed flora between the Boreal Angaran and the palaeoequatorial Cathaysian Provinces, indicating the final closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean.

  12. Carboniferous-Permian rugose coral Cyathaxonia faunas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Cyathaxonia faunas are widely distributed in the Carboniferous and Permian strata in China.The fauna in China contains 12 families and 40 genera,and can be recognized as three episodes from Early Carboniferous to the end-Permian in terms of their occurrence and composition:1) Mississippian;2) Pennsylvanian-Early Permian;3) Middle Permian-Late Permian.They were relatively abundant in episodes 1 and 2.A decrease of family Antiphyllidae and an increase of family Hapsiphyllidae can be observed from Early Carboniferous to the end-Permian.Two case studies are given to illustrate the bio-facies of the Cyathaxonia faunas,which are from the Mississippian of Baoshan,West Yunnan and the Mississippian of Chaohu,South Anhui.In both areas,Cyathaxonia faunas occur just below the large dissepimented solitary and compound coral assemblages in a continuous sequence in a single section,which implies that the occurrence of these small,non-dissepimented solitary corals is not strictly related with Gondwanan or Peri-gondwanan cold water environment,but might be controlled by such benthic conditions as deeper,mud-rich,quieter,and darker sedimentary environments.

  13. Provenance of Permian Malužiná Formation sandstones (Hronicum, Western Carpathians): evidence from monazite geochronology (United States)

    Vozárová, Anna; Konečný, Patrik; Vďačný, Marek; Vozár, Jozef; Šarinová, Katarína


    The Permian Malužiná Formation and the Pennsylvanian Nižná Boca Formation are Upper Paleozoic volcano- sedimentary complexes in the Hronicum nappe system. Sandstones, shales and conglomerates are the dominant lithological members of the Malužiná Formation sequence. Detrital monazites were analysed by electron microprobe, to obtain Th-U-Pb ages of the source areas. The majority of detrital monazites showed Devonian-Mississippian ages, ranging from 330 to 380 Ma with a weighted average of 351 ± 3.3 (2σ), that correspond well with the main phase of arcrelated magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians. Only a small portion of detrital monazites displayed Permian ages in the range of 250-280 Ma, with a significant maximum around 255 Ma. The weighted average corresponds to 255 ± 6.2 Ma. These monazites may have been partially derived from the synsedimentary acid volcanism that was situated on the margins of the original depositional basin. However, some of the Triassic ages (230-240 Ma), reflect, most likely, the genetic relationship with the overheating connected with Permian and subsequent Triassic extensional regime. Detrital monazite ages document the Variscan age of the source area and also reflect a gradual development of the Hronicum terrestrial rift, accompanied by the heterogeneous cooling of the lithosphere.

  14. Provenance of Permian Malužiná Formation sandstones (Hronicum, Western Carpathians: evidence from monazite geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozárová Anna


    Full Text Available The Permian Malužiná Formation and the Pennsylvanian Nižná Boca Formation are Upper Paleozoic volcano- sedimentary complexes in the Hronicum nappe system. Sandstones, shales and conglomerates are the dominant lithological members of the Malužiná Formation sequence. Detrital monazites were analysed by electron microprobe, to obtain Th-U-Pb ages of the source areas. The majority of detrital monazites showed Devonian-Mississippian ages, ranging from 330 to 380 Ma with a weighted average of 351 ± 3.3 (2σ, that correspond well with the main phase of arcrelated magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians. Only a small portion of detrital monazites displayed Permian ages in the range of 250-280 Ma, with a significant maximum around 255 Ma. The weighted average corresponds to 255 ± 6.2 Ma. These monazites may have been partially derived from the synsedimentary acid volcanism that was situated on the margins of the original depositional basin. However, some of the Triassic ages (230-240 Ma, reflect, most likely, the genetic relationship with the overheating connected with Permian and subsequent Triassic extensional regime. Detrital monazite ages document the Variscan age of the source area and also reflect a gradual development of the Hronicum terrestrial rift, accompanied by the heterogeneous cooling of the lithosphere.

  15. High precision time calibration of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction event in a deep marine context (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Brosse, Morgane; Bagherpour, Borhan; Schaltegger, Urs


    To construct a revised and high resolution calibrated time scale for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) we use (1) high-precision U-Pb zircon age determinations of a unique succession of volcanic ash layers interbedded with deep water fossiliferous sediments in the Nanpanjiang Basin (South China) combined with (2) accurate quantitative biochronology based on ammonoids, conodonts, radiolarians, and foraminifera and (3) tracers of marine bioproductivity (carbon isotopes) across the PTB. The unprecedented precision of the single grain chemical abrasion isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) dating technique at sub-per mil level (radio-isotopic calibration of the PTB at the Permian and Early Triassic. Here, we present new single grain U-Pb zircon data of volcanic ash layers from two deep marine sections (Dongpan and Penglaitan) revealing stratigraphic consistent dates over several volcanic ash layers bracketing the PTB. These analyses define weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 251.956±0.033 Ma (Dongpan) and 252.062±0.043 Ma (Penglaitan) for the last Permian ash bed. By calibration with detailed litho- and biostratigraphy new U-Pb ages of 251.953±0.038 Ma (Dongpan) and 251.907±0.033 Ma (Penglaitan) are established for the onset of the Triassic.

  16. Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Bagherpour, Borhan; Brosse, Morgane; Guodun, Kuang; Schaltegger, Urs


    New high-resolution U-Pb dates indicate a duration of 89 ± 38 kyr for the Permian hiatus and of 14 ± 57 kyr for the overlying Triassic microbial limestone in shallow water settings of the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. The age and duration of the hiatus coincides with the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and the extinction interval in the Meishan Global Stratotype Section and Point, and strongly supports a glacio-eustatic regression, which best explains the genesis of the worldwide hiatus straddling the PTB in shallow water records. In adjacent deep marine troughs, rates of sediment accumulation display a six-fold decrease across the PTB compatible with a dryer and cooler climate as indicated by terrestrial plants. Our model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction (PTBME) hinges on the synchronicity of the hiatus with the onset of the Siberian Traps volcanism. This early eruptive phase released sulfur-rich volatiles into the stratosphere, thus simultaneously eliciting a short-lived ice age responsible for the global regression and a brief but intense acidification. Abrupt cooling, shrunk habitats on shelves and acidification may all have synergistically triggered the PTBME. Subsequently, the build-up of volcanic CO2 induced a transient cool climate whose early phase saw the deposition of the microbial limestone.

  17. Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Bagherpour, Borhan; Brosse, Morgane; Guodun, Kuang; Schaltegger, Urs


    New high-resolution U-Pb dates indicate a duration of 89 ± 38 kyr for the Permian hiatus and of 14 ± 57 kyr for the overlying Triassic microbial limestone in shallow water settings of the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. The age and duration of the hiatus coincides with the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and the extinction interval in the Meishan Global Stratotype Section and Point, and strongly supports a glacio-eustatic regression, which best explains the genesis of the worldwide hiatus straddling the PTB in shallow water records. In adjacent deep marine troughs, rates of sediment accumulation display a six-fold decrease across the PTB compatible with a dryer and cooler climate as indicated by terrestrial plants. Our model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction (PTBME) hinges on the synchronicity of the hiatus with the onset of the Siberian Traps volcanism. This early eruptive phase released sulfur-rich volatiles into the stratosphere, thus simultaneously eliciting a short-lived ice age responsible for the global regression and a brief but intense acidification. Abrupt cooling, shrunk habitats on shelves and acidification may all have synergistically triggered the PTBME. Subsequently, the build-up of volcanic CO2 induced a transient cool climate whose early phase saw the deposition of the microbial limestone. PMID:28262815

  18. An early geikiid dicynodont from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone (late Permian) of South Africa (United States)

    Smith, Roger M.H.


    Based on specimens previously identified as Tropidostoma, a new taxon of dicynodont (Bulbasaurus phylloxyron gen. et sp. nov.) from the Karoo Basin of South Africa is described. Bulbasaurus is a medium-sized dicynodont (maximum dorsal skull length 16.0 cm) restricted to the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone (early Lopingian) of the Beaufort Group. Bulbasaurus can be distinguished from Tropidostoma by an array of characters including the presence of a tall, sharp premaxillary ridge, large, rugose, nearly-confluent nasal bosses, a nasofrontal ridge, massive tusks, robust pterygoids, prominently twisted subtemporal bar, and absence of a distinct postfrontal. Inclusion of Bulbasaurus in a phylogenetic analysis of anomodont therapsids recovers it as a member of Geikiidae, a clade of otherwise later Permian dicynodonts such as Aulacephalodon and Pelanomodon. Bulbasaurus exhibits many of the characters typical of adult Aulacephalodon, but at substantially smaller skull size (these characters are absent in comparably-sized Aulacephalodon juveniles), suggesting that the evolution of typical geikiid morphology preceded gigantism in the clade. Bulbasaurus is the earliest known geikiid and the only member of the group known from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone; discovery of this taxon shortens a perplexing ghost lineage and indicates that abundant clades from the later Permian of South Africa (e.g., Geikiidae, Dicynodontoidea) may have originated as rare components of earlier Karoo assemblage zones. PMID:28168104

  19. Dynamic anoxic ferruginous conditions during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery (United States)

    Clarkson, M. O.; Wood, R. A.; Poulton, S. W.; Richoz, S.; Newton, R. J.; Kasemann, S. A.; Bowyer, F.; Krystyn, L.


    The end-Permian mass extinction, ~252 million years ago, is notable for a complex recovery period of ~5 Myr. Widespread euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) oceanic conditions have been proposed as both extinction mechanism and explanation for the protracted recovery period, yet the vertical distribution of anoxia in the water column and its temporal dynamics through this time period are poorly constrained. Here we utilize Fe-S-C systematics integrated with palaeontological observations to reconstruct a complete ocean redox history for the Late Permian to Early Triassic, using multiple sections across a shelf-to-basin transect on the Arabian Margin (Neo-Tethyan Ocean). In contrast to elsewhere, we show that anoxic non-sulfidic (ferruginous), rather than euxinic, conditions were prevalent in the Neo-Tethys. The Arabian Margin record demonstrates the repeated expansion of ferruginous conditions with the distal slope being the focus of anoxia at these times, as well as short-lived episodes of oxia that supported diverse biota.

  20. Catastrophic dispersion of coal fly ash into oceans during the latest Permian extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasby, S.E.; Sanei, H.; Beauchamp, B. [Geological Survey Canada Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    During the latest Permian extinction about 250 Myr ago, more than 90% of marine species went extinct, and biogeochemical cycles were disrupted globally. The cause of the disruption is unclear, but a link between the eruption of the Siberian Trap flood basalts and the extinction has been suggested on the basis of the rough coincidence of the two events. The flood basalt volcanism released CO{sub 2}. In addition, related thermal metamorphism of Siberian coal measures and organic-rich shales led to the emission of methane, which would have affected global climate and carbon cycling, according to model simulations. This scenario is supported by evidence for volcanic eruptions and gas release in the Siberian Tunguska Basin, but direct indicators of coal combustion have not been detected. Here we present analyses of terrestrial carbon in marine sediments that suggest a substantial amount of char was deposited in Permian aged rocks from the Canadian High Arctic immediately before the mass extinction. Based on the geochemistry and petrology of the char, we propose that the char was derived from the combustion of Siberian coal and organic-rich sediments by flood basalts, which was then dispersed globally. The char is remarkably similar to modern coal fly ash, which can create toxic aquatic conditions when released as slurries. We therefore speculate that the global distribution of ash could have created toxic marine conditions.

  1. Groundwater ferricretes from the Silurian of Ireland and Permian of the Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Wright, V. P.; Sloan, R. J.; Valero Garcés, B.; Garvie, L. A. J.


    Haematite nodule horizons occur in alluvial-lacustrine deposits from the Mill Cove Formation (Silurian) of Dingle, Ireland and the Unidad Roja Superior (Permian) of the Spanish Pyrenees. These horizons, generally less than 1 m thick, are not associated with palaeosol profiles but are hosted by laminated or structureless, bioturbated mudstones to sandstones. The sequences contain weakly developed calcrete profiles. The haematite nodules are interpreted as having formed around fluctuating water-tables and are analogous to present-day groundwater ferricretes (laterites or plinthites). Fe 2+, mobilised during periods of reducing groundwaters, was segregated into ferric oxide nodules during falls in the water-table or during influxes of oxygenated meteoric waters. The prevailing climate during deposition of both sequences was probably semi-arid and the presence of ferricrete-like horizons is not evidence of humid climates. The horizons represent early "diagenetic" effects, not related to prevailing soil moisture regime.

  2. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China (United States)

    Saitoh, M.; Ueno, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Isozaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Yao, J.; Ji, Z.


    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian, Sichuan, China, to clarify changes in the oceanic N cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation is composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils, such as calcareous algae, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high TOC contents, and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic conditions. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. δ15N values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. δ15N values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear δ15N shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low δ15N values suggest the enhanced N fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial δ15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic δ15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced N fixation throughout the

  3. Exploration Area and Potential of Natural Gas in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haibo; Chen Lei; Qian Yongxin; Li Chen


    @@ Junggar Basin, located in Northern Xinjiang between Altai and Tianshan Mountains, is the second largest basin in China with its sedimentary area being about 130,000square kilometers. A group of caprocks are developed over Carboniferous of the basin, including the Permian,Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene,among which the biggest sedimentary caprock is 15,000meters thick. The formation and accumulation of oil and gas in the basin can be characterized by multistage and multisource after undergoing multiperiod structural movements such as Late Hercynian, Indosinian,Yanshanian, and Himalaya, etc.

  4. Plant biodiversity in the Mahanadi Basin, India, during the Gondwana period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K.J. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    The Mahanadi Basin is one of five major sedimentary basins of Peninsular India. The sediments are exposed in two different regions: an extensive basin comprising Lower to Upper Gondwana with coal measures towards the west (Talchir and Ib-River Sub-basins); and the Athgarh Sub-basin in the east with rocks of only Upper Gondwana age. This study was mainly concerned with plant species diversification and the development of flora in the Mahanadi Basin from the Early Permian to the Early Cretaceous. A number of successive megafloras were recognised with gaps in the sequence. Leaves were the dominant part of the preserved flora, followed by fruits. Maximum plant diversification in gymnosperms was recorded in the Late Permian (Kamthi Formation), and in pteridophytes in the Early Cretaceous (Athgarh Formation).

  5. Sedimentary environments of organic matter from Middle Permian source rocks in northern Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Jianyu; KOU Hansheng; ZHOU Lifa; HAN Zhongyuan


    A systematic analysis of the inorganic and organic geochemistry of Middle Permian source rocks comprising carbonate rocks and mudstones was carried out, with samples collected from the outcrop and bore of the Junggar, Turpan and Ili basins in northern Xinjiang. This study confirmed that sedimentary parameters for an ancient water body, such as inorganic geochemistry and paleosalinity, have a close relation to the organic matter of source rocks. It is also disclosed that phytane predominance in the source rocks is mainly due to a reducing environment. Biomarkers, such as gammacerane and β-carotene, in the samples reflect a specific salinity in the sedimentary environments. Sedimentary zones with a strong reducing environment are more likely to produce deposits of primary organic matter, which will be buried and preserved contemporarily. Consequently, the source rocks are generally high in organic content and better in organic type than ordinary ones, and vice versa.

  6. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area......This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located...... is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system...

  7. Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction (United States)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit


    The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (δ98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for δ98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in δ98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced

  8. Permian-Triassic Magmatism Along the Southern Gondwana Margin: Correlating Proximal and Distal Volcanic Deposits (United States)

    McKay, M. P.; Weislogel, A. L.; Fildani, A.


    Active margins are dominated by erosion, structural deformation, tectonic dissection, and igneous intrusions. These destructive processes lead to an incomplete record of past magmatism in active margins. Volcanic airfall tuffs that are transported and deposited in distal sedimentary basins may be more likely to be preserved in the rock record. Tuffs, however, may be affected by atmospheric fractionation during transport, postdepositional weathering, and diagenesis during burial, potentially altering ash texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry. We use outcrop observations, stratigraphic relationships, whole rock geochemistry, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and zircon rare-earth element geochemistry from Permian-Triassic strata of South Africa and South America to correlate distal volcanic ashes to proximal volcanic deposits and plutonic suites within southern Gondwana. U-Pb zircon signals of the tuffs are treated as "detrital"; the distinct zircon signals were then used to correlate distal airfall ashes to potential magmatic sources. This suggests that airfall fractionation of zircon populations is not a significant concern in tuff geochronology. Additionally, zircon inheritance may be a useful tool in matching far-traveled ashes with parental magmatic suites. Although previous studies have shown that the geochemistry of volcanic tuff deposits varies with distance from the volcanic vent, we employ whole rock and zircon REE compositions to differentiate distinct magmatic periods using distal ashes that were deposited >750 km from the volcanic source. The results of this study support a geochronologic interpretation that the Karoo strata of S. Africa are >10 Ma younger than previously thought based on biostratigraphy. Since the Karoo basin is heavily studied as a record of the end-Permian extinction and paleoclimate change, our results have major implication for this key time in Earth History.

  9. Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse-greenhouse transition (Ecca Group, South Africa) (United States)

    Götz, Annette E.; Ruckwied, Katrin


    The Permian coal-bearing formations of the South African Karoo Basin play a crucial role in the study and interpretation of Gondwana's climate history and biodiversity in this time of major global changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Here, we report on new palynological data from the No. 2 coal seam of the northern Witbank coal field, documenting the switch from Icehouse to Greenhouse conditions in the Early Permian (Lower Ecca Group). The studied postglacial fluvio-deltaic deposits of a highly proximal setting comprise coarse-grained to pebbly sandstones, partially with an abrupt upward transition into fine-grained sediments and coal, trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones, and horizontally laminated fine- to medium-grained sandstones and siltstones. The sedimentary organic matter content clearly documents stratal changes in the palynomorph assemblage and variations in the amount and in the type, size and shape of plant debris. Generally, palynofacies is characterized by a high amount of opaque phytoclasts. Amorphous organic matter is characteristic of laminated siltstones and coals. The palynological record indicates a cold climate, fern wetland community, characteristic of lowland alluvial plains, and an upland conifer community in the lower part of the coal seam. Up section, these communities are replaced by a cool-temperate cycad-like lowland vegetation and gymnospermous upland flora. Ongoing studies focus on the cyclic architecture of the coal seam, applying palynofacies analysis as high-resolution correlation tool with respect to decipher signatures of prominent climate amelioration on basin-wide, intercontinental and intra-Gondwanic scales.

  10. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Dubiel, Russell F.


    The geological model for the development of the Total Petroleum Systems (TPSs) within the Paradox Basin formed the foundation of the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources in the basin. Five TPSs were defined, of which three have known production and two are hypothetical. These TPSs are based on geologic elements of the basin and the potential development of Precambrian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian-Mississippian, and Cretaceous source rock intervals.

  11. Permian paleoclimate data from fluid inclusions in halite (United States)

    Benison, K.C.; Goldstein, R.H.


    This study has yielded surface water paleotemperatures from primary fluid inclusions in mid Permian Nippewalla Group halite from western Kansas. A 'cooling nucleation' method is used to generate vapor bubbles in originally all-liquid primary inclusions. Then, surface water paleotemperatures are obtained by measuring temperatures of homogenization to liquid. Homogenization temperatures ranged from 21??C to 50??C and are consistent along individual fluid inclusion assemblages, indicating that the fluid inclusions have not been altered by thermal reequilibration. Homogenization temperatures show a range of up to 26??C from base to top of individual cloudy chevron growth bands. Petrographic and fluid inclusion evidence indicate that no significant pressure correction is needed for the homogenization temperature data. We interpret these homogenization temperatures to represent shallow surface water paleotemperatures. The range in temperatures from base to top of single chevron bands may reflect daily temperatures variations. These Permian surface water temperatures fall within the same range as some modern evaporative surface waters, suggesting that this Permian environment may have been relatively similar to its modern counterparts. Shallow surface water temperatures in evaporative settings correspond closely to local air temperatures. Therefore, the Permian surface water temperatures determined in this study may be considered proxies for local Permian air temperatures.

  12. Group classification of mixed oils in central Junggar Basin, Northwest China and their migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xulong; SHI Xinpu; CAO Jian; LAN Wenfang; TAO Guoliang; HU Wenxuan; YAO Suping


    The produced oils in central Junggar Basin are commonly mixed in origin. In this paper, in order to reveal this complexity and thereby provide valuable clues to the study of oil source and formation mechanism, genetic groups of the mixed oils were classified and their migration/accumulation was investigated. Based on the artificial oil mixing experiments, some representative biomarkers of the mixed oils showed varying tendencies according to mixing ratios of the oils. Hence, these biomarkers are useful for determining the origin of the mixed oils. According to the criteria, oils in the area were divided into four basic groups, i.e., the Lower Permian Fengcheng oil, the Middle Permian Lower Wuerhe oil, the Jurassic source derived oil, and the mixed oil (including the Lower and Middle Permian mixed oil and the Permian and Jurassic mixed oil). Oil migration and accumulation were discussed in combination with the geological background.

  13. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.


    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  14. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc


    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  15. Volcanic perturbations of the marine environment in South China preceding the latest Permian mass extinction and their biotic effects. (United States)

    Shen, J; Algeo, T J; Zhou, L; Feng, Q; Yu, J; Ellwood, B


    The Dongpan section in southern Guangxi Province records the influence of local volcanic activity on marine sedimentation at intermediate water depths (~200-500 m) in the Nanpanjiang Basin (South China) during the late Permian crisis. We analyzed ~100 samples over a 12-m-thick interval, generating palynological, paleobiological, and geochemical datasets to investigate the nature and causes of environmental changes. The section records at least two major volcanic episodes that culminated in deposition of approximately 25- to 35-cm-thick ash layers (bentonites) and that had profound effects on conditions in both the Dongpan marine environment and adjacent land areas. Intensification of eruptive activity during each volcanic cycle resulted in a shift toward conifer forests, increased wildfire intensity, and elevated subaerial weathering fluxes. The resulting increase in nutrient fluxes stimulated marine productivity in the short term but led to a negative feedback on productivity in the longer term as the OMZ of the Nanpanjiang Basin expanded, putting both phytoplankton and zooplankton communities under severe stress. Radiolarians exhibit large declines in diversity and abundance well before the global mass extinction horizon, demonstrating the diachroneity of the marine biotic crisis. The latest Permian crisis, which was probably triggered by the Siberian Traps flood basalts, intensified the destructive effects of the earlier local eruptions on terrestrial and marine ecosystems of the South China craton.

  16. Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic boundary sections (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A.


    Abundant occurrences of the palynomorph Reduviasporonites have been described as ;fungal spike; from several Permian/Triassic boundary sections and related to the supposed destruction of woody vegetation by fungal pathogens during the Permian/Triassic extinction event. The biological affinity of this taxa considered by some authors of fungal origin is still controversially discussed since there is geochemical evidence that it is most probably related to algae. The abundance peak of this species is used by some authors as a stratigraphic marker, notably in terrestrial Permian/Triassic boundary sections from South China. Illustrations of the reported fungal remains however show potentially erroneous taxonomic identification of Reduviasporonites, and, based on differences in thermal maturation, they may represent recent contamination. Here Reduviasporonites chalastus of Early Triassic age is illustrated together with recent fungal remains originating from a strongly weathered and otherwise barren sample from a Middle Triassic section.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Late Wordian (Guadalupian brachiopods from Member 2 of the Panjshah Formation in the Karakorum (N Pakistan are described. The brachiopod assemblage, dated by the associated fusulinids and conodonts, consists of 29 genera (3 of which are questionable and 1 unidentifiable of the orders Productida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida and Terebratulida. Hunzininae, a new subfamily of the Spiriferellidae is proposed; it includes Darbandia n. gen., with type species D. vagabunda n. sp. and Elivina chapursani n. sp. A third new species is assigned to the genus Anchorhynchia of the family Wellerellidae: A. cimmerica n. sp.A quantitative biostratigraphic analysis demonstrates two major faunal changes in the Elivina chapursani- Chapursania tatianae Assemblage Zone of the upper part of Member 2, which are not strictly linked to lithological changes. This biozone is correlated with the brachiopod faunas of the Gnishik Formation of Armenia and those of the basal Takhtabulak Formation of SE Pamir.The faunal elements of the Elivina chapursani- Chapursania tatianae Assemblage Zone are an admixture of wide-ranging, Tethyan (particularly abundant, Gondwanan and endemic (Cimmerian genera, representing a transitional fauna and a biostratigraphic tool for intercontinental correlation, which are particularly problematic in this time interval. The Panjshah transitional fauna demonstrates the persistence of the Transhimalayan Province of the Cimmerian Region into the late Guadalupian, which originated at the end of the Cisuralian and occupied Armenia, Central Afghanistan, Karakorum and SE Pamir. It provides also some insights into the biodiversity pattern before the mass extinction at the end of the Guadalupian, and suggests that this event was as rapid as the end- Permian mass extinction, at least in Central Asia. 

  18. Hypoxia, global warming, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions. (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D


    A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained environmental degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate warming would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction.

  19. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP Ages from the Late Paleozoic Turpan-Hami Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mao; Jianghai Li; Huatian Zhang


    Permian volcanic rocks are widely distributed in the Turpan-Hami Basin, which is part of the Central Asian orogenic belt. Here we present SHRIMP zircon data for the rhyolite in Well Baocan 1, one of the deepest wells in the basin. The 283.9±2.7 Ma reported in our study provides the best precise age determination for the Yierxitu Formation, the oldest Permian layer of Hami Depression, one of the three substructural units of the Turpan-Hami Basin, and a potential hydrocarbon reservoir in this ba-sin. Our data refines earlier imprecise39Ar-40Ar ages and shows that the volcanic rocks both inside the Turpan-Hami Basin and along its margin are almost coeval. We delineate a collisional orogenesis, and the new age of 283.9±2.7 Ma may limit the latest time of the collision orogenesis.

  20. Genesis of Marine Carbonate Natural Gas in the Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qu; TENGER; MENG Qingqiang; QIN Jianzhong; JIANG Qigui; ZHENG Lunju


    Sichuan Basin is one of the structurally stable and gas-rich basins, being regarded as one of China's important natural gas industry bases. Puguang and Jiannan gas fields, located in the eastern Sichuan Basin are two large fields with gas derived from Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate. The genesis of marine carbonate natural gas was examined using carbon isotope composition and hydrocarbon components of natural gas samples from the eastern and western Sichuan Basin, and compared with that of acidolysis gas derived from marine source rock in the eastern Sichuan Basin. It is concluded that the natural gas in the marine carbonate reservoir originated from pyrolysis of the earlier crude oil and light-oil, and then mixed with kerogen pyrolysis gas of the Permian and Lower Silurian source rock.

  1. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei


    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support

  2. From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis (United States)

    Alessandretti, Luciano; Machado, Rômulo; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Assine, Mario Luis; Lana, Cristiano


    The Late Permian sedimentary succession of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil, provide a valuable source of information about sediment provenance, tectonic processes and, consequently, the paleogeography of the southwestern Gondwana supercontinent. In order to understand the patterns of sedimentary dispersal and reconstruct the Late Permian source-to-sink dynamic, we report a complete series of U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from the Rio do Rasto Formation sandstones allied with detailed paleocurrent and sedimentologic data. Our integrated provenance study reveals a consistent sediment transport from the south to the north and northwest. According to the evaluation of zircon ages and Hf isotopes, it was possible to determine four distinct source areas: (i) a distant Late Paleozoic active magmatic arc located in the southwestern Gondwana margin (i.e. Gondwanides Orogen), corresponding to the North Patagonian Massif; (ii) recycling of orthoquartzites from the uplifted Paleozoic Ventania Fold Belt and immature sandstones from the Claromecó Foreland Basin in central-eastern Argentina and the Silurian-Devonian successions of the southern Paraná Basin (central-northern Uruguay) and North Patagonian Massif; (iii) exhumed areas of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement and Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic mobile belts of the Damara in southwestern Africa and Ribeira Fold Belt in Uruguay and southern Brazil; and (iv) southeastward provenance of Grenvillian (1.2-1.0 Ga) zircons coming from the mafic to intermediate Mesoproterozoic igneous units of the Namaqua-Natal Belt in South Africa and Namibia. These data allow us to argue that sediments deposited in the Paraná Basin during the Late Permian come from both short- and long-distance source areas. In this context, an important population of Permian detrital zircons comes from the Gondwanides Orogen in the south, probably carried by transcontinental alluvial systems. Close to the source area

  3. Late Permian Melt Percolation through the Crust of North-Central Africa and Its Possible Relationship to the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T. Y.; Yang, C. C.; Wu, J. C.; Wang, K. L.; Lo, C. H.


    The Doba gabbro was collected from an exploration well through the Cretaceous Doba Basin of Southern Chad. The gabbro is comprised mostly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxide minerals and displays cumulus mineral textures. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar step-heating geochronology yielded a Late Permian plateau age of 257 ± 1 Ma. The major and trace elemental geochemistry shows that the gabbro is mildly alkalic to tholeiitic in composition and has trace element ratios (i.e. La/YbN > 7; Sm/YbPM > 3.4; Nb/Y > 1; Zr/Y > 5) indicative of a basaltic melt derived from a garnet-bearing sublithospheric mantle source. The moderately enriched Sr-Nd isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.70495 to 0.70839; eNd(T) = -1.0 to -1.3) fall within the mantle array (i.e. OIB-like) and are similar to other Late Permian plutonic rocks of North-Central Africa (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7070). The Late Permian plutonic igneous complexes of North-Central Africa are geologically associated with tectonic lineaments suggesting they acted as conduits for sublithospheric melts to migrate to middle/upper crustal levels. The source of the magmas may be related to the spatial-temporal association of North-Central Africa with the African large low shear velocity province (LLSVP). The African LLSVP has remained stable since the Late Carboniferous and was beneath the Doba basin during the Permian. We suggest that melts derived from deep seated sources related to the African LLSVP percolated through the North-Central African crust via older tectonic lineaments and form a discontiguous magmatic province.

  4. Structured Analog CMOS Design

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovic, Danica


    Structured Analog CMOS Design describes a structured analog design approach that makes it possible to simplify complex analog design problems and develop a design strategy that can be used for the design of large number of analog cells. It intentionally avoids treating the analog design as a mathematical problem, developing a design procedure based on the understanding of device physics and approximations that give insight into parameter interdependences. The proposed transistor-level design procedure is based on the EKV modeling approach and relies on the device inversion level as a fundament

  5. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E


    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  6. South Primorye, Far East Russia—A key region for global Permian correlation (United States)

    Kotlyar, Galina V.; Belyansky, Gennady C.; Burago, Valentina I.; Nikitina, Antonina P.; Zakharov, Yuri D.; Zhuravlev, Andrey V.


    Significant differences between faunal and floral associations existing in different paleogeographic realms in the Kungurian-Late Permian interval make it difficult to correlate the Permian deposits of the world. Resolving this problem is one of the main tasks of Permian stratigraphy. The global significance of Permian strata of the Primorye region of Far East Russia is enhanced by the specific Middle Permian mixed Tethyan, Boreal and Gondwanan-type brachiopod fauna, mixed Angara-Euromerican-Cathaysian flora, and their close spatial and stratigraphical association with fusulinids, bryozoans, ammonoids, conodonts. These facts permit tracing of global correlational levels of some Permian sequences within the different paleobiogeographical realms: for example, the Monodiexodina sutschanica- Metadoliolina dutkevichi fusulinid zone of the Wordian age and Parafusulina stricta fusulinid zone of the Capitanian age. The Late Permian fauna of the Primorye is mainly Tethyan in origin and provides correlation with similar aged sequences from South China.

  7. Terrestrial Permian - Triassic boundary sections in South China (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Vajda, Vivi


    The Permian-Triassic boundary interval in China comprises a significant record of faunal and floral changes during this important extinction event. Here we discuss the details of palynomorph preservation at the classical Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan sections in an effort to expand the stratigraphy and paleontology from these earlier studies.

  8. Oceanic Anoxia and the End Permian Mass Extinction (United States)

    Wignall; Twitchett


    Data on rocks from Spitsbergen and the equatorial sections of Italy and Slovenia indicate that the world's oceans became anoxic at both low and high paleolatitudes in the Late Permian. Such conditions may have been responsible for the mass extinction at this time. This event affected a wide range of shelf depths and extended into shallow water well above the storm wave base.

  9. Extinction pattern of reef ecosystems in latest Permian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YaSheng; FAN JiaSong; JIANG HongXia; YANG Wan


    Studies of two Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections on top of a Changhsingian reef in Ziyun, Guizhou Province, southwestern China indicate that the end-Permian mass extinction of reef ecosystems occurred in two steps. The first step is the extinction of all stenotropic organisms such as calcisponges and fusulinids in the latest Permian (in the Clarkina yini conodont zone). The biota after the first extinction is simple, comprising eurytropic organisms including microgastropods, ostracods, and some small burrowing organisms, or only algal mats. At the beginning of the Early Triassic (I.e. the beginning of the Hindeodus parvus zone), the environments became anoxic, and the microgastropod dominated biota or algal mats disappeared, which constituted the second episode of the mass extinction. The biota after the second extinction comprises small spherical microproblematica, some kinds of specialized organisms tolerant of anoxic or oxygen-poor conditions. As the environments became oxygenated, the specialized biota was replaced by a microgastropod-dominated simple biota. When the environmental conditions improved further, the simple biota was replaced by a diverse biota with normal-sized ammonoids, bivalves, and gastropods, representing restoration of normal oceanic conditions. Comparison with PTB sections in Dolomites, Italy and Meishan, Zhejiang Province shows that non-reef ecosystems had a similar first episode of mass extinction in the latest Permian. In the case that oceanic anoxia happened, non-reef ecosystems had a second extinction episode similar to that of reef ecosystems.

  10. Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Jiao, Dan; Engel, Michael H.; Looy, Cindy V.; Visscher, Henk


    Excessive acid rainfall associated with emplacement of the Siberian Traps magmatic province is increasingly accepted as a major contributing factor to the end-Permian biosphere crisis. However, direct proxy evidence of terrestrial acidification is so far not available. In this paper, we seek to dete

  11. Lipid Biomarker Records Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary from Kap Stosch, Greenland (United States)

    Hays, L. E.; Love, G. D.; Foster, C. B.; Grice, K.; Summons, R. E.


    The end-Permian extinction was the most severe in the past 500 million years of the Earth's history and evidence that an oceanic anoxic event (OAE) occurred contemporaneously has been presented previously [1,2]. OAEs have, therefore, been proposed as responsible for the mass mortality, and if the anoxic ocean was also euxinic, the release of hydrogen sulfide during upwelling and/or transgression provides an extinction agent in the ocean as well as on land. Chlorobiaceae, as indicators of photic zone euxinia (PZE), utilize hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The detection of isorenieratane and a series of short-chain monoaromatic aryl isoprenoids, biomarkers for Chlorobiaceae, in sediments indicates the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the photic zone of the water column during sediment deposition. The Kap Stosch area in Eastern Greenland was identified as a Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) outcrop of homogeneous shale, silty shale, and siltstone facies [3]. Another late Permian section in Eastern Greenland, the Ravnefjeld Formation, has framboidal pyrites indicative of sulfidic deep water [4]. A sample suite from the Kap Stosch region was studied using standard organic geochemistry methods including stable isotopic analyses of organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and biomarker hydrocarbon analysis. Aryl isoprenoids, including isorenieratane, were present in all samples studied and the concentrations were observed to fluctuate in tandem with TOC, similar to other Mesozoic OAEs. The molecular ratios of pristane/phytane and hopanes/steranes as well as the 2-methyl-hopane index (2-MHI) fluctuated dramatically through this section as they do at the type section at Meishan and in the Perth Basin [5]. The 2-MHI shows an inverse pattern to the total aryl isoprenoids, perhaps indicative of instability in the form of primary productivity in the water column during euxinic episodes. This can result in nitrogen limitation and a competitive

  12. Study on the Late Permian Claraia in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Fengqing


    [1]Nakazawa, K., On Claraia of Kashmir and Iran, J. Paleont. Soc. Idia., 1977, 20: 194-204.[2]Kulikov, M. V., Tkachuk, G. A., On finding of Claraia (Bivalvia) in Upper Permian deposits of Northern Caucasus,Doklady Akad. Nauk. USSR, 1979, 245(4): 905-908.[3]Yin. H. F.. Uppermost Permian (Changxingian) Pectinacea from South China, Riv. Ital. Paleont., 1982, 88(3): 337-386.[4]Yin. H. F.. Bivalves near the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China, J. Paleo.,1985, 59(3): 572-600.[5]Yang. Z. Y.. Yin H. F., Wu, S. B. et al., Permian-Triassic Boundary Stratigraphy and Fauna of South China (in Chinese).Geological Memoirs, Ser. 2, No. 6, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1987, 56-57, 236-237.[6]Guo. F. X.. Bivalves Fossil of Yunnan (in Chinese), Kunming: Yunnan Technology Press, 1985.[7]Fang. Z. J., Discussion on Late Permian “Claraia”, Act. Palaeo. Sini. (in Chinese),1993, 2(6):653-661.[8]Zhang. Z. M.. Discussion on the ligament structure of Claraia and its evolution, Act. Palaeo. Sini. (in Chinese), 1980,19(6): 433-443.[9]Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia Sinica, The Bivalves of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1976.[10]Zhou. Z. R.. Two ecological types of Permian Ammonoids, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. B, 1985, (7): 648-657.[11] Stanley. S. M., Relation of shell form to life habitats of the Bivalvia (Mollusca), Geol. Soc. Amer., 1970, 125: 1-496.[12]Stanley, S. M.. tunctional morphology and evolution of byssally attached bivalve mollusks, J. Paleont, 1972, 46(2): 165-207.[13]Yin, H. F.. Ding, M. H., Zhang, K. X. et al., Late Permian-Middle Triassic Ecostratigraphy of the Yangtze Platform and Its Margins, Beijing: Science Press, 1995, 69-76.[14]Leonardi, E. Trias inferiore delle Venezie, Mem. Inst. Geol. Univ. Padova., 1935, II, 1-136.[15]Ichikawa. K. Zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Triadischen Pteriidae (Lamellibranch), Palaeotog., 1958, III, A, 132-212.

  13. Microbialite of anoxic condition from Permian-Triassic transition in Guizhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Spherical microfossils are present in the Hindeodus parvus zone of the Lower Triassic in Ziyun,Guizhou Province. They generally range from 0.15 to 0.30 mm across,with micritic wall and filled by micro-sparry calcites,and are evenly scattered in micritic matrix. Their abundance makes the rock as-signed to microbialites. The accompanied organisms include ostracods and algal mat,but no gastro-pods or bivalves. Presence of small (<7 μm) pyrite framboids indicates that this bed formed in anoxic conditions. In some sections,this bed is overlain and underlain by tidal-flat micritic limestone with microgastropods and small burrows. Occurrence only in deposits on reef top indicates that the micro-bial organism was benthic,and needed sunlight in life. The size of the microbial fossil exceeds that of any bacteria or cyanobacteria. Thus,it does not belong to these two phyla. It may belong to lower green algae,and is assigned to a new species in a new genus,Ziyunosphaeridium sinensis gen. et sp. nov. Up to now,the rocks described as microbialites from the Permian-Triassic transition include six types: (1) porous micritic limestone such as that descried from Japan by Sano and Nakashima (1997),(2) limestone with rich globular microfossils such as that described from the Nanpanjiang Basin in China by Lehrmann (1999),(3) dendroidal limestone such as that described from the vicinity of Chongqing by Kershaw et al. (1999),(4) spherical microbial limestone adapted to anoxic environments described from Ziyun,Guizhou reported in this paper,(5) limestone with cyanobacterial fossils such as that described by Wang et al. (2005),and (6) stromatolites. All these microbialites are not reefs in the proper sense,and the argument that Permian reef ecosystems extended into the Mesozoic is incorrect.

  14. Microbialite of anoxic condition from Permian-Triassic transition in Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YaSheng; JIANG HongXia; YANG Wan; FAN JiaSong


    Spherical microfossils are present in the Hindeodus parvus zone of the Lower Triassic in Ziyun, Guizhou Province. They generally range from 0.15 to 0.30 mm across, with micritic wall and filled by micro-sparry calcites, and are evenly scattered in micritic matrix. Their abundance makes the rock assigned to microbialites. The accompanied organisms include ostracods and algal mat, but no gastropods or bivalves. Presence of small (<7 μm) pyrite framboids indicates that this bed formed in anoxic conditions. In some sections, this bed is overlain and underlain by tidal-flat micritic limestone with microgastropods and small burrows. Occurrence only in deposits on reef top indicates that the microbial organism was benthic, and needed sunlight in life. The size of the microbial fossil exceeds that of any bacteria or cyanobacteria. Thus, it does not belong to these two phyla. It may belong to lower green algae, and is assigned to a new species in a new genus, Ziyunosphaeridium sinensis gen. et sp. nov. Up to now, the rocks described as microbialites from the Permian-Triassic transition include six types: (1) porous micritic limestone such as that descried from Japan by Sano and Nakashima (1997), (2) limestone with rich globular microfossils such as that described from the Nanpanjiang Basin in China by Lehrmann (1999), (3) dendroidal limestone such as that described from the vicinity of Chongqing by Kershaw et al. (1999), (4) spherical microbial limestone adapted to anoxic environments described from Ziyun, Guizhou reported in this paper, (5) limestone with cyanobacterial fossils such as that described by Wang et al. (2005), and (6) stromatolites. All these microbialites are not reefs in the proper sense, and the argument that Permian reef ecosystems extended into the Mesozoic is incorrect.

  15. Depositional environment and organic geochemistry of the Upper Permian Ravenfjeld Formation source rock in East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, F.G.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L. (Geologoical Survey of Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Telnaes, N. (Norsk Hydro Research Center, Bergen (Norway))


    The Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland is composed of shales that laterally pass into carbonate buildups and platforms of the Wegener Halvo Formation. The Ravnefjeld Formation is subdivided into five units that can be traced throughout the Upper Permian depositional basin. Two of the units are laminated and organic rich and were deposited under anoxic conditions. They are considered good to excellent source rocks for liquid hydrocarbons with initial average TOC (total organic carbon) values between 4 and 5% and HI (hydrogen index) between 300 and 400. The cumulative source rocks are separated and enclosed by three units of bioturbated siltstone with a TOC of less than 0.5% and an HI of less than 100. These siltstones were deposited under relatively oxic conditions. The organic geochemistry of the source rocks is typical for marine source rocks with some features normally associated with carbonate/evaporite environments [low Pr/Ph (pristane/phytane), low CPI (carbon preference index), distribution of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes]. The establishment of anoxic conditions and subsequent source rock deposition was controlled by eustatic sea level changes. The subenvironment (paleogeographic setting, influx of carbonate material, water depth, salinity) has some influence on a number of bulk parameters [TOC-HI relations, TOC-TS (total sulfur) relations] and, in particular, biomarker parameters such as Pr/Ph and terpane ratios. All the basal shales or shales in the vicinity of carbonate buildups of platforms are characterized by low Pr/Ph, high C[sub 23] tricyclic terpanes, and high C[sub 35] and C[sub 33] hopanes. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neerja Jha; M Basava Chary; Neha Aggarwal


    The entire 606 m-thick sedimentary sequence in borecore MCP-7 from Chintalapudi area, Chintalapudi sub-basin has been lithologically designated as Kamthi Formation. However, the palynological investigation revealed five distinct palynoassemblages, which essentially fall under two groups, one group (Palynoassemblage-I, II and III) having dominance of striate disaccates along with presence of some stratigraphically significant taxa, belongs to Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora, while the other group (Palynoassemblages IV and V) shows sharp decline in percentage of characteristic taxa of first group, i.e., striate disaccates, and consequent rise or dominance of taeniate and cingulate cavate spores, belongs to Early Triassic (Panchet) palynoflora. Palynoassemblage-I, II and III (Group I) are characterized by dominance of striate disaccates chiefly, Striatopodocarpites spp. and Faunipollenites spp. Along with presence of rare but stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Gondisporites raniganjensis, Falcisporites nuthaliensis, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Chordasporites sp., Striomonosaccites, ovatus, Crescentipollenites multistriatus, Verticipollenites debiles, Strotersporites crassiletus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, G. gondwanensis, Hamiapollenites insolitus, Corisaccites alutus, Lunatisporites ovatus, Weylandites spp. and Vitreisporites pallidus. Palynoassemblage-I is distinguished by significant presence of Densipollenites spp. while Palynoassemblage-II shows significant presence of Crescentipollenites spp. and Palynoassemblage-III differs from the above two assemblages in having significant presence of Guttulapollenites hannonicus. Palynoassemblage-IV (Group II) is characterized by high percentage of taeniate disaccates chiefly Lunatisporites spp., while Palynoassemblage-V (Group II) is characterized by cingulate-cavate trilete spores chiefly, Lundbladispora spp. and Densoisporites spp. Striate disaccates show a sharp decline in these two assemblages. In

  17. Bringing dicynodonts back to life: paleobiology and anatomy of a new emydopoid genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique. (United States)

    Castanhinha, Rui; Araújo, Ricardo; Júnior, Luís C; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Martins, Gabriel G; Martins, Rui M S; Chaouiya, Claudine; Beckmann, Felix; Wilde, Fabian


    Dicynodontia represent the most diverse tetrapod group during the Late Permian. They survived the Permo-Triassic extinction and are central to understanding Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. Although extensively studied, several aspects of dicynodont paleobiology such as, neuroanatomy, inner ear morphology and internal cranial anatomy remain obscure. Here we describe a new dicynodont (Therapsida, Anomodontia) from northern Mozambique: Niassodon mfumukasi gen. et sp. nov. The holotype ML1620 was collected from the Late Permian K5 formation, Metangula Graben, Niassa Province northern Mozambique, an almost completely unexplored basin and country for vertebrate paleontology. Synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography (SRµCT), combined with a phylogenetic analysis, demonstrates a set of characters shared with Emydopoidea. All individual bones were digitally segmented allowing a 3D visualization of each element. In addition, we reconstructed the osseous labyrinth, endocast, cranial nerves and vasculature. The brain is narrow and the cerebellum is broader than the forebrain, resembling the conservative, "reptilian-grade" morphology of other non-mammalian therapsids, but the enlarged paraflocculi occupy the same relative volume as in birds. The orientation of the horizontal semicircular canals indicates a slightly more dorsally tilted head posture than previously assumed in other dicynodonts. In addition, synchrotron data shows a secondary center of ossification in the femur. Thus ML1620 represents, to our knowledge, the oldest fossil evidence of a secondary center of ossification, pushing back the evolutionary origins of this feature. The fact that the specimen represents a new species indicates that the Late Permian tetrapod fauna of east Africa is still incompletely known.

  18. Bringing dicynodonts back to life: paleobiology and anatomy of a new emydopoid genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Castanhinha

    Full Text Available Dicynodontia represent the most diverse tetrapod group during the Late Permian. They survived the Permo-Triassic extinction and are central to understanding Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. Although extensively studied, several aspects of dicynodont paleobiology such as, neuroanatomy, inner ear morphology and internal cranial anatomy remain obscure. Here we describe a new dicynodont (Therapsida, Anomodontia from northern Mozambique: Niassodon mfumukasi gen. et sp. nov. The holotype ML1620 was collected from the Late Permian K5 formation, Metangula Graben, Niassa Province northern Mozambique, an almost completely unexplored basin and country for vertebrate paleontology. Synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography (SRµCT, combined with a phylogenetic analysis, demonstrates a set of characters shared with Emydopoidea. All individual bones were digitally segmented allowing a 3D visualization of each element. In addition, we reconstructed the osseous labyrinth, endocast, cranial nerves and vasculature. The brain is narrow and the cerebellum is broader than the forebrain, resembling the conservative, "reptilian-grade" morphology of other non-mammalian therapsids, but the enlarged paraflocculi occupy the same relative volume as in birds. The orientation of the horizontal semicircular canals indicates a slightly more dorsally tilted head posture than previously assumed in other dicynodonts. In addition, synchrotron data shows a secondary center of ossification in the femur. Thus ML1620 represents, to our knowledge, the oldest fossil evidence of a secondary center of ossification, pushing back the evolutionary origins of this feature. The fact that the specimen represents a new species indicates that the Late Permian tetrapod fauna of east Africa is still incompletely known.

  19. Astronomical tuning of the end-Permian extinction and the Early Triassic Epoch of South China and Germany (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Ogg, James; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chunju; Hinnov, Linda; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zou, Zhuoyan


    The timing of the end-Permian mass extinction and subsequent prolonged recovery during the Early Triassic Epoch can be established from astronomically controlled climate cycles recorded in continuous marine sedimentary sections. Astronomical-cycle tuning of spectral gamma-ray logs from biostratigraphically-constrained cyclic stratigraphy through marine sections at Meishan, Chaohu, Daxiakou and Guandao in South China yields an integrated time scale for the Early Triassic, which is consistent with scaling of magnetostratigraphy from climatic cycles in continental deposits of the Germanic Basin. The main marine mass extinction interval at Meishan is constrained to less than 40% of a 100-kyr (kilo-year) cycle (i.e., Permian extinction. The durations of the Griesbachian, Dienerian, Smithian and Spathian substages, including the uncertainty in placement of widely used conodont biostratigraphic datums for their boundaries, are 1.4 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.1, 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 myr, implying a total span for the Early Triassic of 5.1 ± 0.1 myr. Therefore, relative to an assigned 251.902 ± 0.024 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary from the Meishan GSSP, the ages for these substage boundaries are 250.5 ± 0.1 Ma for base Dienerian, 249.9 ± 0.1 Ma for base Smithian (base of Olenekian stage), 248.2 ± 0.1 Ma for base Spathian, and 246.8 ± 0.1 Ma for the base of the Anisian Stage. This astronomical-calibrated timescale provides rates for the recurrent carbon isotope excursions and for trends in sedimentation accumulation through the Early Triassic of studied sections in South China.

  20. Analogy in CLAM


    Melis, Erica


    CL A M is a proof planner, developed by the Dream group in Edinburgh,that mainly operates for inductive proofs. This paper addresses the questionhow an analogy model that I developed independently of CL A M can beapplied to CL A M and it presents analogy-driven proof plan construction as acontrol strategy of CL A M . This strategy is realized as a derivational analogythat includes the reformulation of proof plans. The analogical replay checkswhether the reformulated justifications of the sour...

  1. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob


    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  2. Analogies of Information Security


    Sole, Amund Bauck


    In this thesis it will be tested wither analogies and metaphors would make it easier to teach the fundamental subjects of information security and hacking to people with no previous background in computer science and only basic computer skills. This will be done by conducting interview on people with no background in computer science to see what analogies work the best for different topics in information security. From the analogy getting the best response, a small game will be designed with ...

  3. Tectonic evolution of Tethyan tectonic field, formation of Northern Margin basin and explorative perspective of natural gas in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Analyzing the characteristics of the Tethyan tectonic field, the authors think that the Tethyan tectonic field underwent three evolutional stages: closing of Paleo-Tethys and rifting of Neo-Tethys from early Permian to late Triassic, subduction of Neo-Tethys and collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasia plate from Jurassic to early of low Tertiary, and collision between the Arab plate and the Eurasia plate and the A-type subduction of Indian plate from late of low Tertiary to the present. Combining the evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt with the characteristics of the Northern Margin basin, it is suggested that the sedimentary and tectonic characteristics and types of the Northern Mar-gin basin are controlled by the formation and evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt and the ingression of Tethys. The evolution of Northern Margin basin can be divided into three development stages: back-arc foreland basin from late Permian to Triassic, the back-arc fault subsidence and depression from Jurassic to the early of low Tertiary, and the reactive foreland basin from the late of low Tertiary to the present. The Northern Margin basin in the Tethyan tectonic field is an important region for natural gas accumulation, and the Tarim Basin is a part of this region.

  4. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)


    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  5. Permian basalts and trachytes from Esterel (SE France): a transitional tholeiitic suite emplaced during lithosphere thinning; Basaltes et trachytes permiens de l`Esterel (SE France): une serie tholeiitique transitionnelle epanchee pendant l`amincissement lithospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, H.; Basile, Ch. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 - Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Geodynamique des Chaines Alpines, CNRS UPRES-A5025; Dupuis, V. [Institut de Geodynamique, UMR Geosciences Azur, 06 - Valbonne (France)


    Geochemical (major, trace and rare earth elements) and isotopic ({sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd) compositions of lavas emplaced in the Esterel Massif (eastern Provence, France) at the end of the Permian allow to estimate the evolution of the continental lithosphere between the end of the Hercynian orogenesis and the beginning of the Tethyan rifting. Basalts from Agay basin and trachyte from Batterie des Lions belong to a transitional tholeiitic suite, characterized by negative Nb and Ta anomalies (relative to N-MORB) and homogeneous {epsilon}Nd{sub (T=250Ma)} ratios, close to the Bulk Earth. This suggests that the basalts from Agay basin and trachyte from Batterie des Lions derived from the partial melting of a mantle contaminated by lower continental crust. Maure Vieille trachytes differ from the differentiated rocks of the transitional suite by higher heavy rare earth abundances and {epsilon}Nd{sub (T=250Ma)} of +4/+5. These high {xi}Nd ratios suggest that the Maure Vieille trachytes could derive from the partial melting of a more depleted source, likely an asthenospheric mantle. The isotopic compositions of the Permian lavas from Esterel suggest the thinning (and perhaps the disappearance) of the lithospheric mantle which is associated at the surface with a NNW-SSE extension. The progressive change recorded in Agay basin from a stretching regime to a strike-slip regime may be related to the end of the lithospheric thinning and of the Permian magmatism. (authors) 37 refs.

  6. Frequencies of solar activity in laminated anhydrite of Upper Permian age (Zechstein-cycle 2) (United States)

    Hiete, M.; Berner, U.


    Upper Permian Zechstein contains seven evaporitic cycles that were deposited in an epicontinental sea expanding from E-England to Poland. Zechstein-cycles 1 to 3 show a sequence of marine pelite, overlain by marine carbonate and evaporites (in the order sulfate, halite containing possibly anhydrite and potassium salts, and regressive sulphate at the top). Whereas the marginal facies of the lower sulphate horizon of Zechstein-cycle 2 (Stassfurt cycle) consists of massive anhydrite, its basin facies shows in the lower part a fine lamination of white anhydrite alternating with thin black organic carbon rich layers. These laminations are supposed to be annually deposited layers. The black laminae originate from the annual bloom of algae. Layer thickness is about 0.4 to 1.0 mm and increases from basin centre to more marginal positions. The individual layers can be traced over 300 km within the NW-German Basin. The previously described variability of layer thickness requires a forcing mechanism that is effective over long distances and must be also highly periodic. Also, varying layer thicknesses indicate varying anhydrite precipitation, i. e. probably changes in water temperatures which in turn point to climatic influences on the deposition of the layers. Here we re-examined records of cycle thickness (up to 700 laminae) determined by G. Richter-Bernburg in the 1950ties using modern techniques of time series analysis, e. g. wavelet analysis. We could detect cycles with periods of 10-14 years and 90 years which are close to known cycles of solar activity.

  7. Characteristics of Late Permian Deep-Water Sedimentary Environments: A Case Study of Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yongqun; Yang Fengqing; Peng Yuanqiao


    Sediments of carbonate gravity flows and terrigenous debris turbidites, and normal bathyal deposits were found at the Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Through grain-size analysis of some typical sediments at this section, the changing patterns of the grain parameters and the grain-size cumulations were recovered. Results show that the study area was deposited under turbidite control during the Late Permian period, which we also recognized at the outcrop section upon sedimentary characteristics of the sediments. In addition, fossils are abundant in the Upper Permian of the Shaiwa Section, including radiolarians, sponge-spicules, bivalves, brachiopods, ammonoids and trace fossils. Radiolarians and siliceous sponge-spicules are typical deep water assemblages. Bivalves are dominated by genera of Hunanopecten and Claraia, both showing deep water living characteristics. Ammonoids are composed of planktonic types, showing characteristics of smooth and flat shells. Brachiopods are dominated by a small and thin shelled assemblage, which are commonly flat in shape and usually of slight ornamentations on shells. In addition, trace fossils found at the Shaiwa Section are also common types of deep water facies. Thus, the fossil evidence of the Shaiwa Section also suggests a deep water environment, possibly from the bathyal slope to the basin margin facies, of the studied area during the Late Permian period.

  8. The Triassic dicynodont Kombuisia (Synapsida, Anomodontia) from Antarctica, a refuge from the terrestrial Permian-Triassic mass extinction. (United States)

    Fröbisch, Jörg; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Sidor, Christian A


    Fossils from the central Transantarctic Mountains in Antarctica are referred to a new species of the Triassic genus Kombuisia, one of four dicynodont lineages known to survive the end-Permian mass extinction. The specimens show a unique combination of characters only present in this genus, but the new species can be distinguished from the type species of the genus, Kombuisia frerensis, by the presence of a reduced but slit-like pineal foramen and the lack of contact between the postorbitals. Although incomplete, the Antarctic specimens are significant because Kombuisia was previously known only from the South African Karoo Basin and the new specimens extend the taxon's biogeographic range to a wider portion of southern Pangaea. In addition, the new finds extend the known stratigraphic range of Kombuisia from the Middle Triassic subzone B of the Cynognathus Assemblage Zone into rocks that are equivalent in age to the Lower Triassic Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone, shortening the proposed ghost lineage of this taxon. Most importantly, the occurrence of Kombuisia and Lystrosaurus mccaigi in the Lower Triassic of Antarctica suggests that this area served as a refuge from some of the effects of the end-Permian extinction. The composition of the lower Fremouw Formation fauna implies a community structure similar to that of the ecologically anomalous Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone of South Africa, providing additional evidence for widespread ecological disturbance in the extinction's aftermath.

  9. Depositional Environments of the Upper Permian Quartzose Sandstone (Shandong Province, North China):Insight from Trace Element Geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei L; Zengxue Li; Jitao Chen; Ying Liu; Zengqi Zhang; Jipo Liang; Haiyan Liu


    The depositional environment of the Upper Permian quartzose sandstone (Kuishan sand-stone in Shihezi Formation of Upper Permian) in the North China epicontinental basin is controversial. In order to test the previous hypotheses, we analyzed sedimentological characteristics of the Kuishan sandstones in outcrops and boreholes, and carried out trace element geochemical analysis by electron probe microanalyzer. Three lithofacies were recognized, including normal-graded conglomerate (Cng), trough and planar cross-bedded coarse sandstone (CStpc), and planar cross-bedded medium sandstone (MSpc). Normal-graded conglomerate (Cng) formed in the meandering river or deltaic distributary channels. Trough and planar cross-bedded coarse sandstone (CStpc) formed in meandering river or distributary channels of near-source deltaic plain. Planar cross-bedded medium sandstone (MSpc) formed in the siliciclastic beach with high-to moderate-energy conditions. By the petrology and trace elements analysis, three relatively large-scale transgressions were revealed. Each transgression was re-flected by the lower content of Ba and ratios of Fe/Mn, and the high content of B and ratios of B/Ga. The ratios of Ni/Co of all samples are all lower than 2, suggesting oxygen-enriched shallower water en-vironment during deposition of the Kuishan sandstones.

  10. Challenges in Using Analogies (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha


    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  11. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa


    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  12. Magnetostratigraphic correlations of Permian-Triassic marine-to-terrestrial sections from China (United States)

    Glen, J.M.G.; Nomade, S.; Lyons, J.J.; Metcalfe, I.; Mundil, R.; Renne, P.R.


    We have studied three Permian-Triassic (PT) localities from China as part of a combined magnetostratigraphic, 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb radioisotopic, and biostratigraphic study aimed at resolving the temporal relations between terrestrial and marine records across the Permo-Triassic boundary, as well as the rate of the biotic recovery in the Early Triassic. The studied sections from Shangsi (Sichuan Province), Langdai (Guihzou Province), and the Junggar basin (Xinjiang Province), span marine, paralic, and terrestrial PT environments, respectively. Each of these sections was logged in detail in order to place geochronologic, paleomagnetic, geochemical, conodont and palynologic samples within a common stratigraphic context. Here we present rock-magnetic, paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic results from the three localities. At Shangsi, northern Sichuan Province, we sampled three sections spanning Permo-Triassic marine carbonates. Magnetostratigraphic results from the three sections indicate that the composite section contains at least eight polarity chrons and that the PT boundary occurs within a normal polarity chron a short distance above the mass extinction level and a reversed-to-normal (R-N) polarity reversal. Furthermore, the onset of the Illawarra mixed interval lies below the sampled section indicating that the uppermost Permian Changhsingian and at least part of the Wuchiapingian stages postdate the end of the Kiaman Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. At Langdai, Guizhou Province, we studied magnetostratigraphy of PT paralic mudstone and carbonate sediments in two sections. The composite section spans an R-N polarity sequence. Section-mean directions pass a fold test at the 95% confidence level, and the section-mean poles are close to the mean PT pole for the South China block. Based on biostratigraphic constraints, the R-N transition recorded at Langdai is consistent with that at Shangsi and demonstrates that the PT boundary occurred within a normal

  13. Insect mimicry of plants dates back to the Permian (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Hugel, Sylvain; Jacquelin, Lauriane; Rostan, Pierre; Steyer, J.-Sébastien; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Nel, André


    In response to predation pressure, some insects have developed spectacular plant mimicry strategies (homomorphy), involving important changes in their morphology. The fossil record of plant mimicry provides clues to the importance of predation pressure in the deep past. Surprisingly, to date, the oldest confirmed records of insect leaf mimicry are Mesozoic. Here we document a crucial step in the story of adaptive responses to predation by describing a leaf-mimicking katydid from the Middle Permian. Our morphometric analysis demonstrates that leaf-mimicking wings of katydids can be morphologically characterized in a non-arbitrary manner and shows that the new genus and species Permotettigonia gallica developed a mimicking pattern of forewings very similar to those of the modern leaf-like katydids. Our finding suggests that predation pressure was already high enough during the Permian to favour investment in leaf mimicry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the Permian Wolfcampian and Leonardian Series of West Texas, sequence evolution and sequence extinction record the appearance and disappearance of morphological species in stratigraphic successions that show repeated sea level fluctuations and associated depositional hiatuses. The lower Wolfcampian Nealian Stage includes 16 relatively short term sea-level fluctuations (fourth-order depositional sequences and contains a diverse fusulinid fauna of more than 39 species and eight genera.  Most Nealian species range through three or four fourth-order cycles before becoming extinct and none extends into the overlying upper Wolfcampian Lenoxian Stage.  The succeeding Lenox Hills Formation overlies a tectonic unconformity (and hiatus and includes three third-order depositional sequences.  Four Lenoxian species are restricted to the lower sequence, 16 to the middle sequence, and six to the upper sequence. In the Leonardian Series, at the base, the Hessian Stage includes seven third-order depositional sequences and numerous minor fourth-order and smaller parasequences.  Hessian carbonate platform facies have low fusulinid species diversity and high abundances.  The lower four Hessian lowstand clastic wedges of the shelf margin and basin include at least six species of schwagerinids.  The three upper wedges include only three species of Parafusulina. The Cathedralian (upper Stage has one main third-order depositional sequence, and perhaps a second, which is mostly missing on the platform below the Mid-Permian unconformity below the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series. Suggested correlations of the Wolfcampian and Leonardian with the Tethyan succession in Darvas and the Pamirs of Middle Asia place the Nealian as equivalent to the Asselian and Sakmarian. The Lenoxian is probably equivalent to the lower and middle parts of the Yakhtashian.  The Hessian is equivalent to the upper part of the Yakhtashian and the Bolorian. The Cathedralian seems to be

  15. Upper Cisuralian palynology and palaeoclimate of Manuguru area Godavari basin, and their global correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pauline Sabina K; Neerja Jha


    The Permian system of the Palaeozoic Erathem is divided into three series, the Early Permian Cisuralian Series, the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, and the Late Permian Lopingian Series. The Cisuralian Series encompasses the Asselian to Kungurian stages which constitute the basal part of the Gondwana supersequence I. In India, they are represented lithostratigraphically by the Talchir, Karharbari, and Barakar formations. This paper presents the palynological results from the Barakar Formation of the Upper Cisuralian Series from Manuguru which lies in the southeastern part of the Godavari basin. The succession studied comprises 35 subsurface samples from bore hole 1007 represented by clay, shale, sandstone, and coal. The palynofloras in this sequence have a homogenous composition demonstrating that not many significant floral changes took place through the considered stratigraphic range. The entire sequence is characterized by the dominance of nonstriate bisaccate genus Scheuringipollenites and subdominance of striate bisaccate genus Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus). The other pollen genera among the nonstriate bisaccates are Rhizomaspora, Primuspollenites, Ibisporites, and Platysaccus. The striate bisaccates include Striatites, Striatopodocarpites, and Stroterosporites. The taeniate taxa are represented by Lueckisporites and Lunatisporites. The common monosaccate genera include Caheniasaccites, Potoniesporites, and Barakarites. Spores are less common and include Latosporites, Brevitriletes, Horriditriletes, Microbaculispora, and Callumispora. They characterize the palynofloral composition of the Lower Barakar Formation. The correlation of this assemblage with some of the biostratigraphic palynozones proposed previously for the Cisuralian sequences of the Paraná Basin of South America, Kalahari Karoo Basin of South Africa, Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania, East Africa as well as palynoassemblages from South Victoria Land and Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and Collie

  16. Petrogenesis of the flood basalts from the Early Permian Panjal Traps, Kashmir, India: Geochemical evidence for shallow melting of the mantle (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Bhat, Ghulam M.; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Brookfield, Michael E.; Jahn, Bor-Ming; Dostal, Jaroslav


    The Early Permian Panjal Traps of northern India represent a significant eruption of volcanic rocks which occurred during the opening of the Neotethys Ocean. Basaltic, basaltic-andesites, dacitic and rhyolitic rocks collected from Guryal Ravine and Pahalgam show evidence for subaerial and subaqueous eruptions indicating that they are contemporaneous with the formation of a shallow marine basin. The major and trace element geochemistry of the basalts is consistent with a within-plate setting and there are basalts which have high-Ti (TiO2 > 2.0 wt.%) and low-Ti (TiO2 < 1.8 wt.%) compositions. The ‘high-Ti’ basalts are similar to OIB whereas the ‘low-Ti’ basalts are similar to continental tholeiites. The identification of ‘high- and low-Ti’ basalts within the Panjal Traps is analogous to other large igneous provinces (e.g. Karoo, Deccan, Parana, Emeishan). The Sr-Nd isotopic values (εNd(T) = - 5.3 to + 1.3; ISr = 0.70432 to 0.71168) of both types of basalts overlap indicating that the rocks may have originated from the same ancient subcontinental lithospheric (i.e. EMII-like) mantle source (TDM = ~ 2000 Ma). The two groups of basalts can be modeled by using a primitive mantle source and different degrees of partial melting where the high-Ti rocks are produced by ~ 1% partial melting of a spinel peridotite source whereas the low-Ti rocks are produced by ~ 8% partial melting. Trace elemental and isotope modeling indicates that some of the basalts assimilated ≤ 10% crustal material. In contrast, the basaltic-andesites are likely formed by mixing between basaltic magmas and crustal melts which produced rocks with higher SiO2 (~ 55 wt.%) content and enriched isotopic signatures (εNd(T) = - 6.1; ISr = 0.70992). The Panjal Trap volcanism was likely due to partial melting of the SCLM within a passive extensional setting related to the rifting of Cimmeria from Gondwana. Contemporaneous volcanic and plutonic granitic rocks throughout the Himalaya are probably

  17. The Permian-Triassic boundary & mass extinction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian Metcalfe; Lance Black; Qu Xun; Mao Xiaodong; Robert S. Nicoll; Roland Mundil; Clinton Foster; Jonathan Glen; John Lyons; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Cheng-yuan; Paul R. Renne


    @@ The first appearance of Hindeodus parvus (Kozur & Pjatakova) at the Permian-Triassic (P-T) GSSP level (base of Bed 27c) at Meishan is here confirmed. Hindeodus changxingensis Wang occurs from Beds 26 to 29 at Meishan and appears to be restricted to the narrow boundary interval immediately above the main mass extinction level in Bed 25. It is suggested that this species is therefore a valuable P-T boundary interval index taxon.

  18. A statistical test on diversity changes of Early and Middle Permian fusulinacean fauna in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yukun; YANG Xiangning


    The rarefaction analysis has been conducted to test the species diversity changes of the Early and Middle Permian fusulinacean fauna in South China. The results reveal that the number of species dramatically increased since the earliest Permian and quickly reached the maximum value in the early Zisongian representing the highest species diversity for the whole Early and Middle Permian. The species diversity stabilized in the plateau through the Zisongian;however, it started to decline in the following Longlinian and sustained a longstanding low level during the mid-Early Permian. With the appearance of new fusulinacean taxa with septulum structures, the number of species raised again in the late-Early Permian, followed by a decline in the Middle Permian Neoschwagerina simplex zone. Although the species diversity increased apparently in the Kuhfengian, it never rebounded back to the same level as in the Early Permian.In the mid-Middle Permian, species diversity began to decrease continuously and led to the disappearance of most fusulinacean species by the end of the Middle Permian.

  19. Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India. (United States)

    Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja


    The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale.

  20. Hot acidic Late Permian seas stifle life in record time (United States)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Bingen, Bernard; Weiss, Hermann M.; Piasecki, Stefan


    The end of Permian time (252-251 Ma) hosts the largest mass extinction in Earth history, yet events heralding this global catastrophe remain intensely disputed. We present a chemostratigraphic marker, the 187Re/ 188Os ratio, which soars to unprecedented levels approaching the Permo-Triassic boundary. These ratios are tied to profound trace element changes and a precise Re-Os time record at 252 Ma preserved in black shales from East Greenland and the mid-Norwegian shelf. Within a 36-meter shale section, an 80-fold increase in Re concentrations (two-fold for Os) signals seawater conditions that became increasingly inhospitable to life. Unwavering initial 187Os/ 188Os ratios of 0.6 preclude mafic volcanism and meteorite impact as the direct cause of Late Permian anoxia. We argue that extraordinarily high 187Re/ 188Os ratios are the hallmark of simultaneously rising ocean temperature and acidity, leading to loss of oxygen and the stifling of life in latest Permian time.

  1. Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea (United States)

    Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason


    Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

  2. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A


    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  3. Densification Modes of Sandstone Reservoir in the 8th Member of the Lower Shihezi Formation,Permian,in Su-6 Area of Sulige Gas Field,Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯盆地苏里格气田苏6区块二叠系下石盒子组8段砂岩储层致密成因模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕明威; 刘金; 陈世悦; 周兆华; 郑国强; 张满郎; 高立祥; 钱爱华; 谷江锐; 石石


    Densification modes of tight sandstone reservoir of the 8th Member of Lower Shihezi Formation, Permian,in Su -6 Area of the Sulige Gas Field,Ordos Basin,are quantitatively analysised by means of slice identification,scan electron microscope,electron probe micro -analysis and energy spectrum,homogenization temperatures and raman microprobe research of fluid inclusions.The results are as follows:(1 )Densification process can be divided into the following stages,compaction during early diagenesis and the 1st stage siliceous cementation→—the 2nd stage siliceous cementat ion and grain -coating chlorite→—the 1st stage dissolution (hydrocarbon charge →—) compaction during late diagenesis and the 3rd stage siliceous cementation (densification of reservoir )→—the 2nd stage dissolution and the 4th stage sil iceous cementation→—cementation and replacement of chlorite→—cementation and replacement of carbonate.(2)Densification modes of reservoir can be divided into three types:densification of medium -coarse grained litharenite by strong compaction;densification of medium -coarse grained lithic quartzarenite by strong siliceous cementation and medium to strong compaction;densification of fine grained (feldspathic ) litharenite by strong compaction and medium to strong siliceous cementation.(3)The main reasons for densification of reservoir are compaction and siliceous cementation.And the 2nd stage dissolution under enclosed environment has less ascension of porosity,which is another important reason for densification.(4)The two types of medium -coarse grained sandstones are densification after hydrocarbon charge,which experience injection of organic acid and make dissolved pore to be the major storage space.Fine grained (feldspathic)litharenite is densification before hydrocarbon charge,which experience weak dissolution. (5)Difference of densification modes lead to the porosity,permeability ,correlation of permeability and porosity of medium -coarse

  4. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony (United States)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine


    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  5. TV Analog Station Transmitters (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  6. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P


    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  7. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin


    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  8. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)


    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  9. Synthesis of Paclitaxel Analogs


    Xu, Zhibing


    Paclitaxel is one of the most successful anti-cancer drugs, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For the investigation of the interaction between paclitaxel and MD-2 protein, and development of new antagonists for lipopolysaccharide, several C10 A-nor-paclitaxel analogs have been synthesized and their biological activities have been evaluated. In order to reduce the myelosuppression effect of the paclitaxel, several C3â ² and C4 paclitaxel analogs have been synth...

  10. FGF growth factor analogs (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD


    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  11. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian


    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  12. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.


    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  13. Depositional setting and paleobotany of Permian and Triassic permineralized peat from the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.L.; Taylor, T.N.; Collinson, J.W. (Ohio State University, Columbus (USA). Byrd Polar Research Center)


    Silicified peat is known from two sites in the central Transantarctic Mountains. Both are within a 2-km-thick Permo-Triassic sandstone-shale sequence that was deposited by braided streams in a rapidly subsiding foreland basin along the paleo-Pacific margin of Antarctica. Upper Permian permineralized peat occurs as scattered boulders just above a channel-form sandstone in the upper part of the Buckley Formation on Skaar Ridge overlooking the Beardmore Glacier. These boulders are erosional remnants of fine-grained deposits that accumulated in shallow lakes or swamps on a flood plain. At Fremouw Peak, the peat occurs near the top of the Fremouw Formation in strata that are probably Middle to Late Triassic in age. The peat consists of large blocks that were rafted into a sandy braided stream channel during a flood and then stranded and buried as flood waters receded. Both sites are characterized by exceptionally well-preserved plant material, although the composition and diversity of the two floras are very different. Permineralization apparently took place rapidly and was enhanced by the dissolution of siliceous volcanic detritus that is abundant in both formations.

  14. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida) during the end-Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Huttenlocker, Adam K


    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  15. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren Measures from Raniganj field, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annapurna Boruah; S Ganapathi


    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of Damodar Basin were analysed to evaluate their gas generation potential using Rock–Eval pyrolysis techniques. Petrographic analysis brings out the lithofacies of Barren Measures as carbonaceous silty shale, iron rich claystone and sand-shale intercalation. The total organic content (TOC) of the shale units of Barren Measures ranges from 3.75 to 20.9 wt%, whereas hydrogen index (HI) ranges from 58.45 to 125.34 mg HC/g TOC. Present study suggests early to late maturated (0.6–1%) organic matters in Barren Measures with gas prone type III kerogen. The study analysed the effect of burial history on the preservation and maturation of organic matters. The organic richness, kerogen type, thermal maturity and petrographic properties of Barren Measures signify fair to excellent gas generation potential.

  16. Olson's Extinction and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient of tetrapods in the Permian. (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Day, Michael O; Rubidge, Bruce S; Fröbisch, Jörg


    The terrestrial vertebrate fauna underwent a substantial change in composition between the lower and middle Permian. The lower Permian fauna was characterized by diverse and abundant amphibians and pelycosaurian-grade synapsids. During the middle Permian, a therapsid-dominated fauna, containing a diverse array of parareptiles and a considerably reduced richness of amphibians, replaced this. However, it is debated whether the transition is a genuine event, accompanied by a mass extinction, or whether it is merely an artefact of the shift in sampling from the palaeoequatorial latitudes to the palaeotemperate latitudes. Here we use an up-to-date biostratigraphy and incorporate recent discoveries to thoroughly review the Permian tetrapod fossil record. We suggest that the faunal transition represents a genuine event; the lower Permian temperate faunas are more similar to lower Permian equatorial faunas than middle Permian temperate faunas. The transition was not consistent across latitudes; the turnover occurred more rapidly in Russia, but was delayed in North America. The argument that the mass extinction is an artefact of a latitudinal biodiversity gradient and a shift in sampling localities is rejected: sampling correction demonstrates an inverse latitudinal biodiversity gradient was prevalent during the Permian, with peak diversity in the temperate latitudes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The best preserved Permian-Triassic boundary beds in Turkey are found in the Hadim region of the central Taurides. The succession is exposed in one of the allochthonous units of the Tauride Belt, the Aladag Unit, whose stratigraphy includes beds ranging from the Devonian to the Cretaceous systems. In the Aladag Unit, the Permian-Triassic boundary beds are entirely composed of carbonates. The Permian portion of these beds belongs to the Paradagmarita Zone, whereas the lowermost Triassic contains the Lower Griesbachian marker Rectocornuspira kalhori. The uppermost Permian carbonates, composed of meter-scale upward shallowing subtidal cycles, are characterized by oolitic limestones of regressive character at the top and are overlain sharply by Lower Triassic stromatolites. Cyclic Upper Permian carbonates are interpreted as highstand sytems tract deposits of the last third-order sequence of the Permian System. The Permian-Triassic boundary is an unconformity corresponding to both erosional and non-depositional hiatuses. The gap at the Permian-Triassic boundary partially corresponds to the shelf-margin systems tract and partly to the transgressive systems tract of the overlying third-order sequence. Stromatolites are interpreted as transgressive systems tract deposits. Special issueInternational Conference on Paleozoic Foraminifera, Paleoforams 2001Edited by Demir Altiner (Guest Editor

  18. [Insects at the borderline between the Permian and the early triassic (Urzhum - Olenek age) and the problem of Permian-Triassic biodiversity crisis]. (United States)

    Rasnitsyn, A P; Aristov, D S; Rasnitsyn, D A


    Distribution of 115 insect families is considered in 15 local assemblages of European Russia, Siberia, Australia and South Africa. The assemblage ages embrace the Urzhum stage of the Middle Permian, the Late Permian, and the transitional Permian-Triassic interval. The assemblages are ordered statistically using two criteria. Ordination after the appearance of a fauna, that is, relation of the number of younger vs. older families, is found to be generally consistent with the stratigraphic data. The method of minimizing the gaps (ghost ranges) in distribution of the families is useful in interpreting the results. Urzhum time is characterized by the balance of emergence and extinction of families (counted as their first and latest appearances, respectively). In Severodvinsk and particularly in Vyatka time, the number of first appearances was decreasing resulted in prevailing extinction. In the transitional Permian-Triassic interval, the emergence of new families accelerated. Initially, the appearance of assemblages was typically Paleozoic (with older families prevailed). It changed gradually, so as by the end of Vyatka time it turned to be quite post-Paleozoic. Diversity was the highest in Severodvinsk time, and it halved at Vyatka time and at the transition interval. However, if we consider transitional families (those not found on a particular interval, but known before and after), the extinction rate reduces to one-third. And when normalized after the material volume, the diversity drop decreases up to a quarter. There was no mass extinction found at the end of the Permian, and the less so at the Permian-Triassic boundary and during the Lower Triassic. Structure of the Permian-Triassic diversity crisis is similar to that of the Cretaceous crisis in many respects. Since the Middle Triassic and up to now, the biodiversity kept increasing quickly and continuously. This implies that the Permian-Triassic crisis resulted in profound modification of the biosphere

  19. The Permian-Triassic boundary & mass extinction in China (United States)

    Metcalfe, I.; Nicoll, R.S.; Mundil, R.; Foster, C.; Glen, J.; Lyons, J.; Xiaofeng, W.; Cheng-Yuan, W.; Renne, P.R.; Black, L.; Xun, Q.; Xiaodong, M.


    The first appearance of Hindeodus parvus (Kozur & Pjatakova) at the Permian-Triassic (P-T) GSSP level (base of Bed 27c) at Meishan is here confirmed. Hindeodus changxingensis Wang occurs from Beds 26 to 29 at Meishan and appears to be restricted to the narrow boundary interval immediately above the main mass extinction level in Bed 25. It is suggested that this species is therefore a valuable P-T boundary interval index taxon. Our collections from the Shangsi section confirm that the first occurrence of Hindeodus parvus in that section is about 5 in above the highest level from which a typical Permian fauna is recovered. This may suggest that that some section may be missing at Meishan. The age of the currently defined Permian-Triassic Boundary is estimated by our own studies and a reassessment of previous worker's data at c. 253 Ma, slightly older than our IDTIMS 206Pb/238U age of 252.5 ??0.3 Ma for Bed 28, just 8 cm above the GSSP boundary (Mundil et al., 2001). The age of the main mass extinction, at the base of Bed 25 at Meishan, is estimated at slightly older than 254 Ma based on an age of >254 Ma for the Bed 25 ash. Regardless of the absolute age of the boundary, it is evident that the claimed <165,000 y short duration for the negative carbon isotope excursion at the P-T boundary (Bowring et al., 1998) cannot be confirmed. Purportedly extraterrestrial fullerenes at the boundary (Hecker et al., 2001) have equivocal significance due to their chronostratigraphic non-uniqueness and their occurrence in a volcanic ash.

  20. Late Early Permian continental ichnofauna from Lake Kemp, north-central Texas, USA (United States)

    Lucas, S.G.; Voigt, S.; Lerner, A.J.; Nelson, W.J.


    Continental trace fossils of Early Permian age are well known in the western United States from Wolfcampian (~. Asselian to Artinskian) strata, but few examples are known from Leonardian (~. Kungurian) deposits. A substantial ichnofauna from strata of the lower part of the Clear Fork Formation at Lake Kemp, Baylor County, Texas, augments the meager North American record of Leonardian continental trace fossil assemblages. Ichnofossils at Lake Kemp occur in the informally-named Craddock dolomite member of the Clear Fork Formation, which is 12-15. m above the local base of the Clear Fork. The trace-bearing stratum is an up-to-0.3. m thick, laminated to flaser-bedded, dolomitic siltstone that also contains mud cracks, raindrop impressions, microbially induced mat structures, and some land-plant impressions. We interpret the Craddock dolomite member as the feather-edge of a marine transgressive carbonate deposit of an irregular coastline marked by shallow bays or estuaries on the eastern shelf of the Midland basin, and the trace-fossil-bearing stratum at Lake Kemp is an unchannelized flow deposit on a muddy coastal plain. The fossil site at Lake Kemp yields a low to moderately diverse fauna of invertebrate and vertebrate traces. A sparse invertebrate ichnofauna consists of arthropod feeding and locomotion traces assigned to Walpia cf. W. hermitensis White, 1929 and Diplichnites gouldi Gevers in Gevers et al., 1971. Tetrapod footprints are most common and assigned to Batrachichnus salamandroides (Geinitz, 1861), cf. Amphisauropus kablikae (Geinitz and Deichm??ller, 1882), and Dromopus lacertoides (Geinitz, 1861), which represent small temnospondyl, seymouriamorph, and basal sauropsid trackmakers. Both the traces and sedimentary features of the fossil horizon indicate a freshwater setting at the time of track formation, and the trace assemblage represents the Scoyenia ichnofacies and the Batrachichnus ichnofacies in an overbank environment with sheet flooding and shallow

  1. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria;


    . Negative δ13C excursions are related to low-stand deposits and caused by diagenetic processes during subaerial exposure. The comparison with δ13C records from other parts of the world demonstrate that δ13C values are high in most unaltered samples, an overall negative trend during the Permian, as recently...... published, is not obvious and negative excursions related to changes in the carbon isotope composition of the global oceanic carbon pool cannot be confirmed, except for the Permian–Triassic boundary interval....

  2. A sudden end-Permian mass extinction (Invited) (United States)

    Shen, S.


    The end-Permian mass extinction is the largest of the Phanerozoic. In the immediate aftermath the marine ecosystem was dominated by microbial and communities with disaster taxa. Plausible kill mechanism includes an extremely rapid, explosive release of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulfide. Siberian flood volcanism has been suggested as the most possible mechanism to trigger the massive release of greenhouse gases from volcanic eruptions and interaction of magmas with carbon from thick organic-rich deposits or rapid venting of coal-derived methane or massive combustion of coal. A sharp δ13C isotopic excursion, rapid disappearance of carbonate benthic communities and δ18O data from conodont apatite suggest rapid global warming. The end-Permian mass extinction occurred in less than 200,000 years. This extinction interval is constrained by two ash beds (Beds 25 and 28) at the Meishan section. However, the extinction patterns remain controversial largely due to the condensed nature of the Meishan sections. Geochemical signals and their interpretations are also contentious. Thus, the level of achievable stratigraphic resolution becomes crucial to determine the nature of the event and a detailed study of the extinction interval is essential to unravel the extinction pattern, chemostratigraphy, and the causes. However, the extinction interval at Meishan is only 26 cm thick and contains distinct gaps at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and possibly the base of Bed 25. Thus, it is impossible to resolve a detailed extinction pattern. Studying expanded sections is crucial to understand the detailed events before, during and after the main extinction. In this report, we show a highly-expanded Permian-Triassic boundary section in Guangxi Province, South China. The last 4.5 m between beds 22 and 28 of the Meishan sections is represented by a sequence of ~560 m at the section and the extinction interval between beds 24e and 28 at Meishan is represented

  3. Digital and analog communication systems (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.


    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  4. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana


    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The transitional faunas of the Permian Huqf succession of Oman make it one of the key-sections for the intercalibration of Early to Middle Permian biostratigraphical scales. The abundance of fossils improved the knowledge of some marine faunas which populated the North-Eastern Gondwanan fringe during times of climatic changes in the Permian. A Sterlitamakian (upper Sakmarian, Lower Permian bivalve fauna from the Saiwan Formation in the Huqf area, informally named "Dickinsartella Fauna", is described in the present paper. The specimens examined were collected from the "Pachycyrtella Bed" (Auctorum, the basal bed of the Formation in its type locality. The Dickinsartella Fauna can be identified for the presence of the new genus Dickinsartella, which dominates the bivalve thanatocoenosis with D. pistacina sp. n. (type species. The bivalve fauna from the Pachycyrtella Bed includes the new species Stutchburia sangallii and Promytilus  mazzolenii, and also Astartella obliqua Dickins, 1963, Nuculopsis cf. bangarraensis Dickins, 1963, ?Oriocrassatella sp., and indeterminable aviculopectinids. This fauna shows a low taxonomic diversity. Nevertheless, some species are represented by a high number of generally well-preserved specimens, i.e. some specimens of S. sangallii sp. n. and A. obliqua show part of the ligament.  The good preservation of the shells permitted the microstructural analysis of D. pistacina sp. n. and S. sangallii sp. n. The microstructure of S. sangallii sp. n. supports the close phylogenetical link between modiomorphids and crassatelloids recognized by some previous authors.The new genus Dickinsartella includes the more recent species belonging to the important Paleozoic Order Cyrtodontida Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971. The discovery of Dickinsartella gen. n. and other taxa of the Pachycyrtella Bed, present also in the Sakmarian levels of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins in Western Australia,  indicates a wider distribution of the

  6. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair


    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  7. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iannuzzi


    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii

  8. Upper Paleozoic petroleum system, Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.M.; Zhao, B.Q.; Thu, Z.L.; Song, Z.G. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wilkins, R.W.T. [CSIRO Petroleum, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia)


    The Ordos Basin is a typical lapped basin, including three sequences of strata: early Paleozoic, late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, with a total thickness of 4000-6000m. Impermeable sealing beds are well developed at the top and base of the upper Paleozoic sequence, separating it from the Mesozoic and the lower Paleozoic strata to form an independent petroleum system. In this petroleum system, the source rocks are widely distributed coals and dark mudstones occurring in the Carboniferous-lower Permian coal measures, with a thickness of 10-15 and 40-60m, respectively. The reservoirs are mainly early Permian tight sandstones, mostly with a porosity of 4-8% and a permeability of 0.1-1.0x10{sup -3}{mu}m{sup 2}. The regional cap rock is a 100-150m thick mudstone in the upper Permian strata. The structural framework of the basin is a huge asymmetric syncline, dipping gently toward the east and north, and steeply toward the south and west. Well data show that gas-saturated, gas-water transition and water-saturated zones are developed from the depositional center to the basin edges. The gas-saturated zone mainly lies in the gently dipping slope area of the Shanbei Slope. Toward eastern and northern up-dip directions the water-gas transitional zone occurs, and finally the water-saturated zone, presenting a reverse relation of water on top of gas. An abnormal negative strata pressure is developed in the gas-bearing area, with a pressure coefficient (C{sub p}) ranging from 0.83 to 0.95. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the upper Paleozoic gas pool began to develop around the Wuqi area at about 150Ma, and it extended toward the north and was largely formed at about 120Ma, showing there was a regional migration of the gas-water interface from south to north during the gas pool formation. These characteristics appear to show that the northern and eastern margins of the petroleum system are defined by a regional hydrodynamic regime. The critical moment of the petroleum system

  9. Analogy, explanation, and proof. (United States)

    Hummel, John E; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer


    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  10. Quantum Analog Computing (United States)

    Zak, M.


    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  11. Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors? (United States)


    psychospiritual processes. A more modern example of unclarified analogy is Freud’s (1973; reprinted from 1955) discussion of anal- eroticism , in which...299-304. Freud, S. On transformations of instinct as exemplified in anal eroticism . In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard 37 edition of the complete

  12. Late Carboniferous and Early Permian algal microflora (Liuzhou, South China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chun (Nanjing Inst. of Geology and Paleontology, Nanjing (China)); Mamet, B. (Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada))


    Paleozoic algae are important contributors to the formation of carbonate sediments. A study was conducted to compare an Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate succession of South China with what is generally observed in the Tethys Sea and North America. The sequence studied was in the Maping Limestone at the Loutishan section in Liuzhou, with some additional information derived from the Maping Limestone at Shangxinping and from the Chuanshan Limestone at Yuhuangshan and in the Nanjing Hills. In the Late Carboniferous, the beresellid algae are important builders and the Tubiphytes-Archaeolithophyllum community is locally replaced by a Tubiphytes-Ungdarella association. Early Permian oncolites were formed by complex Osagia, then by Esmerella. The Asselian Sphaeroschwagerina fauna is underlined by the outburst of epimastoporid dasycladales and phylloid Anchicodiaceae. Microcodium is observed at the contact of the Sphaeroschwagerina moelleri/sphaerica Zones. The overlying and paraconformable Chihsia Limestone is characterized by a Gymnocodium-Gyroporella-Mizzia flora. In most cases, the base of the fusulinid zones, therefore, coincides with an important local floristic change. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Panjal Paleomagnetism: Implications for Early Permian Gondwana break-up (United States)

    Stojanovic, D.; Aitchison, J.; Ali, J. R.; Ahmad, T.; Ahmad Dar, R.; Agarwal, A.; Roeder, T.


    The mid-Early Permian represents an important phase in Pangaea's development marking the time when the >13,000 km-long string of terranes that are collectively known as 'Cimmeria' separated from Gondwana's Tethyan margin (northern Africa-NE Arabia-northern India-NW and northern Australia). The ~289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are one of a number of mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto the Indian block possibly during the separation of the Lhasa/SE Qiangtang block. Herein, we report data from the first modern paleomagnetic study of the unit. Results from four quarry sections (15 individual cooling units) from a locality close to Srinagar together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning 2-3 km of stratigraphy. The derived direction and paleopole yield key new information concerning (1) the Early Permian location of India, and by inference that of central Gondwana, and (2) inform debates related to Cimmeria's breakup from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, they provide a new independent control for assessing NW Greater India's extent prior to its collision with Asia and the amount of vertical-axis rotation this sector of the Himalayan range experienced in the mid to late Cenozoic.

  14. Calcium isotope constraints on the end-Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Paytan, Adina; Depaolo, Donald J; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Yu, Meiyi; Wei, Jiayong


    The end-Permian mass extinction horizon is marked by an abrupt shift in style of carbonate sedimentation and a negative excursion in the carbon isotope (delta(13)C) composition of carbonate minerals. Several extinction scenarios consistent with these observations have been put forward. Secular variation in the calcium isotope (delta(44/40)Ca) composition of marine sediments provides a tool for distinguishing among these possibilities and thereby constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here we report delta(44/40)Ca across the Permian-Triassic boundary from marine limestone in south China. The delta(44/40)Ca exhibits a transient negative excursion of approximately 0.3 per thousand over a few hundred thousand years or less, which we interpret to reflect a change in the global delta(44/40)Ca composition of seawater. CO(2)-driven ocean acidification best explains the coincidence of the delta(44/40)Ca excursion with negative excursions in the delta(13)C of carbonates and organic matter and the preferential extinction of heavily calcified marine animals. Calcium isotope constraints on carbon cycle calculations suggest that the average delta(13)C of CO(2) released was heavier than -28 per thousand and more likely near -15 per thousand; these values indicate a source containing substantial amounts of mantle- or carbonate-derived carbon. Collectively, the results point toward Siberian Trap volcanism as the trigger of mass extinction.

  15. Flourishing ocean drives the end-Permian marine mass extinction. (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas; Strauss, Harald; Korn, Dieter; Korte, Christoph


    The end-Permian mass extinction, the most severe biotic crisis in the Phanerozoic, was accompanied by climate change and expansion of oceanic anoxic zones. The partitioning of sulfur among different exogenic reservoirs by biological and physical processes was of importance for this biodiversity crisis, but the exact role of bioessential sulfur in the mass extinction is still unclear. Here we show that globally increased production of organic matter affected the seawater sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope signature that has been recorded in carbonate rock spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary. A bifurcating temporal trend is observed for the strata spanning the marine mass extinction with carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope excursions toward decreased and increased values, respectively. By coupling these results to a box model, we show that increased marine productivity and successive enhanced microbial sulfate reduction is the most likely scenario to explain these temporal trends. The new data demonstrate that worldwide expansion of euxinic and anoxic zones are symptoms of increased biological carbon recycling in the marine realm initiated by global warming. The spatial distribution of sulfidic water column conditions in shallow seafloor environments is dictated by the severity and geographic patterns of nutrient fluxes and serves as an adequate model to explain the scale of the marine biodiversity crisis. Our results provide evidence that the major biodiversity crises in Earth's history do not necessarily implicate an ocean stripped of (most) life but rather the demise of certain eukaryotic organisms, leading to a decline in species richness.

  16. Paleomagnetism of Permian and Triassic rock, central Chilean Andes (United States)

    Forsythe, Randall D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Mpodozis, Constantino; Davidson, John

    The first paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic formations west of the Andean divide are presented. Four formations of Permian or Triassic age in the central Chilean Andes have been investigated: two are located in the coastal ranges, and two are in the main cordillera. Of the formations in the main cordillera (Pastos Blancos and Matahuaico formations), only the Pastos Blancos Formation has yielded characteristic directions. While a fold test is absent, magnetizations are most likely secondary and yield pre-tilt corrected concordant inclinations, but yield declinations discordant 30° clockwise in comparison to the South American apparent polar wander path. Both formations from the coastal ranges (Cifuncho and Pichidangui formations) yielded stable directions. Postfolding magnetizations in the Cifuncho Formation also show declinations discordant 30° clockwise and concordant inclinations. The Pichidangui Formation has two stable components: one of postfolding age is concordant to apparent polar wander path data, and one of probable prefolding (Late Triassic) age is concordant in declination, but discordant in inclination. Further work is needed to better define the prefolding magnetizations in the Pichidangui Formation, but at present these preliminary results are the first paleomagnetic signs of displaced terranes along the Pacific margin of Chile. If correct, the results suggest that the Pichidangui Formation was some 15° of latitude farther south during the Late Triassic and had likely moved northward to its present latitudinal position with respect to cratonic South America by Middle to Late Jurassic.

  17. Polyphase tectonic events and Cenozoic basin-range coupling in the Tianshan Belt, Northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, L.S.; Wang, B.; Yang, F.; Lu, H.F.; Charvet, J.; Laurent-Charvet, S. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). Dept. of Earth Science


    Studies show that the Tianshan orogenic belt was built in the late stage of the Palaeozoic, as evidenced by the Permian red molasses and foreland basins; which are distributed in parallel with the Tianshan belt, indicating that an intense folding and uplifting event took place. During the Triassic, this orogenic belt was strongly eroded, and basins were further developed. The folding and faulting of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, spontaneous combustion of Jurassic coal layers and formation of sintered rocks, the Cenozoic earthquakes and active faulting, and the unique mosaic pattern of basin-range framework of Xinjiang are all products of tectonism since the Neogene.

  18. High precision dating of mass extinction events: a combined zircon geochronology, apatite tephrochronology, and Bayesian age modelling approach of the Permian-Triassic boundary extinction (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Brosse, Morgane; Bagherpour, Borhan; Schaltegger, Urs


    Chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb dating of single-zircon crystals is preferably applied to tephra beds intercalated in sedimentary sequences. By assuming that the zircon crystallization age closely approximate that of the volcanic eruption and ash deposition, U-Pb zircon geochronology is the preferred approach for dating mass extinction events (such as the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction) in the sedimentary record. As tephra from large volcanic eruptions is often transported over long distances, it additionally provide an invaluable tool for stratigraphic correlation across distant geologic sections. Therefore, the combination of high-precision zircon geochronology with apatite chemistry of the same tephra bed (so called apatite tephrochronology) provides a robust fingerprint of one particular volcanic eruption. In addition we provide coherent Bayesian model ages for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) mass extinction, then compare it with PTB model ages at Meishan after Burgess et al. (2014). We will present new high-precision U-Pb zircon dates for a series of volcanic ash beds in deep- and shallow-marine Permian-Triassic sections in the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. In addition, apatite crystals out of the same ash beds were analysed focusing on their halogen (F, Cl) and trace-element (e.g. Fe, Mg, REE) chemistry. We also show that Bayesian age models produce reproducible results from different geologic sections. On the basis of these data, including litho- and biostratigraphic correlations, we can precisely and accurately constrain the Permian-Triassic boundary in an equatorial marine setting, and correlate tephra beds over different sections and facies in the Nanpanjiang Basin independently from litho-, bio- or chemostratigraphic criteria. The results evidence that data produced in laboratories associated to the global EARTHTIME consortium can provide age information at the 0.05% level of 206

  19. Petroleum geology and resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine and Russia (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.


    The Dnieper-Donets basin is almost entirely in Ukraine, and it is the principal producer of hydrocarbons in that country. A small southeastern part of the basin is in Russia. The basin is bounded by the Voronezh high of the Russian craton to the northeast and by the Ukrainian shield to the southwest. The basin is principally a Late Devonian rift that is overlain by a Carboniferous to Early Permian postrift sag. The Devonian rift structure extends northwestward into the Pripyat basin of Belarus; the two basins are separated by the Bragin-Loev uplift, which is a Devonian volcanic center. Southeastward, the Dnieper-Donets basin has a gradational boundary with the Donbas foldbelt, which is a structurally inverted and deformed part of the basin. The sedimentary succession of the basin consists of four tectono-stratigraphic sequences. The prerift platform sequence includes Middle Devonian to lower Frasnian, mainly clastic, rocks that were deposited in an extensive intracratonic basin. 1 The Upper Devonian synrift sequence probably is as thick as 4?5 kilometers. It is composed of marine carbonate, clastic, and volcanic rocks and two salt formations, of Frasnian and Famennian age, that are deformed into salt domes and plugs. The postrift sag sequence consists of Carboniferous and Lower Permian clastic marine and alluvial deltaic rocks that are as thick as 11 kilometers in the southeastern part of the basin. The Lower Permian interval includes a salt formation that is an important regional seal for oil and gas fields. The basin was affected by strong compression in Artinskian (Early Permian) time, when southeastern basin areas were uplifted and deeply eroded and the Donbas foldbelt was formed. The postrift platform sequence includes Triassic through Tertiary rocks that were deposited in a shallow platform depression that extended far beyond the Dnieper-Donets basin boundaries. A single total petroleum system encompassing the entire sedimentary succession is identified in

  20. Contrasting microbial community changes during mass extinctions at the Middle/Late Permian and Permian/Triassic boundaries (United States)

    Xie, Shucheng; Algeo, Thomas J.; Zhou, Wenfeng; Ruan, Xiaoyan; Luo, Genming; Huang, Junhua; Yan, Jiaxin


    Microbial communities are known to expand as a result of environmental deterioration during mass extinctions, but differences in microbial community changes between extinction events and their underlying causes have received little study to date. Here, we present a systematic investigation of microbial lipid biomarkers spanning ∼20 Myr (Middle Permian to Early Triassic) at Shangsi, South China, to contrast microbial changes associated with the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary (GLB) and Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) mass extinctions. High-resolution analysis of the PTB crisis interval reveals a distinct succession of microbial communities based on secular variation in moretanes, 2-methylhopanes, aryl isoprenoids, steranes, n-alkyl cyclohexanes, and other biomarkers. The first episode of the PTB mass extinction (ME1) was associated with increases in red algae and nitrogen-fixing bacteria along with evidence for enhanced wildfires and elevated soil erosion, whereas the second episode was associated with expansions of green sulfur bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and acritarchs coinciding with climatic hyperwarming, ocean stratification, and seawater acidification. This pattern of microbial community change suggests that marine environmental deterioration was greater during the second extinction episode (ME2). The GLB shows more limited changes in microbial community composition and more limited environmental deterioration than the PTB, consistent with differences in species-level extinction rates (∼71% vs. 90%, respectively). Microbial biomarker records have the potential to refine our understanding of the nature of these crises and to provide insights concerning possible outcomes of present-day anthropogenic stresses on Earth's ecosystems.

  1. Application of Fluid Inclusions in the Study of Natural Gas Geology in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ai-ping; YANG Ren-chao; FENG Qiao; LIU Yi-qun; HAN Zuo-zhen


    The new recently demonstrated reserves of oil and gas in the Ordos basin are found at the top of petroliferous basins in China. Gas pools discovered in recent years in the Permian system have become the main natural gas resource in the basin. Therefore, synthetic research on fluid inclusions should be done in order to ascertain the pool-forming stage, the maturity of organic matters and the properties of Paleo-fluids. The main types of fluid inclusions in the Permian system in the basin include brine inclusions, carbon dioxide inclusions and organic inclusions. Homogenization temperatures (HT) of brine inclusions can be divided into four intervals: 66-83 ℃, 86-108 ℃, 112-138 ℃ and 142-153 ℃. The fluid inclusions in the interval of 112-138 ℃ are much more than that of other intervals, indicating that the second stage of hydrocarbon migration associated with the third temperature interval is the most important stage of gas pool formations. The fluid inclusion has extensive applications in the study of gas geology, not only in ascertaining the formation stage of gas pools, but also in estimating the maturity of organic matter and restoring Paleo-fluids. The result of testing the HT of brine inclusions shows that there are two stages of gas pool formations in the Permian system occurring ±150 Ma and ±100 Ma. The maturity of organic matter is moderate to high, a conclusion based on the color of fluid inclusions (radiated by fluorescence). The high salinity of Paleo-fluids of the NaCl-H2O and CaCl2-H2O systems shows good preservation conditions of the Paleo-fluids. Two stages of reservoir filling, high maturity of organic matter and good preservation conditions are factors favorable for the formation and preservation of large-scale gas pools in the Permian system in the Ordos basin.

  2. Molecular Evidence for Radical Changes in Ocean Chemistry Across the Permian Triassic Boundary at Meishan in South China (United States)

    Love, G. D.; Cao, C.; Jin, Y.; Summons, R. E.


    Samples from outcrop and from a new core drilled through the Permian Triassic Boundary at the type section at Meishan have been examined for biomarker and isotopic evidence of biotic and associated environmental change. Late Permian sediments from Meishan Beds 22-27 are characterized by indicators of anoxia including low Pr/Ph ratios and abundant aryl isoprenoids and isoreneieratane derived from the precursor carotenoid isorenieratene. The latter compounds are biomarkers for green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) and are considered reliable indicators of euxinic water columns where sulfide extends to the photic zone. The peak of Chlorobiaceae biomarker abundance coincides with a rapid and synchronous drop in the ƒO13C and ƒO15N values of kerogen. On passing up into the Early Triassic, the biomarker signal for Chlorobiaceae wanes and is almost absent by Bed 30 where it is replaced by one for cyanobacteria including abundant hopanes and 2-methylhopanes and accompanying methyl and dimethyl alkanes. A very high value for the hopane/sterane ratio from Beds 30-38 indicates continuing dominant cyanobacterial productivity and only minor inputs from an algal plankton. The prevalence of aryl isoprenoids in P-Tr sediments at the Meishan section of South China is also recorded in a recently cored borehole, Hovea-3, of the Perth Basin, Western Australia. This suggests similar paleoenvironmental conditions prevailed across the Tethys Ocean during and immediately after the P-Tr Boundary. In particular, the presence of biomarkers for Chlorobiaceae at two separate locations indicates that water column euxinia was pervasive during the extinction event and suggests that sulfide may have been a key toxic agent.

  3. Characterization of an upper Permian tight gas reservoir. A multidisciplinary, multiscale analysis from the rotliegend, northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrett, Philipp [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group


    Outstanding Ph.D. thesis nominated for a Springer Theses Prize by the RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Uses various approaches and covers a broad range of disciplines. Integrated study, carried out on multiple scales with state of the art technical equipment, that only few laboratories can offer worldwide. ''The thesis of Philipp Antrett is focused on reservoir properties, petrography, lithofacies and sedimentology, core analysis and nanoporosity studies. It will be of major interest for colleagues involved in the exploration and production of tight gas reservoirs in Northern Europe and elsewhere.'' - Francois Roure, August 2012 This thesis describes a multidisciplinary, multiscale approach to the analysis of tight gas reservoirs. It focused initially on the facies architecture of a Permian tight gas field in the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), East Frisia, northern Germany. To improve field development, 3D seismic data, wireline and core data were compared to a reservoir analogue in the Panamint Valley, California, United States. In addition to the large scale approach, a work flow that investigates microporosity by combining Scanning Electron Microscopy-Broad Ion Beam (SEM-BIB) and optical microscopy was developed. For a better understanding of the depositional environment and reservoir rock distribution in the SPB, a sedimentary facies analysis of four cores from the tight gas field in East Frisia was compared to a second study area in northern central Germany. This study demonstrates that tight gas exploration and production requires multidisciplinary, multiscale approaches beyond standard seismic interpretation work flows to better understand the temporal and spatial evolution of these complex reservoirs.

  4. The Cordon del Portillo Permian magmatism, Mendoza, Argentina, plutonic and volcanic sequences at the western margin of Gondwana (United States)

    Gregori, Daniel; Benedini, Leonardo


    The Cerro Punta Blanca, Cerro Bayo and Cerro Punta Negra stocks, parts of the Cordillera Frontal Composite Batholith, cropping out in the Cordón del Portillo, records the Gondwana magmatic development of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza, in western Argentina. In this area, the San Rafael Orogenic phase, that represents the closure of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian marine basins, begins at 284 Ma, and ceased before 276 Ma. The Cerro Punta Blanca, Cerro Bayo and Cerro Punta Negra stocks represent a post-orogenic magmatism and are equivalents to the Choiyoi Group. The Gondwana magmatic activity in the Cordón del Portillo area can be divided into two stages. The Cerro Punta Blanca stock (c.a. 276 Ma) represents an early post-orogenic, subduction-related magmatism similar to the basic-intermediate section of the Choiyoi Group (c.a. 277 Ma). The late post-orogenic second event was recorded by the Cerro Bayo (262 Ma) and Cerro Punta Negra stocks which represent a transition between subduction-related and intra-plate magmatism. This event represents the intrusive counterpart of the acidic facies of the upper section of the Choiyoi Group (c.a. 273 Ma). This extensional condition continued during the Triassic when the Cacheuta basin developed.

  5. Permian brachiopods from new localities in northeast Thailand: Implications for paleobiogeographic analysis (United States)

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; Chitnarin, Anisong


    A small Permian brachiopod fauna is described from new localities in northeastern Thailand. Brachiopods were collected from early Permian (Asselian) limestones of the Nam Maholan Formation and middle Permian (Murgabian) sandstones of the Nam Duk Formation and limestones of the Khao Khwang Formation. Analyses of taxa confirm preliminary hypotheses of Cathaysian affinities for brachiopods and fusulinids found in this part of Thailand. Fossils found in sandstones of the Nam Duk molasse facies, however, also show possible Gondwanan relationships with brachiopod taxa described in Australia. This has to be further tested with ongoing research in a better understanding of the paleobiogeography of this part of Southeast Asia.

  6. The Cathaysia Flora and the Mixed Late Permian Cathaysian-Angaran Floras in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Cathaysia flora, one of the most prominent floras of the Carboniferous and Permian, was mainly distributed in East Asia and was characterized by numerous endemic elements. China is one of the most important localities of the Cathaysia flora and it is also the center of origin of this flora. This paper reviews and discusses the characteristics of the Cathaysia flora and the biogeographically mixed Permian Cathaysian-Angaran floras of East Asia. In addition, the formative mechanism of the mixed Permian floras is also discussed.

  7. Tectonostratigraphic relationships and coalification trends in the Narragansett and Norfolk basins, New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.P.; Skehan, J.W.; Raben, J. [University Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Geoscience


    Carboniferous basins in southeastern New England provide insight into, and constraints on, models for Alleghanian orogenesis. In particular, the Narragansett and Norfolk basins represent Devonian- to Pennsylvanian-aged, non-marine basins in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island that were variably deformed and metamorphosed during the Alleghanian orogeny, and intruded by Permian granites generated by crustal thickening. As such these basins provide an unusually complete documentation of the Alleghanian orogeny. We summarize their sedimentologic, structural and metamorphic features, with emphasis placed on the Narragansett basin, and provide a comprehensive bibliography of recent work. The Narragansett basin also contains complexly deformed and variably metamorphosed coals that are unlike coal described from other orogenic terrains. Thus we describe these unusual, high rank coal deposits and their response to orogenesis.

  8. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica (United States)

    Crucian, Brian


    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  9. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel


    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  10. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily


    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  11. A Major Unconformity Between Permian and Triassic Strata at Cape Kekurnoi, Alaska Peninsula: Old and New Observations on Stratigraphy and Hydrocarbon Potential (United States)

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Sralla, Bryan


    A major angular unconformity separates carbonates and shales of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation from an underlying unnamed sequence of Permian agglomerate, volcaniclastic rocks (sandstone), and limestone near Puale Bay on the Alaska Peninsula. For the first time, we photographically document the angular unconformity in outcrop, as clearly exposed in a seacliff ~1.3 mi (2.1 km) west of Cape Kekurnoi in the Karluk C?4 and C?5 1:63,360-scale quadrangles. This unconformity is also documented by examination of core chips, ditch cuttings, and (or) open-hole electrical logs in two deep oil-and-gas-exploration wells (Humble Oil & Refining Co.?s Bear Creek No. 1 and Standard Oil Co. of California?s Grammer No. 1) drilled along the Alaska Peninsula southwest of Puale Bay. A third well (Richfield Oil Corp.?s Wide Bay Unit No. 1), south of and structurally on trend with the other two wells, probed deeply into the Paleozoic basement, but Triassic strata are absent, owing to either a major unconformity or a large fault. Here we briefly review current and newly acquired data on Permian and Triassic rocks of the Puale Bay-Becharof Lake-Wide Bay area on the basis of an examination of surface and subsurface materials. The resulting reinterpretation of the Permian and Triassic stratigraphy has important economic ramifications for oil and gas exploration on the Alaska Peninsula and in the Cook Inlet basin. We also present a history of petroleum exploration targeting Upper Triassic reservoirs in the region.

  12. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling


    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  13. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K Huttenlocker

    Full Text Available The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1 active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2 geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  14. Lithostratigraphic classification and depositional history of the Permian rocks in Al Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Khalifa, M. A.


    Surface and subsurface investigations on the Permian rocks (Khuff Formation) in Al Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia led to the subdivision of these rocks into two formal rock units. The lower is the Sark Formation and the upper is the Al Watah Formation. The Sark Formation consists of carbonates with interbeds of claystones and marl. Its type locality lies south of Unayzah (lat. 26° 02' N and long.44° 00' E). The Al Watah comprises two members, the lower is the Midhnab Shale Member and the upper is the Khartam Limestone Member. The type section of the Al Watah Formation lies at Jal Al Watah (lat. 26° 30'N and long. 44° 02' E). The Sark Formation exhibits facies change along the strike of the Arabian basin. Southeastwards at Al Arid, the environment was coastal marine, while at Al Mulayh the environment was quiet marine shelf, where the facies are fine-grained wackestones. In Al Qasim Province, the environment is open marine platform where the sequence consists of shallowing-upward carbonate cycles which were deposited under subtidal-supratidal conditions. The Al Watah Formation also shows gradual transition from one environment to another along southeast-northwest direction. At Al Arid, the depositional environment is coastal marine which changes northwestwards at Al Mulayh to lagoonal shelf since the facies are mostly of fine-grained dolostones. In Al Qasim Province, deeper open marine is recognized depositing the Midhnab Shale Member in low sea level and the Khartam Limestone Member in submerged platform (subtidal zone).

  15. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azman A Ghani; Fatin Izzani Hazad; Azmiah Jamil; Quek Long Xiang; Wan Nur Atiqah Wan Ismail; Sun-Lin Chung; Yu-Ming Lai; Muhammad Hatta Roselee; Nur Islami; Kyaw Kyaw Nyein; Meor Hakif Amir Hassan; Mohd Farid Abu Bakar; Mohd Rozi Umor


    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2–97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK=1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09–2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32–8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806°C is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian.

  16. Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle. (United States)

    Rothman, Daniel H; Fournier, Gregory P; French, Katherine L; Alm, Eric J; Boyle, Edward A; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger E


    The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earth's carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate superexponential growth of the marine inorganic carbon reservoir, coincident with the extinction and consistent with the expansion of a new microbial metabolic pathway. Second, we show that the efficient acetoclastic pathway in Methanosarcina emerged at a time statistically indistinguishable from the extinction. Finally, we show that nickel concentrations in South China sediments increased sharply at the extinction, probably as a consequence of massive Siberian volcanism, enabling a methanogenic expansion by removal of nickel limitation. Collectively, these results are consistent with the instigation of Earth's greatest mass extinction by a specific microbial innovation.

  17. Cretaceous stem chondrichthyans survived the end-Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Guinot, Guillaume; Adnet, Sylvain; Cavin, Lionel; Cappetta, Henri


    Cladodontomorph sharks are Palaeozoic stem chondrichthyans thought to go extinct at the end-Permian mass extinction. This extinction preceded the diversification of euselachians, including modern sharks. Here we describe an outer-platform cladodontomorph shark tooth assemblage from the Early Cretaceous of southern France, increasing the fossil record of this group by circa 120 million years. Identification of this material rests on new histological observations and morphological evidence. Our finding shows that this lineage survived mass extinctions most likely by habitat contraction, using deep-sea refuge environments during catastrophic events. The recorded gap in the cladodontomorph lineage represents the longest gap in the fossil record for an extinct marine vertebrate group. This discovery demonstrates that the deep-sea marine diversity, poorly known during most of the fish evolutionary history, contains essential data for a complete understanding of the long-term evolution of marine fish paleobiodiversity.

  18. Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    Earth’s history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and po¬tentially into the open ocean realm. These events of¬ten coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles...... ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon...... and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied...

  19. Calculating eustatic amplitude of Middle Permian from reefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yasheng; (吴亚生); FAN; Jiasong; (范嘉松)


    Methods for calculating ancient eustatic change amplitudes according to reef fabric- facies are proposed, with a new method for determining sediment-loading subsidence. Compared with methods based on non-reefal deposits, these methods are more accurate in restoration of original sediment thickness, determination of sediment-loading subsidence, as well as restoration of ancient water depth. According to the reef in Guangxi, China, the amplitude of sea-level rise during Middle Permian (Neoschwagerina-Yabeina zone) is 249.5 m. According to the coeval reef of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas, the coeval sea-level rise is 247 m. With these effective methods available, it is feasible to establish more accurate eustatic curve of Phanerozoic.

  20. Preliminary Study on the PGE Geochemistry of the Permian Basalts in the Jinping Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Hong; Shen Wei; Zhang Xueshu


    To disclose and study the magma genesis of the Permian basalts in the Jinping (金平)area, the PGE and Au contents of the Permian basalts in the Jinping area were assayed by use of the ICP-MS method. The PGE data show relatively strong differentiation of basaltic magma in comparison with the primitive mantle. The primitive mantle-normalized pattern is a left-dipping curve of the Pd-Pt enriched type. The Pd/Ir ratios of the PGE of the Permian basalts in the Jinping area are higher than those of the primitive mantle and the upper primitive mantle and the chondrite meteorite. The Pd/Ir ramaterial source. It is concluded that they are derived from the basaltic magma of the upper mantle source with a lower melting degree, which shares the similar magma material source with the Emeishan Permian basalts as a whole.

  1. U/Pb zircon geochronology and tempo of the end-permian mass extinction (United States)

    Bowring; Erwin; Jin M W Martin YG; Davidek; Wang


    The mass extinction at the end of the Permian was the most profound in the history of life. Fundamental to understanding its cause is determining the tempo and duration of the extinction. Uranium/lead zircon data from Late Permian and Early Triassic rocks from south China place the Permian-Triassic boundary at 251.4 +/- 0.3 million years ago. Biostratigraphic controls from strata intercalated with ash beds below the boundary indicate that the Changhsingian pulse of the end-Permian extinction, corresponding to the disappearance of about 85 percent of marine species, lasted less than 1 million years. At Meishan, a negative excursion in delta13C at the boundary had a duration of 165,000 years or less, suggesting a catastrophic addition of light carbon.

  2. Brachiopods from the Permian Triassic boundary beds at the Selong Xishan section, Xizang (Tibet), China (United States)

    Shen, Shuzhong; Yugan, Jin


    The brachiopods from the Waagenites Bed and the upper part of the Coral Bed above and below the Permian-Triassic sequence boundary at the Selong Xishan section of southern Xizang suggest a rich brachiopod fauna existing in Selong, and a rapid invasion of Tethyan brachiopods into the Himalayas at the very end of the Permian. A transgression beginning from the Waagenites Bed and a rapid flooding at the beginning of the Triassic is reflected by changes in composition of the Permian brachiopod assemblages in Selong. However, the dominant forms in the Permian-Triassic sequence boundary beds, including Krotovia, Spiriferella and Neospirifer, extend from the underlying beds of the Selong Group without significant evolutionary change. A brief discussion of each taxon and descriptions of two new species, Stenoscisma selongensis and Martinia attenuatelloides, are presented.



    Haraguchi, Makoto


    This paper presents a mathematical theory of analogy, which should be a basis in developing analogical reasoning by a computer. The analogy is a partial identity between two sets of facts. In order to compare several analogies, we introduce an ordering of analogies, and we define two types of optimal analogies, maximal analogies and greatest ones. We show a condition under which the greatest analogy exists, and also present a top-down procedure to find the maximal analogies.

  4. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))


    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  5. Sandstone composition and provenance of the Rotliegend of the NE German Basin (United States)

    McCann, Tommy


    The NE German Basin contains an approximately 2.5 km thick Rotliegend sedimentary section, subdivided into 4 formations. These were, deposited following the cessation of the Late Carboniferous/Early Permian volcanic episode and a ca. 20 Ma period of erosion and non-deposition. Initial deposition was confined to two areas, but with increasing thermal subsidence the basin extended to the south. Petrographic (190 sandstones) and geochemical (48 sandstones and mudstones) analyses suggested that the sands are quartz-rich and are derived largely from cratonic or recycled sources. Volcanic and sedimentary rock fragments form most of the labile grains. The succession was deposited in a relatively stable tectonic environment with sediment input derived largely from the lower and upper Palaeozoic strata of the Variscan hinterland and the Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanics. Volcanic input increases with younger stratigraphic units. This is interpreted as resulting from the unroofing of a more basic source.

  6. Anoxia duirng the Late Permian Binary Mass Extinction and Dark Matter


    Abbas, Samar; Abbas, Afsar; Mohanty, Shukadev


    Recent evidence quite convincingly indicates that the Late Permian biotic crisis was in fact a binary extinction with a distinct end-Guadalupian extinction pulse preceding the major terminal end-Permian Tartarian event by 5 million years. In addition anoxia appears to be closely associated with each of these end-Paleozoic binary extinctions. Most leading models cannot explain both anoxia and the binary characteristic of this crisis. In this paper we show that the recently proposed volcanogeni...

  7. The Lopingian Series of China and End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yugan; SHEN Shuzhong; WANG Xiangdong; WANG Yue; CAO Changqun


    The end-Permian mass extinction is the greatest bioevent in the geological history, which wiped out nearly 95% of the marine species and 75% of the terrestrial species,followed by a biological winter for more than five million years.The cause and the process of the end-Permian mass extinction remain an unsolved mystery in earth science and one of the most difficult and interesting scientific problems.

  8. Evolution and extinction of Permian fusulinid fauna in the Khao Tham Yai Limestone in NE Thailand (United States)

    Hada, Shigeki; Khosithanont, Somboon; Goto, Hiroya; Fontaine, Henri; Salyapongse, Sirot


    The first detailed biostratigraphic investigation of a single limestone unit within the Khao Tham Yai Limestone shows it was deposited continuously in a shelf setting without any intercalation of clastic beds. It ranges from the Wordian (middle Middle Permian) up to the Wuchiapingian (lower Upper Permian). The limestone unit is divided in ascending order into three fusulinid zones, i.e. Colania, Lepidolina and Codonofusiella zones. The middle zone is characterized by an abundance of large-tested fusulinids characteristic of the Lepidolina Zone. Shell sizes of the fusulinid species in this zone display continuous rapid morphological change along a one-way evolutionary path from small, primitive species with simple structure to large, highly evolved species having a complicated wall structure. Fusulinid biostratigraphy in a single limestone unit elucidates evolution and extinction patterns of Permian fusulinids of the shallow-water Tethyan shelf area in the Indochina Block. Our study reveals that the boundary between the Guadalupian (Middle Permian) and Lopingian (Upper Permian) in the Khao Tham Yai Limestone is clearly defined as an abrupt change in the fusulinid assemblages from the elimination of large-tested Verbeekinids and Schwagerinids to the domination of small-shelled Schubertellids. The Schubertellids underwent slower evolutionary morphological change than earlier fusulinids and were decreasingly dominant through the Permian. A similar pattern of fusulinid evolution and extinction at the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary occurs in shallow-water Tethyan shelf areas and mid-oceanic shallow-water environments in mid-Panthalassa. Eventually, even smaller fusulinids abruptly become extinct. Clastic deposits finally replace previous carbonate formations characterized by algae-foraminifera biota. It starts in the upper Middle Permian in the southern parts and spreads throughout the whole area in the lower Upper Permian in NE Thailand. These observations suggest

  9. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H


    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  10. Carbonate gravity-flow processes on the Lower Permian slope, northwest Delaware basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, R.G.; Brown, A.A.; Achauer, C.W. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States))


    Wolfcampian carbonate gravity-flow deposits accumulated on a low-angle slope in front of a platform of relatively low relief ({approximately}220 m). A 25 m core, located approximately 15 km basinward of the self margin, was examined to determine processes of carbonate deposition in the middle to distal slope environments. The majority of the deposits are cohesive debris-flows composed of clast-supported conglomerates with a calcareous siliciclastic mudstone matrix. Other deposits include high- and low-density turbidites of lime packstones (sand- to boulder-size range), lime grainstones, and siliclastic muddy silstones and suspension deposits of calcareous siliciclastic mudstones. Cohesive debris flows are generally massive and structureless, although several flows show an inverse-graded zone at their base indicating dispersive pressure forces that developed in a traction carpet. Other flows display coarse-tail fining-upward sequences indicating deposition by suspension settling from liquefied flow. At the base of each high-density, gravelly turbidite is one to several inversely graded zones of carbonated clasts indicating a traction carpet zone. These traction carpets are overlain by normal-graded units of shell and clast material. The upper units appear to be deposited directly out of suspension. The low-density turbidites are interpreted to be the residual products of more shelfward-deposited debris flows and high-density turbidity currents. Many of the depositional features described here for carbonate gravity-flow deposits are identical to those in siliclastic deposits, therefore the depositional processes controlling these features are probably similar.

  11. Declining Petroleum Production and the Effect Upon Communities in New Mexico's Permian Basin (United States)

    Tipton, Ryan D.

    The petroleum industry, a vital component of New Mexico's economy, is in a gradual decline. As petroleum production is primarily focused in the southeastern corner of the state, this decline phenomenon is particularly relevant to area residents. The problem addressed in this study was that little information is available regarding the lived experiences of business and community leaders concerning this phenomenon, particularly in terms of future economic sustainability. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to interview a purposive sample of business and community leaders regarding their lived experiences and perceptions relating to the economic sustainability of the region. Research questions asked about the general awareness of the decline of oil production---data collected from federal and state databases---and potential options for alternative economic development. Coded data were analyzed and themes and patterns were identified. Findings included a general lack of awareness of area residents regarding a decline of production, assumed economic stability, and resistance to change based on a lack of incentive. Included in the findings were potential options for strategic economic diversification. Recommendations included a campaign to promote awareness of the decline of oil, provide incentives for change, and economic diversification as method of moving the local economy away from dependence upon the petroleum industry. Implications for positive social change were that the affected region can use the findings to identify sustainable alternative industries to support the communities into the future.

  12. Fractured Anhydrite as a Geothermal Source in a Low Enthalpy Context (Southern Permian Basin, Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexandros; Herber, Marinus


    Increased heat flow associated with the presence of salt domes could be beneficial for geothermal energy applications in a low enthalpy nvironment. Anhydrite layers within such salt domes could be a potential geothermal target. These layers are known to undergo brittle deformation, which in turn can

  13. Two pulses of oceanic environmental disturbance during the Permian-Triassic boundary crisis (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Feng, Qinglai; Algeo, Thomas J.; Li, Chao; Planavsky, Noah J.; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Mingliang


    Pyrite morphology, iron speciation, and pyrite sulfur isotope data from the Xiakou section (Hubei Province, South China) were integrated to explore oceanic environmental variations through the Permian-Triassic transition and their possible relations to the largest mass extinction in Earth history. High ratios of highly-reactive iron to total iron (FeHR/FeT > 0.6) and pyrite iron to highly-reactive iron (FePy/FeHR > 0.7) together with a high abundance of small (mean diameter Permian (pre-extinction interval). High ratios of FeHR/FeT (mostly >0.6) along with lower values of FePy/FeHR (Permian to earliest Triassic (post-extinction interval). The largest fluctuations of these redox proxies are observed in the ∼1.0 m of strata directly overlying the first (latest Permian) extinction horizon, indicating unsettled marine environmental conditions marked by frequent perturbations during the ∼60-kyr interval immediately following the mass extinction. The two largest redox events at Xiakou coincided with deposition of volcanic ash layers that have been correlated with Beds 25 and 28 of the Meishan D section, each of which was associated with an extinction pulse (the first and second extinction horizons of latest Permian and earliest Triassic age, respectively). Thus, our observations document two pulses of oceanic environmental change during the Permian-Triassic transition, each associated with a faunal crisis and possibly triggered by contemporaneous volcanic activity.

  14. The relationship of the Indian and western Australian Permian marine faunas (United States)

    Dickins, J. M.; Shah, S. C.

    At Gondwana Five, Wellington, New Zealand, 1980, the relationship of the Permian Peninsular and Himalayan India fauna and flora was explored. The authors concluded that Peninsular India could not have been far from southern Asia during the Permian. This conclusion has been confirmed by data presented at the Symposium on the Tibet Plateau, Beijing, China, 1980, and the recent discovery of Eurydesma and the Eurydesma fauna in northwest Tibet. The relationship of the marine faunas of Peninsular and Himalayan India with those of the western Australian region and the climatic implications have now been considered by the authors. Although the Lower Permian Gondwana cold- and cold-temperate-water faunas of both areas have important similarities, significant differences can be tabulated. Such differences are not apparent in the faunas from within the Peninsular-Himalayan Indian region, so that the faunas of this region are closer to each other than they are to the faunas of the western Australian region. In India the early faunas are overlain by warm-water faunas, whereas in the western Australian region temperate-water conditions prevail. Only in the Upper Permian, when the world as a whole became warmer, are closer faunal links established between the two areas. It is concluded that Western Australia was unlikely to have been close to India during the Permian, and that the faunal relationships indicate India cannot be placed alongside Western Australia. This conclusion is supported by the different geological development in the two areas during the Permian.

  15. Metallogenic conditions and prospecting direction for Permian manganess deposits in Northern Guizhou%黔北二叠纪锰矿成矿条件与找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    黔北地区二叠纪锰矿是中国南方重要的沉积锰矿床类型,在贵州的锰矿资源中占有重要的地位.开展区内二叠纪锰矿成矿条件与找矿方向的研究与探讨,对锰矿勘查工作部署意义重大.文章拟从黔北成锰盆地的古地理环境、岩相特征、锰质来源和锰矿赋存规律4个方面,分析区内二叠纪锰矿成矿条件,在此基础上提出找矿方向并对资源前景预测.%The Permian manganese deposits in Northern Guizhou, a main aedimentary type manganese deposit in Southem Chi na, play an important role in manganese mineral resources of Guizhou. It is meaningful to study regional metallogenic condition of Per mian manganese deposit for exploration. In this paper, the author analyzed metallogenic conditions of Permian manganese deposits from four aspects, i. e. , the paleo - geographical environment of the basin in which manganese deposit developed, lithofacie8 characteris ticts, source of mangancse, and hosting regularity of manganese deposits, and then proposed the prospecting direction and forecasting potential resource.

  16. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  17. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Midland Basin, Wolfcamp Shale Assessment Units (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Val Verde Basin, Canyon Sandstones Assessment Units (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  20. The Pattern and Evolution of the Permian Palaeobiogeography and Tectonic Palaeogeography in Jilin and Heilongjiang Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xiangdong; Li Xiaomin; Liu Pengju


    The orogenic belt locates between the North China plate and Siberia plate. The Permian palaeobiogeography and tectonic palaeogeography changed quickly and clearly. The line from Changchun to Yanji is an important palaeobiogeographic provincing line, which may be the collission suture belt of the North China plate and north middle massifs. The orogenic belt has been divided into 2 regions: the North middle massif region and the North Margin of North China plate, the pattern and evolution of Permian palaeobiogeography in the present area were discussed and the Permian biota mixture and its significants were analysed. Then, Based on the above, the Permian tectonic palaeogeography of the orogenic belt is reconstructed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An amphibian fauna from Permo-Carboniferous boundary beds is recorded for the first time in Italy. A thin fossiliferous level has been found in the Perdasdefogu Basin in southeastern Sardinia;it yields several speciments of Branchiosaurus cf."B." petrolei Gaudry 1875, often in mass mortality assemblages.Repeated mass mortality events testify to sudden changes in the environment of the basin, possibly due to seasonal variations. The finding of speciments very close to Branchiosaurus petrolei,which is a common species in the Central France basins,confirms that Sardinia at the time belonged to the same hydrographic basin of continental Europe, with no seaway in between.Furthermore, though not the primary focus of this note, we report the first discovery of the xenacanth teeth and acanthodian spines in Italy.  

  2. Coexistence and inherence of diverse energy resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xiangchun; WANG Mingzhen; HAN Zuozhen


    The Ordos Basin is abundant in oil, natural gas, coal, coalbed gas and sandstone-type uranium deposits. Oil pools are hosted mainly in the Triassic and Jurassic systems in the southern part of the basin. Gas reservoirs which occur dominantly in the northern part of the basin are situated vertically beneath the oil pools. Coal measures are widely distributed in the Carboniferous, Permian, Jurassic and Triassic systems. Developed at the margin of the basin are the sandstone-type uranium deposits and coalbed gas. The investigations of sources and timing of various energy resources indicated that there are certain genetic connections among them. Especially the contributions of coal measures to natural gas, the supplement of coalbed gas to deep basin gas and the reduction of uranium deposits by natural gas are relatively remarkable.

  3. Evolución tectono-magmática durante el Pérmico al Jurásico temprano en la Cordillera del Viento (37°05´S - 37°15´S: nuevas evidencias geológicas y geoquímicas del inicio de la cuenca Neuquina Tectono-magmatic evolution during the Permian to the Early Jurassic in the Cordillera del Viento (37°05´S - 37°15´S: new geological and geochemical evidences for the early stages of the Neuquén basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Llambías


    podría explicar la forma no lineal de la cuenca Neuquina en la provincia del Neuquén.The southern extremity of the Cordillera del Viento is mainly composed of volcanic sequences, which form the basement of the Neuquén basin. The oldest rocks are the sediments in the Huaraco Formation, Andacollo Group, of Upper Carboniferous age. After being folded by the San Rafael orogenic phase during the Lower Permian, these sediments were intruded by granodioritic and monzogranitic plutons along with dikes and domes of rhyolitic nature. They were then covered in angular unconformity by rhyolitic ignimbrites, which are co-genetic with the intrusives. The resulting volcanic-plutonic complex is suggested to be correlative with the Permian Choiyoi Group exposed in the Cordillera Frontal and the Bloque de San Rafael geological provinces. This volcanic-plutonic complex was subjected to strong erosion during the Early to Middle Triassic. The development of an undulated erosion surface (Huarpican unconformity resulted in the exposure of the cupolas of the plutons. This surface support the Cordillera del Viento Formation (ex Groeber's Choiyoilitense, which consists of a volcanic sequence of andesitic to rhyolitic composition up to 1.300 meters thick. The next unit, the Milla Michicó Formation, was also deposited unconformably. This unit is composed of bedded flows of basalts, andesitic basalts and rhyolites with thickness up to 200 meters. The succession continued with the unconformable deposition of the La Primavera Formation, which is the oldest unit of the Cuyo Group. It is composed of marine sediments interbedded with basaltic flows at the base and rhyolitic ignimbrites in the upper levels. The thickness varies from a few meters up to 400 meters. The La Primavera Formation is covered in apparent conformity by the Los Molles Formation, which has limestones at the base and contains pelites with andesitic lahar intercalations deposited in a turbiditic regime. Regionally, the Huarpican

  4. Vorticity in analog gravity (United States)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo


    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose-Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  5. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin


    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  6. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew


    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  7. Mathematical problem solving by analogy. (United States)

    Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J


    We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.

  8. Application of Markov chain and entropy analysis to lithologic succession – an example from the early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Chandra Tewari; D P Singh; Z A Khan


    A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model and entropy function is used to prove that the early Permian Barakar Formation of the Bellampalli coal field developed distinct cyclicities during deposition.From results,the transition path of lithological states typical for the Bellampalli basin is as:coarse to medium-grained sandstone → interbedded fine-grained sandstone/shale → shale → coal and again shale.The majority of cycles are symmetrical but asymmetrical cycles are present as well.The chi-square stationarity test implies that these cycles are stationary in space and time.The cycles are interpreted in terms of in-channel,point bar and overbank facies association in a fluvial system.The randomness in the occurrence of facies within a cycle is evaluated in terms of entropy,which can be calculated from the Markov matrices.Two types of entropies are calculated for every facies state;entropy after deposition (post)and entropy before deposition (pre),which together form entropy set;the entropy for the whole system is also calculated.These values are plotted and compared with Hattori ’s idealized plots,which indicate that the sequence is essentially a symmetrical cycle (type-B of Hattroi). The symmetrical cyclical deposition of early Permian Barakar Formation is explained by the lateral migration of stream channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition across the alluvial plain.In addition,the fining upward cycles in the upper part enclosing thick beds of fine clastics,as well as coal may represent differential subsidence of depositional basin.

  9. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics]. (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner


    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  10. Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillmore, G.K. E-mail:; Phillips, P.S.; Denman, A.R.; Gilbertson, D.D


    An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m{sup -3}) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m{sup -3} in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m{sup -3}). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system.

  11. Fullerenes and interplanetary dust at the Permian-Triassic boundary. (United States)

    Poreda, Robert J; Becker, Luann


    We recently presented new evidence that an impact occurred approximately 250 million years ago at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth. We used a new extraterrestrial tracer, fullerene, a third carbon carrier of noble gases besides diamond and graphite. By exploiting the unique properties of this molecule to trap noble gases inside of its caged structure (helium, neon, argon), the origin of the fullerenes can be determined. Here, we present new evidence for fullerenes with extraterrestrial noble gases in the PTB at Graphite Peak, Antarctica, similar to PTB fullerenes from Meishan, China and Sasayama, Japan. In addition, we isolated a (3)He-rich magnetic carrier phase in three fractions from the Graphite Peak section. The noble gases in this magnetic fraction were similar to zero-age deep-sea interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and some magnetic grains isolated from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The helium and neon isotopic compositions for both the bulk Graphite Peak sediments and an isolated magnetic fraction from the bulk material are consistent with solar-type gases measured in zero-age deep-sea sediments and point to a common source, namely, the flux of IDPs to the Earth's surface. In this instance, the IDP noble gas signature for the bulk sediment can be uniquely decoupled from fullerene, demonstrating that two separate tracers are present (direct flux of IDPs for (3)He vs. giant impact for fullerene).

  12. Time-calibrated Milankovitch cycles for the late Permian. (United States)

    Wu, Huaichun; Zhang, Shihong; Hinnov, Linda A; Jiang, Ganqing; Feng, Qinglai; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Tianshui


    An important innovation in the geosciences is the astronomical time scale. The astronomical time scale is based on the Milankovitch-forced stratigraphy that has been calibrated to astronomical models of paleoclimate forcing; it is defined for much of Cenozoic-Mesozoic. For the Palaeozoic era, however, astronomical forcing has not been widely explored because of lack of high-precision geochronology or astronomical modelling. Here we report Milankovitch cycles from late Permian (Lopingian) strata at Meishan and Shangsi, South China, time calibrated by recent high-precision U-Pb dating. The evidence extends empirical knowledge of Earth's astronomical parameters before 250 million years ago. Observed obliquity and precession terms support a 22-h length-of-day. The reconstructed astronomical time scale indicates a 7.793-million year duration for the Lopingian epoch, when strong 405-kyr cycles constrain astronomical modelling. This is the first significant advance in defining the Palaeozoic astronomical time scale, anchored to absolute time, bridging the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic transition.

  13. Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences


    During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

  14. Depositional model of Permian Luodianian volcanic island and its impact on the distribution of fusulinid assemblage in southern Qinghai, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU ZhiJun; XU AnWu; WANG JianXiong; DUAN QiFa; ZHAO XiaoMing; YAO HuaZhou


    resulting from calm shallow water was deposited at the interior of the Qamdo Block from the Devonian to early Early Permian. At the beginning of the peak period of activity of pan-riftzation (Luodianian), alternate volcanic island and shallow marine environment within continent crust came into being. Uniform and stable shallow-water carbonate platform was formed during the Xiangboan. This suggested that the activity of rift basin was evidently weakened. Subsequently the instability of the basin appreciably increased with the occurrence of basalt in late Kuhfengian. At last the whole Qamdo Block turned into the closure period of rift during the Late Permian.

  15. Depositional model of Permian Luodianian volcanic island and its impact on the distribution of fusulinid assemblage in southern Qinghai,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    sequence re-sulting from calm shallow water was deposited at the interior of the Qamdo Block from the Devonian to early Early Permian. At the beginning of the peak period of activity of pan-riftzation (Luodianian), al-ternate volcanic island and shallow marine environment within continent crust came into being. Uni-form and stable shallow-water carbonate platform was formed during the Xiangboan. This suggested that the activity of rift basin was evidently weakened. Subsequently the instability of the basin appre-ciably increased with the occurrence of basalt in late Kuhfengian. At last the whole Qamdo Block turned into the closure period of rift during the Late Permian.

  16. 300 million years of basin evolution - the thermotectonic history of the Ukrainian Donbas Foldbelt (United States)

    Spiegel, C.; Danisik, M.; Sachsenhofer, R.; Frisch, W.; Privalov, V.


    The Ukrainian-Russian Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets Basin is a large intracratonic rift structure formed during the Late Devonian. It is situated at the southern margin of the Precambrian East European Craton, adjacent to the Hercynian Tethyan belt in the Black Sea area and the Alpine Caucasus orogen. With a sediment thickness of more than 20 km, it is one of the deepest sedimentary basins on earth. The eastern part of the Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets Basin - called Donbas foldbelt - is strongly folded and inverted. Proposed models of basin evolution are often controversial and numerous issues are still a matter of speculation, particularly the erosion history and the timing of basin inversion. Basin inversion may have taken place during the Permian related to the Uralian orogeny, or in response to Alpine tectonics during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary. We investigated the low-temperature thermal history of the Donbas Foldbelt and the adjacent Ukrainian shield by a combination of zircon fission track, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology. Although apatite fission track ages of all sedimentary samples were reset shortly after deposition during the Carboniferous, we took advantage of the fact that samples contained kinetically variable apatites, which are sensitive to different temperatures. By using statistic-based component analysis incorporating physical properties of individual grains we identified several distinct age population, ranging from late Permian (~265 Ma) to the Late Cretaceous (70 Ma). We could thus constrain the thermal history of the Donbas Foldbelt and the adjacent basement during a ~300 Myr long time period. The Precambrian crystalline basement of the Ukrainian shield was affected by a Permo-Triassic thermal event associated with magmatic activity, which also strongly heated the sediments of the Donbas Foldbelt. The basement rocks cooled to near-surface conditions during the Early to Middle Triassic and since then was thermally

  17. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution. (United States)

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen


    The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a

  18. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.


    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  19. Sedimentary facies reconstruction and kinematic restoration of tight gas fields. Studies from the Upper Permian in Northwestern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vackiner, Anna Alexandra [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group


    Outstanding Ph.D. thesis nominated for a Springer Theses Prize by the RWTH Aachen University, Germany. A multi-disciplinary study with application in the oil and gas industry. Approx. 60 color figures. The thesis of Anna Alexandra Vackiner focuses on the geometric architecture and tectonic evolution of the Permian series, combining seismic interpretation (3D block), field studies in an analogue basin (Panamint Valley in California), as well as 2D restoration of representative cross sections through time in order to illustrate the complex interaction between multiphase extension, inversion and salt diapirism. It will be of major interest for exploration geologists involved in tectonically complex areas. - Francois Roure, August 2012 This thesis improves the understanding and localization of the Upper Rotliegend II tight gas reservoir rock facies. It provides insights into the detailed Upper Rotliegend II palaeo-topography and local tectonically induced sediment thickness changes prior to a multi-phase tectonic overprinting. The research presented in this study further focuses on the tectonically induced synsedimentary facies distribution in transtensional continental settings on the basis of a comparison with a modern field analogue, which enables a detailed analysis of the reservoir rock's distribution and its properties. The study is rounded off with an analysis of the influence of the multiphase tectonic overprinting on the mature Upper Rotliegend II reservoir rocks.

  20. Late Permian marine ecosystem collapse began in deeper waters: evidence from brachiopod diversity and body size changes. (United States)

    He, W-H; Shi, G R; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, K-X; Song, H-J; Yue, M-L; Wu, S-B; Wu, H-T; Yang, T-L; Xiao, Y-F


    Analysis of Permian-Triassic brachiopod diversity and body size changes from different water depths spanning the continental shelf to basinal facies in South China provides insights into the process of environmental deterioration. Comparison of the temporal changes of brachiopod diversity between deepwater and shallow-water facies demonstrates that deepwater brachiopods disappeared earlier than shallow-water brachiopods. This indicates that high environmental stress commenced first in deepwater settings and later extended to shallow waters. This environmental stress is attributed to major volcanic eruptions, which first led to formation of a stratified ocean and a chemocline in the outer shelf and deeper water environments, causing the disappearance of deep marine benthos including brachiopods. The chemocline then rapidly migrated upward and extended to shallow waters, causing widespread mass extinction of shallow marine benthos. We predict that the spatial and temporal patterns of earlier onset of disappearance/extinction and ecological crisis in deeper water ecosystems will be recorded during other episodes of rapid global warming.

  1. Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Standard, J C


    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

  2. Silicified wood from the Permian and Triassic of Antarctica: Tree rings from polar paleolatitudes (United States)

    Ryberg, P.E.; Taylor, E.L.


    The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary produced a floral turnover in Gondwana in which Paleozoic seed ferns belonging to the Glossopteridales were replaced by corystosperm seed ferns and other seed plant groups in the Mesozoic. Secondary growth (wood production) in both plant groups provides information on plant growth in relation to environment in the form of permineralized tree rings. Techniques utilized to analyze extant wood can be used on fossil specimens to better understand the climate from both of these periods. Late Permian and early Middle Triassic tree rings from the Beardmore Glacier area indicate an environment where extensive plant growth occurred at polar latitudes (~80–85°S, Permian; ~75°S, Triassic). A rapid transition to dormancy in both the Permian and Triassic woods suggests a strong influence of the annual light/dark cycle within the Antarctic Circle on ring production. Latewood production in each ring was most likely triggered by the movement of the already low-angled sun below the horizon. The plants which produced the wood have been reconstructed as seasonally deciduous, based on structural and sedimentologic evidence. Although the Late Permian climate has been reconstructed as cold temperate and the Middle Triassic as a greenhouse, these differences are not reflected in tree ring anatomy or wood production in these plant fossils from the central Transantarctic Mountains.

  3. Calcimicrobialite after end-Permian mass extinction in South China and its palaeoenvironmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongbiao; TONG Jinnan; WANG Jiasheng; ZHOU Xiugao


    Calcimicrobialites, which could be correlated to the layer 27 in Meishan section according to the Hindeodus parvus, occur abruptly on the end-Permian mass extinction boundary in South China. Microbialites mainly distribute on the top of reef facies or shallow carbonate platforms, thinning into deep facies. All the microbialites discovered are composed of micrite and coarse crystal digitate carbonate or patch carbonate. Microfossils usually dominate in the microbialites, and small gastropods, bivalves and ostracodes can also be found. This fossil assemblage represents a simple but particular remanent biota after the end-Permian mass extinction on the top of reefs or shallow carbonate platforms.Abrupt occurrence of microbialites above the mass extinction boundary is the ecological response to the end-Permian global event in reef or shallow carbonate facies. Many studies have been done on the Permian-Triassic boundary and event in deep water facies sections or middle to lower shelf facies sections. However, the calcimicrobialites in South China are mainly located above reef facies or shallow carbonate platform facies. It will surely be helpful for people to know more about the different responses in different depths of ancient marine environment during the transition between Permian and Triassic by the study of petrology,palaeontology and palaeoecology of the calcimicrobialites.

  4. Conjecturing via Reconceived Classical Analogy (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath


    Analogical reasoning is believed to be an efficient means of problem solving and construction of knowledge during the search for and the analysis of new mathematical objects. However, there is growing concern that despite everyday usage, learners are unable to transfer analogical reasoning to learning situations. This study aims at facilitating…

  5. Musik som analogi og metafor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser......Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser...

  6. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  7. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyron, A.


    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  8. Morphological disparity of ammonoids and the mark of Permian mass extinctions. (United States)

    Villier, Loïc; Korn, Dieter


    The taxonomic diversity of ammonoids, in terms of the number of taxa preserved, provides an incomplete picture of the extinction pattern during the Permian because of a strongly biased fossil record. The analysis of morphological disparity (the variety of shell shapes) is a powerful complementary tool for testing hypotheses about the selectivity of extinction and permits the recognition of three distinct patterns. First, a trend of decreasing disparity, ranging for about 30 million years, led to a minimum disparity immediately before the Permian-Triassic boundary. Second, the strongly selective Capitanian crisis fits a model of background extinction driven by standard environmental changes. Third, the end-Permian mass extinction operated as a random, nonselective sorting of morphologies, which is consistent with a catastrophic cause.

  9. Good genes and good luck: ammonoid diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Brayard, Arnaud; Escarguel, Gilles; Bucher, Hugo; Monnet, Claude; Brühwiler, Thomas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Galfetti, Thomas; Guex, Jean


    The end-Permian mass extinction removed more than 80% of marine genera. Ammonoid cephalopods were among the organisms most affected by this crisis. The analysis of a global diversity data set of ammonoid genera covering about 106 million years centered on the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) shows that Triassic ammonoids actually reached levels of diversity higher than in the Permian less than 2 million years after the PTB. The data favor a hierarchical rather than logistic model of diversification coupled with a niche incumbency hypothesis. This explosive and nondelayed diversification contrasts with the slow and delayed character of the Triassic biotic recovery as currently illustrated for other, mainly benthic groups such as bivalves and gastropods.

  10. Trouble Upstairs: Reconstructing Permian-Triassic Climate during Siberian Traps Magmatism (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Neely, R. R., III; Lamarque, J. F.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Mills, M. J.


    The eruption of large igneous provinces can transfer significant masses of volatiles from Earth's interior to the atmosphere. What are the consequences of this degassing for habitability and extinction? In this presentation, we consider this question in the context of Siberian Traps magmatism, which has been shown to overlap within geochronologic uncertainty with catastrophic deterioration of Permian-Triassic marine and terrestrial ecosystems. To investigate the impacts of endogenic gases on climate, atmospheric chemistry, and ocean circulation, we conducted a series of numerical experiments with a comprehensive global model for the Permian-Triassic. Our simulations predict the intensity and distribution of acid rain and ozone depletion, with implications for terrestrial biota. We further explore feedbacks between sulfur emissions, transient cooling, and shifts in ocean circulation. We suggest that Siberian Traps magmatism may have triggered several distinct kill mechanisms in the oceans and on land, contributing to a complex combined pattern of environmental stress and latest Permian ecological failure.

  11. Chondritic meteorite fragments associated with the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. (United States)

    Basu, Asish R; Petaev, Michail I; Poreda, Robert J; Jacobsen, Stein B; Becker, Luann


    Multiple chondritic meteorite fragments have been found in two sedimentary rock samples from an end-Permian bed at Graphite Peak in Antarctica. The Ni/Fe, Co/Ni, and P/Fe ratios in metal grains; the Fe/Mg and Mn/Fe ratios in olivine and pyroxene; and the chemistry of Fe-, Ni-, P-, and S-bearing oxide in the meteorite fragments are typical of CM-type chondritic meteorites. In one sample, the meteoritic fragments are accompanied by more abundant discrete metal grains, which are also found in an end-Permian bed at Meishan, southern China. We discuss the implications of this finding for a suggested global impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  12. Timing of mammal-like reptile extinctions across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South Africa (United States)

    MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Smith, Roger M. H.; Koch, Paul L.; Ward, Peter D.


    The rate, timing, and pattern of change in different regions and paleoenvironments are critical for distinguishing among potential causes for the Permian-Triassic (P-T) extinction. Carbon isotopic stratigraphy can provide global chronostratigraphic control. We report a large δ13C excursion at the P-T boundary and no long-term Permian δ13C trends for samples from the interior of Pangea. Stratigraphic gaps between available samples limit the resolution of our δ13C curve, but the excursion is within a 15-m-thick zone of overlap between Permian and Triassic taxa. Sedimentological and taphonomic observations demonstrate that this 15 m interval does not represent geologically instantaneous deposition. Together these data support a rapid and globally synchronous P-T event, but suggest that it occurred over a geologically resolvable interval of time.

  13. Archaeolithoporella and Tubiphytes : Affinties and Paleoecology in Permian Reefs of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王生海; 范嘉松; J.Keith Rigby


    Archaeolithoporella is one of the most important Permian reef-building organisms, but itsaffinity has long been controversial. It was first reported in Japan and was considered as a coralline red alga. Since then it has been recognized in Permian reefs in other parts of the world. Many researchers have studied the materials they had found and the Japanese holotype specimen. Most have concluded that it is a problematic alga. or just a problematica because of weak criteria for definition. Some have even considered it inorganic. However, relict cellular structures and microtubular laminae found in well-preserved specimens from Permian reefs in South China strongly support a coralline red algal affinity for the genus.In situ preserved Archaeolithoporella is restricted within the typical framework facies and it occurs most abundantly in syndepositionally cemented framestones. This suggests that Archaeolithoporella required a firm substrate and clear but agitated sea water. Archaeolithoporella is often found

  14. Alkane Biomarkers in Permian-Triassic Boundary Strata at Meishan Section, Changxing,Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Meishan Section D in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China has been selected as the global stratotype of the Permian-Triassic boundary and various studies have been done at the boundary, but the gas chromatographic-mass spectrographic analysis of alkane biomarkers has not been investigated. This paper presents the results of a study of the biomarkers analyzed in a series of samples across the Permian-Triassic boundary at both Meishan Section A and Section D. The results show that the overall concentration of alkane biomarkers in the Permian-Triassic boundary strata is high in Bed 26 while it is low in Bed 27. A variety of biomarker parameters demonstrate that the main sources of organic matter in the sediment are algae and bacteria and that the depositional environment varied from weakly oxidizing to reducing during the studied interval.

  15. Analyses of Sequence Stratigraphy and Environments across Permian-Triassic Boundary in Liaotian, Northwestern Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the study of lithology, sedimentology and paleontology at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Liaotian, Northwestern Jiangxi Province, the sequence stratigraphy and depositional environments across the boundary are reconstructed. The top part of the Upper Permian Changxing Formation is composed of very thick-bedded light-colored dolomitic limestone formed in high deposition rate on carbonate ramp, which indacates a transgression systems tract (TST). The Lower Triassic Qinglong Formation shows continuous deposition with the underlying Upper Permian. The lower member of Qinglong Formation consists of calcareous shale, shelly limestome and dolomitic limestone with abundant bivalves (Claraia sp. )and trace fossils (Chondrites). The calcareous shale at the bottom of Lower Triassic indicates a calm deep water environment to form the condensed section (CS). The shelly limestome and dolomitic limestone with shell fossils, intraclast, algal ooide show clean but turbulent environment of carbonate ramp, which produce the deposition of highstand systems tract (TST).

  16. Distribution of the Permian Monodiexodina in Karakorum and Kunlun and its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jianxin; WANG Naiwen; XIAO Xuchang; JI Zhansheng; WU Guichun; WU Zhenjie; LI Boqin; WANG Jun; WANG Yong; ZHAI Qingguo


    The Permian fusulinoidean genus Monodiexodina is widely distributed in east Tethys. The genus might be an important indicator for the northern margin of Gondwana in northwestern China, but this is disputed. Monodiexodina.bearing areas can be restored as in either northern or southern middle latitudes with a symmetrical distribution between a high latitudinal, cool/cold water climatic realm and a paleotropical, warm water realm. Permian strata bearing Monodiexodina in Karakornm, Muztag Pear, and Buka Daban Pear of the east Kunlun Mountains can be correlated with each other. Faunal analyses and the stratigraphical position of Monodiexodina.bearing strata indicate that both Karakorum, east Kunlun, and the Pamirs were formed in a cool temperate sea area of the northern hemisphere in middle latitudes during the Permian, rather than at the Gondwana margin.

  17. Terrestrial paleoenvironment characterization across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Cui, Ying; Forel, Marie-Béatrice; Yu, Jianxin; Vajda, Vivi


    Well-preserved marine fossils in carbonate rocks permit detailed studies of the end-Permian extinction event in the marine realm. However, the rarity of fossils in terrestrial depositional environments makes it more challenging to attain a satisfactory degree of resolution to describe the biotic turnover on land. Here we present new sedimentological, paleontological and geochemical (X-ray fluorescence) analysis from the study of four terrestrial sections (Chahe, Zhejue, Mide and Jiucaichong) in Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan (Yangtze Platform, South China) to evaluate paleoenvironmental changes through the Permian-Triassic transition. Our results show major differences in the depositional environments between the Permian Xuanwei and the Triassic Kayitou formations with a change from fluvial-lacustrine to coastal marine settings. This change is associated with a drastic modification of the preservation mode of the fossil plants, from large compressions to small comminuted debris. Plant fossils spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary show the existence of two distinct assemblages: In the Xuanwei Formation, a Late Permian (Changhsingian) assemblage with characteristic Cathaysian wetland plants (mainly Gigantopteris dictyophylloides, Gigantonoclea guizhouensis, G. nicotianaefolia, G. plumosa, G. hallei, Lobatannularia heinanensis, L. cathaysiana, L. multifolia, Annularia pingloensis, A. shirakii, Paracalamites stenocostatus, Cordaites sp.) is identified. In the lowermost Kayitou Formation, an Early Triassic (Induan) Annalepis-Peltaspermum assemblage is shown, associated with very rare, relictual gigantopterids. Palynological samples are poor, and low yield samples show assemblages almost exclusively represented by spores. A ∼1 m thick zone enriched in putative fungal spores was identified near the top of the Xuanwei Formation, including diverse multicellular forms, such as Reduviasporonites sp. This interval likely corresponds to the PTB "fungal spike

  18. Permian Paleomagnetism of Eastern Kazakhstan: Implications Concerning the Amalgamation of Eurasia (United States)

    Collins, A. Q.; Levashova, N. M.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Bazhenov, M. L.; Van der Voo, R.


    Kazakhstan is the central and most complex region of the Ural-Mongol belt of Eurasia. This region is bounded by the Baltica platform to the west, the Siberian platform to the northeast, and Tarim to the south. Many geologists think that the major tectonic units of Kazakhstan had amalgamated by the Silurian, with the possibility of relatively small motions through the middle-late Paleozoic, whereas others have postponed the welding of Kazakhstan until the Late Carboniferous. Furthermore, some authors have suggested that the Siberian block and the adjacent regions of the Ural-Mongol belt were displaced with respect to Baltica, westward and northwestward (in present day co-ordinates) during the Late Permian along strike slip faults by some 1500km. We studied Upper Permian volcanics from eastern Kazakhstan (47.5N, 80.5E). A univectorial characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) component was isolated from most samples after the removal of a weak, low-temperature remanence. The fold test (McFadden and Jones, 1981) is positive. The observed pole (PLat: 43, Plong: 172, a95: 3.6) falls close to the Baltica APWP and nearly coincides with the mean pole for middle Permian time (261-275 Ma; PLat: 46, Plong: 166, a95: 3.8). The overall agreement of the European and Siberian APWP's is rather good for the Permian, and Late Permian paleolatitudes from Tarim also agree with the European grid. Thus we conclude that our study area had already been attached to the European, Siberian, and Tarim blocks during the Late Permian. This interpretation disagrees with models that suggest large-scale displacement between the European and Siberian platforms during the final stages of Ural-Mongol fold belt evolution.

  19. Distributed Episodic and Analogical Reasoning (DEAR) (United States)


    ends analysis Carbonell 1983 Modeling of Analogy Making Structure Mapping Theory (SMT) Gentner 1984 Agent based approach to analogy making...Mapping Engine (SME) Forbus 1990 Learning by analogy with larger domains Prodigy/Analogy Veloso and Carbonell 1991 Analogical Retrieval Engine MAC/FAC

  20. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M


    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  1. Reexamination of Radiolarian Biostratigraphy in Permian in Pelagic Chert Sequences at Dachongling Section, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Permian radiolarian biostratigraphy was reexamined in the bedded chert section in Qinzhou area of southeast Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. On the basis of the analyses of characteristic radiolarian composition, six radiolarian zones are recognized, namely, Pseudoalbaillella longtanensis Zone, Pseudoalbaillella globosa Zone, Follicucullus monacanthus Zone, Follicucullus scholasticus Zone, Follicucullus charveti Zone and Neoalbaillella ornithoformis Zone, in ascending order. Correlation of these radiolarian zones with those in Japan is presented. The Neoalbaillella ornithoformis Zone was firstly discovered in Dachongling Section, which may indicate that pelagic chert of the late Permian existed there, according to the co-occurring conodonts.

  2. Anoxia duirng the Late Permian Binary Mass Extinction and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, S; Mohanty, S; Abbas, Samar; Abbas, Afsar; Mohanty, Shukadev


    Recent evidence quite convincingly indicates that the Late Permian biotic crisis was in fact a binary extinction with a distinct end-Guadalupian extinction pulse preceding the major terminal end-Permian Tartarian event by 5 million years. In addition anoxia appears to be closely associated with each of these end-Paleozoic binary extinctions. Most leading models cannot explain both anoxia and the binary characteristic of this crisis. In this paper we show that the recently proposed volcanogenic dark matter scenario succeeds in doing this.

  3. Large perturbations of the carbon cycle during recovery from the end-permian extinction. (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Wei, Jiayong; Orchard, Michael J; Schrag, Daniel P; Knoll, Andrew H


    High-resolution carbon isotope measurements of multiple stratigraphic sections in south China demonstrate that the pronounced carbon isotopic excursion at the Permian-Triassic boundary was not an isolated event but the first in a series of large fluctuations that continued throughout the Early Triassic before ending abruptly early in the Middle Triassic. The unusual behavior of the carbon cycle coincides with the delayed recovery from end-Permian extinction recorded by fossils, suggesting a direct relationship between Earth system function and biological rediversification in the aftermath of Earth's most devastating mass extinction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Additional findings of fusulinids and corals from Permian rocks of Western Karakorum and Eastern Hindu Kush are reported. The Lashkargaz Fm. of Western Karakorum (Sakmarian - Kubergandian in age, is redefined in its uppermost part. A new unit of sucrosic dolostone, the Ini Sar Fm., of early Murgabian age in its basal part, is established for a level previously attributed to the Ailak Fm. The Ailak Fm. is confirmed to be Late Permian in its lower part. A rich fusulinid fauna of early Kubergandian age was found in a carbonate nappe previously unidentified, along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border in the Eastern Hindu Kush. 

  5. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  6. Sulfonimidamide analogs of oncolytic sulfonylureas. (United States)

    Toth, J E; Grindey, G B; Ehlhardt, W J; Ray, J E; Boder, G B; Bewley, J R; Klingerman, K K; Gates, S B; Rinzel, S M; Schultz, R M; Weir, L C; Worzalla, J F


    A series of sulfonimidamide analogs of the oncolytic diarylsulfonylureas was synthesized and evaluated for (1) in vitro cytotoxicity against CEM cells, (2) in vivo antitumor activity against subaxillary implanted 6C3HED lymphosarcoma, and (3) metabolic breakdown to the o-sulfate of p-chloroaniline. The separated enantiomers of one sulfonimidamide analog displayed very different activities in the in vivo screening model. In general, several analogs demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity in the 6C3HED model when dosed orally or intraperitoneally. A correlative structure-activity relationship to the oncolytic sulfonylureas was not apparent.

  7. Analog CMOS contrastive Hebbian networks (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Card, Howard


    CMOS VLSI circuits implementing an analog neural network with on-chip contrastive Hebbian learning and capacitive synaptic weight storage have been designed and fabricated. Weights are refreshed by periodic repetition of the training data. To evaluate circuit performance in a medium-sized system, these circuits were used to build a 132 synapse neural network. An adaptive neural system, such as the one described in this paper, can compensate for imperfections in the components from which it is constructed, and thus it is possible to build this type of system using simple, silicon area-efficient analog circuits. Because these analog VLSI circuits are far more compact than their digital counterparts, analog VLSI neural network implementations are potentially more efficient than digital ones.

  8. Solving a problem by analogy (United States)

    Easton, Don


    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  9. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst


    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  10. Analog electronic neural network circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, H.P.; Jackel, L.D. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))


    The large interconnectivity and moderate precision required in neural network models present new opportunities for analog computing. This paper discusses analog circuits for a variety of problems such as pattern matching, optimization, and learning. Most of the circuits build so far are relatively small, exploratory designs. The most mature circuits are those for template matching. Chips performing this function are now being applied to pattern recognition problems.

  11. Contrasting Permo - Carboniferous Evolution of Resita and Sirinia - Presacina Basins (South Carpathians, Romania); an overview. (United States)

    Tatu, M.; Seghedi, I.; Nutu, L. M.; Nicolae, I.


    Two important Permo-Carboniferous molasses basins Resita and Sirinia - Presacina occur in Romanian Banat (south-western part of Carpathian chain), unconformable overlie the Getic and Danubian domains with different pre-Variscan and Variscan geodynamic history. They show differences in their lithology reflecting various geotectonic settings and evolutions. In the Resita domain the Upper Carboniferous deposits (Westphalian - Stephanian in age, according to the previous paleobotanic and palynological data) are important in volume and they contain terrigeneous siliciclastic rocks represented by sandy - conglomerate and argillaceous - sandy rocks variable in thickness with siltstone, carbonaceous shale and coal beds interlayering. There are not volcanic rocks present in Upper Carboniferous of Resita domain. In contrast with Resita in the Sirinia - Presacina basins the Upper Carboniferous deposits are volumetrically more restrictive. These deposits transgresively overlie pre-Sudetian formations and consist of continental - lacustrine terrigeneous formations, rarely associated with limnic carbonatic rocks. In this association the alternating conglomerate, siliceous sandstone, siltstone and clay with lens - like coal inter-layers prevails. In two small areas Dragosela - Tulinecea - Camenita (in the western part) and Baia Noua - Cucuiova (in the eastern part) the terrigeneous deposits are associated with basaltic andesite and andesite rocks with alkaline affinity. In both of these basins the Lower Permian deposits (according to the paleobotanic data) unconformably overlie the Upper Carboniferous formations and/or pre-Sudetian basements. The Lower Permian deposits in the Resita basin occur in two superposed formations (Nastaseanu, 1987): (1) Walchia Beds dominated by black argillaceous shales, slightly bituminous with rare sandy-conglomerate interlayers and (2) Red Beds composed by sandy-conglomerate deposits with some argillaceous intercalations, all red in color, with

  12. Global taxonomic diversity of anomodonts (tetrapoda, therapsida) and the terrestrial rock record across the Permian-Triassic boundary. (United States)

    Fröbisch, Jörg


    The end-Permian biotic crisis (~252.5 Ma) represents the most severe extinction event in Earth's history. This paper investigates diversity patterns in Anomodontia, an extinct group of therapsid synapsids ('mammal-like reptiles'), through time and in particular across this event. As herbivores and the dominant terrestrial tetrapods of their time, anomodonts play a central role in assessing the impact of the end-Permian extinction on terrestrial ecosystems. Taxonomic diversity analysis reveals that anomodonts experienced three distinct phases of diversification interrupted by the same number of extinctions, i.e. an end-Guadalupian, an end-Permian, and a mid-Triassic extinction. A positive correlation between the number of taxa and the number of formations per time interval shows that anomodont diversity is biased by the Permian-Triassic terrestrial rock record. Normalized diversity curves indicate that anomodont richness continuously declines from the Middle Permian to the Late Triassic, but also reveals all three extinction events. Taxonomic rates (origination and extinction) indicate that the end-Guadalupian and end-Permian extinctions were driven by increased rates of extinction as well as low origination rates. However, this pattern is not evident at the final decline of anomodont diversity during the Middle Triassic. Therefore, it remains unclear whether the Middle Triassic extinction represents a gradual or abrupt event that is unique to anomodonts or more common among terrestrial tetrapods. The end-Permian extinction represents the most distinct event in terms of decline in anomodont richness and turnover rates.

  13. The Donbas Foldbelt: its relationships with the uninverted Donets segment of the Dniepr Donets Basin, Ukraine (United States)

    Stovba, S. M.; Stephenson, R. A.


    The Donbas Foldbelt (DF) is a thrust-faulted and folded, inverted, segment of the Dniepr-Donets Basin (DDB). It lies between the Scythian and East European platforms north of the Black Sea and is conventionally thought to have formed in the Early Permian as part of the late Palaeozoic Hercynian-Uralian orogenic frame of cratonic Europe. The DDB itself formed as a result of Late Devonian intracratonic rifting and contains a thick, up to 22 km, late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary succession. The deformed strata preserved at the erosional surface of the DF are mainly Carboniferous. The Donets segment of the DDB displays mild inversion structures that are transitional to those in the DF. Recently acquired regional seismic reflection data in the Donets part of the DDB allow these structures to be imaged in the subsurface for the first time. A widespread Early Permian unconformity occurring throughout the DDB is much more pronounced on its southern margin than on its northern one and appears to be related to profound uplift of the southern flank of the basin and the neighbouring Ukrainian Shield rather than to crustal shortening. Faults associated with the Early Permian unconformity are extensional in style. Gentle folds and other local structures in the southern flank and axis of the Donets segment are mainly located in areas associated with Early Permian salt movements. No significant development of compressional structures of Early Permian age can be seen in the seismic data where it is available. In contrast, there is ample evidence of latest Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary compressional deformation in the DDB, including the subsurface expression of structures along strike of the main folds of the DF. A review of geological evidence in the DF also indicates that the main period of shortening that can be definitely constrained in time is latest Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary. The eastern part of the DF records intense Late Triassic-aged (Cimmerian) deformation but

  14. Taeniopterid lamina on Phasmatocycas megasporophylls (Cycadales) from the Lower Permian of Kansas, U.S.A. (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.


    New specimens of Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris from the original Lower Permian locality in Kansas demonstrate organic attachment of the two and corroborate Mamay's hypothesis that Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris were parts of the same plant. These forms also suggest that cycads evolved from taxa with entire leaves; i.e. Taeniopteris, rather than from pteridosperms with compound leaves. ?? 1986.

  15. Sphenophytes, pteridosperms and possible cycads from the Wuchiapingian (Lopingian, Permian) of Bletterbach (Dolomites, Northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustatscher, E.; Bauer, K.; Butzmann, R.; Fischer, T.C.; Meller, B.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; Kerp, H.


    The Bletterbach flora is the most important late Permian (Lopingian) flora of the Southern Alps. The study of a new fossiliferous bed stratigraphically below the cephalopod bed yielded almost 500 plant fossils, 28 of which belong to rare Lopingian plant groups: horsetails, seed ferns and possible cy

  16. Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction. (United States)

    Lau, Kimberly V; Maher, Kate; Altiner, Demir; Kelley, Brian M; Kump, Lee R; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Weaver, Karrie L; Yu, Meiyi; Payne, Jonathan L


    Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and (238)U/(235)U isotopic compositions (δ(238)U) of Upper Permian-Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ(238)U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and -0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and -0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans-characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves-global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe.

  17. Climatic and biotic upheavals following the end-Permian mass extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, C.; Goudemand, N.; Vennemann, T.W.; Ware, D.; Schneebeli-Hermann, E.; Hochuli, P.A.; Brühwiler, T.; Brinkmann, W.; Bucher, H.


    Recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction is frequently described as delayed, with complex ecological communities typically not found in the fossil record until the Middle Triassic epoch. However, the taxonomic diversity of a number of marine groups, ranging from ammonoids to benthic foraminifer

  18. The continental Permian-Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szurlies, M.; Geluk, M.C.; Krijgsman, W.; Kürschner, W.M.


    In Central and NW Europe, the transition from the Permian to the Triassic (i.e., the Zechstein–Buntsandstein boundary interval) is developed mainly in red bed facies. This continental sedimentary succession is marked by relatively high sedimentation rates providing a high temporal resolution favorab

  19. Pattern of marine mass extinction near the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China. (United States)

    Jin, Y G; Wang, Y; Wang, W; Shang, Q H; Cao, C Q; Erwin, D H


    The Meishan section across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China is the most thoroughly investigated in the world. A statistical analysis of the occurrences of 162 genera and 333 species confirms a sudden extinction event at 251.4 million years ago, coincident with a dramatic depletion of delta13C(carbonate) and an increase in microspherules.

  20. Integrated Sr isotope variations and global environmental changes through the Late Permian to early Late Triassic (United States)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Huyue; Chen, Jing; Chu, Daoliang; Tian, Li; Luo, Mao; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Yanlong; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei


    New 87Sr/86Sr data based on 127 well-preserved and well-dated conodont samples from South China were measured using a new technique (LA-MC-ICPMS) based on single conodont albid crown analysis. These reveal a spectacular climb in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the Early Triassic that was the most rapid of the Phanerozoic. The rapid increase began in Bed 25 of the Meishan section (GSSP of the Permian-Triassic boundary, PTB), and coincided closely with the latest Permian extinction. Modeling results indicate that the accelerated rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be ascribed to a rapid increase (>2.8×) of riverine flux of Sr caused by intensified weathering. This phenomenon could in turn be related to an intensification of warming-driven runoff and vegetation die-off. Continued rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Early Triassic indicates that continental weathering rates were enhanced >1.9 times compared to those of the Late Permian. Continental weathering rates began to decline in the middle-late Spathian, which may have played a role in the decrease of oceanic anoxia and recovery of marine benthos. The 87Sr/86Sr values decline gradually into the Middle Triassic to an equilibrium values around 1.2 times those of the Late Permian level, suggesting that vegetation coverage did not attain pre-extinction levels thereby allowing higher runoff.

  1. Controls on body size during the Late Permian mass extinction event. (United States)

    He, W-H; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Shi, G R; Feng, Q-L; Yu, J-X; Wu, S-B; Peng, X-F


    This study examines the morphological responses of Late Permian brachiopods to environmental changes. Quantitative analysis of body size data from Permian-Triassic brachiopods has demonstrated significant, directional changes in body size before, during and after the Late Permian mass extinction event. Brachiopod size significantly reduced before and during the extinction interval, increased for a short time in more extinction-resistant taxa in the latter stages of extinction and then dramatically reduced again across the Permian/Triassic boundary. Relative abundances of trace elements and acritarchs demonstrate that the body size reductions which happened before, during and after extinction were driven by primary productivity collapse, whereas declining oxygen levels had less effect. An episode of size increase in two of the more extinction-resistant brachiopod species is unrelated to environmental change and possibly was the result of reduced interspecific competition for resources following the extinction of competitors. Based on the results of this study, predictions can be made for the possible responses of modern benthos to present-day environmental changes.

  2. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Joachimski, Michael M.; Korn, Dieter


    diagenetically resistant apatite of conodonts and low-Mg calcite of brachiopods from stratigraphically well-constrained Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary successions in northwestern Iran. A new evaluation is made for previously published conodont δ18O values from South China and revised palaeotemperatures...

  3. Qasimia gen. nov., an early Marattia-like fern from the Permian of Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, C.R.; Wagner, R.H.; El-Khayal, A. A.


    The marattialean fern Qasimia schyfsmae (Lemoigne) gen. et comb. nov. is described from the Late Permian plant bed at Unayzah in central Saudi Arabia. Although no organic matter is preserved, impregnation of the compressions by iron minerals at an early stage of diagenesis has partly mineralised the

  4. A tale of two extinctions : converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Wignall, Paul B.


    The end-Permian (c. 252 Ma) and end-Triassic (c. 201 Ma) mass-extinction events are commonly linked to the emplacement of the large igneous provinces of the Siberia Traps and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively. Accordingly, scenarios for both extinctions are increasingly convergent and

  5. The prospects of oil occurrence of the upper Permian and Triassic layers in the Michaiusk area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabushin, A.A.; Turchaninov, G.N.


    Oil manifestations in the upper Permian and Triassic deposits in the Michaiusk area are analyzed. In the Triassic deposits, the T-1 layer is identified, and it is recommended as a first order objective for the set up of prospect developing operations in the search for oil.

  6. Biogenic silica microfossils in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation, Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garming, J.F.L.; Franks, S.G.; Cremer, H.; Abbink, O.A.


    Biogenic silica particles (BSPs) have been discovered in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation of Saudi Arabia. The BSPs are extracted from sediments that are generally barren of macro- or microfossils. BSPs have been found in the Basal Khuff Clastics (BKC), and the Unayzah A, B

  7. Phosphatic Permian rocks of the Adobe Range, Nevada, and their environment of deposition (United States)

    Ketner, Keith Brindley


    Permian sedimentary rocks in the Adobe range, northern Nevada, are phosphatic, and although the particles of phosphate are relatively more disseminated, they closely resemble the rocks of the Phosphoria Formation. In the northern Adobe Range, where the entire Permian sequence is approximately correlative with the Phosphoria Formation, it is 200 m thick and averages 1.7 percent P2O5 . In the southern Adobe Range, the Permian sequence is more than 1,700 m thick, and the upper half which is roughly correlative with the Phosphoria Formation averages more than 2 percent P2O5. Some thin beds in rocks of Permian age contain more than 20 percent P2O5. Phosphatic rocks of the Adobe Range were deposited in shallow water among islands in the western part of the epicontinental Phosphoria sea. The continental margin and the open ocean lay far to the west. At the same time, the Phosphoria Formation was being deposited in the eastern and central parts of the Phosphoria sea. Theories based on the work of Kasakov done in 1937 relating phosphate deposition directly to sites of upwelling oceanic waters are questioned. Nondeposition of diluent materials such as detritus and carbonate is probably of more importance in producing phosphate in economic concentrations than is geographic position with respect to upwelling waters.

  8. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea (United States)

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; Celâl Şengör, A. M.; Schultz, Cesar L.


    The medial Permian (∼270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction.

  9. The natural remanent magnetizations of the exeter volcanic traps (Permian, Europe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, J.D.A.


    The natural remanent magnetizations of 35 samples from five quarries in the Permian traps from the Exeter region were carefully examined. A considerable number of the samples contained a secondary magnetism, the intensity of which was directly proportional to the susceptibility. This secondary magne

  10. Analog approach to mixed analog-digital circuit simulation (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan


    Logic simulation of digital circuits is a well explored research area. Most up-to-date CAD tools for digital circuits simulation use an event driven, selective trace algorithm and Hardware Description Languages (HDL), e.g. the VHDL. This techniques enable simulation of mixed circuits, as well, where an analog part is connected to the digital one through D/A and A/D converters. The event-driven mixed simulation applies a unified, digital-circuits dedicated method to both digital and analog subsystems. In recent years HDL techniques have been also applied to mixed domains, as e.g. in the VHDL-AMS. This paper presents an approach dual to the event-driven one, where an analog part together with a digital one and with converters is treated as the analog subsystem and is simulated by means of circuit simulation techniques. In our problem an analog solver used yields some numerical problems caused by nonlinearities of digital elements. Efficient methods for overriding these difficulties have been proposed.

  11. Lithofacies paleogeography and favorable gas exploration zones of Qixia and Maokou Fms in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingao Zhou


    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, the Middle Permian marine carbonate rocks are important natural gas pay zones with immense exploration potential, but the facies belts and distribution situations of layered dolomite reservoirs are not clear, which hinders the progress in natural gas exploration. In view of the sedimentary background of the Sichuan Basin, field outcrop section, drilling data and seismic data were comprehensively analyzed with the favorable reservoir intervals in the framework of sequence stratigraphy as the key research units. Research results about its lithofacies paleogeography were obtained as follows. First, a gentle slope SW high and NE low was presented during the sedimentation of the Qixia Fm in the Middle Permian. In the Maokou Fm of the Middle Permian, however, a series of the N–W trending intra-platform rifts were developed in this setting, and eventually a paleogeographic pattern of NE-dipping alternative uplift and depression was evolved. Second, in the Qixia Fm, the transgressive tract was in an open platform environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin beach in the area of Jiange–Ya'an is the favorable reservoir facies belt. And third, in the Maokou Fm, the transgressive tract was in the carbonate shelf environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin reef flat in the area of Jiange–Ya'an and the syneclise margin beach in the area of Yanting–Guang'an are favorable reservoir facies belts. It is concluded that the two grain beach facies belts in the areas of Jiange–Ya'an and Yanting–Guang'an were the favorable zones for the large-scale development of Middle Permian layered dolomite reservoirs and they are the main target of subsequent natural gas exploration.

  12. Late Permian basalts in the northwestern margin of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province: Implications for the origin of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; LÜ, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Zhiguo


    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are reported for two types of basalts (Type I and Type II) from a Permian volcanic-pyroclastic succession in the Tubagou section, Baoxing area along the southeastern margin of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane (SGT) in the Sichuan province of SW China. Zircons from the uppermost basaltic flows yield crystallization age of 257.3 ± 2.0 Ma, which may represent the time of culmination the basaltic eruption. Type I shows alkaline affinity with εNd(t) values of + 2.4 to + 2.9, and is characterized by oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type light rare earth element (LREE) and trace-element patterns. In contrast, Type II rocks are tholeiitic, and close to initial rift tholeiite (IRT)-like REE and trace element patterns, and are relatively depleted in highly incompatible elements with slightly negative Nb-Ta anomaly. The εNd(t) values of Type II are between + 1.8 to + 2.2. The geochemical characteristics suggest the Type I has not been significantly crustally contaminated, whereas Type II maybe have experienced minor crustal contamination. Clinopyroxene crystallization temperature is ~ 80-120°C higher than that of the normal asthenospheric mantle, implying anomalous thermal input from mantle source and a possible plume-head origin for the Tubagou lava. The geochemical and isotopic fes, reflecting progressive lithosphere thinning probably through plume-lithosphere interaction. The spatial and temporal coincidence between the Dashibao basalt eruptions, reflecting progressive lithosphere thinning probably through plume-lithosphere interaction. The spatial and temporal coincidence between the Dashibao basalt eruption and continental rifting suggest that continental break-up and the opening of an extensional basin was probably related to the Late Permian Emeishan plume, which triggered the breakup between the SGT and the Yangtze craton.

  13. Breakthroughs in the biodiversity, biogeography, biostratigraphy, and basin analysis of the Beaufort group (United States)

    Hancox, P. J.; Rubidge, B. S.


    Over the past decade researchers working on the rocks of the Beaufort Group in the main Karoo Basin of South Africa have vastly increased our understanding of this important Permo-Triassic sequence. Many new fossil forms have been discovered, allowing for breakthroughs into the biodiversity, biogeography and biostratigraphy of the group. Taxonomic and phylogenetic advances are many and varied, and cover most of the vertebrate taxa, but with emphasis placed on the temnospondyl amphibians, archosauriforms and non-mammalian synapsids, in particular the anomodontia. Biostratigraphic breakthroughs have centered on the Middle Permian Eodicynodon and Tapinocephalus assemblage zones, the Late Permian Dicynodon Assemblage Zone, and the Triassic Lystrosaurus and Cynognathus assemblage zones. Correlation of these biozones with better dated sequences in Europe, Russia and China has allowed for many chronostratigraphic refinements, which are in turn vital for sequence stratigraphical analysis of the basin fill. Based on fossil data, both the lower (Ecca-Beaufort) and upper (Beaufort-Molteno) contacts of the group have been proved to be highly diachronous. The refined chronostratigraphic framework has also allowed for a better analysis of the basin evolution through time, particularly in terms of the correlation of external stimuli that affect basin sedimentation patterns.

  14. First report of the fertile plant genus Umkomasia from Late Permian beds in India and its biostratigraphic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, S.; Singh, K.J.; Jha, N. [Birbal Sahni Institute for Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    The genus Umkomasia Thomas, a female fructification of Dicroidium, is reported from Late Permian beds exposed in the Behra Rivulet near the village of Karaonda in the Tatapani-Ramkola Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India. This is the first record of this genus from the Late Permian, and from Indian Gondwana. Two species have been recognized: Umkomasia polycarpa Holmes and U. uniramia Axsmith, Taylor, Taylor and Cuneo. The find suggests that the genus Dicroidium appeared in the Late Permian before reaching its acme in the Middle-Upper Triassic.

  15. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Beatrice FOREL


    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  16. Permian/Triassic Boundary and Its Correlation in the Daxian-Xuanhan Area, Northeastern Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yongsheng; MOU Chuanlong; TAN Qinyin; YU Qian; WANG Ruihua


    There are different opinions about the Permian/Triassic boundary and its correlation in the Daxian- Xuanhan area because of lacking typical lithological symbols and fossil criterions. Especially,it is very hard to determine the Permian/Triassic boundary in the Daxian-Xuanhan buried areas. This brings many difficulties to geological research and oil and gas exploration. Based on field investigation and studies of well cores, newly found fossils, lithological characteristics and well log analyses, the authors discussed the Permian/Triassic boundary in the Daxian-Xuanhan area and brought forward a specific scheme for its determination and regional correlation.

  17. An integrated biomarker, isotopic and palaeoenvironmental study through the Late Permian event at Lusitaniadalen, Spitsbergen (United States)

    Nabbefeld, Birgit; Grice, Kliti; Twitchett, Richard J.; Summons, Roger E.; Hays, Lindsay; Böttcher, Michael E.; Asif, Muhammad


    The largest extinction of the Phanerozoic occurred near the Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary some 252 Ma ago. Several scenarios and drivers have been proposed for this event. Here we report for the first time an integrated study comprising sedimentological data, biomarker distributions/abundances and selected stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes along with bulk isotopes (δ 34S pyrite, δ 13C carb, δ 13C org) for a Late Permian section from Lusitaniadalen, Spitsbergen, Norway. Sedimentological and geochemical data support a marine transgression and collapse of the marine ecosystem in the Late Permian. Strong evidence for waxing and waning of photic zone euxinia throughout the Late Permian is provided by Chlorobiaceae-derived biomarkers (including δ 13C data) and δ 34S pyrite, implying multiple phases of H 2S outgassing and potentially several pulses of extinction. A rapid decrease in abundance of various land-plant biomarkers prior to the marine collapse event indicates a dramatic decline of land-plants during the Late Permian and/or increasing distance from palaeoshoreline as a consequence of sea level rise. Changes in δD of selected biomarkers also suggest a change in source of organic matter (OM) or sea level rise. We also found biomarker and isotopic evidence for a phytoplanktonic bloom triggered by eutrophication as a consequence of the marine collapse. Compound specific isotope analyses (CSIA) of algal and land-plant-derived biomarkers, as well as δ 13C of carbonate and bulk OM provide strong evidence for synchronous changes in δ 13C of marine and atmospheric CO 2, attributed to a 13C-depleted source. The source could be associated with isotopically depleted methane released from the melting of gas clathrates and/or from respired OM, due to collapse of the marine ecosystem.

  18. Geological event sequences of the Permian-Triassic transition recorded in the microfacies in Meishan section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO ChangQun; ZHENG QuanFeng


    The microfacies sequence in the key interval of Beds 24-29 of the Meishan section comprehensively recorded the geological events during the Permian-Triassic transition, including the anoxia, storm disturbance, hard-ground/firm-ground form, volcanic eruption, weathering input, and microbialite de-velopment. This investigation of event sequences on the microfacies provided synthetically some clues to clarifying the previously proposed mechanisms of the end-Permian extinction. The deposit succession in Bed 24 of the Changxing Formation was developed dominantly with organic-rich lamina, but interrupted intermittently by storm disturbances. It indicates characteristically a stagnated, strati-fled and anoxic ocean during the latest Permian. The latest Permian transgression occurred rapidly at the top of Bed 24d and was characterized by the hard-ground interface. Abundant clay mineral of illite indicates the occurrence of persistent weathering of continental volcanics and then buried in ocean throughout this key Permo-Triassic transitional interval. However, the "boundary ash clay" of Bed 25 yielding normal grading of hyaloclastite was the result of precipitation of volcanic dusts. The firm-ground substrate in Unit 27-2 was lithe and excavated intensively by trace fossil Glossifungites; it means also the occurrence of the earliest Triassic rapid transgression and coincides with the first ap-pearance of conodont Hindeodus parvus. Dune-shaped microbialite in Unit 27-5 defines biostrati-graphically that its development, especially in the carbonate platform of South China, should corre-spond to the earliest Triassic; and it also indicates the final episode of the end-Permian extinction event.

  19. Geological event sequences of the Permian-Triassic transition recorded in the microfacies in Meishan section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The microfacies sequence in the key interval of Beds 24―29 of the Meishan section comprehensively recorded the geological events during the Permian-Triassic transition, including the anoxia, storm disturbance, hard-ground/firm-ground form, volcanic eruption, weathering input, and microbialite development. This investigation of event sequences on the microfacies provided synthetically some clues to clarifying the previously proposed mechanisms of the end-Permian extinction. The deposit succession in Bed 24 of the Changxing Formation was developed dominantly with organic-rich lamina, but interrupted intermittently by storm disturbances. It indicates characteristically a stagnated, stratified and anoxic ocean during the latest Permian. The latest Permian transgression occurred rapidly at the top of Bed 24d and was characterized by the hard-ground interface. Abundant clay mineral of illite indicates the occurrence of persistent weathering of continental volcanics and then buried in ocean throughout this key Permo-Triassic transitional interval. However, the "boundary ash clay" of Bed 25 yielding normal grading of hyaloclastite was the result of precipitation of volcanic dusts. The firm-ground substrate in Unit 27-2 was lithe and excavated intensively by trace fossil Glossifungites; it means also the occurrence of the earliest Triassic rapid transgression and coincides with the first appearance of conodont Hindeodus parvus. Dune-shaped microbialite in Unit 27-5 defines biostrati-graphically that its development, especially in the carbonate platform of South China, should corre-spond to the earliest Triassic; and it also indicates the final episode of the end-Permian extinction event.

  20. Coring and High-Resolution Imaging of the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Deltadalen, Svalbard (United States)

    Planke, Sverre


    The Permian-Triassic extinction was likely triggered by the voluminous igneous activity of the Siberian Traps. There are, however, limited information available about the effects of the Siberian Traps volcanism in Permian to Triassic sedimentary successions outside Siberia. We drilled two boreholes across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) in Deltadalen, Svalbard, in August 2014, to better document the extinction event and environmental changes in the sedimentary succession in this region. Even though the PTB event is studied in several outcrops to varying degree if scrutiny on Svalbard, a scientific core is important for understanding the details of the PTB event, as outcrops may not permit studies at the appropriate levels of resolution, exposure or confidence. The Deltadalen site was chosen as an optimal drilling location after field work in the Isfjorden area in 2013 and early 2014. The almost 100 m deep holes were fully cored and penetrated the Triassic Vikinghøgda Formation (about 85 m recovered) and the Permian Kapp Starostin Formation (about 15 m). The main lithologies include Permian chert-rich green glauconitic sandstones and Triassic mudstones. A 10 m thick sedimentary reference outcrop section across the PTB was further logged and sampled in a nearby river valley. A comprehensive core analysis program is now underway. High-resolution XRF, MST and hyperspectral core scanning has been completed along the entire core surface, while high-resolution CT scanning has been carried out for whole core sections. The DD-1 core has subsequently been split, photographed, described, and sampled for geochemical, micropaleontological, petrological and magnetic analyses. Almost 10 bentonite layers have furthermore been sampled for volcanological and geochronological studies. Our goal is that the cores will become an important future reference section of the PTB in Svalbard and the high-Arctic, and help constrain the extent of the regional effects of explosive volcanism

  1. Microbialites and global environmental change across the Permian-Triassic boundary: a synthesis. (United States)

    Kershaw, S; Crasquin, S; Li, Y; Collin, P-Y; Forel, M-B; Mu, X; Baud, A; Wang, Y; Xie, S; Maurer, F; Guo, L


    Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites (PTBMs) are thin (0.05-15 m) carbonates formed after the end-Permian mass extinction. They comprise Renalcis-group calcimicrobes, microbially mediated micrite, presumed inorganic micrite, calcite cement (some may be microbially influenced) and shelly faunas. PTBMs are abundant in low-latitude shallow-marine carbonate shelves in central Tethyan continents but are rare in higher latitudes, likely inhibited by clastic supply on Pangaea margins. PTBMs occupied broadly similar environments to Late Permian reefs in Tethys, but extended into deeper waters. Late Permian reefs are also rich in microbes (and cements), so post-extinction seawater carbonate saturation was likely similar to the Late Permian. However, PTBMs lack widespread abundant inorganic carbonate cement fans, so a previous interpretation that anoxic bicarbonate-rich water upwelled to rapidly increase carbonate saturation of shallow seawater, post-extinction, is problematic. Preliminary pyrite framboid evidence shows anoxia in PTBM facies, but interbedded shelly faunas indicate oxygenated water, perhaps there was short-term pulsing of normally saturated anoxic water from the oxygen-minimum zone to surface waters. In Tethys, PTBMs show geographic variations: (i) in south China, PTBMs are mostly thrombolites in open shelf settings, largely recrystallised, with remnant structure of Renalcis-group calcimicrobes; (ii) in south Turkey, in shallow waters, stromatolites and thrombolites, lacking calcimicrobes, are interbedded, likely depth-controlled; and (iii) in the Middle East, especially Iran, stromatolites and thrombolites (calcimicrobes uncommon) occur in different sites on open shelves, where controls are unclear. Thus, PTBMs were under more complex control than previously portrayed, with local facies control playing a significant role in their structure and composition.

  2. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.


    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The systematics of lingulide brachiopods, from the end-Permian mass extinction interval, is here studied and discussed. The material has been collected from upper Permian (Changhsingian beds of Southern Alps and Lower Triassic beds of several Tethyan localities, where the surviving phase following the peak the end-Permian mass extinction is recorded. The study contributes to fill the gap of knowledge regarding the lingulide systematics during a time lapse crucial for the fate of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic marine organisms. The systematics is based both on inner shell morphology and shell microstructure, which are considered to be the most useful taxonomical characters to study the lingulide phylogeny. The specimens have been referred to species of the new genus Trentingula, which is characterized by a shell with a secondary layer virgose fabric and a primitive disposition of the ventral muscle umbonal scar in the Lingulidae phylogeny. Trentingula n. gen. comprises four species: T. lorigae n. gen. n. sp., type-species, T. borealis (Bittner, T. mazzinensis n. gen. n. sp., and T. prinothi n. gen. n. sp. The type-species is late Griesbachian – Dienerian in age and has a wide geographic distribution in the western Tethys (Southern Alps and Hungary. Trentingula prinothi n. gen. n. sp. occurs in the Upper Permian Bellerophon Formation of the Dolomites; it has a large shell with a short mantle cavity. Trentingula mazzinensis n. gen. n. sp. occurs in the Griesbachian Mazzin Member of Werfen Formation and is characterized by a small sized shell, about half of the type species, which records the “Lilliput effect” related to the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction.

  4. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahid Ghazi; Nigel P Mountney; Aftab Ahmad Butt; Sadaf Sharif


    The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage (Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode

  5. All-optical analog comparator (United States)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai


    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  6. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance (United States)

    Moore, James C.


    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  7. Magnetostratigraphy and high-resolution cyclic stratigraphy of the continental Permian-Triassic boundary interval (Central Germany) (United States)

    Szurlies, M.; Bachmann, G. H.; Menning, M.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Käding, K.-C.


    The Buntsandstein represents the lower group of the tripartite classic Germanic Triassic supergroup. It is traditionally subdivided by lithological criteria into three subgroups. In its type area of Central Germany, the Lower Buntsandstein subgroup is approximately 300 m thick and consists of red beds, predominantly fine-grained sandstones, siltstones and claystones with interbedded oolitic limestones. The clastic sediments were deposited during Late Permian to Early Triassic times in fluvio-lacustrine environments of a large intracratonic basin. The oolites were formed in hypersaline playa lakes. The Lower Buntsandstein is further subdivided into the Calvörde Formation and the Bernburg Formation. The clastic-carbonatic succession shows a distinct cyclicity, pragmatically subdivided into 20 approximately 10--25 m thick small-scale fining-upward cycles. Commonly, these cycles have a sandy-oolitic base and a shaly upper part. The small-scale fining-upward cycles are correlation cycles that are obvious in wireline logs, cores and outcrops. With wireline logs (e.g., gamma-ray logs) they can be correlated over almost the entire Central European Basin from the Netherlands in the west via Germany to Poland in the east. The oolites form well correlatable litho-markers, indicating a great consistency of facies development. The thickness of the small-scale fining-upward cycles correspond to genetic small-scale cycles, which are considered to reflect climatic fluctuation of alternating drier and wetter periods due to solar-induced 100 ka Milankovitch eccentricity cycles. With a combined litho- and log-stratigraphic investigation, a precise stratigraphic positioning of paleomagnetic results has been realized. In the surroundings of the Harz Mountains nine sections (eight outcrops, one well) were investigated. For the paleomagnetic investigations, the fine-grained sandstones, siltstones and claystones as well as the oolitic limestones were sampled in 1--2 m intervals, yielding

  8. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server


    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  9. Discussion of gas enrichment mechanism and natural gas origin in marine sedimentary basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    There are abundant natural gas resources in Chinese marine sedimentary basin. The exploration hot shots of natural gas are the Palaeozoic marine strata here in recent years, and several large scale gas fields have been discovered. Chinese Palaeozoic high-post matured and coal measure hydrocarbon source rocks are mainly prone to gas generation in the present. This research considered that gas source rocks and TSR are the key cause of gas enrichment of marine strata. High-quality argillaceous and coal measure hydrocarbon rocks are distributed widely in the Palaeozoic marine strata, which have been in highly matured phase in the present. The argillaceous source rock generally contains various sulfates that could accelerate crude oil cracking to gas for TSR occurrence, and coal measure source rock mainly generates gas, so Chinese marine basin gives priority to accumulating gas. Marine strata have not founded oil reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin, and they consist mainly of dry gas. Marine natural gases are the mixed gases of oil cracking gas and coal-formed gas in a general way,oil cracking gases contain usually some H2S and CO2. Hydrocarbon carbon isotopes are very complicated, and methane and ethane isotopic values bear apparent reversal caused by thermal evolution and mixing among different genetic types of natural gas. Coal-formed gases are the main component of Chinese marine natural gas. The Upper Permian of the Sichuan Basin and the Carboniferous-Permian of the Ordos Basin coal measure hydrocarbon source rock present large hydrocarbon generation potential, which are the prospecting highlight of marine natural gas hereafter. Oil cracking gas exploration will be paid much attention to in the Tarim Basin because of the lack of coal measure hydrocarbon source rock.

  10. Heat flow and thermal history of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma (United States)

    Carter, L.S.; Kelley, S.A.; Blackwell, D.D.; Naeser, N.D.


    end of the Permian section in the deep basin moved into the hydrocarbon maturity window during Mesozoic burial of the region. Presently, the depth interval of the main zone of oil maturation (% Ro = 0.7-0.9) is approximately 2800-3800 m in the eastern deep basin basin and 2200-3000 m in the western deep basin. The greater depth to the top of the oil maturity zone and larger depth range of the zone in the eastern part of the deep basin are due to the lower heat flow associated with more mafic basement toward the east. The burial history model for the northern shelf indicates that the Woodford formation has been in the early oil maturity zone since the Early Permian.

  11. All-optical analog comparator


    Pu Li; Xiaogang Yi; Xianglian Liu; Dongliang Zhao; Yongpeng Zhao; Yuncai Wang


    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical device...

  12. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.


    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent

  13. Formation and Evolution of the Junggar basin basement (United States)

    He, D.


    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth.Based on the borehole data from over 300 wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a 1:50,000 scale), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and process and later evolution on basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Precambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan-Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan-Baijiahai-Qitai respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending retro-arc or inter-arc basin belts from north to south, such as Santanghu-Suosuoquan-Emin, Wucaiwan-Dongdaohaizi-Mahu (Mahu block sunk as a bathyal basin during this phase) and Fukang-western well Pen1 accordingly. Thirdly, the closure of these retro-arc or inter-arc basins gradually toward the south led to the occurrence of collision and amalgamation of the above-mentioned island arcs during the Carboniferous, constituting the basic framework of the Junggar "block". Fourthly, the emplacement of large-scale mantle-derived magmas occurred in the latest Carboniferous or Early Permian. For instance, the well Mahu 5 penetrate the latest Carboniferous basalts with a thickness of over 20m, and these mantle-derived magmas concreted the above-mentioned island arc-collaged body. Therefore, the Junggar basin basement mainly comprises pre-Carboniferous collaged basement, and its formation is characterized by two-stage growth model, involving the

  14. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons


    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  15. Global Taxonomic Diversity of Anomodonts (Tetrapoda, Therapsida) and the Terrestrial Rock Record Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary


    Jörg Fröbisch


    The end-Permian biotic crisis (~252.5 Ma) represents the most severe extinction event in Earth's history. This paper investigates diversity patterns in Anomodontia, an extinct group of therapsid synapsids ('mammal-like reptiles'), through time and in particular across this event. As herbivores and the dominant terrestrial tetrapods of their time, anomodonts play a central role in assessing the impact of the end-Permian extinction on terrestrial ecosystems. Taxonomic diversity analysis reveals...

  16. Molecular carbon isotope variations in core samples taken at the Permian-Triassic boundary layers in southern China (United States)

    Wang, Ruiliang; Zhang, Shuichang; Brassell, Simon; Wang, Jiaxue; Lu, Zhengyuan; Ming, Qingzhong; Wang, Xiaomei; Bian, Lizeng


    Stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of carbonate sediments and the molecular (biomarker) characteristics of a continuous Permian-Triassic (PT) layer in southern China were studied to obtain geochemical signals of global change at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Carbonate carbon isotope values shifted toward positive before the end of the Permian period and then shifted negative above the PTB into the Triassic period. Molecular carbon isotope values of biomarkers followed the same trend at and below the PTB and remained negative in the Triassic layer. These biomarkers were acyclic isoprenoids, ranging from C15 to C40, steranes (C27 dominates) and terpenoids that were all significantly more abundant in samples from the Permian layer than those from the Triassic layer. The Triassic layer was distinguished by the dominance of higher molecular weight (waxy) n-alkanes. Stable carbon isotope values of individual components, including n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids such as phytane, isop-C25, and squalane, are depleted in δ13C by up to 8-10‰ in the Triassic samples as compared to the Permian. Measured molecular and isotopic variations of organic matter in the PT layers support the generally accepted view of Permian oceanic stagnation followed by a massive upwelling of toxic deep waters at the PTB. A series of large-scale (global) outgassing events may be associated with the carbon isotope shift we measured. This is also consistent with the lithological evidence we observed of white thin-clay layers in this region. Our findings, in context with a generally accepted stagnant Permian ocean, followed by massive upwelling of toxic deep waters might be the major causes of the largest global mass extinction event that occurred at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  17. Shallow marine ecosystem feedback to the Permian/Triassic mass extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongbiao WANG; Zheng MENG; Wei LIAO; Zeting WENG; Hao YANG


    Late Permian reefs developed widely on shallow marine carbonate platforms in South China but disappeared far below the main mass extinction level of the latest Permian. The collapse of reef ecosystem may be related to the enhanced volcanism at the end of Late Permian. Notably, some colony corals and reef-building sponges were found to occur near the mass extinction boundary, inferring the eclipse of reef ecosystem is ahead of the disappearance of reef-building organisms, and the triggers would be present long before the main mass extinction. As the primary producers, the calcareous algae are rich in platform limestones of Late Permian and played a very important role in maintaining the shallow benthic ecosystems. The calcareous algae were found to disappear synchronously with the great reduction of foraminifers,which were ecologically associated with these algae. The extinction of Late Permian calcareous algae greatly reduced the biodiversity of primary producers in the shallow marine environment and destroyed in part the structure and the base of the shallow marine ecosystems,which in turn cause the extinction of ecologically associated metazoan. Microbialites developed on carbonate platforms immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction, representing a simple and unique microbial ecosystem. Widespread occurrence of microbialites symbolized the deterioration of marine environmental conditions and the dramatic revolution of marine ecosystems. As the new primary producers instead of the extinguished calcareous algae, cyanobacteria in the microbialites were an important base of this peculiar ecosystem and contributed greatly to the survival of the remnant faunas after the mass extinction. Widespread occurrence of microbialites in shallow marine environment is suggested to be related to the elevated level of volcanism-induced greenhouse gases and enhanced evaporation and hypersaline condition in addition to the decrease of metazoan grazing pressure. The change

  18. Life crises on land across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China (United States)

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Shi, G. R.


    The western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan area of southwest China commands a unique and significant position globally in the study of Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) events as it contains well and continuously exposed PTB sections of marine, non-marine and marginal-marine origin in the same area. By using a range of high-resolution stratigraphic methods including biostratigraphy, eventostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy, not only are the non-marine PTB sections correlated with their marine counterparts in the study area with high-resolution, the non-marine PTB sections of the study area can also be aligned with the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Meishan in eastern China. Plant megafossils ("megaplants") in the study area indicate a major loss in abundance and diversity across the PTB, and no coal beds and/or seams have been found in the non-marine Lower Triassic although they are very common in the non-marine Upper Permian. The megaplants, however, did not disappear consistently across the whole area, with some elements of the Late Permian Cathaysian Gigantopteris flora surviving the PTB mass extinction and locally even extending up to the Lower Triassic. Palynomorphs exhibit a similar temporal pattern characterized by a protracted stepwise decrease from fern-dominated spores in the Late Permian to pteridosperm and gymnosperm-dominated pollen in the Early Triassic, which was however punctuated by an accelerated loss in both abundance and diversity across the PTB. Contemporaneous with the PTB crisis in the study area was the peculiar prevalence and dominance of some fungi and/or algae species. The temporal patterns of megaplants and palynomorphs across the PTB in the study area are consistent with the regional trends of plant changes in South China, which also show a long-term decrease in species diversity from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian through the Changhsingian to the earliest Triassic, with about 48% and 77% losses of

  19. Mathematical Analogy and Metaphorical Insight (United States)

    Zwicky, Jan


    How are we to understand the power of certain literary metaphors? The author argues that the apprehension of good metaphors is importantly similar to the apprehension of fruitful mathematical analogies: both involve a structural realignment of vision. The author then explores consequences of this claim, drawing conceptually significant parallels…

  20. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons (United States)

    Eid, Wolfram


    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  1. Schema Training in Analogical Reasoning. (United States)

    Robins, Shani; Mayer, Richard E.


    In 3 experiments, 93, 97, and 86 college students, respectively, learned how to solve 20 verbal analogy problems and took transfer and memory tests. Results are inconsistent with active responding theory and further indicate that schema induction is maximized when the schemas are made salient and the cognitive system is not overloaded. (SLD)


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans


    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course 49205 Analog and Digital Filters...

  3. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software (United States)

    Arens, Ellen


    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  4. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichard, G.F.


    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body.

  5. Episodic euxinia in the Changhsingian (late Permian) of South China: Evidence from framboidal pyrite and geochemical data (United States)

    Wei, Hengye; Algeo, Thomas J.; Yu, Hao; Wang, Jiangguo; Guo, Chuan; Shi, Guo


    A multiproxy study of a new Upper Permian-Lower Triassic section (Xiaojiaba) in Sichuan Province, China, documents large changes in marine productivity, redox conditions and detrital input prior to the latest Permian mass extinction. Marine productivity, as proxied by total organic carbon content (TOC), biogenic SiO2, and excess barium, displays a long-term decline through most of the Changhsingian stage (late late Permian), culminating in very low values around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Concurrently, redox proxies including pyrite framboid, δ34Spy, Moauth and Uauth, and Corg/P document a shift from suboxic to dysoxic/oxic conditions that was interrupted by several episodes of benthic euxinia, and detrital siliciclastic proxies (Al, Hf, Nb, and REEs) suggest an increased flux of weathered material from land areas. The long-term changes in productivity, redox conditions, and terrigenous detrital fluxes were probably caused by a regional sea-level fall across the South China Craton. On the other hand, the brief euxinic episodes occurring during the late Permian had oceanographic causes, probably related to the transient upward expansion of the chemocline at the top of the oceanic oxygen-minimum zone. These euxinic episodes may have been harbingers of the more widespread anoxia that developed concurrently with the latest Permian mass extinction and that may have played a major role in triggering the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic.

  6. Biostratigraphic correlation and mass extinction during the Permian-Triassic transition in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings of South China (United States)

    Chu, Daoliang; Yu, Jianxin; Tong, Jinnan; Benton, Michael J.; Song, Haijun; Huang, Yunfei; Song, Ting; Tian, Li


    The Permian-Triassic boundary marks the greatest mass extinction during the Phanerozoic, which was coupled with major global environmental changes, and is known especially from well-preserved marine fossil records and continuous carbonate deposits. However, the placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary in terrestrial sections and accurate correlation with the marine strata are difficult due to the absence of the key marine index fossils in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings. Here, we present detailed fossil data from four terrestrial sections, two paralic sections and one shallow marine section in South China. Our data show that the rapid mass disappearance of the Gigantopteris flora in various sections represents the end-Permian mass extinction and the base of the Permian-Triassic transitional beds in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings of South China. In particular, we find a mixed marine and terrestrial biota from the coastal transitional sections of the Permian-Triassic transitional Kayitou Formation, which provides a unique intermediate link for biostratigraphic correlation between terrestrial and marine sequences. Accordingly, the Euestheria gutta-bearing conchostracan fauna and the Pteria ussurica variabilis-Towapteria scythica-Eumorphotis venetiana bivalve assemblage are proposed as markers of the Permian-Triassic transitional beds in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings of South China.

  7. Sponges of the Permian Upper Capitan Limestone Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas (United States)

    Rigby, J.K.; Senowbari-Daryan, B.; Liu, H.


    Demosponge "sphinctozoans" and inozoid calcareous sponges are major constituents of the Upper Permian, Upper Capitan Limestone in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico and Texas. Systematic description, taxonomy, and the stratigraphic distribution of these sponges are documented in collections from exposures of the Upper Capitan Limestone in the vicinity of Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. The fauna appears diverse on a local scale, but when compared to diversity of assemblages of similar age in Tunisia and in Southern China, the assemblage is species poor, with 34 species of "calcareous" sponges and demosponges. Whether this is a local time or geographic gradient must wait additional investigations of sponge faunas from older parts of the Guadalupian series in the Guadalupe Mountains, as well as in localities southward in Texas and Mexico. Upper Capitan exposures near Carlsbad Caverns are at the northernmost end of the long Delaware Basin that was restricted by the Hovey channel to the south. As a consequence of either that restricted ecologic limitation or a time stratigraphic factor, Late Capitan assemblages are characterized by abundant individuals of only a few endemic species, and by relatively primitive cosmopolitan genera and species that were able to persist beyond the ranges of more specialized forms. Species in the collections include the ceractinomorphid porate "sphinctozoans" Cystothalamia guadalupensis (Girty, 1908a), Amblysiphonella cf. A. merlai Parona, 1933, Amblysiphonella species A, Amblysiphonella species B, Discosiphonella mammilosa (King, 1943), Tristratocoelia rhythmica Senowbari-Daryan and Rigby, 1988, Exaulipora permica (Senowbari-Daryan, 1990), type species of the new genus Exaulipora, Parauvanella minima Senowbari-Daryan, 1990, and Platythalamiella(?) sp., all from the families Sebargasiidae Steinmann, 1882, and Colospongiidae Senowbari-Daryan, 1990. The family Solenolmiidae Engeser, 1986 is represented by the new species Preverticillites

  8. Isotopic evidence for water-column denitrification and sulfate reduction at the end-Guadalupian (Middle Permian) (United States)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Isozaki, Yukio; Nishizawa, Manabu; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng; Takai, Ken; Yoshida, Naohiro; Matsuo, Motoyuki


    The total nitrogen and pyrite sulfur isotopic compositions of the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Middle-Upper Permian) shelf carbonates are analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, to clarify the environmental changes in the relatively deep disphotic zone (generally deeper than 150 m) in the ocean at the end-Guadalupian, focusing on the possible relationships with the deep-sea oxygen depletion and the shallow-sea extinction. At Chaotian, the Guadalupian Maokou Formation and the Early Lopingian Wujiaping Formation are primarily composed of bioclastic limestone of shallow-water facies, although the topmost part of the Maokou Formation (ca. 11 m thick) is composed of bedded black mudstone and chert that was deposited on the disphotic slope/basin under anoxic conditions. Substantially high δ15N values of total nitrogen (up to + 14‰) in the topmost Maokou Formation of the deep-water facies indicate water-mass denitrification. In the same disphotic interval, the consistently low δ34S values of pyrite (ca. - 37‰) suggest sulfate reduction in the sulfate-rich water column. The new nitrogen and sulfur isotopic records at Chaotian indicate the enhanced anaerobic respiration in the oxygen-depleted disphotic zone in the Late Guadalupian in northwestern South China. The active water-column sulfate reduction likely resulted in the emergence of a sulfidic deep-water mass on the disphotic slope/basin, which is supported by the high proportions of pyrite Fe to highly reactive Fe in the rocks shown using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The anaerobic respiration in the disphotic zone at the end-Guadalupian may have been enhanced by an expansion of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) caused by the increased primary productivity in the surface oceans; the OMZ expansion may have corresponded to the onset of prolonged oxygen depletion in the deep sea. The clear stratigraphic relationship at Chaotian shows the emergence of the sulfidic deep-waters preceding the extinction, implying

  9. 40Ar/39Ar dates from the West Siberian Basin: Siberian flood basalt province doubled. (United States)

    Reichow, Marc K; Saunders, Andrew D; White, Rosalind V; Pringle, Malcolm S; Al'Mukhamedov, Alexander I; Medvedev, Alexander I; Kirda, Nikolay P


    Widespread basaltic volcanism occurred in the region of the West Siberian Basin in central Russia during Permo-Triassic times. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations on plagioclase grains from deep boreholes in the basin reveal that the basalts were erupted 249.4 +/- 0.5 million years ago. This is synchronous with the bulk of the Siberian Traps, erupted further east on the Siberian Platform. The age and geochemical data confirm that the West Siberian Basin basalts are part of the Siberian Traps and at least double the confirmed area of the volcanic province as a whole. The larger area of volcanism strengthens the link between the volcanism and the end-Permian mass extinction.

  10. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.


    The North Caspian basin is a petroleum-rich but lightly explored basin located in Kazakhstan and Russia. It occupies the shallow northern portion of the Caspian Sea and a large plain to the north of the sea between the Volga and Ural Rivers and farther east to the Mugodzhary Highland, which is the southern continuation of the Ural foldbelt. The basin is bounded by the Paleozoic carbonate platform of the Volga-Ural province to the north and west and by the Ural, South Emba, and Karpinsky Hercynian foldbelts to the east and south. The basin was originated by pre-Late Devonian rifting and subsequent spreading that opened the oceanic crust, but the precise time of these tectonic events is not known. The sedimentary succession of the basin is more than 20 km thick in the central areas. The drilled Upper Devonian to Tertiary part of this succession includes a prominent thick Kungurian (uppermost Lower Permian) salt formation that separates strata into the subsalt and suprasalt sequences and played an important role in the formation of oil and gas fields. Shallow-shelf carbonate formations that contain various reefs and alternate with clastic wedges compose the subsalt sequence on the 1 basin margins. Basinward, these rocks grade into deep-water anoxic black shales and turbidites. The Kungurian salt formation is strongly deformed into domes and intervening depressions. The most active halokinesis occurred during Late Permian?Triassic time, but growth of salt domes continued later and some of them are exposed on the present-day surface. The suprasalt sequence is mostly composed of clastic rocks that are several kilometers thick in depressions between salt domes. A single total petroleum system is defined in the North Caspian basin. Discovered reserves are about 19.7 billion barrels of oil and natural gas liquids and 157 trillion cubic feet of gas. Much of the reserves are concentrated in the supergiant Tengiz, Karachaganak, and Astrakhan fields. A recent new oil discovery

  11. A natural analogue for copper waste canisters: The copper-uranium mineralised concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Hards, V.L. [Natural Environment Research Council (United Kingdom). British Geological Survey


    mineralisation and alteration that can be related to the burial and diagenetic history of the Permian strata. The native copper mineralisation exhibits close temporal association with the formation of uraniferous and vanadiferous concretions (known as 'fish-eyes') in the same rocks. Petrographical relationships indicate that both the copper and the 'fish-eye' concretions formed during burial diagenesis but before the maximum compaction of the host mudstone and siltstone. The regional burial history Wessex Basin, indicates that the maximum compaction of the Permian strata would have been achieved by at least the end of the Lower Jurassic (possibly even in the Triassic). Therefore, the native copper mineralisation is older than 176 Ma. The native copper sheets display a complex sequence of alteration and subsequent mineral growth of minerals on their surfaces. The earliest alteration was to copper oxides - principally cuprite with minor tenorite, indicating a change to more oxidising groundwater conditions. The dissolution of native silver and the growth of fringes of copper arsenides followed this. Nickel arsenides and chalcocite, associated with the precipitation of uranium silicates occurred in the later stages of alteration. This suggests a return to a more reducing pore water environment. Again, petrographical relationships indicate that this alteration and subsequent mineralisation is geologically old (i.e. Lower Jurassic or older). Secondary malachite, intimately intergrown copper sulphate and copper oxides, copper chloride, copper-uranium arsenate and uranium vanadates have formed as late-stage alteration products of the native copper and earlier diagenetic cuprite, chalcocite, copper-nickel arsenide and uranium silicate alteration and mineralisation. This latest stage alteration is most probably attributable to near-surface weathering processes. Although the native copper is affected by corrosion, the study has shown that a significant proportion (30

  12. The End-Permian mass extinction: What really happened and did it matter? (United States)

    Erwin, D H


    Marine communities of the Paleozoic differ markedly from those of the post-Paleozoic, a dichotomy long recognized as the most fundamental change between the Cambrian metazoan radiation and the present. The end-Permian mass extinction of about 54% of marine families eliminated many of the groups that dominated Paleozoic communities. Correlative changes occurred in terrestrial vertebrate and plant communities, but there is no clear evidence that these changes are related to the marine extinction. The marine extinction occurred during a period of physical change, and a variety of extinction mechanisms have been proposed, most related to a major Late Permian marine regression or to climatic changes. Unfortunately, the regression has made it difficult to gather data on the rate, timing and pattern of extinction, and the available data exclude only a few hypotheses. Thus the largest mass extinction, and the one with the greatest evolutionary importance, is also the most poorly understood.

  13. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A


    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S and (36)S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative δ(34)S with negative Δ(33)S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction.

  14. Episodic perturbations of end-Permian atmosphere recorded in plant spore chemistry (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley; Lomax, Barry; Beerling, David; James, David; Pyle, John; Self, Stephen; Sephton, Mark; Wellman, Charles


    The largest marine Phanerozoic extinction occurred 251 million years ago at the end of the Permian period with a contemporaneous major reorganisation of terrestrial. Previous work suggests the eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province could have generated substantial volumes of ozone depleting substances; the result being a partial collapse of the stratospheric ozone layer, and commensurate increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315nm) radiation. Increased UV-B flux would contribute additional pressures to an already stressed environment and flora and fauna. Here we present data utilising a new biogeochemical proxy for UV-B radiation to analyse clubmoss (lycophyta) megaspores to track UV-B radiation across the end-Permian interval. Our biogeochemical data when combined with published work on spore and pollen mutations suggests a highly dynamic global atmospheric system, oscillating between episodes of high and low UV-B flux, most likely driven by pulsed eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  15. Crinoids from Svalbard in the aftermath of the end−Permian mass extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamon Mariusz A.


    Full Text Available The end-Permian mass extinction constituted a major event in the history of crinoids. It led to the demise of the major Paleozoic crinoid groups including cladids, disparids, flexibles and camerates. It is widely accepted that a single lineage, derived from a late Paleozoic cladid ancestor (Ampelocrinidae, survived this mass extinction. Holocrinid crinoids (Holocrinus, Holocrinida along with recently described genus Baudicrinus (Encrinida, the only crinoid groups known from the Early Triassic, are considered the stem groups for the post-Paleozoic monophyletic subclass Articulata. Here, we report preliminary data on unexpectedly diverse crinoid faunas comprising at least four orders from the Lower Triassic (Induan and Olenekian of Svalbard, extending their stratigraphic ranges deeper into the early Mesozoic. These findings strongly imply that the recovery of crinoids in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction began much earlier at higher palaeolatitudes than in the central Tethys.

  16. Study on REEs as tracers for late permian coal measures in Bijie City, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YANG Ruidong


    Analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in 13 coal samples collected from Late Permian coal measures of Bijie City in western Guizhon Province were conducted using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results indicated that REEs patterns were not controlled by materials from the sea, whereas the contribution of land plants was about 1%. The major sources of REEs were from terrigenous material as indicated by negative Eu anomaly. There were similar distribution curves of REEs between Bijie's coal and Emeishan basalt. M12 coal seam, which had the highest ∑REE, appeared near the boundary between Longtan Formation and Changxing Formation, which was closely correlated to the eruption of Emeishan basalt. The Emeishan basalt contributed to REEs enrichment of M12. So the sources of REEs were controlled by terrigenous material, and the Emeishan basalt was the predominant source of terrigenous material, which dominated the enrichment and pattern of REEs in Late Permian coal measure from Bijie.

  17. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim


    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  18. Inter-taxa differences in extinction process of Maokouan (Middle Permian) fusulinaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Analyses of the extinction process of fusulinacean in the Maokouan (Middle Permian) biotic crisis have revealed remarkable differences between taxa with various morphological features. Nankinellinids suffered a heavy loss of species in the early stage of the Maokouan event. Schwagerinids and neoschwagerinids both showed a stepwise decrease in species diversity, but the pulses of species extinction occurred in different stages of the extinction process. The species extinction of verbeekinids happened primarily in the Late Maokouan.

  19. Evidence of Impact at the Permian/Triassic Boundary from Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, H. C.; Upadhyay, C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (India); Tripathi, R. P. [Jai Narain Vyas University, Department of Physics (India); Shukla, A. D.; Bhandari, N. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura (India)


    Sediment samples from Spiti valley, India, deposited about 250 Million years ago during the Permian-Triassic transition, have been analysed. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic studies show that iron occurs mainly as nanoparticles of hematite and goethite with a broad size distribution. The results show a high degree of resemblance with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (65 My) samples where an asteroidal impact is believed to have caused mass extinction.

  20. Paleoecology of flora from coal measures of Upper Permian in western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))


    Based on paleobotany, palynology and sedimentology, the paper discusses the paleoecology of flora from coal measures of Upper Permian in Western Guizhou. The four major floras are: the swamp flora dominated by Lycopodiales, the water front floras dominated by Calamites, the floodplain flora dominated by Gigantopterides, Psaronics and the upland flora dominated by conifers, Ginkgos and Pteridospermus. The features of the different floras are described in detail. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ju; Guiting Hou


    The South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions of Central Asia are located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The formation of South Tianshan Orogen was a diachronous, scissors-like process, which took place during the Palaeozoic, and its western segment was accepted as a site of the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent, which occurred in the late Palaeozoic. However, the post-collisional tectonic evolution of the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions remains debatable. Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I) late Ordovicianeearly Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean;(II) middle Silurianemiddle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III) late Devonianelate Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks;(IV) early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting;(V) late PermianeTriassic the first intraplate orogeny;(VI) JurassicePalaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII) NeoceneeQuaternary intraplate orogeny.

  2. Abrupt environmental and climatic change during the deposition of the Early Permian Haushi limestone, Oman


    Stephenson, Michael; Angiolini, Lucia; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; Berra, F.; F. Jadoul; G. Gambacorta; Verna, V.; Al Beloushi, B.


    During the late Sakmarian (Early Permian), the Haushi limestone was deposited in a shallow embayment of the Neotethys Ocean covering what is now north Oman and parts of southeast Saudi Arabia. The sea persisted through the late Sakmarian, but by the time of the deposition of the ?Artinskian Middle Gharif Member, limestone deposition had ceased and generally arid fluvial and minor lacustrine palaeonvironments in a low accommodation space setting had become established. Analysis of three subsur...




    The transitional beds between Bellerophon and Werfen Formations, few centimetres thick and latest Permian in age, contain a brachiopod fauna with a relatively rich athyridoid assemblage, among which Janiceps is the most common and characteristic genus. The internal morphology of the type species (J. peracuta) is here described for the first time, and a taxonomical revision of the South Alpine species is proposed. The new subfamily Janicepsinae is proposed, which contains Janiceps and the new ...

  4. Neopaleozoic biostratigraphy of the Parana Basin; Bioestratigrafia do neopaleozoico da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemon, Roberto Ferreira; Quadros, Luiz Padilha de


    Surface samples and cores from 31 exploratory wells were chosen as being the most representative among those drilled by PETROBRAS across the Parana Sedimentary Basin, from Mato Grosso and Goias to Rio Grande do Sul. Their analysis yielded a large amount or Saccites, Monoletes and Monocolpates spores, in addition to representatives of Tasmanales. From the great number of identified forms, 40 species - characterized by their wide geographical distribution allied to a short vertical range - were selected and used as a basis for the biostratigraphical subdivision of the Gondwana section of this sedimentary basin. This biostratigraphic column was divided into six main intervals, designated by the letters G to L, some with further subdivisions. The comparison of the species with those described from other regions provided sufficient geochronological data for the dating of the different intervals. It also demonstrated that the Upper Paleozoic sedimentary sequence in the Parana Basin ranges from the Upper Pennsylvanian (Stephanian C) to the Upper Permian (Kazanian). To complete the paleogeologic data the previously established zonation of the Devonian section was also included. The correlation of the biostratigraphic intervals across the basin and their relationship with the rock-stratigraphic units are demonstrated in several sections. The interpretation of these sections and of the biostratigraphic interval isopachous maps provided important information on the paleogeographic development of the basin. Among the more significant results is evidence of the start of the Permo-Carboniferous sedimentation in the northern regional depression, of a subsequent southward tilting of the basin accompanied by the progressive advance of the deposits toward the Rio Grande do Sul shield and of a Lower Permian lacuna in eastern Parana indicating the beginning of the epeirogenic process which culminated with the rise of the Ponta Grossa arch. The paper also presents some paleoecological

  5. Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Zhuo


    Plant communities of the geologic past can be reconstructed with high fidelity only if they were preserved in place in an instant in time. Here we report such a flora from an early Permian (ca. 298 Ma) ash-fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, a time interval and area where such information is filling a large gap of knowledge. About 1,000 m(2) of forest growing on peat could be reconstructed based on the actual location of individual plants. Tree ferns formed a lower canopy and either Cordaites, a coniferophyte, or Sigillaria, a lycopsid, were present as taller trees. Noeggerathiales, an enigmatic and extinct spore-bearing plant group of small trees, is represented by three species that have been found as nearly complete specimens and are presented in reconstructions in their plant community. Landscape heterogenity is apparent, including one site where Noeggerathiales are dominant. This peat-forming flora is also taxonomically distinct from those growing on clastic soils in the same area and during the same time interval. This Permian flora demonstrates both similarities and differences to floras of the same age in Europe and North America and confirms the distinct character of the Cathaysian floral realm. Therefore, this flora will serve as a baseline for the study of other fossil floras in East Asia and the early Permian globally that will be needed for a better understanding of paleoclimate evolution through time.

  6. New Late Permian paleomagnetic data from Argentina: Refinement of the apparent polar wander path of Gondwana (United States)

    Domeier, Mathew; van der Voo, Rob; Tohver, Eric; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Vizan, Haroldo; Torsvik, Trond H.; Kirshner, Jordan


    The Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic apparent polar wander path of Gondwana is largely constructed from relatively old paleomagnetic results, many of which are considered unreliable by modern standards. Paleomagnetic results derived from sedimentary sequences, which are generally poorly dated and prone to inclination shallowing, are especially common. Here we report the results of a joint paleomagnetic-geochronologic study of a volcanic complex in central Argentina. U-Pb dating of zircons has yielded a robust age estimate of 263.0 +1.6/-2.0 Ma for the complex. Paleomagnetic analysis has revealed a pretilting (primary Permian) magnetization with dual polarities. Rock magnetic experiments have identified pseudo-single domain (titano)magnetite and hematite as the mineralogic carriers of the magnetization. Lightning-induced isothermal remagnetizations are widespread in the low-coercivity magnetic carriers. The resulting paleomagnetic pole is 80.1°S, 349.0°E, A95 = 3.3°, N = 35, and it improves a Late Permian mean pole calculated from a filtered South American paleomagnetic data set. More broadly, this new, high-quality, igneous-based paleomagnetic pole falls between the previously distinct Late Permian segments of the Laurussian and Gondwanan apparent polar wander paths, suggesting that the long-recognized disparity between these large paleomagnetic data sets may be primarily due to the inclusion of low-quality or systemically biased data.

  7. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession from Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield, Jharkhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; Archana Tripathi; B Chakraborti; U P Singh


    Palynological investigations are carried out on approximately 538.00-m thick Gondwana strata from borehole SKB-1, Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield in Jharkhand. Based on the distribution pattern of age marker palynotaxa, two distinct palynoassemblages are identified. Palynoassemblage-I in the lithologically designated Barren Measures and Barakar formations, between 552.00 and 53.20 m depth show dominance of striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites, Crescentipollenites, and Faunipollenites) and abundance of nonstriate bisaccate (Scheuringipollenites). Upward the Palynoassemblage-II (39.50–13.80 m depth) is rich in striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites and Crescentipollenites) and significant enveloping monosaccate Densipollenites magnicorpus pollen. These strata have been equated with Raniganj Formation of Latest Permian age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD) of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, Playfordiaspora cancellosa, Alisporites sp., Falcisporites sp. and Krempipollenites indicus observed at 13.80 and 39.50 m depth, mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic. The FADs of Guttulapollenites spp. at 49.10 and 504.70 m, Goubinispora morondavensis at 415.90 m, Alisporites ovalis and Arcuatipollenites sp. at 526.70 m is observed and suggest that these sediments are equivalent to Raniganj Formation, Late Permian in age.

  8. Size variation of the end Permian conodont Neogondolella at Meishan Section, Changxing, Zhejiang and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This study is based on both a generic and species level investigation of the individual size of the latest Permian conodont Neogondolella Pa elements collected from Meishan Section A, Changxing, Zhejiang Province. In this study, an obvious size reduction of Neogondolella Pa elements within bed 24e of the upper Changxing Limestone is recognized. The size variation of the Neogondolella occurs simultaneously with some important events including the negative shift of δ13C, change in the ratio of the abundance of cyanobacterial biomarkers versus that of other general bacterial biomarkers and the shallowing of the sea water. Through the investigation of the paleoenvironmental changes and the analysis of the paleoecology of the conodont genus Neogondolella, the authors propose that the major factors for the size reduction of species of the conodont genus Neogondolella are food shortages caused by the mass extinction, the shallowing of the sea water as well as the increase in opacity of the sea water during the end Permian. The same phenomenon of Neogondolella size reduction is also observed in preliminary research from the same horizon at Shangsi Section, Sichuan Province. All the evidence suggests that there was a mass extinction that occurred at the horizon of bed 24e, and the evidence supports the viewpoint of a multi-phase mass extinction during the Permian and Triassic transition in South China.

  9. Earth's biggest 'whodunnit': unravelling the clues in the case of the end-Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    White, Rosalind V


    The mass extinction that occurred at the end of the Permian period, 250 million years ago, was the most devastating loss of life that Earth has ever experienced. It is estimated that ca. 96% of marine species were wiped out and land plants, reptiles, amphibians and insects also suffered. The causes of this catastrophic event are currently a topic of intense debate. The geological record points to significant environmental disturbances, for example, global warming and stagnation of ocean water. A key issue is whether the Earth's feedback mechanisms can become unstable on their own, or whether some forcing is required to precipitate a catastrophe of this magnitude. A prime suspect for pushing Earth's systems into a critical condition is massive end-Permian Siberian volcanism, which would have pumped large quantities of carbon dioxide and toxic gases into the atmosphere. Recently, it has been postulated that Earth was also the victim of a bolide impact at this time. If further research substantiates this claim, it raises some intriguing questions. The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 65 million years ago, was contemporaneous with both an impact and massive volcanism. Are both types of calamity necessary to drive Earth to the brink of faunal cataclysm? We do not presently have enough pieces of the jigsaw to solve the mystery of the end-Permian extinction, but the forensic work continues.

  10. Carbon isotope excursions across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Meishan section, Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Both gradual and sharp decrease in organic and carbonate carbon isotope values were detected across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing, Zhejiang Province, China. The gradual decrease in organic carbon isotope values started at the bottom of Bed 23, coinciding with the strong oscillations of total organic carbon (TOC) contents, indicates increasing fluxes from carbonate to organic carbon reservoir during this interval. A 2.3‰ sharp drop of inorganic carbon isotope values occurred at the uppermost part of Bed 24e. A 3.7‰ sharp drop of organic carbon isotope values occurred in Bed 26. The dramatic drop of inorganic carbon isotope value of 8‰ reported previously is not confirmed from the unweathered carbonate samples in Bed 27. The large-scale fluctuation of organic carbon isotope values in the Yinkeng Formation reflects different extent of mixing of marine and terrestrial organic matters. The gradual depletion and subsequent sharp drop of carbon isotopes near the Permian-Triassic boundary might indicate complex causes of the end-Permian mass extinction.

  11. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju


    Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I late Ordovician–early Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean; (II middle Silurian–middle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III late Devonian–late Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks; (IV early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting; (V late Permian–Triassic the first intraplate orogeny; (VI Jurassic–Palaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII Neocene–Quaternary intraplate orogeny.

  12. Modern Pearl River Delta and Permian Huainan coalfield, China: A comparative sedimentary facies study (United States)

    Suping, P.; Flores, R.M.


    Sedimentary facies types of the Pleistocene deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China and Permian Member D deposits in Huainan coalfield in Anhui Province are exemplified by depositional facies of anastomosing fluvial systems. In both study areas, sand/sandstone and mud/mudstone-dominated facies types formed in diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels laterally juxtaposed with floodplains containing ponds, lakes, and topogenous mires. The mires accumulated thin to thick peat/coal deposits that vary in vertical and lateral distribution between the two study areas. This difference is probably due to attendant sedimentary processes that affected the floodplain environments. The ancestral floodplains of the Modern Pearl River Delta were reworked by combined fluvial and tidal and estuarine processes. In contrast, the floodplains of the Permian Member D were mainly influenced by freshwater fluvial processes. In addition, the thick, laterally extensive coal zones of the Permian Member D may have formed in topogenous mires that developed on abandoned courses of anastomosing fluvial systems. This is typified by Seam 13-1, which is a blanket-like body that thickens to as much as 8 in but also splits into thinner beds. This seam overlies deposits of diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels of the Sandstone D, and associated overbank-floodplain deposits. The limited areal extent of lenticular Pleistocene peat deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta is due to their primary accumulation in topogenous mires in the central floodplains that were restricted by contemporaneous anastomosing channels.

  13. Holism and nonseparability by analogy (United States)

    Arageorgis, Aristidis


    This paper explores the issues of holism and nonseparability in relativistic quantum field theory (QFT) by focusing on an analog of the typical model featuring in many discussions of holism and nonseparability in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is argued that the quantum field theoretic model does exhibit holism in a metaphysical sense and that there are plausible grounds to view QFT holistic in an epistemological sense. However, the complexities arising from the fact that quantum fields have infinite degrees of freedom prohibit the exploitation of the elaborated analogy toward demonstrating that the QFT model exhibits the kind of state