WorldWideScience

Sample records for analog fret-pair facilitating

  1. FRET pair printing of fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalante, Maryana; Blum, Christian; Cesa, Yanina; Otto, Cees; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    We report for the first time the directed assembly and characterization of FRET pairs on micrometer patterned surfaces. We used visible fluorescent proteins expressing a hexahistidine affinity tag as component molecules for the construction of the FRET constructs, where His(6)-EGFP served as donor

  2. Branched DNA nanostructures efficiently stabilised and monitored by novel pyrene-perylene 2'-α-l-amino-LNA FRET pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Santhosh Kumar, T; Campbell, Meghan A

    2013-01-01

    Novel pyrene-perylene α-l-LNA FRET pairs described herein effectively detect assembly of 2- and 3-way branched DNA nanostructures prepared by postsynthetic microwave-assisted CuAAC click chemistry. The fluorescent signalling of assembly by internally positioned FRET pairs is achieved with low...

  3. Comparison of NIR FRET pairs for quantitative transferrin-based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Bevington, Travis; Zhao, Lingling; Ken, Abe; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Transferrin (Tfn) is commonly used as a drug delivery carrier for cancer treatment. Tfn cellular internalization can be observed by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), which occurs when two fluorophores - donor and acceptor - are a few nanometers apart. Donor fluorescence lifetime can be used to sense and quantify FRET occurrence. In FRET state, the donor is quenched leading to a significant reduction in its lifetime. In this study, donor and acceptor near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore-labeled Tfn were used to quantify cellular internalization in breast cancer cell line (T47D). Based on donor lifetime, quantum yield and spectral data, seven NIR FRET pairs were chosen for this comparison. Performance of the different NIR FRET pairs was evaluated in vitro in multiwell plate settings and by analyzing the relationship between quenched donor fraction and acceptor:donor ratio. Additionally, we performed brightness comparison between each pairs. Several parameters, such as brightness, lifetime, R0 and FRET donor population values are used to identify the most suitable NIR FRET pair for in vivo studies in preclinical settings.

  4. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endpoint Distinctiveness Facilitates Analogical Mapping in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511

  6. Single cell FRET analysis for the identification of optimal FRET-pairs in Bacillus subtilis using a prototype MEM-FLIM system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud G J Detert Oude Weme

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions can be studied in vitro, e.g. with bacterial or yeast two-hybrid systems or surface plasmon resonance. In contrast to in vitro techniques, in vivo studies of protein-protein interactions allow examination of spatial and temporal behavior of such interactions in their native environment. One approach to study protein-protein interactions in vivo is via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET. Here, FRET efficiency of selected FRET-pairs was studied at the single cell level using sensitized emission and Frequency Domain-Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FD-FLIM. For FRET-FLIM, a prototype Modulated Electron-Multiplied FLIM system was used, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first account of Frequency Domain FLIM to analyze FRET in single bacterial cells. To perform FRET-FLIM, we first determined and benchmarked the best fluorescent protein-pair for FRET in Bacillus subtilis using a novel BglBrick-compatible integration vector. We show that GFP-tagRFP is an excellent donor-acceptor pair for B. subtilis in vivo FRET studies. As a proof of concept, selected donor and acceptor fluorescent proteins were fused using a linker that contained a tobacco etch virus (TEV-protease recognition sequence. Induction of TEV-protease results in loss of FRET efficiency and increase in fluorescence lifetime. The loss of FRET efficiency after TEV induction can be followed in time in single cells via time-lapse microscopy. This work will facilitate future studies of in vivo dynamics of protein complexes in single B. subtilis cells.

  7. In vivo dynamics of enterovirus protease revealed by fluorescence resonance emission transfer (FRET) based on a novel FRET pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.; Liu, Y.-N.; Wang Wenyen; Kao, Fu-Jen; Kung, S.-H.

    2007-01-01

    An in vivo protease assay suitable for analysis by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was developed on the basis of a novel FRET pair. The specifically designed fusion substrate consists of green fluorescent protein 2 (GFP 2 )-peptide-red fluorescent protein 2 (DsRed2), with a cleavage motif for the enterovirus 2A protease (2A pro ) embedded within the peptide region. FRET can be readily visualized in real-time from cells expressing the fusion substrate until a proteolytic cleavage by 2A pro from the input virus. The level of FRET decay is a function of the amount and infection duration of the inoculated virus as measured by a fluorometer assay. The FRET biosensor also responded well to other related enteroviruses but not to a phylogenetically distant virus. Western blot analysis confirmed the physical cleavage of the fusion substrate upon the infections. The study provides proof of principle for applying the FRET technology to diagnostics, screening procedures, and cell biological research

  8. Connecting today's climates to future climate analogs to facilitate movement of species under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Caitlin E; McRae, Brad H; Michalak, Julia L; Lawler, Joshua J; Carroll, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Increasing connectivity is an important strategy for facilitating species range shifts and maintaining biodiversity in the face of climate change. To date, however, few researchers have included future climate projections in efforts to prioritize areas for increasing connectivity. We identified key areas likely to facilitate climate-induced species' movement across western North America. Using historical climate data sets and future climate projections, we mapped potential species' movement routes that link current climate conditions to analogous climate conditions in the future (i.e., future climate analogs) with a novel moving-window analysis based on electrical circuit theory. In addition to tracing shifting climates, the approach accounted for landscape permeability and empirically derived species' dispersal capabilities. We compared connectivity maps generated with our climate-change-informed approach with maps of connectivity based solely on the degree of human modification of the landscape. Including future climate projections in connectivity models substantially shifted and constrained priority areas for movement to a smaller proportion of the landscape than when climate projections were not considered. Potential movement, measured as current flow, decreased in all ecoregions when climate projections were included, particularly when dispersal was limited, which made climate analogs inaccessible. Many areas emerged as important for connectivity only when climate change was modeled in 2 time steps rather than in a single time step. Our results illustrate that movement routes needed to track changing climatic conditions may differ from those that connect present-day landscapes. Incorporating future climate projections into connectivity modeling is an important step toward facilitating successful species movement and population persistence in a changing climate. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Using dual-process theory and analogical transfer to explain facilitation on a hypothetico-deductive reasoning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Cynthia S; Platt, Richard D; Griggs, Richard A

    2007-07-01

    Using the analogical transfer paradigm, the present study investigated the competing explanations of Girotto and Legrenzi (Psychological Research 51: 129-135, 1993) and Griggs, Platt, Newstead, and Jackson (Thinking and Reasoning 4: 1-14, 1998) for facilitation on the SARS version of the THOG problem, a hypothetico-deductive reasoning task. Girotto and Legrenzi argue that facilitation is based on logical analysis of the task [System 2 reasoning in Evans's (Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7: 454-459, 2003) dual-process account of reasoning] while Griggs et al. maintain that facilitation is due to an attentional heuristic produced by the wording of the problem (System 1 reasoning). If Girotto and Legrenzi are correct, then System 2 reasoning, which is volitional and responsible for deductive reasoning, should be elicited, and participants should comprehend the solution principle of the THOG task and exhibit analogical transfer. However, if Griggs et al. are correct, then System 1 reasoning, which is responsible for heuristic problem solving strategies such as an attentional heuristic, should occur, and participants should not abstract the solution principle and transfer should not occur. Significant facilitation (68 and 82% correct) was only observed for the two SARS source problems, but significant analogical transfer did not occur. This lack of transfer suggests that System 1 reasoning was responsible for the facilitation observed in the SARS problem, supporting Griggs et al.'s attentional heuristic explanation. The present results also underscore the explanatory value of using analogical transfer rather than facilitation as the criterion for problem understanding.

  10. Design and Development of a Two-Color Emissive FRET Pair Based on a Photostable Fluorescent Deoxyuridine Donor Presenting a Mega-Stokes Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Nicolas P F; Gavvala, Krishna; Bonhomme, Dominique; Dabert-Gay, Anne Sophie; Debayle, Delphine; Mély, Yves; Michel, Benoît Y; Burger, Alain

    2016-11-18

    We report the synthesis and site-specific incorporation in oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of an emissive deoxyuridine analog electronically conjugated on its C5-position with a 3-methoxychromone moiety acting as a fluorophore. When incorporated in ODNs, this fluorescent deoxyuridine analog exhibits remarkable photostability and good quantum yields. This deoxyuridine analog also displays a mega-Stokes shift, which allows for its use as an efficient donor for FRET-based studies when paired with the yellow emissive indocarbocyanine Cy3 acceptor.

  11. Tactile Ranschburg effects: facilitation and inhibitory repetition effects analogous to verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Daisy; Miles, Christopher; Johnson, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    The present paper examines the effect of within-sequence item repetitions in tactile order memory. Employing an immediate serial recall procedure, participants reconstructed a six-item sequence tapped upon their fingers by moving those fingers in the order of original stimulation. In Experiment 1a, within-sequence repetition of an item separated by two-intervening items resulted in a significant reduction in recall accuracy for that repeated item (i.e., the Ranschburg effect). In Experiment 1b, within-sequence repetition of an adjacent item resulted in significant recall facilitation for that repeated item. These effects mirror those reported for verbal stimuli (e.g., Henson, 1998a . Item repetition in short-term memory: Ranschburg repeated. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24(5), 1162-1181. doi:doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.24.5.1162). These data are the first to demonstrate the Ranschburg effect with non-verbal stimuli and suggest further cross-modal similarities in order memory.

  12. Facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2012-01-01

    Facilitering (af latin facilis: gørbart, let at gøre) er den teknik at gøre det lettere for en forsamlet gruppe mennesker at udrette det, den ønsker. Facilitator er en slags mødeleder eller ordstyrer, der bistår gruppen ved at styre formen på deltagernes samtale og interaktion snarere end indholdet...

  13. Thinking Cap Plus Thinking Zap: tDCS of Frontopolar Cortex Improves Creative Analogical Reasoning and Facilitates Conscious Augmentation of State Creativity in Verb Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Spiegel, Katherine A; Giangrande, Evan J; Weinberger, Adam B; Gallagher, Natalie M; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates neural mechanisms that support transient improvements in creative performance (augmented state creativity) in response to cognitive interventions (creativity cueing). Separately, neural interventions via tDCS show encouraging potential for modulating neuronal function during creative performance. If cognitive and neural interventions are separately effective, can they be combined? Does state creativity augmentation represent "real" creativity, or do interventions simply yield divergence by diminishing meaningfulness/appropriateness? Can augmenting state creativity bolster creative reasoning that supports innovation, particularly analogical reasoning? To address these questions, we combined tDCS with creativity cueing. Testing a regionally specific hypothesis from neuroimaging, high-definition tDCS-targeted frontopolar cortex activity recently shown to predict state creativity augmentation. In a novel analogy finding task, participants under tDCS formulated substantially more creative analogical connections in a large matrix search space (creativity indexed via latent semantic analysis). Critically, increased analogical creativity was not due to diminished accuracy in discerning valid analogies, indicating "real" creativity rather than inappropriate divergence. A simpler relational creativity paradigm (modified verb generation) revealed a tDCS-by-cue interaction; tDCS further enhanced creativity cue-related increases in semantic distance. Findings point to the potential of noninvasive neuromodulation to enhance creative relational cognition, including augmentation of the deliberate effort to formulate connections between distant concepts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Post-marathon wearing of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes facilitates recovery from race-induced fatigue: an evaluation utilizing a visual analog scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kento; Obu, Takashi; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential benefit of post-race wearing of unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology [MBT]) on recovery from marathon race–induced fatigue. Patients and methods Forty-five runners who participated in a full marathon race were divided into three groups: 1) MBT shoes, 2) trail running shoes, and 3) control (CON). Participants ran a full marathon with their own running shoes, and then put on the assigned shoes immediately after the race. They continued to wear the assigned shoes for the ensuing 3 days. The CON group wore their usual shoes. Estimates of post-race fatigue were made by the participants on questionnaires that utilized a visual analog scale. Estimates were made just after the race, as well as for the next 3 days. Results The subjective fatigue of the MBT group was lower than that of the CON (Pshoe groups (Pshoe intervention can promote recovery from the fatigue induced by running a full marathon. PMID:25525398

  15. Analog earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  16. Cyber Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    strategic thinking about cy- berwar reflects an awareness that this duality applies to the virtual domain as well. The history of air campaigns over the...life sciences he iden- tifies analogies in the realms of biodiversity and herd immunity . And then he flips the (seemingly unusable) notion of economic...suggests that diver- sity of cyber systems makes the defense as weak as its weakest component. 30. Herd Immunity If a sufficient proportion of the

  17. Drawing Analogies to Deepen Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article offers examples of how drawing can facilitate thinking skills that promote analogical reasoning to enable deeper learning. The instructional design applies cognitive principles, briefly described here. The workshops were developed iteratively, through feedback from student and teacher participants. Elements of the UK National…

  18. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  19. A novel FRET pair for detection of parallel DNA triplexes by the LightCycler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Uffe V; Severinsen, Jette K; Géci, Imrich

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melting temperature of DNA structures can be determined on the LightCycler using quenching of FAM. This method is very suitable for pH independent melting point (Tm) determination performed at basic or neutral pH, as a high throughput alternative to UV absorbance measurements. At acidic...... pH quenching of FAM is not very suitable, since the fluorescence of FAM is strongly pH dependent and drops with acidic pH.Hoogsteen based parallel triplex helix formation requires protonation of cytosines in the triplex forming strand. Therefore, nucleic acid triplexes show strong pH dependence...... reproducibility. Validation of Tm showed low intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation; 0.11% and 0.14% for parallel triplex and 0.19% and 0.12% for antiparallel duplex. Measurements of Tm and fluorescence intensity over time and multiple runs showed great time and light stability of the ATTO fluorophores...

  20. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  1. Analogy: Justification for Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacksteder, William

    1979-01-01

    Presents and defends the thesis that it is analogy which provides justification for any logic, and for any argument to the extent that it depends on logic for justification. Analogy acquires inept support from logic, but logic acquires adroit support from analogy. (JMF)

  2. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  3. PEMETAAN ANALOGI PADA KONSEP ABSTRAK FISIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoto Suseno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of any where founded majority students have common difficulties in abstract physics concept. The result of observation, lecturers have problem  in teaching implementation of abstract concepts on physics learning. The objective of this research is to find out the ways how to overcome this problem. The research place of  physics education programs and senior high school. The data are colected by quetionere, observation and interview. The lecturer behavior to making out this case is use of analogy to make concrete a abstract concept. This action is true, because the analogies are dynamic tools that facilitate understanding, rather than representations of the correct and static explanations. Using analogies not only promoted profound understanding of abstract concept, but also helped students overcome their misconceptions. However used analogy in teaching not yet planed with seriousness, analogy used spontanously with the result that less optimal. By planing and selecting right analogy, the role of analogy can be achieved the optimal result. Therefore, it is important to maping analogies of abstract consepts on physics learning.

  4. Using Analogies in Teaching Physics: A Study on Latvian Teachers' Views and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonane, Lolita

    2015-01-01

    The role of analogies as tools for teaching difficult science concepts has been widely discussed in science education. The application of analogies in the context of sustainable education involves richer potential. The purposeful use of appropriate analogies can facilitate analogical thinking and transfer skills, as well as develop abilities which…

  5. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  6. From analog to digital

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J

    2008-01-01

    Analog-to-digital conversion and its reverse, digital-to-analog conversion, are ubiquitous in all modern electronics, from instrumentation and telecommunication equipment to computers and entertainment. We shall explore the consequences of converting signals between the analog and digital domains and give an overview of the internal architecture and operation of a number of converter types. The importance of analog input and clock signal integrity will be explained and methods to prevent or mitigate the effects of interference will be shown. Examples will be drawn from several manufacturers' datasheets.

  7. Frontopolar cortex mediates abstract integration in analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Kraemer, David J M; Shamosh, Noah A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2006-06-22

    Integration of abstractly similar relations during analogical reasoning was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activation elicited by an analogical reasoning task that required both complex working memory and integration of abstractly similar relations was compared to activation elicited by a non-analogical task that required complex working memory in the absence of abstract relational integration. A left-sided region of the frontal pole of the brain (BA 9/10) was selectively active for the abstract relational integration component of analogical reasoning. Analogical reasoning also engaged a left-sided network of parieto-frontal regions. Activity in this network during analogical reasoning is hypothesized to reflect categorical alignment of individual component terms that make up analogies. This parieto-frontal network was also engaged by the complex control task, which involved explicit categorization, but not by a simpler control task, which did not involve categorization. We hypothesize that frontopolar cortex mediates abstract relational integration in complex reasoning while parieto-frontal regions mediate working memory processes, including manipulation of terms for the purpose of categorical alignment, that facilitate this integration.

  8. Analog pulse processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  9. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  10. Challenges in Using Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  11. Optical analogy. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The authors report the study of conditions under which light attenuation (reflection, diffusion, absorption) and the attenuation of some radiations (notably thermal neutrons) can be described with analogical calculations. The analogy between light physical properties and neutron properties is not searched for, but the analogy between their attenuation characteristics. After having discussed this possible analogy, they propose a mathematical formulation of neutron and optical phenomena which could theoretically justify the optical analogy. The second part reports a more practical study of optics problems such as the study of simple optics materials and illumination measurements, or more precisely the study of angular distributions of optical reflections, a determination of such angular distributions, and an experimental determination of the albedo

  12. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  13. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  14. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  15. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  16. Children's analogical reasoning in a third-grade science discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, David B.; Hammer, David; Roy, Patricia

    2006-03-01

    Expert scientific inquiry involves the generation and use of analogies. How and when students might develop this aspect of expertise has implications for understanding how and when instruction might facilitate that development. In a study of K-8 student inquiry in physical science, we are examining cases of spontaneous analogy generation. In the case we present here, a third-grader generates an analogy and modifies it to reconcile his classmates' counterarguments, allowing us to identify in these third-graders specific aspects of nascent expertise in analogy use. Promoting abilities and inclinations such as these children display requires that educators recognize and respond to them.

  17. A bilateral frontoparietal network underlies visuospatial analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christine E; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-02-01

    Our ability to reason by analogy facilitates problem solving and allows us to communicate ideas efficiently. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of analogical reasoning and, more specifically, the contribution of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) to reasoning. This area of the brain has been hypothesized to integrate relational information, as in analogy, or the outcomes of subgoals, as in multi-tasking and complex problem solving. Using fMRI, we compared visuospatial analogical reasoning to a control task that was as complex and difficult as the analogies and required the coordination of subgoals but not the integration of relations. We found that analogical reasoning more strongly activated bilateral RLPFC, suggesting that anterior prefrontal cortex is preferentially recruited by the integration of relational knowledge. Consistent with the need for inhibition during analogy, bilateral, and particularly right, inferior frontal gyri were also more active during analogy. Finally, greater activity in bilateral inferior parietal cortex during the analogy task is consistent with recent evidence for the neural basis of spatial relation knowledge. Together, these findings indicate that a network of frontoparietal areas underlies analogical reasoning; we also suggest that hemispheric differences may emerge depending on the visuospatial or verbal/semantic nature of the analogies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitating innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, J.S.; Visser, A.J.; Migchels, G.

    2011-01-01

    Many innovations involve changes which transcend the individual business or are only achievable when various businesses and/or interested parties take up the challenge together. In System Innovation Programmes, the necessary innovations are facilitated by means of workshops related to specific areas

  19. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  20. Naming analog clocks conceptually facilitates naming digital clocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say "quarter to three") requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information displayed in the input for producing the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition priming paradigm.

  1. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our......t: This paper presents reflections on the role of teachers as facilitators, in a context of role-play targeting learning of design thinking skills. Our study was conducted according to the method of visual ethnography. We acted as facilitators for 50 students through the yearly six-day competitive...... event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...

  2. How the creative use of analogies can shape medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Analogical reasoning is central to medical progress, and is either creative or conservative. According to Hofmann et al., conservative analogy relates concepts from old technology to new technologies with emphasis on preservation of comprehension and conduct. Creative analogy however brings new understanding to new technology, brings similarities existing in the source domain to a target domain where they previously had no bearing, and imports something entirely different from the content of the analogy itself. I defend the claim that while conservative analogies are useful by virtue of being comfortable to use from familiarity and experience, and are more easily accepted by society, they only lead to incremental advances in medicine. However, creative analogies are more exciting and productive because they generate previously unexpected associations across widely separated domains, emphasize relations over physical similarities, and structure over superficiality. I use kidney transplantation and anti-rejection medication development as an exemplar of analogical reasoning used to improve medical practice. Anti-rejection medication has not helped highly sensitized patients because of their propensity to rejecting most organs. I outline how conservative analogical reasoning led to anti-rejection medication development, but creative analogical reasoning helped highly sensitized and blood type incompatible patients through domino transplants, by which they obtain a kidney to which they are not sensitized. Creative analogical reasoning is more likely than conservative analogical reasoning to lead to revolutionary progress. While these analogies overlap and creative analogies eventually become conservative, progress is best facilitated by combining conservative and creative analogical reasoning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  4. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  5. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  6. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  7. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  8. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  9. Reasoning through Instructional Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Shulamit; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to account for students' assessments of the plausibility and applicability of analogical explanations, and individual differences in these assessments, by analyzing properties of students' underlying knowledge systems. We developed a model of explanation and change in explanation focusing on knowledge elements that provide a…

  10. The Paradox of Analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I will show that there is a type of analogical reasoning that instantiates a pattern of reasoning in confirmation theory that is considered at best paradoxical and at worst fatal to the entire syntactical approach to confirmation and explanation. However, I hope to elaborate conditions under which this is a sound (although not necessarily strong method of reasoning.

  11. Analogy, explanation, and proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, John E.; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence. PMID:25414655

  12. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  13. Antarctic analogs for Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. E.; Andersen, D. T.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is a new world for Astrobiology. The Cassini discovery of the icy plume emanating from the South Polar region indicates an active world, where detection of water, organics, sodium, and nano-particle silica in the plume strongly suggests that the source is a subsurface salty ocean reservoir. Recent gravity data from Cassini confirms the presence of a regional sea extending north to 50°S. An ocean habitat under a thick ice cover is perhaps a recurring theme in the Outer Solar System, but what makes Enceladus unique is that the plume jetting out into space is carrying samples of this ocean. Therefore, through the study of Enceladus' plumes we can gain new insights not only of a possible habitable world in the Solar Systems, but also about the formation and evolution of other icy-satellites. Cassini has been able to fly through this plume - effectively sampling the ocean. It is time to plan for future missions that do more detailed analyses, possibly return samples back to Earth and search for evidence of life. To help prepare for such missions, the need for earth-based analog environments is essential for logistical, methodological (life detection) and theoretical development. We have undertaken studies of two terrestrial environments that are close analogs to Enceladus' ocean: Lake Vida and Lake Untersee - two ice-sealed Antarctic lakes that represent physical, chemical and possibly biological analogs for Enceladus. By studying the diverse biology and physical and chemical constraints to life in these two unique lakes we will begin to understand the potential habitability of Enceladus and other icy moons, including possible sources of nutrients and energy, which together with liquid water are the key ingredients for life. Analog research such as this will also enable us to develop and test new strategies to search for evidence of life on Enceladus.

  14. Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    and healer Paracelsus , writing within a century of Kepler and Galileo: what, then, is the short and easy way whereby Sol (gold) and Luna (silver) can be...planets again receive a body and life and live as before. Take this body from the life and the earth. Keep it. It is Sol and Luna. 30 Aim ( Paracelsus ...Rutherford analogy, even as known at the time. Instead of using a mutually constraining system of base relationships Paracelsus applies new relations: e.g

  15. Component Processes in Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes alternative theoretical positions regarding (a) the component information processes used in analogical reasoning and (b) strategies for combining these processes. Also presents results from three experiments on analogical reasoning. (Author/RK)

  16. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  17. Individual differences in spontaneous analogical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-05-01

    Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. In two experiments, we systematically compared the effect of augmenting verbal descriptions of the source with animations or static diagrams. Solution rates to Duncker's radiation problem were measured across varying source presentation conditions, and participants' understanding of the relevant source material was assessed. The pattern of transfer was best fit by a moderated mediation model: the positive impact of fluid intelligence on spontaneous transfer was mediated by its influence on source comprehension; however, this path was in turn modulated by provision of a supplemental animation via its influence on comprehension of the source. Animated source depictions were most beneficial in facilitating spontaneous transfer for those participants with low scores on the fluid intelligence measure.

  18. Analogical Reasoning and Computer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Catherine A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of correlations between analogical reasoning and Logo programming mastery among female high school students related the results of pretests of analogical reasoning to posttests of programming mastery. A significant correlation was found between analogical reasoning and the ability to write subprocedures for use in several different…

  19. Energetic funnel facilitates facilitated diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencini, Massimo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2018-01-25

    Transcription factors (TFs) are able to associate to their binding sites on DNA faster than the physical limit posed by diffusion. Such high association rates can be achieved by alternating between three-dimensional diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA chain, a mechanism-dubbed facilitated diffusion. By studying a collection of TF binding sites of Escherichia coli from the RegulonDB database and of Bacillus subtilis from DBTBS, we reveal a funnel in the binding energy landscape around the target sequences. We show that such a funnel is linked to the presence of gradients of AT in the base composition of the DNA region around the binding sites. An extensive computational study of the stochastic sliding process along the energetic landscapes obtained from the database shows that the funnel can significantly enhance the probability of TFs to find their target sequences when sliding in their proximity. We demonstrate that this enhancement leads to a speed-up of the association process. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Analog design centering and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Graeb, Helmut E

    2007-01-01

    Here is a compendium of fundamental problem formulations of analog design centering and sizing. It provides a differentiated knowledge about the many tasks of analog design centering and sizing. In particular, coverage formulates the worst-case problem. The book stands at the interface between process technology and design technology, detailing how the two are required to reach a solution. It presents a mathematically founded description based on numerical optimization and statistics. This volume will enable analog and mixed-signal designers to assess CAD solution methods that are presented to them as well as help developers of analog CAD tools to formulate and develop solution approaches for analog design centering and sizing.

  1. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  2. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  3. Detecting analogical resemblance without retrieving the source analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M; Severin, Kaye; Miller, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether people can detect analogical resemblance to an earlier experimental episode without being able to recall the experimental source of the analogical resemblance. We used four-word analogies (e.g., robin-nest/beaver-dam), in a variation of the recognition-without-cued-recall method (Cleary, 2004). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., robin-nest) and were shown new word pairs at test, half of which analogically related to studied word pairs (e.g., beaver-dam) and half of which did not. For each test pair, participants first attempted to recall an analogically similar pair from the study list. Then, regardless of whether successful recall occurred, participants were prompted to rate the familiarity of the test pair, which was said to indicate the likelihood that a pair that was analogically similar to the test pair had been studied. Across three experiments, participants demonstrated an ability to detect analogical resemblance without recalling the source analogy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the study of analogical reasoning and insight, as well as to the study of familiarity and recognition memory.

  4. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  5. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  6. Analog processor for electroluminescent detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analog processor for spectrometric channel of soft X-ray radiation electroluminescent detector is described. Time internal spectrometric measurer (TIM) with 1 ns/chan quick action serves as signal analyzer. Analog processor restores signals direct component, integrates detector signals and generates control pulses on the TIM input, provides signal discrimination by amplitude and duration, counts number of input pulses per measuring cycle. Flowsheet of analog processor and its man characteristics are presented. Analog processor dead time constitutes 0.5-5 ms. Signal/noise relation is ≥ 500. Scale integral nonlinearity is < 2%

  7. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  8. Children's Development of Analogical Reasoning: Insights from Scene Analogy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Morrison, Robert G.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    We explored how relational complexity and featural distraction, as varied in scene analogy problems, affect children's analogical reasoning performance. Results with 3- and 4-year-olds, 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and 13- and 14-year-olds indicate that when children can identify the critical structural relations in a scene analogy…

  9. Conjecturing via Reconceived Classical Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2011-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is believed to be an efficient means of problem solving and construction of knowledge during the search for and the analysis of new mathematical objects. However, there is growing concern that despite everyday usage, learners are unable to transfer analogical reasoning to learning situations. This study aims at facilitating…

  10. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  11. Musik som analogi og metafor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser......Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser...

  12. Analogical Problem Solving in Children with Verbal and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Bauminger, Nirit; Toledo, Idit

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning--perceiving similarities in different situations and the transfer of such information--facilitates learning and understanding. However, children with learning disabilities (LD) typically demonstrate deficits in such information processing strategies. In this study, we investigated the analogical problem-solving differences…

  13. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  14. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  15. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  16. Gemini analogs of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Gonzalo; Rivadulla, Marcos L; Pérez-García, Xenxo; Gandara, Zoila; Pérez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini analogs are the last significant contribution to the family of vitamin D derivatives in medicine, for the treatment of cancer. The first Gemini analog was characterized by two symmetric side chains at C-20. Following numerous modifications, the most active analog bears a C-23-triple bond, C-26, 27- hexafluoro substituents on one side chain and a terminal trideuteromethylhydroxy group on the other side chain. This progression was possible due to improvements in the synthetic methods for the preparation of these derivatives, which allowed for increasing molecular complexity and complete diastereoselective control at C-20 and the substituted sidechains.

  17. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  18. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  19. Analogical proportions: another logical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Richard, Gilles

    This paper investigates the logical formalization of a restricted form of analogical reasoning based on analogical proportions, i.e. statements of the form a is to b as c is to d. Starting from a naive set theoretic interpretation, we highlight the existence of two noticeable companion proportions: one states that a is to b the converse of what c is to d (reverse analogy), while the other called paralogical proportion expresses that what a and b have in common, c and d have it also. We identify the characteristic postulates of the three types of proportions and examine their consequences from an abstract viewpoint. We further study the properties of the set theoretic interpretation and of the Boolean logic interpretation, and we provide another light on the understanding of the role of permutations in the modeling of the three types of proportions. Finally, we address the use of these proportions as a basis for inference in a propositional setting, and relate it to more general schemes of analogical reasoning. The differences between analogy, reverse-analogy, and paralogy is still emphasized in a three-valued setting, which is also briefly presented.

  20. Analog approach to mixed analog-digital circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Logic simulation of digital circuits is a well explored research area. Most up-to-date CAD tools for digital circuits simulation use an event driven, selective trace algorithm and Hardware Description Languages (HDL), e.g. the VHDL. This techniques enable simulation of mixed circuits, as well, where an analog part is connected to the digital one through D/A and A/D converters. The event-driven mixed simulation applies a unified, digital-circuits dedicated method to both digital and analog subsystems. In recent years HDL techniques have been also applied to mixed domains, as e.g. in the VHDL-AMS. This paper presents an approach dual to the event-driven one, where an analog part together with a digital one and with converters is treated as the analog subsystem and is simulated by means of circuit simulation techniques. In our problem an analog solver used yields some numerical problems caused by nonlinearities of digital elements. Efficient methods for overriding these difficulties have been proposed.

  1. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  2. Analogical thinking in ecology: looking beyond disciplinary boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colyvan, Mark; Ginzburg, Lev R

    2010-06-01

    We consider several ways in which a good understanding of modern techniques and principles in physics can elucidate ecology, and we focus on analogical reasoning between these two branches of science. Analogical reasoning requires an understanding of both sciences and an appreciation of the similarities and points of contact between the two. In the current ecological literature on the relationship between ecology and physics, there has been some misunderstanding about the nature of modern physics and its methods. Physics is seen as being much cleaner and tidier than ecology. When compared to this idealized, fictional version of physics, ecology looks very different, and the prospect of ecology and physics learning from one another is questionable. We argue that physics, once properly understood, is more like ecology than ecologists have thus far appreciated. Physicists and ecologists can and do learn from each other, and, in this paper, we outline how analogical reasoning can facilitate such exchanges.

  3. Fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.

    1982-11-01

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. = 11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  4. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  5. The restructuring of analogical reasoning in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Richard J.

    Despite its ubiquity in planetary science, analogue-based reasoning largely has geomorphology and posit rules of use that facilitate the evaluation of Q y, I present four hypotheses concerning aeolian, fluvial and periglacial processes on Mars. Each of these hypotheses is evaluated in terms of the analogical rules presented. The fourth hypothesis is original to this thesis and suggests that a periglacial landscape comprising pingos and small-scale polygonal ground exists in an impact crater located in northwest Utopia Planitia.

  6. 49205 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course 49205 Analog and Digital Filters...

  7. CMOS Analog IC Design: Fundamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    This book is intended for use as the main textbook for an introductory course in CMOS analog integrated circuit design. It is aimed at electronics engineering students who have followed basic courses in mathematics, physics, circuit theory, electronics and signal processing. It takes the students...

  8. Paper Analogies Enhance Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to use paper analogies as models to illustrate various concepts in biology, human anatomy, and physiology classes. Models include biochemical paper models, protein papergrams, a paper model of early brain development, and a 3-D paper model of a eukaryotic cell. (AIM)

  9. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Coin-Flipping Analogy and Web App for Teaching Spin-Spin Splitting in [superscript 1]H NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Adam M.; Esteb, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A coin-flipping analogy and free corresponding web app have been developed to facilitate student understanding of the origins of spin-spin splitting. First-order splitting patterns can easily be derived and understood. "Complex" splitting patterns (e.g., doublet of quartets), are easily incorporated into the analogy. A study of the…

  11. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  12. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  13. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  14. Novel phosphanucleoside analogs of dideoxynucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Páv, Ondřej; Buděšínský, Miloš; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 34 (2017), s. 5220-5228 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-12703S; GA ČR GA13-26526S; GA MZd NV15-31604A Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phosphanucleoside * nucleoside analog * ring-closing metathesis * stereoselective hydroboration * chiral resolution Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  15. Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.

  16. Cross Domain Analogies for Learning Domain Theories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klenk, Matthew; Forbus, Ken

    2007-01-01

    .... This work describes a method for learning new domain theories by analogy. We use analogies between pairs of problems and worked solutions to create a domain mapping between a familiar and a new domain...

  17. The Development of Analogical Reasoning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Rifkin, Bathsheva

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the generalizability to children of a theory of analogical reasoning processes, originally proposed for adults, and to examine the development of analogical reasoning processes in terms of five proposed sources of cognitive development. (MP)

  18. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  19. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    (UNCTAD), “Trade and transport facilitation … addresses a wide agenda in economic development and trade that may include improving transport infrastructure and services, reducing customs tariffs, and removing non-tariff trade barriers including administrative and regulatory barriers.”24. The definition of trade facilitation ...

  20. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  1. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    deployed for this paper is empirical and conceptual. A specific facilitation project carried out by six international engineering students is presented. The importance of combining cognitive, emotional and synergistic skills is highlighted on the basis of this example, the authors’ extensive experience......This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology...... in teaching facilitation and the literature. These types of skills are most effectively acquired by combining conceptual lectures, classroom exercises and the facilitation of groups in a real-life context. The paper also reflects certain ‘shadow sides’ related to facilitation observed by the students...

  2. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-01-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to…

  3. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  4. Are all analogies created equal? Prefrontal cortical functioning may predict types of analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2010-06-01

    Abstract The proposed theory can account for analogies based on learned relationships between elements in the source and target domains. However, its explanatory power regarding the discovery of new relationships during analogical reasoning is limited. We offer an alternative perspective for the role of PFC in analogical thought that may better address different types of analogical mappings.

  5. Resistive RAMs as analog trimming elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Perez, A.; Portal, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the use of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) as an analog trimming device. The analog storage feature of the RRAM cell is evaluated and the ability of the RRAM to hold several resistance states is exploited to propose analog trim elements. To modulate the memory cell resistance, a series of short programming pulses are applied across the RRAM cell allowing a fine calibration of the RRAM resistance. The RRAM non volatility feature makes the analog device powers up already calibrated for the system in which the analog trimmed structure is embedded. To validate the concept, a test structure consisting of a voltage reference is evaluated.

  6. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  7. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  8. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  9. HERE, THERE, AND EVERYWHEREPublic Science Through Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Kimberly K.

    2014-06-01

    Here, There, and Everywhere (HTE) is a program that consists of a series of exhibitions, posters, and supporting hands-on activities that utilize analogies in the teaching of science, engineering, and technology to provide multi-generational and family-friendly content in English and Spanish to small community centers, libraries, under-resourced small science centers. The purpose of the program is to connect crosscutting science content (in Earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences and astrophysics) with everyday phenomena. By using different modes of content delivery, from physical exhibits and handouts,to interpretive stations, facilitated activities for educators, and online resources, HTE helps to demonstrate the universality of physical laws and the connection between our everyday world and the universe as a whole to members of the public who may not identify strongly with science. HTE is part of a series of public science projects created and developed by the Education and Public Outreach group at the Chandra X-ray Center. The authors discuss how HTE fits into the lineage of public science outreach that aims to engage the greater public in non-traditional venues for science learning and appreciation, as well as what might be learned about the participants of such projects.

  10. Modeling visual problem solving as analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons. When images fail to align, the model dynamically rerepresents them to facilitate the comparison. In our analysis, we find that the model matches adult human performance on the Standard Progressive Matrices test, and that problems which are difficult for the model are also difficult for people. Furthermore, we show that model operations involving abstraction and rerepresentation are particularly difficult for people, suggesting that these operations may be critical for performing visual problem solving, and reasoning more generally, at the highest level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  12. Reliability of analog quantum simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories, Digital and Quantum Information Systems, Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Lishan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Joint Institute of UMich-SJTU, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing (MOE), Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    Analog quantum simulators (AQS) will likely be the first nontrivial application of quantum technology for predictive simulation. However, there remain questions regarding the degree of confidence that can be placed in the results of AQS since they do not naturally incorporate error correction. Specifically, how do we know whether an analog simulation of a quantum model will produce predictions that agree with the ideal model in the presence of inevitable imperfections? At the same time there is a widely held expectation that certain quantum simulation questions will be robust to errors and perturbations in the underlying hardware. Resolving these two points of view is a critical step in making the most of this promising technology. In this work we formalize the notion of AQS reliability by determining sensitivity of AQS outputs to underlying parameters, and formulate conditions for robust simulation. Our approach naturally reveals the importance of model symmetries in dictating the robust properties. To demonstrate the approach, we characterize the robust features of a variety of quantum many-body models. (orig.)

  13. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  14. Analogical reasoning in schizophrenic delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Done, D John

    2004-09-01

    Reasoning ability has often been argued to be impaired in people with schizophrenic delusions, although evidence for this is far from convincing. This experiment examined the analogical reasoning abilities of several groups of patients, including non-deluded and deluded schizophrenics, to test the hypothesis that performance by the deluded schizophrenic group would be impaired. Eleven deluded schizophrenics, 10 depressed subjects, seven non-deluded schizophrenics and 16 matched non-psychiatric controls, who were matched on a number of key variables, were asked to solve an analogical reasoning task. Performance by the deluded schizophrenic group was certainly impaired when compared with the depressed and non-psychiatric control groups though less convincingly so when compared with the non-deluded schizophrenic group. The impairment shown by the deluded schizophrenic group seemed to occur at the initial stage of the reasoning task. The particular type of impairment shown by the deluded subjects was assessed in relation to other cognitive problems already researched and the implications of these problems on reasoning tasks and theories of delusions was discussed.

  15. Learning from Analogies between Robotic World and Natural Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Igor M.; Cuperman, Dan

    This paper proposes an approach which combines robotics and science education through the development of robotic models and inquiry into natural phenomena. The robotic models are constructed using the PicoCricket kit. The approach is implemented and evaluated in the framework of teacher training courses for Technion students given in connection with outreach courses for middle school and high school students. The educational study indicated that the proposed approach facilitated acquisition of both technology and science concepts and inspired analogical reasoning and crossdisciplinary connections between the two domains.

  16. Automatic activation of categorical and abstract analogical relations in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2006-10-01

    We examined activation of concepts during analogical reasoning. Subjects made either analogical judgments or categorical judgments about four-word sets. After each four-word set, they named the ink color of a single word in a modified Stroop task. Words that referred to category relations were primed (as indicated by longer response times on Stroop color naming) subsequent to analogical judgments and categorical judgments. This finding suggests that activation of category concepts plays a fundamental role in analogical thinking. When colored words referred to analogical relations, priming occurred subsequent to analogical judgments, but not to categorical judgments, even though identical four-word stimuli were used for both types of judgments. This finding lends empirical support to the hypothesis that, when people comprehend the analogy between two items, they activate an abstract analogical relation that is distinct from the specific content items that compose the analogy.

  17. Analog computing by Brewster effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Amir; Zangeneh-Nejad, Farzad; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Khavasi, Amin

    2016-08-01

    Optical computing has emerged as a promising candidate for real-time and parallel continuous data processing. Motivated by recent progresses in metamaterial-based analog computing [Science343, 160 (2014)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1242818], we theoretically investigate the realization of two-dimensional complex mathematical operations using rotated configurations, recently reported in [Opt. Lett.39, 1278 (2014)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.39.001278]. Breaking the reflection symmetry, such configurations could realize both even and odd Green's functions associated with spatial operators. Based on such an appealing theory and by using the Brewster effect, we demonstrate realization of a first-order differentiator. Such an efficient wave-based computation method not only circumvents the major potential drawbacks of metamaterials, but also offers the most compact possible device compared to conventional bulky lens-based optical signal and data processors.

  18. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  19. Neural correlates of creativity in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kraemer, David J M; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Gray, Jeremy R; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2012-03-01

    Brain-based evidence has implicated the frontal pole of the brain as important for analogical mapping. Separately, cognitive research has identified semantic distance as a key determinant of the creativity of analogical mapping (i.e., more distant analogies are generally more creative). Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during an analogy generation task in which we varied the semantic distance of analogical mapping (as derived quantitatively from a latent semantic analysis). Data indicated that activity within an a priori region of interest in left frontopolar cortex covaried parametrically with increasing semantic distance, even after removing effects of task difficulty. Results implicate increased recruitment of frontopolar cortex as a mechanism for integrating semantically distant information to generate solutions in creative analogical reasoning. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  20. An emergent approach to analogical inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Glick, Jeremy J.; Sternberg, Daniel A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of researchers have proposed that analogy is a core component of human cognition. According to the dominant theoretical viewpoint, analogical reasoning requires a specific suite of cognitive machinery, including explicitly coded symbolic representations and a mapping or binding mechanism that operates over these representations. Here we offer an alternative approach: we find that analogical inference can emerge naturally and spontaneously from a relatively simple, error-driven learning mechanism without the need to posit any additional analogy-specific machinery. The results also parallel findings from the developmental literature on analogy, demonstrating a shift from an initial reliance on surface feature similarity to the use of relational similarity later in training. Variants of the model allow us to consider and rule out alternative accounts of its performance. We conclude by discussing how these findings can potentially refine our understanding of the processes that are required to perform analogical inference.

  1. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...... and learning will have to be realized. In the implementation of PBL it makes a difference how the core features of the problem and the role of the facilitator have been defined. This paper will present components of a PBL faculty-development training programme and discuss the relevance with respect...

  2. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  3. Properties of compressible elastica from relativistic analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Oz; Diamant, Haim

    2016-01-21

    Kirchhoff's kinetic analogy relates the deformation of an incompressible elastic rod to the classical dynamics of rigid body rotation. We extend the analogy to compressible filaments and find that the extension is similar to the introduction of relativistic effects into the dynamical system. The extended analogy reveals a surprising symmetry in the deformations of compressible elastica. In addition, we use known results for the buckling of compressible elastica to derive the explicit solution for the motion of a relativistic nonlinear pendulum. We discuss cases where the extended Kirchhoff analogy may be useful for the study of other soft matter systems.

  4. Relations as transformations: implications for analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Robert; Mareschal, Denis; Cooper, Richard P

    2007-07-01

    We present two experiments assessing whether the size of a transformation instantiating a relation between two states of the world (e.g., shrinks) is a performance factor affecting analogical reasoning. The first experiment finds evidence of transformation size as a significant factor in adolescent analogical problem solving while the second experiment finds a similar effect on adult analogical reasoning using a markedly different analogical completion paradigm. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for the more general framework that cognitive representations of relations are best understood as mental transformations.

  5. OLS ANALOG DERIVED LIGHTNING V11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OLS Analog Derived Lightning dataset consists of global lightning signatures from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System...

  6. Cheating and Feeling Honest: Committing and Punishing Analog versus Digital Academic Dishonesty Behaviors in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adi; Blau,Ina; Eshet-Alkalai, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the phenomenon of academic dishonesty among university students. It was based on Pavela's (1997) framework of types of academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and facilitation) and distinguished between digital and "traditional"- analog dishonesty. The study analyzed cases of academic dishonesty…

  7. The challenges of facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the role of the facilitators in the enactment of the principles of deliberative democracy and how they are carried out in practice. More specifically, the focus is on how the facilitators‟ balances between the intention of opening up for a plurality of voice...

  8. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  9. Expert analogy use in a naturalistic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Donald R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker's goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption) of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance. PMID:25505437

  10. Expert Analogy Use in a Naturalistic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Kretz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker’s goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance.

  11. Single Cell FRET Analysis for the Identification of Optimal FRET-Pairs in Bacillus subtilis Using a Prototype MEM-FLIM System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detert Oude Weme, Ruud G J; Kovács, Ákos T; de Jong, Sander J G; Veening, Jan-Willem; Siebring, Jeroen; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions can be studied in vitro, e.g. with bacterial or yeast two-hybrid systems or surface plasmon resonance. In contrast to in vitro techniques, in vivo studies of protein-protein interactions allow examination of spatial and temporal behavior of such interactions in their

  12. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  13. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavitavya Nijampatnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity.

  14. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning in Science Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study in a classroom setting investigates first graders' (age 7-8 years, N = 25) ability to perform analogical reasoning and create their own analogies for two irreversible natural phenomena: mixing and heat transfer. We found that the children who contributed actively to a full-class discussion were consistently successful at…

  15. Children's Use of Analogy during Collaborative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Jung; Anderson, Richard C.; Hummel, John E.; Jadallah, May; Miller, Brian W.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Morris, Joshua A.; Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Il-Hee; Wu, Xiaoying; Dong, Ting

    2012-01-01

    This microgenetic study examined social influences on children's development of analogical reasoning during peer-led small-group discussions of stories about controversial issues. A total of 277 analogies were identified among 7,215 child turns for speaking during 54 discussions from 18 discussion groups in 6 fourth-grade classrooms (N = 120; age…

  16. Patterns of Analogical Reasoning among Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare; Canobi, Katherine H.; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that analogy skills are available to beginning readers, few studies have actually explored the possibility of identifying individual differences in young children's analogy skills in early reading. The present study examined individual differences in children's use of orthographic and phonological relations between…

  17. ANALOGICAL REASONING USING TRANSFORMATIONS OF RULES

    OpenAIRE

    Haraguchi, Makoto; 原口, 誠

    1986-01-01

    A formalism of analogical reasoning is presented. The analogical reasoning can be considered as a deduction with a function of transforming logical rules. From this viewpoint, the reasoning is defined in terms of deduction, and is therefore realized in a logic programming system. The reasoning system is described as an extension of Prolog interpreter.

  18. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…

  19. Structure problems in the analog computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braffort, P.L.

    1957-01-01

    The recent mathematical development showed the importance of elementary structures (algebraic, topological, etc.) in abeyance under the great domains of classical analysis. Such structures in analog computation are put in evidence and possible development of applied mathematics are discussed. It also studied the topological structures of the standard representation of analog schemes such as additional triangles, integrators, phase inverters and functions generators. The analog method gives only the function of the variable: time, as results of its computations. But the course of computation, for systems including reactive circuits, introduces order structures which are called 'chronological'. Finally, it showed that the approximation methods of ordinary numerical and digital computation present the same structure as these analog computation. The structure analysis permits fruitful comparisons between the several domains of applied mathematics and suggests new important domains of application for analog method. (M.P.)

  20. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  1. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...... and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes...

  2. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL) ......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research.......  This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL...

  3. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation......In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  4. Laser facilitates vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.

  5. Containers, facilitators, innovators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    : are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...... without the active role of LCGs as innovators. City employees are innovative – the seeming lack of public sector innovation is actually a result of measurement issues that favour (patentable) technological innovations rather than those more common to LCGs, meaning service and organisational types....... Therefore, LCGs can be seen as highly innovative organisations. There are, however, barriers to innovation in the public sector, such as the cost of innovation activity, the lack of incentives for it, and working culture that does not support it. Lastly, the results show that LCGs have not really fully...

  6. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  7. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  8. Generating explanations via analogical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Christian; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-10-01

    Generating explanations can be highly effective in promoting learning in both adults and children. Our interest is in the mechanisms that underlie this effect and in whether and how they operate in early learning. In adult reasoning, explanation may call on many subprocesses-including comparison, counterfactual reasoning, and reasoning by exclusion; but it is unlikely that all these processes are available to young children. We propose that one process that may serve both children and adults is comparison. In this study, we asked whether children would use the results of a comparison experience when asked to explain why a model skyscraper was stable. We focused on a challenging principle-that diagonal cross-bracing lends stability to physical structures (Gentner et al., Cognitive Science, 40, 224-240, 2016). Six-year-olds either received no training or interacted with model skyscrapers in one of three different conditions, designed to vary in their potential to invite and support comparison. In the Single Model condition, children interacted with a single braced model. In the comparison conditions (Low Alignability and High Alignability), children compared braced and unbraced models. Following experience with the models, children were asked to explain why the braced model was stable. They then received two transfer tasks. We found that children who received highly alignable pairs were most likely to (a) produce brace-based explanations and (b) transfer the brace principle to a dissimilar context. This provides evidence that children can benefit from analogical comparison in generating explanations and also suggests limitations on this ability.

  9. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    the behaviour of one expert and two novice facilitators during a Viable System Model workshop. The findings suggest common facilitation patterns in the behaviour of experts and novices. This contrasts literature claiming that experts and novices behave and use their available knowledge differently......This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...... and facilitation strategies in contexts in which external, expert facilitation is not always possible are also discussed, and limitations of this study are provided....

  10. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  11. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  12. Analogical Argument Schemes and Complex Argument Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Juthe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses several issues in argumentation theory. The over-arching goal is to discuss how a theory of analogical argument schemes fits the pragma-dialectical theory of argument schemes and argument structures, and how one should properly reconstruct both single and complex argumentation by analogy. I also propose a unified model that explains how formal valid deductive argumentation relates to argument schemes in general and to analogical argument schemes in particular. The model suggests “scheme-specific-validity” i.e. that there are contrasting species of validity for each type of argument scheme that derive from one generic conception of validity.

  13. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Navarrete

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  14. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jairo A; Dartnell, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a) we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b) we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c) we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  15. The Analog (Computer) As a Physiology Adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Peter A.

    1979-01-01

    Defines and discusses the analog computer and its use in a physiology laboratory. Includes two examples: (1) The Respiratory Control Function and (2) CO-Two Control in the Respiratory System. Presents diagrams and mathematical models. (MA)

  16. An Electrical Analog Computer for Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruels, Mark C.

    1972-01-01

    Nonphysics majors are presented with a direct current experiment beyond Ohms law and series and parallel laws. This involves construction of an analog computer from common rheostats and student-assembled voltmeters. (Author/TS)

  17. Selective termination, fetal reduction and analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G

    2013-06-01

    Analogical reasoning is a basic method in bioethics. Its main purpose is to transfer the rule from an existing or known situation to a new and problematic situation. This commentary applies the lifeboat analogy to the context of selective termination and fetal reduction. It turns out that the analogy is only partially helpful as the main principle in the case of selective termination is the procreative beneficence principle. However, the wide person-affecting form of this principle doubly justifies selective termination: i.e. one prevents the harm caused by the birth of an affected child and one increases the life chances of the remaining fetuses. I conclude, however, that all analogies are basically flawed since they assume that fetuses as such have interests. I argue that fetuses only have interests to the extent that they are potential future persons. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G Allen [Corrales, NM; Raring, James [Goleta, CA; Skogen, Erik J [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-07-21

    An optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is disclosed which converts an input optical analog signal to an output optical digital signal at a sampling rate defined by a sampling optical signal. Each bit of the digital representation is separately determined using an optical waveguide interferometer and an optical thresholding element. The interferometer uses the optical analog signal and the sampling optical signal to generate a sinusoidally-varying output signal using cross-phase-modulation (XPM) or a photocurrent generated from the optical analog signal. The sinusoidally-varying output signal is then digitized by the thresholding element, which includes a saturable absorber or at least one semiconductor optical amplifier, to form the optical digital signal which can be output either in parallel or serially.

  19. Low Power Analog Design in Scaled Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, A; Cocciolo, G; D’Amico, S; De Matteis, M; Delizia, P

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an overview on the main issues in analog IC design in scaled CMOS technology is presented. Decreasing the length of MOS channel and the gate oxide has led to undoubted advantages in terms of chip area, speed and power consumption (mainly exploited in the digital parts). Besides, some drawbacks are introduced in term of power leakage and reliability. Moreover, the scaled technology lower supply voltage requirement has led analog designers to find new circuital solution to guarantee the required performance.

  20. Financial Analysis Analogies for Software Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Uzzafer

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic software risk assessment model is presented. Analogies between dynamic financial analysis and software risk assessment models are established and based on these analogies it suggested that dynamic risk model for software projects is the way to move forward for the risk assessment of software project. It is shown how software risk assessment change during different phases of a software project and hence requires a dynamic risk assessment model to capture these va...

  1. Protein Structure Prediction with Visuospatial Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jim; Glasgow, Janice; Kuo, Tony

    We show that visuospatial representations and reasoning techniques can be used as a similarity metric for analogical protein structure prediction. Our system retrieves pairs of α-helices based on contact map similarity, then transfers and adapts the structure information to an unknown helix pair, showing that similar protein contact maps predict similar 3D protein structure. The success of this method provides support for the notion that changing representations can enable similarity metrics in analogy.

  2. High-frequency analog integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    To learn more about designing analog integrated circuits (ICs) at microwave frequencies using GaAs materials, turn to this text and reference. It addresses GaAs MESFET-based IC processing. Describes the newfound ability to apply silicon analog design techniques to reliable GaAs materials and devices which, until now, was only available through technical papers scattered throughout hundred of articles in dozens of professional journals.

  3. Analog modelling of obduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all

  4. Working memory predicts children's analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Nina K; Frausel, Rebecca R; Richland, Lindsey E

    2018-02-01

    Analogical reasoning is the cognitive skill of drawing relationships between representations, often between prior knowledge and new representations, that allows for bootstrapping cognitive and language development. Analogical reasoning proficiency develops substantially during childhood, although the mechanisms underlying this development have been debated, with developing cognitive resources as one proposed mechanism. We explored the role of executive function (EF) in supporting children's analogical reasoning development, with the goal of determining whether predicted aspects of EF were related to analogical development at the level of individual differences. We assessed 5- to 11-year-old children's working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility using measures from the National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition battery. Individual differences in children's working memory best predicted performance on an analogical mapping task, even when controlling for age, suggesting a fundamental interrelationship between analogical reasoning and working memory development. These findings underscore the need to consider cognitive capacities in comprehensive theories of children's reasoning development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Children's analogical reasoning about natural phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauen, S; Wilkening, F

    1997-10-01

    This report investigates children's analogical reasoning in a physics task, using an analogy generated by the children rather than by the experimenter. A total of 127 elementary school children took part in three related studies. Children learned to predict the behavior of a balance scale. Later, they were asked to solve a force interaction problem. Two versions of the balance scale training were devised: version A suggested an incorrect solution to the target problem (negative analogy), and version B suggested a correct solution to the target problem (positive analogy). In Study 1, 9- to 10-year-olds showed spontaneous transfer in both training conditions. In Study 2, 7-year-olds did not show any transfer in the positive analogy condition. Study 3 revealed that the lack of transfer in younger children was not due to a failure either to notice the analogy or to perform the mapping. Instead, 7-year-olds transferred only selected aspects of the correct solution. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  6. Students' Pre- and Post-Teaching Analogical Reasoning When They Draw their Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga Mozzer, Nilmara; Justi, Rosária

    2012-02-01

    Analogies are parts of human thought. From them, we can acquire new knowledge or change that which already exists in our cognitive structure. In this sense, understanding the analogical reasoning process becomes an essential condition to understand how we learn. Despite the importance of such an understanding, there is no general agreement in cognitive science literature about this issue. In this study, we investigated students' analogical reasoning as a creative process where an environment was set up to foster the students' generating and explaining their own analogies. Data were gathered from pre- and post-teaching interviews, in which the 13-14-year-old students were asked to make comparisons that could explain how atoms are bound. Such data supported the discussion about how students reasoned analogically. Our results made it evident that the task aims and the students' salient knowledge exerted a great influence on the drawing of analogies.

  7. Optical domain analog to digital conversion methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-13

    Methods and apparatus for optical analog to digital conversion are disclosed. An optical signal is converted by mapping the optical analog signal onto a wavelength modulated optical beam, passing the mapped beam through interferometers to generate analog bit representation signals, and converting the analog bit representation signals into an optical digital signal. A photodiode receives an optical analog signal, a wavelength modulated laser coupled to the photodiode maps the optical analog signal to a wavelength modulated optical beam, interferometers produce an analog bit representation signal from the mapped wavelength modulated optical beam, and sample and threshold circuits corresponding to the interferometers produce a digital bit signal from the analog bit representation signal.

  8. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... of root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...

  9. Quantifying Uncertainty of Wind Power Production Through an Analog Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, M.; Cervone, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Analog Ensemble (AnEn) method is used to generate probabilistic weather forecasts that quantify the uncertainty in power estimates at hypothetical wind farm locations. The data are from the NREL Eastern Wind Dataset that includes more than 1,300 modeled wind farms. The AnEn model uses a two-dimensional grid to estimate the probability distribution of wind speed (the predictand) given the values of predictor variables such as temperature, pressure, geopotential height, U-component and V-component of wind. The meteorological data is taken from the NCEP GFS which is available on a 0.25 degree grid resolution. The methodology first divides the data into two classes: training period and verification period. The AnEn selects a point in the verification period and searches for the best matching estimates (analogs) in the training period. The predictand value at those analogs are the ensemble prediction for the point in the verification period. The model provides a grid of wind speed values and the uncertainty (probability index) associated with each estimate. Each wind farm is associated with a probability index which quantifies the degree of difficulty to estimate wind power. Further, the uncertainty in estimation is related to other factors such as topography, land cover and wind resources. This is achieved by using a GIS system to compute the correlation between the probability index and geographical characteristics. This study has significant applications for investors in renewable energy sector especially wind farm developers. Lower level of uncertainty facilitates the process of submitting bids into day ahead and real time electricity markets. Thus, building wind farms in regions with lower levels of uncertainty will reduce the real-time operational risks and create a hedge against volatile real-time prices. Further, the links between wind estimate uncertainty and factors such as topography and wind resources, provide wind farm developers with valuable

  10. Electrochemical Bioelectronic Device Consisting of Metalloprotein for Analog Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Taek; Yoo, Si-Youl; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate an analog type logical device that combines metalloprotein and organic/inorganic materials and can make an interactive analog decision. Myoglobin is used as a functional biomolecule to generate electrochemical signals, and its original redox signal is controlled with various mercapto-acids by the distance effect between myoglobin and a metal surface in the process of electron transfer. Controlled signals are modulated with the introduction of inorganic materials including nanoparticles and metal ions. By forming a hybrid structure with various constituents of organic/inorganic materials, several functions for signal manipulation were achieved, including enhancement, suppression, and shift. Based on the manipulated signals of biomolecules, a novel logical system for interactive decision-making processes is proposed by selectively combining different signals. Through the arrangement of various output signals, we can define interactive logical results regulated by an inherent tendency (by metalloprotein), personal experience (by organic spacer sets), and environments (by inorganic materials). As a practical application, a group decision process is presented using the proposed logical device. The proposed flexible logic process could facilitate the realization of an artificial intelligence system by mimicking the sophisticated human logic process.

  11. SSRI Facilitated Crack Dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Doobay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as “crack dancing.” It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never “crack danced” before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest “crack dancing” is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with “crack dancing.” The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for “crack dancing.” There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the “crack dance.”

  12. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  13. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  14. The future of vitamin D analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlien eLeyssens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a major regulator of bone and calcium homeostasis. In addition, this hormone also inhibits the proliferation and stimulates the differentiation of normal as well as malignant cells. Supraphysiological doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are required to reduce cancer cell proliferation. However, these doses will lead in vivo to calcemic side effects such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. During the last 25 years, many structural analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been synthesized by the introduction of chemical modifications in the A-ring, central CD-ring region or side chain of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the hope to find molecules with a clear dissociation between the beneficial antiproliferative effects and adverse calcemic side effects. One example of such an analog with a good dissociation ratio is calcipotriol (DaivonexR, which is clinically used to treat the hyperproliferative skin disease psoriasis. Other vitamin D analogs were clinically approved for the treatment of osteoporosis or secondary hyperparathyroidism. No vitamin D analog is currently used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer although several analogs have been shown to be potent drugs in animal models of cancer. Omics studies as well as in vitro cell biological experiments unraveled basic mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of vitamin D and its analogs. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and analogs act in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, a blockade in the transition of the G0/1 towards S phase of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion of tumor cells together with effects on angiogenesis and inflammation have been implicated in the pleiotropic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs. In this review we will give an overview of the action of vitamin D analogs in tumor cells and look forward how these compounds could be introduced in the

  15. A fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. =11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  16. Analog forecasting with dynamics-adapted kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Analog forecasting is a nonparametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning and state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems. A key ingredient of our approach is to replace single-analog forecasting with weighted ensembles of analogs constructed using local similarity kernels. The kernels used here employ a number of dynamics-dependent features designed to improve forecast skill, including Takens’ delay-coordinate maps (to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations) and a directional dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. Mathematically, our approach is closely related to kernel methods for out-of-sample extension of functions, and we discuss alternative strategies based on the Nyström method and the multiscale Laplacian pyramids technique. We illustrate these techniques in applications to forecasting in a low-order deterministic model for atmospheric dynamics with chaotic metastability, and interannual-scale forecasting in the North Pacific sector of a comprehensive climate model. We find that forecasts based on kernel-weighted ensembles have significantly higher skill than the conventional approach following a single analog.

  17. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  18. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  19. Not All Analogies Are Created Equal: Associative and Categorical Analogy Processing following Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Current research on analogy processing assumes that different conceptual relations are treated similarly. However, just as words and concepts are related in distinct ways, different kinds of analogies may employ distinct types of relationships. An important distinction in how words are related is the difference between associative (dog-bone) and…

  20. Students' Pre- and Post-Teaching Analogical Reasoning when They Draw Their Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosaria

    2012-01-01

    Analogies are parts of human thought. From them, we can acquire new knowledge or change that which already exists in our cognitive structure. In this sense, understanding the analogical reasoning process becomes an essential condition to understand how we learn. Despite the importance of such an understanding, there is no general agreement in…

  1. Formal analogies in physics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Ricardo, Elio

    2012-01-01

    the relevance of the subject, formal analogies are rarely systematically approached in physics education. In order to discuss this issue with pre-service physics teachers, we planned a lecture and designed a questionnaire with the goal of encouraging them to think about some “coincidences” in well known......Reasoning by similarities, especially the ones associated with formal aspects, is one of the most valuable sources for the development of physical theories. The essential role of formal analogies in science can be highlighted by the fact that several equations for different physical situations have...... the exact same appearance. Coulomb’s law’s similarity with Newton’s, Maxwell’s application of fluid theory to electromagnetism and Hamilton’s optical mechanical analogy are some among many other examples. These cases illustrate the power of mathematics in providing unifying structures for physics. Despite...

  2. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  3. Changes in analogical reasoning in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E; Gardner, M K; Brown, G; Howell, R J

    1990-01-01

    This study sought to investigate adult intellectual development through an analysis of a particular type of cognitive ability, verbal analogical reasoning. The performance of 60 individuals between the ages of 20 and 79 was compared on 100 verbal analogies. The subjects consisted of six groups of ten individuals each (five males and five females), matched as a group for education and gender. Solution times and error rates served as the dependent measures. Results showed that there was a significant trend for the older subjects (60- and 70-year-olds) to be slower than the young subjects (20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-year-olds), but not necessarily more error prone. These data suggest that verbal analogical reasoning changes with age. Supplemental data demonstrated a change in other abilities as well (i.e., decline in perceptual-motor speed and spatial skill).

  4. Novel Gemini vitamin D3 analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Kuwayama, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One...... of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater...

  5. On Lovelock analogs of the Riemann tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camanho, Xian O. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany); Dadhich, Naresh [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India)

    2016-03-15

    It is possible to define an analog of the Riemann tensor for Nth order Lovelock gravity, its characterizing property being that the trace of its Bianchi derivative yields the corresponding analog of the Einstein tensor. Interestingly there exist two parallel but distinct such analogs and the main purpose of this note is to reconcile both formulations. In addition we will introduce a simple tensor identity and use it to show that any pure Lovelock vacuum in odd d = 2N + 1 dimensions is Lovelock flat, i.e. any vacuum solution of the theory has vanishing Lovelock-Riemann tensor. Further, in the presence of cosmological constant it is the Lovelock-Weyl tensor that vanishes. (orig.)

  6. Sleep promotes analogical transfer in problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Sio, Ut Na; Lau, Sum Wai; Woo, Hoi Kei; Linkenauger, Sally A; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    Analogical problem solving requires using a known solution from one problem to apply to a related problem. Sleep is known to have profound effects on memory and information restructuring, and so we tested whether sleep promoted such analogical transfer, determining whether improvement was due to subjective memory for problems, subjective recognition of similarity across related problems, or by abstract generalisation of structure. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to a set of source problems. Then, after a 12-h period involving sleep or wake, they attempted target problems structurally related to the source problems but with different surface features. Experiment 2 controlled for time of day effects by testing participants either in the morning or the evening. Sleep improved analogical transfer, but effects were not due to improvements in subjective memory or similarity recognition, but rather effects of structural generalisation across problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analogical reasoning for reliability analysis based on generic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozin, Igor O

    1996-10-01

    The paper suggests using the systemic concept 'analogy' for the foundation of an approach to analyze system reliability on the basis of generic data, describing the method of structuring the set that defines analogical models, an approach of transition from the analogical model to a reliability model and a way of obtaining reliability intervals of analogous objects.

  8. Analogical reasoning for reliability analysis based on generic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, Igor O.

    1996-01-01

    The paper suggests using the systemic concept 'analogy' for the foundation of an approach to analyze system reliability on the basis of generic data, describing the method of structuring the set that defines analogical models, an approach of transition from the analogical model to a reliability model and a way of obtaining reliability intervals of analogous objects

  9. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  10. Cheating and Feeling Honest: Committing and Punishing Analog versus Digital Academic Dishonesty Behaviors in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Friedman; Ina Blau; Yoram Eshet-Alkalai

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the phenomenon of academic dishonesty among university students. It was based on Pavela’s (1997) framework of types of academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and facilitation) and distinguished between digital and “traditional”- analog dishonesty. The study analyzed cases of academic dishonesty offenses committed by students, as well as the reasons for academic dishonesty behaviors, and the severity of penalties for violations of academic integrity. The mo...

  11. The possibilities of searching for new materials based on isocationic analogs of ZnBVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Mironova, E. V.; Kosarev, B. A.; Yureva, A. V.; Ekkert, R. V.

    2017-08-01

    Acid-base properties of chalcogenides - analogs of ZnBVI - were investigated in detail by modern techniques. The regularities of their composition-dependent changes were set, these regularities correlating with the dependencies "bulk physicochemical property - composition". The main reason for such correlations was found, facilitating the search for new materials of corresponding sensors. In this case, it was the sensors for basic gases impurities.

  12. Capsule storage and density-analog techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.

    1975-05-01

    Density-analog schemes for describing critical arrays of fissile units have a long history. They originated as methods for generalizing results of subcritical measurements on weapon capsules. Such measurements were needed to establish reasonably efficient rules for capsule storage. Although specific density-analog models have been improved throughout the years, they are now largely replaced by comprehensive tabulations of critical-lattice parameters. Certain simplified forms are still useful as convenient formulas for extrapolation or for gross sorting of safety features. (U.S.)

  13. HAPS, a Handy Analog Programming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1975-01-01

    and minimum values for the variables. The output file includes potentiometer coefficients and static-test 'measuring values.' The file format is fitted to an automatic potentiometer-setting and static-test program. Patch instructions are printed by HAPS. The article describes the principles of HAPS......HAPS (Hybrid Analog Programming System) is an analog compiler that can be run on a minicomputer in an interactive mode. Essentially HAPS is written in FORTRAN. The equations to be programmed for an ana log computer are read in by using a FORTRAN-like notation. The input must contain maximum...

  14. Associative Pattern Recognition In Analog VLSI Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Winner-take-all circuit selects best-match stored pattern. Prototype cascadable very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chips built and tested to demonstrate concept of electronic associative pattern recognition. Based on low-power, sub-threshold analog complementary oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuitry, each chip can store 128 sets (vectors) of 16 analog values (vector components), vectors representing known patterns as diverse as spectra, histograms, graphs, or brightnesses of pixels in images. Chips exploit parallel nature of vector quantization architecture to implement highly parallel processing in relatively simple computational cells. Through collective action, cells classify input pattern in fraction of microsecond while consuming power of few microwatts.

  15. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  16. Analogical reasoning abilities of recovering alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M K; Clark, E; Bowman, M A; Miller, P J

    1989-08-01

    This study investigated analogical reasoning abilities of alcoholics who had been abstinent from alcohol for at least 1 year. Their performance was compared to that of nonalcoholic controls matched as a group for education, age, and gender. Solution times and error rates were modeled using a regression model. Results showed a nonsignificant trend for alcoholics to be faster, but more error prone, than controls. The same componential model applied to both groups, and fit them equally well. Although differences have been found in analogical reasoning ability between controls and alcoholics immediately following detoxification, we find no evidence of differences after extended periods of sobriety.

  17. Analogy in systems management: a theoretical inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, B.G.

    1983-11-01

    This theoretical analysis of the intuitive and diffuse characteristics of analogical reasoning processes is the first step in a research effort intended to lead to: understanding of common (and possibly costly) errors, pitfalls, travails, and problem-solving impediments; possible recommendations for improvements to organizational structures, control and coordination processes, and management information flows, and guidelines for a generalized analogical reasoning support framework (e.g., a handbook, a knowledge bank design, and/or even a software package/artificial intelligence program). 233 references.

  18. Design of analog integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laker, Kenneth R

    1994-01-01

    This text is designed for senior or graduate level courses in analog integrated circuits or design of analog integrated circuits. This book combines consideration of CMOS and bipolar circuits into a unified treatment. Also included are CMOS-bipolar circuits made possible by BiCMOS technology. The text progresses from MOS and bipolar device modelling to simple one and two transistor building block circuits. The final two chapters present a unified coverage of sample-data and continuous-time signal processing systems.

  19. High-speed and high-resolution analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Plassche, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are important building blocks connecting the analog world of transducers with the digital world of computing, signal processing and data acquisition systems. In chapter two the converter as part of a system is described. Requirements of analog

  20. Analog System of Detonations with Loss and Stability of the Analog System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanxiang; Wang, Cheng; Group of Computationa Fluid Dynamics Team

    2017-06-01

    Analog system of detonation is a simplified model of the Euler system. Analog system removes unnecessary details of the Euler system and reduces mathematical difficulty Analog system with losses and reaction mechanism that applicable for condensed-phase detonation is studied to examine whether the analog system in this paper is valid Details are as follows: 1. The relationship of detonation velocity vs. loss parameter is analytically solved, and a minimal state-dependence of the reaction rate n required for this relationship to exhibit a critical behavior (i.e., a turning point) is examined The results agree with the limits which derived from Euler system. 2. Normal-mode method is used to study the stability of the analog system. A radiation (closure) condition is derived and applied at the end of the reaction zone. An analysis is performed to investigate whether the ideal, steady-state detonation can keep stable to small perturbations 3. Because analog system with loss can be more unstable than the ideal one. An numerical simulation is used to examine the detonation stability near the loss limits. The results above show that the analog system is basically valid for condensed-phase detonation.

  1. A physical analogy to fuzzy clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides an interpretation of the membership assignment in the fuzzy clustering algorithm fuzzy c-means. The membership of a data point to several clusters is shown to be analogous to the gravitational forces between bodies of mass. This provides an alternative way to explain...

  2. LHRH analogs in treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, J.; Dzurillova, L.

    2015-01-01

    Hormonal therapy is an important and effective part of treatment of the hormonal positive breast cancer. Drugs from the group of LHRH analogs cause reversible ovarian suppression in premenopausal women with breast cancer. The following article deals with actual possibilities of their usage in the adjuvant therapy as well as in the metastatic setting. (author)

  3. C4913 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course C4913 Analog and Digital Filters...

  4. A high-speed analog neural processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masa, P.; Masa, Peter; Hoen, Klaas; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Targeted at high-energy physics research applications, our special-purpose analog neural processor can classify up to 70 dimensional vectors within 50 nanoseconds. The decision-making process of the implemented feedforward neural network enables this type of computation to tolerate weight

  5. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  6. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1997-01-01

    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  7. An iconic, analogical approach to grammaticalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, O.; Conradie, C.J.; Johl, R.; Beukes, M.; Fischer, O.; Ljungberg, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of problems connected with the ‘apparatus’ used in grammaticalization theory. It will be argued that we get a better grip on what happens in processes of grammaticalization (and its ‘opposite’, lexicalization) if the process is viewed in terms of analogical processes,

  8. Metaphor, Simile, Analogy and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Fox argues that the poetic function of language fulfils the human need to symbolise. Metaphor, simile and analogy provide examples of the ways in which symbolic language can be used creatively. The neural representations of these processes therefore provide a means to determine the neurological basis of creative language. Neuro-imaging has…

  9. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  10. Plasma analog of particle-pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsidulko, Yu.A.; Berk, H.L.

    1996-09-01

    It is shown that the plasma axial shear flow instability satisfies the Klein-Gordon equation. The plasma instability is then shown to be analogous to spontaneous particle-pair production when a potential energy is present that is greater than twice the particle rest mass energy. Stability criteria can be inferred based on field theoretical conservation laws

  11. Analog Experiment for rootless cone eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, R.; Hamada, A.; Suzuki, A.; Kurita, K.

    2017-09-01

    Rootless cone is a unique geomorphological landmark to specify igneous origin of investigated terrane, which is formed by magma-water interaction. To understand its formation mechanism we conducted analog experiment for heat-induced vesiculation by using hot syrup and sodium bicarbonate solution.

  12. A Mechanical Analogy for Ohm's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Couto Tavares, Milton; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A mechanical analogy between the microscopic motion of a charged carrier in an ordinary resistor and the macroscopic motion of a ball falling along a slanted board covered with a lattice of nails is introduced. The Drude model is also introduced to include the case of inelastic collisions. Computer simulation of the motion is described. (KR)

  13. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  14. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  15. The Structure of Analogical Models in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    electric current. Finally, a familiar but useful example is the standard mathematical technique of analogizing from two- or three-dimensional spaces to n...loose collection of similar properties, events and relationships, such as "produced by striking water, etc./produced by striking gongs, violins , etc

  16. Analog-to-digital conversion using custom CMOS analog memory for the EOS time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.L.; Arthur, A.A.; Jones, R.W.; Matis, H.S.; Nakamura, M.; Kleinfelder, S.A.; Ritter, H.G.; Wienman, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the multiplexing scheme of custom CMOS analog memory integrated circuits, 16 channels x 256 cells, into analog to digital converters (ADC's) to handle 15,360 signal channels of a time projection, chamber detector system. Primary requirements of this system are high density, low power and large dynamic range. The analog memory device multiplexing scheme was designed to digitize the information stored in the memory cells. The digitization time of the ADC's and the settling times for the memory unit were carefully interleaved to optimize the performance and timing during the multiplexing operation. This kept the total number of ADC's, a costly and power dissipative component, to an acceptable minimum

  17. Den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    præsenteres i det følgende afsnit, og forfatteren argumenterer for begrebet facilitator af refleksionsarbejde. Herefter udfoldes rollen som facilitator ifølge Ghay og Lillyman. De har fokus på positive praksisoplevelser og tillidsfulde relationer. Gillie Boltons teoretiske og praktiske referenceramme...

  18. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  19. Analogical reasoning in children with specific language impairment: Evidence from a scene analogy task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemien, Magali; Jemel, Boutheina; Maillart, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a human ability that maps systems of relations. It develops along with relational knowledge, working memory and executive functions such as inhibition. It also maintains a mutual influence on language development. Some authors have taken a greater interest in the analogical reasoning ability of children with language disorders, specifically those with specific language impairment (SLI). These children apparently have weaker analogical reasoning abilities than their aged-matched peers without language disorders. Following cognitive theories of language acquisition, this deficit could be one of the causes of language disorders in SLI, especially those concerning productivity. To confirm this deficit and its link to language disorders, we use a scene analogy task to evaluate the analogical performance of SLI children and compare them to controls of the same age and linguistic abilities. Results show that children with SLI perform worse than age-matched peers, but similar to language-matched peers. They are more influenced by increased task difficulty. The association between language disorders and analogical reasoning in SLI can be confirmed. The hypothesis of limited processing capacity in SLI is also being considered.

  20. Optimal neural computations require analog processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses some of the limitations of hardware implementations of neural networks. The authors start by presenting neural structures and their biological inspirations, while mentioning the simplifications leading to artificial neural networks. Further, the focus will be on hardware imposed constraints. They will present recent results for three different alternatives of parallel implementations of neural networks: digital circuits, threshold gate circuits, and analog circuits. The area and the delay will be related to the neurons` fan-in and to the precision of their synaptic weights. The main conclusion is that hardware-efficient solutions require analog computations, and suggests the following two alternatives: (i) cope with the limitations imposed by silicon, by speeding up the computation of the elementary silicon neurons; (2) investigate solutions which would allow the use of the third dimension (e.g. using optical interconnections).

  1. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1986-10-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  2. Performance of the Analog Moving Window Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. Gregers

    1970-01-01

    A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning of the ante......A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning....... Finally the influence on detection performance of the width used for the moving window is investigated....

  3. An analogy strategy for transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Kan; Liu, Yongmin; Chen, Huanyang; Jiang, Xunya

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an analogy strategy to design transformation optical devices. Based on the similarities between field lines in different physical systems, the trajectories of light can be intuitively determined to curve in a gentle manner, and the resulting materials are isotropic and nonmagnetic. Furthermore, the physical meaning of the analogue problems plays a key role in the removal of dielectric singularities. We illustrate this approach by creating two designs of carpet cloak and a collimating lens as representative examples in two- and three-dimensional spaces, respectively. The analogy strategy not only reveals the intimate connections between different physical disciplines, such as optics, fluid mechanics and electrostatics, but also provides a heuristic pathway to designing advanced photonic systems

  4. Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Rania F.

    2011-12-01

    A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Combined analog-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.V.; Rzhendinskaya, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) designed for operating in spectrometers with time-dependent filters is described. The ADC operation is based on combining the parallel reading and sequential counting methods. At maximum conversion time of 12 μs, timing series frequency of 25 MHz and foUr reference levels the differential nonlinearity withoUt statistical smoothing (maximum relative channel width deviation from average value) is not more than 4%

  6. DIY Hybrid Analog/Digital Modular Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Surges, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three hardware devices for integrating modular synthesizers with computers, each with a different approach to the relationship between hardware and software. The devices discussed are the USB-Octomod, an 8-channel OSC-compatible computer-controlled control-voltage generator, the tabulaRasa, a hardware table-lookup oscillator synthesis module with corresponding waveform design software, and the pucktronix.snake.corral, a dual 8x8 computer-controlled analog signal routing m...

  7. Pyrrolidine nucleotide analogs with a tunable conformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Rejman, Dominik; Pohl, Radek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Aug 22 (2014), s. 1967-1980 ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : conformation * NMR * nucleic acids * nucleotide analog * phosphonic acid * pseudorotation * pyrrolidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.762, year: 2014 http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/single/articleFullText.htm?publicId=1860-5397-10-205

  8. How to use analogies for breakthrough innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Schild, Katharina; Herstatt, Cornelius; Lüthje, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Analogies can trigger breakthrough ideas in new product development. Numerous examples demonstrate that substantial innovations often result from transferring problem solutions from one industry or domain to another. For instance, the designers of the new running shoe generation of Nike, “Nike SHOX”, use the same suspension concept like the technologies applied for Formula 1 racing cars, or the biological Lotus-effect led to the development of various self-cleaning surfaces. Academic resea...

  9. Performance of MSGC with analog pipeline readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gracia, G. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez, M.A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Nunez, T. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Plo, M. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Santamarina, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Vazquez, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1997-01-01

    We analyse some of the performance characteristics of a chromium MSGC operated with Ar-DME 50%-50% in a test beam at CERN. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency has been achieved with this gas mixture using cathode analog pipeline readout. We also determine optimal parameters for the sampling algorithm in order to work in a random trigger experiment (fixed target). (orig.).

  10. An introduction to analog and digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Haykin, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of this accessible book provides readers with an introductory treatment of communication theory as applied to the transmission of information-bearing signals. While it covers analog communications, the emphasis is placed on digital technology. It begins by presenting the functional blocks that constitute the transmitter and receiver of a communication system. Readers will next learn about electrical noise and then progress to multiplexing and multiple access techniques.

  11. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  12. Performance of MSGC with analog pipeline readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Gracia, G.; Lopez, M.A.; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Santamarina, C.; Vazquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse some of the performance characteristics of a chromium MSGC operated with Ar-DME 50%-50% in a test beam at CERN. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency has been achieved with this gas mixture using cathode analog pipeline readout. We also determine optimal parameters for the sampling algorithm in order to work in a random trigger experiment (fixed target). (orig.)

  13. Atomtronics: Ultracold Atom Analogs of Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-23

    to leave the base compared to entering the col- build a transistor . Bipolar junction transistors ( BJT ) lector. Because of this, most of the current...voltage curve exploits the existence of superfluid and insulating regimes in the phase diagram. "lie atomt.roinc analog of a bipolar junction transistor ...of a bipolar junction transistor exhibits large negative gain. Our results provide the building blocks for more advanced atomtronic devices and

  14. Resizing methodology for CMOS analog circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Timothée; Tomas, J.; Lewis, N.; Fouillat, P.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a CMOS resizing methodology for analog circuits during a technology migration. The scaling rules aim to be easy to apply and are based on the simplest MOS transistor model. The principle is to transpose one circuit topology from one technology to another, while keeping the main figures of merit, and the issue is to quickly calculate the new transistor dimensions. Furthermore, when the target technology has smaller minimum length, we expect to obtain...

  15. Prostaglandin analogs in the treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejkal, T W; Camras, C B

    1999-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) analogs are some of the most recent additions to the list of ocular hypotensive medications. Two analogs of naturally occurring PGs are available commercially, isopropyl unoprostone (Rescula [Ciba Vision, Atlanta, GA]) and latanoprost (Xalatan [Pharmacia & Upjohn, Bridgewater, NJ]). Presently, latanoprost 0. 005% is the only PG analog commercially available in the United States. These agents have been shown to be the most effective topical medications for reducing intraocular pressure. They have a different mechanism of action than other ocular hypotensives, and act primarily by increasing uveoscleral outflow. Because of this, PGs have a substantial additive effect when used with agents that reduce aqueous production (eg, beta blockers or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors) or that increase trabecular outflow facility (eg, pilocarpine). Local side effects include mild conjunctival hyperemia and local irritation, darkening of iris color, increased growth of eyelashes, and a possible association with cystoid macular edema or iritis in some patients with other risk factors. No systemic side effects have been proven to be caused by latanoprost. Recommended dosing is once daily at bedtime.

  16. Clinical utility of insulin and insulin analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Altunbas, Hasan Ali; Balci, Mustafa Kemal; Griffith, Thomas S.; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease characterized by autoimmune, genetic and metabolic abnormalities. While insulin deficiency manifested as hyperglycemia is a common sequel of both Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM), it does not result from a single genetic defect—rather insulin deficiency results from the functional loss of pancreatic β cells due to multifactorial mechanisms. Since pancreatic β cells of patients with T1DM are destroyed by autoimmune reaction, these patients require daily insulin injections. Insulin resistance followed by β cell dysfunction and β cell loss is the characteristics of T2DM. Therefore, most patients with T2DM will require insulin treatment due to eventual loss of insulin secretion. Despite the evidence of early insulin treatment lowering macrovascular (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease and stroke) and microvascular (diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) complications of T2DM, controversy exists among physicians on how to initiate and intensify insulin therapy. The slow acting nature of regular human insulin makes its use ineffective in counteracting postprandial hyperglycemia. Instead, recombinant insulin analogs have been generated with a variable degree of specificity and action. Due to the metabolic variability among individuals, optimum blood glucose management is a formidable task to accomplish despite the presence of novel insulin analogs. In this article, we present a recent update on insulin analog structure and function with an overview of the evidence on the various insulin regimens clinically used to treat diabetes. PMID:23584214

  17. Targeting thyroid diseases with TSH receptor analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan C; Chacón, Ana M; Latif, Rauf

    2013-12-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major regulator of thyroid function and growth, and is the key antigen in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Various effective treatment strategies are currently available for many of these clinical conditions such as antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy, but they are not devoid of side effects. In addition, treatment of complications of Graves' disease such as Graves' ophthalmopathy is often difficult and unsatisfactory using current methods. Recent advances in basic research on both in vitro and in vivo models have suggested that TSH analogs could be used for diagnosis and treatment of some of the thyroid diseases. The advent of high-throughput screening methods has resulted in a group of TSH analogs called small molecules, which have the potential to be developed as promising drugs. Small molecules are low molecular weight compounds with agonist, antagonist and, in some cases, inverse agonist activity on TSHR. This short review will focus on current advances in development of TSH analogs and their potential clinical applications. Rapid advances in this field may lead to the conduct of clinical trials of small molecules related to TSHR for the management of Graves' disease, thyroid cancer, and thyroid-related osteoporosis in the coming years. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Relational Language Facilitates the Development of Cognitive Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomila, Antoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In several papers, Gentner has shown that relational language facilitates spatial analogical reasoning tasks. In this work we set this question in the context of the development of cognitive flexibility, understood not just as at the representation level, but also at the executive one. To this extent, we modify the design by Ratterman & Gentner (1988 by including order of presentation of the elements as a variable, to increase the executive demands of the task so that the elements to be mentally ordered, which also allows to exclude that the successful answer is based on perceptual appearance. Our results confirm the facilitatory effect of relational language on the development of cognitive flexibility. They also point that a disordered presentation also facilitates correct responses.

  19. Unconscious violinists and the use of analogies in moral argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiland, E.

    2000-01-01

    Analogies are the stuff out of which normative moral philosophy is made. Certainly one of the most famous analogies constructed by a philosopher in order to argue for a specific controversial moral conclusion is the one involving Judith Thomson's unconscious violinist. Reflection upon this analogy is meant to show us that abortion is generally not immoral even if the prenatal have the same moral status as the postnatal. This was and still is a controversial conclusion, and yet the analogy does seem to reveal in a very vivid way what makes abortion a reasonable response to a terrible situation. But Thomson's example has frequently been attacked on all sides for not being truly analogous to abortion. Here I develop a brand new analogy that sheds light on the issue with which Thomson was concerned, while at the same time avoiding most of the more serious objections made to her analogy. Key Words: Abortion • analogies • Thomson PMID:11129849

  20. Scientific Analogies and Their Use in Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Nahum

    Analogy in science knew its successes and failures, as illustrated by examples from the eighteenth-century physics. At times, some scientists abstained from using a certain analogy on the ground that it had not yet been demonstrated. Several false discoveries in the 18th and early 19th centuries appeared to support their caution. It is now clear that such a position reflected a methodological confusion that resulted from a failure to distinguish between particular and general analogies. Considering analogy as a hierarchical structure provides a new insight into "testing an analogy". While warning science teachers of dangers associated with use of analogy, historical cases and their analysis provided here may encourage them to use analogy more extensively while avoiding misconceptions. An argument is made that the history of science may be a better guide than philosophy of science and cognitive psychology when it concerns the role of analogy in science and in teaching science for understanding.

  1. Design, synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of novel carbendazim dithioate analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahran, Magdy A H; Osman, Amany M A; Wahed, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of carbendazim dithioate analogs was synthesized by the reaction of 2-aminobenzimdazole with CS2 and different alkyl halide in one pot reaction. All the chemical structure of carbendazim analogs were elucidated with all the spectroscopical tools IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass-spectroscop......A novel series of carbendazim dithioate analogs was synthesized by the reaction of 2-aminobenzimdazole with CS2 and different alkyl halide in one pot reaction. All the chemical structure of carbendazim analogs were elucidated with all the spectroscopical tools IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass...... against soil dehydrogenase activity. Among the carbendazim dithioates, some analogs were the most effective analogs against all the Gram-negative and positive-bacteria. While the most of them showed slight activities against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. One of these analogs seemed to be more...... suppressive for dehydrogenase activity of soil microorganisms compared to all carbendazim sulfur analogs....

  2. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...

  3. Patient advocacy: barriers and facilitators

    OpenAIRE

    Nikravesh Mansoure; Ahmadi Fazlollah; Oskouie Fatemeh; Negarandeh Reza; Hallberg Ingalill

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background During the two recent decades, advocacy has been a topic of much debate in the nursing profession. Although advocacy has embraced a crucial role for nurses, its extent is often limited in practice. While a variety of studies have been generated all over the world, barriers and facilitators in the patient advocacy have not been completely identified. This article presents the findings of a study exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing the role of advocacy among ...

  4. On novice facilitators doing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...

  5. Generalized relational matching by guinea baboons (Papio papio) in two-by-two-item analogy problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Joël; Thompson, Roger K R

    2011-10-01

    Analogical reasoning is considered the hallmark of human reasoning, but some studies have demonstrated that language- and symbol-trained chimpanzees can also reason analogically. Despite the potential adaptive value of this ability, evidence from other studies strongly suggests that other nonhuman primates do not have this capacity for analogical reasoning. In our three experiments, 6 of 29 baboons acquired the ability to perform a relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) task in which pairs of shapes composed relational displays. Five of these 6 monkeys then transferred this ability to RMTS tasks using novel exemplars of identity (elements in a pair are the same) and nonidentity (elements in a pair are different) relations. This transfer occurred even on trials in which the incorrect pair shared an element with the sample pair with which it was being compared. The baboons retained this ability 12 months later. The findings from our study of symbol-naive monkeys indicate that although language and symbol training facilitate conceptual thinking in nonhuman primates, such training is not a prerequisite for analogical reasoning.

  6. Functional DNA: Teaching Infinite Series through Genetic Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, R. Travis

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an extended analogy that connects infinite sequences and series to the science of genetics, by identifying power series as "DNA for a function." This analogy allows standard topics such as convergence tests or Taylor approximations to be recast in a "forensic" light as mathematical analogs of genetic concepts such as DNA…

  7. CRITICIZE THE USE OF ANALOGY PROHIBITION IN CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Masyhar Mursyid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The analogy becomes an absolute thing that is not permitted under the Indonesia criminal law. However, in the moving and changing society, written criminal laws are not always able to accommodate all the crime that happened. The prohibition of analogy it is not in line with Islamic law, “qiyas”, which no other is the analogy. Analogy should be accepted as part of a form of interpretation that has been known in the criminal law. Ban the use of analogy also confirmed in the draft Criminal Code. However, reading the ban of analogy must be done carefully.   Analogi menjadi satu hal mutlak yang tidak diperkenankan dalam hukum pidana. Namun demikian di tengah perkembangan masyarakat yang bergerak dan senantiasa berubah, perundang-undangan pidana tertulis tidak selamanya mampu menampung seluruh tindak pidana yang terjadi. Doktrin hukum pidana yang melarang analogi ini justru tidak sejalan dengan konsep hukum Islam yang mengenal qiyas, yang tiada lain adalah analogi. Seyogyanya analogi bisa diterima sebagai bagian dari bentuk penafsiran yang selama ini telah dikenal dalam hukum pidana. Larangan penggunaan analogi juga ditegaskan (kembali dalam Rancangan KUHP. Namun demikian perlu kehati-hatian dalam membaca larangan analogi dalam Rancangan KUHP ini.

  8. Investigating and Theorizing Discourse during Analogy Writing in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchi, Alberto; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Explanations of the role of analogies in learning science at a cognitive level are made in terms of creating bridges between new information and students' prior knowledge. In this empirical study of learning with analogies in an 11th grade chemistry class, we explore an alternative explanation at the "social" level where analogy shapes…

  9. When Reasoning Modifies Memory: Schematic Assimilation Triggered by Analogical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Wu, Aaron; Rowshanshad, Ebi; Knowlton, Barbara J.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Analogical mapping highlights shared relations that link 2 situations, potentially at the expense of information that does not fit the dominant pattern of correspondences. To investigate whether analogical mapping can alter subsequent recognition memory for features of a source analog, we performed 2 experiments with 4-term proportional analogies…

  10. Analogies in Medicine: Valuable for Learning, Reasoning, Remembering and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, Jose de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are important tools in human reasoning and learning, for resolving problems and providing arguments, and are extensively used in medicine. Analogy and similarity involve a structural alignment or mapping between domains. This cognitive mechanism can be used to make inferences and learn new abstractions. Through analogies, we try to…

  11. Using Analogies as an Experiential Learning Technique in Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthakaran, V.; Filsinger, Keri; White, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors specifically address the use of narratives in the form of analogies as an experiential learning activity. The use of analogies as an experiential learning tool in multicultural education can be helpful in a number of ways. Analogies provide an alternative tool for processing multicultural topics with students who have…

  12. Circuit with a successive approximation analog to digital converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    During successive approximation analog to digital conversion a series of successive digital reference values is selected that converges towards a digital representation of an analog input signal. An analog reference signal is generated dependent on the successive digital reference values and

  13. Circuit with a successive approximation analog to digital converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    During successive approximation analog to digital conversion a series of successive digital reference values is selected that converges towards a digital representation of an analog input signal. An analog reference signal is generated dependent on the successive digital reference values and

  14. Inviting Argument by Analogy: Analogical-Mapping-Based Comparison Activities as a Scaffold for Small-Group Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Brandon R.; McDonald, Scott; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Strauss, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This study invited small groups to make several arguments by analogy about simple machines. Groups were first provided training on analogical (structure) mapping and were then invited to use analogical mapping as a scaffold to make arguments. In making these arguments, groups were asked to consider three simple machines: two machines that they had…

  15. SSERVI Analog Regolith Simulant Testbed Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, Joseph; Schmidt, Gregory; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2016-10-01

    The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) at NASA's Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley was founded in 2013 to act as a virtual institute that provides interdisciplinary research centered on the goals of its supporting directorates: NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and the Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).Primary research goals of the Institute revolve around the integration of science and exploration to gain knowledge required for the future of human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI intends to leverage existing JSC1A regolith simulant resources into the creation of a regolith simulant testbed facility. The purpose of this testbed concept is to provide the planetary exploration community with a readily available capability to test hardware and conduct research in a large simulant environment.SSERVI's goals include supporting planetary researchers within NASA, other government agencies; private sector and hardware developers; competitors in focused prize design competitions; and academic sector researchers.SSERVI provides opportunities for research scientists and engineers to study the effects of regolith analog testbed research in the planetary exploration field. This capability is essential to help to understand the basic effects of continued long-term exposure to a simulated analog test environment.The current facility houses approximately eight tons of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant in a test bin consisting of a 4 meter by 4 meter area, including dust mitigation and safety oversight.Facility hardware and environment testing scenarios could include, Lunar surface mobility, Dust exposure and mitigation, Regolith handling and excavation, Solar-like illumination, Lunar surface compaction profile, Lofted dust, Mechanical properties of lunar regolith, Surface features (i.e. grades and rocks)Numerous benefits vary from easy access to a controlled analog regolith simulant testbed, and

  16. High fluid intelligence and analogical reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Preusse, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    Hitherto, previous studies on the cerebral correlates of fluid intelligence (fluIQ) used tasks that did not exclusively demand fluIQ, or were restricted to participants of average fluIQ (ave-fluIQ) solving intelligence test items of varying difficulty, thus not allowing assumptions on interindividual differences in fluIQ. Geometric analogical reasoning (GAR) demands fluIQ very purely and thus is an eligible approach for research on interindividual differences in fluIQ. In a first study, we ...

  17. Analog to digital conversion for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, P.V.R. de.

    1982-04-01

    A study of the analog to digital conversion techniques for nuclear spectrometry is presented and the main design philosophies of nuclear ADC's are compared. Among them, the most suitable for the current Brazilian conditions, concerning the specifications and components avaiability is the one that employs a statistical correction of successive approximation converters. This technique is described in full detail. A prototype has been developed an tested for the practical demonstration of the theoretical conclusions. These tests was carried on nuclear spectrometry data aquisition system whose implementation is also described. (Author) [pt

  18. Elucidating the neurotoxic effects of MDMA and its analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Ahuja, Manuj; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Deruiter, Jack; Clark, Randall; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2014-04-17

    There is a rapid increase in the use of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its structural congeners/analogs globally. MDMA and MDMA-analogs have been synthesized illegally in furtive dwellings and are abused due to its addictive potential. Furthermore, MDMA and MDMA-analogs have shown to have induced several adverse effects. Hence, understanding the mechanisms mediating this neurotoxic insult of MDMA-analogs is of immense importance for the public health in the world. We synthesized and investigated the neurotoxic effects of MDMA and its analogs [4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 2, 6-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA), and N-ethyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDEA)]. The stimulatory or the dopaminergic agonist effects of MDMA and MDMA-analogs were elucidated using the established 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned animal model. Additionally, we also investigated the neurotoxic mechanisms of MDMA and MDMA-analogs on mitochondrial complex-I activity and reactive oxygen species generation. MDMA and MDMA-analogs exhibited stimulatory activity as compared to amphetamines and also induced several behavioral changes in the rodents. MDMA and MDMA-analogs enhanced the reactive oxygen generation and inhibited mitochondrial complex-I activity which can lead to neurodegeneration. Hence the mechanism of neurotoxicity, MDMA and MDMA-analogs can enhance the release of monoamines, alter the monoaminergic neurotransmission, and augment oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities leading to neurotoxicity. Thus, our study will help in developing effective pharmacological and therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MDMA and MDMA-analog abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Student-Facilitated Learning on Instructional Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Sarah M.; Somers, Jennifer A.; Rivera, Gwendelyn J.; Keiler, Leslie S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated perceptions about learning strategy use and instructional roles among a sample of high needs adolescents (n = 230) who acted as near-peer instructional facilitators. The sample was drawn from science and mathematics classes in nonselective public secondary schools in New York City. Students participated in an inschool intervention…

  20. Use of analogy in learning physics: The role of representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D. Finkelstein

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that analogies can promote student learning in physics and can be productively taught to students to support their learning, under certain conditions. We build on these studies to explore the use of analogy by students in a large introductory college physics course. In the first large-scale study of its kind, we demonstrate that different analogies can lead to varied student reasoning. When different analogies were used to teach electromagnetic (EM waves, we found that students explicitly mapped characteristics either of waves on strings or sound waves to EM waves, depending upon which analogy students were taught. We extend these results by investigating how students use analogies. Our findings suggest that representational format plays a key role in the use of analogy.

  1. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-06

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.

  2. Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlievert, Patrick M; Merriman, Joseph A; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Mueller, Elizabeth A; Spaulding, Adam R; Vu, Bao G; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N; Kohler, Petra L; Kirby, John R

    2013-11-01

    Gram-positive bacteria cause serious human illnesses through combinations of cell surface and secreted virulence factors. We initiated studies with four of these organisms to develop novel topical antibacterial agents that interfere with growth and exotoxin production, focusing on menaquinone analogs. Menadione, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and coenzymes Q1 to Q3 but not menaquinone, phylloquinone, or coenzyme Q10 inhibited the growth and to a greater extent exotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae at concentrations of 10 to 200 μg/ml. Coenzyme Q1 reduced the ability of S. aureus to cause toxic shock syndrome in a rabbit model, inhibited the growth of four Gram-negative bacteria, and synergized with another antimicrobial agent, glycerol monolaurate, to inhibit S. aureus growth. The staphylococcal two-component system SrrA/B was shown to be an antibacterial target of coenzyme Q1. We hypothesize that menaquinone analogs both induce toxic reactive oxygen species and affect bacterial plasma membranes and biosynthetic machinery to interfere with two-component systems, respiration, and macromolecular synthesis. These compounds represent a novel class of potential topical therapeutic agents.

  3. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PTX is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems.

  4. Merging Galaxy Clusters: Analysis of Simulated Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jayke; Wittman, David; Cornell, Hunter

    2018-01-01

    The nature of dark matter can be better constrained by observing merging galaxy clusters. However, uncertainty in the viewing angle leads to uncertainty in dynamical quantities such as 3-d velocities, 3-d separations, and time since pericenter. The classic timing argument links these quantities via equations of motion, but neglects effects of nonzero impact parameter (i.e. it assumes velocities are parallel to the separation vector), dynamical friction, substructure, and larger-scale environment. We present a new approach using n-body cosmological simulations that naturally incorporate these effects. By uniformly sampling viewing angles about simulated cluster analogs, we see projected merger parameters in the many possible configurations of a given cluster. We select comparable simulated analogs and evaluate the likelihood of particular merger parameters as a function of viewing angle. We present viewing angle constraints for a sample of observed mergers including the Bullet cluster and El Gordo, and show that the separation vectors are closer to the plane of the sky than previously reported.

  5. Comparison between analog and digital filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Erdei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing(DSP is one of the most powerful technologies and will model science and engineering in the 21st century. Revolutionary changes have already been made in different areas of research such as communications, medical imaging, radar and sonar technology, high fidelity audio signal reproducing etc. Each of these fields developed a different signal processing technology with its own algorithms, mathematics and technology, Digital filters are used in two general directions: to separate mixed signals and to restore signals that were compromised in different modes. The objective of this paper is to compare some basic digital filters versus analog filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass filters. Scientists and engineers comprehend that, in comparison with analog filters, digital filters can process the same signal in real-time with broader flexibility. This understanding is considered important to instill incentive for engineers to become interested in the field of DSP. The analysis of the results will be made using dedicated libraries in MATLAB and Simulink software, such as the Signal Processing Toolbox.

  6. AFEII Analog Front End Board Design Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinov, Paul; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This document describes the design of the 2nd iteration of the Analog Front End Board (AFEII), which has the function of receiving charge signals from the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) and providing digital hit pattern and charge amplitude information from those charge signals. This second iteration is intended to address limitations of the current AFE (referred to as AFEI in this document). These limitations become increasingly deleterious to the performance of the Central Fiber Tracker as instantaneous luminosity increases. The limitations are inherent in the design of the key front end chips on the AFEI board (the SVXIIe and the SIFT) and the architecture of the board itself. The key limitations of the AFEI are: (1) SVX saturation; (2) Discriminator to analog readout cross talk; (3) Tick to tick pedestal variation; and (4) Channel to channel pedestal variation. The new version of the AFE board, AFEII, addresses these limitations by use of a new chip, the TriP-t and by architectural changes, while retaining the well understood and desirable features of the AFEI board.

  7. Metastatic Insulinoma Managed with Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Overproduction of insulin and associated hypoglycemia are hallmark features of this disease. Diagnosis can be made through demonstration of hypoglycemia and elevated plasma levels of insulin or C-Peptide. Metastatic disease can be detected through computerized tomography (CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET/CT. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy can be used not only to document metastatic disease but also as a predictive marker of the benefit from therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analog. Unresectable metastatic insulinomas may present as a major therapeutic challenge for the treating physician. When feasible, resection is the mainstay of treatment. Prevention of hypoglycemia is a crucial goal of therapy for unresectable/metastatic tumors. Diazoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, glucagon, and intravenous glucose infusions have been used for glycemic control yielding temporary and inconsistent results. Sandostatin and its long-acting depot forms have occasionally been used in the treatment of Octreoscan-positive insulinomas. Herein, we report a case of metastatic insulinoma with very difficult glycemic control successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog lutetium (177LU.

  8. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of fluorescent hyaluronan (HA analogs, one serving as normal imaging agent and the other used as a biosensitive contrast agent, were developed for the investigation of HA uptake and degradation. Our approach of developing HA imaging agents depends on labeling HA with varying molar percentages of a near-infrared (NIR dye. At low labeling ratios, the hyaluronan uptake can be directly imaged while at high labeling ratios, the fluorescent signal is quenched and signal generation occurs only after degradation. It is found that the conjugate containing 1%–2% NIR dye can be used as a normal optical imaging agent, while bioactivable imaging agents are formed at 6% to 17% dye loading. It was determined that the conjugation of dye to HA with different loading percentages does not impact HA biodegradation by hyaluronidase (Hyal. The feasibility of using these two NIR fluorescent hyaluronan analogs for HA investigation was evaluated in vivo with optical imaging. The data demonstrates that the 1% dye loaded fluorescent HA can be used to monitor the behavior of HA and its fragments, whereas bioactivatable HA imaging agent (17% dye in HA is more suitable for detecting HA fragments.

  9. Operational Lessons Learned from NASA Analog Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Larissa S.

    2010-01-01

    vehicle and system capabilities are required to support the activities? How will the crew and the Earth-based mission control team interact? During the initial phases of manned planetary exploration, one challenge in particular is virtually the same as during the Apollo program: How can scientific return be maximized during a relatively short surface mission? Today, NASA is investigating solutions to these challenges by conducting analog missions. These Earth-based missions possess characteristics that are analogous to missions on the Moon or Mars. These missions are excellent for testing operational concepts, and the design, configuration, and functionality of spacesuits, robots, rovers, and habitats. Analog mission crews test specific techniques and procedures for surface field geology, biological sample collection, and planetary protection. The process of actually working an analog mission reveals a myriad of small details, which either contribute to or impede efficient operations, many of which would never have been thought about otherwise. It also helps to define the suite of tools, containers, and other small equipment that surface explorers will use. This paper focuses on how analog missions have addressed selected operational considerations for future planetary missions.

  10. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  11. Brug af mindfulness til facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...

  12. Facilitation of Mourning During Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Gilbert; And Others

    This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…

  13. Synthetic Biology: A Unifying View and Review Using Analog Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jonathan J Y; Woo, Sung Sik; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    We review the field of synthetic biology from an analog circuits and analog computation perspective, focusing on circuits that have been built in living cells. This perspective is well suited to pictorially, symbolically, and quantitatively representing the nonlinear, dynamic, and stochastic (noisy) ordinary and partial differential equations that rigorously describe the molecular circuits of synthetic biology. This perspective enables us to construct a canonical analog circuit schematic that helps unify and review the operation of many fundamental circuits that have been built in synthetic biology at the DNA, RNA, protein, and small-molecule levels over nearly two decades. We review 17 circuits in the literature as particular examples of feedforward and feedback analog circuits that arise from special topological cases of the canonical analog circuit schematic. Digital circuit operation of these circuits represents a special case of saturated analog circuit behavior and is automatically incorporated as well. Many issues that have prevented synthetic biology from scaling are naturally represented in analog circuit schematics. Furthermore, the deep similarity between the Boltzmann thermodynamic equations that describe noisy electronic current flow in subthreshold transistors and noisy molecular flux in biochemical reactions has helped map analog circuit motifs in electronics to analog circuit motifs in cells and vice versa via a `cytomorphic' approach. Thus, a body of knowledge in analog electronic circuit design, analysis, simulation, and implementation may also be useful in the robust and efficient design of molecular circuits in synthetic biology, helping it to scale to more complex circuits in the future.

  14. TEACHING WITH ANALOGIES: EXAMPLES OF A SELF-HEALING POROUS MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Aberšek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As disciplines reach maturity, a dynamic meta-structure is needed, which facilitates merging and new divisions of disciplines. Under such a meta-structure, the disciplines propel the evolution of knowledge, but adapt themselves when driving forces emerge sufficient to provoke their adaptation (Suarez-Orozco, Satin-Bajaj, 2010. This means that on the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM education must give transdisciplinary view (Flogie, Aberšek, 2015. Science-education research studies and STEM teachers’ classroom experiences have shown that analogies and transdisciplinar point of view, when used properly, can help make science concepts meaningful to students.

  15. Facilitating Facilitators to Facilitate, in Problem or Enquiry Based Learning Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable…

  16. Atwood and Poggendorff: an insightful analogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coelho, Ricardo; Borges, Paulo; Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Atwood’s treatise, in which the Atwood machine appears, was published in 1784. About 70 years later, Poggendorff showed experimentally that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. In the present paper, a twofold connection between this experiment and the Atwood...... machine is established. Firstly, if the Poggendorff apparatus is taken as an ideal one, the equations of motion of the apparatus coincide with the equations of motion of the compound Atwood machine. Secondly, if the Poggendorff apparatus, which works as a lever, is rebalanced, the equations of this equi......- librium provide us with the solution for a compound Atwood machine with the same bodies. This analogy is pedagogically useful because it illustrates a common strategy to transform a dynamic in a static situation improving stu- dents’ comprehension of Newton’s laws and equilibrium....

  17. Analog VLSI system for active drag reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, B.; Goodman, R.; Jiang, F.; Tai, Y.C. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tung, S.; Ho, C.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In today`s cost-conscious air transportation industry, fuel costs are a substantial economic concern. Drag reduction is an important way to reduce costs. Even a 5% reduction in drag translates into estimated savings of millions of dollars in fuel costs. Drawing inspiration from the structure of shark skin, the authors are building a system to reduce drag along a surface. Our analog VLSI system interfaces with microfabricated, constant-temperature shear stress sensors. It detects regions of high shear stress and outputs a control signal to activate a microactuator. We are in the process of verifying the actual drag reduction by controlling microactuators in wind tunnel experiments. We are encouraged that an approach similar to one that biology employs provides a very useful contribution to the problem of drag reduction. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  18. Four-gate transistor analog multiplier circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A differential output analog multiplier circuit utilizing four G.sup.4-FETs, each source connected to a current source. The four G.sup.4-FETs may be grouped into two pairs of two G.sup.4-FETs each, where one pair has its drains connected to a load, and the other par has its drains connected to another load. The differential output voltage is taken at the two loads. In one embodiment, for each G.sup.4-FET, the first and second junction gates are each connected together, where a first input voltage is applied to the front gates of each pair, and a second input voltage is applied to the first junction gates of each pair. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  19. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  20. Atwood and Poggendorff: an insightful analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, R. L.; Borges, P. F.; Karam, R.

    2016-11-01

    Atwood’s treatise, in which the Atwood machine appears, was published in 1784. About 70 years later, Poggendorff showed experimentally that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. In the present paper, a twofold connection between this experiment and the Atwood machine is established. Firstly, if the Poggendorff apparatus is taken as an ideal one, the equations of motion of the apparatus coincide with the equations of motion of the compound Atwood machine. Secondly, if the Poggendorff apparatus, which works as a lever, is rebalanced, the equations of this equilibrium provide us with the solution for a compound Atwood machine with the same bodies. This analogy is pedagogically useful because it illustrates a common strategy to transform a dynamic in a static situation improving students’ comprehension of Newton’s laws and equilibrium.

  1. READ - Remote Analog ASIC Design System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Auer

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work is to present a solution to implement a remote electronic laboratory for testing and designing analog ASICs (ispPAC10. The application allows users to create circuit schematics, upload the design to the device and perform measurements. The software used for designing circuits is the PAC-Designer and it runs on a Citrix server. The signals are generated and the responses are acquired by a data acquisition board controlled by LabView. The virtual instruments interact with some ActiveX controls specially designed to look like real oscilloscope and function generator devices and represent the user interface of the lab. These ActiveX give users the control over the LabView VIs and the access to its facilities in order to perform electronic exercises.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Homoaconitate and Homoisocitrate Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Milewski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen structural analogs of two initial intermediates of the L-a-aminoadipate pathway of L-lysine biosynthesis in fungi have been designed and synthesized, including fluoro- and epoxy-derivatives of homoaconitate and homoisocitrate. Some of the obtained compounds exhibited at milimolar range moderate enzyme inhibitory properties against homoaconitase and/or homoisocitrate dehydrogenase of Candida albicans. The structural basis for homoisocitrate dehydrogenase inhibition was revealed by molecular modeling of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. On the other hand, the trimethyl ester forms of some of the novel compounds exhibited antifungal effects. The highest antifungal activity was found for trimethyl trans-homoaconitate, which inhibited growth of some human pathogenic yeasts with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 16–32 mg/mL.

  3. Large-scale digitizer system, analog converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, R.F.; Lee, K.L.; Kirsten, F.A.; Wagner, L.J.

    1976-10-01

    Analog to digital converter circuits that are based on the sharing of common resources, including those which are critical to the linearity and stability of the individual channels, are described. Simplicity of circuit composition is valued over other more costly approaches. These are intended to be applied in a large-scale processing and digitizing system for use with high-energy physics detectors such as drift-chambers or phototube-scintillator arrays. Signal distribution techniques are of paramount importance in maintaining adequate signal-to-noise ratio. Noise in both amplitude and time-jitter senses is held sufficiently low so that conversions with 10-bit charge resolution and 12-bit time resolution are achieved

  4. Nilpotent Quantum Mechanics: Analogs and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marcer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most significant characteristic of nilpotent quantum mechanics is that the quantum system (fermion state and its environment (vacuum are, in mathematical terms, mirror images of each other. So a change in one automatically leads to corresponding changes in the other. We have used this characteristic as a model for self-organization, which has applications well beyond quantum physics. The nilpotent structure has also been identified as being constructed from two commutative vector spaces. This zero square-root construction has a number of identifiable characteristics which we can expect to find in systems where self-organization is dominant, and a case presented after the publication of a paper by us on “The ‘Logic’ of Self-Organizing Systems” [1], in the organization of the neurons in the visual cortex. We expect to find many more complex systems where our general principles, based, by analogy, on nilpotent quantum mechanics, will apply.

  5. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Rashi [Los Alamos, NM; Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos, NM; Silks, Louis A [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-12-06

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  6. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

    2013-01-08

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  7. Detector Readout of Analog Quantum Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Iris; Tian, Lin; Marthaler, Michael

    An important step in quantum simulation is to measure the many-body correlations of the simulated model. For a practical quantum simulator composed of a finite number of qubits and cavities, in contrast to many-body systems in the thermodynamic limit, a measurement device can generate strong backaction on the simulator, which could prevent the accurate readout of the correlation functions. Here we calculate the readout of a detector coupled to analog quantum simulators. We show that reliable characterization of the many-body correlations of the simulators can be achieved when the coupling operators obey the Wick's theorem. Our results are illustrated with two examples: a simulator for an harmonic oscillator and a simulator for the free electron gas. We also present a method, which under certain constraints, allows for the reconstruction of the ideal correlators from the measurements on a perturbed quantum simulator. This work is in part supported by the National Science Foundation under Award Number 0956064.

  8. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  9. Holographic brain: a good analogy gone bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2002-07-01

    One way of honoring the world's two greatest holographers is to remove from their field the association with the offbeat world of the holographic mind. Basing itself on analogical musings of two very creative scientists who were themselves not holographers, this 'field' of the holographic brain has strayed far from science and into the absurd. So much absurdity has been written by so many people that the one legitimate study of holographic principle in dolphins has been grouped too often with the nonsense. Here is taken most of the 'target statements' form one book. We could not bear to read them all this closely. We will attempt to determine what tidbit of fact led to the statements and to suggest alternative explanations when there is something to explain.

  10. On analog implementations of discrete neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Moore, K.R.

    1998-12-01

    The paper will show that in order to obtain minimum size neural networks (i.e., size-optimal) for implementing any Boolean function, the nonlinear activation function of the neutrons has to be the identity function. The authors shall shortly present many results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, and detail several bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions they will show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity nonlinear function. It follows that size-optimal solutions can be obtained only using analog circuitry. Conclusions, and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  11. Resizing methodology for CMOS analog circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Timothée; Tomas, Jean; Lewis, Noëlle; Fouillat, Pascal

    2007-05-01

    This paper proposes a CMOS resizing methodology for analog circuits during a technology migration. The scaling rules aim to be easy to apply and are based on the simplest MOS transistor model. The principle is to transpose one circuit topology from one technology to another, while keeping the main figures of merit, and the issue is to quickly calculate the new transistor dimensions. Furthermore, when the target technology has smaller minimum length, we expect to obtain a decrease of area. This methodology is applied to both linear and non-linear examples: an OTA and a ring oscillator. The results are compared on three CMOS processes whose minimum length is 0.8 μm, 0.35 μm, 0.25 μm.

  12. Creative Analogy Use in a Heterogeneous Design Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    We integrated two research traditions – one focusing on analogical reasoning, the other on knowledge sharing – with the aim of examining how designers' unique knowledge backgrounds can fuel analogy-based creativity. The present dataset afforded a unique opportunity to pursue this aim since...... associated with increased epistemic uncertainty, perhaps because domain experts appreciate the challenge of mapping such analogies between domains. Our findings support claims from the knowledge-sharing literature for a direct route from knowledge diversity through analogical reasoning to novel idea...... the design dialogue derived from team members with highly disparate educational backgrounds. Our analyses revealed that analogies that matched (versus mismatched) educational backgrounds were generated and revisited more frequently, presumably because they were more accessible. Matching analogies were also...

  13. Analog circuit design a tutorial guide to applications and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    2011-01-01

    * Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges. * Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice. * Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design. * Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Willia

  14. FASTBUS 16-channel 8-bit analog-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenov, A.N.; Pilyar, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The converter module is based on 1107PV3 microcircuits connected in cascade connection. The measured analog signals range is ±2 V. Analog-to-digital conversion is linear. Information from analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is read simultaneously from two channels using FASTBUS channel for ∼40 ns. 16-channel ADC is used in a system to measure characteristics of scintillation hodoscopes module of the SFERA set-up

  15. Analogies between classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, M.

    1986-01-01

    Some analogies between nonequilibrium classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, at the level of the Liouville equation and at the kinetic level, are commented on. A theorem, related to the Vlasov equation applied to a plasma, is proved. The theorem presents an analogy with Ehrenfest's theorem of quantum mechanics. An analogy between the plasma kinetic theory and Bohm's quantum theory with 'hidden variables' is also shown. (Author) [pt

  16. The analogic model ''RIC'' of thermal behaviour of mass concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Redondo, M.; Gonzalez de Posada, F.; Plana Claver, J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the thermal field and calorific flows in heat sources (i.e. mass concrete during setting) we have conceived, built and experimented with an analogical electric model. This model, named RIC, consists of resistors (R) and capacitors (C) in which nodes an electric current (I) has been injected. Several analogical constants were used for the mathematical approximation. Thus, this paper describes the analogical RIC model, simulating heat generation, boundary and initial conditions and concreting. (Author) 4 refs

  17. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of phenylbutenoid dimer analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Fang, Yuan Ying; Park, Hae Eil [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Several phenylbutenoid dimer (PBD) analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activities against nitric oxide (NO) production and TNF-α release. The PBD analogs were synthesized via Diels–Alder and subsequent Schlosser reactions as key steps. Among the tested compounds, two analogs (8c, 8f) exhibited much stronger inhibitory activity against LPS-stimulated NO production and TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 cells than that of wogonin.

  18. In vivo facilitated diffusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bauer

    Full Text Available Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model.

  19. Experiments of analog states on Lead 206 and 207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Albert

    1967-01-01

    This research thesis aims at verifying hypotheses according to which the spread of analog states decreases as much as nuclei are far from a double magic nucleus, under some conditions. Therefore, analog states of lead 207 and 208 have been studied by proton scattering on targets in lead 206 and 207. Some theoretical aspects of analog states of isobaric spin are presented. An experimental method of determination of excitation functions is described. Results obtained for analog states in bismuth 207-208 are discussed. Results obtained on four steady lead isotopes in different laboratories are compared [fr

  20. 25th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design

    CERN Document Server

    Harpe, Pieter; Makinwa, Kofi

    2017-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 25th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of continuous-time sigma-delta modulators, automotive electronics, and power management. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development.

  1. MARS ANALOG SOIL BUG OBSERVATIONS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Bloomsburg University Goniometer (BUG) was used to make bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of Mars soil analogs at Mars...

  2. Visualizing Uncertainty for Probabilistic Weather Forecasting based on Reforecast Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Leandro; Diehl, Alexandra; Matković, Krešimir; Delrieux, Claudio; Ruiz, Juan; Gröeller, M. Eduard; Bruckner, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Numerical weather forecasts are prone to uncertainty coming from inaccuracies in the initial and boundary conditions and lack of precision in numerical models. Ensemble of forecasts partially addresses these problems by considering several runs of the numerical model. Each forecast is generated with different initial and boundary conditions and different model configurations [GR05]. The ensembles can be expressed as probabilistic forecasts, which have proven to be very effective in the decision-making processes [DE06]. The ensemble of forecasts represents only some of the possible future atmospheric states, usually underestimating the degree of uncertainty in the predictions [KAL03, PH06]. Hamill and Whitaker [HW06] introduced the "Reforecast Analog Regression" (RAR) technique to overcome the limitations of ensemble forecasting. This technique produces probabilistic predictions based on the analysis of historical forecasts and observations. Visual analytics provides tools for processing, visualizing, and exploring data to get new insights and discover hidden information patterns in an interactive exchange between the user and the application [KMS08]. In this work, we introduce Albero, a visual analytics solution for probabilistic weather forecasting based on the RAR technique. Albero targets at least two different type of users: "forecasters", who are meteorologists working in operational weather forecasting and "researchers", who work in the construction of numerical prediction models. Albero is an efficient tool for analyzing precipitation forecasts, allowing forecasters to make and communicate quick decisions. Our solution facilitates the analysis of a set of probabilistic forecasts, associated statistical data, observations and uncertainty. A dashboard with small-multiples of probabilistic forecasts allows the forecasters to analyze at a glance the distribution of probabilities as a function of time, space, and magnitude. It provides the user with a more

  3. Analog-digital converters for industrial applications including an introduction to digital-analog converters

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnhäuser, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This book offers students and those new to the topic of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) a broad introduction, before going into details of the state-of-the-art design techniques for SAR and DS converters, including the latest research topics, which are valuable for IC design engineers as well as users of ADCs in applications. The book then addresses important topics, such as correct connectivity of ADCs in an application, the verification, characterization and testing of ADCs that ensure high-quality end products. Analog-to-digital converters are the central element in any data processing system and regulation loops such as modems or electrical motor drives. They significantly affect the performance and resolution of a system or end product. System development engineers need to be familiar with the performance parameters of the converters and understand the advantages and disadvantages of the various architectures. Integrated circuit development engineers have to overcome the problem of achieving high per...

  4. Designing remote operations strategies to optimize science mission goals : Lessons learned from the Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; Ten Kate, I. L.; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.

    The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to

  5. Is the link from working memory to analogy causal? No analogy improvements following working memory training gains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Elizabeth Richey

    Full Text Available Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data, but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants' performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks. Participants' improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning.

  6. Is the Link from Working Memory to Analogy Causal? No Analogy Improvements following Working Memory Training Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. Elizabeth; Phillips, Jeffrey S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Schneider, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data [1], but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation [2]. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants’ performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks [3], [4]. Participants’ improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning. PMID:25188356

  7. Is the link from working memory to analogy causal? No analogy improvements following working memory training gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J Elizabeth; Phillips, Jeffrey S; Schunn, Christian D; Schneider, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data, but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants' performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks. Participants' improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning.

  8. Re-shuffling of species with climate disruption: a no-analog future for California birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stralberg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available By facilitating independent shifts in species' distributions, climate disruption may result in the rapid development of novel species assemblages that challenge the capacity of species to co-exist and adapt. We used a multivariate approach borrowed from paleoecology to quantify the potential change in California terrestrial breeding bird communities based on current and future species-distribution models for 60 focal species. Projections of future no-analog communities based on two climate models and two species-distribution-model algorithms indicate that by 2070 over half of California could be occupied by novel assemblages of bird species, implying the potential for dramatic community reshuffling and altered patterns of species interactions. The expected percentage of no-analog bird communities was dependent on the community scale examined, but consistent geographic patterns indicated several locations that are particularly likely to host novel bird communities in the future. These no-analog areas did not always coincide with areas of greatest projected species turnover. Efforts to conserve and manage biodiversity could be substantially improved by considering not just future changes in the distribution of individual species, but including the potential for unprecedented changes in community composition and unanticipated consequences of novel species assemblages.

  9. Cheating and Feeling Honest: Committing and Punishing Analog versus Digital Academic Dishonesty Behaviors in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Friedman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the phenomenon of academic dishonesty among university students. It was based on Pavela’s (1997 framework of types of academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and facilitation and distinguished between digital and “traditional”- analog dishonesty. The study analyzed cases of academic dishonesty offenses committed by students, as well as the reasons for academic dishonesty behaviors, and the severity of penalties for violations of academic integrity. The motivational framework for committing an act of academic dishonesty (Murdock & Anderman, 2006 and the Self-Concept Maintenance model (Mazar, Amir, & Ariely, 2008 were employed to analyze the reasons for students’ dishonest behaviors. We analyzed 315 protocols of the Disciplinary Committee, at The Open University of Israel, from 2012-2013 that represent all of the offenses examined by the Committee during one and a half years. The findings showed that analog dishonesty was more prevalent than digital dishonesty. According to the students, the most prevalent reason for their academic dishonesty was the need to maintain a positive view of self as an honest person despite violating ethical codes. Interestingly, penalties for analog dishonesty were found to be more severe than those imposed for digital dishonesty. Surprisingly, women were penalized more severely than men, despite no significant gender differences in dishonesty types or in any other parameter explored in the study. Findings of this study shed light on the scope and roots of academic dishonesty and may assist institutions in coping effectively with this phenomenon.

  10. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai [Micro/Nano Science & Technology Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  11. How strategists really think. Tapping the power of analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavetti, Giovanni; Rivkin, Jan W

    2005-04-01

    Leaders tend to be so immersed in the specifics of strategy that they rarely stop to think how much of their reasoning is done by analogy. As a result, they miss useful insights that psychologists and other scientists have generated about analogies' pitfalls. Managers who pay attention to their own analogical thinking will make better strategic decisions and fewer mistakes. Charles Lazarus was inspired by the supermarket when he founded Toys R Us; Intel promoted its low-end chips to avoid becoming like U.S. Steel; and Circuit City created CarMax because it saw the used-car market as analogous to the consumer-electronics market. Each example displays the core elements of analogical reasoning: a novel problem or a new opportunity, a specific prior context that managers deem to be similar in its essentials, and a solution that managers can transfer from its original setting to the new one. Analogical reasoning is a powerful tool for sparking breakthrough ideas. But dangers arise when analogies are built on surface similarities (headlong diversification based on loose analogies played a role in Enron's collapse, for instance). Psychologists have discovered that it's all too easy to overlook the superficiality of analogies. The situation is further complicated by people's tendency to hang on to beliefs even after contrary evidence comes along (a phenomenon known as anchoring) and their tendency to seek only the data that confirm their beliefs (an effect known as the confirmation bias). Four straightforward steps can improve a management team's odds of using an analogy well: Recognize the analogy and identify its purpose; thoroughly understand its source; determine whether the resemblance is more than superficial; and decide whether the original strategy, properly translated, will work in the target industry.

  12. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  13. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  14. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation. PMID:23576827

  15. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  16. Theoretical ingredients of a Casimir analog computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W; McCauley, Alexander P; Joannopoulos, John D; Johnson, Steven G

    2010-05-25

    We derive a correspondence between the contour integration of the Casimir stress tensor in the complex-frequency plane and the electromagnetic response of a physical dissipative medium in a finite real-frequency bandwidth. The consequences of this correspondence are at least threefold: First, the correspondence makes it easier to understand Casimir systems from the perspective of conventional classical electromagnetism, based on real-frequency responses, in contrast to the standard imaginary-frequency point of view based on Wick rotations. Second, it forms the starting point of finite-difference time-domain numerical techniques for calculation of Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries. Finally, this correspondence is also key to a technique for computing quantum Casimir forces at micrometer scales using antenna measurements at tabletop (e.g., centimeter) scales, forming a type of analog computer for the Casimir force. Superficially, relationships between the Casimir force and the classical electromagnetic Green's function are well known, so one might expect that any experimental measurement of the Green's function would suffice to calculate the Casimir force. However, we show that the standard forms of this relationship lead to infeasible experiments involving infinite bandwidth or exponentially growing fields, and a fundamentally different formulation is therefore required.

  17. [Petrological Analysis of Astrophysical Dust Analog Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1997-01-01

    This project "Petrological analysis of astrophysical dust analog evolution" was initiated to try to understand the vapor phase condensation, and the nature of the reaction products, in circumstellar environments, such as the solar nebula 4,500 Myrs ago, and in the interstellar medium. Telescope-based infrared [IR] spectroscopy offers a broad-scale inventory of the various types of dust in these environments but no details on small-scale variations in terms of chemistry and morphology and petrological phase relationships. Vapor phase condensation in these environments is almost certainly a non-equilibrium process. The main challenge to this research was to document the nature of this process that, based on astrophysical observations, seems to yield compositionally consistent materials. This observation may suggest a predictable character during non-equilibrium condensation. These astrophysical environments include two chemically distinct, that is, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich environments. The former is characterized by silicates the latter by carbon-bearing solids. According to cosmological models of stellar evolution circumstellar dust accreted into protoplanets wherein thermal and/or aqueous processes will alter the dust under initially, non-equilibrium conditions.

  18. Applying analog integrated circuits for HERO protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kenneth E.; Blachowski, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most efficient methods for protecting electro-explosive devices (EED's) from HERO and ESD is to shield the EED in a conducting shell (Faraday cage). Electrical energy is transferred to the bridge by means of a magnetic coupling which passes through a portion of the conducting shell that is made from a magnetically permeable but electrically conducting material. This technique was perfected by ML Aviation, a U.K. company, in the early 80's, and was called a Radio Frequency Attenuation Connector (RFAC). It is now in wide use in the U.K. Previously, the disadvantage of RFAC over more conventional methods was its relatively high cost, largely driven by a thick film hybrid circuit used to switch the primary of the transformer. Recently, through a licensing agreement, this technology has been transferred to the U.S. and significant cost reductions and performance improvements have been achieved by the introduction of analog integrated circuits. An integrated circuit performs the following functions: (1) Chops the DC input to a signal suitable for driving the primary of the transformer; (2) Verifies the input voltage is above a threshold; (3) Verifies the input voltage is valid for a pre set time before enabling the device; (4) Provides thermal protection of the circuit; and (5) Provides an external input for independent logic level enabling of the power transfer mechanism. This paper describes the new RFAC product and its applications.

  19. Intracranial Fluid Redistribution During a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, Vincent; Pasternak, Ofer; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; De Dios, Yiri E.; Wood, Scott J.; Riascos, Roy; Reuter-Lorenz, Patrica A.; Kofman, Igor S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    The neural correlates of spaceflight-induced sensorimotor impairments are unknown. Head down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) serves as a microgravity analog because it mimics the headward fluid shift and limb unloading of spaceflight. We investigated focal brain white matter (WM) changes and fluid shifts during 70 days of 6 deg HDBR in 16 subjects who were assessed pre (2x), during (3x), and post-HDBR (2x). Changes over time were compared to those in control subjects (n=12) assessed four times over 90 days. Diffusion MRI was used to assess WM microstructure and fluid shifts. Free-Water Imaging, derived from diffusion MRI, was used to quantify the distribution of intracranial extracellular free water (FW). Additionally, we tested whether WM and FW changes correlated with changes in functional mobility and balance measures. HDBR resulted in FW increases in fronto-temporal regions and decreases in posterior-parietal regions that largely recovered by two weeks post-HDBR. WM microstructure was unaffected by HDBR. FW decreased in the post-central gyrus and precuneus. We previously reported that gray matter increases in these regions were associated with less HDBR-induced balance impairment, suggesting adaptive structural neuroplasticity. Future studies are warranted to determine causality and underlying mechanisms.

  20. Interstellar and Planetary Analogs in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the unique capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to investigate the interaction of ionizing radiation (UV, charged particles) with molecular species (neutral molecules, radicals and ions) and carbonaceous grains in the Solar System and in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). COSmIC stands for Cosmic Simulation Chamber, a laboratory chamber where interstellar and planetary analogs are generated, processed and analyzed. It is composed of a pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a free jet supersonic expansion in a plasma cavity coupled to two ultrahigh-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for photonic detection and a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection. This setup allows the study of molecules, ions and solids under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate some interstellar, circumstellar and planetary physical environments providing new fundamental insights on the molecular level into the processes that are critical to the chemistry in the ISM, circumstellar and planet forming regions, and on icy objects in the Solar System. Recent laboratory results that were obtained using COSmIC will be discussed, in particular the progress that have been achieved in monitoring in the laboratory the formation of solid particles from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as circumstellar outflow and planetary atmospheres.

  1. Cisplatin Analogs Confer Protection against Cyanide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anjali K; Shi, Xu; Harrison, Devin L; Morningstar, Jordan E; Mahon, Sari; Chan, Adriano; Sips, Patrick; Lee, Jangwoen; MacRae, Calum A; Boss, Gerry R; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

    2017-05-18

    Cisplatin holds an illustrious position in the history of chemistry most notably for its role in the virtual cure of testicular cancer. Here we describe a role for this small molecule in cyanide detoxification in vivo. Cyanide kills organisms as diverse as insects, fish, and humans within seconds to hours. Current antidotes exhibit limited efficacy and are not amenable to mass distribution requiring the development of new classes of antidotes. The binding affinity of the cyanide anion for the positively charged metal platinum is known to create an extremely stable complex in vitro. We therefore screened a panel of diverse cisplatin analogs and identified compounds that conferred protection from cyanide poisoning in zebrafish, mice, and rabbits. Cumulatively, this discovery pipeline begins to establish the characteristics of platinum ligands that influence their solubility, toxicity, and efficacy, and provides proof of concept that platinum-based complexes are effective antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chromium analogs of iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Martin; Sangiovanni, Giorgio; Capone, Massimo; de'Medici, Luca

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the d4 (Cr2 +) compound BaCr2As2 and show that, despite non-negligible differences in the electronic structure, its many-body physics mirrors that of BaFe2As2 , which has instead a d6 (Fe2 +) configuration. This reflects a symmetry of the electron correlation effects around the half-filled d5 Mott insulating state. Dynamical mean-field calculations correctly reproduce the experimental antiferromagnetic phase and, for realistic values of the interactions, they show a moderate mass enhancement of order ˜2 . This value can be insensitive to, or even be lowered by, an increase of the interaction parameters, as a result of a larger magnetic moment. In the paramagnetic phase however, correlation effects are much stronger, and the influence of the half-filled Mott insulator shows up as a crossover from a weakly correlated to an orbitally differentiated "Hund's metal" phase. This mirrors an analogous phenomenon in d6 iron compounds including a strong enhancement of the compressibility in a zone just inside the frontier between the normal and the Hund's metal. The experimental evidence and our theoretical description place BaCr2As2 at interaction strength slightly below the crossover which implies that negative pressures and/or electron doping (e.g., Cr → Mn, Fe or Ba → Sc, Y, La) might strongly enhance the compressibility, thereby possibly inducing high-Tc superconductivity in this nonsuperconducting compound.

  3. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  4. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace...

  5. Device for logarithmic representation of binary numbers in analog form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Zinov, V.G.; Salamatin, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    A logarithmic converter is described in which the mantissa of the logarithm is obtained from the values of several more-significant bits of a binary number with the aid of a table stored in read-only memory. The obtained codes are then put into analog form by a digital-analog converter. The error for 16-bit numbers is 0.17%

  6. Introducing Analog Drawing into a Prison Art Education Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesh, Patrick

    A qualitative research study documents the progress of an adult male art student enrolled in a grade nine art class of adult males in a federal, maximum security penitentiary. Analog drawings were used as part of the curriculum. An analog drawing is a symbolic drawing expressing one's emotions, ideas, and feelings, often used to identify and help…

  7. 47 CFR 74.705 - TV broadcast analog station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV broadcast analog station protection. 74.705... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.705 TV broadcast analog station protection. (a) The TV broadcast...

  8. Stereoselective synthesis of nicotinamide beta-riboside and nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vita, Patrizia; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2004-09-20

    The beta-anomers of N-ribofuranosylnicotine-3-carboxamide (beta-NAR) and its nicotinic acid analog (beta-NaR) were obtained by stereoselective synthesis via glycosylation of the presilylated bases under Vorbruggen's protocol. A NAR analog, methylated in position 3 of the ribosylic moiety, is also reported.

  9. Verbal Analogical Reasoning in Children with Language-Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Julie J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Children (ages 9-13) with language-learning disabilities were administered 5 types of verbal analogies: synonyms, antonyms, linear order, category membership, and functional relationship. Subjects performed worse than mental age-matched children on all types of analogies and performed worse than language age-matched children on all types except…

  10. The Development of Verbal Relations in Analogical Reasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Nigro, Georgia

    A six-process theory of analogical reasoning was tested by administering verbal analogy items to students in grades 3 through college. The items were classified according to five verbal relations: synonyms, antonyms, functional, linear ordering, and class membership. A new method of componential analysis that does not require precueing was used to…

  11. Q-Analogies: A Test of Quantitative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Clinton I.; Johnson, Judith J.

    The initial steps necessary for constructing an analogies test are described. Basic mathematics being the context, the aim of the test is to predict student performance in research statistics courses characteristic of graduate education and social science programs. Items involving analogies in a quantitative context were built, sorted into two…

  12. Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…

  13. Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Pekmez, Esin

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…

  14. Molecular interactions between (--epigallocatechin gallate analogs and pancreatic lipase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Wang

    Full Text Available The molecular interactions between pancreatic lipase (PL and four tea polyphenols (EGCG analogs, like (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, (--gallocatechin gallate (GCG, (--epicatechin gallate (ECG, and (--epigallocatechin (EC, were studied from PL activity, conformation, kinetics and thermodynamics. It was observed that EGCG analogs inhibited PL activity, and their inhibitory rates decreased by the order of EGCG>GCG>ECG>EC. PL activity at first decreased rapidly and then slowly with the increase of EGCG analogs concentrations. α-Helix content of PL secondary structure decreased dependent on EGCG analogs concentration by the order of EGCG>GCG>ECG>EC. EGCG, ECG, and EC could quench PL fluorescence both dynamically and statically, while GCG only quenched statically. EGCG analogs would induce PL self-assembly into complexes and the hydrodynamic radii of the complexes possessed a close relationship with the inhibitory rates. Kinetics analysis showed that EGCG analogs non-competitively inhibited PL activity and did not bind to PL catalytic site. DSC measurement revealed that EGCG analogs decreased the transition midpoint temperature of PL enzyme, suggesting that these compounds reduced PL enzyme thermostability. In vitro renaturation through urea solution indicated that interactions between PL and EGCG analogs were weak and non-covalent.

  15. Neuroscientific Insights into the Development of Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kirstie J.; Vendetti, Michael S.; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2018-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, or the ability to find correspondences between entities based on shared relationships, supports knowledge acquisition. As such, the development of this ability during childhood is thought to promote learning. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanisms by which analogical reasoning about semantic relations improves…

  16. Analogical reasoning and aging: the processing speed and inhibition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaiska, Aurélia; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of aging on analogical reasoning by manipulating the strength of semantic association (LowAssoc or HighAssoc) and the number of distracters' semantic analogies of the A:B::C:D type and to determine which factors might be responsible for the age-related differences on analogical reasoning by testing two different theoretical frameworks: the inhibition hypothesis and the speed mediation hypothesis. We compared young adults and two groups of aging people (old and old-old) with word analogies of the A:B::C:D format. Results indicate an age-related effect on analogical reasoning, this effect being greatest with LowAssoc analogies. It was not associated with the presence of semantic distractors. Moreover, the results show that the variance part of the analogy task due to age was mainly explained by processing speed (rather than by inhibition) in the case of old participants and by both processing speed and inhibition in the old-old group. These results are discussed in relation to current models of aging and their interaction with the processes involved in analogical reasoning.

  17. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning: The Role of Immediate Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shuhui; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a computerized measure, Interactive Analogical Measure (IAM), was developed and used to assess young children's ability to reason analogically. The IAM was equipped to provide corrective feedback and the effects of that feedback were tested for experimental and control groups. A group of 5-year-olds (N = 80) participated in the…

  18. Analogical Reasoning in the Classroom: Insights from Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Richland, Lindsey E.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Applying knowledge from one context to another is a notoriously difficult problem, both for children and adults, but lies at the heart of educational endeavors. Analogical reasoning is a cognitive underpinning of the ability to notice and draw similarities across contexts. Reasoning by analogy is especially challenging for students, who must…

  19. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning across Cultures: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Morrison, Robert G.; Au, Terry Kit-Fong

    2010-01-01

    A cross-cultural comparison between U.S. and Hong Kong preschoolers examined factors responsible for young children's analogical reasoning errors. On a scene analogy task, both groups had adequate prerequisite knowledge of the key relations, were the same age, and showed similar baseline performance, yet Chinese children outperformed U.S. children…

  20. Analogical Reasoning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sandrine; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Usage-based theory considers analogical reasoning as a cognitive process required in language development. We hypothesized that difficulties with analogical reasoning could hinder the abstraction of construction schemas, thus slowing down morphosyntactic development for children with specific language impairment (SLI). We also hypothesized, in…

  1. Analysis of Attention and Analogical Reasoning in Children of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherholt, Tara N.; Harris, Ruby C.; Burns, Barbara M.; Clement, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between specific attentional aspects of processing capacity and analogical reasoning in children from low-income families. 77 children aged 48-77 (M = 56.7) months were assessed on an analogical reasoning task (matrices subtest of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) and on computerized attention tasks designed…

  2. Analog capacitance ROM with IGFET bucket-brigade shift register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Olesen, Ole

    1975-01-01

    A new type of monolithic analog read-out memory is described. It consists of a memory element and associated on-chip readout circuitry. The memory can be used for storing sample values of time-varying analog signals. The memory element is a matrix of MOS capacitors, preprogrammed in size...

  3. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  4. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  5. Learning Plate Tectonics Using a Pre-Analogy Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Sandoval, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that children tend to demonstrate lower performance on analogical reasoning tasks at a causal relations level compared to most adults (Gentner & Toupin, 1986). This tendency is an obstacle that geoscience educators must overcome because of the high frequency of analogies used in geoscience pedagogy. In particular, analog models are used to convey complex systems of non-everyday/non-observable events found in nature, such as plate tectonics. Key factors in successful analogical reasoning that have been suggested by researchers include knowledge of the causal relations in the base analog (Brown & Kane, 1988; Gentner, 1988; Gentner & Toupin, 1986), and development of learning strategies and metaconceptual competence(Brown & Kane, 1988). External factors, such as guiding cues and hints have been useful cognitive supports that help students reason through analogical problems (Gick & Holyoak, 1980). Cognitive supports have been seen by researchers to decrease processing demands on retrieval and working memory (Richland, Zur, & Holyoak, 2007). We observed third and fourth graders learning about plate tectonics beginning with a pre-analogy step-a cognitive support activity a student can do before working with an analogy to understand the target. This activity was designed to aid students in developing their understanding of object attributes and relations within an analog model so that more focus can be placed on mapping the corresponding higher-order relations between the base and target. Students learned targeted concepts of plate tectonics, as measured by pre to post gains on items adapted from the Geosciences Concept Inventory. Analyses of classroom interaction showed that students used the object attributes and higher-order relations highlighted in the pre-analogy activity as resources to reason about plate boundaries and plate movement during earthquakes.

  6. NASA HRP Immunology Discipline - Use of Terrestrial Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the cost and operational constraints, as well as technical implementation limitations, it is desirous to perform relevant space physiology investigations first in terrestrial 'space analogs'. This is particularly true for initial investigations, which may then provide appropriate focus for subsequent flight investigations, or for mechanistic investigations that simply cannot be performed during spaceflight. Appropriate analog choice is extremely important. There are a wide variety of terrestrial space analogs, each relevant to a particular physiological discipline (or disciplines) and each with a particular fidelity (or lack thereof) to spaceflight, and each with unique operational constraints. The HRP Immunology Discipline is tasked with managing the HRP Risk concerning clinical risk for Astronaut crews related to spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Such dysregulation has been documented to occur during spaceflight, and found to persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. Studies continue to characterize the onorbit phenomenon, but it generally consists of diminished immunocyte function, dysregulated cytokine profiles, and persistent herpesvirus reactivation. Causes are thought to synergistically include microgravity, psychological or physiological stress, radiation, and/or circadian misalignment. An appropriate terrestrial analog for immune dysregulation would replicate as many of these influences as possible. Such analogs may include clinostat or bioreactor cell culture (microgravity), hindlimb suspension (stress, fluid shifts, hypokinesis), or human deployment to remote or extreme environments (isolation, stress, circadian). Also, the laboratory setting may be used as an analog, or to augment analogs, such as sleep deprivation/misalignment or human centrifugation to replicate gravitational stress. As an appropriate example of a NASA Disciplines use of Terrestrial space analogs, this talk will discuss spaceflight associated immune

  7. Analogical Matrices in Young Children and Students with Intellectual Disability: Reasoning by Analogy or Reasoning by Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaes, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background: Analogical reasoning (AR) is renowned for being a complex activity. Young children tend to reason by association, rather by analogy, and people with intellectual disability present problems of memorization. Both these populations usually show low performances in AR. The present author investigated whether familiar material and external…

  8. Remote Sensing and Quantization of Analog Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.

    2011-01-01

    This method enables sensing and quantization of analog strain gauges. By manufacturing a piezoelectric sensor stack in parallel (physical) with a piezoelectric actuator stack, the capacitance of the sensor stack varies in exact proportion to the exertion applied by the actuator stack. This, in turn, varies the output frequency of the local sensor oscillator. The output, F(sub out), is fed to a phase detector, which is driven by a stable reference, F(sub ref). The output of the phase detector is a square waveform, D(sub out), whose duty cycle, t(sub W), varies in exact proportion according to whether F(sub out) is higher or lower than F(sub ref). In this design, should F(sub out) be precisely equal to F(sub ref), then the waveform has an exact 50/50 duty cycle. The waveform, D(sub out), is of generally very low frequency suitable for safe transmission over long distances without corruption. The active portion of the waveform, t(sub W), gates a remotely located counter, which is driven by a stable oscillator (source) of such frequency as to give sufficient digitization of t(sub W) to the resolution required by the application. The advantage to this scheme is that it negates the most-common, present method of sending either very low level signals (viz. direct output from the sensors) across great distances (anything over one-half meter) or the need to transmit widely varying higher frequencies over significant distances thereby eliminating interference [both in terms of beat frequency generation and in-situ EMI (electromagnetic interference)] caused by ineffective shielding. It also results in a significant reduction in shielding mass.

  9. Facilitating Value Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    ) introduced a new dominant logic in the marketing literature, the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic), in which service, interactions, and enhanced experiences help create value, and this potential for value is what attracts consumers. Therefore organizations must be customer-centric in order to facilitate...... unique, positive experiences. As the name indicates, both organizations and consumers (should) obtain value when co-creating, which is why both parties are willing to increase their degree of involvement, e.g. spending more resources, sharing tacit knowledge, etc., because a high degree of involvement......). Therefore, for instance, being part of the process is a key incentive for consumers. Postmodern consumers' search for unique experiences calls for individualization, personalization, etc. Although Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004), Karpen et al. (2008), and Karpen et al. (2011) have presented S-D Logic...

  10. Facilitating Collaboration through Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Messeter, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    in collaboration with industrial partners and potential users, and use of the games in three educational settings.The overall aim of the design games is to help facilitate a user-centered design process for cross-disciplinary design groups early in the design process. Framing collaborative design activities...... understanding of the development task. This paper presents a set of four design games, which offers solutions to the challenges mentioned. The design games have been developed in the Space Studio during several projects and years. Here experiences are discussed on the basis of two research projects carried out...... in a game format, arguably improves idea generation and communication between stakeholders. By shifting focus to the game, power relations and other factors that might hamper idea generation, are downplayed....

  11. Facilitating attachment after international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Natalie L

    2009-01-01

    Americans have increasingly turned to international adoption (IA) as an alternative way to build a family. Unfortunately, IA families are often being developed under conditions of loss, and sometimes these families struggle to form healthy attachments to each other. Disordered attachment (the failure to form a reciprocal, loving bond between parent and child) can occur, and can have devastating consequences. In some instances, IA children have been relinquished into state foster care systems; other families simply struggle for years caring for a developmentally delayed child who appears to have no emotion for his/her adoptive family. Nurses are likely to have contact with IA families and can use their education about attachment and bonding to help facilitate attachment in these developing families. Swanson's caring theory provides a clinically useful guide to meet this need.

  12. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  13. De Analogía a Digitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Xaime Fandiño Alonso

    2001-01-01

    ía, creatividad y contenidos.ABSTRACTThe transition towards binary-based technology has unleashed dramatic changes that in the last decade have affected the different stages involved in an audiovisual production: from scripting and creating a project, through the various technological procedures of the actual production process to its final distribution.The remains of the analogical era are finally sinking under a seemingly unstoppable wave of constantly evolving new digital environments.The new hardware devices used in this field are mainly prototypes. An ever evolving market, the constant arising of new competitors, newborn joint-ventures and a myriad of related facts force technology providers to keep a pace of constant updating in a mad race of fierce competition.The old system which implied one machine for each process is increasingly becoming a memory of the past. Today new devices are being launched at such a speed that the old technological approach which dealt with mechanical appliances like magnetoscopes, closed platforms and linear recording are already bound for extinction.It’s only natural then that the sacred cows of the industry fear for their position. Big and small are elusive concepts in this new audiovisual frenzy. Its almost daily routine to read about big audiovisual corporations announcing mergers, buy-outs or the acquisition of a stake in new and small creativity and development firms built from scratch by young entrepreneurs out of the blue.The digital era is drawing a heavy curtain that luckily leaves behind an analogical era in which the ownership of the costly means of production was the most important card in the game. The artist could only exercise its art if access to the professional team and technical equipment required for an audiovisual work was granted by its proprietors.Today, digital means new systems with far more productive environments which besides are user-friendly and cost only a small fraction of the old hardware.Right now, with

  14. Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.

  15. Eye Movements Reveal Optimal Strategies for Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Michael S; Starr, Ariel; Johnson, Elizabeth L; Modavi, Kiana; Bunge, Silvia A

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning refers to the process of drawing inferences on the basis of the relational similarity between two domains. Although this complex cognitive ability has been the focus of inquiry for many years, most models rely on measures that cannot capture individuals' thought processes moment by moment. In the present study, we used participants' eye movements to investigate reasoning strategies in real time while solving visual propositional analogy problems (A:B::C:D). We included both a semantic and a perceptual lure on every trial to determine how these types of distracting information influence reasoning strategies. Participants spent more time fixating the analogy terms and the target relative to the other response choices, and made more saccades between the A and B items than between any other items. Participants' eyes were initially drawn to perceptual lures when looking at response choices, but they nonetheless performed the task accurately. We used participants' gaze sequences to classify each trial as representing one of three classic analogy problem solving strategies and related strategy usage to analogical reasoning performance. A project-first strategy, in which participants first extrapolate the relation between the AB pair and then generalize that relation for the C item, was both the most commonly used strategy as well as the optimal strategy for solving visual analogy problems. These findings provide new insight into the role of strategic processing in analogical problem solving.

  16. Eye Movements Reveal Optimal Strategies for Analogical Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Vendetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analogical reasoning refers to the process of drawing inferences on the basis of the relational similarity between two domains. Although this complex cognitive ability has been the focus of inquiry for many years, most models rely on measures that cannot capture individuals' thought processes moment by moment. In the present study, we used participants' eye movements to investigate reasoning strategies in real time while solving visual propositional analogy problems (A:B::C:D. We included both a semantic and a perceptual lure on every trial to determine how these types of distracting information influence reasoning strategies. Participants spent more time fixating the analogy terms and the target relative to the other response choices, and made more saccades between the A and B items than between any other items. Participants' eyes were initially drawn to perceptual lures when looking at response choices, but they nonetheless performed the task accurately. We used participants' gaze sequences to classify each trial as representing one of three classic analogy problem solving strategies and related strategy usage to analogical reasoning performance. A project-first strategy, in which participants first extrapolate the relation between the AB pair and then generalize that relation for the C item, was both the most commonly used strategy as well as the optimal strategy for solving visual analogy problems. These findings provide new insight into the role of strategic processing in analogical problem solving.

  17. Analogical Arguments in Ethics and Law: A Defence of Deductivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Perin Shecaira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a qualified defence of Bruce Waller’s deductivist schema for a priori analogical arguments in ethics and law. One crucial qualification is that the schema represents analogical arguments as complexes composed of one deductive inference (hence “deductivism” but also of one non-deductive subargument. Another important qualification is that the schema is informed by normative assumptions regarding the conditions that an analogical argument must satisfy in order for it to count as an optimal instance of its kind. Waller’s schema (in qualified form is defended from criticisms formulated by Trudy Govier, Marcello Guarini and Lilian Bermejo-Luque.

  18. Josephson junction analog and quasiparticle-pair current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1973-01-01

    A close analogy exists between a Josephson junction and a phase-locked loop. A new type of electrical analog based on this principle is presented. It is shown that the inclusion in this analog of a low-pass filter gives rise to a current of the same form as the Josephson quasiparticle-pair curren....... A simple picture of the quasiparticle-pair current, which gives the right dependences, is obtained by assuming a junction cutoff frequency to be at the energy gap. ©1973 American Institute of Physics...

  19. Fast parallel-series analog-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosov, A.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Fast analog-to-digital converters are used in systems for detection of rapid processes, nuclear spectroscopy. A 12-digit analog-to-digital converter with conversion time of 160 ns and conversion frequency of 8.3 MHz is described; a segmented digital-to-analog converter with differential non-linearity of < 0.01% and a differential amplifier-limiter with setting time of 80 ns at the error of 0.2% are utilized in the converter; a control device is based on the chain of flip-flop circuit

  20. Source selection for analogical reasoning an empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubblefield, W.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luger, G.F. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The effectiveness of an analogical reasoner depends upon its ability to select a relevant analogical source. In many problem domains, however, too little is known about target problems to support effective source selection. This paper describes the design and evaluation of SCAVENGER, an analogical reasoner that applies two techniques to this problem: (1) An assumption-based approach to matching that allows properties of candidate sources to match unknown target properties in the absence of evidence to the contrary. (2) The use of empirical learning to improve memory organization based on problem solving experience.

  1. Online interprofessional education facilitation: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sherryn Maree; Ward, Catherine; Reeves, Scott

    2018-04-22

    The use of online media to deliver interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming more prevalent across health professions education settings. Facilitation of IPE activities is known to be critical to the effective delivery of IPE, however, specifics about the nature of online IPE facilitation remains unclear. To explore the health professions education literature to understand the extent, range and nature of research on online IPE facilitation. Scoping review methodology was used to guide a search of four electronic databases for relevant papers. Of the 2095 abstracts initially identified, after screening of both abstracts and full-text papers, 10 studies were selected for inclusion in this review. Following abstraction of key information from each study, a thematic analysis was undertaken. Three key themes emerged to describe the nature of the IPE facilitation literature: (1) types of online IPE facilitation contributions, (2) the experience of online IPE facilitation and (3) personal outcomes of online IPE facilitation. These IPE facilitation themes were particularly focused on facilitation of interprofessional student teams on an asynchronous basis. While the included studies provide some insight into the nature of online IPE facilitation, future research is needed to better understand facilitator contributions, and the facilitation experience and associated outcomes, both relating to synchronous and asynchronous online environments.

  2. Facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given

  3. Magnetic Properties of selected Prussian Blue Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manjita

    Prussian Blue Analogs (PBAs) of composition M[M(C,N)6 ] 2.xH2O are bimetallic cyanide complexes, where M and M are bivalent or trivalent transition metals and x is number of water molecule per unit cell. The PBAs form cubic framework structures, which consist mostly of alternating MIIIN6 and MIIC 6 octahedrals. However, occupancies of the octrahedrals are not perfect: they may be empty and the charges are balanced by the guest water molecules at the lattice site (C or N site) or the interstitial site (between the octahedrals) of the unit cell. Most (but not all) PBAs exhibit negative thermal expansion behavior, i.e. volume decrease with increasing temperature. Another area of interest in PBA research is the occurrence of unusual magnetic properties. Similar to other molecular magnets, large crystal-field splitting due to the octrahedral environment may result in a combination of low- or high-spin configurations of the localized magnetic moments, i.e. spin crossover effects may be found. My dissertation focuses on the magnetic properties of the selected 3d transition-metal PBAs, namely metal hexacyanochromates M3[Cr(C,N)6 ]2.xH2O, metal hexcyanoferrates M3[Fe(C,N)6]2.xH2O and metal hexcyanocobaltates M3[Co(C,N)6]2 .xH2O where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cu. In particular, I analyzed the temperature and field dependencies of the bulk magnetic response of those PBAs. My results show that the magnetic susceptibility of all studied PBAs follows the Curie-Weiss behavior in the paramagnetic region up to room temperature; however, some of the compounds exhibit long-range magnetic order at lower temperatures (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic). In particular, the data provide evidence for magnetic ground states for most of the metal hexacyanochromates and all of the metal hexacyanoferrates but none of the hexacyanocobaltates that were studied. For each of the compounds, my analysis provides a measure of the effective magnetic moment, which is then compared with the predicted

  4. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geralyn E Stephens

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the ability to collaborate effectively is essential for students moving into 21st century workplaces. Employers are expecting new hires to already possess group-work skills and will seek evidence of their ability to cooperate, collaborate, and complete projects with colleagues, including remotely or at a distance. Instructional activities and assignments that provide students with a variety of ways to engage each other have a direct and immediate effect on their academic performance. This paper shares the Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups (FCOG instructional planning strategy. The strategy is designed for faculty use and familiarizes students with the process and technology necessary to collaborate effectively in online classroom groups. The strategy utilizes proven teaching techniques to maximize student-student and student-content relationships. Each of the four (4 sequential phases in the FCOG instructional planning strategy are discussed: 1 Creating Groups, 2 Establishing Expectations, 3 Communication Tools, and 4 Assignments and Activities. The discussion also contains implementation suggestions as well as examples of instructional assignments and activities that provide students with a variety of ways to collaborate to reach the learning outcomes.

  6. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the implementation and dissemination of spatial narratives within a geographical information system context with specific reference to portable GPS-enabled devices. The overall goal is to establish a framework for the creation of computer assisted 'guided tours' based on the th......The paper examines the implementation and dissemination of spatial narratives within a geographical information system context with specific reference to portable GPS-enabled devices. The overall goal is to establish a framework for the creation of computer assisted 'guided tours' based...... on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...

  7. Analog and digital signal analysis from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen Tenoudji, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive, graduate-level treatment of analog and digital signal analysis suitable for course use and self-guided learning. This expert text guides the reader from the basics of signal theory through a range of application tools for use in acoustic analysis, geophysics, and data compression. Each concept is introduced and explained step by step, and the necessary mathematical formulae are integrated in an accessible and intuitive way. The first part of the book explores how analog systems and signals form the basics of signal analysis. This section covers Fourier series and integral transforms of analog signals, Laplace and Hilbert transforms, the main analog filter classes, and signal modulations. Part II covers digital signals, demonstrating their key advantages. It presents z and Fourier transforms, digital filtering, inverse filters, deconvolution, and parametric modeling for deterministic signals. Wavelet decomposition and reconstruction of non-stationary signals are also discussed...

  8. Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of genetic diversity among different Jatropha curcas genotypes. S Gupta, M Srivastava, GP Mishra, PK Naik, RS Chauhan, SK Tiwari, M Kumar, R Singh ...

  9. Bombesin and Neurotensin Receptor Targeting Using Radiolabeled Peptide Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Visser (Monique)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSomatostatin receptor-targeting peptides are widely used for imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumor patients with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs has resulted in symptomatic improvement, prolonged survival and

  10. Development of Venus Balloon Seismology Missions Through Earth Analog Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M. T.; Garcia, R. F.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    The study of a planet’s seismic activity is central to the understanding of its internal structure. We discuss advances made through Earth analog testing for performing remote seismology on Venus using balloons floated in the mid-atmosphere.

  11. Project Birdseye Aerial Photograph Collection: Digital and Analog Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of both analog and digital aerial photographs from Arctic areas in and around Baffin Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Beaufort...

  12. Technology under Moon and Mars Analog Missions Activities (MMAMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Analog Missions research addresses the need for integrated interdisciplinary field experiments as an integral part of preparation for planned human and robotic...

  13. 22nd Workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design

    CERN Document Server

    Makinwa, Kofi; Harpe, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 22nd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including frequency reference, power management for systems-on-chip, and smart wireless interfaces.  This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development.    ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of frequency reference, power management for systems-on-chip, and smart wireless interfaces.

  14. The use of analogy in pro-life argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mazilu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with how analogy is strategically used in pro-life argumentation on abortion. Pragma-dialectics (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992 offers a set of critical questions by means of which I will evaluate the use of the argumentation based on a relation of analogy in terms of dialectical soundness. Examining various pro-life texts, I have noticed that the analogies employed remain unexplained. Therefore, despite the apparent similarities between abortion and the German holocaust or slavery, for instance, there are essential differences which are not mentioned. I claim that these analogies mainly have a rhetorical function, to operate what has been called by Micheli (2007: 960 “a transfer of emotional consensus”.

  15. The use of analogy in pro-life argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mazilu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with how analogy is strategically used in pro-life argumentation on abortion. Pragma-dialectics (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992 offers a set of critical questions by means of which I will evaluate the use of the argumentation based on a relation of analogy in terms of dialectical soundness. Examining various pro-life texts, I have noticed that the analogies employed remain unexplained. Therefore, despite the apparent similarities between abortion and the German holocaust or slavery, for instance, there are essential differences which are not mentioned. I claim that these analogies mainly have a rhetorical function, to operate what has been called by Micheli (2007: 960 “a transfer of emotional consensus”.

  16. Leibniz y el concepto de analogía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Miguel Esquisabel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of the leibnizian applications of conceptof analogy as well as the analogical reasoning is approached. Thus, the analysis tries to show that the leibnizian concept of analogy is based on the idea of structural similarity. As a consequence of such consideration,two basic ways in which Leibniz applies analogical reasoning are examined. The first way has a conjectural character and is rather heuristic, whereas the second constitutes, at least in intention, a kind of demonstrative analogicalreasoning, since it tries to prove its conclusions for a determined theoreticaldomain by applying a transfer principle, which is itself founded on the identity of structural properties.This procedure is exemplified by outlining the leibnizian view on contingent truths. In this way, the paper concludesby pointing out the theoretical relevance of the concept of similarity in theleibnizian thought.

  17. Software approach to automatic patching of analog computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Automatic Patching Verification program (APV) is described which provides the hybrid computer programmer with a convenient method of performing a static check of the analog portion of his study. The static check insures that the program is patched as specified, and that the computing components being used are operating correctly. The APV language the programmer uses to specify his conditions and interconnections is similar to the FORTRAN language in syntax. The APV control program reads APV source program statements from an assigned input device. Each source program statement is processed immediately after it is read. A statement may select an analog console, set an analog mode, set a potentiometer or DAC, or read from the analog console and perform a test. Statements are read and processed sequentially. If an error condition is detected, an output occurs on an assigned output device. When an end statement is read, the test is terminated.

  18. Radiation Evaluation and Concept Development for Analog Probability Processing Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analog probability processing technology has the ability to provide game-changing performance advances and power savings for on-board data processing applications....

  19. Project for a codable central unit for analog data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouras, F.; Da Costa Vieira, D.; Sohier, B.

    1974-07-01

    The instrumentation for a 256 channel codable central processor intended for an operation in connection with a computer is presented. The computer indicates the adresses of the channels to be measured, orders the conversion, and acquires the results of measurements. The acquisition and computer coupling unit is located in a standard rock CAMAC (6 U 19inch., 25 positions); an example of configuration is given. The measurement velocity depends on the converter speed and dead time of analog circuits; for a ADC 1103 converter the total dead time is 6.5s min. The analog circuits are intended for +-10V range, the accuracy is 1/2n (2n is the number of bits). The result is acquired in words of 12 bits maximum. The information transfer and analog commutation (through integrated analog gates) are discussed [fr

  20. Reference-Free CMOS Pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Figueiredo, Michael; Evans, Guiomar

    2013-01-01

    This book shows that digitally assisted analog-to-digital converters are not the only way to cope with poor analog performance caused by technology scaling. It describes various analog design techniques that enhance the area and power efficiency without employing any type of digital calibration circuitry. These techniques consist of self-biasing for PVT enhancement, inverter-based design for improved speed/power ratio, gain-of-two obtained by voltage sum instead of charge redistribution, and current-mode reference shifting instead of voltage reference shifting. Together, these techniques allow enhancing the area and power efficiency of the main building blocks of a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (MDAC) based stage, namely, the flash quantizer, the amplifier, and the switched capacitor network of the MDAC. Complementing the theoretical analyses of the various techniques, a power efficient operational transconductance amplifier is implemented and experimentally characterized. Furthermore, a medium-low ...

  1. FXR agonist activity of conformationally constrained analogs of GW 4064

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akwabi-Ameyaw, Adwoa; Bass, Jonathan Y.; Caldwell, Richard D.; Caravella, Justin A.; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L.; Deaton, David N.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Marr, Harry B.; McFadyen, Robert B.; Miller, Aaron B.; Navas, III, Frank; Parks, Derek J.; Spearing, Paul K.; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P.; Wisely, G. Bruce; (GSKNC)

    2010-09-27

    Two series of conformationally constrained analogs of the FXR agonist GW 4064 1 were prepared. Replacement of the metabolically labile stilbene with either benzothiophene or naphthalene rings led to the identification of potent full agonists 2a and 2g.

  2. Interaction of algorithm and implementation for analog VLSI stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, J. M.; Little, James J.; Lee, Hae-Seung; Wyatt, John L., Jr.

    1991-07-01

    Design of a high-speed stereo vision system in analog VLSI technology is reported. The goal is to determine how the advantages of analog VLSI--small area, high speed, and low power-- can be exploited, and how the effects of its principal disadvantages--limited accuracy, inflexibility, and lack of storage capacity--can be minimized. Three stereo algorithms are considered, and a simulation study is presented to examine details of the interaction between algorithm and analog VLSI implementation. The Marr-Poggio-Drumheller algorithm is shown to be best suited for analog VLSI implementation. A CCD/CMOS stereo system implementation is proposed, capable of operation at 6000 image frame pairs per second for 48 X 48 images, and faster than frame rate operation on 256 X 256 binocular image pairs.

  3. Great Computational Intelligence in the Formal Sciences via Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0099 Great Computational Intelligence in the Formal Sciences via Analogical Reasoning Selmer Bringsjord RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC...hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing    data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...Intelligence in the Formal Sciences via Analogical Reasoning 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0003 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F

  4. A spin-4 analog of 3D massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Kovacevic, Marija; Rosseel, Jan; Yin Yihao; Townsend, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    A sixth-order, but ghost-free, gauge-invariant action is found for a fourth-rank symmetric tensor potential in a three-dimensional (3D) Minkowski spacetime. It propagates two massive modes of spin 4 that are interchanged by parity and is thus a spin-4 analog of linearized 'new massive gravity'. Also found are ghost-free spin-4 analogs of linearized 'topologically massive gravity' and 'new topologically massive gravity', of fifth and eighth order, respectively. (paper)

  5. Performance report for Stanford/SLAC Microstore Analog Memory Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.; Walker, J.T.

    1984-09-01

    Tests of a newly developed Analog Memory Unit (AMU) are described. The device contains 256 analog storage cells consisting of pass transistors, a storage capacitor and a differential read out buffer. By addressing the storage cells sequentially, the shape of the signal present at the input can be recorded in time. Fast response and good amplitude resolution were the design goals for the development. Measurements on individual devices will be presented and the status of hybridized subsystems containing eight AMUs discussed

  6. BERAS ANALOG SEBAGAI PANGAN FUNGSIONAL DENGAN INDEKS GLIKEMIK RENDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Noviasari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this research was to produce rice analogue as functional food with low glycemic index. The rice was made from white corn and sorghum with additional soybean flour. The physicochemical properties of rice analogue being analysed were resistant starch content, total phenolic content, dietary fiber, color (L*, +a, +b values and whiteness (oHue. Rice analogue was potentially used as functional food indicated by high level of resistant starch 2.59%-3.31%, total phenolic content 0.18-0.25 mg GAE/g sample and dietary fiber 5.35%-6.14%. Rice analogue from white corn with and without soybean flour was further tested for glycemic index. Rice analogue from white corn has 69 GI value, while rice analogue from white corn with 10% soybean flour addition has 50 GI value.Keywords: functional food, glycemic index, rice analogueABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan beras analog yang berpotensi sebagai pangan fungsional dan bernilai indeks glikemik rendah. Beras analog dibuat dari bahan baku jagung putih dan sorgum dengan penambahan tepung kedelai. Sifat fisiko kimia beras analog yang dianalisis adalah pati resisten, total fenol, serat pangan, warna (nilai L*, +a, +b dan derajat putih (oHue. Beras analog berpotensi sebagai pangan fungsional, yang ditunjukkan dengan tingginya kadar pati resisten yaitu sebanyak 2,59%-3,31%, total fenol sekitar 0,18-0,25 mg GAE/g sampel dan serat pangan antara 5,35%-6,14%. Beras analog berbahan baku jagung putih dengan dan tanpa penambahan kedelai dipilih untuk uji indeks glikemik. Beras analog dari jagung putih memiliki nilai IG 69 sedangkan beras analog dari jagung putih dengan penambahan tepung kedelai 10% memiliki nilai IG 50.Kata kunci: beras analog, indeks glikemik, pangan fungsional

  7. Fluorinated Analogs of Malachite Green: Synthesis and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Parvin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated analogs of malachite green (MG have been synthesizedand their toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a human ovarian epithelial cell lineexamined. The toxicity profiles were found to be different for these two species. Twoanalogs, one with 2,4-difluoro substitution and the other with 2-fluoro substitution seem tobe the most promising analogs because they showed the lowest toxicity to the human cells.

  8. Analogical Reasoning in the Engineering Design Process and Technology Education Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This synthesis paper discusses the research exploring analogical reasoning, the role of analogies in the engineering design process, and educational applications for analogical reasoning. Researchers have discovered that analogical reasoning is often a fundamental cognitive tool in design problem solving. Regarding the possible role of analogical reasoning in the context of technology education; analogies may be a useful tool to develop student’s design skills, teach abstract or complex conce...

  9. A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Preetham P.

    2013-01-01

    Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

  10. Fast event recorder utilizing a CCD analog shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.; McIntyre, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    A system of electronics has been developed to allow the capture and recording of relatively fast, low-amplitude analog events. The heart of the system is a dual 455-cell analog shift register charge-coupled device, Fairchild CCD321ADC-3. The CCD is operated in a dual clock mode. The input is sampled at a selectable clock rate of .25-20 MHz. The stored analog data is then clocked out at a slower rate, typically about .25 MHz. The time base expansion of the analog data allows for analog-to-digital conversion and memory storage using conventional medium-speed devices. The digital data is sequentially loaded into a static RAM and may then be block transferred to a computer. The analog electronics are housed in a single-width NIM module, and the RAM memory in a single-width CAMAC module. Each pair of modules provides six parallel channels. Cost is about $200.00 per channel. Applications are described for ionization imaging (TPC, IRC) and long-drift calorimetry in liquid argon

  11. Effects of a spaceflight analog environment on brain connectivity and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Kaitlin; Koppelmans, Vincent; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; De Dios, Yiri; Gadd, Nichole; Wood, Scott; Castenada, Roy Riascos; Kofman, Igor; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2016-11-01

    Sensorimotor functioning is adaptively altered following long-duration spaceflight. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain network organization and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to an established spaceflight analog on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. These bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70days during bed rest; and 8 and 12days after bed rest. To assess potential confounding effects due to scanning interval or task practice, we also acquired rs-fMRI and behavioral measurements from 14 control participants at four time points. 70days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest resulted in significant changes in the functional connectivity of motor, somatosensory, and vestibular areas of the brain. Moreover, several of these network alterations were significantly associated with changes in sensorimotor and spatial working memory performance, which suggests that neuroplasticity mechanisms may facilitate adaptation to the microgravity analog environment. The findings from this study provide novel insights into the underlying neural mechanisms and operational risks of spaceflight analog-related changes in sensorimotor performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IS THERE ROOM FOR DURABLE ANALOG INFORMATION STORAGE IN A DIGITAL WORLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. STUTZ; L. HERETH

    2000-09-20

    Information technology has completely changed our concept of record keeping--the advent of digital records was a momentous discovery, as significant as the invention of the printing press. Digital records allowed huge amounts of information to be stored in a very small space and to be examined quickly. However, digital documents are much more vulnerable to the passage of time than printed documents, because the media on which they are stored are easily affected by physical phenomena, such as magnetic fields, oxidation, material decay, and by various environmental factors that may erase the information. Even more important, digital information becomes obsolete, because even if future generations maybe able to read it, they may not necessarily be able to interpret it. Over the centuries analog documents have been written on solid materials such as stone, clay and metal plates using tools to inscribe the characters. These archival methods have preserved records for centuries, and even millennia, but suffer from low information density. Modem methods facilitate writing pages on smooth material surfaces at high information densities. This writing can generate from about 25 to 100,000 times the area information density of microfilm and work with either analog or digital storage methods. Information of all types is becoming more dependent on digital records. These records are often created and stored on computer systems by scanning in documents or creating them directly on the system. Often analog information (human viewable information) is forced into binary form (ones and zeros). The necessity for the accurate and accessible storage of these documents is increasing for a number of reasons, including legal and environment issues. This paper will discuss information storage life, methods of information storage, media life considerations, and life cycle costs associated with several methods of storage.

  13. Mars for Earthlings: an analog approach to Mars in undergraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marjorie; Kahmann-Robinson, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Mars for Earthlings (MFE) is a terrestrial Earth analog pedagogical approach to teaching undergraduate geology, planetary science, and astrobiology. MFE utilizes Earth analogs to teach Mars planetary concepts, with a foundational backbone in Earth science principles. The field of planetary science is rapidly changing with new technologies and higher-resolution data sets. Thus, it is increasingly important to understand geological concepts and processes for interpreting Mars data. MFE curriculum is topically driven to facilitate easy integration of content into new or existing courses. The Earth-Mars systems approach explores planetary origins, Mars missions, rocks and minerals, active driving forces/tectonics, surface sculpting processes, astrobiology, future explorations, and hot topics in an inquiry-driven environment. Curriculum leverages heavily upon multimedia resources, software programs such as Google Mars and JMARS, as well as NASA mission data such as THEMIS, HiRISE, CRISM, and rover images. Two years of MFE class evaluation data suggest that science literacy and general interest in Mars geology and astrobiology topics increased after participation in the MFE curriculum. Students also used newly developed skills to create a Mars mission team presentation. The MFE curriculum, learning modules, and resources are available online at http://serc.carleton.edu/marsforearthlings/index.html.

  14. Museum activities in dementia care: Using visual analog scales to measure subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joana; Culverwell, Alison; Hulbert, Sabina; Robertson, Mitch; Camic, Paul M

    2017-07-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown that people with dementia and caregivers derive wellbeing-related benefits from viewing art in a group, and that facilitated museum object handling is effective in increasing subjective wellbeing for people with a range of health conditions. The present study quantitatively compared the impact of two museum-based activities and a social activity on the subjective wellbeing of people with dementia and their caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental crossover design was used. People with early to middle stage dementia and caregivers ( N = 66) participated in museum object handling, a refreshment break, and art viewing in small groups. Visual analog scales were used to rate subjective wellbeing pre and post each activity. Results Mixed-design analysis of variances indicated wellbeing significantly increased during the session, irrespective of the order in which the activities were presented. Wellbeing significantly increased from object handling and art viewing for those with dementia and caregivers across pooled orders, but did not in the social activity of a refreshment break. An end-of-intervention questionnaire indicated that experiences of the session were positive. Conclusion Results provide a rationale for considering museum activities as part of a broader psychosocial, relational approach to dementia care and support the use of easy to administer visual analog scales as a quantitative outcome measure. Further partnership working is also supported between museums and healthcare professionals in the development of nonclinical, community-based programs for this population.

  15. Rchemcpp: a web service for structural analoging in ChEMBL, Drugbank and the Connectivity Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klambauer, Günter; Wischenbart, Martin; Mahr, Michael; Unterthiner, Thomas; Mayr, Andreas; Hochreiter, Sepp

    2015-10-15

    We have developed Rchempp, a web service that identifies structurally similar compounds (structural analogs) in large-scale molecule databases. The service allows compounds to be queried in the widely used ChEMBL, DrugBank and the Connectivity Map databases. Rchemcpp utilizes the best performing similarity functions, i.e. molecule kernels, as measures for structural similarity. Molecule kernels have proven superior performance over other similarity measures and are currently excelling at machine learning challenges. To considerably reduce computational time, and thereby make it feasible as a web service, a novel efficient prefiltering strategy has been developed, which maintains the sensitivity of the method. By exploiting information contained in public databases, the web service facilitates many applications crucial for the drug development process, such as prioritizing compounds after screening or reducing adverse side effects during late phases. Rchemcpp was used in the DeepTox pipeline that has won the Tox21 Data Challenge and is frequently used by researchers in pharmaceutical companies. The web service and the R package are freely available via http://shiny.bioinf.jku.at/Analoging/ and via Bioconductor. hochreit@bioinf.jku.at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…

  17. Ghana - Land Tenure Facilitation Impact Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...

  18. Fuzzy classifier for fault diagnosis in analog electronic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, A P

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have presented different approaches for the fault diagnosis with fault models having ± 50% variation in the component values in analog electronic circuits. There is still a need of the approaches which provide the fault diagnosis with the variation in the component value below ± 50%. A new single and multiple fault diagnosis technique for soft faults in analog electronic circuit using fuzzy classifier has been proposed in this paper. This technique uses the simulation before test (SBT) approach by analyzing the frequency response of the analog circuit under faulty and fault free conditions. Three signature parameters peak gain, frequency and phase associated with peak gain, of the frequency response of the analog circuit are observed and extracted such that they give unique values for faulty and fault free configuration of the circuit. The single and double fault models with the component variations from ± 10% to ± 50% are considered. The fuzzy classifier along the classification of faults gives the estimated component value under faulty and faultfree conditions. The proposed method is validated using simulated data and the real time data for a benchmark analog circuit. The comparative analysis is also presented for both the validations. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Membrane Affinity of Platensimycin and Its Dialkylamine Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Rowe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Membrane permeability is a desired property in drug design, but there have been difficulties in quantifying the direct drug partitioning into native membranes. Platensimycin (PL is a new promising antibiotic whose biosynthetic production is costly. Six dialkylamine analogs of PL were synthesized with identical pharmacophores but different side chains; five of them were found inactive. To address the possibility that their activity is limited by the permeation step, we calculated polarity, measured surface activity and the ability to insert into the phospholipid monolayers. The partitioning of PL and the analogs into the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli was assessed by activation curve shifts of a re-engineered mechanosensitive channel, MscS, in patch-clamp experiments. Despite predicted differences in polarity, the affinities to lipid monolayers and native membranes were comparable for most of the analogs. For PL and the di-myrtenyl analog QD-11, both carrying bulky sidechains, the affinity for the native membrane was lower than for monolayers (half-membranes, signifying that intercalation must overcome the lateral pressure of the bilayer. We conclude that the biological activity among the studied PL analogs is unlikely to be limited by their membrane permeability. We also discuss the capacity of endogenous tension-activated channels to detect asymmetric partitioning of exogenous substances into the native bacterial membrane and the different contributions to the thermodynamic force which drives permeation.

  20. Pharmacokinetic and radiosensitizing properties of phenylalanine analogs of 2-nitroimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, P.K.; Larroquette, C.A.; Schlosser, J.V.; Agrawal, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    In the authors efforts to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of 2-nitroimidazoles to develop a superior radiosensitizer than misonidazole, they have synthesized new phenylalanine analogs to minimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the amide bond between the amino function of 2-nitroimidazole-1-ethylamine (NEA) and carboxylic group of phenylalanine. Two major metabolites, NEA and its acetylated derivative, were identified in plasma tumor and brain tissues after the administration of the phenylalanine analogs with a free amino function, in B16 melanoma bearing C57 mice. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the peptide bond was significantly reduced in analogs containing an α-methyl function in the ethylamine side chain. Since the metabolites were more toxic than the parent compounds, the LD/sub 50/ values were directly related to the ease of hydrolysis of the amide bond. The L-amino acid analogs were found to be less toxic than the D-isomers. These agents were potent radiosensitizers against hypoxic Chinese hamster (V-79) cells producing enhancement ratio of 2.0 to 2.4 at concentrations between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. These results suggest that the pharmacokinetics of the amino acid analogs can be conveniently manipulated by creating steric hindrance to provide therapeutically effective radiosensitizers

  1. Analogical processes in children's understanding of spatial representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Uttal, David; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-06-01

    We propose that map reading can be construed as a form of analogical mapping. We tested 2 predictions that follow from this claim: First, young children's patterns of performance in map reading tasks should parallel those found in analogical mapping tasks; and, second, children will benefit from guided alignment instructions that help them see the relational correspondences between the map and the space. In 4 experiments, 3-year-olds completed a map reading task in which they were asked to find hidden objects in a miniature room, using a corresponding map. We manipulated the availability of guided alignment (showing children the analogical mapping between maps and spaces; Experiments 1, 2, and 3a), the format of guided alignment (gesture or relational language; Experiment 2), and the iconicity of maps (Experiments 3a and 3b). We found that (a) young children's difficulties in map reading follow from known patterns of analogical development-for example, focusing on object similarity over relational similarity; and (b) guided alignment based on analogical reasoning led to substantially better performance. Results also indicated that children's map reading performance was affected by the format of guided alignment, the iconicity of the maps, and the order of tasks. The results bear on the developmental mechanisms underlying young children's learning of spatial representations and also suggest ways to support this learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Specialization of the Rostral Prefrontal Cortex for Distinct Analogy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Benoit, Roland G.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is central to learning and abstract thinking. It involves using a more familiar situation (source) to make inferences about a less familiar situation (target). According to the predominant cognitive models, analogical reasoning includes 1) generation of structured mental representations and 2) mapping based on structural similarities between them. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to specify the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in these distinct processes. An experimental paradigm was designed that enabled differentiation between these processes, by temporal separation of the presentation of the source and the target. Within rostral PFC, a lateral subregion was activated by analogy task both during study of the source (before the source could be compared with a target) and when the target appeared. This may suggest that this subregion supports fundamental analogy processes such as generating structured representations of stimuli but is not specific to one particular processing stage. By contrast, a dorsomedial subregion of rostral PFC showed an interaction between task (analogy vs. control) and period (more activated when the target appeared). We propose that this region is involved in comparison or mapping processes. These results add to the growing evidence for functional differentiation between rostral PFC subregions. PMID:20156841

  3. Analogy in causal inference: rethinking Austin Bradford Hill's neglected consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article was to rethink and resurrect Austin Bradford Hill's "criterion" of analogy as an important consideration in causal inference. In epidemiology today, analogy is either completely ignored (e.g., in many textbooks), or equated with biologic plausibility or coherence, or aligned with the scientist's imagination. None of these examples, however, captures Hill's description of analogy. His words suggest that there may be something gained by contrasting two bodies of evidence, one from an established causal relationship, the other not. Coupled with developments in the methods of systematic assessments of evidence-including but not limited to meta-analysis-analogy can be restructured as a key component in causal inference. This new approach will require that a collection-a library-of known cases of causal inference (i.e., bodies of evidence involving established causal relationships) be developed. This library would likely include causal assessments by organizations such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the National Toxicology Program, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, a process for describing key features of a causal relationship would need to be developed along with what will be considered paradigm cases of causation. Finally, it will be important to develop ways to objectively compare a "new" body of evidence with the relevant paradigm case of causation. Analogy, along with all other existing methods and causal considerations, may improve our ability to identify causal relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using learning theory, interprofessional facilitation competencies, and behavioral indicators to evaluate facilitator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGros, Theresa A; Amerongen, Helen M; Cooley, Janet H; Schloss, Ernest P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing need for faculty and preceptors skilled in interprofessional facilitation (IPF), the relative novelty of the field poses a challenge to the development and evaluation of IPF programs. We use learning theory and IPF competencies with associated behavioral indicators to develop and evaluate six key messages in IPF training and experience. Our mixed methods approach included two phases: quantitative data collection with embedded qualitative data, followed by qualitative data collection in explanatory sequential fashion. This enabled triangulated analyses of both data types and of facilitation behaviors from facilitator and student perspectives. Results indicate the competency-based training was effective. Facilitators felt comfortable performing behaviors associated with IPF competencies; student observations of those behaviors supported facilitator self-reported performance. Overall, students perceived more facilitation opportunities than facilitators. Findings corroborate the importance of recruiting seasoned facilitators and establishing IPF guidelines that acknowledge variable team dynamics and help facilitators recognize teachable moments.

  5. Teachers as Friendship Facilitators: Respeto and Personalismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights three teachers who were actively involved as friendship facilitators by illuminating their use of a friendship-facilitator framework with three students with moderate/severe disabilities. The framework includes three strategies: finding opportunities to bring children and youth together, acknowledging individual strengths…

  6. Escaping Homelessness: Anticipated and Perceived Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allisha; Tweed, Roger

    2009-01-01

    One study with two distinct sections was conducted to identify factors facilitating escape from homelessness. In Section 1, 58 homeless individuals rated possible facilitators of escape (factors they believed would help them become more independent and self-sufficient). In Section 2, 80 participants who had already exited homelessness rated the…

  7. Practice Utilization of Algorithms for Analog Filter Group Delay Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hajek

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with an application of three different algorithms which optimize a group delay of analog filters. One of them is a part of the professional circuit simulator Micro Cap 7 and the others two original algorithms are developed in the MATLAB environment. An all-pass network is used to optimize the group delay of an arbitrary analog filter. Introduced algorithms look for an optimal order and optimal coefficients of an all-pass network transfer function. Theoretical foundations are introduced and all algorithms are tested using the optimization of testing analog filter. The optimization is always run three times because the second, third and fourth-order all-pass network is used. An equalization of the original group delay is a main objective of these optimizations. All outputs of all algorithms are critically evaluated and also described.

  8. Analog Circuit Design Automation Tool Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. A. Khalifa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the application of Genetic Algorithms (GA for the design of electronic analog circuits is presented in this paper. In this paper an investigation of the use of genetic algorithms into the problem of analog circuits design is presented. In a single design stage, circuits are produced that satisfy specific frequency response specifications using circuit structures that are unrestricted and with component values that are chosen from a set of preferred values. The extra degrees of freedom resulting from unbounded circuit structures create a huge search space. It is shown in this paper that Genetic Algorithms can be successfully used to search this space. The application chosen is a LC all pass ladder filter circuit design.Key Words: Computer-Aided Design, Analog Circuits, Artificial Intelligence.

  9. Therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogs in neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunikowska, J.; Krolicki, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the 80's the discovery of somatostatin receptors expression on NET cells enabled the application of somatostatin analogues in diagnosis and therapy. Initially, 'cold' somatostatin analogs were used for therapeutical purpose, with overall good clinical response, but with minimal anti-proliferation effect. Furthermore, radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides have been shown to be an important class of radiopharmaceuticals for tumor diagnosis and therapy with minimal side-effects. Specific binding between receptor on tumor cell and peptide with beta emitting radionuclide act not only on tumor related symptoms but also on tumor cell via radiotoxic effect of beta radiation. Discoveries of next receptor combinations, allow the work over synthesis and applications of next receptors' analogs both in diagnosis and in therapy. Due to complex characteristics of NET's, the use therapeutic 'cocktail' containing the variety analogs may be of great importance. (author)

  10. Using analogs to generate production forecasts in Faja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lugo, Rolando A. [Repsol (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the Carabobol Block, extra heavy oil will be produced by cold production from Miocene Morical Member sands. Many parameters such as pressure, temperature, solution gas oil ratio and viscosity variation significantly impact well productivity; unfortunately little information is available on the Carabobol Block. The aim of this paper is to provide a new methodology for using analog data to develop fluid properties correlations and a future production profile. Data from the analog neighbour field in the Orinoco oil belt was used. A methodology using scatter data was successfully applied for the Carabobol Block and fluid composition, a complete PVT and an analytical forecast were found and confirmed with actual laboratory data and a gross numerical model. This study showed that analog data can be used as a first approach to assess initial reservoir conditions and fluid properties and to generate production forecasts.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Resveratrol Analogs on Mushroom Tyrosinase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin pigmentation disorders typically involve an overproduction or uneven distribution of melanin, which results in skin spots. Resveratrol can inhibit tyrosinase, the active enzyme in the synthesis of melanin, but it does not inhibit the synthesis of melanin to an extent that enables its use alone as a skin whitening agent in pharmaceutical formulations, so its use as a coadjuvant in treatment of hyperpigmentation is suggested. Six resveratrol analogs were tested for tyrosinase inhibitory activity in vitro. Among the analogs tested, compound D was the most powerful tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 = 28.66 µg/mL, two times more active than resveratrol (IC50 = 57.05 µg/mL, followed by the analogs A, E, B, F and C, respectively. This demonstrated that the hydroxylation at C4' on the phenolic ring was the molecular modification with most importance for the observed activity.

  12. Spatial analogies pervade complex relational reasoning: Evidence from spontaneous gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperrider, Kensy; Gentner, Dedre; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    How do people think about complex phenomena like the behavior of ecosystems? Here we hypothesize that people reason about such relational systems in part by creating spatial analogies, and we explore this possibility by examining spontaneous gestures. In two studies, participants read a written lesson describing positive and negative feedback systems and then explained the differences between them. Though the lesson was highly abstract and people were not instructed to gesture, people produced spatial gestures in abundance during their explanations. These gestures used space to represent simple abstract relations (e.g., increase ) and sometimes more complex relational structures (e.g., negative feedback ). Moreover, over the course of their explanations, participants' gestures often cohered into larger analogical models of relational structure. Importantly, the spatial ideas evident in the hands were largely unaccompanied by spatial words. Gesture thus suggests that spatial analogies are pervasive in complex relational reasoning, even when language does not.

  13. Indicators of Discontinuous Change in the Development of Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenfeld; van der Maas HLJ; van den Boom DC

    1997-03-01

    In a longitudinal study, five indicators of a transition in the development of analogical reasoning were examined in young elementary school children, (a) bimodality and (b) inaccessibility in the frequency distributions of test performance, and in the responses of the transitional subjects, respectively, (c) sudden jumps, (d) anomalous variance, and (e) critical slowing down. An open-ended geometric-analogies test was administered eight times during a period of six months to eighty children in Grades 1 and 2 (six- to eight-year-olds). Strong evidence for bimodality was found in the distribution of the test scores and weaker evidence for inaccessibility. In the performance curves of the transitional subjects sudden jumps were demonstrated. Furthermore, the transitional subjects displayed a temporary increase of inconsistent solution behavior and solution time near the sudden jump. The characteristic changes in the analogy performance of the transitional subjects were interpreted as a strategy shift.

  14. Regulatory requirements for replacement of analog systems with digital upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeser, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the regulatory guidelines which must be met in order to replace analog systems in nuclear power plants with digital systems. There is a move to do such replacements for a number of reasons: analog systems are aging, and showing considerable drift; few vendors manufacture analog systems today; support and parts are hard to get; digital systems provide flexibility. There is a safety concern however about undesirable and unpredictable effects to digital safety equipment due to plant transients, accidents, post-accident condition, and EMI/RF environmental interferences. License holders must comply with the requirements of 10 C.F.R. 50.59, which deals with safety concerns with respect to any changes to operating plants which may have an impact on the safety of the plant. NRC staff is taking the position that all digital upgrades will require an evaluation under this regulation

  15. Analog Circuit Design Optimization Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Barari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an evolutionary-based designing system for automated sizing of analog integrated circuits (ICs. Two evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm and PSO (Parswal particle swarm optimization algorithm, are proposed to design analog ICs with practical user-defined specifications. On the basis of the combination of HSPICE and MATLAB, the system links circuit performances, evaluated through specific electrical simulation, to the optimization system in the MATLAB environment, for the selected topology. The system has been tested by typical and hard-to-design cases, such as complex analog blocks with stringent design requirements. The results show that the design specifications are closely met. Comparisons with available methods like genetic algorithms show that the proposed algorithm offers important advantages in terms of optimization quality and robustness. Moreover, the algorithm is shown to be efficient.

  16. INTERSTELLAR ANALOGS FROM DEFECTIVE CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES ACCOUNT FOR INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zhenquan; Abe, Hiroya; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Ohara, Satoshi; Chihara, Hiroki; Koike, Chiyoe; Kaneko, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Because interstellar dust is closely related to the evolution of matter in the galactic environment and many other astrophysical phenomena, the laboratory synthesis of interstellar dust analogs has received significant attention over the past decade. To simulate the ultraviolet (UV) interstellar extinction feature at 217.5 nm originating from carbonaceous interstellar dust, many reports focused on the UV absorption properties of laboratory-synthesized interstellar dust analogs. However, no general relation has been established between UV interstellar extinction and artificial interstellar dust analogs. Here, we show that defective carbon nanostructures prepared by high-energy collisions exhibit a UV absorption feature at 220 nm which we suggest accounts for the UV interstellar extinction at 217.5 nm. The morphology of some carbon nanostructures is similar to that of nanocarbons discovered in the Allende meteorite. The similarity between the absorption feature of the defective carbon nanostructures and UV interstellar extinction indicates a strong correlation between the defective carbon nanostructures and interstellar dust.

  17. Discovery of a Jupiter/Saturn Analog with Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudi, B; Bennett, D; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Christie, G; Maoz, D; Dong, S; McCormick, J; Szymanski, M; Tristram, P; Nikolaev, S; Paczynski, B; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; DePoy, D; Han, C; Kaspi, S; Lee, C; Mallia, F; Natusch, T; Pogge, R; Park, B; Abe, F; Bond, I; Botzler, C; Fukui, A; Hearnshaw, J; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Korpela, A; Kilmartin, P; Lin, W; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Okumura, T; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Sako, T; Saito, T; Sato, S; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D; Sumi, T; Sweatman, W; Yock, P; Albrow, M; Beaulieu, J; Burgdorf, M; Cook, K; Coutures, C; Dominik, M; Dieters, S; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Horne, K; Steele, I; Tsapras, Y; Chaboyer, B; Crocker, A; Frank, S; Macintosh, B

    2007-11-08

    Searches for extrasolar planets have uncovered an astonishing diversity of planetary systems, yet the frequency of solar system analogs remains unknown. The gravitational microlensing planet search method is potentially sensitive to multiple-planet systems containing analogs of all the solar system planets except Mercury. We report the first detection of a multiple-planet system with microlensing. We identify two planets with masses of {approx} 0.71 and {approx} 0.27 times the mass of Jupiter and orbital separations of {approx} 2.3 and {approx} 4.6 astronomical units orbiting a primary of mass {approx} 0.50 solar masses. This system resembles a scaled version of our solar system in that the mass ratio, separation ratio, and equilibrium temperatures of the planets are similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn. These planets could not have been detected with other techniques; their discovery from only 6 confirmed microlensing planet detections suggests that solar system analogs may be common.

  18. Comparison of analog and digital pulse-shape-discrimination systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, C.S., E-mail: cssosa@umich.edu; Flaska, M.; Pozzi, S.A.

    2016-08-01

    Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) performance of two optimized PSD systems (one digital and one analog) is compared in this work. One system uses digital charge integration, while the other system uses analog zero crossing. Measurements were conducted with each PSD system using the CAEN V1720 (250 MHz) data acquisition system. An organic-liquid scintillator, coupled to a photo-multiplier tube, was used to detect neutrons and gamma rays from a Cf-252 spontaneous-fission source. The PSD performance of both systems was optimized and quantified using a traditional figure-of-merit (FOM) approach. FOM's were found for three, 300 keVee light-output bins, spanning from 100 to 1000 keVee, and one larger bin from 100 to 1800 keVee. Digital PSD outperformed analog PSD in the lowest light-output bin by approximately 50%, and by 11% for the highest light-output bin.

  19. The Discourse on Printed and Electronic Books: Analogies, Oppositions, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velagic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The point of departure for this paper is the twofold analogy (analogy of content, analogy of medium) between printed and electronic books, the aim being to draw attention to the usual perception of their capacities and relationships, to provide a rather detailed analysis of the outcome and sustainability of such analogies and…

  20. Analogical Reasoning in the Engineering Design Process and Technology Education Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Jenny; Mentzer, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    This synthesis paper discusses the research exploring analogical reasoning, the role of analogies in the engineering design process, and educational applications for analogical reasoning. Researchers have discovered that analogical reasoning is often a fundamental cognitive tool in design problem solving. Regarding the possible role of analogical…

  1. Effects of Multimedia and Schema Induced Analogical Reasoning on Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, R. Z.; Yang, W.; Garcia, D.; McCadden, E. P.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of multimedia and schema induced analogical reasoning on science learning. It involves 89 fourth grade elementary students in the north-east of the United States. Participants are randomly assigned into four conditions: (a) multimedia with analogy; (b) multimedia without analogy; (c) analogy without…

  2. Using facilitative skills in project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    , for example disappointing project performance and lack of an appropriate project cooperation method due to new forms of cooperation possibilities. More and more organizations are engaged in contractual joint ventures, alliances and other forms of inter-organizational relationships. In addition, virtual....... The outcome of facilitation depends on at least four interrelated sets of conditions: a) The available time and resources in comparison to the complexity of the aim(s), b) the composition of the participants, c) the skills of the facilitator and d) the methods available to the facilitator. In this paper...... have come to learn and practise facilitating skills as international students at Technical University of Denmark. The paper identifies facilitation skills at three different levels: the intellectual, emotional and synergistic level. An analysis is conducted based on a practical example of how...

  3. The use of analogies in forecasting ecological and societal responses to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO (USA). Environmental Research and Societal Impacts Group)

    1991-06-01

    Due to the limitations of general circulation models, researchers use analogies to look at future climatic change and its effects. Analogies used include the greenhouse, the Altithermal period, regional climates and summertime. Analogical reasoning is a prominent part of general circulation modeling of the atmosphere. Analogies are useful for generating hypotheses and improving understanding, but not as forecasts. The use of an analogy to develop specific policies related to global warming is risky. Historical analogies can provide a first approach to ascertaining the level of societal preparedness for the impacts of a global warming. Each analogy provides additional information about the target problem. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The use of analogies in forecasting ecological and societal responses to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the limitations of general circulation models, researchers use analogies to look at future climatic change and its effects. Analogies used include the greenhouse, the Altithermal period, regional climates and summertime. Analogical reasoning is a prominent part of general circulation modeling of the atmosphere. Analogies are useful for generating hypotheses and improving understanding, but not as forecasts. The use of an analogy to develop specific policies related to global warming is risky. Historical analogies can provide a first approach to ascertaining the level of societal preparedness for the impacts of a global warming. Each analogy provides additional information about the target problem. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Foucault's Pendulum, Analog for an Electron Spin State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    The classical Lagrangian that describes the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum presents an interesting analog to an electron's spin state in an external magnetic field. With a simple modification, this classical Lagrangian yields equations of motion that directly map onto the Schrodinger-Pauli Equation. This analog goes well beyond the geometric phase, reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  6. Silicon analog components device design, process integration, characterization, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    El-Kareh, Badih

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern analog components, their characteristics, and interactions with process parameters. It serves as a comprehensive guide, addressing both the theoretical and practical aspects of modern silicon devices and the relationship between their electrical properties and processing conditions. Based on the authors’ extensive experience in the development of analog devices, this book is intended for engineers and scientists in semiconductor research, development and manufacturing. The problems at the end of each chapter and the numerous charts, figures and tables also make it appropriate for use as a text in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in electrical engineering and materials science.

  7. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY

    2009-10-06

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  8. Transient SEU characterization of analog IC's for ESA's satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harboe-Soerensen, R.; Van Dooren, J.; Guerre, F.X.; Constans, H.; Berger, G.; Hajdas, W.

    1999-01-01

    Data analysis of four self switch-off power supply events in the SOHO satellite pointed strongly in the direction of being Cosmic Ray or Proton induced. Further analysis of the relevant power supply schematics identified a number of analog IC's capable of causing or contributing to such events. This paper concentrates on the testing aspects of these analog IC's and presents the results of a Single Event Effects (SEEs) test program. Ground testing, simulating the flight conditions, were carried out at both heavy ion and proton accelerators. (authors)

  9. Teamwork in high-risk environments analogous to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.

  10. Reynolds analogy for subcooled surface boiling under forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    For the case of subcooled surface boiling under forced convection the analytic expression of analogy between the heat transfer and carry pulse (Reynolds analogy) is derived. It is concluded that the obtained dependence creates the basis for solution of a series of problems of surface boiling physics. On the basis of the performed analysis the method of coordinate calculation of the origin of intensive vapour generation is developed and the formula for calculation of the broken-off-bubble radius under forced convection is derived [ru

  11. On automatic synthesis of analog/digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    The paper builds on a recent explicit numerical algorithm for Kolmogorov`s superpositions, and will show that in order to synthesize minimum size (i.e., size-optimal) circuits for implementing any Boolean function, the nonlinear activation function of the gates has to be the identity function. Because classical and--or implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions can be obtained using analog (or mixed analog/digital) circuits. Conclusions and several comments are ending the paper.

  12. The use of Antarctic analogs for the Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barney; Lynch, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Potential approaches to the use of the Antarctic as an analog to the lunar and Mars planetary surface segments of the SEI are reviewed. It is concluded that a well-planned and sustained program of ground-based research and testing in environments analogous to the moon and Mars is a rational method for reducing the risks associated with human space missions. Antarctica may provide an ideal setting for testing critical technologies (habitat design, life support, and advanced scientific instrumentation), studying human factors and physiology, and conducting basic scientific research similar to and directly relevant to that planned for the SEI.

  13. Fluid analog model for boundary effects in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L. H.; Svaiter, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations in the density of a fluid with a linear phonon dispersion relation are studied. In particular, we treat the changes in these fluctuations due to nonclassical states of phonons and to the presence of boundaries. These effects are analogous to similar effects in relativistic quantum field theory, and we argue that the case of the fluid is a useful analog model for effects in field theory. We further argue that the changes in the mean squared density are, in principle, observable by light scattering experiments.

  14. Developing a 300C Analog Tool for EGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy

    2015-03-23

    This paper covers the development of a 300°C geothermal well monitoring tool for supporting future EGS (enhanced geothermal systems) power production. This is the first of 3 tools planed. This is an analog tool designed for monitoring well pressure and temperature. There is discussion on 3 different circuit topologies and the development of the supporting surface electronics and software. There is information on testing electronic circuits and component. One of the major components is the cable used to connect the analog tool to the surface.

  15. External facilitators and interprofessional facilitation teams: a qualitative study of their roles in supporting practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Sylvie; Bareil, Céline; Lalonde, Lyne; Duhamel, Fabie; Hudon, Eveline; Goudreau, Johanne; Lévesque, Lise

    2016-07-16

    Facilitation is a powerful approach to support practice change. The purpose of this study is to better understand the facilitation roles exercised by both external facilitators and interprofessional facilitation teams to foster the implementation of change. Building on Dogherty et al.'s taxonomy of facilitation activities, this study uses an organizational development lens to identify and analyze facilitation roles. It includes a concise definition of what interprofessional facilitation teams actually do, thus expanding our limited knowledge of teams that act as change agents. We also investigate the facilitation dynamics between change actors. We carried out a qualitative analysis of a 1-year process of practice change implementation. We studied four family medicine groups, in which we constituted interprofessional facilitation teams. Each team was supported by one external facilitator and included at least one family physician, one case manager nurse, and health professionals located on or off the family medicine group's site (one pharmacist, plus at least one nutritionist, kinesiologist, or psychologist). We collected our data through focus group interviews with the four teams, individual interviews with the two external facilitators, and case audit documentation. We analyzed both predetermined (as per Dogherty et al., 2012) and emerging facilitation roles, as well as facilitation dynamics. A non-linear framework of facilitation roles emerged from our data, based on four fields of expertise: change management, project management, meeting management, and group/interpersonal dynamics. We identified 72 facilitation roles, grouped into two categories: "implementation-oriented" and "support-oriented." Each category was subdivided into themes (n = 6; n = 5) for clearer understanding (e.g., legitimation of change/project, management of effective meetings). Finally, an examination of facilitation dynamics revealed eight relational ties occurring within and/or between

  16. Los pasiegos. La analogía salvaje y lo salvaje de la analogía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME DE LA CALLE VALVERDE

    2007-01-01

    -entendiendo salvaje como un pensamiento humano prístino-: por un lado en sus relaciones con el racionalismo (¿emerge la analogía desde el racionalismo?, ¿qué relación guarda con éste?, ¿su nacimiento es resultado de una función «natural»? y por otro sobre la naturaleza social de lo salvaje a partir de las bases sociales que lo producen. Es decir, se rastrea lo que de salvaje tiene la analogía, si la analogía es o no una función ahistórica y asocial del intelecto humano. No se examina todo el complejo analógico de los pasiegos, únicamente aquél que establece relaciones homólogas entre las vacas y el entorno.

  17. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Plutonium in Fractured Volcanic Tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, A. B.; Zhao, P.; Walensky, J. R.; Roberts, S. K.; Johnson, M. R.; Zavarin, M.; Ramon, E. C.

    2004-12-01

    The transport of low-solubility radionuclides in a colloidal- or colloidal bound state is frequently suspected or observed. Groundwater contaminated with radionuclides associated with underground nuclear tests was collected from several different well locations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In each case, the low-levels of plutonium detected in the groundwater were overwhelmingly (>95percent) associated with the colloidal and not the dissolved fraction of the groundwater. The colloidal fractions consisted of secondary minerals such as clays and zeolites. To better understand the mechanisms controlling the potential colloidal transport of plutonium, colloid-facilitated fracture flow laboratory experiments are being conducted. Pseudocolloids consisting of Pu(IV) sorbed to clinoptilolite were combined with a radionuclide solution cocktail consisting of Np, U, Cs, Sr, Sm and 3H and Re (analog to Tc) tracers in NTS-type synthetic groundwater (4.5mM NaHCO3-). The cocktail was injected into a smooth fracture in a volcanic tuff rock core from the NTS and the effluent analyzed. Autoradiography and secondary ion mass spectrometry will be used to understand the mineral -colloid-radionuclide interactions in the fracture volcanic tuff.

  18. Role enactment of facilitation in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    basis for discussing and refining facilitation as an implementation method. Methods: The facilitation intervention under study was conducted in general practice in the Capital Region of Denmark in order to support an overall strategy for implementing chronic disease management programmes. We observed 30...... and process manager. Thus, apart from trying to keep the process structured and focused the facilitators were engaged in didactic presentations and hands-on learning as they tried to pass on factual information and experienced based knowledge as well as their own enthusiasm towards implementing practice...

  19. Visual analog rating of mood by people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L; Womack, Jennifer L; Harmon, Tyson G; Williams, Sharon W

    2015-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the identification of depression in stroke survivors with aphasia, but there is more limited information about other mood states. Visual analog scales are often used to collect subjective information from people with aphasia. However, the validity of these methods for communicating about mood has not been established in people with moderately to severely impaired language. The dual purposes of this study were to characterize the relative endorsement of negative and positive mood states in people with chronic aphasia after stroke and to examine congruent validity for visual analog rating methods for people with a range of aphasia severity. Twenty-three left-hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia were asked to indicate their present mood by using two published visual analog rating methods. The congruence between the methods was estimated through correlation analysis, and scores for different moods were compared. Endorsement was significantly stronger for "happy" than for mood states with negative valence. At the same time, several participants displayed pronounced negative mood compared to previously published norms for neurologically healthy adults. Results from the two rating methods were moderately and positively correlated. Positive mood is prominent in people with aphasia who are in the chronic stage of recovery after stroke, but negative moods can also be salient and individual presentations are diverse. Visual analog rating methods are valid methods for discussing mood with people with aphasia; however, design optimization should be explored.

  20. Programs for control of an analog-signal switching network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ottavio, T.; Enriquez, R.; Katz, R.; Skelly, J.

    1989-01-01

    A suite of programs has been developed to control the network of analog-signal switching multiplexers in the AGS complex. The software is driven by a relational database which describes the architecture of the multiplexer tree and the set of available analog signals. Signals are routed through a three-layer multiplexer tree, to be made available at four consoles each with three 4-trace oscilloscopes. A menu-structured operator interface program is available at each console, to accept requests to route any available analog signal to any of that console's 12 oscilloscope traces. A common routing-server program provides automatic routing-server program provides automatic routing of requested signals through the layers of multiplexers, maintaining a reservation database to denote free and in-use trunks. Expansion of the analog signal system is easily accommodated in software by adding new signals, trunks, multiplexers, or consoles to the database. Programmatic control of the triggering signals for each of the oscilloscopes is also provided. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Electron irradiation of carbon dioxide-carbon disulphide ice analog ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI 10.1007/s12039-015-0996-6. Electron irradiation of carbon dioxide-carbon disulphide ice analog and its implication on the identification of carbon disulphide on Moon. B SIVARAMAN. ∗. Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India e-mail: bhala@prl.res.in.

  2. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design of analog speed controllers for DC motors on aerospace systems. The presentation includes an overview of controller evolution, evolvable controller configuration, an emphasis on proportion integral (PI) controllers, schematic diagrams, and experimental results.

  3. Three-Component Synthesis of Polysubstituted Homoproline Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Irkha

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetrasubstituted pyrrolidines representing analogs of homoproline weresynthesized by three-component condensation of aryl(heteroarylaldehydes, asparagineand N-methylmaleimide (NMM. Compounds with (1S*, 3R*, 3aS*, 6aR*-configurationat the corresponding carbon positions of the bicyclic pyrrolidine ring could be isolated ona preparative scale.

  4. Community Decadal Panel for Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, N. G.; Farr, T.; Baker, V. R.; Bridges, N.; Carsey, F.; Duxbury, N.; Gilmore, M. S.; Green, J. R.; Grin, E.; Hansen, V.; Keszthelyi, L.; Lanagan, P.; Lentz, R.; Marinangeli, L.; Morris, P. A.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Robinson, C.; Thomson, B.

    2001-11-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites for Mars, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel is considering the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the MEPAG science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel is considering the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  5. Variable Bandwidth Analog Channel Filters for Software Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, V.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    An important aspect of Software Defined Radio is the ability to define the bandwidth of the filter that selects the desired channel. This paper first explains the importance of channel filtering. Then the advantage of analog channel filtering with a variable bandwidth in a Software Defined Radio is

  6. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  7. Effects of mathematical game and instructional analogy as advance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of mathematical game and instructional analogy on students' achievement in junior secondary school mathematics. A total of 246 Junior Secondary Two (JS2) Mathematics students were involved in the study. A 3×2 factorial design was adopted in the research. From the findings, it was ...

  8. Curriculum and Law: An Elaboration of the Analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpwood, Graham W. F.

    A new conceptualization of the curriculum field is offered that is based on an analogy with the field of law. The conceptualization is able to account for the existence in curriculum of a variety of differing normative curriculum theories. Two theories of law (natural law and legal positivism) are described and shown to have exact counterparts in…

  9. VME Switch for CERN's PS Analog Video System

    CERN Document Server

    Acebes, I; Heinze, W; Lewis, J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    Analog video signal switching is used in CERN's Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex to route the video signals coming from Beam Diagnostics systems to the Meyrin Control Room (MCR). Traditionally, this has been done with custom electromechanical relay-based cards controlled serially via CAMAC crates. In order to improve the robustness and maintainability of the system, while keeping it analog to preserve the low latency, a VME card based on Analog Devices' AD8116 analog matrix chip has been developed. Video signals go into the front panel and exit the switch through the P2 connector of the VME backplane. The module is a 16 input, 32 output matrix. Larger matrices can be built using more modules and bussing their outputs together, thanks to the high impedance feature of the AD8116. Another VME module takes the selected signals from the P2 connector and performs automatic gain to send them at nominal output level through its front panel. This paper discusses both designs and presents experimental test results.

  10. Decay Properties Of The Dipole Isobaric Analog Resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorelik, M. L.; Safonov, I. V.; Urin, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A continuum-RPA-based approach is applied to describe the decay properties of isolated dipole isobaric analog resonances in nuclei having not-too-large neutron excess. Calculated for a few resonances in 90Zr the elastic E1-radiative width and partial proton widths for decay into one-hole

  11. Waste printing paper as analogous adsorbents for heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Waste printing paper as analogous adsorbents for heavy metals in aqueous solution. Moyib, O. K.. 1. *, Ayedun. 1. , M. A. ... ABSTRACT. Waste printing paper (WPP) is an abundant local waste material that requires end-use channelling to reduce ..... Science and Technology, 19 2007) 69. 20. Ahalya N., Ramachandra, T. V., ...

  12. The programmable analog circuitry of the CDF trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, H.; Amidei, D.; Campbell, M.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible trigger has been partially built to trigger the CDF, Colliding Detector at Fermilab. A programmable analog system can yield a large dynamic range of outputs. With suitable management it will control noise to achieve the high resolution and fast process necessary for such a trigger. The first level output will be delivered in three microseconds after a beam crossing. The system is designed to have a resolution of one part in one thousand. Analog processing, where just summing is involved, can handle many channels faster than an equivalent digital processor exhibiting the same resolution. As a result, this system will be much simpler with far less components. Digital intervention controls channel gain and bias. It also sets a comparison level, and includes or excludes individual channels in the various output summing networks that will determine the trigger result. The results of the analog processing which are input to the digital control include the value of the channel magnitude comparison, the sign of the results of the various sums and finally the fast flash analog to digital converter output values. A set of DACS are used to control the pedestal of the respective various sum networks

  13. Three-channel integrating analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    A three-channel integrating analog-to-digital converter was added to the complex mixer system to accept the baseband, complex signals generated by the complex mixers and output binary data to the digital demodulator for further processing and recording. The converter was first used for processing multistation data in radar experiments in the spring of 1977.

  14. Expedient total synthesis of pyrrothine natural products and analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian; Nielsen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an expedient and straightforward total synthesis of the two pyrrothine natural products holomycin (7 steps, 11% overall) and xenorhabdin I (7 steps, 11% overall) and analogs thereof via a common late-stage intermediate. The pathway proceeds via the pyrrothine hydrochloride...

  15. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 5. Mountain range specific ... Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past ...

  16. Vitamin D analogs for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Brown, Alex J

    2002-01-01

    Calcitriol controls parathyroid gland (PTG) growth and suppresses the synthesis and secretion of PTH. However, because of its potent effects on intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption and bone mobilization, calcitriol treatment can induce hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia often precluding its use at therapeutic doses. In the past decade, several vitamin D analogs have been developed. These analogs retain the action on the PTG while having less effect on calcium and phosphorus. Most of these analogs for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) have a modification on the side chain of calcitriol. In the USA, two vitamin D analogs 19-nor 1,25(OH)(2)D(2) and 1 alpha(OH)D(2) are currently used for the treatment of SH. Studies in animals demonstrated that 19-nor-1,25(OH)(2)D(2) is less calcemic and phosphatemic than 1 alpha(OH)D(2). The lower Ca x P product in 19-nor-1,25(OH)(2)D(2)-treated rats may be an important consideration in patient therapy. Further studies in patients are necessary to define these differences. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Anticipatory Functions, Digital-Analog Forms and Biosemiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnellos, Argyris; Bruni, Luis Emilio; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2012-01-01

    our overall approach. We adopt a Peircean approach to Biosemiotics, and a dynamical approach to Digital-Analog relations and to the interplay between different levels of functionality in autonomous systems, taking an integrative approach. We then apply the underlying biosemiotic logic to a particular...

  18. Antiangiogenic effects of synthetic analogs of curcumin in vivo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The active compound curcumin is isolated from the spice turmeric. Curcumin, curcuminoids and their synthetic analogs have been shown to inhibit the progression of cancer in animal models. In colon and skin carcinogenesis the genetic changes engross different genes, but curcumin is effective in preventing ...

  19. Graphene-on-semiconductor substrates for analog electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Max G.; Cavallo, Francesca; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2016-04-26

    Electrically conductive material structures, analog electronic devices incorporating the structures and methods for making the structures are provided. The structures include a layer of graphene on a semiconductor substrate. The graphene layer and the substrate are separated by an interfacial region that promotes transfer of charge carriers from the surface of the substrate to the graphene.

  20. A spin-4 analog of 3D massive gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kovacevic, Marija; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.; Yin, Yihao

    2011-01-01

    A sixth-order, but ghost-free, gauge-invariant action is found for a fourth-rank symmetric tensor potential in a three-dimensional (3D) Minkowski spacetime. It propagates two massive modes of spin 4 that are interchanged by parity and is thus a spin-4 analog of linearized 'new massive gravity'. Also

  1. Implementation of KRoC on Analog Devices' "SHARC" DSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, G.W.; Schwirtz, M.H.; Schwirtz, Marcellinus H.; Bruis, R.; Bruis, R.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Bakkers, André; O'Neill, Brian C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarises the experiences gained at the Control Laboratory of the University of Twente in porting the Kent Retargetable occam Compiler -KroC -to the Analog Devices' ADSP21060 SHARC Digital Signal Processor. The choice of porting the KRoC to the DSP processor was in our view both a

  2. Simulation of Hooke's Joint on the Analog Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Eugene E., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    A problem is presented that teaches the engineering student or practicing engineer the behavior of Hooke's joint, a widely used mechanism for transmitting rotary power in mechanical equipment. Also provided by this problem is an exercise in analog programing which utilizes nonlinear computer elements. (Author/CS)

  3. Chemoselective PEGylation of Cysteine Analogs of Human Basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crystal structure of FGF2 (PDB code: 1BFG, chain A, 1.6 oA) with high score and lower e- value and maximum sequence identity served as a template. For each cysteine analog, 10,000 molecules were generated and structure quality was validated by PSVS (http:// psvs-1_4- dev.nesg.org/ ). The best structural model was.

  4. Distortions caused by the signal processing in analog AM modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    Complete analytical expressions for distortions caused by signal processing in analog AM modulators are developed. The salient features in these expressions are shown to be consistent with displays of actual spectra of AM signals. Finally suggestions are given on how the distortions may be practically minimized. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  5. Imaging and Therapy of Neuroendocrine Tumors with Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Brabander (Tessa)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNeuroendocrine tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors, but they generally express a high number of somatostatin receptors on their cell membranes. This receptor is a target for somatostatin analogs, which can be labeled with radionuclides for both imaging and therapy. In this

  6. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters

  7. Analogical reasoning in a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Erica Hoy; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-05-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that analogical reasoning (recognizing similarities among object relations when the objects themselves are dissimilar) is limited to humans and apes. This study investigated whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use analogical reasoning to solve a 3-dimensional search task. The task involved hiding a food item under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of different sizes and then allowing subjects to search for food hidden under the cup of analogous size in their own set of cups. Four monkeys were exposed to a series of relational matching tasks. If subjects reached criterion on these tasks, they were exposed to relational transfer tasks involving novel stimuli. Three of the monkeys failed to reach criterion on the basic relational matching tasks and therefore were not tested further. One monkey, however, revealed above-chance performance on a series of transfer tasks with 3 novel stimuli. This evidence suggests that contrary to previous arguments, a member of a New World monkey species can solve an analogical problem. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Prelinguistic Relational Concepts: Investigating Analogical Processing in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Alissa L.; Hespos, Susan J.; Gentner, Dedre

    2015-01-01

    This research asks whether analogical processing ability is present in human infants, using the simplest and most basic relation--the "same-different" relation. Experiment 1 (N = 26) tested whether 7- and 9-month-olds spontaneously detect and generalize these relations from a single example, as previous research has suggested. The…

  9. Compositional rule of inference as an analogical scheme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Mesiar, Radko; Marsala, Ch.; Rifqi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 138 (2003), s. 53-65 ISSN 0165-0114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : analogical scheme * compositional rule of inference * conjunctions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2003

  10. Varieties of noise: analogical reasoning in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Loettgers, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The picture of synthetic biology as a kind of engineering science has largely created the public understanding of this novel field, covering both its promises and risks. In this paper, we will argue that the actual situation is more nuanced and complex. Synthetic biology is a highly interdisciplinary field of research located at the interface of physics, chemistry, biology, and computational science. All of these fields provide concepts, metaphors, mathematical tools, and models, which are typically utilized by synthetic biologists by drawing analogies between the different fields of inquiry. We will study analogical reasoning in synthetic biology through the emergence of the functional meaning of noise, which marks an important shift in how engineering concepts are employed in this field. The notion of noise serves also to highlight the differences between the two branches of synthetic biology: the basic science-oriented branch and the engineering-oriented branch, which differ from each other in the way they draw analogies to various other fields of study. Moreover, we show that fixing the mapping between a source domain and the target domain seems not to be the goal of analogical reasoning in actual scientific practice.

  11. RANKING RELATIONS USING ANALOGIES IN BIOLOGICAL AND INFORMATION NETWORKS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo; Heller, Katherine; Ghahramani, Zoubin; Airoldi, Edoardo M.

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning depends fundamentally on the ability to learn and generalize about relations between objects. We develop an approach to relational learning which, given a set of pairs of objects S = {A(1) : B(1), A(2) : B(2), …, A(N) : B(N)}, measures how well other pairs A : B fit in with the set S. Our work addresses the following question: is the relation between objects A and B analogous to those relations found in S? Such questions are particularly relevant in information retrieval, where an investigator might want to search for analogous pairs of objects that match the query set of interest. There are many ways in which objects can be related, making the task of measuring analogies very challenging. Our approach combines a similarity measure on function spaces with Bayesian analysis to produce a ranking. It requires data containing features of the objects of interest and a link matrix specifying which relationships exist; no further attributes of such relationships are necessary. We illustrate the potential of our method on text analysis and information networks. An application on discovering functional interactions between pairs of proteins is discussed in detail, where we show that our approach can work in practice even if a small set of protein pairs is provided. PMID:24587838

  12. Application of natural analog studies to exploration for ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Natural analogs are viewed as similarities in nature and are routinely utilized by exploration geologists in their search for economic mineral deposits. Ore deposit modeling is undertaken by geologists to direct their exploration activities toward favorable geologic environments and, therefore, successful programs. Two types of modeling are presented: (i) empirical model development based on the study of known ore deposit characteristics, and (ii) concept model development based on theoretical considerations and field observations that suggest a new deposit type, not known to exist in nature, may exist and justifies an exploration program. Key elements that are important in empirical model development are described, and examples of successful applications of these natural analogs to exploration are presented. A classical example of successful concept model development, the discovery of the McLaughlin gold mine in California, is presented. The utilization of natural analogs is an important facet of mineral exploration. Natural analogs guide explorationists in their search for new discoveries, increase the probability of success, and may decrease overall exploration expenditure

  13. Mental Arithmetic Activates Analogic Representations of Internally Generated Sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    The internal representation of numbers generated during calculation has received little attention. Much of the mathematics learning literature focuses on symbolic retrieval of math facts; in contrast, we critically test the hypothesis that internally generated numbers are represented analogically, using an approximate number system. In an fMRI…

  14. A CMOS four-quadrant analog current multiplier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.

    1991-01-01

    A CMOS four-quadrant analog current multiplier is described. The circuit is based on the square-law characteristic of an MOS transistor and is insensitive to temperature and process variations. The circuit is insensitive to the body effect so it is not necessary to place transistors in individual

  15. Analog Video Authentication and Seal Verification Equipment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Lancaster

    2012-09-01

    Under contract to the US Department of Energy in support of arms control treaty verification activities, the Savannah River National Laboratory in conjunction with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Idaho National Laboratory and Milagro Consulting, LLC developed equipment for use within a chain of custody regime. This paper discussed two specific devices, the Authentication Through the Lens (ATL) analog video authentication system and a photographic multi-seal reader. Both of these devices have been demonstrated in a field trial, and the experience gained throughout will also be discussed. Typically, cryptographic methods are used to prove the authenticity of digital images and video used in arms control chain of custody applications. However, in some applications analog cameras are used. Since cryptographic authentication methods will not work on analog video streams, a simple method of authenticating analog video was developed and tested. A photographic multi-seal reader was developed to image different types of visual unique identifiers for use in chain of custody and authentication activities. This seal reader is unique in its ability to image various types of seals including the Cobra Seal, Reflective Particle Tags, and adhesive seals. Flicker comparison is used to compare before and after images collected with the seal reader in order to detect tampering and verify the integrity of the seal.

  16. Emergent Verbal Behavior and Analogy: Skinnerian and Linguistic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Maria Amelia; Passos, Maria de Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The production of verbal operants not previously taught is an important aspect of language productivity. For Skinner, new mands, tacts, and autoclitics result from the recombination of verbal operants. The relation between these mands, tacts, and autoclitics is what linguists call "analogy," a grammatical pattern that serves as a foundation on…

  17. Realism, idealism and analogy in the interpretation of scientific thought

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Realism, idealism and analogy in the interpretation of scientific thought. JP Mbat. Abstract. No Abstract. Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 7(1) 2004: 96-102. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sophia.v7i1.38688.

  18. Discovering Hidden Analogies in an Online Humanities Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing upon an efficacious method for discovering previously unknown causes of medical syndromes and searching in the Humanities Index, an illuminating new humanities analogy between the epistemological ideas of Robert Frost and the ancient Greek philosopher Carneades was found by constructing a search statement in which proper names were coupled…

  19. Analogy between gambling and measurement-based work extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Dror A.; Permuter, Haim H.; Merhav, Neri

    2016-04-01

    In information theory, one area of interest is gambling, where mutual information characterizes the maximal gain in wealth growth rate due to knowledge of side information; the betting strategy that achieves this maximum is named the Kelly strategy. In the field of physics, it was recently shown that mutual information can characterize the maximal amount of work that can be extracted from a single heat bath using measurement-based control protocols, i.e. using ‘information engines’. However, to the best of our knowledge, no relation between gambling and information engines has been presented before. In this paper, we briefly review the two concepts and then demonstrate an analogy between gambling, where bits are converted into wealth, and information engines, where bits representing measurements are converted into energy. From this analogy follows an extension of gambling to the continuous-valued case, which is shown to be useful for investments in currency exchange rates or in the stock market using options. Moreover, the analogy enables us to use well-known methods and results from one field to solve problems in the other. We present three such cases: maximum work extraction when the probability distributions governing the system and measurements are unknown, work extraction when some energy is lost in each cycle, e.g. due to friction, and an analysis of systems with memory. In all three cases, the analogy enables us to use known results in order to obtain new ones.

  20. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. PMID:25071508

  1. Descartes highlands: Possible analogs around the Orientale Basin, part D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two possible analogs, although not entirely satisfactory, offer reasonable alternatives to the volcanic interpretation of the Descartes highlands. Reconsideration of this complex terrain, prompted by the preliminary results of the Apollo 16 mission, will lead to the revision of some theories on lunar volcanism and also to a better understanding of the landforms caused by the formation of multi-ring basins.

  2. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  3. Synthetic analogs of anoplin show improved antimicrobial activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Jens; Uggerhøj, Lars Erik; Poulsen, Tanja Juul

    2013-01-01

    We present the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the decapeptide anoplin and 19 analogs thereof tested against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC...... compounds are more specific than anoplin. Both 2Nal(6) and Cha(6) show improved therapeutic index against all strains tested....

  4. Analog/RF Circuit Design Techniques for Nanometerscale IC Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram; Annema, Anne J.

    CMOS evolution introduces several problems in analog design. Gate-leakage mismatch exceeds conventional matching tolerances requiring active cancellation techniques or alternative architectures. One strategy to deal with the use of lower supply voltages is to operate critical parts at higher supply

  5. Synthesis, bioanalysis and pharmacology of nucleoside and nucleotide analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are an important class of drugs in anticancer and antiviral therapy. The compounds are, however, only active after intracellular conversion to their mono-, di- and triphosphate nucleotide form. In this thesis the development of sensitive liquid chromatography coupled to tandem

  6. Industrial and Biological Analogies Used Creatively by Business Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B.; Miller, Derek J.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of far-field industrial (i.e., man-made) versus biological analogies on creativity of business professionals from two organizations engaged in the idea generation phase of new product development. Psychological effects, as reflected in language use, were measured via computerized text analysis of…

  7. Integrating Problem Solvers from Analogous Markets in New Product Ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Nikolaus; Poetz, Marion; Schreier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Who provides better inputs to new product ideation tasks, problem solvers with expertise in the area for which new products are to be developed or problem solvers from “analogous” markets that are distant but share an analogous problem or need? Conventional wisdom appears to suggest that target...

  8. Historians and miracles: The principle of analogy and antecedent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historians and miracles: The principle of analogy and antecedent probability reconsidered. JG van der Watt, MR Licona. Abstract. Most Biblical scholars and historians hold that the investigation of a miracle report lies outside of the rights of historians acting within their professional capacity. In this article, I challenge this ...

  9. Grobner Bases for Nonlinear DAE Systems of Analog Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke J. Spang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Systems of differential equations play an important role in modelling and analysis of many complex systems e.g. in electronics and mechanics. The following article is concerned with a symbolic analysis approach for reduction of the differential index of nonlinear differential algebraic equation (DAE systems, which occur in the modelling and simulation of analog circuits.

  10. The Resilience of Analog Tools in Creative Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Nanna; Petersson, Eva; Frimodt-Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    ’s largest innovation departments, show a preference for analog tools over digital in the creative process. This points towards a general need for tangible tools in the creative work process, a need that has consequences for the development of new digital tools for creative collaboration....

  11. Facilitating climate change adaptation through communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaas, Erik; Gammelgaard Ballantyne, Anne; Neset, Tina Simone

    2015-01-01

    Climate change communication on anticipated impacts and adaptive responses is frequently presented as an effective means to facilitate implementation of adaptation to mitigate risks to residential buildings. However, it requires that communication is developed in a way that resonates...

  12. Familiarity facilitates feature-based face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kelsey G.; Cipolli, Carlo; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar faces is remarkably efficient, effortless and robust. We asked if feature-based face processing facilitates detection of familiar faces by testing the effect of face inversion on a visual search task for familiar and unfamiliar faces. Because face inversion disrupts configural and holistic face processing, we hypothesized that inversion would diminish the familiarity advantage to the extent that it is mediated by such processing. Subjects detected personally familiar and stranger target faces in arrays of two, four, or six face images. Subjects showed significant facilitation of personally familiar face detection for both upright and inverted faces. The effect of familiarity on target absent trials, which involved only rejection of unfamiliar face distractors, suggests that familiarity facilitates rejection of unfamiliar distractors as well as detection of familiar targets. The preserved familiarity effect for inverted faces suggests that facilitation of face detection afforded by familiarity reflects mostly feature-based processes. PMID:28582439

  13. Chimpanzee lip-smacking facilitates cooperative behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedurek Pawel; Slocombe Katie E.; Hartel Jessica A.; Zuberbühler Klaus

    2015-01-01

    PF was funded by Swiss National Science Foundation and European Research Council project grants (Prilang 283871) to KZ. Signalling plays an important role in facilitating and maintaining affiliative or cooperative interactions in social animals. Social grooming in primates is an example of an interaction that requires coordination between partners but little is known about communicative behaviours facilitating this activity. In this study, we analysed the communication of wild chimpanzees ...

  14. How Facilitation May Interfere with Ecological Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Liancourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the vast literature linking competitive interactions and speciation, attempts to understand the role of facilitation for evolutionary diversification remain scarce. Yet, community ecologists now recognize the importance of positive interactions within plant communities. Here, we examine how facilitation may interfere with the mechanisms of ecological speciation. We argue that facilitation is likely to (1 maintain gene flow among incipient species by enabling cooccurrence of adapted and maladapted forms in marginal habitats and (2 increase fitness of introgressed forms and limit reinforcement in secondary contact zones. Alternatively, we present how facilitation may favour colonization of marginal habitats and thus enhance local adaptation and ecological speciation. Therefore, facilitation may impede or pave the way for ecological speciation. Using a simple spatially and genetically explicit modelling framework, we illustrate and propose some first testable ideas about how, when, and where facilitation may act as a cohesive force for ecological speciation. These hypotheses and the modelling framework proposed should stimulate further empirical and theoretical research examining the role of both competitive and positive interactions in the formation of incipient species.

  15. Continuous Fourier transform method and apparatus. [for the analysis of simultaneous analog signal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An input analog signal to be frequency analyzed is separated into N number of simultaneous analog signal components each identical to the original but delayed relative to the original by a successively larger time delay. The separated and delayed analog components are combined together in a suitable number of adders and attenuators in accordance with at least one component product of the continuous Fourier transform and analog signal matrices to separate the analog input signal into at least one of its continuous analog frequency components of bandwidth 1/N times the bandwidth of the original input signal. The original analog input signal can be reconstituted by combining the separate analog frequency components in accordance with the component products of the continuous Fourier transform and analog frequency component matrices. The continuous Fourier transformation is useful for spectrum analysis, filtering, transfer function synthesis, and communications.

  16. Determination of nucleoside analog mono-, di-, and tri-phosphates in cellular matrix by solid phase extraction and ultra-sensitive LC-MS/MS detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Lane R.; Kiser, Jennifer J.; Rower, Joseph E.; Klein, Brandon; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Ray, Michelle L.; Anderson, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated to facilitate the assessment of clinical pharmacokinetics of nucleotide analogs from lysed intracellular matrix. The method utilized a strong anion exchange isolation of mono-(MP), di-(DP), and tri-phosphates (TP) from intracellular matrix. Each fraction was then dephosphorylated to the parent moiety yielding a molar equivalent to the original nucleotide analog intracellular concentration. The analytical portion of the methodology was optimized in specific nucleoside analog centric modes (i.e. tenofovir (TFV) centric, zidovudine (ZDV) centric), which included desalting/concentration by solid phase extraction and detection by LC-MS/MS. Nucleoside analog MP-, DP-, and TP- determined on the TFV centric mode of analysis include TFV, lamivudine (3TC), and emtricitibine (FTC). The quantifiable linear range for TFV was 2.50 to 2000 fmol/sample, and that for 3TC/FTC was 0.10 to 200 pmol/sample. Nucleoside analog MP-, DP-, and TP- determined on the ZDV centric mode of analysis included 3TC and ZDV. The quantifiable linear range for 3TC was 0.10 to 100 pmol/sample, and 5.00 to 2000 fmol/sample for ZDV. Stable labeled isotopic internal standards facilitated accuracy and precision in alternative cell matrices, which supported the intended use of the method for MP, DP, and TP determinations in various cell types. The method was successfully applied to clinical research samples generating novel intracellular information for TFV, FTC, ZDV, and 3TC nucleotides. This document outlines method development, validation, and application to clinical research. PMID:21715120

  17. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits.

  18. Acute effect of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and classic exercises in adhesive capsulitis: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Yuruk, Zeliha Ozlem; Zeybek, Aslican; Gulsen, Mustafa; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to compare the initial effects of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and classic exercise interventions with physiotherapy modalities on pain, scapular dyskinesis, range of motion, and function in adhesive capsulitis. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-three subjects were allocated to 3 groups: scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercies and physiotherapy modalities, classic exercise and physiotherapy modalities, and only physiotherapy modalities. The intervention was applied in a single session. The Visual Analog Scale, Lateral Scapular Slide Test, range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test were evaluated before and just after the one-hour intervention in the same session (all in one session). [Results] All of the groups showed significant differences in shoulder flexion and abduction range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test scores. There were statistically significant differences in Visual Analog Scale scores in the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and control groups, and no treatment method had significant effect on the Lateral Scapular Slide Test results. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, classic exercise, and physiotherapy modalities had immediate effects on adhesive capsulitis in our study. However, there was no additional benefit of exercises in one session over physiotherapy modalities. Also, an effective treatment regimen for shoulder rehabilitation of adhesive capsulitis patients should include scapular exercises. PMID:27190456

  19. Acute effect of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and classic exercises in adhesive capsulitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Yuruk, Zeliha Ozlem; Zeybek, Aslican; Gulsen, Mustafa; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to compare the initial effects of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and classic exercise interventions with physiotherapy modalities on pain, scapular dyskinesis, range of motion, and function in adhesive capsulitis. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-three subjects were allocated to 3 groups: scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercies and physiotherapy modalities, classic exercise and physiotherapy modalities, and only physiotherapy modalities. The intervention was applied in a single session. The Visual Analog Scale, Lateral Scapular Slide Test, range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test were evaluated before and just after the one-hour intervention in the same session (all in one session). [Results] All of the groups showed significant differences in shoulder flexion and abduction range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test scores. There were statistically significant differences in Visual Analog Scale scores in the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and control groups, and no treatment method had significant effect on the Lateral Scapular Slide Test results. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, classic exercise, and physiotherapy modalities had immediate effects on adhesive capsulitis in our study. However, there was no additional benefit of exercises in one session over physiotherapy modalities. Also, an effective treatment regimen for shoulder rehabilitation of adhesive capsulitis patients should include scapular exercises.

  20. CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP): A New Paradigm for Polar Life Support and CELSS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian; Flynn, Michael; Bates, Maynard; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. CAAP is implemented through the joint NSF/NASA Antarctic Space Analog Program (ASAP), initiated to support the pursuit of future NASA missions and to promote the transfer of space technologies to the NSF. Under a Memorandum of Agreement, the CAAP represents an example of a working dual agency cooperative project. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific study to facilitate . technology selection, system design and methods development, including human dynamics as required for the operation of a CELSS. Although not fully closed, food production, water purification, and waste recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. The CAAP facility will be highly integrated with the new South Pole Station infrastructure and will be composed of a deployed hardware facility and a research activity. This paper will include a description of CAAP and its functionality, conceptual designs, component selection and sizing for the crop growth chamber, crop production expectations, and a brief report on an initial on-site visit. This paper will also provide a discussion of issues associated with power and energy use and the applicability of CAAP to direct technology transfer to society in general and remote communities in particular.